Science.gov

Sample records for adjusted total unemployment

  1. 38 CFR 3.340 - Total and permanent total ratings and unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total and permanent total ratings and unemployability. 3.340 Section 3.340 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Ratings and Evaluations; Service Connection §...

  2. Comparison of dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment among infertile employed and unemployed women in Iran.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Azadeh S; Younesi, Seyed Jalal; Azkhosh, Manouchehr; Askari, Ali

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to compare dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment in infertile employed and unemployed females. Due to the stresses of infertility, infertile females are faced with a variety of sexual and psychological problems, as well as dysfunctional attitudes that can lead to depression. Moreover, infertility problems provoke women into maladjustment and inadvertent corruption of relationships. In this regard, our goal is to consider the effects of employment in conjunction with education on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment among infertile women in Iran. In this work, we employed the survey method. We recruited 240 infertile women, utilizing the cluster random sampling method. These women filled out the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and the social adjustment part of the California Test of Personality. Next, multivariate analysis of variance was performed to test the relationship of employment status and education with dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. Our results indicated that dysfunctional attitudes were far more prevalent in infertile unemployed women than in infertile employed women. Also, social adjustment was better in infertile employed women than in infertile unemployed women. It was shown that education level alone does not have significant effect on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. However, we demonstrated that the employment status of infertile women in conjunction with their education level significantly affects the two dimensions of dysfunctional attitudes (relationships, entitlements) and has insignificant effects on social adjustment. It was revealed that in employed infertile women in Iran, the higher education level, the less dysfunctional were attitudes in relationships and entitlements, whereas in unemployed infertile women, those with a college degree had the least and those with master's or higher degrees had the most dysfunctional attitudes in terms of relationships and entitlements. PMID

  3. 38 CFR 4.17 - Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual. 4.17 Section 4.17 Pensions, Bonuses... Rating § 4.17 Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the...

  4. 38 CFR 4.17 - Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual. 4.17 Section 4.17 Pensions, Bonuses... Rating § 4.17 Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the...

  5. 38 CFR 4.17 - Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Total disability ratings... Rating § 4.17 Total disability ratings for pension based on unemployability and age of the individual... a permanent nature, a rating of permanent and total disability will be assigned if the veteran...

  6. Cyclical Behavior of Bias-Adjusted Unemployment. Methods for Manpower Analysis No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Alfred

    For one important set of data, namely, the data on unemployment and employment collected by the Census Bureau in its monthly Current Population Survey (CPS), some information on nonsampling error is available that can be used to evaluate the regularly reported labor force figures. The paper is concerned with the nonsampling error that relates…

  7. 77 FR 33773 - Announcement Regarding States Triggering “On” or “Off” in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program and the Federal-State Extended Benefits (EB... regarding states triggering ``on'' or ``off'' in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08...., having their current three month average, seasonally adjusted total unemployment rate be at least 110%...

  8. Youth Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…

  9. What's Unemployment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood-Williams, John

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the term unemployment is used imprecisely and in ways that confuse different experiences and that "the unemployed" do not have anything like a universality of experience. They are not isolated individuals but are members of households, and the experiences of unemployment may not disturb pre-existing structures of social relations. (JOW)

  10. Unemployment and health: a review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S H; Walker, G M

    1993-05-01

    Unemployment has an adverse effect on health. This effect is still demonstrable when social class, poverty, age and pre-existing morbidity are adjusted for. Unemployed men and their families have increased mortality experience, particularly from suicide and lung cancer. Unemployed men also have a reduction in psychological well-being with a greater incidence of parasuicide, depression and anxiety. Unemployed men are more likely to use general practitioner and hospital services and receive more prescribed medicines. Smoking and alcohol consumption are often increased after the onset of unemployment. Women are less affected by enforced unemployment, but families are put at greater risk of physical illness, psychological stress and family breakdown. Maintaining financial security, providing proactive health care and retraining for re-employment can all reduce the impact of unemployment on health. PMID:8511234

  11. 76 FR 73685 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... 16, 2011, the three month average, seasonally adjusted total unemployment rate for Indiana rose to... Virgin Islands rose to exceed the 8.5% threshold to trigger ``on'' in Tier Four of the EUC08 program....

  12. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied...

  13. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied...

  14. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied...

  15. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied...

  16. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied...

  17. Reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty cost-effectiveness: A quality-adjusted life years comparison with total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Daniel; Nyland, John; Krupp, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) cost-effectiveness with total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. METHODS: This study used a stochastic model and decision-making algorithm to compare the cost-effectiveness of RSA and total hip arthroplasty. Fifteen patients underwent pre-operative, and 3, 6, and 12 mo post-operative clinical examinations and Short Form-36 Health Survey completion. Short form-36 Health Survey subscale scores were converted to EuroQual Group Five Dimension Health Outcome scores and compared with historical data from age-matched patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) improvements based on life expectancies were calculated. RESULTS: The cost/QALY was $3900 for total hip arthroplasty and $11100 for RSA. After adjusting the model to only include shoulder-specific physical function subscale items, the RSA QALY improved to 2.8 years, and its cost/QALY decreased to $8100. CONCLUSION: Based on industry accepted standards, cost/QALY estimates supported both RSA and total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. Although total hip arthroplasty remains the quality of life improvement “gold standard” among arthroplasty procedures, cost/QALY estimates identified in this study support the growing use of RSA to improve patient quality of life. PMID:26925384

  18. Youth Unemployment, 1978. Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Copenhagen (Denmark).

    This study of measures taken to reduce youth unemployment in Denmark is based on reports from local authorities, county authorities, and labor market boards, and on surveys made by the central government. The first section describes the total efforts made during 1978. The second section describes programs undertaken by the Danish Ministry of Labor…

  19. 20 CFR 418.2125 - How will the income-related monthly adjustment amount affect your total Medicare prescription...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... monthly premium as described in 42 CFR 423.286; plus (3) Your income-related monthly adjustment amount. (b... adjustment amount affect your total Medicare prescription drug coverage premium? 418.2125 Section 418.2125 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Income-Related Monthly Adjustments...

  20. 20 CFR 418.2125 - How will the income-related monthly adjustment amount affect your total Medicare prescription...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... monthly premium as described in 42 CFR 423.286; plus (3) Your income-related monthly adjustment amount. (b... adjustment amount affect your total Medicare prescription drug coverage premium? 418.2125 Section 418.2125 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Income-Related Monthly Adjustments...

  1. 20 CFR 418.2125 - How will the income-related monthly adjustment amount affect your total Medicare prescription...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... monthly premium as described in 42 CFR 423.286; plus (3) Your income-related monthly adjustment amount. (b... adjustment amount affect your total Medicare prescription drug coverage premium? 418.2125 Section 418.2125 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MEDICARE SUBSIDIES Income-Related Monthly Adjustments...

  2. Sleep Behavior and Unemployment Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Antillón, Marina; Mullahy, John

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults with 24 hour time diaries. We find that higher aggregate unemployment is associated with longer mean sleep duration, with each additional point of state unemployment associated with an additional average 0.83 minutes of sleep (p<0.001), after adjusting for a secular trend of increasing sleep over the time period. Despite a national poll in 2009 that found one-third of Americans reporting losing sleep over the economy, we do not find that higher state unemployment is associated with more sleeplessness. Instead, we find that higher state unemployment is associated with less frequent time use described as “sleeplessness” (marginal effect = 0.05 at 4% unemployment and 0.034 at 14% unemployment, p<0.001), after controlling for a secular trend. PMID:24958451

  3. Health and social precursors of unemployment in young men in Great Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, S M; Bartley, M J; Cook, D G; Wadsworth, M E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify health and socioeconomic factors in childhood that are precursors of unemployment in early adult life and to examine the hypothesis that young men who become unemployed are more likely to have accumulated risks to health during childhood. DESIGN: Longitudinal birth cohort study. The amount of unemployment experienced in early adult life up to age 32 years was the outcome measure used. Exposure measures to indicate vulnerability to future ill health were: height at age 7 years and the Bristol social adjustment guide (BSAG) at age 11 years, a measure of behavioural maladjustment. Socioeconomic measures were: social class at birth, crowding at age 7, qualifications attained before labour market entry, and region of residence. SETTING: Great Britain. SUBJECTS: Altogether 2256 men with complete data from the national child development study (NCDS). The NCDS has collected data on all men and women born in one week in 1958 and has followed them up using interviews, self completion questionnaires, and medical examinations at birth and at ages 7, 11, 16, 23 and 33 years. RESULTS: A total of 269 men (11.9%) experienced more than one year of unemployment between ages 22 and 32 years. Poor socioeconomic conditions in childhood and a lack of qualifications were associated with an increased risk of unemployment. Geographical region was also significant in determining the risk of unemployment. Men with short stature and poor social adjustment in childhood were more likely to experience unemployment in adult life, even after controlling for socioeconomic background, education, and parental height. These differences remained when those with chronic childhood illnesses were excluded from the analysis. The adjusted relative odds for experiencing more than one year of unemployment between ages 22 and 32 years for men who were in the top fifth of the BSAG distribution (most maladjusted) compared with those in the bottom fifth were 2.36 (95% CI 1.49, 3.73). The

  4. 77 FR 35062 - Announcement Regarding States Triggering “Off” in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics on April 20, 2012, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida... week ending May 12, 2012. Based on data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics on April 20, 2012... on April 20, 2012, the three month average, seasonally adjusted total unemployment rate for...

  5. The Dynamics of Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated people's experiences of unemployment. Interviewed people unemployed for at least three months. Examined data for patterns of response, comparing patterns found with those suggested in model developed by Amundson and Borgen (1982). Three distinct patterns in experience of unemployment emerged: Amundson and Borgen's roller-coaster…

  6. 76 FR 3142 - Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) has adjusted the cap on average total assets that defines a ``Community Financial Institution'' based on the annual percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) as published by the Department of Labor (DOL). These changes took effect on January 1,...

  7. 75 FR 9601 - Notice of Annual Adjustment of the Cap on Average Total Assets That Defines Community Financial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) has adjusted the cap on average total assets that defines a ``Community Financial Institution'' based on the annual percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for all urban consumers (CPI-U) as published by the Department of Labor (DOL). These changes took effect on January 1,...

  8. Unemployment Insurance Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Daniel C.

    1979-01-01

    An insurance management system has the goal of minimizing unemployment insurance costs. Components of a model system should include general administration, claims management, and appeals process. (Author)

  9. The Effect of Husband's Unemployment on Marital and Family Relations in Blue-Collar Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jeffry H.

    1984-01-01

    Examined effects of unemployment in 41 unemployed and 40 employed couples. Results indicated that the unemployed did not have significantly lower feelings of self-esteem but did report lower marital adjustment, poorer marital communication, and lower satisfaction and harmony in family relations. Traditional marital role expectations had a negative…

  10. AUTOMATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHMIDT, EMERSON P.; STEWART, CHARLES T.

    HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT RESULTS IN ECONOMIC LOSSES TO THE ECONOMY AND IMPOSES SUFFERING ON MILLIONS OF INDIVIDUALS AND FAMILIES. OF THE MANY TYPES, LONG-TERM STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT AFFECTS MORE THAN ONE MILLION WORKERS AND IS MOST INTRACTABLE TO TREATMENT AND DISTURBING IN TERMS OF HUMAN HARDSHIP. MOST OF THE WORKERS CLASSIFIED AS STRUCTURALLY…

  11. [Unemployment and health].

    PubMed

    Buffat, J

    2000-04-01

    Unemployment is a severe problem in Europe since 1980-1990, which is not only economic but also social and medical. European studies show that morbidity and mortality rates of unemployed persons and their families are consequently higher than in the general population. The longest the unemployment period, the more you troubles in physical and psychological health. Depression and psychosomatic trouble are the most frequently observed, secondary to stress, emotional perturbations and psychological burn-out. It is necessary to develop information and prevention strategies to identify sick unemployed persons, to treat them early to help them to recover their health and to try to reduce socioeconomics costs, pain and sicknesses in this specific fragile population. We should also try to inform public opinion and reach all the professionals concerned by unemployment to work together and look for the best solutions to this medical, psychological, social and economical problem. PMID:10859979

  12. Adjustment of total suspended solids data for use in sediment studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glysson, G.D.; Gray, J.R.; Conge, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency identifies fluvial sediment as the single most widespread pollutant in the Nation's rivers and streams, affecting aquatic habitat, drinking water treatment processes, and recreational uses of rivers, lakes, and estuaries. A significant amount of suspended-sediment data has been produced using the total suspended solids (TSS) laboratory analysis method. An evaluation of data collected and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey and others has shown that the variation in TSS analytical results is considerably larger than that for traditional suspended-sediment concentration analyses (SSC) and that the TSS data show a negative bias when compared to SSC data. This paper presents the initial results of a continuing investigation into the differences between TSS and SSC results. It explores possible relations between these differences and other hydrologic data collected at the same stations. A general equation was developed to relate TSS data to SSC data. However, this general equation is not applicable for data from individual stations. Based on these analyses, there appears to be no simple, straightforward way to relate TSS and SSC data unless pairs of TSS and SSC results are available for a station.

  13. [Unemployment and health].

    PubMed

    Leder, S

    1994-01-01

    Reviews of the literature on the relationship between unemployment and psychological and physical health point clearly to the fact, that loss of employment has a negative influence on the state of health of the unemployed and increases the signs of pathology. The negative influence of unemployment on health is seen mainly among the long-term unemployed, for young people who cannot find a job after finishing their education and for their family members. The range and extent of the negative consequences are various. They depend on socio-demographic, personality, situation and time factors and on the existing social support systems. A number of theoretical concepts (eg. of stress, life events, inability to fulfil latent psychological functions, the role of social structures etc.) are used to explain the mechanisms of the negative psychophysiological changes, connected with unemployment. However, it is possible, that the main role is played by an interaction of various factors, which influence the development of social and health related pathology. This indicates the necessity of creating detailed and varied programmes for prophylactics and treatment, based on scientific research. This is particularly important in Poland. Here the percentage of unemployment is very high. Unfortunately neither the Community, nor the political and administrative organs (including the Health Service) are equipped to cope with this new problem. To this must be added the lack of sufficient research, and inadequate knowledge about how unemployment spreads and about its consequences. PMID:7862752

  14. [Cancer and unemployment].

    PubMed

    Lastra-Del-Prado, R; Rodríguez-García, Juan; Muñoz Cifuentes, P; Gimeno Feliú, L A

    2016-03-01

    The lack of work is a increasingly dramatic situation in the times we are living. Daily experience of clinicians provides us with important clues that remind us of the existence of a direct relationship between prolonged unemployment and predisposition to serious health problems, in particular to suffering certain types of cancer. This paper aims to review the major epidemiological studies that have dealt the relationship between cancer and unemployment. Several hypotheses may be formulated with the results of this review arising from the possible etiological relationship between unemployment and development (or poor prognosis) of neoplastic processes. PMID:26165951

  15. The Youth Unemployment Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, John

    1981-01-01

    Experts agree that the ability to attract and train young people is crucial in today's workplace. Cooperation between government, education, and the private sector is essential to eradicating the problem of youth unemployment. (JOW)

  16. Unemployment and mortality among Finnish men, 1981-5.

    PubMed Central

    Martikainen, P T

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To ascertain whether, after controlling for several relevant background variables simultaneously, unemployment is related to mortality and to assess whether this relation is causal or whether unhealthy people are more likely to become unemployed. DESIGN--Prospective study of mortality in Finland during 1981-5 based on 1980 census data on 30-54 year old wage earner men and with particular attention to unemployment in the year before the census. SETTING--Research project at the University of Helsinki. SUBJECTS--All wage earner men in Finland aged 30-54 at the 1980 census. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Causes of death during 1981-5 and duration of unemployment in the year before the census. Background variables controlled for were age, socioeconomic state, marital state, and health. The data were analysed by log linear regression models. RESULTS--During the study period 1981-5, which covered almost 2.7 million person years, there were 9810 deaths. After controlling for all background variables relative total mortality among unemployed versus employed men was 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.82 to 2.05). The excess mortality was highest in accidental and violent causes of death (relative mortality 2.51; 95% confidence interval 2.28 to 2.76). For circulatory diseases the relative death rate was 1.54 (95% confidence interval 1.40 to 1.70), but among neoplasms only lung cancer was associated with excess mortality. Selection for unemployment based on age, socioeconomic state, and marital state was evident but no such selection was detected based on health. Effects of unemployment on mortality were more pronounced with increasing duration of unemployment. CONCLUSIONS--The relative excess mortality of unemployed men in Finland cannot fully be explained by demographic, social, and health variables preceding unemployment. Unemployment therefore seems to have an independent causal effect on male mortality. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms between

  17. The Notion of Technological Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Guy

    1984-01-01

    Rapid technological change is widely regarded as a primary cause of unemployment, especially in depressions. This article summarizes the diverse interpretations given to the notion of technological unemployment, critically examining the assumptions underlying those views. (Author/SSH)

  18. Higher Education and Unemployment: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis of the Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdem, Ekrem; Tugcu, Can Tansel

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the short and the long-term relations between higher education and unemployment in Turkey for the period 1960-2007. It chooses the recently developed ARDL cointegration and Granger causality of Dolado and Lutkepohl (1996) methods. While the proxy of unemployment is total unemployment rate, higher education graduates were…

  19. Understanding Unemployment. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Geoffrey

    Devised for secondary school students, the booklet explains current employment trends, policies, and issues of Canada's labor market. The book is divided into three parts. Part I discusses the labor force in terms of supply and demand, the working age population, the labor force participation rate, total employment, unemployment, and seasonal…

  20. Education, Unemployment and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumberger, Russell W.

    The United States is faced with two serious economic problems: declining productivity growth and rising unemployment. These problems have become severe in the last decade. Both problems are caused by a number of factors, but experts fail to agree on which factors have most contributed to the problems. This paper examines the relationship between…

  1. Retraining the Unemployed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Gerald G., Ed.

    Case histories evaluate the effectiveness of recent and current retraining programs for unemployed workers under Federal, state, municipal, and union-management auspices, judging them by their success in placing workers in useful employment in distressed economic areas. Data on various aspects of retraining programs under a wide variety of…

  2. [Psychiatric interventions for the unemployed].

    PubMed

    Reissner, V; Scherbaum, N; Wiltfang, J; Kis, B; Meiler, B; Lieb, B; Mikoteit, T; Ehren, G; Hebebrand, J

    2016-01-01

    Unemployment is related to a higher risk for psychological distress and mental disorders, which cause individual suffering and socioeconomic costs for society in general. This selective review surveys the relationship between unemployment and psychological well-being and mental disorders. The most important programs for the improvement of the mental health of the unemployed are summarized: 1. Interventions for the unemployed with the aim of improving coping strategies reduce the risk of developing depressive symptoms. 2. The SUPPORT liaison outpatient unit collaborates closely with the unemployment agency and offers a low-threshold screening for mental disorders for unemployed subjects as well as counseling for those in need of treatment. 3. A group training based on cognitive behavioral therapy improves the psychological well-being of unemployed participants. 4. Supported employment is an effective means of placing severely mentally ill patients in a work-place accompanied by an extensive professional support. PMID:26105163

  3. Report B: 1986 projected population, labor force and unemployment - Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    Report B, the results of the Population, Labor Force and Unemployment Projections Model, contain current socio-economic indicators. For each geographic area, there is one page of summary/background information followed by three tables. These tables contain the population projections, the labor force projections, and the unemployment projections, respectively. These tables are composed of data for the following racial groups: total population, whites, blacks, and other races. Those who call themselves Hispanics may be covered in any of the last three racial groups. For those geographic areas which have provided more than one labor force and/or unemployment control total, the last two tables will appear more than once.

  4. Childhood Self-Control and Unemployment Throughout the Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Liam; Egan, Mark; Baumeister, Roy F.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender. From labor-market entry to middle age, individuals with low self-control experienced 1.6 times as many months of unemployment as those with high self-control. Analysis of monthly unemployment data before and during the 1980s recession showed that individuals with low self-control experienced the greatest increases in unemployment during the recession. Our results underscore the critical role of self-control in shaping life-span trajectories of occupational success and in affecting how macroeconomic conditions affect unemployment levels in the population. PMID:25870404

  5. Mortality following unemployment in Canada, 1991–2001

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the association between unemployment and cause-specific mortality for a cohort of working-age Canadians. Methods We conducted a cohort study over an 11-year period among a broadly representative 15% sample of the non-institutionalized population of Canada aged 30–69 at cohort inception in 1991 (888,000 men and 711,600 women who were occupationally active). We used cox proportional hazard models, for six cause of death categories, two consecutive multi-year periods and four age groups, to estimate mortality hazard ratios comparing unemployed to employed men and women. Results For persons unemployed at cohort inception, the age-adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.37 for men (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-1.41) and 1.27 for women (95% CI: 1.20-1.35). The age-adjusted hazard ratio for unemployed men and women was elevated for all six causes of death: malignant neoplasms, circulatory diseases, respiratory diseases, alcohol-related diseases, accidents and violence, and all other causes. For unemployed men and women, hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were equivalently elevated in 1991–1996 and 1997–2001. For both men and women, the mortality hazard ratio associated with unemployment attenuated with age. Conclusions Consistent with results reported from other long-duration cohort studies, unemployed men and women in this cohort had an elevated risk of mortality for accidents and violence, as well as for chronic diseases. The persistence of elevated mortality risks over two consecutive multi-year periods suggests that exposure to unemployment in 1991 may have marked persons at risk of cumulative socioeconomic hardship. PMID:23642156

  6. Adjustment after Spinal Cord Injury: Relationship to Participation in Employment or Educational Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, J. Stuart; Anson, Carol A.

    1997-01-01

    Compares the life adjustment of participants with spinal cord injury (SCI) who were either employed; unemployed, but attending school; or unemployed. Results show that the employed and student participants reported superior adjustment scores compared to the unemployed/nonstudents. Findings reveal the importance of work and education following SCI.…

  7. Policy Options for the Teenage Unemployment Problem. Background Paper No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iden, George; And Others

    An analysis of teenage unemployment indicates that it is very high and endangers the future of some of the young. In 1975 the unemployment rate for teenagers, ages 16-19, was 19.9%. For nonwhite teenagers, it was even higher (36.9%). Teenagers accounted for more than 20% of the total number of unemployed, but less than 19% of the total labor…

  8. Youth Unemployment and Labour Market Transitions in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audas, Rick; Berde, Eva; Dolton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment and labour market adjustment have featured prominently in the problems of transitional economies. However, the position of young people and their transitions from school to work in these new market economies has been virtually ignored. This paper examines a new large longitudinal data set relating to young people in Hungary over the…

  9. Education and Demographics: How Do They Affect Unemployment Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Wayne J.

    1988-01-01

    The author focuses on the relationship between the changing demographic composition and educational level of the labor force and the impact of those factors on the structural rise in unemployment. He discusses how the labor market has adjusted to the increased supply of young, well-educated workers by weakening the market for high school…

  10. [Health and quality of life within the context of unemployment and job worries].

    PubMed

    Zenger, Markus; Hinz, Andreas; Petermann, Franz; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve

    2013-03-01

    Unemployment is associated with mental and physical complaints. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of frequency and duration of unemployment experiences in a representative sample of the German general population. In total, 2426 persons were interviewed about their employment biography and they answered the following questionnaires: Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4), Questionnaire of life satisfaction (FLZ) and Zerssen-Complaints-List (B-LR). Unemployed persons reported significantly more anxiety, depression, health complaints and reduced life. The operationalisation of unemployment about the frequency or the duration did not matter. Severe worries about one's job have a similar impact as the experience of unemployment. Especially persons with a longer duration or frequent experiences of unemployment are at risk for higher burden, whereas a single or short time experience of unemployment can rather be compensated. PMID:23526087

  11. Coping Strategies of Unemployed Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shickell, Charlyn R.

    As part of a larger research effort, a study was conducted to determine the coping strategies used by families undergoing unemployment. Data were collected from a 95-item questionnaire (developed and tested at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln) that was mailed to 150 persons and/or their spouses who were currently unemployed or had been…

  12. Youth Unemployment and National Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Franklin A.

    This 1983 speech by the president of the Ford Foundation addresses the problem of youth unemployment and examines the case for adoption of a system of "National Service." The widening effects of structural unemployment are cited; and economic, demographic, and technological reasons for this phenomenon are outlined. National Service is described as…

  13. Structural Unemployment: Theory and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penz, G. Peter

    The purpose of this monograph is to present a theoretical framework useful for measuring structural unemployment. Developed on the basis of a literature review, this framework was applied to Canadian data. The approach which explains structural unemployment in terms of the causes of labor displacement is inadequate because it ignores impediments…

  14. Unemployment and widespread influenza in America, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Cornwell B. (2012) Unemployment and widespread influenza in America, 1999–2010. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(1), 63–70. Background  Research shows that unemployment reduces access to health care and vaccines and increases financial difficulty, family conflict, and other sources of stress that are known to suppress immune function. In addition, seasonal unemployment rates parallel seasonal influenza activity. Following a theory that argues that macroeconomic conditions affect population health, this paper examines whether there is an association between monthly unemployment rates and influenza activity. Methods  Data from influenza activity surveillance reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are combined with information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics on state‐level unemployment rates in the U.S. for the flu seasons between 1999 and 2010. Pooled time‐series cross‐section logistic regression analyses are conducted to examine the effect of the unemployment rate on the likelihood of widespread and/or regional influenza activity in the 48 contiguous states throughout this period. A total of 3712 state‐month observations are examined. Results  Net of other factors included in the multivariate regression analysis, a one‐percentage‐point increment in the unemployment rate is associated with between a 7·1% and 37·0% increment in the odds of widespread influenza (Odds ratio = 1·21). Likewise, a one‐percentage‐point increment in the unemployment rate is associated with between a 17·1% and 44·7% increment in the odds of at least regional influenza (Odds ratio = 1·30). Results hold regardless of whether time‐varying state‐level characteristics are included. Conclusions  Higher state‐level unemployment increases the likelihood of regional and widespread influenza activity. PMID:21718460

  15. Unemployment tables and unemployment-free working life: Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P

    1986-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of the life table model to depict gross and net tables of unemployment in a country, using Sri Lanka as an example. Age specific data on employment in Sri Lanka are analyzed using the lfe table technic. Unemployment-free working life declined for both males and females between 1963 and 1971, indicating deteriorating employment conditions. This measure shows the employment situation in a country better than the simple rates of unemployment or the conventional working life expectancy. It also shows working life from the point of view of the production of goods and services. PMID:12268132

  16. Immigrant unemployment: the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Miller, P W; Neo, L M

    1997-01-01

    "Between 1980 and 1996 both male and female immigrants experienced higher unemployment rates than Australia-born workers....A multivariate analysis is used in this article to examine unemployment rate differentials between Australia-born and immigrants from English-speaking countries and immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. A feature of the analysis is decomposition of unemployment rate differences between birthplace groups into a component attributable to the different characteristics of the birthplace groups (e.g. different mean levels of education) and a part that is viewed as an impact associated simply with being foreign born." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292381

  17. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  18. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  19. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  20. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  1. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to...

  2. The Notion of Voluntary Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Guy

    1981-01-01

    Considers the distinction between voluntary and involuntary unemployment by analyzing six behavioral characteristics attributed to groups of workers suspected of indulging in the former, and the labor market mechanisms supposedly encouraging them. (Author/CT)

  3. Association between the transition from unemployment to re-employment after abrupt bankruptcy and the depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nagatomi, Kaori; Ishitake, Tatsuya; Hara, Kunio; Shigemoto, Akira; Hoshiko, Michiko; Tsuji, Yoshiyasu; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Tamaki, Hideki; Furumura, Mitsuyo; Muramoto, Junko

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effects of long-term unemployment and the transition from unemployment to re-employment after abrupt bankruptcy on the mental health of unemployed Japanese. The cases of 96 men and 54 women who were laid off by a large shoemaking company because of sudden bankruptcy in 1998, were examined for one year. The mental health of these individuals was evaluated using a 'self-rating questionnaire for depression (SRQ-D)'. The respondents were categorized by employment transition status into four groups: (1) still employed full-time, (2) unemployment to full-time employment, (3) unemployment to part-time employment, and (4) still unemployed. The prevalence rate of depressive symptoms in the 'still unemployed' group was significantly higher (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 4.33) than in the still employed group. Moreover, high levels of depressive symptoms were observed in the individuals in the 'unemployment to part-time employment' group (adjusted OR = 4.93). There was no significant risk of depressive tendency among individuals in the 'unemployment to full-time employment' group. The results suggest that the negative effect of re-employment to part-time employment on depressive symptoms is similar to that in long-term unemployment. PMID:21186340

  4. Occupational health and unemployment in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, T K

    1999-01-01

    Unemployment is a serious problem in India. Rural workers have no stable and durable employment. Educated and women experience more unemployment which is a greater problem in urban than in rural areas. An unemployed takes a long time to find work and secures it at an inadequate remuneration since job seekers far outnumber the available opportunities. Unavailability of social security makes life more difficult for the unemployed. Latest figures place the number of unemployed at 37.2 million. However, the figure is disputed as no national survey to determine the extent of unemployment has been undertaken in India. The health of unemployed has not been an issue. A pilot study was undertaken to assess the effect of tuberculosis on employment in Delhi. Tuberculosis appeared to be a significant cause of unemployment and loss of income specially among unskilled workers. The health and labour ministries may formulate a strategy to promote research and focus on health protection of unemployed. PMID:10197464

  5. Population Approach To Analyze the Pharmacokinetics of Free and Total Lopinavir in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Consequences for Dose Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Illamola, Silvia M.; Pressiat, Claire; Lui, Gabrielle; Valade, Elodie; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Lechedanec, Jerome; Delmas, Sandrine; Blanche, Stéphane; Warszawski, Josiane; Urien, Saik; Tubiana, Roland; Hirt, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the unbound and total lopinavir (LPV) pharmacokinetics in pregnant women in order to evaluate if a dosing adjustment is necessary during pregnancy. Lopinavir placental transfer is described, and several genetic covariates were tested to explain its variability. A total of 400 maternal, 79 cord blood, and 48 amniotic fluid samples were collected from 208 women for LPV concentration determinations and pharmacokinetics analysis. Among the maternal LPV concentrations, 79 samples were also used to measure the unbound LPV concentrations. Population pharmacokinetics models were developed by using NONMEM software. Two models were developed to describe (i) unbound and total LPV pharmacokinetics and (ii) LPV placental transfer. The pharmacokinetics was best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. A pregnancy effect was found on maternal clearance (39% increase), whereas the treatment group (monotherapy versus triple therapy) or the genetic polymorphisms did not explain the pharmacokinetics or placental transfer of LPV. Efficient unbound LPV concentrations in nonpregnant women were similar to those measured during the third trimester of pregnancy. Our study showed a 39% increase of maternal total LPV clearance during pregnancy, whereas unbound LPV concentrations were similar to those simulated in nonpregnant women. The genetic polymorphisms selected did not influence the LPV pharmacokinetics or placental transfer. Thus, we suggest that the LPV dosage should not be increased during pregnancy. PMID:26149996

  6. The effect of immigration on aggregate native unemployment: an across-city estimation.

    PubMed

    Simon, J L; Moore, S; Sullivan, R

    1993-01-01

    "This study investigates the relationship between the rate of immigration into various [U.S.] cities in various years and the level and change in unemployment. In pooled regressions, immigration lagged one year does not show a statistically significant effect either by itself or when other lags are added. Individual regressions using the difference in unemployment rates over time show a slight, but statistically insignificant, positive displacement effect over two-year periods. The evidence indicates that there is little or no observed increase in aggregate native unemployment due to immigration, even in the relatively short run during which adjustment frictions should be most severe." PMID:12345931

  7. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide

    PubMed Central

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. Methods We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960–2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. Results The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. PMID:25339416

  8. Does migration matter? Job search outcomes for the unemployed.

    PubMed

    Boehm, T P; Herzog, H W; Schlottmann, A M

    1998-01-01

    The US has long been characterized by its geographically mobile population, with workers historically seeking new or better jobs in different locales as dictated by either opportunity or necessity. It is now generally accepted that the main determinants of interregional labor force migration are differential employment growth and amenity-adjusted earnings. The authors investigate migration's effect upon labor market transitions. Specifically, transition rates out of unemployment to employment, and from nonparticipation to active job search are examined. A multistate model of the hazard rate is developed and estimated to facilitate this process. Study results strongly suggest that migration is both directly and indirectly associated with a successful transition to re-employment. Findings are based upon the analysis of longitudinal microdata drawn from the corrected 1987 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Monthly labor market histories used covered the period from January 1987 to March 1989, for a research population of 3814 heads of households involved in 6096 total months of employment, job searching, and nonparticipation over the 26-month study period. PMID:12348633

  9. Immigration and unemployment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tsokhas, K

    1994-01-01

    "This article is presented in two parts. The first contains a discussion of Australia's migration programme, its different categories and changes in intakes. It also deals with the contribution made by immigration to the size of the labour force.... The second part deals with the effect of immigration on the unemployment rate and concludes that its effect is negligible or, at best, slightly positive.... Against this background the paper discusses factors contributing to the employment and unemployment experience of migrants, for whom English language proficiency and the possession of recognized skills and qualifications are important in determining employability." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12289763

  10. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  11. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  12. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  13. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  14. The Match Quality Gains from Unemployment Insurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeno, Mario

    2004-01-01

    The benefits of unemployment insurance (UI) by measuring its effect in match quality are assessed. The relationship between post-unemployment job tenure and measures of the state level UI generosity and the unemployment rate at the time of the job is analyzed, using NLSY data.

  15. Ethnic Differentials in Unemployment among Hispanic Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFreitas, Gregory

    Differences in the incidence and duration of unemployment among Hispanic men and between Hispanics and Anglos were analyzed statistically. The investigation found that Hispanics were far more likely to be unemployed one or more times in 1975 than were Anglos. Differential treatment played a significant role in the higher unemployment of Hispanics,…

  16. Unemployment of Women: A Social Policy Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenman, Linda S.

    1979-01-01

    Unemployment of women has scarcely been considered by policymakers. The author discusses differences between women and men in rates and types of unemployment and stresses the special problems and needs of unemployed women that must be taken into account in making social policy. (Author)

  17. Structural Unemployment in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmann, Barbara R.; Kaun, David E.

    An attempt was made in this study to clarify the concept of structural unemployment, defined as the amount of unemployment (less minimum frictional and seasonal unemployment) that remains at the level of demand which is consistent with general price stability. A principle objective of the study was to examine in some detail the changes in the…

  18. Global Unemployment: Challenge to Futurists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Bertram; Singh, Kusum

    Creative actions toward preventing global unemployment seek to (1) uncover the painful realities of joblessness, (2) design better models for fruitful discourse and action, (3) climb the "commanding policy heights" of moral vision, (4) move from autocratic to democratic corporatism, (5) uncover the kind of information that may hold power holders…

  19. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  20. Young People's Explanations of Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Graham S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Responding to questionnaires, 983 Canadian high school and university students revealed the following reasons why their peers are unemployed: (1) work values; (2) business/government job creation; (3) educational system; (4) luck/contacts; (5) immigrants/women taking jobs; and (6) work experience/interview skills. These explanations are shaped by…

  1. The Notion of Structural Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Guy

    1983-01-01

    Although it is often claimed that much current unemployment is "structural," the term is potentially misleading because it is poorly defined. The author identifies the following seven major elements in its make-up: changes in industrial structure, skill mismatch, geographical mismatch, demographic shifts, institutional rigidities,…

  2. Elevated inflammatory biomarkers during unemployment: modification by age and country in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Amanda; McMunn, Anne; Bartley, Mel; Kumari, Meena

    2015-01-01

    Background There is raised risk of mortality following unemployment, and reviews have consistently found worse psychological health among the unemployed. Inflammation is increasingly implicated as a mediating factor relating stress to physical disease and is strongly linked to depression. Inflammation may, therefore, be implicated in processes associated with excess mortality and morbidity during unemployment. This study examined associations of unemployment with inflammatory markers among working-age men and women from England and Scotland. Methods Cross-sectional analyses using data from the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Survey collected between 1998 and 2010. Systemic inflammation was indexed by serum concentrations of C reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen, and compared between participants currently employed/self-employed, currently unemployed and other groups. Results CRP, fibrinogen and odds of CRP >3 mg/L were all significantly raised for the unemployed, as compared to the employed participants (eg, OR for CRP >3 mg/L=1.43, CI 1.15 to 1.78 N=23 025), following adjustment for age, gender, occupational social class, housing tenure, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, long-term illness and depressive/anxiety symptoms. Strengths of associations varied considerably by both age and country/region, with effects mainly driven by participants aged ≥48 and participants from Scotland, which had comparatively high unemployment during this time. Conclusions Current unemployment is associated with elevated inflammatory markers using data from two large-scale, nationally representative UK studies. Effect modification by age suggests inflammation may be particularly involved in processes leading to ill-health among the older unemployed. Country/regional effects may suggest the relationship of unemployment with inflammation is strongly influenced by contextual factors, and/or reflect life course accumulation processes. PMID:25700535

  3. Addressing the unemployment-mortality conundrum: non-linearity is the answer.

    PubMed

    Bonamore, Giorgio; Carmignani, Fabrizio; Colombo, Emilio

    2015-02-01

    The effect of unemployment on mortality is the object of a lively literature. However, this literature is characterized by sharply conflicting results. We revisit this issue and suggest that the relationship might be non-linear. We use data for 265 territorial units (regions) within 23 European countries over the period 2000-2012 to estimate a multivariate regression of mortality. The estimating equation allows for a quadratic relationship between unemployment and mortality. We control for various other determinants of mortality at regional and national level and we include region-specific and time-specific fixed effects. The model is also extended to account for the dynamic adjustment of mortality and possible lagged effects of unemployment. We find that the relationship between mortality and unemployment is U shaped. In the benchmark regression, when the unemployment rate is low, at 3%, an increase by one percentage point decreases average mortality by 0.7%. As unemployment increases, the effect decays: when the unemployment rate is 8% (sample average) a further increase by one percentage point decreases average mortality by 0.4%. The effect changes sign, turning from negative to positive, when unemployment is around 17%. When the unemployment rate is 25%, a further increase by one percentage point raises average mortality by 0.4%. Results hold for different causes of death and across different specifications of the estimating equation. We argue that the non-linearity arises because the level of unemployment affects the psychological and behavioural response of individuals to worsening economic conditions. PMID:25528556

  4. Migration and unemployment duration among young adults.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A J

    1994-07-01

    "The relationship between migration and unemployment duration is examined. Standard job search predictors of spell length (replacement income, labor force experience, personal characteristics and economic conditions) are included as control variables alongside measures of migration in a Weibull hazard model. The model is estimated using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Young adults who migrated while unemployed had longer durations of unemployment than those who did not migrate. The rate at which they found jobs was also linked to how long they had been unemployed, to being laid off, being African American, to going to college, having a mortgage and to national unemployment conditions." PMID:12292534

  5. Changing Locus of Control: Steelworkers Adjusting to Forced Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legerski, Elizabeth Miklya; Cornwall, Marie; O'Neil, Brock

    2006-01-01

    Using an abbreviated version of Levenson's (1981) locus of control scale, we examine change over time in the locus of control of displaced steelworkers. The first data collection occurred approximately six months after plant shutdown, the second occurred a year later. Utilizing a multidimensional measurement model, we test the major assumption…

  6. Childhood self-control and unemployment throughout the life span: evidence from two British cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Egan, Mark; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-06-01

    The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender. From labor-market entry to middle age, individuals with low self-control experienced 1.6 times as many months of unemployment as those with high self-control. Analysis of monthly unemployment data before and during the 1980s recession showed that individuals with low self-control experienced the greatest increases in unemployment during the recession. Our results underscore the critical role of self-control in shaping life-span trajectories of occupational success and in affecting how macroeconomic conditions affect unemployment levels in the population. PMID:25870404

  7. Associations between short- and long-term unemployment and frequent mental distress among a national sample of men and women.

    PubMed

    Brown, David W; Balluz, Lina S; Ford, Earl S; Giles, Wayne H; Strine, Tara W; Moriarty, David G; Croft, Janet B; Mokdad, Ali H

    2003-11-01

    Unemployment has been associated with poor psychologic well-being. Using data from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined relationships between unemployment and frequent mental distress (FMD), defined as 14 or more mentally unhealthy days during the previous 30 days, among 98,267 men and women aged 25-64 years. The age-standardized prevalence of FMD was 6.6% (standard error, 0.14) among employed adults, 14.0% (2.00) among adults unemployed >1 year, and 15.5% (1.18) among those unemployed <1 year. After adjustment, the relative odds of FMD were 2.09 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.75-2.50) for adults unemployed <1 year and 1.88 (95% CI = 1.31-2.71) for adults unemployed >1 year compared with employed adults. Similar patterns were observed across gender, race/ethnicity, education, income, and area unemployment groups. Unemployed persons are a population in need of public health intervention to reduce the burden of mental distress. Public health officials should work with government officials to incorporate the health consequences of unemployment into economic policymaking. PMID:14610397

  8. Moral consequences of becoming unemployed

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Abigail; Miller, Luis; Ubeda, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    We test the conjecture that becoming unemployed erodes the extent to which a person acknowledges earned entitlement. We use behavioral experiments to generate incentive-compatible measures of individuals’ tendencies to acknowledge earned entitlement and incorporate these experiments in a two-stage study. In the first stage, participants’ acknowledgment of earned entitlement was measured by engaging them in the behavioral experiments, and their individual employment status and other relevant socioeconomic characteristics were recorded. In the second stage, a year later, the process was repeated using the same instruments. The combination of the experimentally generated data and the longitudinal design allows us to investigate our conjecture using a difference-in-difference approach, while ruling out the pure self-interest confound. We report evidence consistent with a large, negative effect of becoming unemployed on the acknowledgment of earned entitlement. PMID:27071100

  9. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Alejandro; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets. PMID:26020628

  10. [Economic recession, unemployment and suicide].

    PubMed

    Duleba, Timea; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Dome, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Considering the ongoing global economic crisis which began in 2007 it is reasonable to discuss its possible and expectable effects on mental health. In our narrative review we have summarized the scientific literature on the relationship between economic downturns, unemployment and suicide rate. In addition, we have summarized the theories about the background of this relationship as well. Suicide is an extremely complex phenomenon since it is influenced by several environmental and genetic factors. Furthermore, some of these factors are mutually interrelated, so the independent effect of these frequently remains elusive and hard to investigate from a methodological point of view. Although results are somewhat contradictory, it seems that unemployment is an independent risk factor for both suicide and depression. The first papers about the effect of the current economic crisis on suicide rates have been published and their results confirmed the association between the rise of unemployment rate and the increase of suicide rate in both old and new members of the European Union. Although psychiatric, and primarily depressive illness is a major risk factor for suicide, understanding the contributing role of other etiologic factors in their complex relationship may be an important task in predicting and preventing suicide both at the level of at risk individuals and the whole population. PMID:22427469

  11. Social Media Fingerprints of Unemployment

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Alejandro; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets. PMID:26020628

  12. Local area unemployment, individual health and workforce exit: ONS Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Head, Jenny; Shelton, Nicola; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Stansfeld, Stephen; Zaninotto, Paola; Stafford, Mai

    2016-01-01

    Background: In many developed countries, associations have been documented between higher levels of area unemployment and workforce exit, mainly for disability pension receipt. Health of individuals is assumed to be the primary driver of this relationship, but no study has examined whether health explains or modifies this relationship. Methods: We used data from 98 756 Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study members who were aged 40–69 and working in 2001, to assess whether their odds of identifying as sick/disabled or retired in 2011 differed by local authority area unemployment in 2001, change in local area unemployment from 2001 to 2011 and individual reported health in 2001 (self-rated and limiting long-term illness). Results: Higher local area unemployment and worse self-rated health measures in 2001 were independently related to likelihood of identifying as sick-disabled or retired, compared to being in work, 10 years later, after adjusting for socio-demographic covariates. Associations for local area unemployment were stronger for likelihood of identification as sick/disabled compared to retired in 2011. Associations for changes in local area unemployment from 2001 to 2011 were only apparent for likelihood of identifying as retired. For respondents that identified as sick/disabled in 2011, effects of local area unemployment in 2001 were stronger for respondents who had better self-rated health in 2001. Conclusions: Strategies to retain older workers may be most effective if targeted toward areas of high unemployment. For persons in ill health, local area unemployment interventions alone will not be as efficient in reducing their exit from the workforce. PMID:26922299

  13. Unemployment - United States, 2006 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Athar, Heba M; Chang, Man-Huei; Hahn, Robert A; Walker, Eric; Yoon, Paula

    2013-11-22

    The association between unemployment and poor physical and mental health is well established. Unemployed persons tend to have higher annual illness rates, lack health insurance and access to health care, and have an increased risk for death. Several studies indicate that employment status influences a person's health; however, poor health also affects a person's ability to obtain and retain employment. Poor health predisposes persons to a more uncertain position in the labor market and increases the risk for unemployment. PMID:24264486

  14. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim for unemployment benefits. 325.4 Section 325.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits. (a) Requirement. After an unemployed employee...

  15. Youth Unemployment and Employment Policy: A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Higgins, Niall

    This book looks at the issue of youth unemployment and examines policy responses. Part I considers the youth unemployment problem. Chapter 1 is an overview, covering size of the problem and the close relationship between youth and adult unemployment. Chapter 2 examines youth unemployment characteristics and distribution of unemployment across…

  16. [Unemployment as psychological stress and coping methods].

    PubMed

    Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág

    2013-01-01

    The present article focuses on unemployment as a stressor and a crisis situation as well. Both the definition and theories about this phenomenon are analyzed. The author tries to explore unemployment like a stressor and a special crisis situation afterwards illustrating it by several Hungarian results of the unemployment research. The author tries to emphasize coping methods of personality. Last but not least unemployment is presented like a special problem that could be solved by some practical aspects recommended for the professionals. PMID:24443576

  17. Unemployment Benefits and Parental Resources: What Helps the Young Unemployed with Labour Market Integration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…

  18. Income for the Unemployed: The Variety and Fragmentation of Programs. Studies in Unemployment Insurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Merrill G.

    Unemployment insurance is the principal income program for workers who lose their jobs, however, it does not provide adequate income, nor does it provide for all unemployed persons. Because many different programs are operated for this purpose, they tend to have a fragmented effect and leave many unemployed persons with no income support. This…

  19. The macroeconomics of demographic unemployment.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, M

    1990-02-01

    "What are the macroeconomic consequences of an increase in labour supply? In the short run, unemployment occurs, due to both lack of aggregate demand and capital shortage. Demand-side policy and money wage restraint prove to be ineffective in this situation, owing to capital shortage. On the other hand, a reduction in working hours without wage compensation as well as a policy mix of both demand-side policy and investment policy turn out to be effective. The reduction in working hours lowers individual income and raises individual leisure, as compared to the policy mix." (SUMMARY IN GER) PMID:12343012

  20. Association between childhood and adolescent television viewing and unemployment in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Landhuis, C Erik; Perry, David K; Hancox, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the long-term association between childhood television viewing and adult unemployment, and if this association is mediated by educational achievement. Method Study members were a general-population birth cohort of 1037 participants born in New Zealand in 1972/1973. Hours of weekday television viewing were reported at ages 5–15. Since age 18, unemployment was assessed retrospectively using life-history calendars to age 32. Information on educational qualifications was collected at age 32. Results Childhood and adolescent television viewing predicted adult unemployment. This association was significant for male study members only (β=0.20, p<0.0001). The association for male study members remained after further controlling for socioeconomic status, cognitive ability, and early indications of behaviour problems (p<0.0007). The association was only partially mediated by educational achievement and television viewing remained a predictor of unemployment after adjusting for this (p=0.0035). By logistic regression, each additional hour of daily television viewing was associated with an increased likelihood of spending at least 6 months in unemployment between ages 18–32 years (OR=1.36, 95%, CI=1.06, 1.76, p=0.0157). Conclusion Childhood and adolescent television viewing may have long-lasting consequences for adult unemployment for boys. This association is only partially explained by the association between television viewing and educational achievement. PMID:22178044

  1. Youth Unemployment: The Outlook and Some Policy Strategies. Budget Issue Paper for Fiscal Year 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iden, George; And Others

    Nearly one-half of all unemployed persons in the U.S. today are between the ages of sixteen and twenty-four even though that age group accounts for only one-fourth of the total labor force. Unemployment among sixteen- to nineteen-year-olds is currently more than fifteen percent, and among twenty- to twenty-four-year-olds it exceeds ten percent.…

  2. 75 FR 34170 - Circuit Science, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... (75 FR 3929). At the request of the state, the Department reviewed the certification for workers of... Employment and Training Administration Circuit Science, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance... Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with Section 223 of the Trade Act of...

  3. Being Unemployed in the Boundaryless Career Era: Does Psychological Mobility Pay off?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Sarah; Verbruggen, Marijke; Sels, Luc

    2013-01-01

    In the notions of the boundaryless and self-directed careers, being able to adjust swiftly to different work and career circumstances is deemed to be an imperative component of career success. Also for unemployed individuals psychological mobility, i.e. the extent to which people can envision a variety of career options as viable opportunities for…

  4. Youth Unemployment--Implications for Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levan, Rosemary

    1980-01-01

    The level of youth unemployment in our country is continually increasing. This article suggests measures that can be taken by educators to remedy this problem for those currently unemployed, as well as recommends preventative measures to curb the problem on a long-range scale. (CT)

  5. "Learning to Do" during High Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee-Weise, Michelle; Horn, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Even as the economy appears to have turned a corner, high unemployment persists. Strangely, as millions nationwide struggle to find work, there are millions of jobs that remain unfilled. High unemployment rates may therefore have less to do than commonly assumed with an economy that is not healthy enough to produce jobs or employers who are…

  6. The Gendered Consequences of Unemployment Insurance Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period 1980-2000, and adopting a quasi-experimental design,…

  7. Youth Unemployment. The Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report examines the causes and consequences of youth unemployment in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries. Summarized first is the youth unemployment situation since the 1974/1975 recession. In a section on recent developments in youth labor markets a series of tables and graphs provide data on youth…

  8. The Lingering Crisis of Youth Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Arvil V.; And Others

    The study is based on an analysis of recent trends in youth unemployment from published sources and on additional analysis of a national sample of young men and young women 16 to 18 years of age who were followed longitudinally over a seven year period in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The book establishes the dimensions of youth unemployment and…

  9. Elusive Effects of Unemployment on Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockerman, Petri; Ilmakunnas, Pekka

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the connection between unemployment and subjective well-being in Finland using cross-sections for the years 1990, 1996 and 2000 from World Values Surveys. Interestingly, an unprecedented increase in the national unemployment rate (from 3 to 17%) did not produce a drop in the mean level of subjective well-being. Personally…

  10. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  11. Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta-Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…

  12. Unemployment in Families: The Case of Housework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Margaret; Killewald, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment has consequences for individuals, but its impacts also reverberate through families. This paper examines how families adapt to unemployment in one area of life--time in housework. Using 74,881 observations from 10,390 couples in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we estimate fixed effects models and find that individuals spend…

  13. Youth Unemployment and Its Educational Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    1983-01-01

    Competing explanations for youth unemployment (demography, minimum wages, education and training, economic conditions) have profoundly different implications for policy. The history of youth unemployment in Australia and the United States is explored and the causes of the problem as well as some solutions are evaluated. (LC)

  14. Lowering the Permanent Rate of Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Martin S.

    The first section of the study on lowering the permanent rate of unemployment discusses the effects and limitations of increasing aggregate demand through fiscal and monetary policy and indicates the inability to achieve the desired level of unemployment simply by stimulating demand. Section 2 analyzes the characteristics and structure of our…

  15. Michigan Puts the Unemployed to WORC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Brigid Sullivan

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to alleviate problems stemming from high youth unemployment and dwindling operation and maintenance funds for public lands, the Michigan legislature instituted the Work Opportunity Resources Corps (WORC), a successful project that put the unemployed to work doing construction, clean up, and rehabilitation work for public parks and…

  16. Chronic Unemployment: A Social Work Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherraden, Michael W.

    1985-01-01

    To address chronic unemployment more effectively, social workers can describe the problem accurately, collect data by type of unemployment (frictional, structural, cyclical and chronic), document negative human effects, emphasize economic consequences, document the unequal burden on nonwhites, and lobby for long-term employment policy…

  17. An International Review of Unemployment Insurance Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaustein, Saul J.; Craig, Isabel

    Fifteenth in a series designed to provide a broad review of unemployment insurance and related issues, this study describes existing unemployment insurance programs, as they applied in 1975, in 22 selected countries, with particular emphasis on programs in the industrialized nations of Western Europe, North America, and Japan, as well as on those…

  18. Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking From Adolescence to Adulthood as Predictors of Unemployment Status

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenshu; Burke, Lindsay; Brook, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This longitudinal study examined the association between trajectories of cigarette smoking and unemployment across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Methods: Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in 2 upstate New York counties. Data were collected at 7 timepoints. Results: Using growth mixture modeling, 5 trajectory groups of cigarette smokers were identified. The trajectory groups were as follows: heavy/continuous smokers, occasional smokers, late-starting smokers, quitters/decreasers, and nonsmokers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s trajectory group membership and unemployment in the fifth decade of life. The association was determined with controls for age, gender, current cigarette use, current alcohol use, current marijuana use, physical diseases, occupation, educational level, past unemployment experience, socioeconomic status measures of family of origin, depressive mood, and self-control from adolescence through the early 40s. The findings indicate that patterns of adolescent and young adult cigarette smoking have implications for later unemployment. Overall, the results showed that people who fell into the categories of heavy/continuous smokers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.84) and occasional smokers (AOR = 4.03) were more likely to be unemployed at mean age 43 when compared with nonsmokers. There was no significant difference between the quitters/decreasers and the nonsmokers with respect to unemployment. Conclusions: Intervention programs designed to deal with unemployment should consider focusing on heavy/continuous and occasional cigarette smokers as risk factors for unemployment. PMID:24997307

  19. Work Adjustment: A Dynamic Rehabilitation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, John L.; O'Toole, Richard

    All major types of disabilities were represented in the Work Adjustment Program at the Cleveland Vocational Guidance and Rehabilitation Services (VGRS). During the five year project it successfully placed in competitive employment three-fourths of the 300 clients who had previously been unemployable and untrainable. The report describes the…

  20. The length of unemployment predicts mortality, differently in men and women, and by cause of death: a six year mortality follow-up of the Swedish 1992-1996 recession.

    PubMed

    Garcy, Anthony M; Vågerö, Denny

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between the total amount of accumulated unemployment during the deep Swedish recession of 1992-1996 and mortality in the following 6 years. Nearly 3.4 million Swedish men and women, born between 1931 and 1965 who were gainfully employed at the time of the 1990 census were included. Almost 23% of these individuals were unemployed at some point during the recession. We conduct a prospective cohort study utilizing Cox proportional hazard regression with a mortality follow-up from January 1997 to December 2002. We adjust for health status (1982-1991), baseline (1991) social, family, and employer characteristics of individuals before the recession. The findings suggest that long-term unemployment is related to elevated all-cause mortality for men and women. The excess mortality effects were small for women and attributable to a positive, linear increase in the hazard of alcohol disease-related mortality and external causes-of-death not classified as suicides or transport accidents. For men, the excess hazard of all-cause mortality was best represented by a cubic, non-linear shape. The predicted hazard increases rapidly with the shortest and longest accumulated levels of unemployment. However, the underlying pattern differed by cause-of-death. The cancer, circulatory, and alcohol disease-related analyses suggest that mortality peaks with mid-levels of accumulated unemployment and then declines with longer duration unemployment. For men, we observed a positive, linear increase in the hazard ratios associated with transport and suicide mortality, and a very steep non-linear increase in the excess hazard ratio associated with other external causes of death that were not classified as suicide or transport accidents. In conclusion, mortality risk increases with the duration of unemployment among men and women. This was best described by a cubic function for men and a linear function for women. Behind this pattern, different causes

  1. Unemployment and health: physicians' role.

    PubMed

    Guirguis, S S

    1999-01-01

    Unemployment has been documented to have detrimental impacts on a person's mental, physical and social well being. When unemployment or being out of work is due to injury or sickness, the effects are compounded by mental and social factors. In an effort to prevent prolonged unemployment due to injury or sickness, changes were made to existing disability income supplement plans to redirect their focus from basic income support to active employment measures. This is intended to reduce individual's dependency on financial assistance and encourage individuals to take personal responsibility for getting back to work. The various disability insurance plans require primary care physicians to provide opinion and participate in the recovery and safety return to work of injured or sick persons. The physician approach to medical care of the injured/sick person with employment problems should focus on return to work as a goal of treatment. The patient should be seen as part of a social or environmental system and not as an isolated individual. The physician has a significant role to play in the diagnosis, determining functional abilities and participation in the return to work plan. The physician positive participation, not only provides an intrinsic cost saving value in insurance costs, but more important, helps patients maintain gainful employment. Work often helps in regaining health. Many factors are involved in a return to work outcome and physicians need to know how to identify and track the factors that facilitate or impede return to work. The challenge for the physician is to utilize the available resources to facilitate the recovery and communicate with other parties involved in the return to work process. This paper discusses the disability insurance plans in Canada and the community expectations from physicians dealing with patients who are out of work because of injury or sickness. It is acknowledged that primary care physicians' skills are not adequate in this

  2. 20 CFR 418.1125 - How will the income-related monthly adjustment amount affect your total Medicare Part B premium?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Part B standard monthly premium, determined using the rules in 42 CFR 408.20; plus (2) Any applicable increase in the Medicare Part B standard monthly premium as described in 42 CFR 408.22; plus (3) Your... 42 CFR 408.20 does not apply to individuals who must pay an income-related monthly adjustment...

  3. Employment after Spinal Cord Injury: Transition and Life Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, J. Stuart

    1996-01-01

    Tested two competing hypotheses regarding employment, adjustment, and spinal cord injury (SCI). Longitudinal data collected on 142 participants with SCI on two occasions separated by an 11-year interval showed a correlation between enhanced adjustment and a positive transition from unemployment to employment. Results support hypothesis that…

  4. Two Studies on Unemployment Among Educated Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morio, Simone; Zoctizoum, Yarrise

    These studies concentrate on unemployment among educated young people in Western Europe and Africa. The first study focuses on unemployment among educated young people in the developed market-economy countries. In seeking to outline problems relating to youth unemployment, the study first attempts to define unemployment. An analysis is then made…

  5. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Claim for unemployment benefits. 325.4 Section 325.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits....

  6. 20 CFR 625.8 - Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applications for Disaster Unemployment... LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.8 Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. (a... unemployment shall be filed with respect to the individual's applicable State at the times and in the manner...

  7. 20 CFR 625.8 - Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applications for Disaster Unemployment... LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.8 Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. (a... unemployment shall be filed with respect to the individual's applicable State at the times and in the manner...

  8. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Claim for unemployment benefits. 325.4 Section 325.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits....

  9. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Claim for unemployment benefits. 325.4 Section 325.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits....

  10. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claim for unemployment benefits. 325.4 Section 325.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits....

  11. 20 CFR 625.8 - Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applications for Disaster Unemployment... LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.8 Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. (a... unemployment shall be filed with respect to the individual's applicable State at the times and in the manner...

  12. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  13. Reducing Urban Unemployment. What Works at the Local Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, William H.; And Others

    This booklet considers the problems of urban unemployment and presents 21 case studies of urban areas dealing with the problem. The first chapter defines urban unemployment and classifies barriers to employment, trends in unemployment, and types of unemployed persons. Chapter 2 describes some general principles necessary to successfully combat the…

  14. Modelling the behaviour of unemployment rates in the US over time and across space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Mark J.; Otero, Jesús; Panagiotidis, Theodore

    2013-11-01

    This paper provides evidence that unemployment rates across US states are stationary and therefore behave according to the natural rate hypothesis. We provide new insights by considering the effect of key variables on the speed of adjustment associated with unemployment shocks. A highly-dimensional VAR analysis of the half-lives associated with shocks to unemployment rates in pairs of states suggests that the distance between states and vacancy rates respectively exert a positive and negative influence. We find that higher homeownership rates do not lead to higher half-lives. When the symmetry assumption is relaxed through quantile regression, support for the Oswald hypothesis through a positive relationship between homeownership rates and half-lives is found at the higher quantiles.

  15. Unemployment and Substance Outcomes in the United States 2002-2010*

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Wilson M.; Gfroerer, Joe; Conway, Kevin P.; Finger, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The economic shock of 2008-2009 provided an opportunity to study the robustness of observed statistical associations between unemployment and problematic substance use. Methods Data from 405,000 non-institutionalized adult participants in the 2002 to 2010 U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health were used to compare substance outcomes among unemployed and employed persons. Association of unemployment with substance outcomes was examined for the years 2002-2004, 2005-2007, 2008, and 2009-2010, corresponding to periods prior to and after the economic downturn of 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, current DSM-IV Major Depression, and local county unemployment rates. Results Higher rates of past month tobacco and illicit drug use, heavy alcohol use, and past-year drug or alcohol abuse/dependence were found among the unemployed. Markedly increased unemployment in 2009-2010 did not moderate the association between substance outcomes and employment. This association was not confounded by sex, age group, or race/ethnicity for tobacco and illicit drugs, although it varied for alcohol outcomes among 18-25 year-olds. Results based on retrospective data regarding marijuana use in the period prior to unemployment suggest its use was associated with future job loss. Conclusions Employment status was strongly and robustly associated with problematic use of substances. Prevention and treatment interventions are warranted for a group whose employment and resulting insurance status may impair access to much needed health care. PMID:25042761

  16. Achilles' Heel: Developing Provision for Unemployed Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Colin

    1994-01-01

    Research shows that unemployed working class men are least likely to participate in education and training. Recruitment strategies should address their need to work, encourage collective action, and offer learning opportunities in familiar environments. (SK)

  17. Literacy, CETA, and Unemployment: Coming Up Empty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Gerald; Coppel, Lynn

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes low literacy levels among Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) applicants in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Discusses how cutbacks in CETA funding will adversely affect attempts to decrease illiteracy among unemployed, low-income, urban adults. (GC)

  18. 38 CFR 4.18 - Unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employment. With amputations, sequelae of fractures and other residuals of traumatism shown to be of static... to the static disability. Where unemployability for pension previously has been established on...

  19. 38 CFR 4.18 - Unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... employment. With amputations, sequelae of fractures and other residuals of traumatism shown to be of static... to the static disability. Where unemployability for pension previously has been established on...

  20. Community unemployment and immigrants' health in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Forster, Mathieu; Gauvin, Lise; Raynault, Marie-France; Douglas Willms, J

    2006-07-01

    This research examines the relationship between community unemployment and the physical and mental health of immigrants in comparison to non-immigrants in Montreal under the hypothesis that high unemployment in the community may generate more negative effects on the health of immigrants than on non-immigrants. Possible gender differences in these associations are also examined. Montreal residents were studied via multilevel analysis, using both individual survey data and neighbourhood data from 49 police districts. Individual-level data were excerpted from a 1998 health survey of Montreal residents, while neighbourhood data originated from survey data collected in the 49 Montreal police districts and the 1996 Canadian Census. The associations between community unemployment and self-rated health, psychological distress and obesity are examined, and hypotheses regarding the modifying mechanisms via which male and female immigrants may run a greater risk of poor health than non-immigrants when living in areas of high unemployment were tested. Between neighbourhoods, variations in the three health outcomes were slight, and differences in health were not associated with differences in community unemployment. The associations between community unemployment and health varied according to immigration status. At the individual level, immigrants do not differ from non-immigrants with respect to the three health indicators, except that second-generation males are slightly heavier. However, when living in areas of high unemployment, immigrants tend to report poor physical and mental health in comparison to non-immigrants. Among first-generation immigrants, community unemployment was associated with psychological distress. Among second-generation immigrants, the probability of obesity and poor self-rated health increased significantly for those living in areas with high unemployment, but these associations reached statistical significance only for men. Findings among first

  1. [Tobacco and alcohol use among the unemployed].

    PubMed

    Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata; Kłos, Jan; Adamek, Renata; Zysnarska, Monika; Kara, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt today, that any amount of tobacco products use and excessive alcohol consumption are among the fundamental causes of diseases. The health situation of the unemployed is worse than employed. One of the consequences of unemployment and also ways of coping with it can be unhealthy behaviors. The aim of this paper is to present the prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption, and to identify their causes among the unemployed, and also to show possible changes in these behaviors as a result of finding themselves in a situation of employment deprivation. The results of this study have demonstrated that the unemployed often have anti-health behaviors such as smoking and alcohol consumption with high frequency and single intake exceeding health standards. One of the important factors of smoking and drinking alcohol is a desire to reduce the emotional tension. Being outside the labor market affects the start of the consumption of alcohol and tobacco, but does not result in the cessation of consumption. It happens that the unemployment influence the reduction of consumption of alcohol and tobacco, and the key role is played by the economic factor. PMID:23421073

  2. Individual Joblessness, Contextual Unemployment, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Tapia Granados, José A.; House, James S.; Ionides, Edward L.; Burgard, Sarah; Schoeni, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies at the level of individuals find that employees who lose their jobs are at increased risk of death. However, analyses of aggregate data find that as unemployment rates increase during recessions, population mortality actually declines. We addressed this paradox by using data from the US Department of Labor and annual survey data (1979–1997) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of individuals—the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using proportional hazards (Cox) regression, we analyzed how the hazard of death depended on 1) individual joblessness and 2) state unemployment rates, as indicators of contextual economic conditions. We found that 1) compared with the employed, for the unemployed the hazard of death was increased by an amount equivalent to 10 extra years of age, and 2) each percentage-point increase in the state unemployment rate reduced the mortality hazard in all individuals by an amount equivalent to a reduction of 1 year of age. Our results provide evidence that 1) joblessness strongly and significantly raises the risk of death among those suffering it, and 2) periods of higher unemployment rates, that is, recessions, are associated with a moderate but significant reduction in the risk of death among the entire population. PMID:24993734

  3. Great expectations: Past wages and unemployment durations☆

    PubMed Central

    Böheim, Renè; Horvath, Gerard Thomas; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Decomposing wages into worker and firm wage components, we find that firm-fixed components are sizeable parts of workers' wages. If workers can only imperfectly observe the extent of firm-fixed components in their wages, they might be misled about the overall wage distribution. Such misperceptions may lead to unjustified high reservation wages, resulting in overly long unemployment durations. We examine the influence of previous wages on unemployment durations for workers after exogenous lay-offs and, using Austrian administrative data, we find that younger workers are, in fact, unemployed longer if they profited from high firm-fixed components in the past. We interpret our findings as evidence for overconfidence generated by imperfectly observed productivity. PMID:22211003

  4. Psychotherapy of the unemployed: determinants of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Wilczyńska-Kwiatek, A

    2006-09-01

    The unemployment in Poland has recently achieved, and stabilized at, quite a high level. Therefore, the development of psychotherapeutic tools aimed at supporting the unemployed has become an issue of great importance. The number of persons seeking professional help at outpatient mental clinics due to psychosomatic disorders linked to job loss has been sharply on the rise. These patients present with sleep disorders, dysphoric mood changes, sustained somatic pains, lack of goal and satisfaction in life, and the like. This article shows, as exemplified on individual cases and group therapies, the patient's work-up and also the types of activities from the border of medicine and psychology to support the mental state of the unemployed. PMID:17072069

  5. Losing Life and Livelihood: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Unemployment and All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Roelfs, David J.; Shor, Eran; Davidson, Karina W.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment rates in the United States remain near a 25-year high and global unemployment is rising. Previous studies have shown that unemployed persons have an increased risk of death, but the magnitude of the risk and moderating factors have not been explored. The study is a random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression designed to assess the association between unemployment and all-cause mortality among working-age persons. We extracted 235 mortality risk estimates from 42 studies, providing data on more than 20 million persons. The mean hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 1.63 among HRs adjusted for age and additional covariates. The mean effect was higher for men than for women. Unemployment was associated with an increased mortality risk for those in their early and middle careers, but less for those in their late-career. The risk of death was highest during the first 10 years of follow up, but decreased subsequently. The mean HR was 24% lower among the subset of studies controlling for health-related behaviors. Public health initiatives could target unemployed persons for more aggressive cardiovascular screening and interventions aimed at reducing risk-taking behaviors. PMID:21330027

  6. Oligopolies with contingent workforce and unemployment insurance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Merlone, Ugo; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2015-10-01

    In the recent literature the introduction of modified cost functions has added reality into the classical oligopoly analysis. Furthermore, the market evolution requires much more flexibility to firms, and in several countries contingent workforce plays an important role in the production choices by the firms. Therefore, an analysis of dynamic adjustment costs is in order to understand oligopoly dynamics. In this paper, dynamic single-product oligopolies without product differentiation are first examined with the additional consideration of production adjustment costs. Linear inverse demand and cost functions are considered and it is assumed that the firms adjust their outputs partially toward best response. The set of the steady states is characterized by a system of linear inequalities and there are usually infinitely many steady states. The asymptotic behavior of the output trajectories is examined by using computer simulation. The numerical results indicate that the resulting dynamics is richer than in the case of the classical Cournot model. This model and results are then compared to oligopolies with unemployment insurance systems when the additional cost is considered if firms do not use their maximum capacities.

  7. A Case Study and Balance Sheet Approach to Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes positive and negative aspects of employment and unemployment in a balance sheet framework. Discusses the value of the balance sheet approach in understanding individual differences in reactions to unemployment. (Author/KS)

  8. The Dynamics of Unemployment: Job Loss and Job Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norman E.; Borgen, William A.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the dynamics of unemployment in terms of job loss and job search. Compares job loss to the grieving process and job search to burnout. Describes counseling strategies for people at various stages in the unemployment process. (Author)

  9. Misery Loves Company? A Meta-Regression Examining Aggregate Unemployment Rates and the Unemployment-Mortality Association

    PubMed Central

    Roelfs, David J.; Shor, Eran; Blank, Aharon; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Individual-level unemployment has been consistently linked to poor health and higher mortality, but some scholars have suggested that the negative effect of job loss may be lower during times and in places where aggregate unemployment rates are high. We review three logics associated with this moderation hypothesis: health selection, social isolation, and unemployment stigma. We then test whether aggregate unemployment rates moderate the individual-level association between unemployment and all-cause mortality. METHODS We use 6 meta-regression models (each utilizing a different measure of the aggregate unemployment rate) based on 62 relative all-cause mortality risk estimates from 36 studies (from 15 nations). RESULTS We find that the magnitude of the individual-level unemployment-mortality association is approximately the same during periods of high and low aggregate-level unemployment. Model coefficients (exponentiated) were 1.01 for the crude unemployment rate (p = 0.27), 0.94 for the change in unemployment rate from the previous year (p = 0.46), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 5-year running average (p = 0.87), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 10-year running average (p = 0.73), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average (measured as a continuous variable; p = 0.61), and showed no variation across unemployment levels when the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average was measured categorically. Heterogeneity between studies was significant (p < .001), supporting the use of the random effects model. CONCLUSIONS We found no strong evidence to suggest that unemployment experiences change when macro-economic conditions change. Efforts to ameliorate the negative social and economic consequences of unemployment should continue to focus on the individual and should be maintained regardless of periodic changes in macro-economic conditions. PMID:25795225

  10. H. R. 2182: Coal Miners Unemployment Assistance Act of 1989. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, May 2, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 2182 would establish a temporary program of supplemental unemployment benefits for unemployed coal miners who have exhausted their rights to regular unemployment benefits. An eligible unemployed coal miner is defined as an individual who has exhausted his rights to regular compensation, has no rights to compensation under any other state law, and who has had at least 75 percent of his base wages for services performed directly with the mining of coal. The amount of Federal supplemental benefits will be equal to the amount of regular compensation. The maximum amount payable to any individual will be equal to the lesser of: (1) 100 percent of the total amount of regular compensation payable to him under state law or (2) 26 times the amount of regular compensation payable to him for a week of total unemployment. Funds shall be appropriated from the general fund of the Treasury for these purposes.

  11. Unemployment as a risk factor for completed suicide: a psychological autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Di Vittorio, Cristina; Baratta, Stefano; Masotti, Vittoria; Badaracco, Annalisa; Wong, Paul; Lester, David; Yip, Paul; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2014-01-01

    This study adopts a psychological autopsy method to compare (1) unemployed suicides, (2) other suicides who were either employed or not in the labor force, and (3) psychiatric outpatients without any prior suicidal behavior. A total of 245 consecutive suicides from Province of Parma (Italy) with recorded employment status were included in the analysis. The control group included 41 psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 64 years, who had not engaged in any previous suicidal act, and who were unemployed. The unemployed suicides had a risk 17 times higher to have had financial problems in the last 12 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0/149.5; p < 0.01) than other suicides. Unemployed suicides (compared to living unemployed controls) were 10 times more likely to have had poor social support (95% CI: 1.7/56.1; p < 0.01), 16 times more likely to have had any stressful life events in the past 12 months (95% CI: 2.5/103.9; p < 0.01), and 22 times more likely to have a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (95% CI: 2.4/203.2; p < 0.01). New suicide prevention strategies for those who are facing job loss need to focus on social support and personality disorders, as well as hopelessness and despair. PMID:24689509

  12. Employment and Unemployment: the Doughnut or the Hole?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiskin, Julius

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of unemployment and the relative merits of various types of employment and unemployment rates as measures of the economy's performance and as cyclical indicators is supplemented by tables. The employment-population ratio and the unemployment rate are deemed useful cyclical indicators. (Author/LH)

  13. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. 625.7 Section 625.7 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be...

  14. Unemployment Insurance: The Worker's Perspective. Background Paper No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, James C.; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    Regardless of the techniques, model specifications, time periods, and data sets used, studies on the effects of unemployment insurance (UI) benefits on the duration of unemployment of individuals all indicate that UI prolongs spells of unemployment and lowers employment among its recipients. Unfortunately, the magnitudes of these estimated effects…

  15. Family Stress among the Unemployed: Strategies for Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dail, Paula W.

    Unemployment and the resulting financial hardships which occur are among the most difficult circumstances imposed upon families. A study was undertaken to identify the sources and degree of stress experienced by families affected by economic displacement through unemployment. A sample of unemployed families (N=146) responded to components of the…

  16. A Critical Perspective of Contemporary Unemployment Policy and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.; Medvide, Mary Beth; Wan, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the challenges of unemployment via the lens of critical psychology. The conventional discourse on unemployment is critiqued, revealing ways in which conventional policies and practices serve to further marginalize the lives of the unemployed and impede the development of ethical, effective, and empathic individual…

  17. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  18. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  19. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b)...

  20. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  1. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  2. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  3. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  4. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b)...

  5. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b)...

  6. Unemployment and Inflation in Canada: A Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Gwillym J.; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains instructional materials on unemployment and inflation. Material is divided into nine sections. Section 1 covers historical trends in unemployment and inflation. Section 2 examines four types of unemployment: frictional,…

  7. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  8. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years...

  9. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  10. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b)...

  11. 26 CFR 1.85-1 - Unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unemployment compensation. 1.85-1 Section 1.85-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.85-1 Unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) paid in taxable years...

  12. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b)...

  13. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  14. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in...

  15. Unemployment and ill health: understanding the relationship.

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To review research relevant to understanding the psychological, social, and biological pathways by which unemployment may affect health risk; to consider the importance of four specific mechanisms; and to indicate some directions for future research. CRITERIA FOR INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION OF PUBLISHED STUDIES--Studies were chosen to illustrate the development of four major hypotheses regarding the relationship between unemployment and ill health, as well as the present state of knowledge. The review therefore includes some much-cited "classics" drawn from a long time span. Where recent reviews already exist relevant to individual mechanisms, these are referred to. Recent (since 1987) reports were sought by searching the BIDS data base. Particular effort was made to locate studies which enabled alternative hypotheses to be evaluated, and to point out where existing evidence is inconsistent or incomplete, indicating the need for further research. CONCLUSIONS--To understand the relationship between unemployment and ill health and mortality, four mechanisms need to be considered: the role of relative poverty; social isolation and loss of self esteem; health related behaviour (including that associated with membership of certain types of "subculture"); and the effect that a spell of unemployment has on subsequent employment patterns. PMID:7964329

  16. New Definitions for Employment and Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Robert L.

    1967-01-01

    Improvements in methods for measuring employment and unemployment that went into effect in January 1967, new definitions, and comparisons of data collected by the Current Population Survey (CPS) and the new Monthly Labor Survey (MLS) are presented. The improvements are in line with the recommendations of the Gordon Committee in its 1962 report.…

  17. Unemployment, Vacancies and Local Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry J.

    This monograph studies unemployment in relation to labor market vacancies throughout the United States, using a new set of data: the Survey of Firms from the Employment Opportunity Pilot Project, a labor market experiment conducted by the Department of Labor at 28 sites in 1979 and 1980. The monograph is organized in five chapters. The first…

  18. The Scenario of an Unemployed Auto Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilanian, Seta M.

    This case study examined the effects of unemployment upon an unskilled 31-year-old male client who had been laid off his job as an assembly line automobile worker after 13 years. Instead of searching for employment the client was sleeping late, watching television, and spending time at a local tavern. The general hypothesis tested was that the…

  19. Search Time, Unemployment, and the Migration Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Ernst P.; Schoening, Niles C.

    1984-01-01

    Unemployed in distressed regions of the United States have been reluctant to move to areas of greater employment opportunities. By establishing a negative correlation between weeks of job search and probability of migration, this study is able to provide a partial explanation for lack of a positive relationship between outmigration rates and…

  20. The Relocation of the Hard Core Unemployed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Jack L.; Abrams, Harvey A.

    The purpose of the Minneapolis Rehabilitation Center project (July 1966 to June 1967) was to prepare a sample of 80 unemployed residents of small communities in northern Minnesota to live and work in the metropolitan Minneapolis-St. Paul area. Heads of households were provided intensive, comprehensive evaluation and treatment services to deal with…

  1. Black Youth Unemployment and the Black Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Linus A.

    This paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted to ascertain the attitudes of 400 employers, youth, and academic/community professionals in Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D.C., toward an approach to Black youth unemployment centered on the creation of jobs and training among minority businesses in selected metropolitan areas. Minority…

  2. Father Unemployment and the Young Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radin, Norma; Greer, Enos

    To examine the effects of paternal unemployment on young children, a study was conducted using a sample of 28 primarily white, working-class, intact families with a child aged 3 to 6. Half of the children were boys and half were girls; 16 fathers were working and 12 were jobless. Among the child variables assessed were verbal intelligence,…

  3. Youth Unemployment Outline of a Psychosocial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Margrit

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of education policy constitutes an attempt to outline the problem of youth unemployment. Building on a recognition that structural change in the "society of labourers" has also affected the social entity "young people", it shows the problems inherent in our concept of linear transitions to working life and the need to learn to live…

  4. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  5. 20 CFR 325.2 - Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Procedure for registering for unemployment... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any...

  6. 20 CFR 325.2 - Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedure for registering for unemployment... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any...

  7. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has...

  8. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has...

  9. 20 CFR 325.2 - Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Procedure for registering for unemployment... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any...

  10. 20 CFR 325.2 - Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for registering for unemployment... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any...

  11. 20 CFR 325.2 - Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedure for registering for unemployment... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any...

  12. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has...

  13. The Työhön Job Search Program in Finland: benefits for the unemployed with risk of depression or discouragement.

    PubMed

    Vuori, Jukka; Silvonen, Jussi; Vinokur, Amiram D; Price, Richard H

    2002-01-01

    The impact of preventive interventions for the unemployed may vary depending on the context of the labor policies and benefit systems of the country where it is implemented. The Työhön Job Search Program was based on a method developed in the United States for recently unemployed workers. This study examined outcomes of the intervention in the context of the European labor market for participants who had been unemployed for a longer period. A total of 1,261 unemployed Finnish job seekers participated in a randomized field study. At the 6-month follow-up, the program had a beneficial impact on the quality of reemployment, especially among those who had been unemployed for a moderate time period. The program also significantly decreased psychological distress. PMID:11827233

  14. Unemployment and Mortality: A Comparative Study of Germany and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lavis, John N.; MacNab, Ying C.; Hertzman, Clyde

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between unemployment and mortality in Germany, a coordinated market economy, and the United States, a liberal market economy. Methods. We followed 2 working-age cohorts from the German Socio-economic Panel and the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics from 1984 to 2005. We defined unemployment as unemployed at the time of survey. We used discrete-time survival analysis, adjusting for potential confounders. Results. There was an unemployment–mortality association among Americans (relative risk [RR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7, 3.4), but not among Germans (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0, 2.0). In education-stratified models, there was an association among minimum-skilled (RR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.4, 4.7) and medium-skilled (RR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.8) Americans, but not among minimum- and medium-skilled Germans. There was no association among high-skilled Americans, but an association among high-skilled Germans (RR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.3, 7.0), although this was limited to those educated in East Germany. Minimum- and medium-skilled unemployed Americans had the highest absolute risks of dying. Conclusions. The higher risk of dying for minimum- and medium-skilled unemployed Americans, not found among Germans, suggests that the unemployment–mortality relationship may be mediated by the institutional and economic environment. PMID:22698036

  15. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  16. Depression and anxiety in unemployed men.

    PubMed

    Eales, M J

    1988-11-01

    Psychiatric status and psychosocial variables were assessed in a group of 80 unemployed men. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed using the Present State Examination and 'caseness' rated according to the Bedford College criteria. Among men who were normal at the time of job loss, 14% developed a 'case' disorder and a further 17% a 'borderline case' disorder over the first 6 months of unemployment. These rates are similar to those found in studies concerned with a wider range of severe life events. An increased risk of onset was associated with three factors: lack of an intimate relationship with a wife or girlfriend, trait shyness, and pre-existing economic difficulties. PMID:3270836

  17. Try! A Survival Guide to Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz, Karen

    This book is a practical survival guide to unemployment that offers a thoughtful, step-by-step process for getting organized and getting the work one needs for a satisfying, productive, and happy life. It does not teach the reader how to set up a resume or how to interview. It does teach how to find out what the reader wants to do, what he or she…

  18. [Medical research and vulnerable subjects: unemployed people].

    PubMed

    Niebrój, Lesław

    2006-01-01

    Although the importance of medical research for the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases is unquestionable, the use of human subjects, however, still presents a complex ethical problem. Moral difficulties occur in particular when the medical research deals with vulnerable subjects. Vulnerable individuals are defined as those who experience diminished actual autonomy. Among the groups which should be considered as being vulnerable are usually listed the following: children, pregnant women, mentally or emotionally disabled, physically disabled, homeless, and institutionalized people. This study addresses key concerns that gave rise to the question of whether unemployed people had to be recognized as vulnerable subjects. The term "vulnerability" was clarified and it was assumed that the "vulnerability" of medical research subjects' had to be understood as a form of continuum from potential, through the circumstantial, temporal, episodic, permanent to inevitable vulnerability. The conclusion was drawn that unemployed people were, at least, potentially vulnerable subjects. Research involving unemployed people presents important moral challenges to researchers and should be undertaken very carefully, following special ethical guidelines. PMID:17441390

  19. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  20. 38 CFR 3.340 - Total and permanent total ratings and unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assigned, generally, for temporary exacerbations or acute infectious diseases except where specifically... any incapacity from acute infectious disease, accident, or injury, unless there is present one of the... incapacitating exacerbations since incurrence of the original disease or injury, and to periods...

  1. 38 CFR 3.340 - Total and permanent total ratings and unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... assigned, generally, for temporary exacerbations or acute infectious diseases except where specifically... any incapacity from acute infectious disease, accident, or injury, unless there is present one of the... incapacitating exacerbations since incurrence of the original disease or injury, and to periods...

  2. 38 CFR 3.340 - Total and permanent total ratings and unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assigned, generally, for temporary exacerbations or acute infectious diseases except where specifically... any incapacity from acute infectious disease, accident, or injury, unless there is present one of the... incapacitating exacerbations since incurrence of the original disease or injury, and to periods...

  3. 38 CFR 3.340 - Total and permanent total ratings and unemployability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... assigned, generally, for temporary exacerbations or acute infectious diseases except where specifically... any incapacity from acute infectious disease, accident, or injury, unless there is present one of the... incapacitating exacerbations since incurrence of the original disease or injury, and to periods...

  4. Does migration equalize regional unemployment rates? Evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Groenewold, N

    1997-01-01

    Whether inter-regional migration equilibrates regional economic performance is a question which has received considerable attention in recent literature. The author examines that question, focusing upon regional unemployment rates and real wages within the context of a 24-hour equation econometric model of the interaction between regional wages, regional unemployment, and inter-regional migration in Australia. Used to solve for steady-state values of wage and unemployment differences, the model determined that the steady state involves non-zero unemployment rate differences and non-zero wage differences. The model is also used to investigate the stability of the equilibrating mechanism and to simulate the effects upon unemployment, migration, and wage rates of a shock to employment growth. The main findings are that inter-regional equilibrating forces are slow and do not help equalize regional unemployment rates or wages. PMID:12295005

  5. 20 CFR 325.3 - Application for unemployment benefits and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application for unemployment benefits and... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.3 Application for unemployment benefits and employment service. (a) Requirement. An unemployed employee who wishes to...

  6. 20 CFR 325.3 - Application for unemployment benefits and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application for unemployment benefits and... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.3 Application for unemployment benefits and employment service. (a) Requirement. An unemployed employee who wishes to...

  7. The Link between Unemployment and Returns to Education: Evidence from 14 European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Bernhard A.

    2002-01-01

    Estimates for 14 European countries used three models introducing unemployment, youth unemployment, and unemployment benefits respectively. Differences in unemployment probabilities at different educational levels and youth unemployment both appear to be important for a better understanding of the incentive structure behind educational decisions.…

  8. 20 CFR 325.3 - Application for unemployment benefits and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for unemployment benefits and... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.3 Application for unemployment benefits and employment service. (a) Requirement. An unemployed employee who wishes to...

  9. 20 CFR 325.3 - Application for unemployment benefits and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for unemployment benefits and... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.3 Application for unemployment benefits and employment service. (a) Requirement. An unemployed employee who wishes to...

  10. A profile of UK unemployment: regional versus demographic influences.

    PubMed

    Brown, S; Sessions, J G

    1997-06-01

    "This paper profiles the incidence of unemployment in the [United Kingdom] over the period 1985-91 using data derived from the British Social Attitudes Survey. The approach of the paper is to quantify the differential probabilities of unemployment faced by particular groups within the population, focusing in particular on the relative effects of demographic and regional influences. Our results indicate that, even after controlling for a plethora of demographic characteristics, regional disparities in unemployment risk are prevalent, with individuals in Northern Ireland, Wales, the North and West Midlands of England facing a higher chance of unemployment ceteris paribus." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293417

  11. Equilibrium urban unemployment in developing countries: is migration the culprit?

    PubMed

    Stark, O; Gupta, M R; Levhari, D

    1991-12-01

    "This paper challenges the prediction of Todaro's model of rural-to-urban migration that an 'increase in urban employment increases urban unemployed.' It is shown that if the urban demand for labor is isoelastic or inelastic, creation of urban jobs causes urban unemployment to decline and urban-to-rural migration to take place. Moveover, urban job creation always reduces the rate of urban unemployment. The paper then remodels the urban job search process and derives the result that equilibrium urban unemployment would not vanish even if the urban-rural wage gap were eliminated." The geographical focus is on developing countries. PMID:12317766

  12. Promoting Jobfinding Success for the Unemployed. Studies in Employment and Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Harold L.; Belitsky, A. Harvey

    This brief summary of a much larger empirical study presented in the authors' book, "The Job Hunt: Job-Seeking Behavior of Unemployed Workers in a Local Economy," is presented to call wider attention to some of the more unique and critical aspects of the larger report. The original study, conducted in Erie, Pennsylvania in 1964, involved a sample…

  13. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed Central

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse. PMID:23543880

  14. Net migration, unemployment, and the business cycle.

    PubMed

    Haurin, D R; Haurin, R J

    1988-05-01

    "An empirical test of the effects of exogenous shocks upon a region's population size is conducted in the framework of an equilibrium locational model. The model emphasizes the separation of endogenous from exogenous factors, a point omitted in most empirical studies of aggregate migration. Exogenous changes are manifested in the local relative cost of living and the local relative unemployment rate. Hypotheses are tested using a national sample of youth, in addition to census, data [for the United States]. Surprisingly, a simple measure of the size of shock to a regional economy has the greatest explanatory power compared to more sophisticated measures based on prior business cycles." PMID:12315055

  15. Illegal aliens, unemployment and immigration policy.

    PubMed

    Djajic, S

    1987-02-01

    "This paper develops a simple two-country model of illegal immigration in an attempt to examine the interaction among variables such as the stock of migrant labor, the unemployment rates of the two economies, and the rate of spending by the host country on the enforcement of its immigration restrictions. The focus of the analysis is on the dynamics of immigration policy and on its role in determining the nature of the mechanism by which disturbances to the labor market of one country are transmitted to that of the other in the short run and in the long run." PMID:12341287

  16. Economic crisis and suicidal behaviour: the role of unemployment, sex and age in Andalusia, Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although suicide rates have increased in some European countries in relation to the current economic crisis and austerity policies, that trend has not been observed in Spain. This study examines the impact of the economic crisis on suicide attempts, the previously neglected endpoint of the suicidal process, and its relation to unemployment, age and sex. Methods The study was carried out in Andalusia, the most populated region of Spain, and which has a high level of unemployment. Information on suicide attempts attended by emergency services was extracted from the Health Emergencies Public Enterprise Information System (SIEPES). Suicide attempts occurring between 2003 and 2012 were included, in order to cover five years prior to the crisis (2003–2007) and five years after its onset (2008–2012). Information was retrieved from 24,380 cases (11,494 men and 12,886 women) on sex, age, address, and type of attention provided. Age-adjusted suicide attempt rates were calculated. Excess numbers of attempts from 2008 to 2012 were estimated for each sex using historical trends of the five previous years, through time regression models using negative binomial regression analysis. To assess the association between unemployment and suicide attempts rates, linear regression models with fixed effects were performed. Results A sharp increase in suicide attempt rates in Andalusia was detected after the onset of the crisis, both in men and in women. Adults aged 35 to 54 years were the most affected in both sexes. Suicide attempt rates were associated with unemployment rates in men, accounting for almost half of the cases during the five initial years of the crisis. Women were also affected during the recession period but this association could not be specifically attributed to unemployment. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of the potential effects of the economic crisis on the rapidly increasing suicide attempt rates in women and men, and the

  17. 76 FR 12760 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Report ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ..., Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities (OMB Control No. 1205- 0051): Extension Without Change AGENCY... ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and.... Background The ETA 902 Report, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) Activities, is a monthly...

  18. 78 FR 16298 - Comment Request for Information Collection: Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information Final Rule and State Income and Eligibility... Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information final rule and State Income and Eligibility... comments to the Employment and Training Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200...

  19. 77 FR 57595 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Compensation for Ex-Servicemembers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment... written comments to Scott Gibbons, Office of Unemployment Insurance, Employment and Training... accordance with the same terms and conditions of the paying state's unemployment insurance law which apply...

  20. Self-Perceived Reasons for Unemployment Cited by Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: Relationship to Gender, Race, Age, and Level of Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, J. Stuart; Anson, Carol A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of study was to identify reasons persons with spinal cord injury attribute to their unemployment status, and determine if different demographic categories hold different beliefs in this regard. Participants (n=231) completed the Multidimensional Adjustment Profile. Inability to physically perform same type of work was primary reason cited.…

  1. Physiological adjustments of sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa) to a boom-or-bust economy: standard fasting metabolic rate, total evaporative water loss, and changes in the sizes of organs during food and water restriction.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Stephane; Mesochina, Pascal; Williams, Joseph B

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that desert ungulates adjust their physiology in response to long-term food and water restriction, we established three groups of sand gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa): one that was provided food and water (n = 6; CTRL) ad lib. for 4 mo, one that received ad lib. food and water for the same period but was deprived of food and water for the last 4.5 d (n = 6; EXPT(1)), and one that was exposed to 4 mo of progressive food and water restriction, an experimental regime designed to mimic conditions in a natural desert setting (n = 6; EXPT(2)). At the end of the 4-mo experiment, we measured standard fasting metabolic rate (SFMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of all sand gazelles and determined lean dry mass of organs of gazelles in CTRL and EXPT(2). Gazelles in CTRL had a mean SFMR of 2,524 +/- 194 kJ d(-1), whereas gazelles in EXPT(1) and EXPT(2) had SFMRs of 2,101+/- 232 and 1,365 +/- 182 kJ d(-1), respectively, values that differed significantly when we controlled for differences in body mass. Gazelles had TEWLs of 151.1 +/- 18.2, 138.5 +/- 17.53, and 98.4 +/- 27.2 g H(2)O d(-1) in CTRL, EXPT(1), and EXPT(2), respectively. For the latter group, mass-independent TEWL was 27.1% of the value for CTRL. We found that normally hydrated sand gazelles had a low mass-adjusted TEWL compared with other arid-zone ungulates: 13.6 g H(2)O kg(-0.898) d(-1), only 17.1% of allometric predictions, the lowest ever measured in an arid-zone ungulate. After 4 mo of progressive food and water restriction, dry lean mass of liver, heart, and muscle of gazelles in EXPT(2) was significantly less than that of these same organs in CTRL, even when we controlled for body mass decrease. Decreases in the dry lean mass of liver explained 70.4% of the variance of SFMR in food- and water-restricted gazelles. As oxygen demands decreased because of reduced organ sizes, gazelles lost less evaporative water, probably because of a decreased respiratory water loss. PMID

  2. Unemployment Compensation and Older Workers. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Christopher J.; Wandner, Stephen A.

    Unemployment compensation in the United States is provided through a federal-state system of unemployment insurance (UI). UI provides temporary partial wage replacement to active job seekers who are involuntarily out of work. For older workers, UI is an important source of income security and a potential influence on work incentives. For example,…

  3. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  4. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... definition of an unemployed parent who is the principal earner which shall apply only to families determined... unemployment compensation law. (2) Include a definition of a dependent child which shall include any child of... dependent child under the State's plan approved under section 402 of the Act. (3) Provide for payment of...

  5. 20 CFR 625.8 - Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Assistance. 625.8 Section 625.8 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.8 Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. (a... prescribed in § 625.12. (f) Procedural requirements. (1) The procedures for reporting and filing...

  6. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion: Incentive Effects on Job-Finding Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…

  7. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  8. Unemployment Duration and Employability in Remote Rural Labour Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Colin; McCracken, Martin; McQuaid, Ronald W.

    2003-01-01

    Surveys of 190 unemployed job seekers and interviews with 17 employers in the remote northern Highlands of Scotland found that the employability of many job seekers, particularly the long-term unemployed, was limited by significant gaps in their skills and work experience, their lack of connection to informal social networks used in job seeking,…

  9. Youth Unemployment in Rural Areas. Work and Opportunity Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartmel, Fred; Furlong, Andy

    This study investigated factors leading to employment and unemployment for young people living in urban and rural areas in Scotland. Surveys and interviews were conducted with 817 youths, 40 rural employers, and 25 professionals from across Scotland. Findings include: (1) long-term youth unemployment was less common in rural than in urban areas,…

  10. High Graduate Unemployment Rate and Taiwanese Undergraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chih-Chun

    2011-01-01

    An expansion in higher education in combination with the recent global economic recession has resulted in a high college graduate unemployment rate in Taiwan. This study investigates how the high unemployment rate and financial constraints caused by economic cutbacks have shaped undergraduates' class choices, job needs, and future income…

  11. 20 CFR 606.41 - High unemployment deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unemployment (as determined for purposes of 20 CFR 615.12) under the State law with respect to the period... 20 CFR part 615 must have averaged a percentage equalling or exceeding 7.5 percent. (c) Schedule of... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High unemployment deferral. 606.41...

  12. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster...

  13. 20 CFR 606.41 - High unemployment deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unemployment (as determined for purposes of 20 CFR 615.12) under the State law with respect to the period... 20 CFR part 615 must have averaged a percentage equalling or exceeding 7.5 percent. (c) Schedule of... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High unemployment deferral. 606.41...

  14. 20 CFR 606.41 - High unemployment deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... unemployment (as determined for purposes of 20 CFR 615.12) under the State law with respect to the period... 20 CFR part 615 must have averaged a percentage equalling or exceeding 7.5 percent. (c) Schedule of... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High unemployment deferral. 606.41...

  15. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster...

  16. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster...

  17. Youth Education and Unemployment Problems. An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Margaret S.; Trow, Martin

    Essays focusing on issues concerning youth education and unemployment problems are presented in this document. It is divided into three general areas. The first, Youth Unemployment in Western Industrial Countries, reviews general dimensions of the problem, the cyclical hypothesis, the demand hypothesis, the supply hypothesis, disaggregating…

  18. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster...

  19. 20 CFR 606.41 - High unemployment deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment (as determined for purposes of 20 CFR 615.12) under the State law with respect to the period... 20 CFR part 615 must have averaged a percentage equalling or exceeding 7.5 percent. (c) Schedule of... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment deferral. 606.41...

  20. The Experience of Unemployment for University Graduates: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, William A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reported results of exploratory, descriptive study of unemployment experience for 12 university graduates under age 25. Analysis of interview data suggested that experience of unemployment could be divided into initial vacation period and downward trend. Participant reactions were marked by fluctuations of emotion and reduction in self-confidence…

  1. Unemployment Insurance. Maintaining the Foundation of Economic Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of an annual journal contains 18 essays on unemployment insurance (UI) and employment and training programs. Part 1, "Historical Perspective," contains the following papers: "Reflections on Wisconsin and Unemployment Insurance" (Wilbur J. Cohen); "Outstanding Ideas Form UI's Foundation" (Richard Wagner); "One State's Experience: 1939"…

  2. Youth Unemployment--Time to Do Something About It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    Presented in this summary document are 17 charts and statements concerning youth unemployment. Topics covered include: (1) the ratio of teenage to adult unemployment rates, (2) the population explosion, (3) effects of staying in school, (4) state minimum wage patterns, and (5) the effects of a differential on family income. A recommended course of…

  3. The Minimum Level of Unemployment and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Frank C.

    This study focuses on the role of the federal government in reducing persistent joblessness that prevails at relatively high levels even during periods of high employment or prosperity ("structural unemployment"). While the problem of cyclincal joblessness dominates public policy discussion at the present time, structural unemployment is being…

  4. The Unemployment-Inflation Dilemma: A Manpower Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Charles C.; And Others

    Unemployment and inflation pose a trade-off problem with one being employed at the expense of the other, seriously hampering efforts to deal effectively with poverty, crime, pollution, and other domestic problems. When unemployment is high, real income is relatively low so the nation feels that it cannot afford measures to solve these questions.…

  5. 20 CFR 606.41 - High unemployment deferral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unemployment (as determined for purposes of 20 CFR 615.12) under the State law with respect to the period... 20 CFR part 615 must have averaged a percentage equalling or exceeding 7.5 percent. (c) Schedule of... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High unemployment deferral. 606.41...

  6. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster...

  7. Golden Parachutes: Changing the Experience of Unemployment for Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anya M.; Jackson, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of career transition support and three other situational variables--financial reserves, social inclusion, and a partner--on the psychological strain of unemployed managers. We extended the theories of unemployment by investigating the mechanisms by which these four situational variables affect psychological strain. After…

  8. Types of Structural Unemployment in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Peter E.

    1990-01-01

    Assesses the extent of the following types of structural unemployment in the United Kingdom: technological change, skills mismatch, geographical mismatch, demographic shifts, institutional rigidity, unemployability, and capital restructuring. Concludes that measurement is difficult and the types create segmented labor markets that obstruct the…

  9. Black Youth and the Labor Market: The Unemployment Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gail E.; Scott, Will B.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews economic and sociological theories that identify structural and personal factors associatied with unemployment. Suggests a policy approach for dealing with the problem, hypothesizing that effective social network systems and sponsorship groups are needed to help presently unemployed youth gain entry and acceptance into the labor market.…

  10. A Study of Factors that Influence Unemployed Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviram, Arie

    2006-01-01

    The following research analyzes, through a field study, several relevant personality traits, or variables, that may be used to help the unemployed by directing them to entrepreneurship. Three sample groups (unemployed, employed, and entrepreneurs) were compared using several intrinsically motivating variables: knowledge, inclination to…

  11. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  12. Unemployment alters the set point for life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Richard E; Clark, Andrew E; Georgellis, Yannis; Diener, Ed

    2004-01-01

    According to set-point theories of subjective well-being, people react to events but then return to baseline levels of happiness and satisfaction over time. We tested this idea by examining reaction and adaptation to unemployment in a 15-year longitudinal study of more than 24,000 individuals living in Germany. In accordance with set-point theories, individuals reacted strongly to unemployment and then shifted back toward their baseline levels of life satisfaction. However, on average, individuals did not completely return to their former levels of satisfaction, even after they became reemployed. Furthermore, contrary to expectations from adaptation theories, people who had experienced unemployment in the past did not react any less negatively to a new bout of unemployment than did people who had not been previously unemployed. These results suggest that although life satisfaction is moderately stable over time, life events can have a strong influence on long-term levels of subjective well-being. PMID:14717825

  13. Unemployment Rates, Single Parent Density, and Indices of Child Poverty: Their Relationship to Different Categories of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Bill; Tanner, Gary; Cheyne, Bill; Freeman, Isobel; Rooney, Martin; Lambie, Allan

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated referrals (N=5,551) and registered cases (N=1,450) of child abuse and neglect in Glasgow, Scotland, from 1991 through 1993. The largest correlation found was between physical abuse and rates of male unemployment, accounting for two-thirds of the variance in total abuse and neglect rates. (Author/DB)

  14. Short- and long-term effects of unemployment on fertility

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet; Schwandt, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have been examining the relationship between fertility and unemployment for more than a century. Most studies find that fertility falls with unemployment in the short run, but it is not known whether these negative effects persist, because women simply may postpone childbearing to better economic times. Using more than 140 million US birth records for the period 1975–2010, we analyze both the short- and long-run effects of unemployment on fertility. We follow fixed cohorts of US-born women defined by their own state and year of birth, and relate their fertility to the unemployment rate experienced by each cohort at different ages. We focus on conceptions that result in a live birth. We find that women in their early 20s are most affected by high unemployment rates in the short run and that the negative effects on fertility grow over time. A one percentage point increase in the average unemployment rate experienced between the ages of 20 and 24 reduces the short-run fertility of women in this age range by six conceptions per 1,000 women. When we follow these women to age 40, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate experienced at ages 20–24 leads to an overall loss of 14.2 conceptions. This long-run effect is driven largely by women who remain childless and thus do not have either first births or higher-order births. PMID:25267622

  15. Suicide and unemployment: a panel analysis of Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Jalles, João Tovar; Andresen, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between suicide and unemployment. We use panel data from Canadian provinces and use recent panel econometric techniques to account for endogenous structural breaks in both the unit root and cointegration testing procedures in order to account for statistical specification issues. We find that the relationship between unemployment and suicide is context dependent. We do find positive and statistically significant relationships, but only for males in particular provinces. The relationship between unemployment and suicide is not monolithic. Rather, relationships are not always as expected for different demographic groups and all places. PMID:24579917

  16. Rural-urban migration, urban unemployment and underemployment, and job-search activity in LDCs.

    PubMed

    Fields, G S

    1975-06-01

    A quantity adjustment framework is used to analyze unemployment and underemployment in less developed countries (LDCs). The basic premise of the formal theoretical model presented is that the same kinds of forces that explain the choices of workers between the rural and urban sectors can also explain thier choices between 1 labor market and another within an urban area and are most likely made simultaneously. The decision makers, whether family units or individuals, are presumed to consider the various labor market opportunities available to them and to choose the one which maximizes their expected future income. In the model the primary equilibrating force is taken to be the movement of workers between labor markets, not changes in wages. The point of departure is the received theory of rural urban migration in LDS, which is the model of Harris and Todaro (1970). The 1st step is a summary of the basic features of the model. While accepting their basic approach emphasizing movement of workers rather than changes in wages, it is shown that the particular implication of the model with respect to the equilibrium urban unemployment rate substantially overstates the rates actually observed by Turnham (1971) and others. The analysis is then extended to consider several important factors which have previously been neglected--a more generalized approach to the job search process, the possibility of underemployment in the so-called urban "murky sector," preferential treatment by employers of the better educated, and consideration of labor turnover--and demonstrate that the resulting framework gives predictions closer to actual experience. Harris and Todaro in their original discussion concluded that a combination of a wage subsidy in the modern sector and physical restriction of migration would be required to realize a first best state lying on the economy's production possibility frontier. Subsequently Bhagwati and Srinivasan (1974) challenged them and demonstrated that a

  17. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625.5 Section 625.5 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed...

  18. Factors Affecting Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy in the Unemployed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddy, Luther M., III

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment is, and will likely continue to be, a problem in industrialized nations. Numerous studies have concluded unemployment negatively impacts self-esteem and self-efficacy. Additional studies have shown that unemployed individuals with lower self-esteem and self-efficacy tend to remain unemployed longer than individuals with higher…

  19. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(17)-1 - Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. 1.501(c... Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. (a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment... the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section...

  20. 20 CFR 601.2 - Approval of State unemployment compensation laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Approval of State unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation laws. States may at their option submit their unemployment compensation laws for... Employment and Training Administration (ETA), one copy of the State unemployment compensation law...

  1. 20 CFR 601.2 - Approval of State unemployment compensation laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Approval of State unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation laws. States may at their option submit their unemployment compensation laws for... Employment and Training Administration (ETA), one copy of the State unemployment compensation law...

  2. 20 CFR 601.2 - Approval of State unemployment compensation laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approval of State unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation laws. States may at their option submit their unemployment compensation laws for... Employment and Training Administration (ETA), one copy of the State unemployment compensation law...

  3. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(17)-1 - Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. 1.501... Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. (a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment... the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section...

  4. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(17)-1 - Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. 1.501... Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. (a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment... the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section...

  5. 76 FR 68790 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... 2011 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to state unemployment funds to obtain certain credits against their liability for the federal unemployment tax....

  6. 77 FR 66482 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... 2012 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to state unemployment funds to obtain certain credits against their liability for the federal unemployment tax....

  7. 20 CFR 601.2 - Approval of State unemployment compensation laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of State unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation laws. States may at their option submit their unemployment compensation laws for... Employment and Training Administration (ETA), one copy of the State unemployment compensation law...

  8. Are There Geographical Variations in the Psychological Cost of Unemployment in South Africa?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2007-01-01

    Are certain groups of unemployed individuals hurt less by unemployment than others? This paper is an attempt to test the hypothesis that non-pecuniary costs of unemployment may vary between societies with different unemployment rates. Using cross-sectional data from the SALDRU93 survey, I show that households' perceptions of life satisfaction are…

  9. Transitions to Long-Term Unemployment Risk among Young People: Evidence from Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Many young people have short spells of unemployment during their transition from school to work; however, some often get trapped in unemployment and risk becoming long-term unemployed. Much research has been undertaken on the factors that influence unemployment risk for young people during their school-to-work transition. However, very little is…

  10. 76 FR 75561 - Information Collection Request for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Trust Fund Activities Reports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Information Collection Request for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Trust Fund Activities Reports: Extension... Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA) require that all monies received in the unemployment fund of a state be paid immediately to the Secretary of Treasury to the credit of the Unemployment Trust Fund (UTF). This is...

  11. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(17)-1 - Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. 1.501(c... Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. (a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment... the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section...

  12. 76 FR 18260 - Announcement Regarding Pennsylvania Triggering “Off” Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). Public Law 111-312 extended provisions in Public Law 111-92 which... unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a...

  13. 76 FR 18259 - Announcement Regarding Delaware Triggering “on” Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). Public Law 111-312 extended provisions in Public Law 111-92 which... unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a...

  14. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  15. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  16. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  17. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  18. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance....

  19. 20 CFR 601.2 - Approval of State unemployment compensation laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of State unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation laws. States may at their option submit their unemployment compensation laws for... Employment and Training Administration (ETA), one copy of the State unemployment compensation law...

  20. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(17)-1 - Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. 1.501(c... Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. (a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment... the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section...

  1. Concepts and Measures of Structural Unemployment. Technical Analysis Paper No. 64.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Robert; And Others

    The meaning and measures of structural unemployment are discussed in this paper. The first section examines the linkages between the concepts of cyclical, frictional, seasonal, and structural unemployment. The next sections analyze measures of structural unemployment based on the view that structural unemployment is substantial during times of…

  2. Unemployment among women: examining the relationship of physical and psychological intimate partner violence and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Mack, Katelyn P; Smith, Mark W; Baumrind, Nikki

    2009-03-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with employment instability among poor women. The current study assesses the broader relationship between IPV and women's workforce participation in a population-based sample of 6,698 California women. We examined past-year IPV by analyzing specific effects of physical violence, psychological violence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as predictors of unemployment. Results indicated substantial rates of unemployment among women who reported IPV, with rates of 20% among women who experienced psychological violence, 18% among women who experienced physical violence, and 19% among women with PTSD symptoms. When the relationship was adjusted for demographic characteristics and educational attainment, PTSD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 2.09) and psychological violence (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.32), but not physical violence, were associated with unemployment. Implications for supported employment programs and workplace responses to IPV are discussed. PMID:18458353

  3. The Effect of Unemployment on Household Composition and Doubling Up

    PubMed Central

    Wiemers, Emily E.

    2015-01-01

    “Doubling up” (sharing living arrangements) with family and friends is one way in which individuals and families can cope with job loss, but relatively little research has examined the extent to which people use coresidence to weather a spell of unemployment. This project uses data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to provide evidence on the relationship between household composition and unemployment across working ages, focusing on differences in behavior by educational attainment. Using the SIPP panels, I find that individuals who become unemployed are three times more likely to move in with other people. Moving into shared living arrangements in response to unemployment is not evenly spread across the distribution of educational attainment: it is most prevalent among individuals with the less than a high school diploma and those with at least some college. PMID:25421522

  4. [Informal employment, unemployment and underemployment: a matter of public health].

    PubMed

    García-Ubaque, Juan C; Riaño-Casallas, Martha I; Benavides-Piracón, John A

    2012-06-01

    Unemployment and underemployment are problems that have been studied from the economy and politics points of view. Although public health has taken an approach to this problem, it has been mainly disciplinary, since it has focused on the health effects of the unemployed and underemployed but it has failed to propose alternatives from the public policy to solve this problem. The purpose of this essay is to examine the unemployment as an economic, social and health problem of the population. According to records of diagnosis, we review this situation (which requires different strategies at various levels) including different groups involved and their organizations, the State, companies, trade unions and employers unions, not just people unemployed and underemployed. PMID:23258753

  5. Routine health check-ups of unemployed in Norway.

    PubMed

    Ytterdahl, T

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 all the 273 long-term unemployed in the municipality Lillesand, Norway were invited to participate in a proactive health care program. 229 were included in the program, consisting of a medical examination by a general practitioner, councelling, personal support and referrals. The job-loss aroused lots of negative emotions, mostly defensive feelings and resignations, which are likely to reduce self-esteem and coping ability. The prevalence of somatoform symptoms and anxiety was twice as high as in the normal population, and for depression the prevalence was three times higher. 24% of the unemployed were referred to further examination. Invitation to a health examination may be the ticket of entry for revealing some of the concealed morbidity among long-term unemployed. Health check-ups of unemployed will probably be very cost-effective PMID:10197474

  6. The negative health consequences of unemployment: the case of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozieł, Sławomir; Lopuszańska, Monika; Szklarska, Alicja; Lipowicz, Anna

    2010-07-01

    In the 1990s Poland began to make a transition to a free-market economy: a transition accompanied by a variety of negative socio-economic developments, most notably a rise in unemployment. The aim of this study is to shed light on the relationship between occupational status (including unemployment) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), by examining the experience of 542 men and 572 women between the ages of 40 and 50 of the town of Wroclaw in 2006. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which uses certain health and life-style parameters to predict the risk of major coronary problems over a 10-year period, was calculated, and the effect of occupational status on the FRS was assessed. The results showed that the FRS varied according to sex and to occupational status, with the highest FRS rating among unemployed men. Thus governmental policies to counter the adverse effects of unemployment should be developed to remedy the problem. PMID:20627735

  7. [Smoking among the unemployed: impact of structural factors on lifestyle].

    PubMed

    Kłos, Jan; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    In times of economic crisis, questions arise about its relationship to the state of public health. One of the responses might be to investigate health behaviors of people who suffer most from the crisis, which is the unemployed. This study focuses on the many links between smoking among the jobless and other aspects of their lifestyle as well as selected social factors. In our research, we used statistical methods and a questionnaire. based survey. The research was conducted in 2007 and it covered 1,068 unemployed persons registered with the District Employment Office in Poznan. The prevalence of smoking among the unemployed is higher than the national average and is associated with their socio-economic status, gender and such lifestyle aspects as the amount of alcohol consumed, the amount of free time, body mass index, the number of meals consumed, the number of persons the unemployed can rely on, and the amount of time devoted to exercise. PMID:20301929

  8. Youth Unemployment: Can Voc Ed Do Anything about It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Dean

    1977-01-01

    Emphasizing five variables of particular importance to vocational education, the article describes the youth unemployment problem, what is currently being done to combat it, what vocational education can do to help, and what the government can do to help. (BM)

  9. Psychological and physical well-being during unemployment: a meta-analytic study.

    PubMed

    McKee-Ryan, Frances; Song, Zhaoli; Wanberg, Connie R; Kinicki, Angelo J

    2005-01-01

    The authors used theoretical models to organize the diverse unemployment literature, and meta-analytic techniques were used to examine the impact of unemployment on worker well-being across 104 empirical studies with 437 effect sizes. Unemployed individuals had lower psychological and physical well-being than did their employed counterparts. Unemployment duration and sample type (school leaver vs. mature unemployed) moderated the relationship between mental health and unemployment, but the current unemployment rate and the amount of unemployment benefits did not. Within unemployed samples, work-role centrality, coping resources (personal, social, financial, and time structure), cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies displayed stronger relationships with mental health than did human capital or demographic variables. The authors identify gaps in the literature and propose directions for future unemployment research. PMID:15641890

  10. Higher cortisol content in hair among long-term unemployed individuals compared to controls.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, L; Tietze, A; Bruckner, F; Kirschbaum, C

    2010-10-01

    Unemployment and financial strain are chronic stressors that have been shown to be associated with an increase in mean salivary and serum cortisol levels. Hair analysis for cortisol content is a new promising tool by which hair segmental analysis may provide a retrospective calendar of cumulative cortisol exposure over time rather than momentary assessments. Participants of this study were 31 unemployed and 28 employed individuals (46 women). Hair segmental analysis was conducted using 3-cm long segments starting with the scalp-near segment. Due to differing hair length, 52 individuals had values for the second segment and n=33 individuals had values for the third segment. Univariate analysis of variance indicated that unemployed individuals had higher cortisol content in the first (p<0.05, eta(2)=0.071) and second (p<0.05, eta(2)=0.085) hair segment (a total of 6 cm long hair representing the preceding 6 months of collection). Consistent with other data from our laboratory, there was a wash-out effect for the third segment (p<0.05 for segment 3 vs. segment 1 and 2). Unemployed individuals indicated increased levels of perceived stress and impairments in subjective well-being compared to employed individuals. These subjective measures of perceived stress and well-being were unrelated to cortisol content in hair. We conclude that hair analysis for cortisol content may be a valid method to detect differences in cumulative cortisol exposure between chronically stressed individuals and healthy controls. Due to a wash-out effect, retrospective ascertainment of cortisol exposure may be limited to the preceding 6 months of specimen collection. PMID:20471757

  11. [Parents' unemployment, selected life conditions, adolescents' wellbeing and perceived health].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment in Poland is one of the most negative outcomes of the economical transformations taking place in the last decade of the XX and first years of the XXI century. Therefore, the study on an influence of parents' unemployment upon adolescents' life conditions and health was undertaken in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Training Department of the National Institute of Hygiene. The data were collected from randomly selected sample of 783 students aged 14-15 years attending to ten private and public secondary schools (gymnasiums) in Warsaw. A part of the questionnaire elaborated in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Department covered information about negative life events, which had occurred in the previous year, also about a loss of the job by father or mother. The self-assessment of health, and physical and psychical wellbeing measured the perceived health. The study showed that significantly higher percentage of the students, whose father or mother had lost a job in the previous year, noticed also occurrence of father and mother health disorders, lack of support from father and mother, frequent quarrels between parents, too much of home duties, worsening a housing conditions, lack of possibilities to travel away on vacation and lack of own money. The differences were higher, if both the parents were unemployed. Moreover, the children of unemployed parents significantly lower assessed their health, and physical and psychical wellbeing. It is necessary to help immediately the students, whose parents are unemployed, with financial and psychological support in frame of the programmes of unemployment overcoming. PMID:16433320

  12. A picture for the coupling of unemployment and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safdari, H.; Hosseiny, A.; Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Jafari, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the scaling features of two well heard characters in the media; unemployment and inflation. We carry out a scaling analysis on the coupling between unemployment and inflation. This work is based on the wavelet analysis as well as the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Through our analysis we state that while unemployment is time scale invariant, inflation is bi-scale. We show that inflation possess a five year time scale where it experiences different behaviours before and after this scale period. This behaviour of inflation provides basis for the coupling to inherit the stated time interval. Although inflation is bi-scale, it is unemployment that shows a strong multifractality feature. Owing to the cross wavelet analysis we provide a picture that illustrates the dynamics of coupling between unemployment and inflation regarding intensity, direction, and scale. The fact of the matter is that the coupling between inflation and unemployment is not equal in one way compared to the opposite. Regarding the scaling; coupling exhibits different features in various scales. In a sense that although in one scale its correlation behaves in a positive/negative manner, at the same time it can be negative/positive for another scale.

  13. Unemployment Rate, Smoking in China: Are They Related?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J.; Cochran, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies on the relationship between unemployment rate and smoking have yielded mixed results. The issue in China has not been studied. This study aims to examine the influence of unemployment rate on smoking in China. Methods: Logit model and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation were used to estimate the effects. Estimations were done for 4585 individual over 45 using data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in Zhejiang and Gansu provinces in 2008 and 2012. Results: A percent increase in the unemployment rate resulted in the increase in the likelihood of smoking by a combined 9.1 percent for those who smoked including a 2.9% increase for those who smoked 1–10 cigarettes per day; a 2.8% increase for those who smoked 11–20 cigarettes per day; and a 3.4% increase for those who smoked 20 cigarettes or more per day. The effects were stronger for those who were employed. Non-drinkers were more likely to engage in smoking with increased unemployment rate. 2SLS estimation revealed the same association. Conclusions: The unemployment rate was positively associated with smoking behavior. Smoking control and intervention strategies should focus on both the individual′s characteristics and the physical environment in which unemployment rate tend to rise. PMID:26761019

  14. (abstract) A Comparison Between Measurements of the F-layer Critical Frequency and Values Derived from the PRISM Adjustment Algorithm Applied to Total Electron Content Data in the Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Anderson, D. N.; Abdu, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Parametrized Real-Time Ionosphere Specification Model (PRISM) is a global ionospheric specification model that can incorporate real-time data to compute accurate electron density profiles. Time series of computed and measured data are compared in this paper. This comparison can be used to suggest methods of optimizing the PRISM adjustment algorithm for TEC data obtained at low altitudes.

  15. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990-2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990-2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006-2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%). The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990-1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006-2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990-2010. PMID:27073716

  16. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%). The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010. PMID:27073716

  17. Mental health, duration of unemployment, and coping strategy: a cross-sectional study of unemployed migrant workers in eastern china during the economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background 20 million migrant workers in China lost their jobs during the economic crisis of 2008. Both urban migration and unemployment have long been documented to be associated with vulnerability to mental problems. This study aims to examine the mental health of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China and its relation to duration of unemployment and coping strategy during the recent economic crisis. Methods The data were collected through interview-based survey with a sample of 210 unemployed migrant workers in Zhejiang Province of China from 2008 to 2009. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and seven short demographic questions were used. Results The majority of the unemployed migrant workers were found to be young male manufacturing industry workers with short-term unemployment and a relatively low education level. Nearly 50% of unemployed migrant workers were classified as mentally unhealthy and the most frequently reported symptom was depression. Compared with the adult norm of 1986, 2003, and 2007 in China, unemployed migrants had more mental problems. Long-term unemployed migrant workers had more psychiatric symptoms than the short-term unemployed workers and employed migrant workers. Unemployed migrant workers with immature coping strategies expressed significantly more psychiatric symptoms than those with mixed and mature coping strategies. Duration of unemployment and two coping strategies, problem-solving and self-blaming, predicted the mental problems of unemployed migrant workers. Conclusions The results indicated that mental health status of unemployed migrant workers in Eastern China was poorer than the national adult norm. More psychiatric symptoms are evidenced among unemployed migrant workers who lost their jobs for a long term and who had immature coping strategies. These findings can be used for prevention and intervention of mental illness among unemployed migrant workers. PMID:22856556

  18. Out of Unemployment? A Comparative Analysis of the Risks and Opportunities Longer-Term Unemployed Immigrant Youth Face when Entering the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…

  19. Do Alternative Base Periods Increase Unemployment Insurance Receipt among Low-Educated Unemployed Workers? National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #12-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould-Werth, Alix; Shaefer, H. Luke

    2012-01-01

    Unemployment Insurance (UI) is the major social insurance program that protects against lost earnings resulting from involuntary unemployment. Existing literature finds that low-earning unemployed workers experience difficulty accessing UI benefits. The most prominent policy reform designed to increase rates of monetary eligibility, and thus UI…

  20. Unemployment in the Defense Industry: An Analysis of the Unemployed Worker's Job Search Strategy and the Manpower Policies of the Firm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, James Hickman, Jr.

    The unemployment problem in the defense industry has often had the attention of Federal policy makers over the past several years. Analyzing this problem was accomplished by first examining the job search behavior of skilled unemployed defense workers. This search strategy differs among the unemployed workers and depends on personal…

  1. [Unemployment during pregnancy: direct or indirect risk factor of prematurity and fetus hypotrophy?].

    PubMed

    Hanke, W

    1999-01-01

    The question as to whether in a transitional phase in the political and socio-economic development in Poland, an increased threat of unemployment may also produce health effects manifested by an elevated risk for prematurity and fetus hypotrophy is one of important challenges. If the answer is positive then this issue should have much stronger impact on political and economic decisions. The data obtained from numerous studies carried out in countries of western Europe and the United States shows that the job performance during pregnancy under conditions free from occupational exposure and arduousness does not directly augment the risk of detrimental effect to the health of pregnant woman or her fetus. Just on the contrary, it was found that job performance during pregnancy, and strictly speaking steady employment during this period may somewhat become a 'protective factor'. In Poland, the highest rate of unemployment is observed among women in the 18-24 age group, that is at the age most suitable for procreation. Nowadays it is common that the decision on child-bearing is postponed until the economic status of the woman or her family comes to be more stable. On the other hand, in the population of women looking for a job but determined to set up a family prematurity is quite common that results only in part from an excessive effect of risk factors for this pathology very typical of this social group, like smoking, single parenthood, early or late child-bearing age. After adjusting these factors, the risk of prematurity decreased considerably but it was still high. It is thought that stress and the sense of threat and uncertainty is mostly responsible for this phenomenon. An increased risk of fetus hypotrophy among unemployed women after considering all confounding factors, was not observed. PMID:10746241

  2. Duration on unemployment: geographic mobility and selectivity bias.

    PubMed

    Goss, E P; Paul, C; Wilhite, A

    1994-01-01

    Modeling the factors affecting the duration of unemployment was found to be influenced by the inclusion of migration factors. Traditional models which did not control for migration factors were found to underestimate movers' probability of finding an acceptable job. The empirical test of the theory, based on the analysis of data on US household heads unemployed in 1982 and employed in 1982 and 1983, found that the cumulative probability of reemployment in the traditional model was .422 and in the migration selectivity model was .624 after 30 weeks of searching. In addition, controlling for selectivity eliminated the significance of the relationship between race and job search duration in the model. The relationship between search duration and the county unemployment rate in 1982 became statistically significant, and the relationship between search duration and 1980 population per square mile in the 1982 county of residence became statistically insignificant. The finding that non-Whites have a longer duration of unemployment can better be understood as non-Whites' lower geographic mobility and lack of greater job contacts. The statistical significance of a high unemployment rate in the home labor market reducing the probability of finding employment was more in keeping with expectations. The findings assumed that the duration of employment accurately reflected the length of job search. The sample was redrawn to exclude discouraged workers and the analysis was repeated. The findings were similar to the full sample, with the coefficient for migration variable being negative and statistically significant and the coefficient for alpha remaining positive and statistically significant. Race in the selectivity model remained statistically insignificant. The findings supported the Schwartz model hypothesizing that the expansion of the radius of the search would reduce the duration of unemployment. The exclusion of the migration factor misspecified the equation for

  3. State-Level Unemployment and the Utilization of Preventive Medical Services

    PubMed Central

    Tefft, Nathan; Kageleiry, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the association between macroeconomic conditions and preventive medical service utilization. Data Sources/Study SettingSecondary data collection of a survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of adults (age 18 and older) in the United States between 1987 and 2010. Study DesignRegression analyses that adjust for individual-level demographic and socioeconomic determinants, state and time-fixed effects, and state-specific time trends. Data Collection/Extraction MethodsState health departments, with technological and methodological assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducted a cross-sectional yearly telephone survey using a standardized questionnaire. Principal FindingsThe use of preventive medical services is procyclical: a 1 percentage point increase in the state-level unemployment rate is associated with a 1.58 percent decrease in the quantity of distinct preventive care services utilized. Women and economically disadvantaged populations are shown to be especially sensitive to macroeconomic fluctuations. ConclusionsPolicy makers should be aware of cyclical changes in preventive care use, particularly among disadvantaged populations, when making challenging budgetary decisions during economic downturns. As physician recommendations can have a strong impact on patients’ use, health care providers could increase efforts to persuade patients to seek screening exams and necessary vaccinations during periods of high unemployment. PMID:23855636

  4. The influence of unemployment on functioning of the family.

    PubMed

    Latalski, Maciej; Kulik, Teresa Bernadetta; Pacian, Anna; Skórzyńska, Hanna; Rudnicka-Drozak, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of unemployment on family welfare. It was conducted between April and June 2002 among 200 unemployed registered at the Regional Employment Bureau in Lublin. The method of choice was a questionnaire. The study results demonstrated that the most direct consequence of unemployment is financial impoverishment. Most participants claimed their income did not allow them to cover the basic needs. Managing a very limited budget, they had to give up buying new clothes, more expensive food and toilet items as well as spending money on cultural and leisure pursuits. They were unable to use paid medical services and to meet household payments deadlines. These consequences were borne not only by the unemployed themselves but also by their families. Those with school children had to cut their expenditures on education and in extreme cases the children were unable to attend junior or senior high school. The results indicate that unemployment had a negative impact on many different spheres of family life and in the long run it has a negative impact on the life of the whole society. PMID:15323194

  5. Unemployment Among Mexican Immigrant Men in the United States, 2003 – 2012

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Based on their socioeconomic characteristics, Mexican immigrant men should have very high un-employment. More than half do not have a high school diploma. One in four works in construction; at the height of the recent recession, 20% of construction workers were unemployed. Yet their unemployment rates are similar to those of native-born white men. After controlling for education and occupation, Mexican immigrant men have lower probabilities of unemployment than native-born white men – both before and during the recent recession. I consider explanations based on eligibility for unemployment benefits, out-migrant selection for unemployment, and employer preferences for Mexican immigrant labor. PMID:25432614

  6. How do we manage patients who become unemployed?

    PubMed

    Harris, Mark F; Harris, Elizabeth; Shortus, Timothy D

    2010-01-18

    The number of unemployed patients presenting in general practice will increase over the next 12 months. Unemployed patients are likely to present with physical and psychological problems, including insomnia, depression, anxiety and a worsening of cardiovascular risk factors; family members are also likely to be affected. GPs have an important role in early detection and management of these health problems; effective approaches include cognitive behaviour techniques, goal-setting and motivational counselling. Appropriate provision of medical certificates, advocacy and social support help redress the loss of the personal and social "vitamins" of work. While access to psychological services has improved, patients may also need to be referred to social workers, and employment and welfare services. Divisions of General Practice can have an important role in helping to broker access to services and raise awareness of the health effects of unemployment. PMID:20078412

  7. Cognitive intervention in unemployed individuals with reading and writing disabilities.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J; Lindgren, M; Andersson, K; Ingvar, D H; Levander, S

    2000-01-01

    Sixty native-born Swedish unemployed participants with reading and writing disabilities (R&WD) participated in a 20-week educational program aimed at improving reading and writing, verbal memory, self-confidence, and flexibility of perspectives. They were tested with a comprehensive battery (interviews, questionnaires, neuropsychological tests, and tests of academic achievement) before and after the intervention. Sixteen controls, matched for sex, age, education, and nonverbal IQ, participated in the pre- and posttest sessions but received only standard unemployment interventions. The educational program participants' performance in tests assessing spelling, decoding of letters, self-confidence, and flexibility improved significantly in comparison with the controls after the intervention. A significantly larger number of the participants had obtained work or started a regular education than expected. A substantial proportion of unemployed participants have R&WD and it appears that an intensive but fairly short educational program can improve their accessibility to the labor market and their motivation for study. PMID:11296685

  8. Marital fertility decline in the Netherlands: child mortality, real wages, and unemployment, 1860-1939.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Jona; van Poppel, Frans

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies of the fertility decline in Europe are often limited to an earlier stage of the marital fertility decline, when the decline tended to be slower and before the large increase in earnings in the 1920s. Starting in 1860 (before the onset of the decline), this study follows marital fertility trends until 1939, when fertility reached lower levels than ever before. Using data from the Historical Sample of the Netherlands (HSN), this study shows that mortality decline, a rise in real income, and unemployment account for the decline in the Netherlands. This finding suggests that marital fertility decline was an adjustment to social and economic change, leaving little room for attitudinal change that is independent of social and economic change. PMID:22714058

  9. Job Loss and Unemployment Research from 1994 to 1998: A Review and Recommendations for Research and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanisch, Kathy A.

    1999-01-01

    This review of research on unemployment examines the prevalence of job loss, meaning of unemployment, individual outcomes, coping, effects on families, reemployment issues, and interventions. The article suggests additional research needed to understand the unemployment experience. Lists 91 references. (SK)

  10. Experimental evidence from active placement efforts among unemployed in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, Pathric

    2014-06-01

    This article uses data from a field experiment in Sweden to analyze the effects of active placement efforts. In particular, the relative efficiency between combining job-search monitoring and job-search assistance, and monitoring alone, is analyzed. Although the impact estimates are generally imprecisely estimated, a general conclusion is that placement programs are effective policies in increasing the job exit rate for various groups of unemployed. I find that monitoring of job search is an efficient method to increase off-unemployment exit rate both alone and combined with job-search assistance services. The results, however, indicate that the combined services generate more permanent job exits. PMID:25201049

  11. Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Adulthood as Predictors of Unemployment Status in the Early Forties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of marijuana use are similar or different in terms of unemployment status at mean age 43. Methods We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort taken from a community sample (N = 548). Forty nine percent of the original participants were females. Over 90% of the participants were white. The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean ages of participants at the follow-up interviews were 14.1, 16.3, 22.3, 27.0, 31.9, 36.6, and 43.0, respectively. We used the growth mixture modeling (GMM) approach to identify the trajectories of marijuana use over a 29 year period. Results Five trajectories of marijuana use were identified: chronic users/decreasers (8.3%), quitters (18.6%), increasing users (7.3%), chronic occasional users (25.6%), and nonusers/experimenters (40.2%). Compared with nonusers/experimenters, chronic users/decreasers had a significantly higher likelihood of unemployment at mean age 43 (Adjusted Odds Ratio =3.51, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.13 – 10.91), even after controlling for the covariates. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The results of the associations between the distinct trajectories of marijuana use and unemployment in early midlife indicate that it is important to develop intervention programs targeting chronic marijuana use as well as unemployment in individuals at this stage of development. Results from this study should encourage clinicians, teachers, and parents to assess and treat chronic marijuana use in adolescents. PMID:26991779

  12. 78 FR 19735 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    .... Alaska's 13-week insured unemployment rate for the week ending January 19, 2013, rose to meet the 6... insured unemployment rate for the week ending January 19, 2013, rose to meet the 6 percent threshold...

  13. 78 FR 67200 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2013 Under the Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2013 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Labor signed the annual certifications under the Federal...

  14. 75 FR 28070 - Comment Request for Information Collection: “Confidentiality & Disclosure of State Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Request for Information Collection: ``Confidentiality & Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation... Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information final rule and State Income and.... ADDRESSEE: Submit written comments to the Employment and Training Administration, Office of...

  15. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  16. Race and Unemployment: Labor Market Experiences of Black and White Men, 1968-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Franklin D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Estimation of multinomial logistic regression models on a sample of unemployed workers suggested that persistently higher black unemployment is due to differential access to employment opportunities by region, occupational placement, labor market segmentation, and discrimination. The racial gap in unemployment is greatest for college-educated…

  17. Employability among the Long-Term Unemployed: A Futile Quest or Worth the Effort?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Jessie; Klehe, Ute-Christine; Van Vianen, Annelies E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment bears many negative consequences for both individuals and societies. Particularly the long-term unemployed face poor chances of finding reemployment, and many recommendations issued in the regular unemployment literature may not apply to them. Therefore, the current study investigates whether employability (Fugate et al., 2004) may…

  18. 26 CFR 31.6001-4 - Additional records under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional records under Federal Unemployment... Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. Every employer liable for tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act for any calendar year shall, with respect to each such year, keep such records as...

  19. 20 CFR 601.6 - Grants for administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grants for administration of unemployment... administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service. Grants of funds for administration of State unemployment compensation laws and public employment service programs are made to States...

  20. 20 CFR 601.6 - Grants for administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grants for administration of unemployment... administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service. Grants of funds for administration of State unemployment compensation laws and public employment service programs are made to States...

  1. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3 - Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 31... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(a)-3 Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Requirement. Every person shall make a return of tax under the Federal Unemployment...

  2. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund....

  3. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.6050B-1 Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as...

  4. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3 - Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 31... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(a)-3 Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Requirement. Every person shall make a return of tax under the Federal Unemployment...

  5. 26 CFR 301.6106-1 - Publicity of unemployment tax returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Publicity of unemployment tax returns. 301.6106... Records § 301.6106-1 Publicity of unemployment tax returns. For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§ 301.6103(a)-1,...

  6. 20 CFR 625.4 - Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Unemployment Assistance. 625.4 Section 625.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.4 Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. An individual shall be eligible to receive a payment of DUA with respect to a week...

  7. 26 CFR 31.6402(a)-3 - Refund of Federal unemployment tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refund of Federal unemployment tax. 31.6402(a... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6402(a)-3 Refund of Federal unemployment tax... 3301 of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act or a corresponding provision of prior law, or (b)...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6106-1 - Publicity of unemployment tax returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Publicity of unemployment tax returns. 301.6106... Records § 301.6106-1 Publicity of unemployment tax returns. For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§ 301.6103(a)-1,...

  9. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.6050B-1 Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as...

  10. 20 CFR 601.6 - Grants for administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grants for administration of unemployment... administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service. Grants of funds for administration of State unemployment compensation laws and public employment service programs are made to States...

  11. 20 CFR 625.4 - Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Unemployment Assistance. 625.4 Section 625.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.4 Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. An individual shall be eligible to receive a payment of DUA with respect to a week...

  12. 20 CFR 336.11 - Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.11 Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers...

  13. 26 CFR 31.6402(a)-3 - Refund of Federal unemployment tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Refund of Federal unemployment tax. 31.6402(a... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6402(a)-3 Refund of Federal unemployment tax... 3301 of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act or a corresponding provision of prior law, or (b)...

  14. 26 CFR 31.6001-4 - Additional records under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional records under Federal Unemployment... Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. Every employer liable for tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act for any calendar year shall, with respect to each such year, keep such records as...

  15. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.6050B-1 Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6106-1 - Publicity of unemployment tax returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Publicity of unemployment tax returns. 301.6106... Records § 301.6106-1 Publicity of unemployment tax returns. For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§ 301.6103(a)-1,...

  17. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3 - Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 31... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(a)-3 Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Requirement. Every person shall make a return of tax under the Federal Unemployment...

  18. 26 CFR 31.6001-4 - Additional records under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional records under Federal Unemployment... Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. Every employer liable for tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act for any calendar year shall, with respect to each such year, keep such records as...

  19. 20 CFR 336.11 - Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.11 Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers...

  20. 20 CFR 336.11 - Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.11 Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers...

  1. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund....

  2. 26 CFR 31.6402(a)-3 - Refund of Federal unemployment tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refund of Federal unemployment tax. 31.6402(a... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6402(a)-3 Refund of Federal unemployment tax... 3301 of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act or a corresponding provision of prior law, or (b)...

  3. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund....

  4. 20 CFR 325.3 - Application for unemployment benefits and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Application for unemployment benefits and employment service. 325.3 Section 325.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.3 Application...

  5. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund....

  6. 77 FR 37714 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Trust Fund Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Unemployment Insurance... Section 3304(a)(3) of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA) require that all monies received in the unemployment fund of a state be paid immediately to the Secretary of Treasury to the credit of the...

  7. 77 FR 7604 - Notice Requesting Public Comment on Two Proposed Unemployment Insurance (UI) Program Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Notice Requesting Public Comment on Two Proposed Unemployment... Spisak, U.S. Department of Labor, ETA/Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room... issued a ``call to action'' in Unemployment Insurance Program Letter (UIPL) No. 19-11 to ensure that...

  8. 77 FR 59986 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in New York in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program and the...: Notice. SUMMARY: Announcement regarding a change in eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI)...

  9. Hidden Disadvantage: Asian American Unemployment and the Great Recession. EPI Issue Brief #277

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Algernon

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, Asian Americans have the lowest unemployment rate of the major racial groups. But a closer look at unemployment by educational attainment shows a more complicated picture. Asian Americans with bachelor's degrees have a higher unemployment rate than whites with comparable education, but Asian American high school dropouts are more…

  10. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3 - Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 31... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(a)-3 Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Requirement. Every person shall make a return of tax under the Federal Unemployment...

  11. 20 CFR 336.11 - Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.11 Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers...

  12. 75 FR 68001 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor... Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  13. 20 CFR 625.4 - Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Unemployment Assistance. 625.4 Section 625.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.4 Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. An individual shall be eligible to receive a payment of DUA with respect to a week...

  14. 26 CFR 31.6402(a)-3 - Refund of Federal unemployment tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund of Federal unemployment tax. 31.6402(a... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6402(a)-3 Refund of Federal unemployment tax... 3301 of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act or a corresponding provision of prior law, or (b)...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6106-1 - Publicity of unemployment tax returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publicity of unemployment tax returns. 301.6106... Records § 301.6106-1 Publicity of unemployment tax returns. For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§ 301.6103(a)-1,...

  16. 20 CFR 601.6 - Grants for administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grants for administration of unemployment... administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service. Grants of funds for administration of State unemployment compensation laws and public employment service programs are made to States...

  17. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as defined in section...

  18. 20 CFR 336.11 - Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment... RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.11 Exhaustion of rights to normal unemployment benefits. For the purposes of this part, the Board considers...

  19. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3 - Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 31... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(a)-3 Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Requirement. Every person shall make a return of tax under the Federal Unemployment...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.6050B-1 Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as...

  1. 20 CFR 625.4 - Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Unemployment Assistance. 625.4 Section 625.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.4 Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. An individual shall be eligible to receive a payment of DUA with respect to a week...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6106-1 - Publicity of unemployment tax returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Publicity of unemployment tax returns. 301.6106... Records § 301.6106-1 Publicity of unemployment tax returns. For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§ 301.6103(a)-1,...

  3. 20 CFR 606.33 - No payment of interest from unemployment fund. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false No payment of interest from unemployment fund... TAX CREDITS UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Interest on Advances § 606.33 No payment of interest from unemployment fund....

  4. 20 CFR 601.6 - Grants for administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grants for administration of unemployment... administration of unemployment compensation laws and employment service. Grants of funds for administration of State unemployment compensation laws and public employment service programs are made to States...

  5. 26 CFR 31.6402(a)-3 - Refund of Federal unemployment tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refund of Federal unemployment tax. 31.6402(a... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6402(a)-3 Refund of Federal unemployment tax... 3301 of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act or a corresponding provision of prior law, or (b)...

  6. 26 CFR 31.6001-4 - Additional records under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional records under Federal Unemployment... Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Records of employers. Every employer liable for tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act for any calendar year shall, with respect to each such year, keep such records as...

  7. Risk and Nostalgia: The Problem of Education and Youth Unemployment in Australia--A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Explanations for persistent youth unemployment (deficits in the unemployed, structural need for unemployment, location of decision-making power) lead to education of youth at risk as a solution, an old paradigm inadequate for the restructured labor market. New questions must be asked, such as separating income from waged labor and finding other…

  8. Salary Survey: Chemists' Salaries Rise as Unemployment Stays Low.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reports salary trends for chemists as of March 1, 1988. Discussions include employment rates, median salaries, growth in salaries, highest salaries, salaries by degree, women's salaries, salaries by work function, unemployment, volume of help wanted ads, and sources of information on chemist jobs. (CW)

  9. The Role of Industry in Training the Hard Core Unemployed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jerome

    A project of the Riverside Research Institute (RRI) provided training for 10 hard core unemployed for one year in four vocational skills: computer peripheral equipment operators, electronics technicians, machine operators, and draftsmen. Selection was based on at least an eighth grade verbal and numerical achievement level, tests, and interviews.…

  10. Maquiladoras, Women's Work, and Unemployment in Northern Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiano, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Uses Marxist/feminist concepts to explain employment patterns among female workers in multinational maquiladoras (assembly plants) in northern Mexico. Concludes that maquiladoras have not alleviated regional unemployment for either sex, but have created a docile low-wage work force that includes a pool of surplus labor. Contains 48 references. (SV)

  11. Making Work Go Round. Plans for Combatting Unemployment. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Karsten

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, as elsewhere, the recent unemployment crisis has forced politicians, economists, trade unionists, and experts to consider a number of courses of action designed to reduce working time. Included among these alternatives are the following: adopting the 35-hour work week, shortening working life through early…

  12. An Incentives Approach to Improving the Unemployment Compensation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Paul L.; Kingston, Jerry L.

    A study addressed the issue of overpayments and other quality problems in the unemployment compensation (UC) program and was current as of June 1987. Principal findings are as follows: (1) overpayments constituted a major problem for the UC system as a whole; (2) high overpayment rates were symptomatic of fundamental problems including…

  13. Using State Unemployment Insurance Data to Track Student Postsecondary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neild, Ruth Curran; Boccanfuso, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of data about student performance, secondary school educators have had difficulty accessing data on their former students' post-high school employment and earnings in the formal economy. This article describes how one community used state unemployment insurance data, merged with student record data, to investigate the…

  14. State Unemployment Insurance Trust Solvency and Benefit Generosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel L.; Wenger, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs panel estimators with data on the 50 American states for the years 1963 to 2006 to test the relationship between Unemployment Insurance (UI) trust fund solvency and UI benefit generosity. We find that both average and maximum weekly UI benefit amounts, as ratios to the average weekly wage, are higher in states and in years with…

  15. Education, Job Openings, and Unemployment in Metropolitan America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide metro, state, and national policy makers with a better sense of the specific problems facing metropolitan labor markets. First, the analysis examines trends in the demand for educated labor and how a gap between education supply and demand is related to unemployment. Next, it attempts to distinguish between cyclical and…

  16. UNEMPLOYMENT AND RETRAINING, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Manpower, Automation, and Training (DOL), Washington, DC.

    FIFTY-SEVEN SELECTED RESEARCH STUDIES RELATED TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN JOB TRAINING AND HARD CORE UNEMPLOYMENT, ARE INCLUDED. PUBLICATION DATES RANGE FROM 1931 THROUGH 1964. THE 23 STUDIES CONSIDERED OF MAJOR IMPORTANCE ARE GROUPED IN THE FIRST SECTION. THE REMAINING 34 REFERENCES WERE SELECTED AS A SAMPLING OF JOURNALISTIC AND EDITORIAL…

  17. Outreach and Inreach. Colleges and Unemployment Groups. FEU REPLAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portwood, Derek

    Outreach has recently played an increasingly significant role in education and training for adults. In particular, the emphasis of Great Britain's REPLAN program on increasing the participation of unemployed adults in education and the impact of decreasing numbers of 16- to 19-year-old students in some colleges of further education have given…

  18. Unemployment of Family Breadwinners: The Recession of 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Phyllis

    Using 1975 and 1976 data from the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examines the significance of the 1975 recession for families with children under 18. This study attempted to ascertain what families with children were most susceptible to having an unemployed breadwinner in 1975 and why some family heads were more susceptible to…

  19. Examining a Model of Life Satisfaction among Unemployed Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined a model of life satisfaction among a diverse sample of 184 adults who had been unemployed for an average of 10.60 months. Using the Lent (2004) model of life satisfaction as a framework, a model was tested with 5 hypothesized predictor variables: optimism, job search self-efficacy, job search support, job search…

  20. Coping Mechanisms of Unemployed African Men with Dependents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Merwe, Pauline; Greeff, Abraham P.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates the efficiency of the coping mechanisms of 82 unemployed African men with dependents. Results revealed significant relationships between perceived stress and stressful life events, as well as between perceived stress and four groups of coping mechanisms, the strongest relationships being reported for stressful life events, psychological…

  1. 45 CFR 233.100 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.100... (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.100 Dependent children...

  2. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.101... (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.101 Dependent children...

  3. 45 CFR 233.100 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.100... (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.100 Dependent children...

  4. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.101... (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.101 Dependent children...

  5. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.101... (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.101 Dependent children...

  6. 45 CFR 233.100 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.100... (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.100 Dependent children...

  7. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.101... (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.101 Dependent children...

  8. 45 CFR 233.100 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.100... (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COVERAGE AND CONDITIONS OF ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.100 Dependent children...

  9. The ESF and New Technology Training for Unemployed Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brine, Jacky

    The European Social Fund's (ESF's) emphasis on new technology training increased throughout the 1980s, but in the 1990s this emphasis disappears from policies toward "socially excluded" groups, including long-term unemployed women. Women are segregated into certain occupations and then further segregated by a hierarchical division that…

  10. Coping with Unemployment: Personality, Role Demands, and Time Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lootens, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Time structure has been found to be an important coping mechanism for dealing with the negative effects of unemployment on psychological well-being. This study extends the literature by investigating personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and proactivity) and role demands (marital status, being the only…

  11. A Time-Series Analysis of Hispanic Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defreitas, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    This study undertakes the first systematic time-series research on the cyclical patterns and principal determinants of Hispanic joblessness in the United States. The principal findings indicate that Hispanics tend to bear a disproportionate share of increases in unemployment during recessions. (Author/CT)

  12. The Diploma Disease and Unemployment in Francophone West Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogoe, Akrima

    The rapid rise in the numbers of degreed and certificated diploma holders since independence, coupled with a lack of job opportunities in the areas for which these persons have been trained, have led to unemployment and underemployment of educated persons in Francophone West Africa. Suggested solutions include but are not limited to secondary and…

  13. Unemployment and Underemployment: A Narrative Analysis about Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.; Kozan, Saliha; Connors-Kellgren, Alice

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a narrative analysis of interviews with unemployed and underemployed adults to better understand their experiences and to learn how they are coping with job loss. Seven men and six women from diverse backgrounds who were receiving career exploration and job search services were interviewed at a one-stop career center in…

  14. Mental Health Needs and Treatment of New Hampshire Unemployed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarzombek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this research is to understand the types of mental health problems individuals encounter during periods of unemployment, and the severity of those problems from an individual, family and community-based perspective. Of primary importance is determining whether or not treatment services are utilized, and if so, the sensitivity…

  15. Engineering Employment and Unemployment, 1971. Engineering Manpower Bulletin Number 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, John D.

    Statistics concerning employment of scientists were obtained from 59,300 scientists responding to an Engineers Joint Council questionnaire. Findings reported are: (1) the overall unemployment rate was 3 percent for engineers compared to a rate of 5.8 percent for all other workers; (2) considering engineers not having engineering jobs, the…

  16. Influence of the Unemployment Rate on Vocational Rehabilitation Closures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Sita; Tseng, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the extent to which labor market conditions influence all closure rates as well as the competitive closure rate in vocational rehabilitation. At the state level, a chi-square analysis revealed differential impacts of varying state unemployment rates on the competitive versus noncompetitive closure patterns in vocational rehabilitation.…

  17. The Unemployment Numbers Is the Message. Occasional Paper No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Sar A.

    United States economic courses of action--and inaction--are increasingly being based on the employment and unemployment figures put out monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Yet, the basic statistical concepts that are still used were fashioned during the Great Depression and do not take into account the very different conditions we…

  18. Developing Digital Immigrants' Computer Literacy: The Case of Unemployed Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktoridou, Despo; Eteokleous-Grigoriou, Nikleia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a 40-hour computer course for beginners provided to a group of unemployed women learners with no/minimum computer literacy skills who can be characterized as digital immigrants. The aim of the study is to identify participants' perceptions and experiences regarding technology,…

  19. Personal Initiative at Work and When Facing Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, Annika; Andersson, Kin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Learning at work generalises through socialisation into behaviours away from the workplace. The aim of this study is to give empirical evidence of a positive relationship between job design, self-efficacy, competence efficacy and personal initiative at work, and proactive job search while under notice of redundancy and in unemployment.…

  20. Unemployment, Public Policy, and Families: Forecasts for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    Speculates about the consequences of unemployment for families in the 1980s, using data from the 1975 recession and the Great Depression. Found that families with preschoolers as well as Black and single-parent families were most vulnerable to financial loss and that government income transfers were ineffective. (JAC)

  1. Conference Report on Youth Unemployment: Its Measurements and Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Thirteen papers presented at a conference on employment statistics and youth are contained in this report. Reviewed are the problems of gathering, interpreting, and applying employment and unemployment data relating to youth. The titles of the papers are as follow: "Counting Youth: A Comparison of Youth Labor Force Statistics in the Current…

  2. Unemployment among Low-Income Women: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Rebecca; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the effects of job loss and unemployment on a group of female garment workers (N=61) and their families. Reports problems with loss of income, loss of personal meaning, changes in family organization, loss of social support, and in time management. Suggests guidelines for service programs and future research. (Author/ABL)

  3. Just a Phase? Youth Unemployment in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    Ireland has experienced an unprecedented level of economic growth since the mid-1990s. The present article assesses the extent to which this phenomenon has altered the level and nature of youth unemployment, using data from six waves of a nationally representative survey of school-leavers. The main impact of the "Celtic Tiger" has been to smooth…

  4. Unemployment Insurance in the United States: The First Half Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaustein, Saul J.; And Others

    This 10-chapter book covers the history of unemployment insurance (UI) in the United States from its beginning in the 1930's to the present and describes how the program evolved in response to various economic and other factors and to the controversies that emerged in the process. Chapter 1 provides background on trends in the extent, duration,…

  5. The Challenge of Unemployment. A Report to Labour Ministers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report consists of an analysis of labor market conditions in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries and an exploration of possible future policy responses to the problems of unemployment. Covered in the labor market analysis are the following topics: the macro-economic environment (macro-economic trends…

  6. Unemployment, Social Support, Individual Resources, and Job Search Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slebarska, Katarzyna; Moser, Klaus; Gunnesch-Luca, George

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the relation between the social support received by unemployed individuals (N = 104) and their job search behavior. A moderated mediation model demonstrated that the effect of social support on job search behaviors was mediated by self-esteem but only if adequacy of social support was perceived as low. In addition, the…

  7. Rural-urban migration and urban unemployment in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aigbokhan, B E

    1988-01-01

    This paper argues that urban unemployment in Nigeria has been due largely to a failure on the part of the government to pursue policies that reflect commitment on its part to its stated objectives, particularly with regard to employment opportunities. Rural-urban migration has been taking place in the country since the 1960s and at an increasing rate since the 1970s. Economic policies have contributed to this, notably the rural-urban imbalance resulting from the pattern of allocation of public investment expenditures and the wages determination process which tends to concentrate more on the urban sector. These have contributed to the widening urban-rural income differentials. In the face of such migration, the urban industrial sector has been able to absorb only a negligible proportion of migrants. A major factor that has contributed to this is the increased capital-intensity of the sector. Some laudable measures have been introduced this year, notably the establishment of the Directorate of Employment and the Directorate of Food, Road, and Rural infrastructure. The latter, if effectively implemented, should enhance rural income and thereby reduce the rural-urban income gap. The former should reduce the problem of open unemployment. While it is too early to assess the effects of these 2 measures on urban unemployment, they may not improve urban unemployment significantly. There is still the need to design policies to increase labor absorption in general. PMID:12315927

  8. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  9. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  10. Macro determinants of cause-specific injury mortality in the OECD countries: an exploration of the importance of GDP and unemployment.

    PubMed

    Muazzam, Sana; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2011-08-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and unemployment has a strong documented impact on injury mortality. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship of GDP per capita and unemployment with gender- and cause-specific injury mortalities in the member nations of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Country-based data on injury mortality per 100,000 population, including males and females aged 1-74, for the 4 year period 1996-1999, were gathered from the World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. We selected fourteen cause-specific injury mortalities. Data on GDP, unemployment rate and population growth were taken from World Development Indicators. GDP and unemployment rate per 100 separately were regressed on total and cause-specific injury mortality rate per 100,000 for males and females. Overall in the OECD countries, GDP per capita increased 12.5% during 1996-1999 (P = 0.03) where as unemployment rate decreased by 12.3% (P = 0.05). Among males, most cause-specific injury mortality rates decreased with increasing GDP except motor vehicle traffic crashes (MTC) that increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.75; P < 0.001). Similar trend was found in females, except suicidal injury mortalities that also increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.31; P = 0.04). When we modeled cause-specific injury mortality rates with unemployment, injuries due to firearm missiles (coefficient = 0.53; P < 0.001), homicide (coefficient = 0.36; P < 0.001), and other violence (coefficient = 0.41; P < 0.001) increased with increase in unemployment rate among males. However, among females only accidental falls (coefficient = 0.36; P = 0.01) were found significantly associated with increasing unemployment rate. GDP is more related to cause-specific injury mortality than unemployment. Injury mortality does not relate similarly to each diagnosis-specific cause among males and females. Further research on

  11. 20 CFR 641.720 - How will the Department and grantees initially determine and then adjust expected levels of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... grantees serving other areas of the State or Nation. (4) Changes in Federal, State, or local minimum wage... statutory adjustment factors: (1) High rates of unemployment or of poverty or of participation in the... grantee's satisfaction with the negotiated levels. (6) The minimum percentage for the expected level...

  12. 20 CFR 641.720 - How will the Department and grantees initially determine and then adjust expected levels of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... grantees serving other areas of the State or Nation. (4) Changes in Federal, State, or local minimum wage... statutory adjustment factors: (1) High rates of unemployment or of poverty or of participation in the... grantee's satisfaction with the negotiated levels. (6) The minimum percentage for the expected level...

  13. 20 CFR 641.720 - How will the Department and grantees initially determine and then adjust expected levels of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... grantees serving other areas of the State or Nation. (4) Changes in Federal, State, or local minimum wage... statutory adjustment factors: (1) High rates of unemployment or of poverty or of participation in the... grantee's satisfaction with the negotiated levels. (6) The minimum percentage for the expected level...

  14. 20 CFR 340.8 - Recovery by adjustment in connection with subsequent payments under the Railroad Retirement Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... subsequent payments under the Railroad Retirement Act. 340.8 Section 340.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.8 Recovery by adjustment in connection with subsequent payments under the Railroad Retirement Act....

  15. An instrumental variable approach to unemployment, psychological health and social norm effects.

    PubMed

    Gathergood, John

    2013-06-01

    This empirical study presents estimates of the impact of unemployment on psychological health using U.K. household panel data. The causal impact of unemployment is established using instrumental variable methods. Psychological health is measured using both the General Household Questionnaire measure and also self-reported data on individual occurrences of anxiety-related conditions. We find evidence for positive selection into unemployment on the basis of poor psychological health. Nevertheless, panel instrumental variable estimates suggest a sizeable causal worsening of psychological health arising from unemployment. We also find evidence that the negative impact of unemployment can be largely mitigated by local labour market conditions: those entering unemployment in localities with higher unemployment rates suffer less deterioration in their psychological health. PMID:22696200

  16. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your ... nutritional problems, kidney disease or liver disease . If total protein is abnormal, you will need to have more ...

  17. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  18. 38 CFR 4.16 - Total disability ratings for compensation based on unemployability of the individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, as the poverty threshold for one person... income exceeds the poverty threshold. Consideration shall be given in all claims to the nature of...

  19. 38 CFR 4.16 - Total disability ratings for compensation based on unemployability of the individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, as the poverty threshold for one person... income exceeds the poverty threshold. Consideration shall be given in all claims to the nature of...

  20. 38 CFR 4.16 - Total disability ratings for compensation based on unemployability of the individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, as the poverty threshold for one person... income exceeds the poverty threshold. Consideration shall be given in all claims to the nature of...

  1. 38 CFR 4.16 - Total disability ratings for compensation based on unemployability of the individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, as the poverty threshold for one person... income exceeds the poverty threshold. Consideration shall be given in all claims to the nature of...

  2. Unemployment and psychiatric distress: social resources and coping.

    PubMed

    Ensminger, M E; Celentano, D D

    1988-01-01

    Unemployment is viewed as one of the more stressful of life events that an adult can experience. Job loss leads to decreased social status, disrupts family and social roles, produces financial strain, and loss of self esteem, all of which have detrimental consequences for mental health. We studied psychiatric symptoms in 269 unemployed adults with dependent children in Baltimore; one-half of the sample had returned to work 1 year following unemployment. A comparison group of 92 community residents who were continuously employed were also interviewed. Using a stressful life events perspective, we examined three models of how life events relate to psychiatric distress suggested by Dohrenwend and Dohrenwend [1. Social Status and Psychological Disorder: A Causal Inquiry. Wiley, New York, 1969. 2. Am. J. commun. Psychol. 9, 128, 1981]. Our results support an 'additive burden' model of the stress process, which also shows recovery in mental health functioning upon subsequent reemployment. We suggest that the models tested did not take into account the meaning of the life event in terms of failure and that this meaning may influence its impact on psychological distress. PMID:3175706

  3. A grounded theory exploration of undergraduate experiences of vicarious unemployment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Mindi N; Nitzarim, Rachel S; Her, Pa; Dahling, Jason J

    2013-07-01

    The experiences of vicarious unemployment (VU) among 17 undergraduate student participants who had a primary caregiver who was involuntarily unemployed were explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Data from semistructured interviews with 15 women and 2 men revealed the nuanced nature of experiences with unemployment among those who experience it vicariously. Struggles related to increased family stress and experiences with stigma were common across participants. As participants reflected upon these challenges, they both lamented the costs associated with the struggles and expressed appreciation for the lessons that they have learned. They emerged from their VU experiences with increased financial and job market awareness, which informed their hope for a life that is free from the struggles endured in their families. Participants expressed confidence in their ability to cultivate financial security for their own families, stable employment, and opportunities to pursue work that will allow them to give back to others. Implications for counseling and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23875947

  4. The Unemployment Trap. Long-Term Unemployment and Low Educational Attainment in Six Countries: Belgium, France, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaluf, Mateo

    This report defines the social exclusion process by examining long-term unemployment and educational deficiencies in Europe and assessing the scope and effectiveness of the steps taken by the governments concerned to deal with the problem. Chapter I looks at education and prolonged unemployment in six countries that reflect the range of European…

  5. Adjustment as process and outcome: Measuring adjustment to HIV in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Martin, Faith; Russell, Steve; Seeley, Janet

    2016-05-01

    'Adjustment' in health refers to both processes and outcomes. Its measurement and conceptualisation in African cultures is limited. In total, 263 people living with HIV and receiving anti-retroviral therapy in clinics in Uganda completed a translated Mental Adjustment to HIV Scale, depression items from the Hopkins checklist and demographic questions. Factor analysis revealed four Mental Adjustment to HIV factors of active coping, cognitive-social adjustment, hopelessness and denial/avoidance. Correlations with depression supported the Mental Adjustment to HIV's validity and the importance of active adjustment, while the role of cognitive adjustment was unclear. Factors were process or outcome focussed, suggesting a need for theory-based measures in general. PMID:25030794

  6. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  7. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  8. Duration of unemployment and depression: a cross-sectional survey in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Stankunas, Mindaugas; Kalediene, Ramune; Starkuviene, Skirmante; Kapustinskiene, Violeta

    2006-01-01

    Background In spite of a growing economy, unemployment is still a severe socio-economic problem in Lithuania. Nonetheless, no studies have been performed about the associations between unemployment and mental health in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between unemployment duration and depression in Lithuania. Methods The data was collected in a cross-sectional study in 2005. There were 429 filled-in questionnaires received (53.6% response rate) from unemployed persons registered with the Kaunas Labour Market Office. The severity of depression symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk factors for occurrence of depression. Sex, age, place of residence, marital status, education, income and practiced religion were the independent variables. Long-term unemployment was defined as lasting a duration of 12 months or more. Results The findings showed that long-term unemployed persons had more episodes of a depressive mood in the past 12 months in comparison with the group of the short-term unemployed. In addition, the BDI score mean was higher among the long-term unemployed compared with the short-term unemployed (10.1 ± 8.8 and 14.2 ± 9.5 respectively, p < 0.001). It was estimated that the duration of unemployment and BDI score had a positive correlation (r = 0.1968, p < 0.001). Among the short-term unemployed, the risk of depression increased significantly when the person was female, had an older age and had experienced more episodes of unemployment. Among the long-term unemployed, an older age was the risk factor for development of depression. However, higher education and income were the factors that significantly decreased the risk of developing depression for-short term as well as for long-term unemployed. Conclusion The results indicated that depression is a severe problem in the unemployed population. Depression is more elevated among the long

  9. [Cigarette smoking among the unemployed registered with Poznan District Employment Office].

    PubMed

    Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata; Kłos, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the incidence and causes of smoking among those currently unemployed, and to show changes, if any, resulting from their continued joblessness. The analysis was based on the results of 1,068 surveys taken in 2007 among the unemployed registered with the District Employment Office in Poznan. It was found that cigarette smoking among the unemployed remains high and is associated with the respondents' gender, educational background, economic status and duration of unemployment. Severity of smoking increased more often for those unemployed on a short-term basis, with a number of smoked cigarettes per day more likely to decrease for those in medium- and long-term unemployment. Respondents quoted two equivalent reasons for smoking: wanting to have a cigarette and frustration. PMID:20301930

  10. Possible delayed effect of unemployment on suicidal rates: the case of Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last few years, many countries in Europe suffered from a severe economic crisis which resulted in high unemployment rates. In this frame, the possible relationship between unemployment rate and suicidal rates at the level of the general population has been debated recently. Material and methods The official data concerning completed suicides and unemployment rates from the Hungarian Central Statistical Office for the years 2000–2011 were used. The percentage of changes from the previous year in the unemployment rate and the suicidal rates concerning both the general and the unemployed populations was calculated. Pearson correlation coefficient between the change in suicidal rates and change in unemployment rates was calculated both for the same year as well as after 1–6 years. Results The correlations between the unemployment rate and suicide rates were strongly negative both for the general and for the unemployed populations (-0.65 and -0.55, respectively). The correlation of unemployment change with suicidality change after 1–6 years gave a peak strong positive correlation at 5 years for the general population (0.78). At 4 years after the index year, there is a peak correlation with a moderate value for the unemployed population (0.47) and a similar moderate value for the general population (0.46). Discussion The current findings from Hungary suggest that unemployment might be associated with suicidality in the general population only after 3–5 years. It is possible that the distressing environment of the economic crisis increases suicidality in the general population rather than specifically in unemployed people. PMID:24803949

  11. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  12. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  13. 78 FR 51211 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Tony Sznoluch, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Frances Perkins Bldg. Room S-...

  14. Use of recurrence plot and recurrence quantification analysis in Taiwan unemployment rate time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Shing

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the article is to answer the question if the Taiwan unemployment rate dynamics is generated by a non-linear deterministic dynamic process. This paper applies a recurrence plot and recurrence quantification approach based on the analysis of non-stationary hidden transition patterns of the unemployment rate of Taiwan. The case study uses the time series data of the Taiwan’s unemployment rate during the period from 1978/01 to 2010/06. The results show that recurrence techniques are able to identify various phases in the evolution of unemployment transition in Taiwan.

  15. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  16. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  17. Neoliberalism, "globalization," unemployment, inequalities, and the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of "neoliberalism" and its economic and social consequences is presented in six sections. Section I begins by describing the impact of neoliberal public policies on economic growth and inflation, on business profits and business investments, on productivity, on business credit, on unemployment and social inequalities, on social expenditures, and on poverty and family debt. The author shows that, except in the area of business profits and control of inflation, neoliberal policies have not proved superior to those they replaced. Section II deals with unemployment and social polarization in the developed capitalist countries. The author criticizes some of the theories put forward to explain these social problems, such as the introduction of new technologies and globalization of the economy, and suggests that a primary reason for these problems is the implementation of neoliberal policies. Section III challenges the widely held neoliberal perception that the U.S. economy is highly efficient and the E.U. economies are "sclerotic" due to their "excessive" welfare states and "rigid" labor markets. The author shows that the U.S. economy is not so dynamic, nor the E.U. economies so sclerotic. Some developed countries with greater social protection and more regulated labor markets are shown to be more successful than the United States in producing jobs and lowering unemployment. The reasons for the growing polarization in developed capitalist countries, rooted in political rather than economic causes, are discussed in section IV--especially the enormous power of the financial markets and their influence on international agencies and national governments, and the weakness of the labor movements, both nationally and internationally. Section V questions the major theses of globalization. The author shows that rather than globalization of commerce and investments, we are witnessing a regionalization of economic relations stimulated by political considerations. He

  18. Surgeon unemployment: Would practice sharing be a viable solution?

    PubMed Central

    Wakeam, Elliot; Feinberg, Stan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Surgeon unemployment has become a crisis within Canadian surgery in recent years. Without dedicated governmental workforce planning, ensuring that new residency graduates can find employment will require new models of employment. Practice sharing, whereby a new graduate and a senior surgeon partner to divide their practices, allows the senior surgeon to wind down and the newer surgeon to ramp up. Importantly, this arrangement builds in formal mentoring, which is so important in the early years of starting a surgical practice. Practice sharing may be a solution for the workforce issues currently afflicting new surgical graduates across Canada. PMID:26820319

  19. Unemployment and civil commitment: a test of the intolerance hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Ralph; Snowden, Lonnie; Shumway, Martha; Kessell, Eric

    2007-01-01

    We theorize that the reported association between economic indicators and the incidence of civil commitment for mental illness may result, at least in part, from reduced tolerance in the community for impaired behavior among minorities. Earlier work suggests that economically induced intolerance will be focused primarily on minority males. Based on this literature, we hypothesize that the median level of functioning among African-American males subjected to civil commitment will vary positively with earlier changes in the unemployment rate. The test applies Box-Jenkins methods to 156 months (August 1985-July 1998) of data from California. Consistent with theory, results support the hypothesis. PMID:17444533

  20. Propensity to Work Among Chronically Unemployed Adult Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur Oli; DeFulio, Anthony; Long, Lauren; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Analyses were conducted to compare rates of employment before, during, and after employment at the therapeutic workplace, which is a novel employment-based treatment for drug misuse. Participants in two clinical trials attended the therapeutic workplace at higher rates than they worked before intake and six months after discharge. These data suggest that unemployed chronic drug misusers will attend work at higher rates at the therapeutic workplace than in the community when paid modest wages, and that the failure of chronic drug misusers to obtain employment in the community may not result from lack of interest in work. PMID:20964531

  1. Urban neighbourhood unemployment history and depressive symptoms over time among late middle age and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wight, Richard G; Aneshensel, Carol S; Barrett, Christopher; Ko, Michelle; Chodosh, Joshua; Karlamangla, Arun S

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about how a neighbourhood’s unemployment history may set the stage for depressive symptomatology. This study examines the effects of urban neighbourhood unemployment history on current depressive symptoms and subsequent symptom trajectories among residentially stable late middle age and older adults. Contingent effects between neighbourhood unemployment and individual-level employment status (ie, cross-level interactions) are also assessed. Methods Individual-level survey data are from four waves (2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006) of the original cohort of the nationally representative US Health and Retirement Study. Neighbourhoods are operationalised with US Census tracts for which historical average proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 and change in proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 are used to characterise the neighbourhood’s unemployment history. Hierarchical linear regressions estimate three-level (time, individual and neighbourhood) growth models. Results Symptoms in 2000 are highest among those residing in neighbourhoods characterised by high historical average unemployment beginning in 1990 and increasing unemployment between 1990 and 2000, net of a wide range of socio-demographic controls including individual-level employment status. These neighbourhood unemployment effects are not contingent upon individual-level employment status in 2000. 6-year trajectories of depressive symptoms decrease over time on average but are not significantly influenced by the neighbourhood’s unemployment history. Conclusions Given the current US recession, future studies that do not consider historical employment conditions may underestimate the mental health impact of urban neighbourhood context. The findings suggest that exposure to neighbourhood unemployment earlier in life may be consequential to mental health later in life. PMID:22918896

  2. From prolonging life to prolonging working life: Tackling unemployment among liver-transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Åberg, Fredrik

    2016-04-14

    Return to active and productive life is a key goal of modern liver transplantation (LT). Despite marked improvements in quality of life and functional status, a substantial proportion of LT recipients are unable to resume gainful employment. Unemployment forms a threat to physical and psychosocial health, and impairs LT cost-utility through lost productivity. In studies published after year 2000, the average post-LT employment rate is 37%, ranging from 22% to 55% by study. Significant heterogeneity exists among studies. Nonetheless, these employment rates are lower than in the general population and kidney-transplant population. Most consistent employment predictors include pre-LT employment status, male gender, functional/health status, and subjective work ability. Work ability is impaired by physical fatigue and depression, but affected also by working conditions and society. Promotion of post-LT employment is hampered by a lack of interventional studies. Prevention of pre-LT disability by effective treatment of (minimal) hepatic encephalopathy, maintaining mobility, and planning work adjustments early in the course of chronic liver disease, as well as timely post-LT physical rehabilitation, continuous encouragement, self-efficacy improvements, and depression management are key elements of successful employment-promoting strategies. Prolonging LT recipients' working life would further strengthen the success of transplantation, and this is likely best achieved through multidisciplinary efforts ideally starting even before LT candidacy. PMID:27076755

  3. From prolonging life to prolonging working life: Tackling unemployment among liver-transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Åberg, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Return to active and productive life is a key goal of modern liver transplantation (LT). Despite marked improvements in quality of life and functional status, a substantial proportion of LT recipients are unable to resume gainful employment. Unemployment forms a threat to physical and psychosocial health, and impairs LT cost-utility through lost productivity. In studies published after year 2000, the average post-LT employment rate is 37%, ranging from 22% to 55% by study. Significant heterogeneity exists among studies. Nonetheless, these employment rates are lower than in the general population and kidney-transplant population. Most consistent employment predictors include pre-LT employment status, male gender, functional/health status, and subjective work ability. Work ability is impaired by physical fatigue and depression, but affected also by working conditions and society. Promotion of post-LT employment is hampered by a lack of interventional studies. Prevention of pre-LT disability by effective treatment of (minimal) hepatic encephalopathy, maintaining mobility, and planning work adjustments early in the course of chronic liver disease, as well as timely post-LT physical rehabilitation, continuous encouragement, self-efficacy improvements, and depression management are key elements of successful employment-promoting strategies. Prolonging LT recipients’ working life would further strengthen the success of transplantation, and this is likely best achieved through multidisciplinary efforts ideally starting even before LT candidacy. PMID:27076755

  4. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite. PMID:17567838

  5. [A team approach in unemployed persons with psychosomatic disorders].

    PubMed

    Majski-Cesarec, S

    1996-03-01

    A survey was conducted among persons with the health disorders considered to be aggravating factors in finding employment, who were on the list of the unemployed registered with a regional employment bureau. In 1994/1995 forty persons were selected and examined by a vocational guidance team. The team included a psychologist, a pedagogue, an occupational health specialist, a legal advisor and the employment bureau officer. The criteria were based on the health disorders that are contraindicative for an occupation, on the length of unemployment, time of onset of disease or disability, social status, satisfactory residual work capacity for another occupation, job opportunity and on the person's motivation for work, retraining, earning additional qualifications or for schooling. Results demonstrate that investing in vocational guidance is justified if negative selection as well as a futile loss of time, money and effort spent on schooling are to be avoided. The programme of retraining, additional training and finding an occupation in accordance with one's residual work capacity continues to be applicable only in the case of a newly diagnosed disease, newly inflicted injury or wound as well as a useful and humane method in the work of employment bureaus and vocational guidance teams. PMID:8768448

  6. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  7. Youth Unemployment: Implications for Vocational Education R & D. Occasional Paper No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Joan

    Has vocational education been responsible for the unemployed youth in our nation today? No, the vocational education community is not responsible for youth unemployment rates, the shifting labor market demands, the baby bulge, women in the labor force, the oil embargo, or the economic recession. Then what role does the vocational education…

  8. A Study of Recipients of Federal Supplemental Benefits and Special Unemployment Assistance. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Walter; And Others

    This is the final report of a study of approximately 12,000 recipients of Federal Supplemental Benefits (FSB) and Special Unemployment Assistance (SUA) during 1975. (The study, involving interviews with recipients in 15 States and analysis of administrative records from each State's Unemployment Insurance Service, was conducted in response to the…

  9. Advance Notice and Unemployment: New Evidence from the 1988 Displaced Worker Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, John T.; Portugal, Pedro

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of data from the Displaced Worker Survey 1988 showed that (1) longer written notice more than doubled the proportion of white-collar workers who move directly to new employment; (2) informal notice improves male white-collar workers' chances of avoiding unemployment and reduces male blue-collar workers' average spell of unemployment. (SK)

  10. 20 CFR 625.4 - Eligibility requirements for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Unemployment Assistance. 625.4 Section 625.4 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.4 Eligibility requirements for Disaster... major disaster, as provided in § 625.5; (e) The individual has filed a timely initial application...

  11. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  12. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  13. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  14. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  15. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  16. "Smiling for the Tourists": The Education and Training of the Unemployed in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Argues that provision of training for the unemployed is driven by capitalist economic policy and political choices about participation in the global economy. The gap between aims and outcomes of programs for the unemployed is integral to the restructuring of the economy that is taking place. (SK)

  17. Marx and Foucault: Subjectivity, Employability and the Crisis of Youth Unemployment in the Great Global Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the different approaches taken to the concepts of work or labour by Marx and Foucault, examining in particular the question of subjectivity in relation to youth unemployment and the current crisis of youth unemployment as part of the aftermath of the global recession of 2008.

  18. Anxious To Work. Proposals for Improving Guidance and Course Provision for Unemployed Adults. FEU/REPLAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    A project was designed to define the extent of the courses and programs available to unemployed adults and to investigate the problems involved in maintaining an up-to-date information, guidance, and counseling service in the United Kingdom. Interviews were conducted with 100 unemployed adults in Nottingham, England. Information was sought on…

  19. Return to Learning, Return to Work: Helping Low-Qualified Adults Out of Unemployment. Briefing Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, the question uppermost in policymakers' minds has understandably been the explosive growth of youth unemployment. But the crisis has also severely affected low-qualified adults, who face the highest rate of unemployment across Europe. A recent Cedefop study confirms that work-based training programmes can address the particular needs…

  20. Job Security and Social Stability. The Impact of Mass Unemployment on Expectations of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransome, Paul

    The question of whether recent changes in the labor market will likely have an adverse effect on people's expectations of work and their willingness to participate in the labor process was examined in a study of the impact of mass unemployment on expectations of work and productivity. Data regarding employment/unemployment and productivity in the…

  1. Long-Term Unemployed and the Elderly in Migrant Communities in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundara, Jagdish; Jones, Crispin

    The educational needs of the long-term unemployed and elderly in Europe's migrant communities should be understood in a context of state diversity and migration complexity. This report examines the role education plays in alleviating long-term unemployment in Europe's migrant communities and socioeconomic isolation among older migrants. Compared…

  2. Unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in the OECD, 1990-2009.

    PubMed

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watkins, Johnathan; Taylor, Abigail; Williams, Callum; Ali, Raghib; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment in many countries. Insights into the impact of unemployment on specific health conditions remain limited. We determined the association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We used multivariate regression analysis to assess the association between changes in unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in OECD member states between 1990 and 2009. Country-specific differences in healthcare infrastructure, population structure, and population size were controlled for and lag analyses conducted. Several robustness checks were also performed. Time trend analyses were used to predict the number of excess deaths from prostate cancer following the 2008 global recession. Between 1990 and 2009, a 1% rise in unemployment was associated with an increase in prostate cancer mortality. Lag analysis showed a continued increase in mortality years after unemployment rises. The association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality remained significant in robustness checks with 46 controls. Eight of the 21 OECD countries for which a time trend analysis was conducted, exhibited an estimated excess of prostate cancer deaths in at least one of 2008, 2009, or 2010, based on 2000-2007 trends. Rises in unemployment are associated with significant increases in prostate cancer mortality. Initiatives that bolster employment may help to minimise prostate cancer mortality during times of economic hardship. PMID:26045715

  3. Jobs, Jobs, Jobs: Challenges Community Colleges Face to Reach the Unemployed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsinas, Stephen G.; D'Amico, Mark M.; Friedel, Janice N.

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment rates continued to fall slowly as the economy gains strength following the longest recession in over half a century. This report addressed the challenges of the community colleges attempting to reach the unemployed and underemployed. Responses from a survey conducted by the Education Policy Center at the University of Alabama, were…

  4. 38 CFR 1.506 - Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies, and the Office of Servicemembers....506 Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies... official purposes by any department or other agency of the U.S. Government or any state...

  5. 38 CFR 1.506 - Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies, and the Office of Servicemembers....506 Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies... official purposes by any department or other agency of the U.S. Government or any state...

  6. 38 CFR 1.506 - Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies, and the Office of Servicemembers....506 Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies... official purposes by any department or other agency of the U.S. Government or any state...

  7. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  8. 26 CFR 31.3402(o)-1 - Extension of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation benefits. 31.3402(o)-1 Section 31.3402(o)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits. (a) In general. Withholding of income tax is required under section 3402(o) with respect to payments of supplemental...

  9. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3402(o)-1 - Extension of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation benefits. 31.3402(o)-1 Section 31.3402(o)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits. (a) In general. Withholding of income tax is required under section 3402(o) with respect to payments of supplemental...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3402(o)-1 - Extension of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation benefits. 31.3402(o)-1 Section 31.3402(o)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits. (a) In general. Withholding of income tax is required under section 3402(o) with respect to payments of supplemental...

  12. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  13. Unemployed Adults' Career Thoughts, Career Self-Efficacy, and Interest: Any Similarity to College Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Andrews, Lindsay; McConnell, Amy; Campbell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical knowledge about unemployed adults exists during a time when this group needs substantial career assistance. Because there is greater empirical understanding of college student career development compared with what is known about unemployed adults, a chi square and analyses of covariance were used to compare the career thinking,…

  14. Coping with Unemployment. I. The Trainers' Guide. II. The Participants' Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordus, Jeanne Prial

    This document contains both a trainers' guide and a participants' book for a one-day workshop on coping with unemployment. The workshop is planned to enable participants to withstand a period of joblessness with a minimum of personal stress. It includes information about specific unemployment-related problems, methods of stress management,…

  15. 75 FR 26793 - Fypon, Ltd., Parkersburg, WV, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance, (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Federal Register on March 5, 2010 (75 FR 10321). At the request of the state, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Fypon, Ltd., Parkersburg, WV, Including Workers Whose Unemployment... Leased Workers From Job1 USA, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance, (UI) Wages Are Paid...

  16. 76 FR 27366 - Blue Heron Paper Company, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... 16, 2010 (75 FR 34174). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the certification... Employment and Training Administration Blue Heron Paper Company, Including Workers Whose Unemployment... reported under a separated unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Barrett Business...

  17. 78 FR 59374 - Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Announcement Regarding a Change in Eligibility for Unemployment Insurance (UI) Claimants in Alaska, Mississippi, and Wisconsin in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation..., 2013. Based on data from Alaska for the week ending August 3, 2013, the 13 week insured...

  18. Losing a Job: The Nonpecuniary Cost of Unemployment in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Cristobal

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I track the subjective well-being of individuals as they enter and exit unemployment. Job loss is a salient trigger event that sets off large changes in well-being. The factors expected to improve the lot of the unemployed have limited efficacy: (1) changes in family income are not significantly…

  19. 75 FR 43557 - Wire Products Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Register on May 28, 2010 (75 FR 30067). At the request of a company official, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Wire Products Company, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name Globe Pipe Hanger Products, Inc. Based on these...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3402(o)-1 - Extension of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation benefits. 31.3402(o)-1 Section 31.3402(o)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits. (a) In general. Withholding of income tax is required under section 3402(o) with respect to payments of supplemental...

  1. 38 CFR 1.506 - Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies, and the Office of Servicemembers....506 Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies... official purposes by any department or other agency of the U.S. Government or any state...

  2. 75 FR 52981 - Bluescope Buildings North America, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Register on June 7, 2010 (75 FR 32224). At the request of the State Agency, the Department reviewed the... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Butler Manufacturing Company, Laurinburg, NC; Amended...Scope Buildings North America had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance...

  3. 77 FR 3500 - Hugo Boss Cleveland, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Cleveland, Inc., Brooklyn, Ohio. The notice was published in the Federal Register on May 5, 2010 (75 FR... Employment and Training Administration Hugo Boss Cleveland, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment... location of Hugo Boss Cleveland, Inc. had their wages reported under a separate unemployment insurance...

  4. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  5. Solving Long-Term Unemployment in Dublin: The Lessons from Policy Innovation. Policy Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Eithne; Ingolsby, Brid; Daly, Fiona

    This report identifies what policies can be effective in eliminating hard-core unemployment in Dublin and preventing its re-emergence in a new generation. An executive summary precedes the main body of the report. Chapter 1 describes the background of economic boom against which the persistence of long-term unemployment appears paradoxical;…

  6. The Experience of Unemployment for Fishery Workers in Newfoundland: What Helps and Hinders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.; McVicar, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Explores the unemployment experience of people involved in the fishery and living in the outports of Newfoundland and Labrador. Fifty-three critical incident interviews were conducted by community outreach workers. These interviews yielded important information about the factors that facilitated or hindered the unemployment experience. (Contains…

  7. Spousal aggression by U.S. Army female soldiers toward employed and unemployed civilian husbands.

    PubMed

    Newby, John H; Ursano, Robert J; McCarroll, James E; Martin, Laurie T; Norwood, Ann E; Fullerton, Carol S

    2003-07-01

    Aggression by a random sample of female soldiers (N = 1,185) toward their employed (n = 840) and unemployed (n = 345) civilian husbands was measured by the Conflict Tactics Scale. When age, race, rank, years married, and the number of previous marriages were held constant, severe aggression toward unemployed male spouses was significantly greater than toward employed spouses. PMID:12921209

  8. Income Insecurity: The Failure of Unemployment Insurance To Reach Working AFDC Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalter-Roth, Roberta; Hartmann, Heidi; Burr, Beverly

    Because female heads of families tend to have less continuity of employment than their male counterparts do, they are twice as likely to face unemployment without unemployment insurance (UI) benefits. If Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), which is the primary income support program for impoverished single mothers and their children…

  9. Unemployment Rates and Starting Salaries: Are Australian Graduates at the Whim of the Wage Curve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, David

    2011-01-01

    The existence of an inverse relationship between wage levels and regional unemployment rates, commonly referred to as the wage curve, is well established in the economic literature and was described by Card (1995) as being "close to an empirical law of economics". This microeconomic wage-unemployment relationship, first identified by…

  10. Life without Work: Understanding Social Class Changes and Unemployment through Theoretical Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Fall, Kevin; Hoffman, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment is a stark reality in today's economic climate, and many Americans report a fear of loss or decrease in social status as a result of unexpected unemployment. Despite vocational psychology's emphasis on work as a domain of life, very little exploration on how social class shifts impact workers has been conducted. One way to rectify the…

  11. Black Unemployment: Just How Serious Is It? A First Friday Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Full Employment, Washington, DC.

    Not only is the official black unemployment rate 2.5 times higher than that of whites, but a significantly greater percentage of the white population is employed compared with blacks (61.6 percent compared with 54.2 percent). Evidence suggests that the real rate of unemployment and underemployment among blacks is 23.5 percent. The situation is…

  12. Joblessness among Women: A Portrait of Female Unemployment. A First Friday Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Full Employment Action Council, Washington, DC.

    This report presents a portrait of female unemployment from a national perspective. Summary findings indicate that nearly 8 million American women either do not have jobs or work part-time because they cannot find full-time employment. Unemployment is particularly high among Black women (15%); Hispanic women (11%), and female heads of households…

  13. Unemployment and Non-Formal Training in the Informal Sector in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sifuna, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    Innovative educational projects are reviewed that claim to be tailored toward education and training and the world of work. Emphasis is on the nonformal or noninstitutional educational and training activities and their role in relation to the unemployment problem. A general overview of the unemployment problem in Kenya is presented. (CT)

  14. Unemployment and Work Interruption among African American Single Mothers: Effects on Parenting and Adolescent Socioemotional Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoyd, Vonnie C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using interview data from 241 single African American mothers and their seventh- and eighth-grade children, this study tested a model of how 2 economic stressors, maternal unemployment and work interruption, influenced adolescent socioemotional functioning. Found that current unemployment, but not past work interruption, contributed to depressive…

  15. Unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in the OECD, 1990–2009

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Watkins, Johnathan; Taylor, Abigail; Williams, Callum; Ali, Raghib; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    The global economic downturn has been associated with increased unemployment in many countries. Insights into the impact of unemployment on specific health conditions remain limited. We determined the association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). We used multivariate regression analysis to assess the association between changes in unemployment and prostate cancer mortality in OECD member states between 1990 and 2009. Country-specific differences in healthcare infrastructure, population structure, and population size were controlled for and lag analyses conducted. Several robustness checks were also performed. Time trend analyses were used to predict the number of excess deaths from prostate cancer following the 2008 global recession. Between 1990 and 2009, a 1% rise in unemployment was associated with an increase in prostate cancer mortality. Lag analysis showed a continued increase in mortality years after unemployment rises. The association between unemployment and prostate cancer mortality remained significant in robustness checks with 46 controls. Eight of the 21 OECD countries for which a time trend analysis was conducted, exhibited an estimated excess of prostate cancer deaths in at least one of 2008, 2009, or 2010, based on 2000–2007 trends. Rises in unemployment are associated with significant increases in prostate cancer mortality. Initiatives that bolster employment may help to minimise prostate cancer mortality during times of economic hardship. PMID:26045715

  16. Is Anyone Listening? Young People Speak about Work and Unemployment. ACER Research Monograph No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakers, Catherine

    This report presents the results of an Australian survey investigating the issues raised by unemployment in society, using extensive quotations from the respondents. In 1983 an open-ended questionnaire was sent to a group of about 10,000 young people (aged 18-22) in Australia to determine their opinions about unemployment and the future and to…

  17. 38 CFR 1.506 - Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies, and the Office of Servicemembers....506 Disclosure of records to Federal Government departments, State unemployment compensation agencies... official purposes by any department or other agency of the U.S. Government or any state...

  18. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3402(o)-1 - Extension of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation benefits. 31.3402(o)-1 Section 31.3402(o)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... of withholding to supplemental unemployment compensation benefits. (a) In general. Withholding of income tax is required under section 3402(o) with respect to payments of supplemental...

  20. Surviving Unemployment: Economic Resources and Job Loss Duration in Blue Collar Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Esther

    1995-01-01

    Examines the economic resources of displaced blue-collar workers (n=324) coping with job loss for varying lengths of time. Data revealed the pivotal role of unemployment benefits in maintaining a household's economic viability. Findings suggest that the service needs of unemployed workers may become much greater as their economic plight deepens.…