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Sample records for adjusted weaning weights

  1. Correcting bias from the standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to an age-constant basis for beef calves.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D J; Kress, D D; Tess, M W; Burfening, P J

    1992-05-01

    Standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to a constant age has been shown to introduce bias in the adjusted weight due to nonlinear growth from birth to weaning of beef calves. Ten years of field records from the five strains of Beefbooster Cattle Alberta Ltd. seed stock herds were used to investigate the use of correction factors to adjust standard 180-d weight (WT180) for this bias. Statistical analyses were performed within strain and followed three steps: 1) the full data set was split into an estimation set (ES) and a validation set (VS), 2) WT180 from the ES was used to develop estimates of correction factors using a model including herd (H), year (YR), age of dam (DA), sex of calf (S), all two and three-way interactions, and any significant linear and quadratic covariates of calf age at weaning deviated from 180 d (DEVCA) and interactions between DEVCA and DA, S or DA x S, and 3) significant DEVCA coefficients were used to correct WT180 from the VS, then WT180 and the corrected weight (WTCOR) from the VS were analyzed with the same model as in Step 2 and significance of DEVCA terms were compared. Two types of data splitting were used. Adjusted R2 was calculated to describe the proportion of total variation of DEVCA terms explained for WT180 from the ES. The DEVCA terms explained .08 to 1.54% of the total variation for the five strains. Linear and quadratic correction factors were both positive and negative. Bias in WT180 from the ES within 180 +/- 35 d of age ranged from 2.8 to 21.7 kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  3. Neurally adjusted ventilation assist in weaning difficulty: First case report from India

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Milind; Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Invasive mechanical ventilation is an integral component in the management of critically ill patients. In certain situations, liberation from mechanical ventilation becomes difficult resulting in prolonged ventilation. Patient-ventilator dyssynchrony is a frequently encountered reason for difficult weaning. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a novel mode of ventilation that utilizes the electrical activity of diaphragm to pick up respiratory signals and delivers assistance in proportion to the ventilatory requirement of a patient. It may, therefore, be associated with a better patient-ventilator synchrony thereby facilitating weaning. Herein, we report the first case from India describing the use of NAVA in successfully weaning a patient with difficult weaning. PMID:27390463

  4. Drought effect on weaning weight and efficiency relative to cow size in semiarid rangeland.

    PubMed

    Scasta, J D; Henderson, L; Smith, T

    2015-12-01

    Cow size has been suggested to be an important consideration for selecting cattle to match their production environment. Over the last several decades, the trend in genetic selection for maximum growth has led to gradual increases in beef cow size. An unrelated trend during this same period in the western United States has been an increase in temperature, drought frequency, and drought severity. Due to the potential influence of the increasing cow size trend on nutritional maintenance costs and production, we assessed the effect of cow size on weaning weight and efficiency in relation to drought on a semiarid high-elevation ranch in Wyoming. This study addresses a lack of empirical studies on the interaction between cow size and drought. We measured calf weaning weights of 80 Angus × Gelbvieh cows from 2011 to 2014 and assessed how drought affected weaning weights, efficiency (considered as calf weight relative to cow weight), intake requirements, and potential herd sizes relative to cow size. We stratified cows into 5 weight classes (453, 498, 544, 589, and 634 kg) as a proxy for cow size and adjusted weaning weights to a 210-d calf sex adjusted value. Cow size was a significant factor every year, with different cow sizes having advantages or disadvantages different years relative to weaning weight. However, efficiency for the smallest cows (453 kg) was always greater than efficiency for largest cows (634 kg; < 0.001). Efficiency for the smallest cows was greater in the driest year (0.41 ± 0.02) than efficiency of the largest cows in the wettest years (0.37 ± 0.01). The change in efficiency (ΔE) between wet and dry years was 0.18 for the smallest cow size and 0.02 for the largest cow size, and ΔE decreased as cow size increased. This is an indication of the ability of smaller cows to lower maintenance requirements in response to changes in the production environment but with optimal upside potential when conditions are favorable. These results indicate large

  5. Forage and weather influcence day versus nighttime cow behavior and calf weaning weights on rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the effects of two forage allowance levels (LOW vs. HIGH) and weather conditions on day- and nighttime movement patterns of young rangeland-raised cows. We also investigated whether calf weaning weights (WW, n = 42) were significantly related to their dams' post-calving movement patter...

  6. Estimation of breed-specific heterosis effects for birth, weaning, and yearling weight in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterosis, assumed proportional to expected breed heterozygosity, was calculated for 6,834 individuals with birth, weaning and yearling weight records from Cycle VII and advanced generations of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) project. Breeds represented in t...

  7. Estimation of breed-specific heterosis effects for birth, weaning, and yearling weight in cattle.

    PubMed

    Schiermiester, L N; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Kachman, S D; Spangler, M L

    2015-01-01

    Heterosis, assumed proportional to expected breed heterozygosity, was calculated for 6834 individuals with birth, weaning and yearling weight records from Cycle VII and advanced generations of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) project. Breeds represented in these data included: Angus, Hereford, Red Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Simmental, Limousin and Composite MARC III. Heterosis was further estimated by proportions of British × British (B × B), British × Continental (B × C) and Continental × Continental (C × C) crosses and by breed-specific combinations. Model 1 fitted fixed covariates for heterosis within biological types while Model 2 fitted random breed-specific combinations nested within the fixed biological type covariates. Direct heritability estimates (SE) for birth, weaning ,and yearling weight for Model 1 were 0.42 (0.04), 0.22 (0.03), and 0.39 (0.05), respectively. The direct heritability estimates (SE) of birth, weaning, and yearling weight for Model 2 were the same as Model 1, except yearling weight heritability was 0.38 (0.05). The B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis estimates for birth weight were 0.47 (0.37), 0.75 (0.32), and 0.73 (0.54) kg, respectively. The B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis estimates for weaning weight were 6.43 (1.80), 8.65 (1.54), and 5.86 (2.57) kg, respectively. Yearling weight estimates for B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis were 17.59(3.06), 13.88 (2.63), and 9.12 (4.34) kg, respectively. Differences did exist among estimates of breed-specific heterosis for weaning and yearling weight, although the variance component associated with breed-specific heterosis was not significant. These results illustrate that there are differences in breed-specific heterosis and exploiting these differences can lead to varying levels of heterosis among mating plans.

  8. Genetic correlations for litter weight weaned with growth, prolificacy, and wool traits in Columbia, Polypay, Rambouillet, and Targhee sheep.

    PubMed

    Bromley, C M; Van Vleck, L D; Snowder, G D

    2001-02-01

    Total litter weight weaned at 120 d postpartum per ewe lambing is often believed to be a measure of range ewe productivity. Genetic correlations for litter weight weaned at 120 d with prolificacy, growth, and wool traits for Columbia, Polypay, Rambouillet, and Targhee sheep were estimated using REML with animal models. Observations per breed ranged from 5,140 to 7,083 for litter weight weaned, from 5,140 to 7,095 for prolificacy traits, from 7,750 to 9,530 for growth traits, and from 4,603 to 18,443 for wool traits. Heritability estimates for litter weight weaned were low and ranged from 0.02 to 0.11. Fraction of variance due to permanent environmental effects averaged 0.05 and, due to effects of mates, averaged 0.01. Estimates of genetic correlations with litter weight weaned varied from breed to breed. The ranges were as follows: 0.42 to 0.65 with litter size born, 0.80 to 0.99 with litter size weaned, -0.22 to 0.28 with birth weight, -0.07 to 0.23 with average daily gain to weaning, -0.56 to 0.19 with fleece weight, -0.15 to 0.02 with fleece grade, and -0.11 to 0.08 with staple length. Results suggest that, if selection were practiced on litter weight weaned, the average correlated responses would be expected to be favorable or neutral for prolificacy, growth, and wool traits although responses might vary from breed to breed.

  9. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves.

    PubMed

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L

    2013-03-01

    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) of live weight gain of 11.85 kg, compared to untreated group, 9.05 and 9.41 kg compared to those treated with more ineffective avermectins which showed efficacy of 0 and 48.2 %, respectively. A significant (P < 0.05) and weak negative correlation (r = -0.22) between the eggs per gram (EPG) and body weight was observed, indicating that even the low mean EPG (175 ± 150) observed at day 0 in the control group, with predominance of Haemonchus sp., was responsible for production losses. These results indicate that control of nematode parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria.

  10. Genetic variation of the weaning weight of beef cattle as a function of accumulated heat stress.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the genetic variation in the weaning weight (WW) of beef cattle as a function of heat stress. The WWs were recorded at approximately 205 days of age in three Brazilian beef cattle populations: Nelore (93,616), Brangus (18,906) and Tropical Composite (62,679). In view of the cumulative nature of WW, the effect of heat stress was considered as the accumulation of temperature and humidity index units (ACTHI) from the animal's birth to weaning. A reaction norm model was used to estimate the (co)variance components of WW across the ACTHI scale. The accumulation of THI units from birth to weaning negatively affected the WW. The definition of accumulated THI units as an environmental descriptor permitted to identify important genetic variation in the WW as a function of heat stress. As evidence of genotype by environment interaction, substantial heterogeneity was observed in the (co)variance components for WW across the environmental gradient. In this respect, the best animals in less stressful environments are not necessarily the best animals in more stressful environments. Furthermore, the response to selection for WW is expected to be lower in more stressful environments.

  11. Synthetic maternal pheromone stimulates feeding behavior and weight gain in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J; Anderson, D L

    2002-12-01

    One hundred and forty-four pigs were used to determine the effects of a putative synthetic maternal pheromone on behavior and performance of weanling pigs. Each pen of weaned pigs contained three pigs that were given free access to water and feed. Pigs were videotaped in time lapse for 48 h after weaning and weekly body weights and feed disappearances were recorded for 4 wk. Treatments included: a) control (vehicle applied), b) 30 mL of synthetic pheromone applied to the feeder, or c) 10 mL of synthetic pheromone applied to each of three pigs' snouts. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone spent more (P < 0.05) time with their heads in the feeder and less (P < 0.05) time drinking, lying down, or engaged in agonistic behaviors than control pigs. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone were more (P < 0.05) active during the 48-h period of video taping than control pigs. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone (either on the feeder or their snout) had increased (P < 0.01) average daily gain (ADG) and better (P < 0.01) feed:gain ratio than control pigs over the 28-d postweaning period. In conclusion, the putative synthetic pheromone, applied once at weaning, stimulated apparent feeding behaviors, and reduced fighting and apparent drinking behaviors during the first 48 h after weaning. ADG and feed:gain ratio were improved by application of the putative synthetic pheromone either directly on the feeder or when painted on the pigs' snouts. Olfactory signals can modulate adaptation to the postweaning environment in ways that may improve pig performance and welfare.

  12. Genetic analysis of fleece and post-weaning body weight traits in Makuie sheep.

    PubMed

    Jafari, S; Hashemi, A

    2014-02-20

    Estimation of genetic parameters is the most important component of an organized selection program. With respect to economic traits, such as wool and mutton traits, production costs can be reduced through a suitable selection program focused on genetic improvement. This study aimed to evaluate genetic parameters of fleece and post-weaning growth traits in sheep. Greasy fleece weight at 6, 16, 28, 40, and 52 months of age (GFW1, GFW2, GFW3, GFW4, and GFW5) represented characteristics of wool quantity. Staple length at shoulder, side, and rump (SL1, SL2, and SL3), fiber diameter, and percentage of true wool (TW%) were used as characteristics of wool quality. Live body weight at 6, 9, and 12 months of age (BW6, BW9, and BW12) reflected post-weaning growth characteristics. These data were collected over 23 years, from 1989 to 2012, at the Makuie Sheep Breeding and Raising Station (MSBS). Estimations were calculated using the derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood (DFREML) model. Direct heritability estimates, based on single-trait analyses, ranged from 0.10 (GFW1) to 0.80 (TW%). Additive genetic correlations among the traits ranged from highly negative (-0.46) to highly positive (0.99). The log likelihood ratio test (LRT) was used for selection of the most appropriate model. Based on the LRT, direct additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects were considered as the main sources of variation in the studied traits.

  13. Effects of Chitosan on Body Weight Gain, Growth Hormone and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanqing; Shi, Binlin; Yan, Sumei; Li, Tiyu; Guo, Yiwei; Li, Junliang

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of chitosan on the concentrations of GH and IGF-I in serum and small intestinal morphological structure of piglets, in order to evaluate the regulating action of chitosan on weaned pig growth through endocrine and intestinal morphological approaches. A total of 180 weaned pigs (35 d of age; 11.56±1.61 kg of body weight) were selected and assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatments, including 1 basal diet (control) and 4 diets with chitosan supplementation (100, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg, respectively). Each treatment contained six replicate pens with six pigs per pen. The experiment lasted for 28 d. The results showed that the average body weight gain (BWG) of pigs was improved quadratically by dietary chitosan during the former 14 d and the later 14 d after weaned (p<0.05). Furthermore, dietary supplementation of chitosan tended to quadratically increase the concentration of serum GH on d 14 (p = 0.082) and 28 (p = 0.087). Diets supplemented with increasing levels of chitosan increased quadratically the villus height of jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p = 0.089, p<0.01) and 28 (p = 0.074, p<0.01), meanwhile, chitosan increased quadratically the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p<0.05, p = 0.055, p<0.01) and 28 (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.01), however, it decreased quadratically crypt depth in ileum on d 14 (p<0.05) and that in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 28 (p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.05). In conclusion, these results indicated that chitosan could quadratically improve growth in weaned pigs, and the underlying mechanism may due to the increase of the serum GH concentration and improvement of the small intestines morphological structure. PMID:25049731

  14. Effects of chitosan on body weight gain, growth hormone and intestinal morphology in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanqing; Shi, Binlin; Yan, Sumei; Li, Tiyu; Guo, Yiwei; Li, Junliang

    2013-10-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of chitosan on the concentrations of GH and IGF-I in serum and small intestinal morphological structure of piglets, in order to evaluate the regulating action of chitosan on weaned pig growth through endocrine and intestinal morphological approaches. A total of 180 weaned pigs (35 d of age; 11.56±1.61 kg of body weight) were selected and assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatments, including 1 basal diet (control) and 4 diets with chitosan supplementation (100, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg, respectively). Each treatment contained six replicate pens with six pigs per pen. The experiment lasted for 28 d. The results showed that the average body weight gain (BWG) of pigs was improved quadratically by dietary chitosan during the former 14 d and the later 14 d after weaned (p<0.05). Furthermore, dietary supplementation of chitosan tended to quadratically increase the concentration of serum GH on d 14 (p = 0.082) and 28 (p = 0.087). Diets supplemented with increasing levels of chitosan increased quadratically the villus height of jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p = 0.089, p<0.01) and 28 (p = 0.074, p<0.01), meanwhile, chitosan increased quadratically the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p<0.05, p = 0.055, p<0.01) and 28 (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.01), however, it decreased quadratically crypt depth in ileum on d 14 (p<0.05) and that in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 28 (p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.05). In conclusion, these results indicated that chitosan could quadratically improve growth in weaned pigs, and the underlying mechanism may due to the increase of the serum GH concentration and improvement of the small intestines morphological structure.

  15. The effect of treatment duration on weaning weights in a cow-calf herd with a protracted severe outbreak of diarrhea in calves

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to describe a multiyear outbreak of calf diarrhea in an Alberta cow-calf herd and the impact of severe diarrhea on calf productivity. A retrospective analysis was performed through the use of detailed individual animal records and laboratory reports. The most significant laboratory finding was Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from the fecal samples of 2 ill members of the treatment crew and from 3 calves on postmortem examination. In 2002, at the peak of the outbreak, 90.3% (325/360) of the calves required treatment and 8.9% (32/360) of the calves died. In 2003, the severity of the problem had declined with only 20.9% (47/225) of the calves requiring treatment and 3.1% (7/225) of the calves dying. In both years, the weaning weights of treated calves were significantly reduced compared with those of nontreated calves. For calves weaned in 2002, after adjusting for the effect of calf sex, calves treated more than 6 times had 200-day adjusted weaning weights that were 15.2 kg (95% CI; 5.8 to 24.4 kg) lighter than of those calves treated only once or not at all (P = 0.0015, n = 321). For calves weaned in 2003, calves were 5.5 kg (95% CI; 0.23 to 10.8, P = 0.04, n = 207) lighter per treatment day with electrolytes, when calf sex and dam age were controlled for. Assuming that increased days of treatment or number of treatments is representative of disease severity, long-term calf performance is negatively affected by severe calfhood disease. The estimated lost revenue and treatment expenses, excluding the cost of labor, cow feed, and maintenance, was $22 800 in 2002 and $1589 in 2003. PMID:16018561

  16. Performance of Boer-Spanish and Spanish goats in Texas I: Body weights, fertility, prolificacy, and number of kids weaned.

    PubMed

    Rhone, J A; Waldron, D F; Herring, A D

    2013-10-01

    Production records from 291 Boer-Spanish and Spanish does, collected between 1994 and 2004 in the Edwards Plateau region of West Texas, were examined to compare Boer-Spanish and Spanish does for body weights, fertility, prolificacy, and number of kids weaned. Traits were analyzed using single-trait mixed models. Boer-Spanish does were heavier at birth than Spanish does (2.79 vs. 2.67 kg, P = 0.05) but similar weight at weaning (15.2 vs. 15.0 kg, P = 0.59). Boer-Spanish does had a heavier body weight at breeding than Spanish does (46.5 vs. 43.5 kg, P < 0.01). Boer-Spanish does had similar fertility over 8 annual breeding seasons (0.87 vs. 0.84, P = .22). Boer-Spanish does had an advantage over Spanish does for fertility to a 30-d breeding season (0.53 vs. 0.48; P = .09). Boer-Spanish does produced more kids than Spanish does (1.70 vs. 1.62, P = .09). Boer-Spanish does weaned a similar number of kids (1.30 vs. 1.31, P = .76). Age of doe significantly affected (P < 0.05) both number of kids born and number of kids weaned, with older does giving birth to, and weaning, more kids. Boer-Spanish does had greater birth weight, body weight at breeding, and number of kids born than Spanish does. Boer-Spanish does had a similar number of kids weaned as Spanish does.

  17. Genetic evaluation of weaning weight and probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic control of 120-day weaning weight and the probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee ewe lambs. Records of 5,967 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2012 and first exposed to rams for breeding at approximately 7 months of age were analyzed. Reco...

  18. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist during weaning from respiratory support in a case of guillain-barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dugernier, Jonathan; Bialais, Emilie; Reychler, Gregory; Vinetti, Marco; Hantson, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of Guillain-Barré syndrome complicated by respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) allowed proper patient-ventilator synchronization by pressure support proportional to the electrical activity of the diaphragm (Edi). Prolonged ventilation with NAVA seems feasible in patients with neuromuscular impairment, but the weaning process conducted by a continuous monitoring of Edi for pressure support titration needed to be assessed in a Guillain-Barré syndrome patient. Beginning on day 12 after hospital admission, the patient was ventilated with NAVA for 8 d. The NAVA level (pressure support per unit of Edi) was decreased from 1.2 cm H2O/μV to zero over the 8-d period. A simultaneous decrease in the tidal volume/Edi ratio was interpreted as a sign of recovery. A spontaneous breathing trial was successfully performed on day 20, followed by decannulation 4 d later. In conclusion, NAVA should be further investigated in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, particularly during the weaning period.

  19. Incorporating the sampling design in weighting adjustments for panel attrition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qixuan; Gelman, Andrew; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    We review weighting adjustment methods for panel attrition and suggest approaches for incorporating design variables, such as strata, clusters and baseline sample weights. Design information can typically be included in attrition analysis using multilevel models or decision tree methods such as the CHAID algorithm. We use simulation to show that these weighting approaches can effectively reduce bias in the survey estimates that would occur from omitting the effect of design factors on attrition while keeping the resulted weights stable. We provide a step-by-step illustration on creating weighting adjustments for panel attrition in the Galveston Bay Recovery Study, a survey of residents in a community following a disaster, and provide suggestions to analysts in decision making about weighting approaches. PMID:26239405

  20. Impact of initiating a fixed-time AI program on herd calving date and weaning weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved reproductive efficiency is critical for profitability in cow-calf operations. Cows that give birth early wean more pounds of calf and stay in the herd longer. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the impact of implementing a fixed time AI protocol in a herd that had a defined 6...

  1. Influence of season on birth weight and weaning age of indigenous Balami and imported Sudan Desert sheep in the Sahel region of Northeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaku, O.

    1985-06-01

    Data on birth weight and age at weaning for 1,092 (609 indigenous Balami and 483 imported Sudan Desert) sheep born from 1975 to 1979 in a Government farm near Maiduguri were analysed to study the influence of season on birth weight and age at weaning in sheep reared in the sahel region of Northeastern Nigeria. The suitability of the Sudan Desert for replacing or upgrading the indigenous Balami was considered. Season, breed, sex and type of birth significantly (P<0.001) influenced birth weight, age at weaning and the average daily gain from birth to weaning of lambs. Heaviest lambs were born during the rainy season-June August. Birth weight was lowest during the dry hot season. Balami lambs were heavier at birth and were weaned earlier with greater average daily gain than the Sudan Desert (P<0.001). Ram lambs were heavier at birth and had greater daily gain than the ewes (P<0.001). Also single-born lambs were heavier at birth and were weaned earlier (P<0.001) than twins. Twining rate in Balami was almost double that in the Sudanese. Survival tended to be greater in Sudanese than in Balami. Birth, twining and survival rates were highest for the dry cold season-born lambs. The dry cold season seems the best lambing season here. In all, the local Balami proved far superior in almost all traits considered. The use of the Sudan Desert here is definitely not econmically justifiable or rational.

  2. Estimates of genetic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits and weaning weight in Tabapuã cattle.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, P A; Grossi, D A; Savegnago, R P; Buzanskas, M E; Urbinati, I; Bezerra, L A F; Lôbo, R B; Munari, D P

    2015-11-01

    The Tabapuã breed is a beef cattle Brazilian breed known for its sexual precocity and desirable characteristics for tropical conditions. However, this is a newly formed breed and few studies have been conducted regarding genetic parameters and genetic trends for its reproductive traits. The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters, genetic trends, and relative selection efficiency for weaning weight adjusted to 210 d of age (W210), age at first calving (AFC), average calving interval (ACI), first calving interval (CI1), and accumulated productivity (ACP) among Tabapuã beef cattle. Pedigree data on 15,241 Tabapuã animals born between 1958 and 2011 and phenotype records from 7,340 cows born between 1970 and 2011 were supplied by the National Association of Breeders and Researchers (Associação Nacional de Criadores e Pesquisadores). Analysis through the least squares method assisted in defining the fixed effects that were considered within the models. The estimates for the genetic parameters were obtained through the REML, using a multitrait animal model. The likelihood ratio test applied for W210 was significant ( < 0.05) for the inclusion of maternal additive genetic and permanent environmental effects in the model. Genetic trends were calculated through linear regression of the EBV of the animals, according to the year of birth. The heritability estimates obtained ranged from 0.04 ± 0.03 for CI1 to 0.25 ± 0.05 for W210. The genetic correlations ranged from 0.004 ± 0.19 for W210-AFC and 0.93 ± 0.12 for ACI-CI1. The genetic trend was significant ( < 0.05) and favorable for CI1 and the maternal genetic effect of W210 and was significant ( < 0.05) and unfavorable for AFC, ACI, and ACP. The ACP could be used in the selection index to assist the breeding goal of improved productive and reproductive performance. The genetic trends indicated small and unfavorable genetic changes for AFC, ACI, and ACP in light of the recent

  3. Post-weaning isolation promotes food intake and body weight gain in rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Vitaly; Yoo, Sang Bae; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2009-10-27

    Neonatal maternal separation (MS) in rats has been reported to result in permanent dysfunctions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the development of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors later in life. In this study, we examined the effects of post-weaning social isolation stress on food intake and body weight gain of rats with MS experience. MS was performed daily for 180 min during the first 2 weeks of birth and nonhandled control (NH) pups were left undisturbed. Weanling male pups were caged either in a group of three or singly (social isolation), and then subjected to behavioral sessions for anxiety- or depression-like behaviors at 2 months of age. Social isolation following MS experience, but neither MS nor social isolation alone, significantly increased food intake and weight gain. MS pups showed increased immobility in forced swim test, compared to NH pups, regardless of their housing conditions. In elevated plus maze test, group-caged MS pups spent less time in the open arms and more time in the closed arms than group-caged NH pups, but social isolation did not further affect the arm stay of MS pups. However, statistical analyses revealed an interaction between MS and social isolation not only in the time spent in each arms, but also in defecation scores during the ambulatory activity test. These results suggest that post-weaning social isolation may promote hyperphagia and weight gain in young rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation, perhaps, in relation with its impact on the psycho-emotional behaviors of MS pups.

  4. Field trial to determine the impact of providing additional care to litters on weaning weight of pigs

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, Catherine E.; Gomes, Tara; Richardson, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this field trial was to determine if maximal care of pigs from birth until 16 d of age would result in a significant alteration in the survivorship and growth performance of the pigs compared with control pigs born in the same time period. Sows were randomly assigned to treatment group prior to farrowing. Control pigs received the standard, commercial farm care. In maximal care litters, pigs were dried off at farrowing, given a rubber mat in the creep area, and given electrolytes, chilled pigs were warmed and given colostrum or glucose, surgical instruments used for processing were dipped into an antiseptic between pigs, the castration wounds were sprayed with iodine, and sows were fed 3 times rather than twice a day. Pigs that received the maximal care weighed 170 g (+/− 80 g) more at 16 d of age than standard care pigs. Factors that reduced weight at 16 d included having a low birth weight, nursing a gilt or a parity 5–6 sow, nursing in a large litter, being clinically ill or being lame after 3 d of age, being cross-fostered and nursing an ill sow. In general, maximal care did not reduce mortality. Providing maximal care did improve weaning weights and enabled small birth weight pigs to reach 3.7 kg at 16 d of age. PMID:19086370

  5. Effects of exposure to a cafeteria diet during gestation and after weaning on the metabolism and body weight of adult male offspring in rats.

    PubMed

    Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Goularte, Jéferson Ferraz; de Araujo da Cunha, Ana Carla; Caceres, Rafael Corrêa; Noschang, Cristie; da Silva Benetti, Carla; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Sanvitto, Gilberto Luiz

    2014-04-28

    In the present study, we investigated whether maternal exposure to a cafeteria diet affects the metabolism and body composition of offspring and whether such an exposure has a cumulative effect during the lifetime of the offspring. Female rats were fed a control (CON) or a cafeteria (CAF) diet from their own weaning to the weaning of their offspring. At 21 d of age, male offspring were divided into four groups by diet during gestation and after weaning (CON-CON, CON-CAF, CAF-CON and CAF-CAF). Blood was collected from dams (after weaning) and pups (at 30 and 120 d of age) by decapitation. CAF dams had significantly greater body weight and adipose tissue weight and higher concentrations of total cholesterol, insulin and leptin than CON dams (Student's t test). The energy intake of CAF rats was higher than that of CON rats regardless of the maternal diet (two-way ANOVA). Litters had similar body weights at weaning and at 30 d of age, but at 120 d, CON-CAF rats were heavier. At both ages, CAF rats had greater adipose tissue weight than CON rats regardless of the maternal diet, and the concentrations of TAG and cholesterol were similar between the two groups, as were blood glucose concentrations at 30 d of age. However, at 120 d of age, CAF rats were hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and hyperleptinaemic regardless of the maternal diet. These findings suggest that maternal obesity does not modulate the metabolism of male offspring independently, modifying body weight only when associated with the intake of a cafeteria diet by the offspring.

  6. Inverse probability weighting for covariate adjustment in randomized studies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Changyu; Li, Xiaochun; Li, Lingling

    2014-02-20

    Covariate adjustment in randomized clinical trials has the potential benefit of precision gain. It also has the potential pitfall of reduced objectivity as it opens the possibility of selecting a 'favorable' model that yields strong treatment benefit estimate. Although there is a large volume of statistical literature targeting on the first aspect, realistic solutions to enforce objective inference and improve precision are rare. As a typical randomized trial needs to accommodate many implementation issues beyond statistical considerations, maintaining the objectivity is at least as important as precision gain if not more, particularly from the perspective of the regulatory agencies. In this article, we propose a two-stage estimation procedure based on inverse probability weighting to achieve better precision without compromising objectivity. The procedure is designed in a way such that the covariate adjustment is performed before seeing the outcome, effectively reducing the possibility of selecting a 'favorable' model that yields a strong intervention effect. Both theoretical and numerical properties of the estimation procedure are presented. Application of the proposed method to a real data example is presented.

  7. Age and body weight effects on glucose and insulin tolerance in colony cats maintained since weaning on high dietary carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Backus, R C; Cave, N J; Ganjam, V K; Turner, J B M; Biourge, V C

    2010-12-01

    High dietary carbohydrate is suggested to promote development of diabetes mellitus in cats. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion were assessed in young [0.8-2.3 (median = 1.1) years, n = 13] and mature [4.0-7.0 (median 5.8) years, n = 12] sexually intact females of a large (n ≅ 700) feline colony in which only dry-type diets (35% metabolizable energy as carbohydrate) were fed from weaning. Insulin sensitivity was assessed from the 'late-phase' (60-120 min) plasma insulin response of intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) and from fractional change in glycaemia from baseline 15 min after an insulin bolus (0.1 U/kg, i.v.). Insulin secretion was assessed from the 'early-phase' (0-15 min) plasma insulin response of IVGTTs. Compared to the young cats, the mature cats had greater body weights [2.3-3.8 (median = 2.9) vs. 3.0-6.3 (median = 4.0) kg, p < 0.01], greater late-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), lower insulin-induced glycaemic changes (p = 0.06), lower early-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), and non-significantly different rates of glucose disposal. The late-phase insulin response was correlated with body weight and age (p < 0.05). When group assignments were balanced for body weight, the age-group differences and correlations became non-significant. The findings indicate that body weight gain is more likely than dry-type diets to induce the pre-diabetic conditions of insulin resistance and secretion dysfunction.

  8. Age at Weaning and Infant Growth: Primary Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vail, Brennan; Prentice, Philippa; Dunger, David B.; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Ong, Ken K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether earlier age at weaning (age 3-6 months) may promote faster growth during infancy. Study design Weaning at age 3.0-7.0 months was reported by 571 mothers of term singletons in a prospective birth cohort study conducted in Cambridge, UK. Infant weight and length were measured at birth and at age 3 months and 12 months. Anthropometric values were transformed into age- and sex-adjusted z-scores. Three linear regression models were performed, including adjustment for confounders in a stepwise manner. Measurements at age 3 months, before weaning, were used to consider reverse causality. Results Almost three-quarters (72.9%) of infants were weaned before age 6 months. Age at weaning of 3.0-7.0 months was inversely associated with weight and length (but not with body mass index) at 12 months (both P ≤ .01, adjusted for maternal and demographic factors). These associations were attenuated after adjustment for type of milk feeding and weight or length at age 3 months (before weaning). Rapid weight gain between 0 and 3 months predicted subsequent earlier age at weaning (P = .01). Our systematic review identified 2 trials, both reporting null effects of age at weaning on growth, and 15 observational studies, with 10 reporting an inverse association between age at weaning and infant growth and 4 reporting evidence of reverse causality. Conclusion In high-income countries, weaning between 3 and 6 months appears to have a neutral effect on infant growth. Inverse associations are likely related to reverse causality. PMID:26073105

  9. A Divergent Artiodactyl MYADM-like Repeat Is Associated with Erythrocyte Traits and Weight of Lamb Weaned in Domestic Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Michael V.; Mousel, Michelle R.; Herndon, David R.; Jiang, Yu; Dalrymple, Brian P.; Reynolds, James O.; Johnson, Wendell C.; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M.; White, Stephen N.

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to investigate seven red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes in over 500 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from three breeds (Columbia, Polypay, and Rambouillet). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showed genome-wide significant association with increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, P = 6.2×10−14) and genome-wide suggestive association with decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV, P = 2.5×10−6). The ovine HapMap project found the same genomic region and the same peak SNP has been under extreme historical selective pressure, demonstrating the importance of this region for survival, reproduction, and/or artificially selected traits. We observed a large (>50 kb) variant haplotype sequence containing a full-length divergent artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat in strong linkage disequilibrium with the associated SNP. MYADM gene family members play roles in membrane organization and formation in myeloid cells. However, to our knowledge, no member of the MYADM gene family has been identified in development of morphologically variant RBCs. The specific RBC differences may be indicative of alterations in morphology. Additionally, erythrocytes with altered morphological structure often exhibit increased structural fragility, leading to increased RBC turnover and energy expenditure. The divergent artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat was also associated with increased ewe lifetime kilograms of lamb weaned (P = 2×10−4). This suggests selection for normal RBCs might increase lamb weights, although further validation is required before implementation in marker-assisted selection. These results provide clues to explain the strong selection on the artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat locus in sheep, and suggest MYADM family members may be important for RBC morphology in other mammals. PMID:24023702

  10. A divergent Artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat is associated with erythrocyte traits and weight of lamb weaned in domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Michael V; Mousel, Michelle R; Herndon, David R; Jiang, Yu; Dalrymple, Brian P; Reynolds, James O; Johnson, Wendell C; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; White, Stephen N

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to investigate seven red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes in over 500 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from three breeds (Columbia, Polypay, and Rambouillet). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showed genome-wide significant association with increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, P = 6.2×10(-14)) and genome-wide suggestive association with decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV, P = 2.5×10(-6)). The ovine HapMap project found the same genomic region and the same peak SNP has been under extreme historical selective pressure, demonstrating the importance of this region for survival, reproduction, and/or artificially selected traits. We observed a large (>50 kb) variant haplotype sequence containing a full-length divergent artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat in strong linkage disequilibrium with the associated SNP. MYADM gene family members play roles in membrane organization and formation in myeloid cells. However, to our knowledge, no member of the MYADM gene family has been identified in development of morphologically variant RBCs. The specific RBC differences may be indicative of alterations in morphology. Additionally, erythrocytes with altered morphological structure often exhibit increased structural fragility, leading to increased RBC turnover and energy expenditure. The divergent artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat was also associated with increased ewe lifetime kilograms of lamb weaned (P = 2×10(-4)). This suggests selection for normal RBCs might increase lamb weights, although further validation is required before implementation in marker-assisted selection. These results provide clues to explain the strong selection on the artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat locus in sheep, and suggest MYADM family members may be important for RBC morphology in other mammals.

  11. Genotype by production environment interaction for birth and weaning weights in a population of composite beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Eler, J P; Bignardi, A B; Ferraz, J B S

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of the present study were: (1) to evaluate the importance of genotype × production environment interaction for the genetic evaluation of birth weight (BW) and weaning weight (WW) in a population of composite beef cattle in Brazil, and (2) to investigate the importance of sire × contemporary group interaction (S × CG) to model G × E and improve the accuracy of prediction in routine genetic evaluations of this population. Analyses were performed with one, two (favorable and unfavorable) or three (favorable, intermediate, unfavorable) different definitions of production environments. Thus, BW and WW records of animals in a favorable environment were assigned to either trait 1, in an intermediate environment to trait 2 or in an unfavorable environment to trait 3. The (co)variance components were estimated using Gibbs sampling in single-, bi- or three-trait animal models according to the definition of number of production environments. In general, the estimates of genetic parameters for BW and WW were similar between environments. The additive genetic correlations between production environments were close to unity for BW; however, when examining the highest posterior density intervals, the correlation between favorable and unfavorable environments reached a value of only 0.70, a fact that may lead to changes in the ranking of sires across environments. The posterior mean genetic correlation between direct effects was 0.63 in favorable and unfavorable environments for WW. When S × CG was included in two- or three-trait analyses, all direct genetic correlations were close to unity, suggesting that there was no evidence of a genotype × production environment interaction. Furthermore, the model including S × CG contributed to prevent overestimation of the accuracy of breeding values of sires, provided a lower error of prediction for both direct and maternal breeding values, lower squared bias, residual variance and deviance information criterion than

  12. Combining Study Outcome Measures Using Dominance Adjusted Weights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makambi, Kepher H.; Lu, Wenxin

    2013-01-01

    Weighting of studies in meta-analysis is usually implemented by using the estimated inverse variances of treatment effect estimates. However, there is a possibility of one study dominating other studies in the estimation process by taking on a weight that is above some upper limit. We implement an estimator of the heterogeneity variance that takes…

  13. 7 CFR 981.401 - Adjusted kernel weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall mean the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds: Less weight of containers; less moisture of... material, 350 grams, and moisture content of kernels, seven percent. Excess moisture is two percent. The...: Edible kernels, 840 grams; inedible kernels, 120 grams; foreign material, 40 grams; and moisture...

  14. 7 CFR 981.401 - Adjusted kernel weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall mean the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds: Less weight of containers; less moisture of... material, 350 grams, and moisture content of kernels, seven percent. Excess moisture is two percent. The...: Edible kernels, 840 grams; inedible kernels, 120 grams; foreign material, 40 grams; and moisture...

  15. 7 CFR 981.401 - Adjusted kernel weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall mean the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds: Less weight of containers; less moisture of... material, 350 grams, and moisture content of kernels, seven percent. Excess moisture is two percent. The...: Edible kernels, 840 grams; inedible kernels, 120 grams; foreign material, 40 grams; and moisture...

  16. 7 CFR 981.401 - Adjusted kernel weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall mean the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds: Less weight of containers; less moisture of... material, 350 grams, and moisture content of kernels, seven percent. Excess moisture is two percent. The...: Edible kernels, 840 grams; inedible kernels, 120 grams; foreign material, 40 grams; and moisture...

  17. 7 CFR 981.401 - Adjusted kernel weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall mean the actual gross weight of any lot of almonds: Less weight of containers; less moisture of... material, 350 grams, and moisture content of kernels, seven percent. Excess moisture is two percent. The...: Edible kernels, 840 grams; inedible kernels, 120 grams; foreign material, 40 grams; and moisture...

  18. Maternal low-dose porcine somatotropin treatment in late gestation increases progeny weight at birth and weaning in sows but not in gilts.

    PubMed

    Gatford, K L; Smits, R J; Collins, C L; De Blasio, M J; Roberts, C T; Nottle, M B; van Wettere, W H E J; Kind, K L; Owens, J A

    2012-05-01

    Birth weight positively predicts postnatal growth and performance in pigs and can be increased by sustained maternal porcine ST (pST) treatment from d 25 to 100 of pregnancy (term ∼115 d). The objective of this study was to test whether a shorter period of maternal pST treatment in late pregnancy (d 75 to 100) could also increase birth and weaning weights of progeny under commercial conditions. Gilts (parity 0) and sows (parities 2 and 3) were not injected (controls) or injected daily with pST (gilts: 2.5 mg•d(-1), sows: 4.0 mg•d(-1), both ∼13 to 14 μg•kg(-1)•d(-1)) from d 75 to 100 of pregnancy. Litter size and BW were recorded at birth and weaning, and dams were followed through the subsequent mating and pregnancy. Maternal pST injections from d 75 to 100 increased litter average progeny weight at birth (+96 g, P = 0.034) and weaning (+430 g, P = 0.038) in sows, but had no effect on progeny weight in gilts (each P > 0.5). Maternal pST treatment did not affect numbers of live-born piglets and increased numbers of stillborn piglets in sows only (+0.4 pigs/litter, P = 0.034). Maternal pST treatment did not affect subsequent reproduction of dams. Together with our previous data, these results suggest that sustained increases in maternal pST are required to increase fetal and postnatal growth in gilt progeny, but that increasing maternal pST in late pregnancy may only be an effective strategy to increase fetal and possibly postnatal growth in sow progeny.

  19. A randomized clinical trial of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist versus conventional weaning mode in patients with COPD and prolonged mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Nai-Ying; Tu, Mei-Lien; Hung, Tsai-Yi; Liu, Shih-Feng; Chung, Yu-Hsiu; Lin, Meng-Chih; Wu, Chao-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-ventilator asynchrony is a common problem in mechanically ventilated patients; the problem is especially obvious in COPD. Neutrally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) can improve patient-ventilator asynchrony; however, the effect in COPD patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation is still unknown. The goals of this study are to evaluate the effect of NAVA and conventional weaning mode in patients with COPD during prolonged mechanical ventilation. Methods The study enrolled a total of 33 COPD patients with ventilator dependency for more than 21 days in the weaning center. A diaphragm electrical activity (Edi) catheter was inserted in patients within 24 hours after admission to the respiratory care center, and patients were randomly allocated to NAVA or conventional group. A spontaneous breathing trial was performed every 24 hours. The results correlated with the clinical parameters. Results There were significantly higher asynchrony incidence rates in the whole group after using Edi catheter (before vs post-Edi catheter insertion =60.6% vs 87.9%, P<0.001). Asynchrony index: before vs post-Edi catheter insertion =7.4%±8.5% vs 13.2%±13.5%, P<0.01. Asynchrony incidence: NAVA vs conventional =0% vs 84.2%, P<0.001. Asynchrony index: NAVA vs conventional =0 vs 11.9±11.2 (breath %), P<0.001. The most common asynchrony events were ineffective trigger and delayed trigger. Conclusion Compared to conventional mode, NAVA mode can significantly enhance respiratory monitoring and improve patient-ventilator interaction in COPD patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation in respiratory care center. PMID:27274216

  20. Field Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Oral Toltrazuril and Iron Combination (Baycox® Iron) in Maintaining Weaning Weight by Preventing Coccidiosis and Anaemia in Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Streyl, Kristina; Carlstron, Janaina; Dantos, Eliana; Mendoza, Roberto; Islas, Juan Agustin Torres; Bhushan, Chandra

    2015-08-01

    Effectiveness of an oral combination of toltrazuril and iron dextran (Baycox(®) Iron) to maintain weaning weight by preventing coccidiosis caused by Isospora suis and iron-deficiency anaemia in neonatal piglets was investigated on three commercial pig farms with a history of coccidiosis: two in Mexico and one in Brazil. On day (SD) 2 of life, piglets were randomised within litter by bodyweight to treatment or control group. On SD 3 piglets allocated to the control group (CG) each received 1 mL Baycox(®), containing 50 mg/mL toltrazuril orally and commercially available iron (200 mg/piglet) by intramuscular injection. Piglets allocated to the treatment group (TG) each received 1 mL toltrazuril and iron combination orally (Baycox(®) Iron) containing 50 mg/mL toltrazuril and 228 mg iron as iron dextran. All piglets had access to creep feed. 6493 piglets completed the study. Bodyweight at weaning on SD 21 of piglets treated with the oral toltrazuril and iron combination was confirmed to be non-inferior to the control treatment with <1 % difference between group mean body weights. Faecal samples from at least 10 % of litters on SD 14 demonstrated control of coccidiosis. Haemoglobin levels on SD 21 were lower in the oral toltrazuril and iron combination treated piglets compared to control levels but above minimum haemoglobin levels to maintain health. There was no difference in mortality between the two groups. This large scale field evaluation clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of oral toltrazuril and iron (Baycox(®) Iron) in maintaining body weight at weaning compared to conventional treatment. The combination was effective in preventing coccidiosis and anaemia and thus provides a valuable alternative that reduces stressful events in neonatal piglets. There were no product related adverse events.

  1. 9 CFR 442.3 - Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scale requirements for accurate... PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCURATE WEIGHTS § 442.3 Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection. (a) All scales used to determine the net weight of meat...

  2. 9 CFR 442.3 - Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scale requirements for accurate... PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCURATE WEIGHTS § 442.3 Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection. (a) All scales used to determine the net weight of meat...

  3. 9 CFR 442.3 - Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scale requirements for accurate... PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCURATE WEIGHTS § 442.3 Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection. (a) All scales used to determine the net weight of meat...

  4. 9 CFR 442.3 - Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scale requirements for accurate... PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCURATE WEIGHTS § 442.3 Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection. (a) All scales used to determine the net weight of meat...

  5. 9 CFR 442.3 - Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scale requirements for accurate... PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCURATE WEIGHTS § 442.3 Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection. (a) All scales used to determine the net weight of meat...

  6. The relationship of cow size and calf birth weight to calf weaning weight in a commercial Brangus cow/calf operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profitability and sustainability of cow/calf operations are dependent on cow efficiency. Annual forage consumption is a logical input component included in cow efficiency models and large cows generally consume more forage annually than small cows. The ratio of additional kg of calf weaning BW to ea...

  7. 9 CFR 201.71 - Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scales; accurate weights, repairs... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.71 Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection. (a) All scales used by stockyard owners,...

  8. 9 CFR 201.71 - Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scales; accurate weights, repairs... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.71 Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection. (a) All scales used by stockyard owners,...

  9. 9 CFR 201.71 - Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scales; accurate weights, repairs... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.71 Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection. (a) All scales used by stockyard owners,...

  10. 9 CFR 201.71 - Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scales; accurate weights, repairs... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.71 Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection. (a) All scales used by stockyard owners,...

  11. 9 CFR 201.71 - Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scales; accurate weights, repairs... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.71 Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection. (a) All scales used by stockyard owners,...

  12. Increasing vitamin A in post-weaning diets reduces food intake and body weight and modifies gene expression in brains of male rats born to dams fed a high multivitamin diet.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Cho, Clara E; Kubant, Ruslan; Reza-López, Sandra A; Poon, Abraham N; Wang, Jingzhou; Huot, Pedro S P; Smith, Christopher E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-10-01

    High multivitamin gestational diets (HV, 10-fold AIN-93G levels) increase body weight (BW) and food intake (FI) in rat offspring weaned to a recommended multivitamin (RV), but not to a HV diet. We hypothesized that high vitamin A (HA) alone, similar to HV, in post-weaning diets would prevent these effects of the HV maternal diet consistent with gene expression in FI and reward pathways. Male offspring from dams fed HV diets were weaned to a high vitamin A (HA, 10-fold AIN-93G levels), HV or RV diet for 29 weeks. BW, FI, expression of genes involved in regulation of FI and reward and global and gene-specific DNA methylation of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus were measured. Both HV and HA diets slowed post-weaning weight gain and modified gene expression in offspring compared to offspring fed an RV post-weaning diet. Hypothalamic POMC expression in HA offspring was not different from either HV or RV, and dopamine receptor 1 was 30% (P<.05) higher in HA vs. HV, but not different from RV group. Hippocampal expression of serotonin receptor 1A (40%, P<.01), dopamine receptor 2 (40%, P<.05) and dopamine receptor 5 (70%, P<.0001) was greater in HA vs. RV fed pups and is 40% (P<.01), 50% (P<.05) and 40% (P<.0001) in HA vs. HV pups, respectively. POMC DNA methylation was lower in HA vs. RV offspring (P<.05). We conclude that high vitamin A in post-weaning diets reduces post-weaning weight gain and FI and modifies gene expression in FI and reward pathways.

  13. Weaning Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for…

  14. Marginal Mean Weighting through Stratification: Adjustment for Selection Bias in Multilevel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Guanglei

    2010-01-01

    Defining causal effects as comparisons between marginal population means, this article introduces marginal mean weighting through stratification (MMW-S) to adjust for selection bias in multilevel educational data. The article formally shows the inherent connections among the MMW-S method, propensity score stratification, and…

  15. Dose-response trend tests for tumorigenesis, adjusted for body weight.

    PubMed

    Gaylor, D W; Kodell, R L

    1999-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a relationship between rodent body weight and tumor incidence for some tissue/organ sites. It is not uncommon for a chemical tested for carcinogenicity to also affect body weight. In such cases, comparisons of tumor incidence may be biased by body-weight differences across dose groups. A simple procedure was investigated for reducing this bias. This procedure divides the animals into a few groups based on body weight. Body weight at 12 months was used, before the appearance of a tumor was likely to affect body weight. Statistics for dose-response trend tests are calculated within body weight strata and pooled to obtain an overall dose-response trend test. This procedure is analogous to that currently used, of stratifying animals, based on their age at the time of removal from a study. Age stratification is used to account for differences in animal age across dose groups, which can affect comparisons of tumor incidence. Several examples were investigated where the high-dose group had reduced body weights and associated reductions in tumor incidence. When the data were analyzed by body-weight strata, some positive dose-response trends for tumor incidence were demonstrated. In one case, the weight-adjusted analysis indicated that a negative dose-response trend in tumor incidence was a real effect, in addition to a body weight reduction. These examples indicate that it is important to consider the effects of body weight changes as low as 10%, and perhaps below, that were caused by chemicals in 2-year bioassays for carcinogenesis. The simple procedure of analyzing tumor incidence within body-weight strata can reduce the bias introduced by weight differences across dose groups.

  16. Effects of 20-day litter weight on weaned piglets’ fighting behavior after group mixing and on heart rate variability in an isolation test

    PubMed Central

    Sun, YaNan; Lian, XinMing; Bo, YuKun; Guo, YuGuang; Yan, PeiShi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 20-day litter weight on behavior and heart rate variability (HRV) of piglets under stress. Methods Forty four original litters were categorized as high litter weight (HW) litters (n = 22) and low litter weight (LW) litters (n = 22) by 20-day litter weight. From each original HW litter, three males and three females were randomly selected after weaning and the 12 piglets from two original litters with similar age of days were regrouped into one new high litter weight (NHW) litter (11 NHW litters in total). The original LW litters were treated with a same program, so that there were 11 new low litter weight (NLW) litters as well. The latencies to first fighting, fighting frequencies and duration within three hours were recorded after regrouping and the lesions on body surface within 48 hours were scored. Besides, HR (heart rate, bpm, beats per minute) and activity count (ACT), time domain indexes and frequency domain indexes of the piglets were measured in an isolation trial to analyze the discrepancy in coping with stress between the original HW and LW litters. Results The results exhibited that piglets from the HW litters launched fighting sooner and got statistically higher skin lesion score than those from the LW litters (p = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). Regarding the HRV detection, compared with the HW litters, the LW litters exhibited a lower mean HR (p<0.05). In the isolation test, a highly significant higher ACT value was observed between the HW litters, compared to the LW litters (p<0.01). Significant differences were observed in standard deviation of R-R intervals, standard deviation of all normal to normal intervals, and most frequency-domain indicators: very low-frequency, low-frequency, and high frequency between the HW and LW litters as well. The difference in LF:HF was not significant (p = 0.779). Conclusion This study suggests that compared with litters of low 20-day litter

  17. Pattern Recognition Using Carbon Nanotube Synaptic Transistors with an Adjustable Weight Update Protocol.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho; Choi, Bongsik; Lim, Meehyun; Yoon, Jinsu; Lee, Juhee; Kim, Hee-Dong; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2017-03-28

    Recent electronic applications require an efficient computing system that can perform data processing with limited energy consumption. Inspired by the massive parallelism of the human brain, a neuromorphic system (hardware neural network) may provide an efficient computing unit to perform such tasks as classification and recognition. However, the implementation of synaptic devices (i.e., the essential building blocks for emulating the functions of biological synapses) remains challenging due to their uncontrollable weight update protocol and corresponding uncertain effects on the operation of the system, which can lead to a bottleneck in the continuous design and optimization. Here, we demonstrate a synaptic transistor based on highly purified, preseparated 99% semiconducting carbon nanotubes, which can provide adjustable weight update linearity and variation margin. The pattern recognition efficacy is validated using a device-to-system level simulation framework. The enlarged margin rather than the linear weight update can enhance the fault tolerance of the recognition system, which improves the recognition accuracy.

  18. Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions.

  19. Weaning Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weaning is when a baby transitions from breast milk to other sources of nourishment. When to wean ... of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends feeding babies only breast milk for the first 6 months of life. After ...

  20. Dose-Weighted Adjusted Mantel-Haenszel Tests for Numeric Scaled Strata in a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gansky, Stuart A.; Cheng, Nancy F.; Koch, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    A recent three-arm parallel groups randomized clinical prevention trial had a protocol deviation causing participants to have fewer active doses of an in-office treatment than planned. The original statistical analysis plan stipulated a minimal assumption randomization-based extended Mantel-Haenszel (EMH) trend test of the high frequency, low frequency, and zero frequency treatment groups and a binary outcome. Thus a dose-weighted adjusted EMH (DWAEMH) test was developed with an extra set of weights corresponding to the number of active doses actually available, in the spirit of a pattern mixture model. The method can easily be implemented using standard statistical software. A set of Monte Carlo simulations using a logistic model was undertaken with (and without) actual dose-response effects through 1000 replicates for empirical power estimates (and 2100 for empirical size). Results showed size was maintained and power was improved for DWAEMH versus EMH and logistic regression Wald tests in the presence of a dose effect and treatment by dose interaction. PMID:21709814

  1. Weaning infants with respiratory syncytial virus from mechanical ventilation through a fuzzy-logic controller.

    PubMed

    Olliver, S; Davis, G M; Hatzakis, G E

    2003-01-01

    We have previously developed a fuzzy logic controller for weaning adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pressure support ventilation (PSV). We used the core of our fuzzy logic-based weaning platform and further developed parametrizable components for weaning newborns of differing body size and disease-state. The controller was validated on neonates recovering from congenital heart disease (CHD) while receiving synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV). We wished to compare the efficacy of this controller versus the bedside weaning protocol in children with respiratory syncytial virus pneumonitis/bronchiolitis (RSV) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The fuzzy controller evaluated the "current" and "trend" weaning status of the newborn to quantitatively determine the change in the SIMV integrated ventilatory setting. For the "current" status it used heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume (VT) and oxygen saturation (SaO2), while for the "trend" status the differences of deltaRR/ deltat, deltaHR/ deltat, and deltaSaO2/ deltat recorded between two subsequent time points were utilized. The enumerated vital signs were fuzzified and then probability levels of occurrence were assigned. Individualized "golden" goals for SaO2 were set for each newborn. We retrospectively assessed the charts of 19 newborns, 113+/-128 days old, 5,546+/-2,321 gr body weight, weaning for 99+/-46 days, at 2-hour intervals. The SIMV levels proposed by the fuzzy controller were matched to those levels actually applied. In 60% of the time both values coincided. For the remaining 40%, the controller was more aggressive suggesting lower values of SIMV than the applied ones. The Area under the SIMV curves over time was 1,969+/-1,044 for the applied vs 1,886+/-978 for the suggested levels, respectively. The fuzzy controller adjusted for body size and disease-pattern can approximate the actual weaning course of newborns with RSV.

  2. Outcomes for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia dosed on actual or adjusted body weight

    PubMed Central

    Bivona, Cory; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, Dave; Grauer, Dennis; Abhyankar, Sunil; Aljitawi, Omar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; McGuirk, Joseph; Singh, Anurag; Lin, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data from solid tumor malignancies suggest that actual body weight (ABW) dosing improves overall outcomes. There is the potential to compromise efficacy when chemotherapy dosages are reduced, but the impact of dose adjustment on clinical response and toxicity in hematologic malignancies is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of utilizing a percent of ABW for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induction chemotherapy dosing. Methods This retrospective, single-center study included 146 patients who received 7 + 3 induction (cytarabine and anthracycline) for treatment of AML. Study design evaluated the relationship between percentage of ABW dosing and complete response (CR) rates in patients newly diagnosed with AML. Results Percentage of ABW dosing did not influence CR rates in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for AML (p = 0.83); nor did it influence rate of death at 30 days or relapse at 6 months (p = 0.94). When comparing patients dosed at 90–100 % of ABW compared to <90 % ABW, CR rates were not significantly different in patients classified as poor risk (p = 0.907). All favorable risk category patients obtained CR. Conclusions Preemptive dose reductions for obesity did not influence CR rates for patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy and did not influence the composite endpoint of death at 30 days or disease relapse at 6 months. PMID:26231954

  3. Applications of the propensity score weighting method in psychogeriatric research: correcting selection bias and adjusting for confounders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Chou H

    2017-05-01

    The propensity score (PS) weighting method is an analytic technique that has been applied in multiple fields for a number of purposes. Here, we discuss two common applications, which are (1) to correct for selection bias and (2) to adjust for confounding variables when estimating the effect of an exposure variable on the outcome of interest.

  4. Patient Factors Associated with Undergoing Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding vs Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Apovian, Caroline M; Huskey, Karen W; Chiodi, Sarah; Hess, Donald T; Schneider, Benjamin E; Blackburn, George L; Jones, Daniel B; Wee, Christina C

    2013-01-01

    Background Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding are two commonly performed bariatric procedures in the US with different profiles for risk and effectiveness. Little is known about factors that might lead patients to proceed with one procedure over the other. Study Design We recruited and interviewed patients seeking bariatric surgery from 2 academic centers in Boston (response rate 70%). We conducted multivariable analyses to identify patient perceptions and clinical and behavioral characteristics that correlated with undergoing gastric banding (n=237) versus gastric bypass (n=298). Results After adjustment for sociodemographic and clinical factors, we found that older patients [OR 1.03 (95 % CI1.00-1.05)] and those with higher quality of life (QOL) scores and higher levels of uncontrolled eating were more likely to undergo gastric banding as opposed to gastric bypass. In contrast, patients with type 2 diabetes [0.46 (0.28,0.77)those who desired greater weight loss, and those who were willing to assume higher mortality risk to achieve their ideal weight were less likely to proceed with gastric banding. After initial adjustment, male sex and lower BMI were associated with likelihood to undergo gastric banding; however, these factors were no longer significant after adjustment for other significant correlates such as patients' perceived ideal weight, predilection to assume risk to lose weight, and eating behavior. Conclusions Patients' diabetes status, quality of life, eating behavior, ideal weight loss, and willingness to assume mortality risk to lose weight were associated with whether patients proceeded with gastric banding as opposed to gastric bypass. Other clinical factors were less important. PMID:24083911

  5. Correction Equations to Adjust Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected…

  6. A Proportional Hazards Regression Model for the Sub-distribution with Covariates Adjusted Censoring Weight for Competing Risks Data

    PubMed Central

    HE, PENG; ERIKSSON, FRANK; SCHEIKE, THOMAS H.; ZHANG, MEI-JIE

    2015-01-01

    With competing risks data, one often needs to assess the treatment and covariate effects on the cumulative incidence function. Fine and Gray proposed a proportional hazards regression model for the subdistribution of a competing risk with the assumption that the censoring distribution and the covariates are independent. Covariate-dependent censoring sometimes occurs in medical studies. In this paper, we study the proportional hazards regression model for the subdistribution of a competing risk with proper adjustments for covariate-dependent censoring. We consider a covariate-adjusted weight function by fitting the Cox model for the censoring distribution and using the predictive probability for each individual. Our simulation study shows that the covariate-adjusted weight estimator is basically unbiased when the censoring time depends on the covariates, and the covariate-adjusted weight approach works well for the variance estimator as well. We illustrate our methods with bone marrow transplant data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). Here cancer relapse and death in complete remission are two competing risks. PMID:27034534

  7. Neurally adjusted ventilator assist in very low birth weight infants: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Narchi, Hassib; Chedid, Fares

    2015-01-01

    Continuous improvements in perinatal care have resulted in increased survival of premature infants. Their immature lungs are prone to injury with mechanical ventilation and this may develop into chronic lung disease (CLD) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strategies to minimize the risk of lung injury have been developed and include improved antenatal management (education, regionalization, steroids, and antibiotics), exogenous surfactant administration and reduction of barotrauma by using exclusive or early noninvasive ventilatory support. The most frequently used mode of assisted ventilation is pressure support ventilation that may lead to patient-ventilator asynchrony that is associated with poor outcome. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction or disuse atrophy of diaphragm fibers may also occur. This has led to the development of new ventilation modes including neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). This ventilation mode is controlled by electrodes embedded within a nasogastric catheter which detect the electrical diaphragmatic activity (Edi) and transmit it to trigger the ventilator in synchrony with the patient’s own respiratory efforts. This permits the patient to control peak inspiratory pressure, mean airway pressure and tidal volume. Back up pressure control (PC) is provided when there is no Edi signal and no pneumatic trigger. Compared with standard conventional ventilation, NAVA improves blood gas regulation with lower peak inspiratory pressure and oxygen requirements in preterm infants. NAVA is safe mode of ventilation. The majority of studies have shown no significant adverse events in neonates ventilated with NAVA nor a difference in the rate of intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, or necrotizing enterocolitis when compared to conventional ventilation. Future large size randomized controlled trials should be established to compare NAVA with volume targeted and pressure controlled ventilation in newborns with mature respiratory drive

  8. Adjusting Measured Weight Loss of Aged Graphite Fabric/PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the growth of the surface damage layer in polymer matrix composites (PMC's) fabricated with graphite fabric reinforcement and to determine the effects of the cut-surface degradation on the overall thermo-oxidative (TOS) stability of these materials. Four important conclusions were made about the TOS behavior of T650-35/PNIR- 15 fabric-reinforced composites: (1) Three stages of composite weight loss were seen on the plot of weight loss versus aging time; (2) the depth of the cut-edge damage is related to the composite thickness; (3) the actual weight loss realized by a mechanical test specimen that has had all the aging-induced cut-edge damage removed during the preparation process is significantly less than the weight loss measured using specimens with a high percentage of cut edges exposed to the damaging environment; and (4) an extrapolation of a section of the weight loss curve can be used to obtain a more correct estimate of the actual weight loss after extended periods of aging at elevated temperatures.

  9. Dietary Fat Preference and Effects on Performance of Piglets at Weaning.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ruey-Chee

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the interplay of dietary lipid sources and feeding regime in the transition from sow milk to solid food of abruptly weaned piglets. 144 weaned piglets were trained over a 15 day period to experience gradually reducing dietary fat content from 12% to 6% for lard (L), soybean oil (S) and coconut oil (C) and their feeding behavior and diet preference then tested in a behavior observation experiment. Another 324 weaned piglets were used in three consecutive feeding experiments to measure the effect of different dietary fats on performance and feed choice in the four weeks after abrupt weaning. The lipid sources were used as supplements in a 3% crude fat corn/soya basal diet, with 6% of each being included to form diets 9C, 9S and 9L respectively, and their effects on performance measured. Combinations of these diets were then further compared in fixed blends or free choice selection experiments. In experiment 1, piglets pre-trained to experience reducing lipid inclusion showed different subsequent preferences according to lipid source, with a preference for lard at 9%, soybean oil at 3% and coconut oil at 6% inclusion rate (P<0.001). Following abrupt weaning, piglets that were fed with 9C and 9L had similar, heavier body weights at 3rd week of age, than those fed 9L, whilst after 4 weeks those fed 9C had the heaviest body weights (18.13 kg, p=0.006). Piglets fed a fixed 1:1 blend of 9C+9S had a poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR=1.80) than those fed a blend of 9C+9L (FCR=1.4). The 9C and 9L combination groups showed better performance in both fixed blend and free choice feeding regimes. Free choice combination showed higher FCR than their equivalent fixed blends, with the exception of the 9C and 9S groups. In summary, piglets can select and adjust suitable lipid sources. After abrupt weaning, they still have dependence on high oleic acid lipids as found in sow milk. They are also attracted to lipids with high short

  10. Effect of birth weight on adulthood renal function: A bias-adjusted meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Mannan, Munim; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Ahmed, Tahmeed; McIntyre, Harold David; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    While the association between low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) and development of adult chronic renal disease (CKD) is inconsistently reported, less information is available regarding association of high birth weight (HBW; ≥4000 g) with CKD. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies published before 30 September 2015 and report associations between birth weight and renal function. Blood (glomerular filtration rate (GFR)) and urine (microalbuminuria/albumin excreation rate (AER)/urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR)) parameters were used to define CKD. Three different effect size estimates were used (odds ratio, regression coefficient and mean difference). The odds of developing CKD in the life course among those born LBW was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.20) times and 1.68 (1.27, 2.33) times, assessed by blood and urine parameters respectively. Higher risk was also observed among Asian and Australian populations (blood: OR 2.68; urine: OR 2.28), individuals aged ≤30 years (blood: OR 2.30; urine: OR 1.26), and ≥50 years (blood: OR 3.66; urine: OR 3.10), people with diabetes (blood: OR 2.51), and aborigines (urine: OR 2.32). There was no significant association between HBW and CKD. For every 1 kg increase in BW, the estimated GFR increased by 2.09 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (1.33-2.85), and it was negatively associated with LogACR (ß -0.07, 95% CI: -0.14, 0.00). LBW inborn had lower mean GFR -4.62 (-7.10, -2.14) compared with normal BW. Findings of this study suggest that LBW increased the risk of developing CKD, and HBW did not show any significant impact.

  11. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass, Adjustable Gastric Banding and Non-Surgical Weight Loss Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Leon; Devlin, Allison; Sullivan, Sean D.; Flum, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Setting Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) are the two most commonly performed bariatric procedures. While both procedures likely reduce healthcare expenditures related to the resolution of comorbid conditions, they have different rates of perioperative risks and differential rates of associated weight loss. Objective We designed a model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness (ICER) of these procedures compared to non-operative weight loss interventions and to each other. Methods Deterministic, payer-perspective model comparing the lifetime expected costs and outcomes of LAGB, LRYGB and non-surgical treatment. The major endpoints were survival, health related quality of life and weight loss. Life expectancy and lifetime medical costs were calculated across age, sex and body mass index (BMI) strata using previously published data. Results For both men and women LRYGB and LAGB were cost-effective at less than $25,000/QALY even when evaluating the full range of baseline BMI and estimates of adverse outcomes, weight loss and costs. For base-case scenarios in men (age 35, BMI 40) the ICER was $11,604 per QALY for LAGB, compared to $18,543 per QALY for LRYGB. For base-case scenarios in women (age 35, BMI 40) the ICER was $8,878 per QALY for LAGB, compared to $14,680 per QALY for LRYGB. Conclusions Modeled cost-effectiveness analysis showed that both operative interventions for morbid obesity, LAGB and RYGB, were cost-effective at less than $25,000, and LAGB was more cost-effective than RYGB for all the base-case scenarios. PMID:18069075

  12. Use of inverse probability weighting to adjust for non-participation in estimating brain volumes in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Haapea, Marianne; Veijola, Juha; Tanskanen, Päivikki; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Isohanni, Matti; Miettunen, Jouko

    2011-12-30

    Low participation is a potential source of bias in population-based studies. This article presents use of inverse probability weighting (IPW) in adjusting for non-participation in estimation of brain volumes among subjects with schizophrenia. Altogether 101 schizophrenia subjects and 187 non-psychotic comparison subjects belonging to the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort were invited to participate in a field study during 1999-2001. Volumes of grey matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were compared between the 54 participating schizophrenia subjects and 100 comparison subjects. IPW by illness-related auxiliary variables did not affect the estimated GM and WM mean volumes, but increased the estimated CSF mean volume in schizophrenia subjects. When adjusted for intracranial volume and family history of psychosis, IPW led to smaller estimated GM and WM mean volumes. Especially IPW by a disability pension and a higher amount of hospitalisation due to psychosis had effect on estimated mean brain volumes. The IPW method can be used to improve estimates affected by non-participation by reflecting the true differences in the target population.

  13. Difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Oh, T E

    1994-07-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation may be influenced by factors relating to equipment, techniques and procedures. Criteria to initiate weaning and predictors of weaning outcome are generally unreliable, but mechanical work of breathing, the tidal volume: frequency ratio and the inspiratory pressure: maximal inspiratory pressure ratio may anticipate those likely to fail weaning. The optimal weaning ventilatory mode is not known, but intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure support ventilation, and continuous positive pressure ventilation are the most commonly used. The resistances of individual components of breathing circuits are extremely important. Blow-by heated humidifiers and ventilators which compensate for the impedances of their inspiratory demand valves impose clinically acceptable spontaneous breathing loads. Close monitoring, adequate respiratory muscle rest, attention to mineral deficiencies, nutrition and pulmonary hygiene are also important parts of the weaning process.

  14. Effect of Provision of Feed and Water during Transport on the Welfare of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Arlene; Pirner, Glenna; Picinin, Guilherme; May, Matthew; Guay, Kimberly; Backus, Brittany; Sutherland, Mhairi; McGlone, John

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Transportation is a complex stressor, which has the potential to negatively impact the health and welfare of weaned pigs. Transport duration and withdrawal from feed and water are two factors that could potentially adversely affect the welfare of pigs transported at weaning. In this study, the effect of a 32 h transport period and the provision of feed and water on the welfare of weaned pigs was investigated using a multi-disciplinary approach. Body weight decreased in weaned pigs over time and this response was exacerbated by exposing pigs to a 32 h transport period and withdrawing feed and water. The greatest changes in body weight loss were observed after 8 h of transport or weaning. Furthermore, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N:L) stress measure was elevated in pigs in response to an 8 h transport period or 8 h after weaning alone. With the exception of weaned pigs provided with feed and water, transported and weaned pigs continued to be different from control pigs until 16 h after weaning or exposure to a 16 h transport period. These findings suggest that pigs experience an acute stress response due to transport and weaning, but these two stressors do not appear to be additive. Overall, transportation had a negative effect on performance, physiology and behavior of weaned and transported pigs, especially if not provided with feed and water for more than 24 h. Abstract Transportation is a complex stressor made up of factors including weaning itself and withdrawal from feed and water. Therefore, transportation has the potential to negatively impact the health and welfare of weaned pigs. Pigs were transported for 32 h and measures of performance, physiology, and behavior were taken to assess piglet welfare. Treatment groups included pigs not weaned or transported (CON), weaned pigs provided with feed and water (WEAN+), weaned pigs not provided with feed and water (WEAN−), weaned and transported pigs provided with feed and water (TRANS+), and

  15. Changes in liveweight and behaviour of alpaca dams and offspring following weaning.

    PubMed

    Pollard, J C; Littlejohn, R P; Davis, G H

    1993-12-01

    The effects of offspring sex, weight, age, and level of interaction with the dam on responses to weaning were examined to assist in the development of a weaning protocol for alpacas. In the first study, preand post-weaning activities, and weight change over Days -12-0,0-7 and 7-16 with respect to weaning, were recorded for 20 dam-offspring (hembra-cria) pairs aged 81-200 days. Pre-weaning changes in dam and offspring weights were positively related (P<0.05). Although heavier crias tended to be found closer to their dams than lighter crias (P<0.05) no additional effect of age on the dam-offspring relationship was found. Following weaning, cria growth rates were low over Days 0-7 but improved over Days 7-16, and hembra weight change followed the same pattern. Over Days 0-2, grazing and sitting activities of hembras and crias were replaced by standing and walking along paddock fencelines, although by Day 2 fenceline activities had decreased (P<0.05). Crias which were more frequently observed at fencelines had lower post-weaning growth rates (P<0.05). In the second study, pre-weaning sucking behaviour, and weight change over Days -30-0, 0-8 and 8-16 with respect to weaning, were recorded for 19 hembra-cria pairs aged 124-160 days. During 10 hours of observation on Days -5 and -4, the total duration of sucking by individual crias varied from 0-18 minutes, and the mean +/- SEM duration of sucking was 1.94 +/- 0.113 minutes. Cria sucking behaviour was positively related to growth rate prior to and weight at weaning (P<0.05). As in the first study, pre-weaning changes in dam and offspring weights were positively related (P<0.05). Following weaning, growth rates of the crias were depressed and the hembras lost weight over Days 0-8 and 8-16. The changes in growth rate and behaviour in Studies 1 and 2 indicated that weaning can be stressful for hembras and crias. However, there was no evidence from either study that pre-weaning behavioural or physical characteristics were

  16. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Sehested, J

    2016-04-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW gain⩾0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from

  17. Using automated feeders to wean calves fed large amounts of milk according to their ability to eat solid feed.

    PubMed

    de Passillé, Anne Marie; Rushen, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    Dairy calves weaned off milk at an early age show signs of hunger and can lose weight. We examined whether using automated feeders to wean calves according to individual voluntary solid feed intake reduced the effects of weaning. Female Holstein calves were housed in groups of 5 to 9. All calves were fed 12 L/d milk and ad libitum grain starter and hay from automated feeders immediately after grouping, and were allocated to 3 weaning strategies: (1) early-weaned (EW; n=14): weaning began on d 40, and milk allowance gradually decreased until weaning was complete on d 48; (2) late-weaned (LW; n=14): weaning began on d 80 and was completed on d 89; (3) weaned by starter intake (WSI; n=28): weaning began when calves consumed 200g/d of starter and was completed when the calves consumed 1,400g/d. Each day, the automated feeders recorded quantities of milk, starter, and hay eaten by all calves, as well as the frequency of visits to the milk feeder; we used unrewarded visit frequency as a sign of hunger. Body weights (BW) were recorded weekly. We estimated daily digestible energy (DE) intake for each calf based on the milk, hay, and starter consumed. Average daily gains (ADG) were expressed as percent of BW. For calves in WSI, weaning began at 54.7±18.9 d (mean ± SD) of age, the duration of weaning was 21.1±10.6 d, and weaning ended at 75.8±10.7 d of age. Both LW and WSI calves had better ADG from wk 3 to 13 than EW calves. Calves in the WSI group drank less milk and ate more starter than LW calves but had similar ADG. During the period of weaning, EW calves made more unrewarded visits to the milk feeder than LW and WSI calves. Three EW calves lost weight during weaning, whereas all LW and WSI calves gained weight. Calves differ greatly in when they begin to eat solid feed and how quickly they increase the intake in response to a decrease in milk allowance. An advantage of automated feeders is that calves can be weaned at variable ages depending on their ability and

  18. Genetic parameters for pre-weaning traits in Braunvieh cattle.

    PubMed

    Cucco, D C; Ferraz, J B S; Pinto, L F B; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C; Mattos, E C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for pre-weaning traits of Braunvieh cattle raised under tropical conditions in Brazil. The weight and weight gain parameters were birth weight (BW, N = 9955), weight at 120 days of age (W120, N = 5901), weaning weight at 205 days (WW, N = 6970), weight gain from birth to 205 days (GAIN205, N = 6013), weight gain from birth to 120 days (GAIN120, N = 5135), and weight gain from 120 to 205 days (GAIN85, N = 4482). Variance components were estimated using the animal model with the MTDFREML software. The relationship matrix included 35,188 animals; phenotypic measures were available for 18,688. Direct and maternal heritability increased from birth to weaning, with estimates of 0.23 +/- 0.037, 0.25+/- 0.050, 0.41+/- 0.059 for direct heritability for BW, W120 and WW, respectively, 0.08 +/- 0.012, 0.15 +/- 0.032, 0.22 +/- 0.036 for maternal genetic effects, and 0.18, 0.14 and 0.16 for total heritability estimates. For pre-weaning gains, estimates of heritability were 0.36 +/- 0.059, 0.30+/- 0.059, 0.12 +/- 0.035 for direct genetic effects of the traits GAIN205, GAIN120 and GAIN85, respectively, 0.23 +/- 0.038, 0.17 +/- 0.037, 0.03 +/- 0.029 for estimates of maternal heritability, and 0.12, 0.13, 0.16 for total heritability, respectively. Genetic correlations between weights were greater between measures taken at shorter intervals. This information can be used to optimize the design of programs for genetic improvement of Braunvieh cattle raised under tropical conditions.

  19. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves

    PubMed Central

    Aref, Nasr-Eldin M.; El-Sebaie, Ali; Hammad, Hammad Zaghloul

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to: (1) Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2) Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift) in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo) were included in the study. Animals were divided into three groups according to their age at weaning as following: Cow calves (n=8) weaned at 4.5 months, buffalo calves (n=6) weaned at 3.5 months (early-weaned), and buffalo calves (n=4) weaned at 5.5 months (late-weaned). Morphological traits, growth metabolites, and hormonal profile were measured at monthly interval over the period of the study and around the time of weaning (2 weeks pre- and post-weaning). Results: The obtained results showed that the trend of growth pattern was significantly increased in a linear pattern in cow calves and late-weaned buffalo calves, whereas early-weaned buffalo calves showed sharp decline in their body weight (BW) post-weaning. By the end of the study, early-weaned buffalo calves showed the lowest BW gain (ill-thrift). There is a positive association between the morphological traits and various growth metabolites and hormonal indices. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in the concentrations of growth hormones (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1] and insulin) and other metabolites were reported in early-weaned buffalo calves compared to other animals. There is no association between stress indices (cortisol level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio) and growth rate. Conclusion: Suboptimal growth rate (ill-thriftiness) is common in early-weaned buffalo calves and is attributed to low blood levels of growth metabolites, in particularly, IGF-1. In addition, the strong positive associations between concentrations of IGF-1 and morphological

  20. Adjustment of Measurements with Multiplicative Errors: Error Analysis, Estimates of the Variance of Unit Weight, and Effect on Volume Estimation from LiDAR-Type Digital Elevation Models

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-01

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880

  1. Adjustment of measurements with multiplicative errors: error analysis, estimates of the variance of unit weight, and effect on volume estimation from LiDAR-type digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-10

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM.

  2. ESTIMATING THE INFLUENCE OF INDIVIDUAL POVERTY-ADJUSTED EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT ON TERM BIRTH WEIGHT USING CONDITIONAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported maternal education is an important predictor of pregnancy outcomes. Like income, it is believed to allow women to locate in more favorable conditions than less educated or affluent peers. We examine the effect of reported educational attainment on term birth weight (birt...

  3. Genetic analysis of post-weaning growth traits of Thalli sheep under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Asghar; Akhtar, Pervez; Ali, Safdar; Javed, Khalid; Younas, Muhammad; Shakoor, Abdul; Waheed, Usman

    2014-12-01

    Present investigation was carried out to study the influence of genetic and non-genetic factors affecting post-weaning performance traits in Thalli sheep. Data on post-weaning growth of Thalli sheep maintained at Livestock Experiment Station, Rakh Ghulaman, District Bhakkar-Punjab, Pakistan during 1977-2003 were subjected to genetic analysis. The average values for weight at 180 and 270 days of age, yearling weight and post-weaning average daily gain were 22.37 ± 4.21, 25.96 ± 4.90 and 28.93 ± 5.20 kg and 28 ± 0.01 g/day, respectively. Weight at 180, 270 and 365 days of age and post-weaning average daily gain were significantly affected by year of birth, sex, type of birth and weaning weight (covariable) whereas season of birth was a significant source of variation for 180 and 270 days of age. The heritability estimates for 180 and 270 days, yearling weight and post-weaning average daily gain were 0.07 ± 0.02, 0.08 ± 0.02, 0.07 ± 0.02 and 0.07 ± 0.02, respectively.

  4. Response bias, weighting adjustments, and design effects in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    PubMed

    Kessler, Ronald C; Heeringa, Steven G; Colpe, Lisa J; Fullerton, Carol S; Gebler, Nancy; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) is a multi-component epidemiological and neurobiological study designed to generate actionable recommendations to reduce US Army suicides and increase knowledge about determinants of suicidality. Three Army STARRS component studies are large-scale surveys: one of new soldiers prior to beginning Basic Combat Training (BCT; n = 50,765 completed self-administered questionnaires); another of other soldiers exclusive of those in BCT (n = 35,372); and a third of three Brigade Combat Teams about to deploy to Afghanistan who are being followed multiple times after returning from deployment (n = 9421). Although the response rates in these surveys are quite good (72.0-90.8%), questions can be raised about sample biases in estimating prevalence of mental disorders and suicidality, the main outcomes of the surveys based on evidence that people in the general population with mental disorders are under-represented in community surveys. This paper presents the results of analyses designed to determine whether such bias exists in the Army STARRS surveys and, if so, to develop weights to correct for these biases. Data are also presented on sample inefficiencies introduced by weighting and sample clustering and on analyses of the trade-off between bias and efficiency in weight trimming.

  5. Response bias, weighting adjustments, and design effects in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gebler, Nancy; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Stein, Murray B.; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) is a multi-component epidemiological and neurobiological study designed to generate actionable recommendations to reduce U.S. Army suicides and increase knowledge about determinants of suicidality. Three Army STARRS component studies are large-scale surveys: one of new soldiers prior to beginning Basic Combat Training (BCT; n=50,765 completed self-administered questionnaires); another of other soldiers exclusive of those in BCT (n=35,372); and a third of three Brigade Combat Teams about to deploy to Afghanistan who are being followed multiple times after returning from deployment (n= 9,421). Although the response rates in these surveys are quite good (72.0-90.8%), questions can be raised about sample biases in estimating prevalence of mental disorders and suicidality, the main outcomes of the surveys based on evidence that people in the general population with mental disorders are under-represented in community surveys. This paper presents the results of analyses designed to determine whether such bias exists in the Army STARRS surveys and, if so, to develop weights to correct for these biases. Data are also presented on sample inefficiencies introduced by weighting and sample clustering and on analyses of the trade-off between bias and efficiency in weight trimming. PMID:24318218

  6. Behavioral and physiological responses of young horses to different weaning protocols: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Erber, Regina; Wulf, Manuela; Rose-Meierhöfer, Sandra; Becker-Birck, Mareike; Möstl, Erich; Aurich, Jörg; Hoffmann, Gundula; Aurich, Christine

    2012-03-01

    In this study, effects of weaning on behavioral and physiological stress parameters in young horses (foals) were determined. Foals were weaned either simultaneously without the presence of adult horses (group A, n = 6), or in the presence of two adult females familiar but unrelated to the foals (group B, n = 5), or weaned consecutively by removing two mother horses per day (group C, n = 6). Behavior, locomotion, salivary cortisol concentration, beat-to-beat (RR) interval, heart rate variability (HRV) and weight were determined. Group A foals lost weight for 2 days (mean ± SEM) - 8.3 ± 1.6 kg, p < 0.05. Weaning was followed by increased vocalization which was least pronounced in foals of group B (p < 0.05). Locomotion was most pronounced on weaning day in foals of group A and lowest in group B (p < 0.05). Weaning increased salivary cortisol concentration on the day of weaning in groups A and B and for 2 days in group C (p < 0.05). The RR interval decreased most pronouncedly in group A foals (p < 0.05). There were no consistent changes in HRV. Based on cortisol release and behavior, weaning is associated with stress but this was least pronounced in foals weaned in the presence of two familiar but unrelated adult female horses.

  7. Relative contribution of effects included in contemporary groups for adjusted and actual 120-day and 210-day weights in Nelore cattle in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pascoa, Lillian; de los Reyes, Arcadio; Elzo, Mauricio A.; Ferreira, Jorge L.; Bezerra, Luiz A.F.; Lôbo, Raysildo B.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate the relative magnitude of effects included in contemporary groups (CG) and their interactions with adjusted and actual 120 d and 210 d weights in 72,731 male and female Nelore calves born from 1985 to 2005 in 40 herds from PMGRN (Genetic Improvement Program of Nelore). Ten models with different CG structures were compared. The analyses were done using the general linear models (GLM) procedure run in SAS software. All of the effects included in the CG for each model were significant (p < 0.001) for the four traits analyzed. Inclusion of semester or trimester of birth as part of a CG was more appropriate than its use as an independent effect in the model because it accounted for interactions with the other effects in the CG. Calf sex (CS) and dam age at calving (DAC) had similar effects across the models, which suggested independence from other effects in these models. The corresponding age deviation effect had a larger impact on actual weight at 120 d than any other effect in all of the models tested. The use of actual weights in models with no CS effect in CG provides an alternative that would allow better genetic connectedness among CGs and greater accuracy in genetic evaluations. PMID:22215959

  8. Analysis of weaning-induced stress in Saanen goat kids.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, D; Aufy, A A; Pinotti, L; Rosi, F

    2013-08-01

    In young ruminants' life, weaning often coincides with a period of growth stasis and poor welfare. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of coping with the new diet on behavioural and haematological stress indicators in goat kids subjected to a commonly adopted weaning practice. Immediately after birth, male Saanen goat kids were divided into two groups: MILK and WMIX. All were fed colostrum for the first 3 days and then goat milk to the age of 29 days. After that, MILK kids continued to receive milk, while the WMIX kids underwent weaning and were completely weaned by day 48. Animal behaviour was recorded daily. From day 23-50, blood samples were taken weekly and analysed for indicators of stress and immune function. No abnormal behaviour, such as injurious behaviours or stereotypies, was observed in either of the experimental groups throughout the experimental period. During the last week, fasting plasma cortisol level was significantly lower, whereas plasma activity of both alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was significantly higher in WMIX kids, in relation to the MILK ones. Anyway, data were within the normal physiological range and no difference was observed neither in plasma haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, albumin and antithrombin III, nor in plasma immunoglobulin A and G, at any time, signalling no stressful condition. Therefore, differences observed in cortisol, ALT and AST could be the consequence of the metabolic changes that occur during the transition from pre-ruminant to ruminant state. The gradual weaning at 48 days of age did not result in any stressful condition and had no negative effect on weight gain. Results suggest that parameters commonly adopted to provide information on animal stress, such as cortisol and aminotransferase activity, can vary in relation to the physiological status of the animals and may bias stress assessment.

  9. Use of recombinant porcine β-defensin 2 as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zixin; Wang, Anru; Xie, Linqi; Song, Weiping; Wang, Jie; Yin, Zhe; Zhou, Dongsheng; Li, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) in piglets is associated with colonization of the intestine with bacterial pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the use of recombinant porcine β-defensin 2 (rpBD2) as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. The crude extract from the culture supernatant of rpBD2-expressing Pichia pastoris was used as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. Dietary treatments included a positive control (basal diet + antibiotics, designated PC) and three different rpBD2 treatments without antibiotics (basal diet supplemented with 1, 5, or 15 g of crude rpBD2/kg basal diet, designated 1PD, 5PD, and 15PD, respectively). Of all the treatments, 5PD had the greatest impact on the weaned piglets. It increased their body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake, and intestinal villus height in the duodenum and jejunum, and reduced the incidence of PWD. The diversity of the cecal digesta and mucosa microflora was compared between the weaned piglets in the PC and 5PD groups. Piglets treated with 5PD had lower diversity indices and fewer bacterial pathogens in their cecal digesta and mucosa than the PC group. Our results demonstrate that crude rpBD2 could provide an alternative to the traditional antibiotic feed additives given to weaned piglets. PMID:27225034

  10. Performance, endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive responses of Nellore heifers submitted to different supplementation levels pre- and post-weaning.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aline Gomes; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; da Silva Amorim, Lincoln; Rennó, Luciana Navajas; Detmann, Edenio; de Moura, Felipe Henrique; Manso, Marcos Rocha; Silva E Paiva, Paulo Henrique; Ortega, Román Enrique Maza; de Melo, Luciano Prímola

    2017-02-11

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high and low supplementation levels pre- and post-weaning on performance, endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive responses of Nellore heifers. Fifty Nellore heifers with 132 ± 9.9 kg average body weight (BW) and 138 ± 19 days of age were supplemented from 4 to 14 months. The heifers were distributed into five supplementation plans: HH-6 g/kg of BW of supplement pre- and post-weaning, HL-6 g/kg of BW of supplement pre-weaning and 3 g/kg post-weaning, LH-3 g/kg of BW pre-weaning and 6 g/kg of BW post-weaning, LL-3 g/kg of BW pre- and post-weaning, and CC-control, no supplementation. Interactions were not significant (P > 0.10). The level of supplement fed pre-weaning did not affect any of the performance variables evaluated at the end of the experiment (P > 0.10). There was a significant effect of supplementation and level of supplementation fed post-weaning on average daily gain (ADG) and final BW (P < 0.05). Overall ADG was also affected only by supplementation and level of supplement fed post-weaning (P < 0.05) with animals receiving 6 g/kg of BW post-weaning gaining more weight. Follicular diameter was greater in animals that received 6 g/kg of BW post-weaning (P < 0.05). In summary, performance, endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive variables evaluated in the current study were improved by the level of supplement fed post-weaning. Heifers receiving supplementation of 6 g/kg of BW post-weaning had greater responses, independent of the level received during the pre-weaning phase.

  11. Minimizing cows' stress when calves were early weaned using the two-step method with nose flaps.

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, R; Quintans, G; Hötzel, M J

    2016-11-01

    Early weaning may be used in beef cattle production to improve reproduction rates in range conditions. However, weaning causes a stress response in cows, which may be especially strong in early weaning management, as the bond between the cow and the calf is still strong. We hypothesized that weaning calves in two steps, with the aid of anti-sucking devices (nose flaps) would reduce the behavioural stress response in the cows separated from their calves 2 months after parturition. We compared the behaviour frequency and weight change in cows that were weaned abruptly, by separation of the calf on day 0 of the study, or in two steps, consisting of the use of anti-sucking nose flaps for 5 days before permanent separation; a third group was not weaned to serve as control. Thirty-six crossbred multiparous Aberdeen Angus×Hereford cows and their calves (n=12/treatment) were managed in three paddocks with similar pasture availability, with four dyads from each treatment per paddock. Cows' behaviour was observed by direct visual instantaneous sampling, at 10 min intervals from days -3 to 11. Weaning the calves in two steps clearly attenuated the behavioural stress response observed in abruptly weaned cows, which included reductions in grazing and lying, and increases in pacing, walking and vocalizing. Our results corroborate those previously shown for cows nursing older calves, and indicate that step weaning can reduce the behavioural stress response of cows at weaning, even when the calf is weaned shortly after birth, when the bond between the cow and calf is still very strong.

  12. Impact of Providing Feed and/or Water on Performance, Physiology, and Behavior of Weaned Pigs during a 32-h Transport

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Arlene; Sutherland, Mhairi; Pirner, Glenna; Picinin, Guilherme; May, Matthew; Backus, Brittany; McGlone, John

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Transportation has the potential to negatively affect the health and welfare of weaned pigs, especially those already experiencing weaning stress. Piglets were transported for 32 h, with and without feed and water, and measures of performance, physiology, and behavior were taken to assess piglet welfare. Transportation negatively impacted body weight, Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio (N:L), and post-transport body weight gain, indicating that not providing water during transport can negatively impact the well-being of recently weaned pigs. Provision of water may aid in reducing stress during long distance transport and improve the animals’ well-being. Abstract Transportation at weaning is a complex stressor made up of many factors, including withdrawal from feed and water, which can potentially negatively affect the health and welfare of pigs, especially those already experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weaning and extended transport durations (up to 32 h), with and without the provision of feed and/or water, on pig welfare. Treatment groups included: pigs neither weaned nor transported, control (CON); weaned pigs transported and provided with feed and water (T+); weaned pigs transported without feed and water (T−); weaned pigs transported with only feed (T+F); and weaned pigs transported with only water provided (TRAN+W). The effect of transport (with and without feed and/or water) on weaned pigs was assessed using behavior, performance, and physiology. After a 32-h transport period, pigs transported without water lost markedly more weight than those transported with water (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was markedly higher in male pigs transported without water (p < 0.05). Overall, transportation had a negative effect on pig well-being, especially when water was not provided. PMID:27153096

  13. Effects of Oxytocin Administration on the Response of Piglets to Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Rault, Jean-Loup; Dunshea, Frank R.; Pluske, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Weaning is a stressful milestone for domestic animals. It is often performed at an early age and as an abrupt change in comparison to the transitional period seen in feral or wild animals. Oxytocin, a hormone associated with attachment, could improve the response of piglets to weaning. Piglets were either given oxytocin intranasally, subcutaneously, or handled as controls. Oxytocin had no effect on the physiological response to weaning. However, oxytocin increased the frequency of mild aggressive social behaviors between OT-administered and control pigs. Hence, the use of a single administration of oxytocin prior to weaning in pigs is not recommended. Abstract Weaning is often an abrupt and stressful process. We studied the effects of administering oxytocin, subcutaneously or intranasally, on the ability of pigs to cope with weaning. On a commercial farm 144, 30 day-old pigs from 24 litters were used. On the day of weaning, one male and one female in each litter were administered one of three treatments: intranasal oxytocin (24 International Unit), subcutaneous oxytocin (10 International Unit per kg of body weight), or handled as a control. The pigs were placed in one of eight weaner pens, split by sex and with an equal representation of treatments. Data included body weight and growth, physiology (neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio, plasma cortisol, C-reactive protein and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α concentrations), and behavior (feeding, drinking, social behavior). Both oxytocin treatments tended to result in higher levels of mild aggression within groups (p = 0.08), specifically between oxytocin-administered and control pigs (subcutaneous to control p = 0.03; intranasal to control p = 0.10). Subcutaneously-administered pigs tended to frequent the feeder more often than intranasally-administered pigs (p < 0.10), with the latter having slightly lower body weight 38 days post-weaning (p = 0.03). However, acute oxytocin administration did not result in any

  14. Effects of group housing after weaning on sow welfare and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Rault, J-L; Morrison, R S; Hansen, C F; Hansen, L U; Hemsworth, P H

    2014-12-01

    This project compared the effects of grouping sows after weaning or within 2 d after insemination on sexual behavior, aggression, injuries, stress, and mating success. At weaning (d 0), 360 sows were housed in groups of 10 sows at 4.4 m2 per sow (group weaned [GpW]) or individual stalls (stall weaned [StW]), with 18 groups per treatment. Six days after weaning (d 6), 7 inseminated GpW sows were moved to pens at 2.1 m2 per sow and keeping acquainted sows, and simultaneously, groups of 7 inseminated StW sows were mixed at 2.1 m2 per sow. Group-weaned sows showed greater variation in the onset of estrus (P=0.02) but not in the length of estrus compared to StW sows (P=0.21), with 7% fewer GpW sows inseminated within 5 d of weaning (P=0.05). Group-weaned sows showed lower sexual receptivity scores, showing less spontaneous standing during boar exposure and partly compensating by a greater response to the back-pressure test (both P<0.01). The GpW treatment also showed greater variability in sows inseminated twice within 6 d of weaning, with 3 out of 18 pens having only 5 mated sows out of 10. Mixing after weaning resulted in higher levels of stress than mixing after insemination, with GpW sows having higher plasma cortisol concentration than StW sows on d 1 (P<0.001) but no treatment differences on d 7 in cortisol concentration or aggression at feeding (P=0.48). Group-weaned sows experienced greater weight loss during the first week postweaning (P=0.05). Anogenital sniffing in GpW sows was frequently observed from d 2 to 5, but mounting and flank nosing increased on d 4 and 5. Frequency of sexual behavior initiated by GpW sows tended to correlate with weight loss (P=0.08), and sexual behavior received correlated positively with cortisol concentration at d 1 (P=0.005). In conclusion, sows housed in groups at weaning and regrouped after insemination experienced higher stress than sows housed in individual stalls at weaning and mixed in groups after insemination. This

  15. Phenotypic and genetic associations between lamb growth traits and adult ewe body weights in western range sheep.

    PubMed

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kott, R W

    2009-11-01

    Data from the Montana State University Targhee flock were used to estimate genetic and environmental relationships between lamb BW and adult ewe BW, condition score, and prolificacy. The flock was managed under commercial western range conditions typical of the area. Data included records from 12,154 lambs born to 2,930 dams and 200 rams between 1960 and 2005. Lamb traits included BW at birth and approximately 45 d, 120 d (weaning), 12 mo, and 18 mo of age and fleece characteristics at 12 mo of age. Adult traits included ewe litter size; BW and BCS at weaning, in late gestation, and in early lactation; and adult fleece measurements. Multiplicative factors were used to adjust (pre)weaning lamb BW for effects of age of dam, type of birth and rearing, and lamb sex and to adjust adult litter sizes for effects of ewe age. An animal model was used to estimate genetic relationships. Models for lamb traits included fixed effects of year of birth and, for postweaning data, lamb sex and random additive genetic effects and, for (pre)weaning BW, additive genetic maternal and permanent environmental maternal effects. Models for adult traits included fixed effects of year of birth, year of record, and, when appropriate, numbers of lambs born or born and reared and random additive genetic and animal permanent environmental effects. Heritability estimates for lamb birth weight, 45-d BW, weaning weight, yearling weight, 18-mo BW, fleece weight, staple length, and spinning count were 0.19, 0.07, 0.12, 0.32, 0.38, 0.32, 0.31, and 0.25, respectively. Maternal heritabilities for lamb birth, 45-d, and weaning weights were 0.15, 0.09, and 0.08, respectively. Heritability estimates for adult traits were 0.12 for litter size, averaged 0.43 for BW and 0.13 for body condition, and were 0.44, 0.37, and 0.25 for adult fleece weight, staple length, and spinning count, respectively. Correlations between genetic effects on adult BW and direct and maternal genetic effects on lamb BW ranged from 0

  16. Effects of dam parity and pre-weaning average daily gain of Holstein calves on future milk production.

    PubMed

    Hoseyni, Fatemeh; Mahjoubi, Ehsan; Zahmatkesh, Davood; Yazdi, Mehdi Hossein

    2016-11-01

    This research communication describes relationships between pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG) and dam parity with future productivity of dairy calves. Higher ADG before weaning has been shown to be related to greater milk production in the first lactation of Holstein calves fed milk replacer. However, data is limited on the relationship between pre-weaning ADG and first lactation performance of Holstein calves fed whole milk. Data of three hundred and thirty-two Holstein calves from 35 primiparous and 297 multiparous cows was investigated to evaluate the relationship between the dam parity and pre-weaning ADG with the first lactation performance. Results indicated that birth (P < 0·01), and weaning body weight (P < 0·001) were greater in calves born from multiparous cows. Neither 305 d milk production nor pre-weaning ADG differed significantly between calves born to primiparous or multiparous cows, although milk yield tended to be higher in the former and ADG higher in the latter. Correlations between 305 d milk yield and pre-weaning ADG, dam parity and birth body weight were low and non-significant, although there was a tendency for a positive correlation between ADG and milk yield.

  17. Impact of weaning from acute dialytic therapy on outcomes of chronic kidney disease following urgent-start dialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Ming; Li, Wen-Yi; Wu, Vin-Cent; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Lin, Shih-Hwa; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2015-01-01

    Discontinuation of acute, unplanned dialysis is always an important therapeutic goal in dialysis-requiring patients with existing chronic kidney disease. Only a limited proportion of patients could be weaned off dialysis and remained dialysis-free. Here we performed a multicenter, observational study to investigate factors associated with successful weaning from acute dialysis, and to explore the potential impact of weaning itself on outcomes of patients with chronic kidney disease following urgent-start dialysis. We recruited 440 chronic kidney disease patients with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 ml/min per 1/73 m2, and used propensity score-adjusted Cox regression analysis to measure the effect of weaning from acute dialysis on death during the index hospitalization and death or readmission after discharge. Over 2 years, 64 of 421 (15.2%) patients who survived >1 month died, and 36 (8.6%) were removed from dialysis, with 26 (6.2%) remaining alive and dialysis-free. Logistic regression analysis found that age ≧ 65 years, ischemic acute tubular necrosis, nephrotoxic exposure, urinary obstruction, and higher predialysis estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum hemoglobin were predictors of weaning off dialysis. After adjustment for propensity scores for dialysis weaning, Cox proportional hazards models showed successful weaning from dialysis (adjusted hazard ratio 0.06; 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.35), along with a history of hypertension and serum albumin, were independent protectors for early death. Conversely, a history of stroke, peripheral arterial disease and cancer predicted the occurrence of early mortality. In conclusion, this prospective cohort study shows that compared to patients with chronic kidney disease who became end-stage renal disease after acute dialysis, patients who could be weaned off acute dialytic therapy were associated with reduced risk of premature death over a 2-year observation period.

  18. Weaning practices in Kaduna, Northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuhor, P C

    1986-01-01

    A standardized questionnaire was administered to 65 mothers attending the Nutrition Clinic of the Ahmadu Bellow University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Northern Nigeria, over the October-December 1978 period to determine at what age the 1st supplementary diet was introduced, the age the child was weaned, and the weaning practices. The questionnaire dealt with various aspects of weaning knowledge, attitudes, and practices. The mothers were referred to the Nutrition Clinic because their babies already were suffering from protein energy malnutrition, had failed to thrive, or had severe infections, e.g., measles, gastroenteritis, or respiratory diseases. 58 (89.2%) of the families were of low socioeconomic status. 36 mothers (55.4%) introduced supplementary feeds to their babies between 4-6 months of life; 27 (41.5%) mothers introduced supplementary feeds when their children were between 7-9 months. All the mothers used corn, guinea corn, or millet gruel. A decision to wean a child may be made if the child can crawl, walk, or has a good set of erupted milk teeth, even if the child has not reached the traditional weaning age of 20-24 months. The mean age of weaning was 17 months in this study. 51 (78.5%) of the mothers responded to the question about weaning food taboos, prohibitions, and their reasons during the weaning period. Even when protein is available, a child may be denied the protein because of sociocultural factors. The use of carbohydrate gruels among these low socioeconomic families coupled with sociocultural factors compounded the feeding problem, and, consequently, protein energy malnutrition was common during the weaning period.

  19. Ghrelin, insulin and pancreatic activity in the peri-weaning period of goat kids.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, D; Pinotti, L; Rapetti, L; Rosi, F

    2011-02-01

    Two groups of 3-day-old Saanen goat kids (MILK and WMIX) were studied in order to investigate the effect of weaning on plasma ghrelin and insulin and on pancreatic activity. MILK kids received goat milk to age 50 days; WMIX kids were initially fed milk but started weaning at 30 days and were completely weaned by 48 days. Dry matter intake and body weights were recorded, and plasma samples were analysed for metabolites, ghrelin, insulin, leptin and α-amylase. At 50 days, all the animals were slaughtered, pancreas samples were analysed for α-amylase, zymogen, DNA and ribosomal capacity (RNA/zymogen). Seven days after the beginning of the weaning program, dry matter intake in the WMIX group began to decrease in relation to the MILK group. Nonetheless, body weight did not differ throughout the study period. Weaning significantly decreased plasma levels of glucose, amino acids, urea and insulin, but increased creatinine and ghrelin. In weaning kids ghrelin secretion may help minimize the negative consequences of the new diet on dry matter intake. Pancreatic zymogen and ribosomal capacity did not differ between the groups, whereas pancreatic amylase activity was over three times higher in MILK than WMIX kids even though the former had no dietary starch. This finding could be a consequence of lower pancreatic secretion of amylase in the MILK group due to the lack of dietary starch, resulting in pancreatic accumulation, but could also be due to higher plasma insulin in the MILK group, suggesting a role for insulin in the functional development of the pancreas in weaning goats.

  20. Effects of pre-weaning undernutrition and post-weaning rehabilitation on polyphosphoinositide pools in rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Ananth, U S; Ramakrishnan, C V; Hauser, G

    1986-10-01

    In order to assess the effects of undernutrition during the pre-weaning period on polyphosphoinositide (PolyPI) pools in rat cerebral cortex, brain stem, and cerebellum, dams were fed 5% (L-) or 22% (L+) protein diets from birth to weaning and the pups were used at this age for analyses. To examine rehabilitation post-weaning, L- and L+ pups were fed 22% protein diets (P+) for an additional six week period. Rats were decapitated and the dissection begun either immediately ("0 min" samples) or 10 min later (10 min samples). Body and tissue weights, and cerebroside levels were determined in addition ot PolyPI concentrations. In brain the extent of disappearance of PolyPI during the 10 min post-mortem period paralleled the content of gray matter: cerebral cortex greater than cerebellum greater than brain stem in all groups regardless of diet. Levels of PtdIns4P and PtdIns4,5P2 were decreased by 40% and 70% respectively in cerebral cortex of L- "0 min" samples. Deficits of both lipids in brain stem and cerebellum were 40-50%. In the L- 10 min samples, deficits were 20-30% in all three regions as compared with L+ 10 min levels, indicating the presence of a portion of both lipids affected only moderately by nutritional insufficiency. The effects on this relatively inert pool, much of it localized in myelin, were reversed on nutritional rehabilitation. The PolyPI pool lost post-mortem in L+ brain regions was practically absent in L- brain regions and was not restored in L-P+ animals. Thus, this study indicates that a metabolically labile pool, primarily located in gray matter structures, is more sensitive to nutritional deprivation during the pre-weaning period than the more stable pool. The precise role and function of these pools remain to be determined.

  1. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2016 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of progeny of 18 breeds were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects of weaning weight, among 15 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling and ribeye area and among 14 of the 18 breeds for fat depth and carcass weight. The r...

  2. Impaired arsenic metabolism in children during weaning

    SciTech Connect

    Faengstroem, Britta; Hamadani, Jena; Nermell, Barbro; Grander, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie

    2009-09-01

    Background: Methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) via one-carbon metabolism is a susceptibility factor for a range of arsenic-related health effects, but there is no data on the importance of arsenic metabolism for effects on child development. Aim: To elucidate the development of arsenic metabolism in early childhood. Methods: We measured iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), the metabolites of iAs, in spot urine samples of 2400 children at 18 months of age. The children were born to women participating in a population-based longitudinal study of arsenic effects on pregnancy outcomes and child development, carried out in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh with a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Arsenic metabolism was evaluated in relation to age, sex, anthropometry, socio-economic status and arsenic exposure. Results: Arsenic concentrations in child urine (median 34 {mu}g/L, range 2.4-940 {mu}g/L), adjusted to average specific gravity of 1.009 g/mL, were considerably higher than that measured at 3 months of age, but lower than that in maternal urine. Child urine contained on average 12% iAs, 9.4% MA and 78% DMA, which implies a marked change in metabolite pattern since infancy. In particular, there was a marked increase in urinary %MA, which has been associated with increased risk of health effects. Conclusion: The arsenic metabolite pattern in urine of children at 18 months of age in rural Bangladesh indicates a marked decrease in arsenic methylation efficiency during weaning.

  3. Main intestinal markers associated with the changes in gut architecture and function in piglets after weaning.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Lucile; Boudry, Gaëlle; Favier, Christine; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Sève, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    We analysed the spatio-temporal sequence of events concerning the morphology, physiology and ecology of the gut of piglets during the 2 weeks following weaning, in order to provide a limited number of variables that could be relevant markers of the gut post-weaning changes. An experiment was conducted on sixty piglets fasted for 2 d, then administered a weaning diet with a moderate or a high content of wheat using controlled gastric feeding, and slaughtered at different time-points post-weaning. Sixty-nine variables were analysed by principal component analysis. The results showed that the temporal changes induced in the gut by weaning can be divided into two periods: an acute period happening immediately after weaning, followed after day 5 by a more progressive adaptative and maturational phase. The main factors of this adaptation were the refeeding process and the time, while the diet per se had little influence. The villus length, lactose activity, macromolecule fluxes across the jejunum and the plasma cholecystokinin were proposed as markers of the acute phase. Ths mass of the jejunum, the weight of the pancrease, the content of stomach, the trypsin activity and the theophyl-line-induced secretion in jejunum were related to the re-feeding. Markers proposed to follow the gut maturation were the maltase activity, the glucose absorption and the basal resistance in the ileum, the lactobacilli and enterococci in the colon, and the pH of colonic and caecal contents. These markers might be helpful to design suitable diets to limit posts-weaning gut disorders in pigs.

  4. Effects of castration and weaning conducted concurrently or consecutively on behaviour, blood traits and performance in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, C; Farke-Röver, A; Moors, E; Gauly, M

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of Burdizzo castration and abrupt weaning on the behaviour, blood traits and performance of beef calves when weaning was conducted concurrently or consecutively to castration. In total, 64 male beef calves aged between 6 and 7 months were assigned to a 2×2 factorial design with the following treatment groups (n=16 animals per treatment): (1) castrated and concurrently weaned in week 0 (CAS-WEA); (2) castrated in week 0 and weaned in week 4 (CAS-CON); (3) bulls weaned in week 0 (BUL-WEA); and (4) bulls weaned in week 4 (BUL-CON). The behaviour of the calves was observed for 3 days following weaning. Blood was collected weekly from weeks 0 to 5 and analysed for the acute-phase protein haptoglobin, and neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages. BW was recorded weekly from weeks 0 to 7. Animals were slaughtered at 17 months and weight, dressing percentage and carcass classifications were recorded. On day 1 after weaning, the number of vocalizations (calls/10 min) was higher in BUL-WEA (7.2) and CAS-WEA (5.4) than in calves of CAS-CON (2.8) and BUL-CON (2.9) groups (P<0.05). From days 1 to 3 vocalizations decreased in all groups. CAS-CON and BUL-CON animals spent 20% lying on day 1 after weaning compared with 40% in CAS-WEA and BUL-WEA calves (P<0.05). The haptoglobin concentration decreased during the first 5 weeks after weaning in all groups independent of the castration, weaning group or its interaction (P>0.05). WEA groups showed an increased average daily gain (ADG) during weeks 0 to 3 and a reduced ADG during 4 to 7 weeks in comparison with CON animals. At slaughter, bulls were about 80 kg heavier than castrates and had a superior dressing percentage and carcass classification (P>0.05). In conclusion, weaning had a greater effect on the number of vocalizations, standing/walking and lying behaviour and ADG compared with Burdizzo castration. In comparison with undertaking the procedures separately, concurrent

  5. Effects of isobutyrate supplementation in pre- and post-weaned dairy calves diet on growth performance, rumen development, blood metabolites and hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Zhang, Y L; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Guo, G; Huo, W J; Yang, W Z; Wang, H

    2016-11-08

    Isobutyrate supplements could improve rumen development by increasing ruminal fermentation products, especially butyrate, and then promote the growth performance of calves. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isobutyrate supplementation on growth performance, rumen development, blood metabolites and hormone secretion in pre- and post-weaned dairy calves. In total, 56 Chinese Holstein male calves with 30 days of age and 72.9±1.43 kg of BW, blocked by days of age and BW, were assigned to four groups in a randomized block design. The treatments were as follows: control, low-isobutyrate, moderate-isobutyrate and high-isobutyrate with 0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09 g isobutyrate/kg BW per calf per day, respectively. Supplemental isobutyrate was hand-mixed into milk of pre-weaned calves and the concentrate portion of post-weaned calves. The study consisted of 10 days of an adaptation period and a 50-day sampling period. Calves were weaned at 60 days of age. Seven calves were chosen from each treatment at random and slaughtered at 45 and 90 days of age. BW, dry matter (DM) intake and stomach weight were measured, samples of ruminal tissues and blood were determined. For pre- and post-weaned calves, DM intake and average daily gain increased linearly (P<0.05), but feed conversion ratio decreased linearly (P<0.05) with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Total stomach weight and the ratio of rumen weight to total stomach weight tended to increase (P=0.073) for pre-weaned calves and increased linearly (P=0.021) for post-weaned calves, whereas the ratio of abomasum weight to total stomach weight was not affected for pre-weaned calves and decreased linearly (P<0.05) for post-weaned calves with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Both length and width of rumen papillae tended to increase linearly for pre-weaned calves, but increased linearly (P<0.05) for post-weaned calves with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. The relative expression of messenger

  6. Resveratrol prevents hyperleptinemia and central leptin resistance in adult rats programmed by early weaning.

    PubMed

    Franco, J G; Lisboa, P C; da Silva Lima, N; Peixoto-Silva, N; Maia, L A; Oliveira, E; Passos, M C F; de Moura, E G

    2014-09-01

    We have previously shown that early weaning in rats increases the risk of obesity and insulin resistance at adulthood, and leptin resistance can be a prime factor leading to these changes. Resveratrol is reported to decrease oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk. However, there is no report about its effect on leptin resistance. Thus, in this study we have evaluated resveratrol-preventing effect on the development of visceral obesity, insulin, and leptin resistance in rats programmed by early weaning. To induce early weaning, lactating dams were separated into 2 groups: early weaning (EW)--dams were wrapped with a bandage to interrupt lactation in the last 3 days of lactation and control (C)--dams whose pups had free access to milk during throughout lactation period (21 days). At 150 days-old, EW offspring were subdivided into 2 groups: EW+res--treated with resveratrol solution (30 mg/kg BW/day) or EW--receiving equal volume of vehicle solution, both given by gavage during 30 days. Control group received vehicle solution. Resveratrol prevented the higher body weight, hyperphagia, visceral obesity, hyperleptinemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypoadiponectinemia at adulthood in animals that were early weaned. Leptin resistance, associated with lower JAK2 and pSTAT3 and higher NPY in hypothalamus of EW rats were also normalized by resveratrol. The present results suggest that resveratrol is useful as therapeutic tool in treating obesity, mainly because it prevents the development of central leptin resistance.

  7. Alternative parameterizations of relatedness in whole genome association analysis of pre-weaning traits of Nelore-Angus calves

    PubMed Central

    Riley, David G.; Gill, Clare A.; Herring, Andy D.; Riggs, Penny K.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Sanders, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Gestation length, birth weight, and weaning weight of F2 Nelore-Angus calves (n = 737) with designed extensive full-sibling and half-sibling relatedness were evaluated for association with 34,957 SNP markers. In analyses of birth weight, random relatedness was modeled three ways: 1) none, 2) random animal, pedigree-based relationship matrix, or 3) random animal, genomic relationship matrix. Detected birth weight-SNP associations were 1,200, 735, and 31 for those parameterizations respectively; each additional model refinement removed associations that apparently were a result of the built-in stratification by relatedness. Subsequent analyses of gestation length and weaning weight modeled genomic relatedness; there were 40 and 26 trait-marker associations detected for those traits, respectively. Birth weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA5. Gestation length associations included 37 SNP on BTA21, 2 on BTA27 and one on BTA3. Weaning weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA10. Twenty-one SNP markers on BTA14 were detected in both birth and weaning weight analyses. PMID:25249774

  8. Alternative parameterizations of relatedness in whole genome association analysis of pre-weaning traits of Nelore-Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Riley, David G; Gill, Clare A; Herring, Andy D; Riggs, Penny K; Sawyer, Jason E; Sanders, James O

    2014-09-01

    Gestation length, birth weight, and weaning weight of F2 Nelore-Angus calves (n = 737) with designed extensive full-sibling and half-sibling relatedness were evaluated for association with 34,957 SNP markers. In analyses of birth weight, random relatedness was modeled three ways: 1) none, 2) random animal, pedigree-based relationship matrix, or 3) random animal, genomic relationship matrix. Detected birth weight-SNP associations were 1,200, 735, and 31 for those parameterizations respectively; each additional model refinement removed associations that apparently were a result of the built-in stratification by relatedness. Subsequent analyses of gestation length and weaning weight modeled genomic relatedness; there were 40 and 26 trait-marker associations detected for those traits, respectively. Birth weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA5. Gestation length associations included 37 SNP on BTA21, 2 on BTA27 and one on BTA3. Weaning weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA10. Twenty-one SNP markers on BTA14 were detected in both birth and weaning weight analyses.

  9. Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Experience Difficulties Adjusting Their Gait Pattern to Weight Added to the Waist, While Typically Developing Children Do Not

    PubMed Central

    Meyns, Pieter; Van Gestel, Leen; Bar-On, Lynn; Goudriaan, Marije; Wambacq, Hans; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Bruyninckx, Herman; Molenaers, Guy; De Cock, Paul; Ortibus, Els; Desloovere, Kaat

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing in the last decades, also in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Even though it has been established that an increase in weight can have important negative effects on gait in healthy adults and children, it has not been investigated what the effect is of an increase in body weight on the characteristics of gait in children with CP. In CP, pre and post three-dimensional gait analyses are performed to assess the effectiveness of an intervention. As a considerable amount of time can elapse between these measurements, and the effect of an alteration in the body weight is not taken into consideration, this effect of increased body weight is of specific importance. Thirty children with the predominantly spastic type of CP and 15 typically developing (TD) children were enrolled (age 3–15 years). All children underwent three-dimensional gait analysis with weight-free (baseline) and weighted (10% of the body weight added around their waist) trials. Numerous gait parameters showed a different response to the added weight for TD and CP children. TD children increased walking velocity, step- and stride length, and decreased double support duration with a slightly earlier timing of foot-off, while the opposite was found in CP. Similarly, increased ranges of motion at the pelvis (coronal plane) and hip (all planes), higher joint angular velocities at the hip and ankle, as well as increased moments and powers at the hip, knee and ankle were observed for TD children, while CP children did not change or even showed decreases in the respective measures in response to walking with added weight. Further, while TD children increased their gastrocnemius EMG amplitude during weighted walking, CP children slightly decreased their gastrocnemius EMG amplitude. As such, an increase in weight has a significant effect on the gait pattern in CP children. Clinical gait analysts should therefore take into account the negative

  10. A simulation model on the optimization time for the sudden weaning of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, D. N.; Sumarti, N.

    2014-02-01

    In the aquaculture production chain, a weaning is a process in larval rearing where the tiny fish larvae are separatedly fed with nutritious food in order to grow well. Live feed, for example feeding Artemia nauplii into angelfish larvae (Pteraphylum Scalare), is generally considered as the most suitable food for first feeding larvae. In practice, the fish farmer could replace the life feed with a formulated feed, which is sold commercially in the store. By experiments conducted by Herath et al (2013), the effect of sudden weaning of angelfish from Artemia sp. to formulated feed is observed with the change in weight of fish during the observation periods. In this paper, we construct a mathematical model describing the growth in weight of fish during this sudden weaning process using logistic model based on data from Herath et al (2013). The resulted model is solved numerically. Furthermore using this model, we consider the production cost of live feed in order to determine the optimal time to wean angelfish larvae.

  11. A prospective trial for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in morbidly obese adolescents: an interim report of weight loss, metabolic and quality of life outcomes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outcome of patients completing 12 months of follow-up in a prospective longitudinal trial of the safety/efficacy of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), for morbidly obese adolescents aged 14 to 17 years using a Food and Drug Administration Institutional Device Exemption for the use o...

  12. Effect of weaning age on hair sheep lamb and ewe production traits in an accelerated lambing system in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, R W; Weis, A J

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of weaning age on lamb and ewe productivity in an accelerated lambing system. St. Croix White (STX) and Dorper × St. Croix White (DRPX) lambs were assigned at birth based on breed, gender, and litter size to be weaned at 63 (Early-1; 106 lambs and 68 ewes) or 90 d of age (Late-1; 99 lambs and 60 ewes) in Exp.1 or at 63 (Early-2; 77 lambs and 57 ewes) or 120 d of age (Late-2; 75 lambs and 56 ewes) in Exp. 2. After weaning, lambs were weighed weekly and fed a concentrate ration (2% BW·lamb·d) while grazing guinea grass pastures. In Exp. 1, weaning weight was greater ( < 0.0001) for Late-1 lambs than for Early-1 lambs (14.6 ± 0.3 vs. 11.0 ± 0.3 kg, respectively) and greater ( < 0.008) for DRPX lambs than for STX lambs (13.9 ± 0.4 vs. 11.5 ± 0.4 kg, respectively). Litter weaning weight was greater ( < 0.004) for Late-1 ewes than for Early-1 ewes (20.9 ± 0.8 vs. 17.4 ± 0.8 kg, respectively). Ewe efficiency ([ewe BW at weaning/litter weaning weight] × 100) was greater ( < 0.004) for Late-1 ewes than for Early-1 ewes (50.7 ± 1.9 vs. 42.3 ± 1.8%, respectively). Lamb weight gain between 63 and 90 d of age was lower ( < 0.03) for Early-1 lambs than for Late-1 lambs (2.7 ± 0.2 vs. 3.6 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). In Exp. 2, weaning weight was greater ( < 0.0001) for Late-2 lambs than for Early-2 lambs (18.7 ± 0.4 vs. 11.8 ± 0.4 kg, respectively) and greater ( < 0.008) for DRPX lambs than for STX lambs (16.9 ± 0.5 vs. 13.3 ± 0.5 kg, respectively). Litter weaning weight was greater ( < 0.0001) in Late-2 ewes than in Early-2 ewes (27.2 ± 1.0 vs. 17.5 ± 0.9 kg, respectively). Ewe efficiency was greater ( < 0.0001) for Late-2 ewes than for Early-2 ewes (68.1 ± 2.2 vs. 41.9 ± 2.0%, respectively). Lamb weight gain between 63 and 120 d of age was not different ( > 0.06) between Early-2 and Late-2 lambs (5.1 ± 0.2 vs. 5.6 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). In Exp. 1 and 2, ewe BW at breeding and lambing and weaning and lambing

  13. Birth to weaning kid traits from a complete diallel of Boer, Kiko, and Spanish meat goat breeds semi-intensively managed on humid subtropical pasture.

    PubMed

    Browning, R; Leite-Browning, M L

    2011-09-01

    Boer, Kiko, and Spanish meat goats were semi-intensively managed in a complete 3-breed diallel mating scheme to evaluate genetic effects on preweaning kid performance. Over a 6-yr period, 1,547 kids were born in March and May with 1,173 kids raised by their dams to weaning at 3 mo of age. March-born kids were lighter (P < 0.01) at birth, but had greater (P < 0.01) preweaning ADG and survival rates and heavier (P < 0.01) weaning weights than May-born kids. For birth weight, the direct Boer effect was positive (P < 0.01) and direct effects were negative (P < 0.01) for Kiko and Spanish. The direct Kiko effect for preweaning ADG was positive (P < 0.05), whereas other direct breed effects for ADG and all direct effects for weaning weight did not differ from 0 (P > 0.10). Maternal Boer effects were negative (P < 0.01) for birth weight and weaning weight, whereas maternal Kiko effects were significantly (P < 0.05) positive for preweaning ADG and weaning weight. Maternal Spanish effect was positive (P < 0.05) for birth weight, but did not differ from 0 (P > 0.5) for preweaning ADG or weaning weight. Heterosis for birth weight was exhibited (P < 0.01) for each pair of breed crosses, but only between Boer and Kiko for ADG and weaning weight. Kiko and Spanish dams had greater (P < 0.01) preweaning kid survival rates than Boer dams, but the former 2 did not differ (P = 0.72). Significant genetic variation was observed between meat goat breeds for kid performance to weaning. Maternal breed effects were more influential than direct breed effects. Boer goats were not superior to Kiko or Spanish for preweaning kid performance when semi-intensively managed on humid, subtropical pasture. Kiko should be a preferred breed and to a lesser extent Spanish for enhancing birth to weaning kid performance. Findings of this study emphasize the importance of proper doe breed selection in achieving desired kid performance to weaning in meat goats.

  14. Weaning age affects growth, feed intake, gastrointestinal development, and behavior in Holstein calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning stage.

    PubMed

    Eckert, E; Brown, H E; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J; Steele, M A

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has revealed potential advantages of feeding an elevated plane of nutrition to calves during the preweaning period. However, calves fed more nutrients preweaning may be more susceptible to depressed growth and weaning stress during the transition from liquid to solid feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the age of weaning and feed intake, and its influence on growth, gastrointestinal development, and behavioral indicators in dairy calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning period. To meet this objective, 20 female Holstein calves were randomly assigned at birth to be weaned at 6 or 8 wk. Milk replacer (mixed at 150 g/L) was offered at 1.2 kg/calf per day in 2 meals until a 1-wk step-down, when meals were reduced by 50% 1 wk before weaning. Daily starter, chopped oat straw, water intake, and weekly body weights were measured until d 70 of life. To assess digestive tract development, rumen fluid, fecal, and blood samples were taken before and after weaning (d 35, 49, and 63) and analyzed for ruminal short-chain fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, and fecal starch, respectively. Behavioral indicators of weaning stress, including vocalizing and non-nutritive oral behavior, were measured by visual observation for 1 h, 3 times per week, before the second feeding of the day during the period from 2 wk before weaning to 2 wk after weaning. The calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher average daily gain for the week preweaning (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.34±0.10 kg/d) and postweaning (1.05±0.09 vs. 0.35±0.11 kg/d), and were heavier at d 70 (99.9±1.81 vs. 91.0±2.26 kg). From 5 to 8 wk of age, starter and water intakes were lower in calves weaned at 8 wk of age. However, overall starter intake did not differ during the last week of the experiment. Furthermore, calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher starter intake for 1 wk preweaning (1.36±0.13 vs. 0.40±0.08 kg/d) and

  15. Evaluation of body weight and visual scores for genetic improvement of Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Paterno, F M; Buzanskas, M E; Koury Filho, W; Lôbo, R B; Queiroz, S A

    2017-03-01

    The aims of our study were to estimate genetic parameters for body weight and visual scores and to evaluate their inclusion as selection criteria in the Nelore breeding program in Brazil. The traits studied were the body weight adjusted to 210 (W210) and to 450 (W450) days of age and visual scores for body structure, finishing precocity, and muscling evaluated at weaning (BSW, FPW, and MSW) and yearling (BSY, FPY, and MSY) ages. A total of 33,242, 26,259, 23,075, and 26,057 observations were considered to analyze W210, W450, and visual scores at weaning and yearling. The significant (P < 0.05) fixed effects for all traits were farm, birth season, birth year, sex, and management group. Single-trait analyses were performed to define the most fitting model to our data using the average information restricted maximum likelihood algorithm, for weaning traits. Subsequently, these models were used in single- and two-trait analyses considering the Bayesian inference algorithm. Two-trait Bayesian analyses resulted in average direct heritability estimates for BSW, FPW, MSW, W210, BSY, FPY, MSY, and W450 of 0.28, 0.30, 0.27, 0.28, 0.40, 0.44, 0.39, and 0.50, respectively. Genetic correlations varied from 0.40 to 0.96. Benefits to animal performance can best be achieved by considering body structure, finishing precocity, and muscling as selection criteria in the Nelore breeding programs. The decision to use visual scores measured at weaning should be considered in order to decrease generation interval and assist pre-selecting individuals, expecting carcass improvements in the future progeny.

  16. Genetic analysis of body weights of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa using random regression models.

    PubMed

    Selapa, N W; Nephawe, K A; Maiwashe, A; Norris, D

    2012-02-08

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for body weights of individually fed beef bulls measured at centralized testing stations in South Africa using random regression models. Weekly body weights of Bonsmara bulls (N = 2919) tested between 1999 and 2003 were available for the analyses. The model included a fixed regression of the body weights on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, and 84) for starting age and contemporary group effects. Random regressions on fourth-order orthogonal Legendre polynomials of the actual days on test were included for additive genetic effects and additional uncorrelated random effects of the weaning-herd-year and the permanent environment of the animal. Residual effects were assumed to be independently distributed with heterogeneous variance for each test day. Variance ratios for additive genetic, permanent environment and weaning-herd-year for weekly body weights at different test days ranged from 0.26 to 0.29, 0.37 to 0.44 and 0.26 to 0.34, respectively. The weaning-herd-year was found to have a significant effect on the variation of body weights of bulls despite a 28-day adjustment period. Genetic correlations amongst body weights at different test days were high, ranging from 0.89 to 1.00. Heritability estimates were comparable to literature using multivariate models. Therefore, random regression model could be applied in the genetic evaluation of body weight of individually fed beef bulls in South Africa.

  17. Piglets Born from Sows Fed High Fibre Diets during Pregnancy Are Less Aggressive Prior to Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Morrone, Beatrice; Mazza Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive interactions, and their consequences, are the most important causes of poor welfare in piglets. Aggressive behaviour can be modulated by the prenatal and neonatal environment in several species. Commercially kept pregnant sows are often subjected to food restriction, which can compromise their welfare. Limited information is available on the consequences of sow hunger during pregnancy on welfare outcomes for their piglets. High fibre diets can mitigate the feeling of hunger and, consequently, it may improve welfare and productivity measures. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of feeding pregnant gilts with high fibre diets (HFD) on agonistic behaviour, as manifested by skin lesions, and indicators of fear in their piglets at weaning. Twenty-two pregnant gilts were fed either HFD, 12.86% of crude fibre, 2.4 kg per day (N = 14), or low fibre diet (LFD), 2.53% of crude fibre, 2.0 kg per day (N = 8). During lactation, both treatments received the same diet, ad libitum. We investigated the impact of HFD on behaviour and performance measures (birth weight, average daily gain, weaning weight, see S3 File) in the offspring. Skin lesions were evaluated before and after weaning in 156 piglets (100 HFD and 56 LFD), and 142 piglets were subjected to an open field test and a novel object test (87 HFD and 55 LFD). We found no treatment effect on the performance measures. Piglets born from gilts that received HFD had fewer skin lesions before weaning (D28) than the offspring of LFD gilts, while no difference was found during days 29 and 30. In the open field and novel object tests, there was no treatment effect on the behaviour of piglets. The improved skin health at weaning in piglets of sows fed HFD suggests less agonistic interactions amongst these littermates than in piglets of sows fed LFD. PMID:27907173

  18. Technologies that affect the weaning rate in beef cattle production systems.

    PubMed

    Dill, Matheus Dhein; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Costa, João Batista Gonçalves; Canellas, Leonardo Canali; Peripolli, Vanessa; Neto, José Braccini; Sant'Anna, Danilo Menezes; McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the differences between weaning rates and technologies adopted by farmers in cow-calf production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Interviews were carried out with 73 farmers about 48 technologies that could affect reproductive performance. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis using a non-hierarchical cluster method. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Three distinct clusters of farmers were created (R (2) = 0.90), named as low (LWR), intermediate (IWR), and high (HWR) weaning rate, with 100, 91, and 96 % of the farmers identified within their respective groups and average weaning rates of 59, 72, and 83 %, respectively. IWR and HWR farmers used more improved natural pasture, fixed-time artificial insemination, selection for birth weight, and proteinated salt compared to LWR. HWR farmers used more stocking rate control, and IWR farmers used more ultrasound to evaluate reproductive performance compared to the LWR group. IWR and HWR adopted more technologies related to nutrition and reproductive aspects of the herd in comparison to LWR. We concluded that farmers with higher technology use on farm had higher weaning rates which could be used to benefit less efficient farmers.

  19. Effect of Feeding Selenium-Fertilized Alfalfa Hay on Performance of Weaned Beef Calves

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; Bobe, Gerd; Hunter, Janice K.; Vorachek, William R.; Stewart, Whitney C.; Vanegas, Jorge A.; Estill, Charles T.; Mosher, Wayne D.; Pirelli, Gene J.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB) Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60) were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively). Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (PLinear<0.001) and body weights (PLinear = 0.002) depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations. PMID:23536788

  20. Weaning from mechanical ventilation in paediatrics. State of the art.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Jorge; Araneda, Patricio; Cruces, Pablo

    2014-03-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation is one of the greatest volume and strength issues in evidence-based medicine in critically ill adults. In these patients, weaning protocols and daily interruption of sedation have been implemented, reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation and associated morbidity. In paediatrics, the information reported is less consistent, so that as yet there are no reliable criteria for weaning and extubation in this patient group. Several indices have been developed to predict the outcome of weaning. However, these have failed to replace clinical judgement, although some additional measurements could facilitate this decision.

  1. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  2. A multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at three space allowances.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Mhairi A; Bryer, Pamela J; Davis, Brittany L; McGlone, John J

    2010-01-01

    Transport can be a stressful experience for pigs, especially in pigs simultaneously experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to use a multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of weaned pigs during transport at 3 space allowances. A commercial semitrailer, fitted with compartments, provided 0.05, 0.06, and 0.07 m(2)/pig. The study recorded frequency of standing, lying, sitting, and standing-rearing on another pig during the entire duration of transport. Blood samples, body weights, and lesion scores were collected from a subset of pigs (n = 48 per space allowance) in each experimental compartment. Transport time for the pigs was 148.0 +/- 10.0 min to the wean-to-finishing site. Total white blood cell counts, cortisol, and several blood chemistry values increased (p < .05) after transport regardless of space allowance. Glucose and body weight decreased (p < .05) after transport regardless of space allowance. Space allowance influenced stand-rearing, sitting, standing, and lying behaviors in pigs. Combining behavioral and physiological measures of stress provides a robust picture of piglet welfare during transport at different space allowances.

  3. Prevalence of Giardia spp. infection in pre-weaned and weaned calves in relation to management factors.

    PubMed

    Muhid, Aida; Robertson, Ian; Ng, Josephine; Yang, Rongchang; Ryan, Una

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and forty calf faecal samples from 16 Malaysian farms were screened by PCR for Giardia spp. The overall prevalence was 12.5% and the overall farm prevalence was 68.8% (11/16 farms). The prevalence in pre-weaned and weaned calves was 16.7% and 8.3%, respectively. Sequence analysis of 25 isolates identified all as G. duodenalis assemblage E. Management factors associated with an increased risk of infection with Giardia spp. included keeping weaned calves in pens with sand floors and calf age. Keeping pre-weaned calves in pens with concrete floors and calving in single cow calving areas decreased the risk.

  4. Inspiratory muscle strength training improves weaning outcome in failure to wean patients: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Most patients are readily liberated from mechanical ventilation (MV) support, however, 10% - 15% of patients experience failure to wean (FTW). FTW patients account for approximately 40% of all MV days and have significantly worse clinical outcomes. MV induced inspiratory muscle weakness has been implicated as a contributor to FTW and recent work has documented inspiratory muscle weakness in humans supported with MV. Methods We conducted a single center, single-blind, randomized controlled trial to test whether inspiratory muscle strength training (IMST) would improve weaning outcome in FTW patients. Of 129 patients evaluated for participation, 69 were enrolled and studied. 35 subjects were randomly assigned to the IMST condition and 34 to the SHAM treatment. IMST was performed with a threshold inspiratory device, set at the highest pressure tolerated and progressed daily. SHAM training provided a constant, low inspiratory pressure load. Subjects completed 4 sets of 6-10 training breaths, 5 days per week. Subjects also performed progressively longer breathing trials daily per protocol. The weaning criterion was 72 consecutive hours without MV support. Subjects were blinded to group assignment, and were treated until weaned or 28 days. Results Groups were comparable on demographic and clinical variables at baseline. The IMST and SHAM groups respectively received 41.9 ± 25.5 vs. 47.3 ± 33.0 days of MV support prior to starting intervention, P = 0.36. The IMST and SHAM groups participated in 9.7 ± 4.0 and 11.0 ± 4.8 training sessions, respectively, P = 0.09. The SHAM group's pre to post-training maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) change was not significant (-43.5 ± 17.8 vs. -45.1 ± 19.5 cm H2O, P = 0.39), while the IMST group's MIP increased (-44.4 ± 18.4 vs. -54.1 ± 17.8 cm H2O, P < 0.0001). There were no adverse events observed during IMST or SHAM treatments. Twenty-five of 35 IMST subjects weaned (71%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 55% to 84

  5. Weight change affects serum leptin and corticosterone in the collared lemming.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maria S; Onorato, David P; Gower, Barbara A; Nagy, Tim R

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether photoperiod-induced changes in body and fat mass are accompanied by changes in leptin and corticosterone concentrations in collared lemmings. At weaning, eighty male lemmings were maintained in either long photoperiod (LD, n = 40 ) or short photoperiod (SD, n = 40 ). Ten weeks post-weaning lemmings were weighed and assigned to a secondary photoperiod that consisted of either remaining in the same photoperiod or being transferred to the alternate photoperiod (LD-LD, LD-SD, SD-SD, and SD-LD; n = 20 per group). Ten days post-switch, half the animals from each group were sacrificed. The remaining animals were sacrificed on day 21 post-switch. Blood was collected for determination of serum leptin and corticosterone, and carcasses were analyzed for body composition. LD-SD lemmings gained the most weight, whilst SD-LD lemmings lost weight. SD-LD lemmings had significantly lower leptin levels relative to fat mass than SD-SD lemmings. Corticosterone levels were higher in the SD-LD than SD-SD lemmings on both days 10 and 21. Levels were not significantly different between LD-LD and LD-SD lemmings; however by day 21 the levels were slightly lower in the LD-SD lemmings. Discussion. Lemmings showed seasonally appropriate body weight changes in response to the changing photoperiod. Weight loss was associated with higher corticosterone, and lower leptin levels adjusted for fat mass. Neither relative leptin levels, nor corticosterone levels changed significantly with weight gain. Our results indicate that corticosterone and leptin are associated more with seasonal weight loss than weight gain in lemmings.

  6. Ventilatory failure, ventilator support, and ventilator weaning.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Martin J; Laghi, Franco; Jubran, Amal

    2012-10-01

    The development of acute ventilatory failure represents an inability of the respiratory control system to maintain a level of respiratory motor output to cope with the metabolic demands of the body. The level of respiratory motor output is also the main determinant of the degree of respiratory distress experienced by such patients. As ventilatory failure progresses and patient distress increases, mechanical ventilation is instituted to help the respiratory muscles cope with the heightened workload. While a patient is connected to a ventilator, a physician's ability to align the rhythm of the machine with the rhythm of the patient's respiratory centers becomes the primary determinant of the level of rest accorded to the respiratory muscles. Problems of alignment are manifested as failure to trigger, double triggering, an inflationary gas-flow that fails to match inspiratory demands, and an inflation phase that persists after a patient's respiratory centers have switched to expiration. With recovery from disorders that precipitated the initial bout of acute ventilatory failure, attempts are made to discontinue the ventilator (weaning). About 20% of weaning attempts fail, ultimately, because the respiratory controller is unable to sustain ventilation and this failure is signaled by development of rapid shallow breathing. Substantial advances in the medical management of acute ventilatory failure that requires ventilator assistance are most likely to result from research yielding novel insights into the operation of the respiratory control system.

  7. Microbial Contamination of Seven Major Weaning Foods in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ibeh, I. Nnanna

    2011-01-01

    Five million children aged less than five years die annually due to diarrhoea. The aim of the study was to identify some possible contributing factors for persistent diarrhoea. Seven weaning foods, including a locally-made food, were evaluated by estimating the microbial load using the most probable number method and aflatoxin levels (AFM1, AFG1, AFG2, and AFB2) by immunoaffinity column extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection of fluorescence. The results showed that the locally-made weaning food had the highest microbial count (2,000 cfu/g) and faecal streptococcal count (25 cfu/g). Moulds isolated were mainly Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. glaucus, Cladosporium sp., and Penicillium sp. The home-made weaning food recorded the highest fungal count (6,500 cfu/g). AFM1 of the weaning foods was 4.6-530 ng/mL. One weaning food had AFB1 level of 4,806 ng/g. Aflatoxin metabolites, apart from AFM1 and AFB1 present in the weaning foods, were AFG1 and AFG2. There were low microbial counts in commercial weaning foods but had high levels of aflatoxins (AFM1, AFG1, AFG2, AFB1, and AFB2). Growth and development of the infant is rapid, and it is, thus, possible that exposure to aflatoxins in weaning foods might have significant health effects. PMID:21957681

  8. Chiropractic Adjustment

    MedlinePlus

    ... structural alignment and improve your body's physical function. Low back pain, neck pain and headache are the most common ... treated. Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only ...

  9. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from other people Skipped heartbeats and other physical complaints Trembling or twitching To have adjustment disorder, you ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  10. The development of intersucking in dairy calves around weaning.

    PubMed

    Keil, N M.; Langhans, W

    2001-06-01

    Intersucking, i.e. sub-adult or adult cattle sucking at the udder of herd-members, is a problem often reported in dairy herds that leads to udder health problems. The causes of intersucking are virtually unknown, and until now all available countermeasures treat only the symptoms of this behavioural problem. We examined (I) whether intersucking occurs prior to weaning and continues thereafter, and (II) whether its establishment is related to the feeding management during weaning. On 10 dairy farms, we observed the sucking and feeding behaviour of a group of dairy calves (2-5 animals per farm, 38 in total) 1 week before and 1, 5 and 9 weeks after weaning. Calves were weaned off milk at an average age of 21 weeks (S.D. 4.7). We analysed the calves' food rations in order to estimate the adequacy of their energy density. Thirty-five (92%) of the 38 calves performed intersucking already before weaning, with the frequency being highly variable between individual calves (x(med)=5.0 bouts/day, range 0-24.7). Calves with a high intersucking activity before weaning were likely to continue intersucking after weaning (P<0.05). Before and after weaning intersucking could be observed at nearly every time of the day, but was most frequent around feeding. Calves with a long feeding duration (x(med)=260min, range 186-374) showed less frequent intersucking 1 week after weaning (P<0.05). In addition, the frequency of intersucking increased with decreasing adequacy of their rations energy density (r=-0.88, P<0.01), and the highest intersucking activity was recorded on farms with restricted availability of food. The results indicate that intersucking occurs already before weaning, and its establishment may be prevented by a ration and a feeding management that ensures an optimal transition from pre-ruminants to ruminants.

  11. Intermittent Suckling in Combination with an Older Weaning Age Improves Growth, Feed Intake and Aspects of Gastrointestinal Tract Carbohydrate Absorption in Pigs after Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, Diana L.; Langendijk, Pieter; Chen, Tai-Yuan; Pluske, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The weaning of piglets involves abrupt changes that often cause reduced production and predisposition to gastrointestinal tract dysfunction. Increasing the weaning age or using gradual weaning are techniques that can improve post-weaning performance. In this study, it is shown that an older weaning age (day 35) in combination with intermittent suckling (daily separation of piglets from the sow for 8 h in the week before weaning) improved growth rate, feed intake and aspects of gastrointestinal tract carbohydrate absorption after weaning. However, intermittent suckling and weaning at 28 days did not seem to improve post-weaning performance in this study. Abstract This study tested the hypothesis that intermittent suckling (IS) with or without an older weaning age would improve post-weaning gastrointestinal tract (GIT) carbohydrate absorptive capacity in pigs while reducing post-weaning stress and aspects of the inflammatory response. Three weaning regimes using primiparous sows were compared: (1) conventional weaning (CW28) (n = 22), where piglets were weaned conventionally at day 28; (2) IS28 (n = 21), where IS started at day 21 until weaning at day 28; and (3) IS35 (n = 21), where IS started at day 28 until weaning at day 35. Sugar absorption tests (10% mannitol or 10% galactose) were used to measure GIT absorptive capacity. All measured parameters were compared in relation to weaning across treatments (i.e., different physiological ages were compared). The IS35 pigs grew fastest in the 12 days after weaning (p < 0.01) and had the highest solid feed intake before and after weaning (p < 0.05). Irrespective of treatment, pre-weaning mannitol levels were higher than post-weaning levels (p < 0.01), whereas post-weaning galactose levels were highest in IS35 pigs (p < 0.01). Cytokine data did not show any treatment effects. In conclusion, these data suggest that IS in combination with an older weaning age (day 35) improved post-weaning adaptation as

  12. Early weaning and other potential risk factors for overweight among preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Geni; Motta, Maria Eugênia Farias Almeida; Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether early weaning constitutes a risk factor for overweight at preschool age and to identify other factors that affect this association. METHODS This was a case-control study of 366 children aged 2 to 6 years (176 boys and 190 girls) from three cities. The case group comprised overweight children, as defined by body mass index (BMI) for age greater than or equal to the 85th percentile. The main exposure analyzed was early weaning (exclusive or predominant breastfeeding for less than four months). RESULTS Early weaning was a significant risk factor for overweight in univariate analysis (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.10–2.60; p = 0.02), but not in multivariate analysis (OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 0.86–2.34; p = 0.17). Maternal overweight, birth weight ≥ 3,500 g and sedentarism were the main risk factors for overweight in multivariate analysis. DISCUSSION In our study, the protective effect of breastfeeding against overweight was only shown in univariate analysis; it did not persist after controlling for other variables. It is possible that breastfeeding has only a small protective role against overweight in comparison with other variables of greater importance. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that the potential protective effect of breastfeeding against overweight among preschool children is weaker than genetic and other environmental factors. PMID:20186302

  13. Effects of kefir on coccidial oocysts excretion and performance of dairy goat kids following weaning.

    PubMed

    Daş, Gürbüz; Ataşoğlu, Cengiz; Akbağ, Hande Işıl; Tölü, Cemil; Yurtman, Ismail Yaman; Savaş, Türker

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of kefir, a traditional source of probiotic, on coccidial oocysts excretion and on the performance of dairy goat kids following weaning. Twin kids were randomly allocated to one of two groups at weaning. Kids of the first group received 20 ml of kefir daily for 6 weeks (KEF), while kids in the control group were given a placebo (CON). Individual faecal samples were regularly (n = 18 per kid) taken to quantify the number of coccidial oocysts per gram of faeces (OpG). There were no differences between the groups in terms of body weight development (P > 0.05) and feed consumption. Kids of both groups were not able to consume enough feed to meet their nutrient requirements during the first 3 weeks following weaning. KEF had a lower frequency of OpG positive samples than CON (P = 0.043). Kefir did not affect the maximum oocyst excretion and age of the kids at the highest oocyst excretion (P > 0.05). KEF shed numerically 35% lower coccidial oocysts than the controls, which corresponded to a statistical tendency (P = 0.074) in lowering Log-OpG in comparison to CON. While KEF had a lower frequency of OpG positive samples and tended to shed lower OPG by around one-third, the frequency of diarrhea, level of highest oocyst excretion, and performance of the kids remained unaffected. Therefore, it is concluded that overall effects of kefir do not have a significant impact on sub-clinical infection and performance in weaned kids under relatively high-hygienic farming conditions.

  14. Effect of Tracheostomy on Weaning Parameters in Difficult-to-Wean Mechanically Ventilated Patients: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chor-Kuan; Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Lin, Feng-Ching; Wu, Chao-Ling; Chang, Hou-Tai; Jerng, Jih-Shuin; Wu, Huey-Dong; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Weaning parameters are commonly measured through an endotracheal tube in mechanically ventilated patients recovering from acute respiratory failure, however this practice has rarely been evaluated in tracheostomized patients. This study aimed to investigate changes in weaning parameters measured before and after tracheostomy, and to explore whether the data measured after tracheostomy were associated with weaning outcomes in difficult-to-wean patients. Methods In a two-year study period, we enrolled orotracheally intubated patients who were prepared for tracheostomy due to difficult weaning. Weaning parameters were measured before and after the conversion to tracheostomy and compared, and the post-tracheostomy data were tested for associations with weaning outcomes. Results A total of 86 patients were included. After tracheostomy, maximum inspiratory pressure (mean difference (Δ) = 4.4, 95% CI, 2.7 to 6.1, P<0.001), maximum expiratory pressure (Δ = 5.4, 95% CI, 2.9 to 8.0, P<0.001) and tidal volume (Δ = 33.7, 95% CI, 9.0 to 58.5, P<0.008) significantly increased, and rapid shallow breathing index (Δ = -14.6, 95% CI, -25.4 to -3.7, P<0.009) and airway resistance (Δ = -4.9, 95% CI, -5.8 to -4.0, P<0.001) significantly decreased. The patients who were successfully weaned within 90 days of the initiation of mechanical ventilation had greater increments in maximum inspiratory pressure (5.9 vs. 2.4, P = 0.04) and maximum expiratory pressure (8.0 vs. 2.0, P = 0.02) after tracheostomy than those who were unsuccessfully weaned. Conclusions In conclusion, the conversion from endotracheal tube to tracheostomy significantly improved the measured values of weaning parameters in difficult-to-wean patients who subsequently weaned successfully from the mechanical ventilator. The change was significant only for airway resistance in patients who failed weaning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01312142 PMID:26379127

  15. FAMILY PRESENCE AND SURVEILLANCE DURING WEANING FROM PROLONGED MECHANICAL VENTILATION

    PubMed Central

    Happ, Mary Beth; Swigart, Valerie A.; Tate, Judith A.; Arnold, Robert A.; Sereika, Susan M.; Hoffman, Leslie A.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The research was designed to describe the care and communication processes during weaning from long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV). A portion of those findings, specifically, how family members interact with the patient and respond to the ventilator and associated ICU bedside equipment during LTMV weaning, are reported here. Methods Ethnography conducted in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and step-down MICU following 30 adults who were weaning from LTMV (> 4 days). Data collection involved field observations conducted from November 2001 to July 2003, interviews with patients, family members, and MICU clinicians, and clinical record review. Results Family members were present at the LTMV patients’ bedside during 46% of weaning trials and interacted with patients through touch, talking, and surveillance. Families’ bedside surveillance activities were interpretive of numerical monitor displays and laboratory values, protective of patient safety and comfort, and often focused exclusively on weaning. Interpretive language and surveillance were learned from and imitative of clinician behaviors. Clinicians characterized the family’s presence as helpful, a hindrance, or having no effect on the weaning process. Quantitative analysis using random coefficient modeling examining the effect of family presence on length of weaning trials showed significantly longer daily weaning trials when families were present (p < .0001). Conclusion Critical care clinicians influence families’ acquisition of interpretive surveillance skills at the bedside of patients who are weaning from LTMV. This study provides a potentially useful conceptual framework of family behaviors with long-term critically ill patients that could enhance the dialogue about family-centered care and guide future research on family presence in the ICU. PMID:17234477

  16. Genetic parameters for indicators of host resistance to parasites from weaning to hogget age in Merino sheep.

    PubMed

    Pollott, G E; Karlsson, L J E; Eady, S; Greeff, J C

    2004-10-01

    Fecal egg count (FEC) has been widely used as an indicator of host resistance to gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and has been shown to be a heritable trait. Two other possible indicators of parasites, dag score (DS; accumulated fecal material) and fecal consistency score (FCS), were investigated in this study, along with BW. All four traits were studied to see how heritability and genetic correlations varied with age from weaning (4 mo) to hogget age (approximately 400 d). More than 1,100 lambs, the offspring of 37 rams, were recorded eight times between weaning (3 to 5 mo of age) and hogget age (13 to 18 mo of age) on two farms. Sire models were fitted to the data from each trait at each recording and in a repeatability model involving the whole data set. Overall, the heritabilities were 0.28+/-0.072 (FEC), 0.11+/-0.036 (DS), 0.12+/-0.036 (FCS), and 0.23+/-0.070 (BW). By fitting random regression models to the time-series data, it was possible to see how these heritability values varied as the lambs aged, from weaning to hogget age. The heritability of FEC rose from 0.2 at weaning to 0.65 at 400 d. Dag score had a higher heritability (0.25) in the middle of the age range and a low value at weaning (<0.1) and hogget age (0.16). The heritability of FCS was low, with a value of 0.2 at weaning reducing to 0.05 as the animals aged. Body weight had zero heritability at weaning, which rose to greater than 0.6 at hogget age. Most traits had low genetic correlations between them, the only exception being that between FCS and DS (0.63). Most genetic correlations varied little over the age range with the exception of FEC and BW, which fell from 0 at weaning to -0.63 at hogget age. Whereas FCS and DS may be good indicators of scouring, they are very different from FEC as an indicator of host resistance to gastrointestinal parasites.

  17. Fish-oil high-fat diet intake of dams after day 5 of pregnancy and during lactation guards against excessive fat consumption of their weaning pups.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoko

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the influence of parental fat intake on preferential fat intake by pups after weaning, two groups of dams in study 1 were fed either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a lard high-fat diet (HFD) and those in study 2 were fed either a LFD or a fish-oil HFD after day 5 of pregnancy and during lactation. In study 1, when pups were placed on a self-selection regimen of the LFD and the lard HFD within the first week after weaning, the ratio of the lard HFD intake [lard HFD intake (g)/total intake (g)] by pups of both groups was about 70%. Although pups nursed by dams fed the lard HFD continued to eat the same ratio of the lard HFD, the ratio for pups nursed by dams fed the LFD gradually decreased to 20% in week 3 after weaning. In study 2, when pups were placed on a self-selection regimen of the LFD and the fish-oil HFD after weaning, the ratio of the fish-oil HFD intake in both groups of pups nursed by dams fed the LFD and the fish-oil HFD was about 20% for 3 wk after weaning. In studies 1 and 2, although no significant difference in dietary intake or body weight of dams and pups was observed among all groups through the experimental period, perirenal fat tissue weight of dams fed the lard HFD was higher than that of dams fed the LFD. These findings indicate that (1) fat preference of weaning pups nursed by dams fed the lard HFD is higher than that of weaning pups nursed by dams fed the LFD, and (2) intake of dam's fish-oil HFD diet guards against pups' intake of excessive fat.

  18. Prospective observational cohort study of patients with weaning failure admitted to a specialist weaning, rehabilitation and home mechanical ventilation centre

    PubMed Central

    Mifsud Bonnici, Denise; Sanctuary, Thomas; Murphy, Patrick B; Steier, Joerg; Marino, Philip; Pattani, Hina; Creagh-Brown, Ben C; Hart, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives According to National Health Service England (NHSE) specialist respiratory commissioning specification for complex home ventilation, patients with weaning failure should be referred to a specialist centre. However, there are limited data reporting the clinical outcomes from such centres. Setting Prospective observational cohort study of patients admitted to a UK specialist weaning, rehabilitation and home mechanical ventilation centre between February 2005 and July 2013. Participants 262 patients admitted with a median age of 64.2 years (IQR 52.6–73.2 years). 59.9% were male. Results 39.7% of patients had neuromuscular and/or chest wall disease, 21% were postsurgical, 19.5% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 5.3% had obesity-related respiratory failure and 14.5% had other diagnoses. 64.1% of patients were successfully weaned, with 38.2% weaned fully from ventilation, 24% weaned to nocturnal non-invasive ventilation (NIV), 1.9% weaned to nocturnal NIV with intermittent NIV during the daytime. 21.4% of patients were discharged on long-term tracheostomy ventilation. The obesity-related respiratory failure group were most likely to wean (relative risk (RR) for weaning success=1.48, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.77; p<0.001), but otherwise weaning success rates did not significantly vary by diagnostic group. The median time-to-wean was 19 days (IQR 9–33) and the median duration of stay was 31 days (IQR 16–50), with no difference observed between the groups. Weaning centre mortality was 14.5%, highest in the COPD group (RR=2.15, 95% CI 1.19 to 3.91, p=0.012) and lowest in the neuromuscular and/or chest wall disease group (RR=0.34, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.75, p=0.007). Of all patients discharged alive, survival was 71.7% at 6 months and 61.8% at 12 months postdischarge. Conclusions Following NHSE guidance, patients with weaning delay and failure should be considered for transfer to a specialist centre where available, which can demonstrate

  19. Developmental Effects of Dietary Nucleotides in Second-Generation Weaned Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meihong; Ma, Yi; Xu, Linlin; Xu, Yajun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate dietary effects of dietary nucleotides (NTs) on developmental parameters in second-generation Sprague-Dawley rats. Experimental design was set up as six groups, including one control and five nucleotide administered groups, doses ranged from 0.01% to 1.28% nucleotides. First-generation (F0) rats were divided into two terms: (1) fed for 90-day study; (2) mated for offspring (F1). After weaning, each group of second-generation F1 rats was fed the control diet. Evaluating parameters were weight gain and food utilization ratios of rats, hematological and biochemical parameters, and organ pathology. The results showed that there was a greater weight gain and food utilization ratio in weaned rats (F0 and F1). Furthermore, weight gain and food utilization ratios were increased in the first 2 weeks of F1 male and the first week of F1 female rats. There were no significant changes in blood indicators of NT groups with the exception of decrease in aspartate aminotransferase and serum uric acid levels. Overall, it was demonstrated that NT supplements could promote the early growth and development at a 0.01% dose. Although NTs may have cumulative reproductive effects, they were safe even at a high-dose supplementation. Additionally, NT supplementation could promote restoration and optimize liver function. PMID:24328704

  20. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  1. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  2. Effects of breeding at the second oestrus or after post-weaning hormonal treatment with altrenogest on subsequent reproductive performance of primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Werlang, R F; Argenti, L E; Fries, H C C; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of breeding at the second oestrus after weaning or after feeding an orally active progestagen (altrenogest) on the subsequent reproductive performance of primiparous sows. After 3 weeks of lactation, 663 weaned sows of two genotypes were allocated into three groups: G1--breeding at the first oestrus after weaning; G2--breeding at the second oestrus after weaning and G3--treatment with altrenogest for 5 days after weaning and breeding at the first oestrus after the end of the treatment. Body weight at breeding was lower in G1 and G3 than in G2 sows (p < 0.05). The interval to show oestrus was similar for G1 and G2 groups (p > 0.05) but higher (p < 0.05) than that observed in G3 group. Within genotype A, percentages of females in oestrus within 10 days were not different (p > 0.05) among groups, whereas in genotype B, more G1 and G2 sows (p < 0.05) showed oestrus than G3 sows. In both genotypes, lower farrowing rates were observed in G3 than in G1 and G2 sows (p < 0.05) and a greater litter size (p < 0.05) was observed in G2 sows. In genotype A, the number of total born piglets was similar for G1 and G3 groups (p > 0.05), whereas in genotype B, G1 sows had a greater litter size than G3 sows (p < 0.05). Body weight at weaning and at breeding was similar (p > 0.05) between farrowed and non-farrowed sows in all groups. Reproductive performance is not improved in primiparous sows treated with altrenogest during 5 days after weaning. The reproductive performance of genotype B sows is compromised in Control and Altrenogest-treated sows but not in those bred at the second oestrus after mating. Breeding at the second oestrus after weaning allows primiparous sows to gain weight between weaning and service, and increases their farrowing rate and subsequent litter size.

  3. Behavioral Characteristics of Weaned Piglets Mixed in Different Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Kang; Eom, Tae-Kyung; Son, Seung-Hun; Hong, Joon-Ki; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Rhim, Shin-Jae

    2016-01-01

    With regard to animal welfare concerns, behavioral information of weaned and mixed piglets is great interest in swine production. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in behavior of weaned piglets over time in two different groups (littermates and piglets from different litters) after mixing. Two weaned groups of piglets (72 individuals in all) housed either with littermates or with foreign piglets (6 individuals in 1.8 m×1.4 m pens, 28°C±1°C temperature) were observed with the aid of video technology for 9 consecutive hours on days 1, 2, and 3 after mixing. The behaviors of the weaned piglets in the control and treatment groups were significantly different among the days after mixing. Piglets were, however, more active and aggressive in the groups with foreign piglets. This study reveals a lower level of agonistic behavior in groups of piglets that came from the same litter. PMID:26954152

  4. Dietary clays alleviate diarrhea of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, M; Liu, Y; Soares, J A; Che, T M; Osuna, O; Maddox, C W; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether 3 different clays in the nursery diet reduce diarrhea of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic Escherichia coli. Weaned pigs (21 d old) were housed in individual pens of disease containment chambers for 16 d [4 d before and 12 d after the first challenge (d 0)]. The treatments were in a factorial arrangement: 1) with or without an E. coli challenge (F-18 E. coli strain; heat-labile, heat-stable, and Shiga-like toxins; 10(10) cfu/3 mL oral dose daily for 3 d from d 0) and 2) dietary treatments. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were measured for each interval (d 0 to 6, 6 to 12, and 0 to 12). Diarrhea score (DS; 1 = normal; 5 = watery diarrhea) was recorded for each pig daily. Feces were collected on d 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 and plated on blood agar to differentiate β-hemolytic coliforms (HC) from total coliforms (TC) and on MacConkey agar to verify E. coli. Their populations on blood agar were assessed visually using a score (0 = no growth; 8 = very heavy bacterial growth) and expressed as a ratio of HC to TC scores (RHT). Blood was collected on d 0, 6, and 12 to measure total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), and total protein (TP). In Exp. 1 (8 treatments; 6 replicates), 48 pigs (6.9 ± 1.0 kg of BW) and 4 diets [a nursery control diet (CON), CON + 0.3% smectite (SM), CON + 0.6% SM, and CON until d 0 and then CON + 0.3% SM] were used. The SM treatments did not affect growth rate of the pigs for the overall period. In the E. coli challenged group, the SM treatments reduced DS for the overall period (1.77 vs. 2.01; P < 0.05) and RHT on d 6 (0.60 vs. 0.87; P < 0.05) and d 9 (0.14 vs. 0.28; P = 0.083), and altered differential WBC on d 6 (neutrophils, 48 vs. 39%, P = 0.092; lymphocytes, 49 vs. 58%, P = 0.082) compared with the CON treatment. In Exp. 2 (16 treatments; 8 replicates), 128 pigs (6.7 ± 0.8 kg of BW) and 8 diets [CON and 7 clay treatments (CON + 0.3% SM

  5. VWPS: A Ventilator Weaning Prediction System with Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Austin H.; Chen, Guan-Ting

    How to wean patients efficiently off mechanical ventilation continues to be a challenge for medical professionals. In this paper we have described a novel approach to the study of a ventilator weaning prediction system (VWPS). Firstly, we have developed and written three Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms to predict a weaning successful rate based on the clinical data. Secondly, we have implemented two user-friendly weaning success rate prediction systems; the VWPS system and the BWAP system. Both systems could be used to help doctors objectively and effectively predict whether weaning is appropriate for patients based on the patients' clinical data. Our system utilizes the powerful processing abilities of MatLab. Thirdly, we have calculated the performance through measures such as sensitivity and accuracy for these three algorithms. The results show a very high sensitivity (around 80%) and accuracy (around 70%). To our knowledge, this is the first design approach of its kind to be used in the study of ventilator weaning success rate prediction.

  6. Minimising the stress of weaning of beef calves: a review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Weaning of beef calves is usually done abruptly and early compared to the natural weaning of the species, and is associated with simultaneous exposure of calves to a range of social and environmental stressors. Behavioural and physiological responses to weaning indicate detrimental effects on the welfare of these animals. The development and assessment of weaning methods aiming at reducing or avoiding this problem must be supported by scientific knowledge of the morphological, physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and braking of the cow-calf bond. Solutions also depend on the understanding of the various stressors associated with weaning, among which are the change in diet, cessation of nursing, separation from the dam, the change to a new spatial environment and the need for social reorganization following removal of the adults from the group. This review discusses these issues and assesses the effectiveness of the methods so far proposed for improving the welfare of beef calves during the weaning period. PMID:21569479

  7. Prolonged weaning: from the intensive care unit to home.

    PubMed

    Navalesi, P; Frigerio, P; Patzlaff, A; Häußermann, S; Henseke, P; Kubitschek, M

    2014-01-01

    Weaning is the process of withdrawing mechanical ventilation which starts with the first spontaneous breathing trial (SBT). Based on the degree of difficulty and duration, weaning is classified as simple, difficult and prolonged. Prolonged weaning, which includes patients who fail 3 SBTs or are still on mechanical ventilation 7 days after the first SBT, affects a relatively small fraction of mechanically ventilated ICU patients but these, however, requires disproportionate resources. There are several potential causes which can lead to prolonged weaning. It is nonetheless important to understand the problem from the point of view of each individual patient in order to adopt appropriate treatment and define precise prognosis. An otherwise stable patient who remains on mechanical ventilation will be considered for transfer to a specialized weaning unit (SWU). Though there is not a precise definition, SWU can be considered as highly specialized and protected environments for patients requiring mechanical ventilation despite resolution of the acute disorder. Proper staffing, well defined short-term and long-term goals, attention to psychological and social problems represent key determinants of SWU success. Some patients cannot be weaned, either partly or entirely, and may require long-term home mechanical ventilation. In these cases the logistics relating to caregivers and the equipment must be carefully considered and addressed.

  8. Effect of reduced heifer nutrition during in utero and post-weaning development on glucose and acetate kinetics.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Richard C; Roberts, Andrew J; Geary, Thomas W; Grings, Elaine E; Alexander, Leeson J; MacNeil, Michael D

    2011-12-01

    Energetic efficiency was evaluated in composite bred heifers born from dams receiving 1·8 or 1·2 kg/d winter supplementation for approximately 80 d before parturition. Heifers were then developed post-weaning and randomly assigned to heifer development treatments of either control (100 %; ad libitum; n 8/year) or restricted (80 %; fed 80 % of supplementation fed to controls adjusted to a common body weight: n 8/year) in a 2-year study. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) and acetate irreversible loss test (AILT) were administered to heifers at the termination of a 140 d development period when the heifers were approximately 403 d of age and consumed a silage-based diet, and again at 940 d of age when pregnant with their second calf and grazing dormant forage. No differences were measured (P>0·08) for dam winter nutrition or heifer development treatment for baseline serum metabolites or measures in either the GTT or the AILT. However, changes in baseline serum concentrations (P>0·05) were different between metabolic challenges, which occurred at different stages of development. No difference in acetate disappearance (P = 0·18) and half-life (P = 0·66) was measured between the two metabolic challenges. A trend for glucose half-life to be shorter in heifers born from dams receiving in utero winter treatments that supplied 1·2 kg/d of winter supplementation was observed (P = 0·083). Heifers developed with lower total DM intake during a 140 d development period had similar glucose and acetate incorporation rates as ad libitum-fed heifers when evaluated at two different production stages.

  9. Effect of supplementation of calf starter with fennel powder on performance, weaning age and fermentation characteristics in Holstein dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, S; Dayani, O; Tahmasbi, R; Khezri, A

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation characteristics in Holstein calves when fennel powder was added to their starter diets. Thirty Holstein calves with a mean birth weight 40 kg (SD = 0.5) were allocated randomly to one of the following experimental diets: (i) control (starter diet without fennel powder), (ii) starter diet containing 0.4% of fennel powder and (iii) starter diet containing 0.8% of fennel powder (DM basis). The effect of treatments on mean dry matter intake was significant (p < 0.05) in the post-weaning and total experimental periods. Average daily weight gain before (0.38, 0.49 and 0.47 kg/day) and after (0.6, 1.01 and 0.83 kg/day) weaning and during the entire study (0.45, 0.7 and 0.58 kg/day) was influenced by diets of 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p < 0.05). Maximum daily weight gain and the best feed conversion ratio were achieved with 0.4% fennel powder. Mean weaning age of the calves supplemented with fennel powder was lower (p < 0.05) than that of the control group. Ruminal fluid pH in calves offered starter containing 0.8% fennel powder was lower (p < 0.05) compared to calves fed the other diets. Ammonia nitrogen content increased (p < 0.05) in the third week of feeding fennel powder. The mean concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and propionate molar percentage in the ruminal fluid of the calves fed with the fennel powder were higher (p < 0.05) at 6 weeks and 2 weeks after weaning than control group; however, acetate-to-propionate molar ratio was lower (p < 0.05). The results showed that adding 0.4% fennel powder to the starter increased the propionate molar percentage in the rumen and improved the calf performance, allowing the calves to be weaned at an earlier age.

  10. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol) soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol) molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol) sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (p<0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed ratio than weaned piglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry. PMID:26104525

  11. Growth performance of early-weaned pigs is enhanced by feeding epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Andrea; Huynh, Evanna; Fu, Molei; Zhu, Cuilan; Wey, Doug; de Lange, Cornelis; Li, Julang

    2014-03-10

    We have previously generated epidermal growth factor expressing Lactococcus lactis (EGF-LL) using bioengineering approach, and shown that feeding newly-weaned piglets EGF-LL improves digestive function. To address concerns over the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO), the objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding the EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of the genetically modified EGF-LL, on growth performance and intestine development of newly-weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty newly-weaned piglets were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program. Four pens were assigned to each of three treatments: (1) complete EGF-LL fermentation product (Ferm), (2) supernatant of EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of EGF-LL (Supern), or (3) blank M17GE media (Control). EGF-LL or its fermented supernatant was administrated to piglets in the first 3 weeks post-weaning; their growth performance was monitored throughout treatment, and for the following week. Daily body weight gain (254.8g vs. 200.5g) and Gain:Feed (0.541kg/kg vs. 0.454kg/kg) of pigs on the Supern group were significantly improved compared to that of Control, although no difference was observed between the Ferm and Control pigs. Intestinal sucrase activity was increased in Supern- compared to Control group (166.3±62.1 vs. 81.4±56.5nmol glucose released/mg protein; P<0.05). The lack of growth response with Ferm pigs may be attributed to an overload of bacteria (daily dose included 4.56×10(10)CFU/kg BW/day EGF-LL). These results suggest that GMO-free EGF-LL fermentation product is effective in increasing growth performance of early-weaned piglets.

  12. Differences in eating behaviour, well-being and personality between mothers following baby-led vs. traditional weaning styles.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Baby-led weaning, where infants self-feed family foods in place of traditional spoon-feeding of purees, is continuing to grow in popularity. Evidence is emerging which suggests that the method may promote healthier eating behaviour and weight gain in children, but the research is in its infancy. One issue is the self-selecting nature of participants to the approach. Although those who follow a baby-led approach are known to have a higher education and more professional occupation, little is known about wider maternal characteristics, which might affect either adoption of or outcomes of the method. The aim of this study was to explore differences in maternal characteristics between those adopting a baby-led or traditional approach. Six hundred four mothers with an infant aged 6-12 months completed a questionnaire including a copy of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) (anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and depression scales) and Ten Item Personality Questionnaire (TIPQ) alongside details of weaning approach (baby-led vs. traditional). Mothers who adopted a baby-led weaning style scored significantly lower on restrained eating (DEBQ), anxiety and introversion (TIPQ) and anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (BSI). Mothers who currently adopt a baby-led approach are therefore significantly different in personality, eating behaviour and well-being characteristics compared with those adopting a traditional approach. These characteristics may affect likelihood of choosing a baby-led approach or indirectly affect outcomes for infants weaned using the approach. Further research exploring baby-led weaning in a wider population sample is needed.

  13. Depressive Disorders during Weaning from Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Jubran, Amal; Lawm, Gerald; Kelly, Joanne; Duffner, Lisa A.; Gungor, Gokay; Collins, Eileen G.; Lanuza, Dorothy M.; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Tobin, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Patients who require mechanical ventilation are at risk of emotional stress because of total dependence on a machine for breathing. The stress may negatively impact ventilator weaning and survival. The purpose of this study was to determine whether depressive disorders in patients being weaned from prolonged mechanical ventilation are linked to weaning failure and decreased survival. Methods A prospective study of 478 consecutive patients transferred to a long-term acute care hospital for weaning from prolonged ventilation was undertaken. A clinical psychologist conducted a psychiatric interview to assess for the presence of depressive disorders. Results Of the 478 patients, 142 had persistent coma or delirium and were unable to be evaluated for depressive disorders. Of the remaining 336 patients, 142 (42%) were diagnosed with depressive disorders. In multivariate analysis, co-morbidity score (odds ratio [OR], 1.23, p=0.007), functional dependence before the acute illness (OR, 1.70, p=0.03), and history of psychiatric disorders (OR, 3.04, p=0.0001) were independent predictors of depressive disorders. The rate of weaning failure was higher in patients with depressive disorders than in those without such disorders (61% versus 33%, p=0.0001), as was mortality (24% versus 10%, p=0.0008). The presence of depressive disorders was independently associated with mortality (OR, 4.3; p=0.0002); age (OR, 1.06; p=0.001) and co-morbidity score (OR, 1.24; p=0.02) also predicted mortality. Conclusion Depressive disorders were diagnosed in 42% of patients who are being weaned from prolonged ventilation. Patients with depressive disorders were more likely to experience weaning failure and death. PMID:20232042

  14. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  15. Effects of weaning on intestinal crypt epithelial cells in piglets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huansheng; Xiong, Xia; Wang, Xiaocheng; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells in the crypt proliferate in piglets in response to weaning. However, the underlying mechanism has been unclear. We examined 40 piglets from eight litters (five piglets per litter) that were weaned at the age of 14 d, and one piglet from each litter was randomly selected for closer investigation. Based on the distended intestinal sac method, we isolated crypt epithelial cells from the mid-jejunum on Days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-weaning. Protein expression was analyzed using either isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification or western blotting. Proteins related to the cell cycle, organization of the cellular macromolecular complex subunit, localization of cellular macromolecules, Golgi vesicle transport, fatty acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and translational initiation were mainly down-regulated, while those involved in glycolysis, cell cycle arrest, protein catabolism, and cellular amino acid metabolism were up-regulated. The amount of proteins active in the mTOR signaling pathway was generally decreased over time. These results indicate that weaning influences energy metabolism, cellular macromolecule organization and localization, and protein metabolism, thereby affecting the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells in weaned piglets. Moreover, those cellular processes are possibly controlled by that signaling pathway. PMID:27830738

  16. Breastfeeding and weaning in renaissance Italy: the Medici children.

    PubMed

    Giuffra, Valentina; Fornaciari, Gino

    2013-06-01

    Abstract Exploration of the Medici Chapels in the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Florence, Italy, revealed the burials of nine infantile members of the Medici family. Eight children were found in the intact tomb of the last Grand Duke GianGastone (1671-1737), and another child was exhumed from the Chapel of Grand Duke Ferdinando I (1549-1609). Skeletal ages ranged from newborn to 5 years, suggesting an identification with infantile members of the family. A paleonutritional study has been performed on the bone samples of all members of the Medici family exhumed so far. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of bone collagen was used to detect the timing of the weaning process in this population. The (15)N values of the Medici children are significantly higher than those of adults, indicating that these infants were breastfed for a long time period. In particular, the levels of (15)N are high before the second year but decrease in older children, evidently after weaning, reaching the levels of adults. During the Renaissance, it was the common opinion that children should not be weaned before the second year of life. Archival documents suggest that the Medici children were never weaned before that age and, in most cases, even some months later. Combination of paleonutritional data and historical sources allowed reconstruction of the breastfeeding and weaning patterns of this aristocratic Renaissance class.

  17. Feeding a diet containing resistant potato starch influences gastrointestinal tract traits and growth performance of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Heo, J M; Agyekum, A K; Yin, Y L; Rideout, T C; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of feeding resistant potato starch (RPS) as a natural source of resistant starch to weaned pigs for 28 d immediately after weaning. Sixty piglets (Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc) weaned at 21 ± 2 d (1:1 male:female) with an initial BW of 7.2 ± 0.78 kg were assigned in a completely randomized design to 1 of 5 dietary treatments to give 6 observations per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a negative control corn-soybean meal-wheat-wheat middlings-based diet (NC; no antimicrobial agents added) or the NC supplemented with RPS either as powder or in capsules and each included at 0.5 or 1.0% as a top-dressing on each day. Diets were formulated to meet 1998 NRC specifications. Pigs were offered the experimental diets on an ad libitum basis for 28 d and water was available at all times. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were determined weekly. Fecal score was determined daily for 14 d after weaning. At the conclusion of study, 1 pig from each pen was randomly selected and euthanized (n = 6 per treatment) to determine visceral organ weight, digesta pH, VFA, and ammonia N (NH3-N) concentrations. Resistant potato starch supplementation improved (P < 0.001) fecal score, and pigs offered 1.0% RPS had more solid feces (P < 0.05) than those offered 0.5% RPS during the first 14 d after weaning, independent of the form of RPS. Resistant potato starch supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) ileal and cecal digesta pH regardless of the levels of RPS or mode of delivery. The total VFA concentrations in cecal digesta were greater (P < 0.05) but the molar proportion of branched-chain fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the RPS-containing diets compared with those fed the NC, irrespective of the RPS levels or the form of RPS. However, there were no differences (P > 0.10) in visceral organ weights, growth performance, and digestibilities of DM, CP, Ca, and P among treatments. The results of this experiment indicate that

  18. Estimates of genetic parameters and genetic change for reproduction, weight, and wool characteristics of Targhee sheep.

    PubMed

    Hanford, K J; Van Vleck, L D; Snowder, G D

    2003-03-01

    Genetic parameters from both single-trait and bivariate analyses for prolificacy, weight, and wool traits were estimated using REML with animal models for Targhee sheep from data collected from 1950 to 1998 at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station, Dubois, ID. Breeding values from both single-trait and seven-trait analyses calculated with the parameters estimated from the single-trait and bivariate analyses were compared across years of birth with respect to genetic trends. The numbers of observations were 38,625 for litter size at birth and litter size at weaning, 33,994 for birth weight, 32,715 for weaning weight, 36,807 for fleece weight and fleece grade, and 3,341 for staple length. Direct heritability estimates from single-trait analyses were 0.10 for litter size at birth, 0.07 for litter size at weaning, 0.25 for birth weight, 0.22 for weaning weight, 0.54 for fleece weight, 0.41 for fleece grade, and 0.65 for staple length. Estimate of direct genetic correlation between litter size at birth and weaning was 0.77 and between birth and weaning weights was 0.52. The estimate of genetic correlation between fleece weight and staple length was positive (0.54), but was negative between fleece weight and fleece grade (-0.47) and between staple length and fleece grade (-0.69). Estimates of genetic correlations were near zero between birth weight and litter size traits and small and positive between weaning weight and litter size traits. Fleece weight was slightly and negatively correlated with both litter size traits. Fleece grade was slightly and positively correlated with both litter size traits. Estimates of correlations between staple length and litter size at birth (-0.14) and litter size at weaning (0.05) were small. Estimates of correlations between weight traits and fleece weight were positive and low to moderate. Estimates of correlations between weight traits and fleece grade were negative and small, whereas estimates between weight traits and staple length were

  19. Estimates of genetic parameters and genetic change for reproduction, weight, and wool characteristics of Columbia sheep.

    PubMed

    Hanford, K J; Van Vleck, L D; Snowder, G D

    2002-12-01

    Genetic parameters from both single-trait and bivariate analyses for prolificacy, weight and wool traits were estimated using REML with animal models for Columbia sheep from data collected from 1950 to 1998 at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station (USSES), Dubois, ID. Breeding values from both single-trait and seven-trait analyses calculated using the parameters estimated from the single-trait and bivariate analyses were compared with respect to genetic trends. Number of observations were 31,401 for litter size at birth and litter size at weaning, 24,741 for birth weight, 23,903 for weaning weight, 29,572 for fleece weight and fleece grade, and 2,449 for staple length. Direct heritability estimates from single-trait analyses were 0.09 for litter size at birth, 0.06 for litter size at weaning, 0.27 for birth weight, 0.16 for weaning weight, 0.53 for fleece weight, 0.41 for fleece grade, and 0.55 for staple length. Estimate of direct genetic correlation between littersize at birth and weaning was 0.84 and between birth and weaning weights was 0.56. Estimate of genetic correlation between fleece weight and staple length was positive (0.55) but negative between fleece weight and fleece grade (-0.47) and between staple length and fleece grade (-0.70). Estimates of genetic correlations were positive but small between birth weight and litter size traits and moderate and positive between weaning weight and litter size traits. Fleece weight was lowly and negatively correlated with both litter size traits. Fleece grade was lowly and positively correlated with both litter size traits, while staple length was lowly and negatively correlated with the litter size traits. Estimates of correlations between weight traits and fleece weight were positive and low to moderate. Estimates of correlations between weight traits and fleece grade were negative and small. Estimates of correlations between staple length and birth weight (0.05) and weaning weight were small (-0.04). Estimated

  20. Effect of muscle type, sire breed, and time of weaning on fatty acid composition of finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Sexten, A K; Krehbiel, C R; Dillwith, J W; Madden, R D; McMurphy, C P; Lalman, D L; Mateescu, R G

    2012-02-01

    Thirty-three steer calves were used to determine the effect of sire breed (Angus or Charolais), time of weaning [normal weaned at approximately 210 d of age (NW) or late weaned at approximately 300 d of age (LW)], and muscle type [LM and semitendinosus muscle (STN)] on fatty acid composition. The whole plot consisted of a 2 (sire breed) × 2 (time of weaning) treatment arrangement, and the subplot treatment was muscle type. Body weights were recorded at 28-d intervals to determine animal performance. Muscle biopsies were collected on d 127 and 128 of finishing. All calves were slaughtered on d 138, and carcass data were collected. Angus-sired steers had lighter initial BW (271 vs. 298 kg; P = 0.02), and LW steers were heavier (351 vs. 323 kg; P = 0.03) on d 28, but no other differences in BW were noted. Charolais-sired steers had larger LM area (P = 0.03), reduced yield grades (P = 0.01), less 12th-rib fat (P < 0.01), and less marbling (P < 0.01) than Angus-sired steers. Carcass measures overall indicate Angus-sired steers were fatter. Hot carcass weight was heavier (348 vs. 324 kg; P = 0.04) in LW steers than NW steers. No other differences (P > 0.05) were observed for feedlot performance or carcass characteristics. Total lipids were extracted from muscle biopsies, derivatized to their methyl esters, and analyzed using gas chromatography. The LM had greater SFA (43.94 vs. 35.76%; P < 0.01) and decreased unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 56.90 vs. 66.19%; P < 0.01) compared with the STN. Percent total MUFA was greater in STN than LM (51.05 vs. 41.98%; P < 0.01). Total SFA, UFA, and MUFA did not differ due to sire breed or time of weaning. Total PUFA differed (P = 0.04) due to a sire breed × time of weaning interaction but did not differ due to muscle type, with greater PUFA in NW Charolais than any other sire breed × time of weaning combination. Observed changes in percent MUFA may be a result of greater Δ(9)-desaturase activity. The calculated desaturase index

  1. Body mass dynamics in hand reared clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) cubs from birth to weaning.

    PubMed

    Nájera, Fernando; Brown, Janine; Wildt, David E; Virolle, Laurie; Kongprom, Urarikha; Revuelta, Luis; Goodrowe-Beck, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To study the dynamics of body mass changes in hand reared clouded leopards, we analyzed 3,697 weight data points during the first 3 months of life in 49 cubs from 24 zoo-born litters from 2003 through 2012. All cubs were fed the same formula mixture after a similar weaning protocol. The hand rearing process was divided into three periods based on feeding protocols: Stage 1: formula only (Days 1-28; Day 0 = day of birth); Stage 2, formula supplemented with protein (e.g., turkey baby food; Days 29-42); Stage 3, formula in decreasing amounts supplemented with meat (chicken and/or beef; Days 43-90). Weights at birth were 11.2% higher (P < 0.001) for males (n = 29) than females (n = 20). Daily weight gain was slowest (P < 0.05) during Stage 1 when cubs were fed straight formula only and fastest during Stage 3 when provided a mixture of formula and meat. Mean growth rate (± SD) during hand rearing differed (P < 0.05) by gender, being 34.6 ± 1.4 g/day for male and 30.0 ± 1.2 g/day for female cubs. Eighteen cubs (37%) exhibited mild to severe diarrhea during the study; however, palliative treatment resulted in similar (P > 0.05) growth and weaning weights compared to healthy counterparts. These are the first data documenting, on a large scale, the growth patterns for zoo born, hand reared clouded leopard cubs. Findings are valuable as an aid in managing this rare species, including for helping identify early onset of medical issues and further determining key factors regulating the first 3 months of development.

  2. Microbial composition in different gut locations of weaning piglets receiving antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaifeng; Xiao, Yingping; Chen, Jiucheng; Chen, Jinggang; He, Xiangxiang; Yang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine shifts in the composition of the bacterial population in the intestinal tracts (ITs) of weaning piglets by antibiotic treatment using high-throughput sequencing. Methods Sixty 28-d-old weaning piglets were randomly divided into two treatment groups. The Control group was treated with a basal diet without antibiotics. The Antibiotic group’s basal diet contained colistin sulfate at a concentration of 20 g per ton and bacitracin zinc at a concentration of 40 g per ton. All of the pigs were fed for 28 days. Then, three pigs were killed, and the luminal contents of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon were collected for DNA extraction and high-throughput sequencing. Results The results showed that the average daily weight gain of the antibiotic group was significantly greater (p<0.05), and the incidence of diarrhea lower (p>0.05), than the control group. A total of 812,607 valid reads were generated. Thirty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were found in all of the samples were defined as core OTUs. Twenty-one phyla were identified, and approximately 90% of the classifiable sequences belonged to the phylum Firmicutes. Forty-two classes were identified. Of the 232 genera identified, nine genera were identified as the core gut microbiome because they existed in all of the tracts. The proportion of the nine core bacteria varied at the different tract sites. A heat map was used to understand how the numbers of the abundant genera shifted between the two treatment groups. Conclusion At different tract sites the relative abundance of gut microbiota was different. Antibiotics could cause shifts in the microorganism composition and affect the composition of gut microbiota in the different tracts of weaning piglets. PMID:27383806

  3. Calcium supplementation prevents obesity, hyperleptinaemia and hyperglycaemia in adult rats programmed by early weaning.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Jessica Lopes; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina; Lima, Natália da Silva; Franco, Juliana Gastão; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; de Oliveira, Elaine

    2012-04-01

    It is known that Ca therapy may have anti-obesity effects. Since early weaning leads to obesity, hyperleptinaemia and insulin resistance, we studied the effect of dietary Ca supplementation in a rat model. Lactating rats were separated into two groups: early weaning (EW) - dams were wrapped with a bandage to interrupt lactation in the last 3 d of lactation and control (C) - dams whose pups had free access to milk during the entire lactation period (21 d). At 120 d, EW and C offspring were subdivided into four groups: (1) C, received standard diet; (2) CCa, received Ca supplementation (10 g of calcium carbonate/kg of rat chow); (3) EW, received standard diet; (4) EWCa, received Ca supplementation similar to CCa. The rats were killed at 180 d. The significance level was at P < 0·05. Adult EW offspring displayed hyperphagia (28 %), higher body weight (9 %) and adiposity (77 %), hyperleptinaemia (twofold increase), hypertriacylglycerolaemia (64 %), hyperglycaemia (16 %), higher insulin resistance index (38 %) and higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ (fourfold increase), but lower adiponectinaemia:adipose tissue ratio (44 %). In addition, they showed Janus tyrosine kinase 2 and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 underexpression in hypothalamus (36 and 34 %, respectively), suggesting leptin resistance. Supplementation of Ca for 2 months normalised these disorders. The EW group had no change in serum insulin, thyroxine or triiodothyronine, and Ca treatment did not alter these hormones. In conclusion, we reinforced that early weaning leads to late development of some components of the metabolic syndrome and leptin resistance. Dietary Ca supplementation seems to protect against the development of endocrine and metabolic disorders in EW offspring, maybe through vitamin D inhibition.

  4. Effects of yeast products on the intestinal morphology, barrier function, cytokine expression, and antioxidant system of weaned piglets*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huan-sheng; Wu, Fei; Long, Li-na; Li, Tie-jun; Xiong, Xia; Liao, Peng; Liu, Hong-nan; Yin, Yu-long

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a mixture of yeast culture, cell wall hydrolysates, and yeast extracts (collectively “yeast products,” YP) on the performance, intestinal physiology, and health of weaned piglets. A total of 90 piglets weaned at 21 d of age were blocked by body weight, sex, and litter and randomly assigned to one of three treatments for a 14-d feeding experiment, including (1) a basal diet (control), (2) 1.2 g/kg of YP, and (3) 20 mg/kg of colistin sulfate (CSE). No statistically significant differences were observed in average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, or gain-to-feed ratio among CSE, YP, and control piglets. Increased prevalence of diarrhea was observed among piglets fed the YP diet, whereas diarrhea was less prevalent among those fed CSE. Duodenal and jejunal villus height and duodenal crypt depth were greater in the control group than they were in the YP or CSE groups. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in the duodenal and jejunal villi were enhanced by YP, whereas IEL in the ileal villi were reduced in weaned piglets fed YP. Secretion of jejunal and ileal interleukin-10 (IL-10) was higher and intestinal and serum antioxidant indexes were affected by YP and CSE. In YP- and CSE-supplemented animals, serum D-lactate concentration and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity were both increased, and intestinal mRNA expressions of occludin and ZO-1 were reduced as compared to the control animals. In conclusion, YP supplementation in the diets of weaned piglets appears to increase the incidence of diarrhea and has adverse effects on intestinal morphology and barrier function. PMID:27704745

  5. Weaning onto solid foods: some of the challenges.

    PubMed

    Bennett, A E; O'Connor, A L; Canning, N; Kenny, A; Keaveney, E; Younger, K; Flynn, M A T

    2012-09-01

    Weaning--the transition from milk to solid food--influences life-long health. Dietary challenges during weaning include providing sufficient critical nutrients such as iron with minimal added sugar and fat and no added salt. This study assessed the inclusion of iron-containing red meat in infant diets before age one year, and the Irish commercial baby food environment. Of mothers with an infant under 30 months of age who were surveyed in shopping centres in Ireland (n195), 82% (n159) reported wanting more weaning information. A quarter (n24) of infants over age 12 months (n97) received no iron-containing red meat before age one year. A scan of commercial baby foods in Ireland identified 448 products. While all complied with baby food legislation, 15% (n69) were intrinsically high in sugar and fat, or contained added salt. This study indicates the need for specific guidance on best infant feeding practice in Ireland.

  6. Normal birth weight piglets with impaired preweaning growth utilize alternative metabolic pathways in the liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine if normal weight pigs that grow poorly during the pre-weaning period have altered hepatic metabolism, as reported for intrauterine growth retarded pigs. Eight pairs of average birth weight pigs (1.57 +/- 0.05 kg) were identified that diverged in weight by...

  7. The effects of early weaning on innate immune responses of Holstein calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to compare innate immune responses of calves weaned early (EW; n = 23; weaned at 23.7 ± 2.3 d of age) to conventionally-weaned calves (CW; n = 22; weaned at 44.7 ± 2.3 d of age). All calves were fed 3.8 L of colostrum within 12 h of birth and were subsequently fed m...

  8. Periodization of the early postnatal development in the rat with particular attention to the weaning period.

    PubMed

    Ošt'ádalová, I; Babický, A

    2012-01-01

    The early postnatal period is characterized by a great plasticity with critical windows in which any inadequate insult or intervention may be able to influence both positively and adversely postnatal growth and development. After birth the rat littermates enter the presuckling period (initial 6 hours terminated by the first nursing), characterized by transition from the amniotic fluid to the air, by the changes of the ambient temperature, by the termination of placental nutrition and by oxidative stress. After this stage the suckling period initiates and the littermates start to consume milk of their mothers. Comsumption of milk culminates on day 15, then decreases and terminates on postnatal day 28. The end of the suckling period and the onset of physiological weaning is determined by the moment when the youngs for the first time consume the solid food together with milk (postnatal day 17 in rats). On day 19 the first intake of drinking water occurs. The weaning period terminates by the last consumption of maternal milk - on postnatal day 28. It is necessary to stress that the duration of early postnatal periods is independent of the changes of body weight. The precise knowledge of individual ontogenetic periods critical for further development is crucial for the prediction and explanation of reactions to various pathogenetic stimuli both under experimental conditions and in clinical medicine.

  9. Dietary Zinc Oxide Modulates Antioxidant Capacity, Small Intestine Development, and Jejunal Gene Expression in Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cui; Lv, Hang; Chen, Zhuang; Wang, Li; Wu, Xiuju; Chen, Zhongjian; Zhang, Weina; Liang, Rui; Jiang, Zongyong

    2017-02-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) on the antioxidant capacity, small intestine development, and jejunal gene expression in weaned piglets. Ninety-six 21-day-old piglets were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments. Each treatment had eight replicates with four piglets per replicate. The piglets were fed either control diet (control) or control diet supplemented with in-feed antibiotics (300 mg/kg chlortetracycline and 60 mg/kg colistin sulfate) or pharmacological doses of ZnO (3000 mg/kg). The experiment lasted 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at days 14 and 28, while intestinal samples were harvested at day 28 of the experiment. Dietary high doses of ZnO supplementation significantly increased the body weight (BW) at day 14 and average daily gain (ADG) of days 1 to 14 in weaned piglets, when compared to control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of diarrhea of piglets fed ZnO-supplemented diets, at either days 1 to 14, days 14 to 28, or the overall experimental period, was significantly decreased in comparison with those in other groups (P < 0.05). Supplementation with ZnO increased the villus height of the duodenum and ileum in weaned piglets and decreased the crypt depth of the duodenum, when compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Dietary ZnO supplementation decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration at either day 14 or day 28, but increased total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) at day 14, when compared to that in the control (P < 0.05). ZnO supplementation upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin in the jejunum mucosa of weaned piglets, compared to those in the control (P < 0.05). The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-lβ (IL-1β) mRNA expression in the jejunum mucosa was downregulated in the ZnO-supplemented group, compared with the control (P < 0.05). Both in-feed antibiotics and ZnO supplementation decreased the m

  10. Evaluation of a Mapleson D CPAP system for weaning of mechanical ventilation in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Palomero-Rodríguez, Miguel Angel; de Arteaga, Héctor Chozas; Báez, Yolanda Laporta; de Vicente Sánchez, Jesús; Carretero, Pascual Sanabria; Conde, Pilar Sánchez; Pérez Ferrer, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the last years, we have used a flow-inflating bag circuit with a nasotracheal or nasopharyngeal tube as an interface to deliver effective CPAP support in infants (“Mapleson D CPAP system”). The primary goal of this study was to assess the usefulness of the “Mapleson D CPAP system” for weaning of mechanical ventilation (MV) in infants who received MV over 24 h. Materials and Methods: All infants who received MV for more than 24 h in the last year were enrolled in the study. Demographic data included age, gender, weight, and admission diagnosis. Heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were measured during MV, 2 h after the nasotracheal Mapleson D CPAP system and 2 h after extubation. Patients were classified into two groups: patients MV more than 48 h, and patients with MV fewer than 48 h. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 50 children were enrolled in the study, with a median age was 34 ± 45 months (range, 1–59 months) and median weight was 11.98 ± 9.31 kg (range, 1–48 kg). Median duration of MV was 480 h (range, 2–570). There were no significant differences in PaO2, PaCO2, and pH among MV, 2 h after the nasotracheal Mapleson D CPAP system and 2 h after extubation and spontaneous ventilation with the nasopharyngeal Mapleson D CPAP system or with nasal prongs. The overall extubation failure rate was 26% (n = 13). Weight and age were significantly associated with extubation failure (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The Mapleson D CPAP system, in our opinion, is a useful and safe alternative to more complex and expensive noninvasive CPAP and BiPAP weaning from MV in infants. PMID:27625446

  11. Effects of orally administered probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici on the small and large intestine of weaning piglets. A qualitative and quantitative micro-anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Di Giancamillo, A; Vitari, F; Savoini, G; Bontempo, V; Bersani, C; Dell'Orto, V; Domeneghini, C

    2008-06-01

    Probiotic research has been approached, above all in recent years, by widely differing points of view, both for human and animal uses. Lactic acid bacteria release bacteriocins, and some of them may function as probiotic. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with the probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici on the piglet intestine, on circulating lymphocytes, and on aspects of piglet performance during the first 42 days after weaning. Sixteen female piglets were at weaning assigned to two dietary groups: Control (Ctr, 8 animals) and Pediococcus acidilactici supplemented (Pa, 8 animals). Piglets' growth was monitored from weaning to the end of the trial. On day 42 post-weaning, the piglets were slaughtered and small specimens from both ileum and cecum were examined with haematoxylin/eosin staining to ascertain structural details. Histometry was performed by villi and crypts measurements, as well as GALT measurements. Histochemical analyses were performed to investigate the intestinal mucins. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to visualize proliferating as well as apoptotic mucosal cells, and to identify mucosal macrophages and IgA producing cells. Intra-epithelial CD8+ T lymphocytes were identified and counted. Subsets of circulating T lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Pediococcus acidilactici supplementation positively influenced weight and post-weaning average daily gain of treated piglets. Histometry showed an increase in villi height and crypts depth in Pa animals in comparison with controls. Treated piglets showed a larger number of proliferating enterocytes than controls. Intra-epithelial CD8+ T lymphocytes were scarcer in treated than in control piglets, likely in relation with catarrhal enteritis shown in the latter. We conclude that the studied supplementation was possibly able to protect the piglet small intestinal mucosa, improving local resistance to infections in the stressful weaning period.

  12. Effect of increasing distillers grains inclusion on performance and carcass characteristics of early-weaned steers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, J P; Claeys, M C; Lemenager, R P

    2013-04-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain elevated concentrations of CP, oil, and S, which can negatively impact performance and carcass characteristics in steers weaned at 205 d of age. Early weaned (EW) cattle, however, consume less DM and require increased CP. Furthermore, the energy required to dispose of excess N may actually decrease excessive fat accumulation, which can occur in EW cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding diets with increased concentrations of DDGS to EW steers for the first 99 d would decrease fat thickness and increase harvest weights, and would not inhibit performance or marbling deposition. To test this hypothesis, 90 Angus × Simmental steers (199.7 ± 12.2 kg) were weaned at 134 d of age (EW) and allotted to 3 high concentrate diets (20% corn silage) containing either 0%, 30%, or 60% DDGS (15.7%, 15.8% and 21.7% CP, respectively). Dietary treatments were fed for 99 d, after which steers were placed on a common diet containing no DDGS (12.9% CP) until harvest at a common weight of 599 kg. Concentration of dietary DDGS did not affect ADG, DMI, or G:F during the growing phase (P > 0.41), did not produce any carryover effects on ADG, DMI, or G:F during the finishing phase (P > 0.26), and resulted in similar overall performance (P > 0.52). Dressing percentage (P < 0.05), HCW (P = 0.06), fat thickness (P = 0.10), and % KPH (P = 0.08) responded quadratically to early DDGS supplementation, increasing from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and decreasing from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion, respectively. Marbling score was not affected (P > 0.46) by DDGS inclusion, but there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for the ratio of subcutaneous (SC) to intramuscular (IM) fat to be altered by DDGS inclusion. The ratio of IM to SC fat decreased from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and increased from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion. These data suggest that inclusion of increased concentrations of dietary DDGS early in the feedlot phase does not negatively impact growth and

  13. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Nie, Yangfan; Chen, Jianwei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhichang; Fan, Qiwen; Yan, Xianghua

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia) significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of two genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium) significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of four genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida) significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants. PMID:27853453

  14. Mechanical ventilation, diaphragm weakness and weaning: A rehabilitation perspective

    PubMed Central

    Martin, A Daniel; Smith, Barbara; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Most patients are easily liberated from mechanical ventilation (MV) following resolution of respiratory failure and a successful trial of spontaneous breathing, but about 25% of patients experience difficult weaning. MV use leads to cellular changes and weakness, which has been linked to weaning difficulties and has been labeled ventilator induced diaphragm dysfunction (VIDD). Aggravating factors in human studies with prolonged weaning include malnutrition, chronic electrolyte abnormalities, hyperglycemia, excessive resistive and elastic loads, corticosteroids, muscle relaxant exposure, sepsis and compromised cardiac function. Numerous animal studies have investigated the effects of MV on diaphragm function. Virtually all of these studies have concluded that MV use rapidly leads to VIDD and have identified cellular and molecular mechanisms of VIDD. Molecular and functional studies on the effects of MV on the human diaphragm have largely confirmed the animal results and identified potential treatment strategies. Only recently have potential VIDD treatments been tested in humans, including pharmacologic interventions and diaphragm “training”. A limited number of human studies have found that specific diaphragm training can increase respiratory muscle strength in FTW patients and facilitate weaning, but larger, multicenter trials are needed. PMID:23692928

  15. Gene expression profiling in bovine rumen during development and weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In calves, efficient nutrient delivery, absorption, and metabolism depend upon the transition of the rumen from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant state during weaning. The rumen epithelium is responsible for several physiologically important functions, including absorption, transport, volatile fatty...

  16. Dietary administration of probiotics to sows and/or their neonates improves the reproductive performance, incidence of post-weaning diarrhea and histopathological parameters in the intestine of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Teruo; Masuda, Tomohide; Kurosawa, Daisuke; Tsukahara, Takamitsu

    2016-12-01

    Probiotics have gained considerable attention with respect to their beneficial effects on livestock performance and health. The most significant effects of probiotics on the gut microbiota and the host animals take place when they are included in diets during particularly stressful periods such as weaning and/or at the beginning of the lactation period. The probiotics Bacillus mesentericus strain TO-A at 1 × 10(8)  colony forming units (CFU)/g, Clostridium butyricum strain TO-A at 1 × 10(8)  CFU/g and Enterococcus faecalis strain T-110 at 1 × 10(9)  CFU/g were used. Litter weight at delivery and ratio of return to estrous improved significantly (17% and 24% improvement, respectively) by probiotic administration to sows (0.2% (w/w)). Furthermore, the feed intake of the probiotics-administered sows was greater than that of the control sows during the late lactation period. Post-weaning diarrheal incidence and growth performance was improved by probiotics administration to neonates (0.02% (w/w)), while the combined use of probiotics in sows and their neonates induced the enlargement of villous height and prevented muscle layer thinning in the small intestine of weaning piglets. The administration of probiotics of three species of live bacteria improved the porcine reproductive performance around stressful periods of sows (farrowing) and piglets (weaning). [Corrections added on 26 April 2016, after first online publication: 'Enterococcus faecalis strain T-100' has been corrected to 'Enterococcus faecalis strain T-110' in the above paragraph and in the 'Probiotics' section under the Materials and Methods heading.].

  17. Nutritional and immunisation status, weaning practices and socio-economic conditions of under five children in three villages of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Iqbal Hossain, M; Yasmin, R; Kabir, I

    1999-01-01

    A total of 479 children aged 6-60 months (male/female, 240/239) were studies during 1991 to 1992. Weight for age, height for age (mean +/- SD) were 72 +/- 11%, 90 +/- 7 and 87 +/- 10% of NCHS median respectively. According to Gomez classification, 96% of children had varying degrees of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) (28.4% mild, 58.2% moderate and 9.2% severe). According to Waterlow classification 84% were stunted(36% mild, 33% moderate and 15% severe) and 67% were wasted (47% mild, 18% moderate and 2% severe). Of all children 368 (77%) received BCG and 439 (82%) received partial or full dose of DPT and Polio vaccines. Among children aged 13-60 months 75% received Measles vaccine. Weaning food was started at (mean +/- SD) 8 +/- 4 months. Low household income, parental illiteracy, small family size (< or = 6), early or late weaning and absence of BCG vaccination were significantly associated with severe PEM. Timely weaning, education and promotion of essential vaccination may reduce childhood malnutrition especially severe PEM.

  18. How Feasible Is Baby-Led Weaning as an Approach to Infant Feeding? A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Sonya L.; Heath, Anne-Louise M.; Taylor, Rachael W.

    2012-01-01

    Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is an alternative method for introducing complementary foods to infants in which the infant feeds themselves hand-held foods instead of being spoon-fed by an adult. The BLW infant also shares family food and mealtimes and is offered milk (ideally breast milk) on demand until they self-wean. Anecdotal evidence suggests that many parents are choosing this method instead of conventional spoon-feeding of purées. Observational studies suggest that BLW may encourage improved eating patterns and lead to a healthier body weight, although it is not yet clear whether these associations are causal. This review evaluates the literature with respect to the prerequisites for BLW, which we have defined as beginning complementary foods at six months (for safety reasons), and exclusive breastfeeding to six months (to align with WHO infant feeding guidelines); the gross and oral motor skills required for successful and safe self-feeding of whole foods from six months; and the practicalities of family meals and continued breastfeeding on demand. Baby-Led Weaning will not suit all infants and families, but it is probably achievable for most. However, ultimately, the feasibility of BLW as an approach to infant feeding can only be determined in a randomized controlled trial. Given the popularity of BLW amongst parents, such a study is urgently needed. PMID:23201835

  19. Dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall Extract Supplementation Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Modulates Serum Amino Acids Profiles in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Martínez, Yordan

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract (SCCWE) on growth performance, oxidative stress, intestinal morphology, and serum amino acid concentration in weaned piglets. Utilizing a completely randomized design, 40 healthy piglets weaned at 21 d were grouped into 4 experimental treatments with 10 pigs per treatment group. Treatments consisted of a basal diet (T0), a basal diet with a 0.05% SCCWE (T1), a basal diet with a 0.10% SCCWE (T2), and a basal diet with a 0.15% SCCWE (T3). SCCWE supplementation increased the average daily gain and final body weight compared with T0 (P < 0.05). SCCWE in T2 and T3 improved the average daily feed intake and decreased the feed/gain ratio compared with T1 and T2 (P < 0.05). SCCWE decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly compared to T0 (P < 0.05). SCCWE increased the concentration of Ile compared to T0 (P < 0.05). Moreover, the concentrations of Leu, Phe, and Arg were higher in T2 and T3 (P < 0.05). These findings indicate beneficial effects of SCCWE supplementation on growth performance, the concentration of some essential amino acids, and alleviation of oxidative stress in weaned piglets. PMID:28386308

  20. Influence of dairy by-product waste milk on the microbiomes of different gastrointestinal tract components in pre-weaned dairy calves

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Y. F.; Wang, Y. J.; Zou, Y.; Azarfar, A.; Wei, X. L.; Ji, S. K.; Zhang, J.; Wu, Z. H.; Wang, S. X.; Dong, S. Z.; Xu, Y.; Shao, D. F.; Xiao, J. X.; Yang, K. L.; Cao, Z. J.; Li, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    The community structure of colonised bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of pre-weaned calves is affected by extrinsic factors, such as the genetics and diet of the calves; however, the dietary impact is not fully understood and warrants further research. Our study revealed that a total of 6, 5, 2 and 10 bacterial genera showed biologically significant differences in the GITs of pre-weaned calves fed four waste-milk diets: acidified waste milk, pasteurised waste milk, untreated bulk milk, and untreated waste milk, respectively. Specifically, generic biomarkers were observed in the rumen (e.g., Bifidobacterium, Parabacteroides, Fibrobacter, Clostridium, etc.), caecum (e.g., Faecalibacterium, Oxalobacter, Odoribacter, etc.) and colon (e.g., Megamonas, Comamonas, Stenotrophomonas, etc.) but not in the faeces. In addition, the predicted metabolic pathways showed that the expression of genes related to metabolic diseases was increased in the calves fed untreated waste milk, which indicated that untreated waste milk is not a suitable liquid diet for pre-weaned calves. This is the first study to demonstrate how different types of waste milk fed to pre-weaned calves affect the community structure of colonised bacteria, and the results may provide insights for the intentional adjustment of diets and gastrointestinal bacterial communities. PMID:28281639

  1. A robust rabbit line increases leucocyte counts at weaning and reduces mortality by digestive disorder during fattening.

    PubMed

    García-Quirós, A; Arnau-Bonachera, A; Penadés, M; Cervera, C; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Selva, L; Viana, D; Corpa, J M; Pascual, J J

    2014-10-15

    The present work evaluates how a rabbit line selected for robustness and two other lines selected for productive criteria, could have affected the physiological maturity and blood leukocytes counts of young rabbits at weaning, as well as their possible effect on the subsequent performance and health status during the growing period. The study was conducted on a total of 2904 young rabbits weaned at 30 days, belonging to three different genetic types (line H, founded for litter size at birth and selected for litter size at weaning during 17 generations; line LP, characterised by robustness founded for reproductive longevity criteria and selected for litter size at weaning for 7 generations; and line R, founded and selected during 25 generations for average daily gain from the 4th to the 9th week of life). Two different diets were used during lactation. The two diets were both isoenergetic and isoprotein but their main energy source differed, being either animal fat (AF) or cereal starch (CS). Leucocyte subsets were characterised at weaning, and growing performance was studied until 58 days of age (feed intake, live weight, mortality by digestive disorders and morbidity) for both medicated and non-medicated dietary versions. At weaning, young rabbits fed an AF lactating diet evidenced greater B lymphocyte count (on av. +8.6 ± 3.5 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05) than those fed a CS diet. With respect to H and R rabbits, blood from LP ones had higher counts for total (on av. 591 ± 167 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05), B (on av. +11.05 ± 4.3 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05), T CD5(+) (on av. +266 ± 83 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05) and CD8(+) lymphocytes (on av. +72.5 ± 28 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05), and with respect to R, higher counts of CD4(+) (on av. +121 ± 47 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05) lymphocytes (on av. +12.3 ± 4.1 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05), monocytes (on av. +66 ± 32 × 10(6)/L; P < 0.05) and granulocytes (on av. +567 ± 182 × 10(6)/L; P<0.05) at weaning. LP line rabbits also showed lower mortality by

  2. Indicators of fatigue and of prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, G E; Hawkins, K; Boynton, J; Burns, D

    2001-01-01

    Indicators of weaning success have been tested primarily in patients who have been ventilated for short periods of time, and they may not be as accurate in cases where support has been required for longer than a few days. In patients requiring longer periods of support it is difficult to estimate the likelihood of successful liberation. Therefore we evaluated established weaning indices for their accuracy in surgical patients who required > or = 72 hours of mechanical ventilation. Surgical patients who required mechanical ventilation for > or = 72 hours were prospectively followed (over 6 months). We obtained standard indices of ventilatory function daily once patients were ready to wean. These indices included the respiratory rate/tidal volume ratio (RSBI), the maximal inspiratory pressure, and the minute ventilation. The duration of weaning and explicitly defined episodes of fatigue were the outcomes of interest. Statistical analyses evaluated the multiple factors that might influence the duration of weaning. Ninety-five patients (66% trauma; 34% surgery) survived to begin weaning, and 93% were liberated. The median duration of mechanical ventilation prior to weaning was 4 days (range 3-16 days), and the median duration of weaning was 3 days (range 0-56 days). Fatigue occurred in 36 patients and was not reliably predicted by any of the weaning measurements. However, a RSBI of > 105 on the first day of weaning was associated with prolonged weaning. By multivariate analysis, an RSBI of > 105 on the first day of weaning predicted prolonged weaning (hazard ratio 1.9; p = 0.03). After 72 hours of mechanical ventilation, clinical fatigue and successful liberation are not reliably predicted by standard indices of respiratory muscle strength and reserve. However, an RSBI of >105 observed once the patient is ready to wean is associated with prolonged weaning.

  3. Effects of Graded Levels of Isomaltooligosaccharides on the Performance, Immune Function and Intestinal Status of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. X.; Song, P. X.; Wu, H.; Xue, J. X.; Zhong, X.; Zhang, L. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) on the performance, immune function and intestinal microflora and intestinal mucosal morphology of weaned pigs. In a 28-day experiment, one hundred eighty, twenty eight-day-old, crossbred (Duroc×Large White×Landrace), weaned pigs, with an initial body weight of 8.19±1.45 kg, were fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal based diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, or 0.8% IMO added at the expense of corn. Each treatment was replicated six times with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts) per pen. From day 0 to 14, weight gain was linearly increased (p<0.05), while gain:feed (p<0.05) was linearly improved and diarrhea rate (p = 0.05) linearly declined as the IMO level increased. On d 14, the level of the immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, and IgG in the serum of pigs were linearly increased (p<0.05) with increasing IMO supplementation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was linearly (p<0.05) and quadratically (p<0.05) decreased as IMO intake increased. From day 15 to 28, there was a trend for weight gain to be linearly increased, and IL-2 was linearly (p<0.05) increased as IMO supplementation increased on d 28. Over the entire experiment, weight gain was linearly increased (p<0.05), while gain:feed (p<0.05) was linearly improved and diarrhea rate (p<0.05) was linearly decreased as the IMO level increased. Supplementation with IMO had no effect on the intestinal microflora of pigs in the ileum and cecum of pigs, as well as the villus height and crypt depth in the ileum and jejunum (p>0.05). These results indicate that dietary inclusion of IMO increases weight gain, gain:feed and enhanced the immune status of pigs, and could be a valuable feed additive for use in weaned pigs, particularly during the period immediately after weaning. PMID:26732450

  4. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Cundiff, L V

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle (Bos taurus). Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth weight, weaning weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG was measured in 1,370 calves born and 1,285 calves weaned. Calves were obtained by mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) mature cows to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires. Calves were born during the spring of 1997 and 1998. Sire breed was significant for gestation length, birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Swedish Red and White and Friesian had the shortest gestation length (282 d), whereas offspring from Wagyu sires had the longest gestation length (286 d). Progeny from British breeds were the heaviest at birth (40.5 kg) and at 205 d (237 kg), and grew faster (0.97 kg/d) than offspring from other breeds. Offspring from Wagyu sires were the lightest at birth (36.3 kg) and at 205 d (214 kg), and had the slowest growth (0.91 kg/d). Dam breed was significant for gestation length (P < 0.001), birth weight (P = 0.009), BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Hereford cows had the longest gestation length (284 d), whereas offspring from Angus cows had the shortest (282 d). Offspring from MARC III cows were the heaviest at birth (39.4 kg) when compared with offspring from Hereford (38.2 kg) and Angus (38.6 kg) cows. Progeny from Angus cows were the heaviest at 205 d (235 kg) and grew faster (0.96 kg/d), whereas offspring from Hereford cows were the lightest at 205 d (219 kg) and were the slowest in growth (0.88 kg/d). Sex was significant for gestation length (P = 0.026), birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Male calves had a longer gestation length

  5. Performance of early weaned (~80 d) vs normal weaned (~215 d) cows in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine effects of early weaning at the start of breeding on cow reproductive performance following AI with a 50-d cleanup breeding season among cows in the Northern Great Plains. Angus (n = 199) and Angus x Simmental (n = 158) cows stratified within breed by age, postpartum i...

  6. Identification of amino acids associated with skeletal muscle growth in late gestation and at weaning in lambs of well-nourished sheep.

    PubMed

    Sales, F A; Pacheco, D; Blair, H T; Kenyon, P R; Nicholas, G; Senna Salerno, M; McCoard, S A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between intracellular free AA (FAA) profiles in skeletal muscle with muscle growth in twin and singleton fetuses in late pregnancy and at weaning, under an ad libitum feeding regime of the dam. Plasma from singleton- (n = 9) and twin-bearing (n = 10) ewes at d 140 of pregnancy and FAA in the semitendinosus muscle (STM) from the corresponding fetuses were studied. At weaning, intracellular STM FAA concentrations were compared between twins at the same age as singletons (Twin(age); n = 17) and at the same weight as singletons (Twin(wt); n = 17) to that of singletons (n = 20). Twin fetuses were 15% lighter (P = 0.03) with a 20% lighter STM (P = 0.02) compared to singletons. Maternal plasma FAA were similar (P ≥ 0.17) between singleton- and twin-bearing ewes. Twin fetuses had greater (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of glutamine, histidine, and methionine and lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of aspartate, citrulline, glutamate, and ornithine compared with singletons. In fetal STM, twins had lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of aspartate and valine and greater (P < 0.01) concentration of methionine. Correlations were found between fetal STM weight and intracellular concentrations of arginine (r = 0.66, P < 0.01) and glutamine (r = 0.49, P < 0.01). Compared to singletons at weaning, Twin(age) were 16% lighter (P < 0.01) and the STM weight was proportionately 16% lighter (P < 0.01). For Twin(wt), the magnitude of the difference for STM weight was reduced to 8% lighter (P = 0.02). Compared to singletons, Twin(age) lambs had greater (P < 0.05) intracellular concentrations of glutamine, histidine, threonine, asparagine, alanine, serine, and glutamate but reduced taurine. The differences in FAA concentrations were less between Twin(wt) and singletons than between Twin(age) and singletons. Positive correlations were found between leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, and tyrosine muscle

  7. The effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on glucose metabolism and gut microbiota in male mice offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Substantial studies demonstrated that maternal nutrition can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing some metabolic diseases in offspring. However, investigations into the later-life effects of these diets on gut microbiota in the offspring are limited. Our objective was to explore the effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on offspring's gut microbiota and glucose metabolism in later life. The male offspring of dams fed on either a high-fat (HF) diet or control (C) diet and then weaned to either a HF or C diet, generating four groups: C–C, HF–C, C–HF and HF–HF (n=8 in each group). The C–C offspring had lower body weight than C–HF group at 16 weeks of age (P<0.01) and both C–HF and HF–HF offspring had higher body weight than C–C group at 24 and 32 weeks of age (P<0.001 respectively). The blood glucose (BG) levels of the male offspring from the C and HF dams weaned HF diet were significantly higher at 30 min, 60 min and 120 min (P<0.001) after intraperitoneal glucose administration compared with those of the C–C group. The C–HF group had higher BG at 30 min than HF–HF group (P<0.01). Furthermore, area under the curve (AUC) in C–HF and HF–HF groups was also significantly larger than C–C group (P<0.001). Fasting BG and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) of the offspring were significantly higher in C–HF and HF–HF groups than C–C group at 32 weeks of age (P<0.05). Operational taxonomic unit (OTU), Chao and Shannon indexes showed a significantly lower diversity in C–HF offspring compared with HF–C and C–C groups (P<0.05). The dominant phyla of all the groups were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which also showed significantly different percentages in the group (P<0.05). Furthermore, it is indicated that Lactobacillus and Bacteroides were significantly associated with glucose response to a glucose load (P<0.05). In conclusion, maternal and post-weaning

  8. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Sarah L; Boyland, Natasha K; Mlynski, David T; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual's associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  9. The effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on glucose metabolism and gut microbiota in male mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2016-07-01

    Substantial studies demonstrated that maternal nutrition can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing some metabolic diseases in offspring. However, investigations into the later-life effects of these diets on gut microbiota in the offspring are limited. Our objective was to explore the effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on offspring's gut microbiota and glucose metabolism in later life. The male offspring of dams fed on either a high-fat (HF) diet or control (C) diet and then weaned to either a HF or C diet, generating four groups: C-C, HF-C, C-HF and HF-HF (n=8 in each group). The C-C offspring had lower body weight than C-HF group at 16 weeks of age (P<0.01) and both C-HF and HF-HF offspring had higher body weight than C-C group at 24 and 32 weeks of age (P<0.001 respectively). The blood glucose (BG) levels of the male offspring from the C and HF dams weaned HF diet were significantly higher at 30 min, 60 min and 120 min (P<0.001) after intraperitoneal glucose administration compared with those of the C-C group. The C-HF group had higher BG at 30 min than HF-HF group (P<0.01). Furthermore, area under the curve (AUC) in C-HF and HF-HF groups was also significantly larger than C-C group (P<0.001). Fasting BG and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) of the offspring were significantly higher in C-HF and HF-HF groups than C-C group at 32 weeks of age (P<0.05). Operational taxonomic unit (OTU), Chao and Shannon indexes showed a significantly lower diversity in C-HF offspring compared with HF-C and C-C groups (P<0.05). The dominant phyla of all the groups were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which also showed significantly different percentages in the group (P<0.05). Furthermore, it is indicated that Lactobacillus and Bacteroides were significantly associated with glucose response to a glucose load (P<0.05). In conclusion, maternal and post-weaning diet interaction predisposes the

  10. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mlynski, David T.; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P.

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual’s associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  11. Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Htoo, Nay Nang; Khaing, Aung Tun; Abba, Yusuf; Htin, Nwe Nwe; Abdullah, Jesse Faez Firdaus; Kyaw, Than; Khan, Mohd Azam Khan Goriman; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF) supplementation (with or without Alfalfa) on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48), 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg) were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM). The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA) while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control) had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than kids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g) and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g) groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from CF (12.1±0.56 kg) and DM (9.9±0.59 kg) groups. Conclusion: This result shows that supplementation of CF combined with alfalfa from birth to weaning enhances growth performance of cross-bred Boer goat kids. PMID:27065636

  12. Chronic Early-life Stress in Rat Pups Alters Basal Corticosterone, Intestinal Permeability, and Fecal Microbiota at Weaning: Influence of Sex

    PubMed Central

    Moussaoui, Nabila; Jacobs, Jonathan P; Larauche, Muriel; Biraud, Mandy; Million, Mulugeta; Mayer, Emeran; Taché, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Wistar rat dams exposed to limited nesting stress (LNS) from post-natal days (PND) 2 to 10 display erratic maternal behavior, and their pups show delayed maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and impaired epithelial barrier at PND10 and a visceral hypersensitivity at adulthood. Little is known about the impact of early life stress on the offspring before adulthood and the influence of sex. We investigated whether male and female rats previously exposed to LNS displays at weaning altered corticosterone, intestinal permeability, and microbiota. Methods Wistar rat dams and litters were maintained from PND2 to 10 with limited nesting/bedding materials and thereafter reverted to normal housing up to weaning (PND21). Control litters had normal housing. At weaning, we monitored body weight, corticosterone plasma levels (enzyme immunoassay), in vivo intestinal to colon permeability (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4 kDa) and fecal microbiota (DNA extraction and amplification of the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene). Results At weaning, LNS pups had hypercorticosteronemia and enhanced intestinal permeability with females > males while body weights were similar. LNS decreased fecal microbial diversity and induced a distinct composition characterized by increased abundance of Gram positive cocci and reduction of fiber-degrading, butyrate-producing, and mucus-resident microbes. Conclusions These data indicate that chronic exposure to LNS during the first week post-natally has sustained effects monitored at weaning including hypercorticosteronemia, a leaky gut, and dysbiosis. These alterations may impact on the susceptibility to develop visceral hypersensitivity in adult rats and have relevance to the development of irritable bowel syndrome in childhood. PMID:27829577

  13. Increased colostral somatic cell counts reduce pre-weaning calf immunity, health and growth.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsi Nia, E; Nikkhah, A; Rahmani, H R; Alikhani, M; Mohammad Alipour, M; Ghorbani, G R

    2010-10-01

    Our objective was to study the relationships between colostral somatic cell counts (SCC, a criterion for mastitis severity at parturition) and early calf growth, blood indicators of immunity, and pre-weaning faecal and health states. Sixty-nine Holstein cows were assigned to three groups of greater (n = 21, 5051 × 10(3)), medium (n = 38, 2138 × 10(3)) and lower (n = 10, 960 × 10(3)) colostral SCC (per ml) in a completely randomized design. Calves received 2 l of colostrum on day 1, and jugular blood was sampled at birth, at 3 h after the first colostrum feeding and at 42 days of age for immunoglobulin G (IgG) measurements. Calves were fed transition milk from their dams until 3 days of age and whole milk from 4 to 60 days of age twice daily at 10% of body weight. Health status and faecal physical scores were recorded daily for 42 days. Increased colostral SCC was associated with increased serum IgG at parturition. Colostral pH increased and fat percentage decreased linearly with the rising SCC. Feeding colostrum with greater SCC was associated with reduced serum IgG concentrations at 3 h after first colostrum feeding, greater incidences of diarrhoea and compromised health status during the first 42 days of age, and reduced weaning weight gain, but had no effects on calf body length and withers height. Colostral volume and percentages of protein, lactose, solids-non-fat, total solids and IgG were comparable among groups. Results suggest a role for SCC, as an indicator of mastitis and colostral health quality, in affecting calf health. As a result of the novelty of calf health dependence on colostral SCC found, future studies to further characterize such relationships and to uncover or rule out possible mediators are required before colostral SCC could be recommended for routine on-farm use in managing dry cow and calf production.

  14. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. II. Maternal influence on calf traits, cow weight, and measures of maternal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman in subtropical Florida and to estimate heterosis for size traits of their calves, their own weight, and maternal efficiency traits. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred in to bulls of the other 2 breeds. Calves were spring-born from 2005 through 2011. Evaluated calf (n = 1,254) traits included birth weight and weight, ADG, BCS, and hip height at weaning. Cow weight (n = 1,389) was recorded at weaning. Maternal efficiency traits evaluated included weaning weight per 100 kg cow weight, weaning weight per calving interval, and weaning weight per cow exposed to breeding (n = 1,442). Fixed effects and their interactions were investigated included sire and dam breed of cow, sire breed of calf, cow age, year, calf gender, and weaning age as a linear covariate (calf traits at weaning). Direct and maternal additive genetic effects were random in models for calf traits; only direct additive effects were modeled for cow traits. Cows sired by Angus bulls from outside the research herd had calves that were heavier at birth and weaning and greater ADG, BCS, and hip height (P < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis for weaning weight, BCS, and ADG ranged from 1.3 to 13.2% for all pairs of breeds (P < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis for birth weight (3.2 to 8.2%) and hip height (2.3%) were significant for Romosinuano-Angus and Brahman-Angus. Heterosis for cow weight was 65 ± 8 kg for Brahman-Angus (P < 0.001), and estimates for other pairs of breeds were approximately one-half that value. Heterosis for weaning weight/100 kg cow weight was 3.4 ± 0.75 kg for Romosinuano-Angus. Heterosis estimates for weaning weight/calving interval (P < 0.001) ranged from 0.08 ± 0.01 to 0.12 ± 0.01. Heterosis for weaning weight

  15. Effects of Dietary Glutamine Supplementation on the Body Composition and Protein Status of Early-Weaned Mice Inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

    PubMed Central

    Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Borges, Maria Carolina; de Castro, Inar Alves; Pires, Ivanir S. O.; Borelli, Primavera; Tirapegui, Julio

    2011-01-01

    Glutamine, one of the most abundant amino acids found in maternal milk, favors protein anabolism. Early-weaned babies are deprived of this source of glutamine, in a period during which endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress, mainly during infections. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of dietary glutamine supplementation on the body composition and visceral protein status of early-weaned mice inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Mice were weaned early on their 14th day of life and seperated into two groups, one of which was fed a glutamine-free diet (n = 16) and the other a glutamine-supplemented diet (40 g/kg diet) (n = 16). At 21 days of age, some mice were intraperitoneally injected with BCG. Euthanasia was performed at the 28th day of age. BCG inoculation significantly reduced body weight (P < 0.001), lean mass (P = 0.002), water (P = 0.006), protein (P = 0.007) and lipid content (P = 0.001) in the carcass. Dietary glutamine supplementation resulted in a significant increase in serum IGF-1 (P = 0.019) and albumin (P = 0.025) concentration, muscle protein concentration (P = 0.035) and lipid content (P = 0.002) in the carcass. In conclusion, dietary glutamine supplementation had a positive influence on visceral protein status but did not affect body composition in early-weaned mice inoculated with BCG. PMID:22254124

  16. Age of dam and sex of calf adjustments and genetic parameters for gestation length in Charolais cattle.

    PubMed

    Crews, D H

    2006-01-01

    To estimate adjustment factors and genetic parameters for gestation length (GES), AI and calving date records (n = 40,356) were extracted from the Canadian Charolais Association field database. The average time from AI to calving date was 285.2 d (SD = 4.49 d) and ranged from 274 to 296 d. Fixed effects were sex of calf, age of dam (2, 3, 4, 5 to 10, > or = 11 yr), and gestation contemporary group (year of birth x herd of origin). Variance components were estimated using REML and 4 animal models (n = 84,332) containing from 0 to 3 random maternal effects. Model 1 (M1) contained only direct genetic effects. Model 2 (M2) was G1 plus maternal genetic effects with the direct x maternal genetic covariance constrained to zero, and model 3 (M3) was G2 without the covariance constraint. Model 4 (M4) extended G3 to include a random maternal permanent environmental effect. Direct heritability estimates were high and similar among all models (0.61 to 0.64), and maternal heritability estimates were low, ranging from 0.01 (M2) to 0.09 (M3). Likelihood ratio tests and parameter estimates suggested that M4 was the most appropriate (P < 0.05) model. With M4, phenotypic variance (18.35 d2) was partitioned into direct and maternal genetic, and maternal permanent environmental components (hd2 = 0.64 +/- 0.04, hm2 = 0.07 +/- 0.01, r(d,m) = -0.37 +/- 0.06, and c2 = 0.03 +/- 0.01, respectively). Linear contrasts were used to estimate that bull calves gestated 1.26 d longer (P < 0.02) than heifers, and adjustments to a mature equivalent (5 to 10 yr old) age of dam were 1.49 (P < 0.01), 0.56 (P < 0.01), 0.33 (P < 0.01), and -0.24 (P < 0.14) d for GES records of calves born to 2-, 3-, 4-, and > or = 11-yr-old cows, respectively. Bivariate animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters for GES with birth and adjusted 205-d weaning weights, and postweaning gain. Direct GES was positively correlated with direct birth weight (BWT; 0.34 +/- 0.04) but negatively correlated with maternal

  17. [Does acamprosate diminish the appetite for alcohol in weaned alcoholics?].

    PubMed

    Roussaux, J P; Hers, D; Ferauge, M

    1996-01-01

    A population of 127 alcoholics of both sexes, hospitalized and weaned (DSM III diagnose: Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence) received Acamprosate (n = 63) or placebo (n = 64) in a double blind randomized therapeutic trail. The patients were followed during three months and anamnestic as well as biological data were recorded. It appeared no significant differences between the two groups of patients. This negative result could perhaps be explained by the heaviness of the pathology of this hospitalized alcoholic population.

  18. Effects of stress associated with weaning on the adaptive immune system in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kick, A R; Tompkins, M B; Flowers, W L; Whisnant, C S; Almond, G W

    2012-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of weaning age on specific components of the adaptive immune system in pigs. Twenty-three crossbred pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: weaning at 14 (14D, n = 8), 21 (21D, n = 7), or 28 (28D, n = 8) d of age. Peripheral blood samples, obtained when pigs were 13, 15, 20, 22, 27, 29, and 35 d of age, were analyzed for peripheral blood cell percentages and concentrations of neutrophils, lymphocytes, T cell subsets, mature B cells, and plasma cortisol concentrations. For each of the 3 groups, weaning increased plasma cortisol concentrations (P < 0.001) and reduced BW percentage change (P < 0.017). Lymphocyte concentrations displayed a treatment effect for the 14D (P = 0.074) and 28D (P = 0.014) groups. Albeit inconsistent, lymphocyte concentrations were less in weaned pigs on the day after weaning than in pigs remaining on the sow or weaned at a younger age. Specifically, mature B cells (CD21(+)) and CD4(+)CD8(+) cells decreased (P < 0.05) after weaning at 28 d of age. Other differences occurred among treatments; however, the differences apparently were not associated with weaning. Based upon the immunological measures used in the present study, there was not an explicit benefit to the adaptive immune system for any weaning age. Early weaning did not negatively affect the adaptive immunological competence of pigs as determined by changes in populations of immune cells.

  19. Weaning Induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, and Aminotransferases through MAPK Signaling Pathways in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhen; Zhu, Wei; Guo, Qi; Luo, Wenli; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Weina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of weaning on the hepatic redox status, apoptosis, function, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways during the first week after weaning in piglets. A total of 12 litters of piglets were weaned at d 21 and divided into the weaning group (WG) and the control group (CG). Six piglets from each group were slaughtered at d 0 (d 20, referred to weaning), d 1, d 4, and d 7 after weaning. Results showed that weaning significantly increased the concentrations of hepatic free radicals H2O2 and NO, malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), while significantly decreasing the inhibitory hydroxyl ability (IHA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and altered the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD). The apoptosis results showed that weaning increased the concentrations of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in liver homogenates increased after weaning. The phosphorylated JNK and ERK1/2 increased, while the activated p38 initially decreased and then increased. Our results suggested that weaning increased the hepatic oxidative stress and aminotransferases and initiated apoptosis, which may be related to the activated MAPK pathways in postweaning piglets. PMID:27807471

  20. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  1. Thenar oxygen saturation during weaning from mechanical ventilation: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Gruartmoner, Guillem; Mesquida, Jaume; Masip, Jordi; Martínez, Maria L; Villagra, Ana; Baigorri, Francisco; Pinsky, Michael R; Artigas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to determine whether thenar tissue oxygen saturation (S(tO2)), measured by noninvasive near-infrared spectroscopy, and its changes derived from an ischaemic challenge are associated with weaning outcome. Our study comprised a prospective observational study in a 26-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit. Patients receiving mechanical ventilation for >48 h, and considered ready to wean by their physicians underwent a 30-min weaning trial. S(tO2) was measured continuously on the thenar eminence. A transient vascular occlusion test was performed prior to and at the end of the 30-min weaning trial, in order to obtain S(tO2) deoxygenation and reoxygenation rates, and estimated local oxygen consumption. 37 patients were studied. Patients were classified as weaning success (n=24) or weaning failure (n=13). No significant demographic, respiratory or haemodynamic differences were observed between the groups at inclusion. Patients who failed the overall weaning process showed a significant increase in deoxygenation and in local oxygen consumption from baseline to 30 min of weaning trial, whereas no significant changes were observed in the weaning success group. Failure to wean from mechanical ventilation was associated with higher relative increases in deoxygenation after 30 min of spontaneous ventilation.

  2. Weaning in an Arctic wolf pack: behavioral mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Packard, J.M.; Mech, L.D.; Ream, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    If behavioral mechanisms controlling suckling have been shaped by parent-offspring conflict in the ultimate sense, then proximate behavioral determinants of conflict should occur throughout lactation, with greatest intensity in the terminal phase, and offspring should have tactics for overcoming parental resistance. We observed the weaning process in a habituated wild wolf pack (Canis lupus) on Ellesmere Island, Canada, from estimated ages 5 through 10 weeks (including a continuous record for 192 h). The following variables declined with age: percentage of suckling bouts initiated by the nurser, persistence by pups, and mean duration of suckling bouts. Variables that increased with age were interbout interval, percentage of suckling bouts terminated by the nurser, and wincing or agonistic actions of the nurser. Behavioral conflict appeared in the develop mental stage (estimated age 7 -8 weeks) during which pups could feed on opened carcasses. Countertactics by pups to obtain milk were not apparent, although the pups developed diverse tactics for obtaining and sharing meat. In this group of wolves, weaning mechanisms were a complex function of food-delivery by adults, discomfort of the nursing female as pups developed, and declining persistence of pups. If there is a conflict over what is optimal for pups and for the nurser in the ultimate sense, behavioral conflict is more likely to be expressed with regard to access to meat, or as conditional tactics dependent on food availability, rather than weaning conflict being controlleg by fixed rules in this species.

  3. Application of Mechanical Ventilation Weaning Predictors After Elective Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mayara Gabrielle Barbosa e; Borges, Daniel Lago; Costa, Marina de Albuquerque Gonçalves; Baldez, Thiago Eduardo Pereira; da Silva, Luan Nascimento; Oliveira, Rafaella Lima; Ferreira, Teresa de Fátima Ramos; Albuquerque, Renato Adams Matos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test several weaning predictors as determinants of successful extubation after elective cardiac surgery. METHODS The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital with 100 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery from September to December 2014. We recorded demographic, clinical and surgical data, plus the following predictive indexes: static compliance (Cstat), tidal volume (Vt), respiratory rate (f), f/ Vt ratio, arterial partial oxygen pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2), and the integrative weaning index (IWI). Extubation was considered successful when there was no need for reintubation within 48 hours. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were used to evaluate each index. RESULTS The majority of the patients were male (60%), with mean age of 55.4±14.9 years and low risk of death (62%), according to InsCor. All of the patients were successfully extubated. Tobin Index presented the highest SE (0.99) and LR+ (0.99), followed by IWI (SE=0.98; LR+ =0.98). Other scores, such as SP, NPV and LR-were nullified due to lack of extubation failure. CONCLUSION All of the weaning predictors tested in this sample of patients submitted to elective cardiac surgery showed high sensitivity, highlighting f/Vt and IWI. PMID:26934398

  4. Tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation weaning in children affected by respiratory virus according to a weaning protocol in a pediatric intensive care unit in Argentina: an observational restrospective trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We describe difficult weaning after prolonged mechanical ventilation in three tracheostomized children affected by respiratory virus infection. Although the spontaneous breathing trials were successful, the patients failed all extubations. Therefore a tracheostomy was performed and the weaning plan was begun. The strategy for weaning was the decrease of ventilation support combining pressure control ventilation (PCV) with increasing periods of continuous positive airway pressure + pressure support ventilation (CPAP + PSV) and then CPAP + PSV with increasing intervals of T-piece. They presented acute respiratory distress syndrome on admission with high requirements of mechanical ventilation (MV). Intervening factors in the capabilities and loads of the respiratory system were considered and optimized. The average MV time was 69 days and weaning time 31 days. We report satisfactory results within the context of a directed weaning protocol. PMID:21244710

  5. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Boran, Tuli, and Belgian Blue sires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Cundiff, L V

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth weight, BW at 200 d, and ADG were measured in 2,500 calves born and 2,395 calves weaned. Calves were obtained by mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (one-fourth Hereford, one-fourth Angus, one-fourth Pinzgauer, and one-fourth Red Poll) mature cows to Hereford or Angus (British breed), Brahman, Tuli, Boran, and Belgian Blue sires. Calves were born during the spring seasons of 1992, 1993, and 1994. Sire breed was significant for all traits (P < 0.002). Offspring from British breeds and the Belgian Blue breed had the shortest gestation length (285 d) when compared with progeny from other sire breeds (average of 291 d). Calving difficulty was greater in offspring from Brahman sires (1.24), whereas the offspring of Tuli sires had the least amount of calving difficulty (1.00). Offspring from all sire breeds had similar perinatal survival and survival from birth to weaning (average of 97.2 and 96.2%, respectively), with the exception of offspring from Brahman sires, which had less (92.8 and 90.4%, respectively). Progeny of Brahman sires were heaviest at birth (45.7 kg), followed by offspring from British breed, Boran, and Belgian Blue sires (average of 42.4 kg). The lightest offspring at birth were from Tuli sires (38.6 kg). Progeny derived from Brahman sires were the heaviest at 200 d (246 kg), and they grew faster (1.00 kg/d) than offspring from any other group. The progeny of British breeds and the Belgian Blue breed had an intermediate BW at 200 d (238 kg) and an intermediate ADG (average of 0.98 kg/d). The progeny of Boran and Tuli sires were the lightest at 200 d (227 kg) and had the least ADG (0.93 kg/d). Male calves had a longer gestation length, had a greater

  6. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight share What It Takes to Lose Weight: Calorie Basics When you’re trying to lose weight... ... wcdapps.hhs.gov/Badges/Handlers/Badge.ashx?js=0&widgetname=betobaccofreew200short</NOFRAMES& ...

  7. Weight gain and behavior of Raramuri Criollo versus crossbred steers developed on Chihuahuan Desert rangeland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ranchers that raise Raramuri Criollo (RC) cattle must overcome the challenge of lack of markets for weaned calves. Growing and finishing RC or RC-crossbred steers on rangeland pastures is increasingly common; however, no data exist on their weight gains or grazing behavior. We tracked the weight a...

  8. Pressure mat analysis of the longitudinal development of pig locomotion in growing pigs after weaning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gait evaluation is difficult in pigs, especially when objective and quantitative data are needed, thus little research has been conducted in this species. There is considerable experience, however, with objective gait analysis in other species, such as horses and dogs. In this study, a pressure mat was used to establish baseline kinetic data for gait and its longitudinal development in growing, weaned piglets. Ten clinically healthy weaned piglets were trained to trot over a pressure mat. Measurements were performed weekly during 10 weeks, starting at 5 weeks of age. Four kinetic parameters were recorded for all four limbs: peak vertical force (PVF), load rate (LR), vertical impulse (VI) and peak vertical pressure (PVP). Three representative runs per measuring session per pig were collected. For each of the variables, left vs. right limb asymmetry-indices (ASI’s) were calculated based on the average for that parameter per week. A linear mixed model was used to determine the influence of time (week), velocity, and limb (left vs. right, and fore vs. hind). Intra-class correlations were calculated to assess within-session replicability. Results Intra-class correlations showed good within-session replicability. Body-weight normalized PVF (nPVF), LR (nLR), VI (nVI) and PVP (nPVP) were higher in the forelimbs than in the hind limbs. A higher velocity was associated with a higher nPVF, nLR and nPVP. All parameters varied between weeks. ASI of LR and VI were higher in the forelimbs than in the hind limbs. Velocity and time did not influence ASI of any of the variables. Conclusions Kinetic pressure mat measurements from healthy weaned piglets are highly replicable within-session. However, these variables present a significant variability between-session, which may be due to conformational changes of the young, growing piglets. Velocity clearly influences nPVF, nLR and nPVP, and all kinetic variables have higher values in forelimbs than in hind limbs. As time

  9. Association of polymorphisms in growth hormone and leptin candidate genes with live weight traits of Brahman cattle.

    PubMed

    Hernández, N; Martínez-González, J C; Parra-Bracamonte, G M; Sifuentes-Rincón, A M; López-Villalobos, N; Morris, S T; Briones-Encinia, F; Ortega-Rivas, E; Pacheco-Contreras, V I; L A Meza-García, And

    2016-09-02

    Polymorphisms in candidate genes can produce significant and favorable changes in the phenotype, and therefore are useful for the identification of the best combination of favorable variants for marker-assisted selection. In the present study, an assessment to evaluate the effect of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes on live weight traits of registered Brahman cattle was performed. Data from purebred bulls were used in this assessment. The dataset included birth (BW), weaning (WW), and yearling (YW) weights. A panel of 11 SNP markers, selected by their formerly reported or apparent direct and indirect association with live weight traits, was included in an assessment previously confirming their minimum allele frequency (<0.05). Live weights were adjusted BW (aBW), WW (aWW), and YW (aYW) using a generalized linear model, which included the fixed effects of herd and season of birth and the random effect of the sire and year of birth. An SNP in a growth hormone gene (GH4.1) was significantly related to aWW (P = 0.035) with an estimate substitution effect of 3.97 kg (P = 0.0210). In addition, a leptin SNP (LEPg.978) was significantly associated with aYW (P = 0.003) with an estimate substitution effect of 9.57 kg (P = 0.0007). The results suggest that markers GH4.1 and LEPg.978 can be considered as candidate loci for assisted genetic improvement programs in Mexican Brahman cattle.

  10. Standardization of age-adjusted mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-02-01

    Because age is a significant variable in the occurrence and frequency of human disease, any comparison of disease or mortality rates, to be useful, must be age-specific or age-adjusted. Age-specific comparisons are not always appropriate or possible, however. A common method of eliminating the influence of age in comparing mortality rates from one community to another is to employ statistical methods of age-adjustment. While a variety of methods will accomplish this task, most are weighted averages of the age-specific rates. Two widely used adjustment procedures are direct and indirect age-adjustment.

  11. Inappropriate bottle use: an early risk for overweight? Literature review and pilot data for a bottle-weaning trial.

    PubMed

    Bonuck, Karen A; Huang, Vincent; Fletcher, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Identifying early risk factors for childhood obesity is critical, as weight in infancy and early childhood tracks to later periods. Continued bottle use - primarily from excess milk intake - is emerging as a potential risk factor for early childhood overweight. Over three fourths of US infants drink from bottles beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months, and two thirds of UK infants use a bottle at 18 months. This paper is divided into three parts. Part 1 reviews the literature on beverage intake, weight and bottle use in young children. Part II describes pilot data on milk bottle use and weight in 12-60-month-olds, collected prior to a randomized controlled (RCT) trial of a bottle-weaning intervention. Median daily milk bottle consumption at 12 months was 5.0 (interquartile range = 3-6). Among 12-36-month-olds, current users were significantly more likely to be >95th% weight-for-height (19% vs. 0%, P < 0.02), and more were >85% weight-for-height (27% vs. 11%, P < 0.11), vs. non-users. In contrast, current bottle use was not associated with either overweight or obesity in 37-60-month-olds. Part III describes the RCT, begun in fall 2008. It is enrolling 464 parent/12-month-old dyads from a nutrition assistance programme for low-income families. Children's bottle use, anthropometrics, dietary intake and nutrient density (via 24 h recall) are assessed quarterly through 24 months of age. For the intervention, site nutritionists employ a project-developed, visually attractive flip chart. An observational study nested within the RCT will describe dietary changes during this period of feeding transitions.

  12. Effects of group composition on the incidence of respiratory afflictions in group-housed calves after weaning.

    PubMed

    Bach, A; Tejero, C; Ahedo, J

    2011-04-01

    A study consisting of 2 experiments was conducted with the aim of determining the effects of previous history of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) on animal performance and health status of transition calves housed in groups. In both experiments, calves were housed in individual hutches until weaning age at 58 d. Before weaning, BRD incidences were individually recorded on a daily basis. Following weaning, calves were moved into super hutches in groups of 8, based on their history of respiratory afflictions, and growth performance and BRD incidences were recorded for 57 d. In experiment 1, 144 female Holstein dairy calves (initial BW=72.6±1.2 kg; age=58.5±0.8 d) were distributed in 6 super hutches composed of 8 calves with no previous history of BRD (HHH), 6 super hutches composed of 6 calves without and 2 calves with a previous episode of BRD (HHR), and 6 super hutches housed 5 calves without a history of BRD and 3 calves with previous respiratory afflictions (HRR). In experiment 2, 144 Holstein female calves [58.0±0.9 d; 72.5±0.9 kg of body weight (BW)] were distributed in 2 treatments consisting of 9 super hutches housing integrally 8 calves with no previous BRD, and 9 super hutches housing integrally calves with a previous BRD case. The number of BRD cases after weaning progressively increased from HHH to HRR as the proportion of calves previously affected by BRD within super hutch increased, mainly due to the fact that both animals affected by BRD before weaning and those with no previous history of BRD had more relapses in HHR and HRR groups than in the HHH group. Odds of incurring BRD after grouping were 3.89 greater in calves that had a previous case of BRD than in those that did not. The average time elapsed between commingling the animals and the appearance of the first BRD case was shorter when calves that had at least one BRD episode prior to weaning were present in a group (10.8±3.3 d) than when the group was formed with calves that had never

  13. [Prolonged weaning: S2k-guideline published by the German Respiratory Society].

    PubMed

    Schönhofer, B; Geiseler, J; Dellweg, D; Moerer, O; Barchfeld, T; Fuchs, H; Karg, O; Rosseau, S; Sitter, H; Weber-Carstens, S; Westhoff, M; Windisch, W

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is an essential part of modern intensive care medicine. MV is performed in patients with severe respiratory failure caused by insufficiency of the respiratory muscles and/or lung parenchymal disease when/after other treatments, i. e. oxygen, body position, secretion management, medication or non invasive ventilation have failed.In the majority of ICU patients weaning is routine and does not present any problems. Nevertheless 40-50 % of the time during mechanical ventilation is spent on weaning. About 20 % of patients need continued MV despite resolution of the conditions which originally precipitated the need for MV.There maybe a combination of reasons; chronic lung disease, comorbidities, age and conditions acquired in ICU (critical care neuromyopathy, psychological problems). According to an International Consensus Conference the criteria for "prolonged weaning" are fulfilled if patients fail at least three weaning attempts or require more than 7 days of weaning after the first spontaneous breathing trial. Prolonged weaning is a challenge. An inter- and multi-disciplinary approach is essential for weaning success. Complex, difficult to wean patients who fulfill the criteria for "prolonged weaning" can still be successfully weaned in specialised weaning units in about 50% of cases.In patients with unsuccessful weaning, invasive mechanical ventilation has to be arranged either at home or in a long term care facility.This S2-guideline was developed because of the growing number of patients requiring prolonged weaning. It is an initiative of the German Respiratory Society (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin e. V., DGP) in cooperation with other societies engaged in the field.The guideline is based on a systematic literature review of other guidelines, the Cochrane Library and PubMed.The consensus project was chaired by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der

  14. Dietary glutamine, glutamic acid and nucleotides increase the carbon turnover (δ 13C) on the intestinal mucosa of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Amorim, A B; Berto, D A; Saleh, M A D; Miassi, G M; Ducatti, C

    2017-02-10

    This study aimed at evaluating the influence of dietary glutamine, glutamic acid and nucleotides on duodenal and jejunal carbon turnover, and on mucosa morphometry of piglets weaned at an age of 21 days. The diets were: additive-free diet - control (C); 1% of glutamine (G); 1% of glutamic acid (GA); and 1% of nucleotides (N). In intestinal mucosa morphometry trial, 65 animals were used. At day 0 (baseline), five animals were slaughtered to determine the villus height (VH), crypt depth (CD), VH : CD ratio and villi density (VD). The remaining 60 animals were allocated into a randomized block design with 4×3 factorial arrangement (four diets: C - control, G - glutamine, GA - glutamic acid and N - nucleotides; three slaughter ages: 7, 14 and 21 days post-weaning) with five piglets slaughtered per treatment. In carbon turnover trial, 123 animals were used. At day 0 (baseline), three animals were slaughtered to quantify the δ 13C half-life (T50%) and the 99% carbon substitution (T99%) on intestinal mucosa. The remaining 120 animals were blocked by three weight categories (light, medium and heavy) and, randomly assigned to pen with the same four diets from the previous trial with one piglet slaughtered per weight category per treatment at days 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 13, 20, 27 and 49 after weaning. Morphometric analyses have yielded no consistent results regarding the action of the evaluated additives, and few reproducible age-related effects. The N diets determined lower T50% values (5.18 days) and T99% (17.21 days) than G and C diets (T50%=7.29, 7.58 days and T99%=24.22, 25.17 days, respectively) in the duodenal mucosa. In jejunum, the N, GA and G diets determined the lowest T50% means (4.9, 6.2 and 6.7 days, respectively) and T99% means (15.34, 21.10 and 21.84 days, respectively) in comparison with C diets (T50%=7.44 and T99%=24.72 days). The inclusion of the additives in the diets of piglets accelerated the carbon turnover in piglets during the post-weaning period. The

  15. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: II. Days on feed endpoints and sorting strategies.

    PubMed

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine EPD, performance, and carcass measurements explaining variation in carcass value and profitability across incremental days on feed (DOF) when sorted by HCW, calculated yield grade (YG), or at their highest profit endpoint (BEST). Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age, pen-fed a high-concentrate diet for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d, individually fed for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d, and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Carcass weight, YG, and marbling score (MS) were predicted using real-time ultrasound throughout the finishing period to calculate carcass value and profitability at 90, 60, 30 d preslaughter and under three individual sorting strategies. Sorting strategies included marketing the 25 and 50% heaviest HCW, the highest YG at d 60 and 30, or the remaining 25% at 0-d endpoints. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, HCW, YG, and MS. Profit was quadratic in response to increased DOF; the greatest economic return was noted on d 30 (pre-slaughter). Final weight, DMI, HCW, MS, and YG increased (linear; P < 0.001) with additional DOF, and ADG and G:F decreased (linear; P < 0.001). Total cost of gain was quadratic (P < 0.001), and incremental cost of gain rose at an increasing rate (quadratic; P < 0.001) with increased DOF. With increasing DOF, HCW importance decreased from 58 to 21%; MS was variable, ranging from 18 to 23%; and YG and DMI were minor contributors to profit variation. Among sorting strategies, final BW and HCW were greater for BEST, whereas other measurements were similar. Sorting individuals by HCW, YG, or at BEST increased profitability 3.70 dollars, 2.52 dollars, or 30.65 dollars over the optimal group DOF endpoint (d 30). Retrospective analyses illustrated that sorting does not need to pinpoint each animal's profit optimum to result in economic gains; rather, increasing HCW and decreasing

  16. Down-regulation of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression after weaning is associated with hyperphagia-induced obesity in JCR rats overexpressing neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Diané, Abdoulaye; Pierce, W David; Russell, James C; Heth, C Donald; Vine, Donna F; Richard, Denis; Proctor, Spencer D

    2014-03-14

    We hypothesised that hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides are differentially expressed in obese-prone and lean-prone rats and trigger overeating-induced obesity. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we measured energy balance and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expressions in male JCR:LA-cp rats. We compared, in independent cohorts, free-feeding obese-prone (Obese-FF) and lean-prone (Lean-FF) rats at pre-weaning (10 d old), weaning (21-25 d old) and early adulthood (8-12 weeks). A group of Obese-pair-feeding (PF) rats pair-fed to the Lean-FF rats was included in the adult cohort. The body weights of 10-d-old Obese-FF and Lean-FF pups were not significantly different. However, when the pups were shifted from dams' milk to solid food (weaning), the obese-prone rats exhibited more energy intake over the days than the lean-prone rats and higher body and fat pad weights and fasting plasma glucose, leptin, insulin and lipid levels. These differences were consistent with higher energy consumption and lower energy expenditure. In the young adult cohort, the differences between the Obese-FF and Lean-FF rats became more pronounced, yielding significant age effects on most of the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, which were reduced in the Obese-PF rats. The obese-prone rats displayed higher NPY expression than the lean-prone rats at pre-weaning and weaning, and the expression levels did not differ by age. In contrast, POMC expression exhibited significant age-by-genotype differences. At pre-weaning, there was no genotype difference in POMC expression, but in the weanling cohort, obese-prone pups exhibited lower POMC expression than the lean-prone rats. This genotype difference became more pronounced at adulthood. Overall, the development of hyperphagia-induced obesity in obese-prone JCR rats is related to POMC expression down-regulation in the presence of established NPY overexpression.

  17. Effect of seaweed-derived laminarin and fucoidan and zinc oxide on gut morphology, nutrient transporters, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and selected microbial populations in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Heim, G; Walsh, A M; Sweeney, T; Doyle, D N; O'Shea, C J; Ryan, M T; O'Doherty, J V

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, two experiments were conducted to (1) evaluate the effect of laminarin and/or fucoidan on ileal morphology, nutrient transporter gene expression and coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients and (2) determine whether laminarin inclusion could be used as an alternative to ZnO supplementation in weaned pig diets. Expt 1 was designed as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, comprising four dietary treatments (n 7 replicates, weaning age 24 d, live weight 6·9 kg). The dietary treatments were as follows: (1) basal diet; (2) basal diet+300 ppm laminarin; (3) basal diet+240 ppm fucoidan; (4) basal diet+300 ppm laminarin and 240 ppm fucoidan. There was an interaction between laminarin and fucoidan on the CTTAD of gross energy (GE) (P< 0·05) and the expression of sodium-glucose-linked transporter 1 (SGLT1/SLC5A1) and GLUT1/SLC2A1 and GLUT2/SLC2A2 (P< 0·05) in the ileum. The laminarin diet increased the CTTAD of GE and increased the expression of SGLT1, GLUT1 and GLUT2 compared with the basal diet. However, there was no effect of laminarin supplementation on these variables when combined with fucoidan. Expt 2 was designed as a complete randomised design (n 8 replicates/treatment, weaning age 24 d, live weight 7·0 kg), and the treatments were (1) basal diet, (2) basal diet and laminarin (300 ppm), and (3) basal diet and ZnO (3100 ppm, 0-14 d, and 2600 ppm, 15-32 d post-weaning). The laminarin diet increased average daily gain and gain:feed ratio compared with the basal diet during days 0-32 post-weaning (P< 0·01) and had an effect similar to the ZnO diet. These results demonstrate that laminarin provides a dietary means to improve gut health and growth performance post-weaning.

  18. Effects of Transport at Weaning on the Behavior, Physiology and Performance of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mhairi A.; Backus, Brittany L.; McGlone, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Pigs are commonly transported to separate production facilities at weaning to reduce disease transfer, enhance productivity and to improve overall operational efficiency. A review of the scientific literature suggests that these animals experience stress due to concurrent weaning and transport; however, gaps in the knowledge include the short and long term health and welfare implications of transporting pigs at weaning. Pig welfare and the efficiency of the swine industry may improve if science-based recommendations were in place. Abstract Transport of pigs to separate production facilities at the time of weaning is a common practice, primarily performed to reduce vertical transfer of disease and enhance production and overall farm efficiency. During transport, pigs are exposed to numerous stressors in conjunction with the stress experienced as a result of weaning. In this review, the behavioral and physiological response of pigs experiencing weaning and transport simultaneously will be described, including the effects of space allowance, season and transport duration. Based on the scientific literature, the gaps in the knowledge regarding potential welfare issues are discussed. Changes in behavior and physiology suggest that weaned pigs may experience stress due to transport. Space allowance, season and duration are aspects of transport that can have a marked impact on these responses. To date, the literature regarding the effects of transport on weaned pigs has primarily focused on the short term stress response and little is known about the effects of concurrent weaning and transport on other aspects of pig welfare including morbidity and mortality rates. Greater understanding of the short and long term consequences of transport on weaned pig welfare particularly in relation to factors such as trip duration, provision of feed and water, and best handling practices would benefit the swine industry. Furthermore, the development of guidelines and

  19. An Overview of the Predictor Standard Tools for Patient Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Acieh; Abdeyazdan, Gholamhossein; Davaridolatabadi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Most patients staying in the intensive care unit (ICU) require respiratory support through a ventilator. Since prolonged mechanical ventilation and weaning from the ventilator without criteria or at the inappropriate time can result in many complications, it is required that patients be weaned off the ventilator as soon as possible. This study was conducted to investigate a few standard tools that predict successful and timely weaning of patients from the ventilator. In the literature, SOFA and APACHE II scores, along with various tools, including Burn, Morganroth, and Corgian, have been used in weaning patients from the ventilator. In most of these studies, the increase or decrease in the APACHE II score was correlated with the patient’s weaning time, and this score could be used as a criterion for weaning. Several authors have expressed their belief that the SOFA score in the ICU is a good indicator of the prognosis of patient’s weaning from the ventilator, length of stay, mortality, and rate of recovery. Several studies have compared SOFA and APACHE II scores and have shown that there is a positive correlation between the SOFA and APACHE II scores and that both mortality and dependence on the ventilator are related to these two scores. Another tool is Burn’s weaning program. A higher Burn score indicates successful weaning off of the ventilator, successful extubation, lower length of mechanical ventilation, and shorter stay in the hospital. However, the capabilities of the Morganroth scale and the Gluck and Corgian scoring systems were evaluated only for successful weaning off of the ventilator, and a decrease in the Morganroth and Gluck scores indicated successful weaning. PMID:27054004

  20. Effects of timing of anabolic implant insertion on growth and immunity of recently weaned beef steers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of timing of estrogenic implant insertion, relative to weaning, on growth performance and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves. On d -14, Angus × Simmental crossbred steers ( = 48; BW = 217 ± 5 kg; age = 191 ± 3 d) were stratified by BW, age, and cow parity and randomly assigned to receive no implant (NOIP) or 36 mg of zeranol on d -14, 0, or 14, relative to weaning (IP-14, IP0, and IP+14, respectively; 12 steers/treatment). From d -14 to 0, cow-calf pairs remained on a single, tall-fescue pasture with no access to concentrate supplementation. Steers were weaned on d 0, stratified by treatment and BW, and then allocated into 1 of 16 drylot pens to receive daily free-choice access to a corn silage-based diet during the preconditioning phase (d 0 to 56). Steers were vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and on d -27 and 0. From d 56 to 252 (postpreconditioning phase), steers remained in their respective feedlot pens and were provided free-choice access to corn silage-based growing (d 56 to 167) and finishing total mixed rations (d 168 to 252). Body weight on d 0 did not differ among treatments ( ≥ 0.29) but was greater for IP-14 and IP0 than NOIP and IP+14 steers on d 14, 42, and 56 ( ≤ 0.05). Treatment effects were not detected for G:F and DMI from d 0 to 56 ( ≥ 0.34), but ADG from d -14 to 56 was greater for IP-14 compared to NOIP ( ≤ 0.05) and intermediate for IP0 and IP+14 steers. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations were greater for IP-14 than NOIP ( ≤ 0.05) and intermediate for IP0 and IP+14 steers on d -7, 0, 14, and 21. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin and serum titers against BVDV types 1a and 2 did not differ among treatments from d 0 to 56 ( ≥ 0.37). However, serum IBRV titers were greater for IP+14 than NOIP, IP-14, and IP0 steers ( ≤ 0.02). On d 252, BW was greater for IP-14 and IP0 than NOIP steers ( ≤ 0.05) and

  1. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance.

  2. Zearalenone Altered the Serum Hormones, Morphologic and Apoptotic Measurements of Genital Organs in Post-weaning Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X. X.; Yang, C. W.; Huang, L. B.; Niu, Q. S.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chi, F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg diet) on serum hormones, morphologic and apoptotic measurements of genital organs in post-weaning gilts. A total of twenty gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) weaned at 21 d with an average body weight of 10.36±1.21 kg were used in the study. Gilts were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Results showed that 3.2 mg/kg ZEA challenged gilts decreased (p<0.05) the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, however, serum levels of prolactin in gilts fed the diet containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more were increased (p<0.05) compared to those in the control. Linear effects on all tested serum hormones except progesterone were observed as dietary ZEA levels increased (p<0.05). Gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet showed increase (p<0.05) in genital organs size, hyperplasia of submucosal smooth muscles in the corpus uteri in a dose-dependent manner. However, the decreased numbers of follicles in the cortex and apoptotic cells in the ovarian were observed in gilts treated with ZEA in a dose-dependent manner. Degeneration and structural abnormalities of genital organs tissues were also observed in the gilts fed diet containing 1.1 mg/kg ZEA or more. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce endocrine disturbance and damage genital organs in post-weaning gilts. PMID:25557812

  3. Porcine lactoferrin expression in transgenic rice and its effects as a feed additive on early weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Tai; Chang, Chi-Chung; Juang, Rung-Shian; Chen, Ray-Bin; Yang, Hsiu-Ya; Chu, Li-Wei; Wang, Shih-Rong; Tseng, Tung-Hai; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Yu, Bi

    2010-04-28

    The purpose of this study is to determine the growth performance and immune characteristics of early weaned piglets receiving rice bran expressing porcine lactoferrin as a feed additive. Full-length cDNA encoding porcine lactoferrin (LF) driven by a rice actin promoter was transformed into rice plants, and its integration into the rice genome was verified by Southern blot analysis. The expression of recombinant LF (rLF) in whole grains and rice bran was also confirmed, and the amount of rLF accumulated in rice bran was estimated by immunoblot assay to be approximately 0.1% of rice bran weight. An iron-binding assay showed that the rLF retained iron-binding activity and the binding capacity of 1 mg/mL rLF would be saturated by 100 microM of FeCl(3). Thirty-six early weaned piglets at 21 days old were randomly selected into two groups and fed a diet containing 5% transgenic rice bran containing 50 mg/kg rLF (rLF group) and 5% rice bran (control group) to investigate the piglets' growth performance and immune characteristics. The results showed no significant difference in growth performance between the groups during the feeding period. However, the aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, and coliform counts in the cecal contents of the rLF-fed group were significantly lower than those of the control group. Additional immune characteristics such as the IgG concentration in the rLF group was higher than the control group at the 28th day, but leukocyte counts and the peripheral lymphocyte ratio remained similar. In summary, porcine LF expressed in rice bran, a byproduct of rice, can be used as a functional additive to improve antimicrobial capabilities and IgG concentration of early weaned piglets.

  4. Bayesian estimation of the accuracy of the calf respiratory scoring chart and ultrasonography for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Buczinski, Sébastien; L Ollivett, Terri; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2015-05-01

    There is currently no gold standard method for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex in Holstein pre-weaned dairy calves. Systematic thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) has been used as a proxy for BRD, but cannot be directly used by producers. The Wisconsin calf respiratory scoring chart (CRSC) is a simpler alternative, but with unknown accuracy. Our objective was to estimate the accuracy of CRSC, while adjusting for the lack of a gold standard. Two cross sectional study populations with a high BRD prevalence (n=106 pre-weaned Holstein calves) and an average BRD prevalence (n=85 pre-weaned Holstein calves) from North America were studied. All calves were simultaneously assessed using CRSC (cutoff used ≥ 5) and TUS (cutoff used ≥ 1cm of lung consolidation). Bayesian latent class models allowing for conditional dependence were used with informative priors for BRD prevalence and TUS accuracy (sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp)) and non-informative priors for CRSC accuracies. Robustness of the model was tested by relaxing priors for prevalence or TUS accuracy. The SeCRSC (95% credible interval (CI)) and SpCRSC were 62.4% (47.9-75.8) and 74.1% (64.9-82.8) respectively. The SeTUS was 79.4% (66.4-90.9) and SpTUS was 93.9% (88.0-97.6). The imperfect accuracy of CRSC and TUS should be taken into account when using those tools to assess BRD status.

  5. Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... it comes to weight loss, there's no lack of fad diets promising fast results. But such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail ...

  6. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Together Understanding Adult Overweight & Obesity About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity More Weight Management Topics Healthy ... Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity Being Healthy is a Big ...

  7. [Effects of excess vitamin B1 or vitamin B2 on growth and urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in weaning rats].

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Kuzuya, Mako; Satoh, Shiori; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-04-01

    To determine the tolerable upper intake levels of vitamin B(1) and vitamin B(2) in humans, we investigated the effects of excess thiamin or riboflavin administration on body weight gain, food intake, tissue weights, and urinary excretion of B-group vitamins in weaning rats. The weaning rats were freely fed ordinary diet containing 0.0006% thiamin-HCl or the same diet with 0.006%, 0.03%, 0.18% or 1.0% thiamin-HCl for 30 days, or the diet containing 0.0006% riboflavin or the same diet with 0.1%, 0.5 or 1.0% riboflavin for 22 days. Mild diarrhea was seen only in the rats fed with 1.0% thiamin-HCl diet. Excess thiamin-HCl or riboflavin did not affect body weight gains, food intake or tissue weights. The urinary excretions of water-soluble vitamins also did not differ among the diets. These results clearly showed that feeding a diet containing up to 1.0% thiamin-HCl or 1.0% riboflavin did not induce apparent adverse effects, and the no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs) for thiamin-HCl and riboflavin in rats might be 1.0% in diet, corresponding to 900 mg/kg body weight/day.

  8. Prepartum supplement level and age at weaning: I. Effects on pre- and postpartum beef cow performance and calf performance through weaning.

    PubMed

    Shoup, L M; Kloth, A C; Wilson, T B; González-Peña, D; Ireland, F A; Rodriguez-Zas, S; Felix, T L; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Objectives were to determine the interaction of prepartum supplement level and age at weaning on cow BW, BCS, milk production, reproduction, and calf performance up to weaning in a fall-calving system over 2 yr. Mature, multiparous, Angus × Simmental cows (yr 1: 326 cows, 9 pastures, BW = 632 ± 67 kg, and BCS = 5.7 ± 0.58; yr 2: 383 cows, 9 pastures, BW = 606 ± 70 kg, and BCS = 5.8 ± 0.74) were used in a split-plot design that included 3 supplement levels-no supplement (NS), low supplement (LS; 2.16 kg∙cow∙d), or high supplement (HS; 8.61 kg∙cow∙d)-and 2 ages at weaning-78 ± 11 d of age (early weaned; EW) or 186 ± 11 d of age (normal weaned; NW). Cows grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue/red clover pastures and were bunk fed supplement (70% dried distillers' grains with solubles and 30% soybean hulls) 103 ± 11 d prepartum to 2 ± 11 d postpartum. Cow BW was greater ( < 0.01) for cows fed HS at precalving (49 ± 11 d prepartum), postcalving (26 ± 11 d postpartum), and postbreeding (81 d after AI) compared with cows fed NS and LS. Prepartum supplementation did not affect ( ≥ 0.62) calf birth BW, percent of calves dead at birth, or percent of cows calving unassisted. Prepartum supplementation tended ( = 0.10) to improve AI conception. Early weaning increased ( ≤ 0.05) AI conception and postbreeding cow BW and BCS compared with cows with NW calves. Neither prepartum supplementation nor age at weaning affected ( ≥ 0.28) overall pregnancy rate. At time of early weaning, BW was increased ( = 0.05) for steers from cows fed LS compared with steers from cows fed NS. Steer BW at time of normal weaning and ADG between early and normal weaning was greater ( < 0.01) for EW steers compared with NW steers. A year × age at weaning interaction occurred ( < 0.01) for ultrasound marbling score at time of normal weaning. In yr 1, marbling was decreased ( = 0.04) for EW steers compared with NW steers; however, in yr 2, marbling was increased ( < 0.01) for EW

  9. Maternal Weaning Modulates Emotional Behavior and Regulates the Gut-Brain Axis

    PubMed Central

    Farshim, Pamela; Walton, Gemma; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Givens, Ian; Saddy, Doug; Kitchen, Ian; R. Swann, Jonathan; Bailey, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that nutritional and environmental stress stimuli during postnatal period influence brain development and interactions between gut and brain. In this study we show that in rats, prevention of weaning from maternal milk results in depressive-like behavior, which is accompanied by changes in the gut bacteria and host metabolism. Depressive-like behavior was studied using the forced-swim test on postnatal day (PND) 25 in rats either weaned on PND 21, or left with their mother until PND 25 (non-weaned). Non-weaned rats showed an increased immobility time consistent with a depressive phenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed non-weaned rats to harbor significantly lowered Clostridium histolyticum bacterial groups but exhibit marked stress-induced increases. Metabonomic analysis of urine from these animals revealed significant differences in the metabolic profiles, with biochemical phenotypes indicative of depression in the non-weaned animals. In addition, non-weaned rats showed resistance to stress-induced modulation of oxytocin receptors in amygdala nuclei, which is indicative of passive stress-coping mechanism. We conclude that delaying weaning results in alterations to the gut microbiota and global metabolic profiles which may contribute to a depressive phenotype and raise the issue that mood disorders at early developmental ages may reflect interplay between mammalian host and resident bacteria. PMID:26903212

  10. Effects of Weaning on Intestinal Upper Villus Epithelial Cells of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaocheng; Tan, Bie; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal upper villus epithelial cells represent the differentiated epithelial cells and play key role in digesting and absorbing lumenal nutrients. Weaning stress commonly results in a decrease in villus height and intestinal dysfunction in piglets. However, no study have been conducted to test the effects of weaning on the physiology and functions of upper villus epithelial cells. A total of 40 piglets from 8 litters were weaned at 14 days of age and one piglet from each litter was killed at 0 d (w0d), 1 d (w1d), 3 d (w3d), 5 d (w5d), and 7 d (w7d) after weaning, respectively. The upper villus epithelial cells in mid-jejunum were isolated using the distended intestinal sac method. The expression of proteins in upper villus epithelial cells was analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification or Western blotting. The expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, Golgi vesicle transport, protein amino acid glycosylation, secretion by cell, transmembrane transport, ion transport, nucleotide catabolic process, translational initiation, and epithelial cell differentiation and apoptosis, was mainly reduced during the post-weaning period, and these processes may be regulated by mTOR signaling pathway. These results indicated that weaning inhibited various cellular processes in jejunal upper villus epithelial cells, and provided potential new directions for exploring the effects of weaning on the functions of intestine and improving intestinal functions in weaning piglets. PMID:27022727

  11. Calf health from birth to weaning. I. General aspects of disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. This is the first in a three part review series on calf health from birth to weaning, focusing on preventive measures. The review considers both pre- and periparturient management factors influencing calf health, colostrum management in beef and dairy calves and further nutrition and weaning in dairy calves. PMID:21923898

  12. The Care-Integrated Concentration Meditation Program for Patients With Weaning Difficulty: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Thinhuatoey, Benjamard; Songwathana, Praneed; Petpichetchian, Wongchan

    2016-01-01

    Because of the multifaceted process of weaning patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation, enhancing weaning success remains a challenge. The Care-Integrated Concentration Meditation Program was developed on the basis of Buddhist philosophy and implemented to determine its procedural feasibility. A qualitative case study with 3 participants was conducted, and the process and initial outcomes were evaluated.

  13. Mothers Do Not Show Increased Offspring Avoidance and Elevated Corticosterone Levels during Weaning Conflict in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Charlotte; Hager, Reinmar

    2016-01-01

    Parent-offspring conflict is predicted to occur because offspring will demand more parental investment than is optimal for the parent, and is said to be strongest during weaning when parents reduce nursing while offspring continue to demand parental care. While weaning conflict has been shown to be stressful in offspring, little is known about the effects of weaning conflict on mothers. We hypothesized that during weaning mothers have higher levels of stress hormone (corticosterone) compared to early lactation because of increased offspring demand. Further, we predicted that if mothers are given the option to avoid offspring solicitation they would do so and show lower corticosterone levels. We tested our hypotheses in an experimental population of rats in which one group of females was given the opportunity to avoid offspring solicitation. We measured faecal corticosterone metabolite levels using a non-invasive approach, and maternal and offspring behaviours during weaning. In contrast to our predictions, we detected lower levels of corticosterone metabolites during weaning than before, irrespective of cage type. Further, during weaning mothers did not show increased offspring avoidance behaviour although offspring solicitation increased significantly. Our results therefore cast doubt on the generally accepted notion of weaning conflict as a stressful period for mothers characterized by overt offspring solicitation. PMID:27662366

  14. Increasing Efficiency in Academia: The Use of a Weaning Model in Fundraising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniaci, Vincent M.; Poole, Rob

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss a method to increase institutional efficiency and financial stability through strategic planning, by gradually reallocating funds raised for annual operations to quasi-endowment over a period of years using a weaning model. The weaning model is offered as a tactic to address issues of financial vulnerability developed in…

  15. Economics of early weaning in Northern Great Plains beef cattle production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early weaning is a management option for producers to consider during extended droughts. Early removal of the calf from its dam reduces forage needs of the cow-calf enterprise and has been found to improve BW gain and pregnancy rates in the cow herd. However, early weaning may not always be economi...

  16. Noninvasive ventilation during the weaning process in chronically critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Jesus; Servera, Emilio; Jara-Palomares, Luis; Barrot, Emilia; Sanchez-Oro-Gómez, Raquel; Gómez de Terreros, F Javier; Martín-Vicente, M Jesús; Utrabo, Isabel; Núñez, M Belen; Binimelis, Alicia; Sala, Ernest; Zamora, Enrique; Segrelles, Gonzalo; Ortega-Gonzalez, Angel; Masa, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Chronically critically ill patients often undergo prolonged mechanical ventilation. The role of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) during weaning of these patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the value of NIV and whether a parameter can predict the need for NIV in chronically critically ill patients during the weaning process. We conducted a prospective study that included chronically critically ill patients admitted to Spanish respiratory care units. The weaning method used consisted of progressive periods of spontaneous breathing trials. Patients were transferred to NIV when it proved impossible to increase the duration of spontaneous breathing trials beyond 18 h. 231 chronically critically ill patients were included in the study. 198 (85.71%) patients achieved weaning success (mean weaning time 25.45±16.71 days), of whom 40 (21.4%) needed NIV during the weaning process. The variable which predicted the need for NIV was arterial carbon dioxide tension at respiratory care unit admission (OR 1.08 (95% CI 1.01-1.15), p=0.013), with a cut-off point of 45.5 mmHg (sensitivity 0.76, specificity 0.67, positive predictive value 0.76, negative predictive value 0.97). NIV is a useful tool during weaning in chronically critically ill patients. Hypercapnia despite mechanical ventilation at respiratory care unit admission is the main predictor of the need for NIV during weaning.

  17. Noninvasive ventilation during the weaning process in chronically critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Servera, Emilio; Barrot, Emilia; Sanchez-Oro-Gómez, Raquel; Gómez de Terreros, F. Javier; Martín-Vicente, M. Jesús; Utrabo, Isabel; Núñez, M. Belen; Binimelis, Alicia; Sala, Ernest; Zamora, Enrique; Segrelles, Gonzalo; Ortega-Gonzalez, Angel; Masa, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Chronically critically ill patients often undergo prolonged mechanical ventilation. The role of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) during weaning of these patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the value of NIV and whether a parameter can predict the need for NIV in chronically critically ill patients during the weaning process. We conducted a prospective study that included chronically critically ill patients admitted to Spanish respiratory care units. The weaning method used consisted of progressive periods of spontaneous breathing trials. Patients were transferred to NIV when it proved impossible to increase the duration of spontaneous breathing trials beyond 18 h. 231 chronically critically ill patients were included in the study. 198 (85.71%) patients achieved weaning success (mean weaning time 25.45±16.71 days), of whom 40 (21.4%) needed NIV during the weaning process. The variable which predicted the need for NIV was arterial carbon dioxide tension at respiratory care unit admission (OR 1.08 (95% CI 1.01–1.15), p=0.013), with a cut-off point of 45.5 mmHg (sensitivity 0.76, specificity 0.67, positive predictive value 0.76, negative predictive value 0.97). NIV is a useful tool during weaning in chronically critically ill patients. Hypercapnia despite mechanical ventilation at respiratory care unit admission is the main predictor of the need for NIV during weaning. PMID:28053973

  18. Sugar intake, soft drink consumption and body weight among British children: further analysis of National Diet and Nutrition Survey data with adjustment for under-reporting and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid; Neate, Deborah

    2007-09-01

    We investigated associations between body mass index (BMI) and intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) and caloric soft drinks using weighed 7-day food records, nutrient intakes, BMI measurements and 7-day physical activity (PA) diaries from the UK National Dietary and Nutritional Survey of Young People (n=1,294 aged 7-18 years). NMES and caloric soft drinks (excluding 100% fruit juice) were quantified by their contribution to energy intake. BMI z-scores were calculated from UK reference curves and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-off values were used to define overweight. The BMI z-score was weakly inversely correlated with percentage energy from NMES after adjustment for under-reporting and dieting (r=-0.06, P=0.03). The percentage of energy from soft drinks was not associated with the BMI z-score or PA. After excluding under-reporters and dieters, the heaviest children (top quintile: Q5 of BMI z-scores) consumed more total energy (+1,220 kJ/day) than those in the lowest quintile (Q1), but only 60 kJ (5%) was from soft drinks. In logistic regression (adjusted for age and gender, under-reporting, and dieting), overweight was positively associated with energy intake (MJ) (odds ratio [OR]=1.58, confidence interval [CI]=1.42-1.77) and sedentary activity (h) (OR=1.11, CI=1.01-1.23), and inversely associated with moderate/vigorous activity (h) (OR=0.71, CI=0.58-0.86). In the macronutrient model, high fat and protein intake (top tertile vs lowest tertile, g/day) were positively associated with overweight (OR>2.5, P<0.001) while starch had less impact (OR=1.60, CI=1.0-2.55, P<0.05). Top tertile intakes of caloric soft drinks were weakly associated with overweight (OR=1.39, CI=0.96-2.0, P=0.08), while other sources of NMES showed no association (OR=0.81, CI=0.52-1.27, P=0.4). Risk associated with caloric soft drinks appeared non-linear with an increase in odds only for very high consumers (top quintile, mean 870 kJ/day; OR=1.67, CI=1.04-2.66, P=0.03). These

  19. A Time to Wean? Impact of Weaning Age on Anxiety-Like Behaviour and Stability of Behavioural Traits in Full Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Richter, S. Helene; Kästner, Niklas; Loddenkemper, Dirk-Heinz; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, weaning constitutes an important phase in the progression to adulthood. It comprises the termination of suckling and is characterized by several changes in the behaviour of both mother and offspring. Furthermore, numerous studies in rodents have shown that the time point of weaning shapes the behavioural profile of the young. Most of these studies, however, have focused on ‘early weaning’, while relatively little work has been done to study ‘late weaning’ effects. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore behavioural effects of ‘late weaning’, and furthermore to gain insights into modulating effects of weaning age on the consistency of behavioural expressions over time. In total, 25 male and 20 female C57BL/6J mice, weaned after three (W3) or four (W4) weeks of age, were subjected to a series of behavioural paradigms widely used to assess anxiety-like behaviour, exploratory locomotion, and nest building performance. Behavioural testing took place with the mice reaching an age of 20 weeks and was repeated eight weeks later to investigate the stability of behavioural expressions over time. At the group level, W4 mice behaved less anxious and more explorative than W3 animals in the Open Field and Novel Cage, while anxiety-like behaviour on the Elevated Plus Maze was modulated by a weaning-age-by-sex interaction. Furthermore, weaning age shaped the degree of behavioural stability over time in a sex-specific way. While W3 females and W4 males displayed a remarkable degree of behavioural stability over time, no such patterns were observed in W3 males and W4 females. Adding to the existing literature, we could thus confirm that effects of weaning age do indeed exist when prolonging this phase, and were furthermore able to provide first evidence for the impact of weaning age and sex on the consistency of behavioural expressions over time. PMID:27930688

  20. Evidence for litter differences in play behaviour in pre-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sarah Mills; Klaffenböck, Michael; Nevison, Ian Macleod; Lawrence, Alistair Burnett

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse spontaneous play behaviour in litters of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) for sources of variation at individual and litter levels and to relate variation in play to measures of pre and postnatal development. Seven litters of commercially bred piglets (n = 70) were born (farrowed) within a penning system (PigSAFE) that provided opportunities for the performance of spontaneous play behaviours. Individual behaviour was scored based on an established play ethogram for 2 days per week over the 3 week study period. We found strong evidence of litter differences in play behaviour (F(6,63) = 27.30, p < 0.001). Of the variance in total play, 50% was attributable to differences between litters with a lesser proportion (11%) to between piglets within litters. We found similar evidence of litter differences when we analysed the separate play categories (e.g. for locomotor play: F(6,63) = 27.50, p < 0.001). For social and locomotor play the variance was partitioned in a broadly similar way to total play; however for object play the variance was distributed with a more even balance across and within litters. In terms of explanatory factors we found little evidence that at the litter level differences in play were associated with differences in general activity. Of the prenatal factors measured, we found that birth weight was positively associated with total play and the play categories (e.g. with total play: F(1,64) = 12.8, p < 0.001). We also found that postnatal piglet growth up to weaning (as a percentage of birth weight) had a significant positive association with total play and the play categories (e.g. with object play: F(1,66) = 20.55, p < 0.001). As found in other studies, on average males engaged in more social play (e.g. non-injurious play fighting: F(1,63) = 39.8, p < 0.001). Males also initiated more play bouts on average than females (F(1,62) = 4.41, p = 0.040). We conclude that the study of differences

  1. The Effects of Enzyme Complex on Performance, Intestinal Health and Nutrient Digestibility of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yi, J. Q.; Piao, X. S.; Li, Z. C.; Zhang, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Li, Q. Y.; Liu, J. D.; Zhang, Q.; Ru, Y. J.; Dong, B.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing a corn-soybean meal-based diet with an enzyme complex containing amylase, protease and xylanase on the performance, intestinal health, apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and nutrient digestibility of weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 108 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were fed one of three diets containing 0 (control), 100, or 150 ppm enzyme complex for 4 wks, based on a two-phase feeding program namely 1 to 7 d (phase 1) and 8 to 28 d (phase 2). At the end of the experiment, six pigs from the control group and the group supplemented with 150 ppm enzyme complex were chosen to collect digesta samples from intestine to measure viscosity and pH in the stomach, ileum, and cecum, as well as volatile fatty acid concentrations and composition of the microflora in the cecum and colon. There were linear increases (p<0.01) in weight gain, gain: feed ratio and digestibility of gross energy with the increasing dose rate of enzyme supplementation during the whole experiment. Supplementation with enzyme complex increased the digesta viscosity in the stomach (p<0.05) and significantly increased (p<0.01) the concentrations of acetic, propionic and butyric acid in the cecum and colon. Enzyme supplementation also significantly increased the population of Lactobacilli (p<0.01) in the cecum and decreased the population of E. coli (p<0.05) in the colon. In Exp. 2, six crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 18.26±1.21 kg), fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum, were assigned to three dietary treatments according to a replicated 3×3 Latin Square design. The experimental diets were the same as the diets used in phase 2 in Exp. 1. Apparent ileal digestibility of isoleucine (p<0.01), valine (p<0.05) and aspartic acid (p<0.05) linearly increased with the increasing dose rate of enzyme supplementation. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet with an enzyme complex containing amylase, protease and xylanase

  2. The influence of music during mechanical ventilation and weaning from mechanical ventilation: A review.

    PubMed

    Hetland, Breanna; Lindquist, Ruth; Chlan, Linda L

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) causes many distressing symptoms. Weaning, the gradual decrease in ventilator assistance leading to termination of MV, increases respiratory effort, which may exacerbate symptoms and prolong MV. Music, a non-pharmacological intervention without side effects may benefit patients during weaning from mechanical ventilatory support. A narrative review of OVID Medline, PsychINFO, and CINAHL databases was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of music intervention in MV and MV weaning. Music intervention had a positive impact on ventilated patients; 16 quantitative and 2 qualitative studies were identified. Quantitative studies included randomized clinical trials (10), case controls (3), pilot studies (2) and a feasibility study. Evidence supports music as an effective intervention that can lesson symptoms related to MV and promote effective weaning. It has potential to reduce costs and increase patient satisfaction. However, more studies are needed to establish its use during MV weaning.

  3. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: why are we still looking for alternative methods?

    PubMed

    Frutos-Vivar, F; Esteban, A

    2013-12-01

    Most patients who require mechanical ventilation for longer than 24 hours, and who improve the condition leading to the indication of ventilatory support, can be weaned after passing a first spontaneous breathing test. The challenge is to improve the weaning of patients who fail that first test. We have methods that can be referred to as traditional, such as the T-tube, pressure support or synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV). In recent years, however, new applications of usual techniques as noninvasive ventilation, new ventilation methods such as automatic tube compensation (ATC), mandatory minute ventilation (MMV), adaptive support ventilation or automatic weaning systems based on pressure support have been described. Their possible role in weaning from mechanical ventilation among patients with difficult or prolonged weaning remains to be established.

  4. Hyperlocomotor activity and stress vulnerability during adulthood induced by social isolation after early weaning are prevented by voluntary running exercise before normal weaning period.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Junko; Ogawa, Yuko; Owada, Yuji; Ishikawa, Akinori

    2014-05-01

    In rodents, the disruption of social-rearing conditions before normal weaning induces emotional behavioral abnormalities, such as anxiety, motor activity dysregulation, and stress vulnerability. The beneficial effects of exercise after normal weaning on emotional regulation have been well documented. However, effects of exercise before normal weaning on emotion have not been reported. We examined whether voluntary wheel running (R) during social isolation after early weaning (early weaning/isolation; EI) from postnatal day (PD) 14-30 could prevent EI-induced emotional behavioral abnormalities in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared with control rats reared with their dam and siblings until PD30, rats performed R during EI (EI+R) and EI rats demonstrated greater locomotion and lower grooming activity in the open-field test (OFT) during the juvenile period. Juvenile EI ± R rats showed greater learned helplessness (LH) after exposure to inescapable stress (IS; electric foot shock) than IS-exposed control and EI rats. In contrast, EI rats showed increased locomotion in the OFT and LH after exposure to IS compared with control rats during adulthood; this was not observed in EI ± R rats. Both EI and EI ± R rats exhibited greater rearing activity in the OFT than controls during adulthood. EI did not increase anxiety in the OFT and elevated plus-maze. These results suggested that R during EI until normal weaning prevented some of the EI-induced behavioral abnormalities, including hyperlocomotor activity and greater LH, during adulthood but not in the juvenile period.

  5. What do preweaned and weaned calves need in the diet: a high fiber content or a forage source?

    PubMed

    Terré, M; Pedrals, E; Dalmau, A; Bach, A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the improvement of performance of young calves associated with the supplementation of chopped grass hay reported in some studies is due to an increase in the total neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of the consumed diet or to the provision of chopped grass hay. Sixty-three Holstein calves [9±4.4 d old; mean ± standard deviation (SD)] were randomly distributed in 4 treatments resulting from the combination of 2 levels of NDF content of a pelleted starter and the supply or absence of forage provision: low-NDF starter (18%) with or without chopped oat hay, and high-NDF starter (27%) with or without chopped oat hay. All animals were fed the same milk replacer (21% crude protein and 19.2% fat) at the rate of 4 L/d at 15% dry matter from d 1 to 34, and 2 L/d at 15% dry matter from d 35 to 42 (weaning). The study finished 2 wk after weaning. Body weight was measured weekly and individual calf starter and hay intake was recorded daily. On d 50, blood samples were drawn 2h after the morning concentrate offer to determine serum glucose and insulin concentrations. On d 52, samples of ruminal fluid were obtained via an esophageal tube, and pH was measured immediately. During the preweaning period, pelleted starter intake was similar among treatments, but average daily gain tended to be greater in low- than in high-NDF treatments (0.69 vs. 0.63±0.020 kg/d, respectively; mean ± SD). However, during the 2 wk after weaning, supplementation of forage improved pelleted starter intake and average daily gain without affecting the gain-to-feed ratio. Probably, the greater pelleted starter intake observed in forage-supplemented calves was mainly due to the greater ruminal pH found in forage-supplemented calves compared with forage-deprived calves (5.81 vs. 5.05±0.063, respectively). Blood insulin-to-glucose ratio was greater in forage-supplemented compared with unsupplemented calves [mean ± SD; 6.53 vs. 4.24±0.125 insulin

  6. Effects of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain supplemented from birth to weaning on diarrhoea patterns and performance of piglets.

    PubMed

    Zeyner, A; Boldt, E

    2006-02-01

    This placebo-controlled double-blind study was conducted to evaluate effects of Enterococcus faecium DSM 10663 NCIMB 10415 (EcF) orally given from birth to weaning on diarrhoea and performance of piglets. At the first 3 days postnatum (p.n.), piglets from 54 [verum group (VG)] and 60 [placebo group (PG)] sows got 1 g of a gel directly per mouth by a dosing device. Gel for the VG contained 2.8 x 10(9) colony forming units (CFU) EcF/g. From day 4 p.n. until weaning (24 +/- 3.2 days p.n.) a liquid additive was given that administered twice a day 1.26 x 10(9) CFU EcF to each VG piglet. In case of diarrhoea, an electrolyte solution was used which provided daily 2.9 and 5.8 (week 1 and >or= 2, respectively) x 10(8) CFU EcF per VG piglet. Diarrhoea scores were defined as follows: (i) no diarrhoea; (ii) piglets developed diarrhoea, but were vital and (iii) piglets suffered from diarrhoea and additionally looked pale, developed rough coat, showed slackening of the flank and lethargy. Counts of viable born, stillborn and weaned piglets were normal and not different between groups (p > 0.05). Placebo group vs. VG piglets suffered more frequently from diarrhoea (40.0 vs. 14.8%, p < 0.05). Duration of diarrhoea was not affected by feeding EcF (2.2 +/- 0.81 days, p > 0.05). Diarrhoea score was lower in VG vs. PG (1.2 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.54, p < 0.05) and the daily weight gain (DWG) was higher by 17 g/day (p < 0.05). Results suggest that the daily oral supplementation of EcF from birth to weaning reduces the portion of piglets suffering from diarrhoea. This may improve performance, as the higher DWG indicates. In contrast, no obvious benefit seems to result from an additional supply of EcF via electrolyte solution when diarrhoea is always present.

  7. Standardized ileal digestibility of proteins and amino acids in sesame expeller and soya bean meal in weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, A; Reis de Souza, T C; Mariscal-Landín, G; Escobar, K; Montaño, S; Bernal, M G

    2015-08-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of diets containing sesame expeller (SE) and soya bean meal (SBM) was determined using 15 piglets (Genetiporc(®)), weaned at 17 ± 0.4 days with average body weight of 6.4 ± 0.7 kg (Fertilis 20 × G Performance, Genetiporc(®), PIC México, Querétaro, México). Piglets were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) a reference diet with casein as the sole protein source; (ii) a mixed diet of casein-SE; and (iii) a mixed diet of casein-SBM. The chemical composition of SE and SBM was determined, and AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AAs) were determined for each protein source. SE contained greater quantities of ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, phytic acid, methionine and arginine than SBM. Lysine and proline contents and trypsin inhibitor activity were higher in SBM than in SE. The AID and SID of CP and AA (except for lysine and proline) were similar in SE and SBM. The AID of lysine and proline was higher in SBM than in SE (p < 0.05), and the SID of proline was higher in SE than in SBM (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that SE is an appropriate alternative protein source for early weaned pigs.

  8. No beneficial effects evident for Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 in weaned pigs infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, Susanne; Janczyk, Pawel; Assmus, Jens; Schmidt, Michael F G; Brockmann, Gudrun A; Nöckler, Karsten

    2012-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104 is the major pathogen for salmonellosis outbreaks in Europe. We tested if the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 can prevent or alleviate salmonellosis. Therefore, piglets of the German Landrace breed that were treated with E. faecium (n = 16) as a feed additive and untreated controls (n = 16) were challenged with S. Typhimurium 10 days after weaning. The presence of salmonellae in feces and selected organs, as well as the immune response, were investigated. Piglets treated with E. faecium gained less weight than control piglets (P = 0.05). The feeding of E. faecium had no effect on the fecal shedding of salmonellae and resulted in a higher abundance of the pathogen in tonsils of all challenged animals. The specific (anti-Salmonella IgG) and nonspecific (haptoglobin) humoral immune responses as well as the cellular immune response (T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells, γδ T cells, and B cells) in the lymph nodes, Peyer's patches of different segments of the intestine (jejunal and ileocecal), the ileal papilla, and in the blood were affected in the course of time after infection (P < 0.05) but not by the E. faecium treatment. These results led to the conclusion that E. faecium may not have beneficial effects on the performance of weaned piglets in the case of S. Typhimurium infection. Therefore, we suggest a critical discussion and reconsideration of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 administration as a probiotic for pigs.

  9. No Beneficial Effects Evident for Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 in Weaned Pigs Infected with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Susanne; Aßmus, Jens; Schmidt, Michael F. G.; Brockmann, Gudrun A.; Nöckler, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104 is the major pathogen for salmonellosis outbreaks in Europe. We tested if the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 can prevent or alleviate salmonellosis. Therefore, piglets of the German Landrace breed that were treated with E. faecium (n = 16) as a feed additive and untreated controls (n = 16) were challenged with S. Typhimurium 10 days after weaning. The presence of salmonellae in feces and selected organs, as well as the immune response, were investigated. Piglets treated with E. faecium gained less weight than control piglets (P = 0.05). The feeding of E. faecium had no effect on the fecal shedding of salmonellae and resulted in a higher abundance of the pathogen in tonsils of all challenged animals. The specific (anti-Salmonella IgG) and nonspecific (haptoglobin) humoral immune responses as well as the cellular immune response (T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells, γδ T cells, and B cells) in the lymph nodes, Peyer's patches of different segments of the intestine (jejunal and ileocecal), the ileal papilla, and in the blood were affected in the course of time after infection (P < 0.05) but not by the E. faecium treatment. These results led to the conclusion that E. faecium may not have beneficial effects on the performance of weaned piglets in the case of S. Typhimurium infection. Therefore, we suggest a critical discussion and reconsideration of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 administration as a probiotic for pigs. PMID:22544257

  10. The effect of litter size before weaning on subsequent body development, feed intake, and reproductive performance of young rabbit does.

    PubMed

    Rommers, J M; Kemp, B; Meijerhof, R; Noordhuizen, J P

    2001-08-01

    An experiment was performed to study the effect of litter size before weaning on subsequent body development and composition, feed intake, and reproductive performance of young rabbit does with the objective to improve reproductive performance. Litter size (LS) before weaning (treatment) was 6, 9, or 12 kits. After weaning (30 d), 58 female kits per treatment (in two successive replicates) were reared and fed for ad libitum intake to 14.5 wk of age (end of rearing). At 14.5 wk of age, receptive does were inseminated. Nonreceptive and nonpregnant does were inseminated at 17.5 wk of age. The experiment ended when the second litter was weaned. Part of the animals was slaughtered to determine body composition at the end of the experiment (replicate one) and at the end of rearing (replicate two). At weaning, BW differed among treatments (P < 0.05; 855, 773, and 664 +/- 15 g for LS6, 9, and 12, respectively). Compensatory growth was observed. At the end of rearing, LS12 does were smaller (P < 0.05) than LS9 and LS6 does (3,524, 3,778, and 3,850 +/- 48 g, respectively). After first lactation, no difference in BW among treatments was found. Compared with LS6, empty body weight (BW minus gut, bladder, and uterus content) of LS12 contained more (P < 0.05) nitrogen (32.5 vs 31.1 +/- 0.3 g/kg), more (P < 0.05) ash (30.7 vs 28.3 +/- 0.6 g/kg), and less (P < 0.05) fat (168.6 vs 200.2 +/- 8.6 g/kg). No differences in body composition among treatments were found at the end of the experiment. During rearing, LS12 had the lowest (P < 0.05) daily feed intake (152, 164, and 169 +/- 2 g/d for LS12, 9, and 6, respectively). During the reproductive period, no differences in feed intake among treatments were found. Kindling rate (the number of kindlings per number of inseminations) was not influenced by treatment. In the first parity, total litter size (number of alive and stillborn kits) was lower (P < 0.10) for LS12 than for LS9 (6.4 vs 8.6 +/- 0.5, respectively). When first mating was

  11. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Jin, X. H.; Heo, P. S.; Hong, J. S.; Kim, N. J.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight) were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day) were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01), average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.01). During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08). In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01), ADFI (p<0.05) and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07) during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05). In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05) and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03) were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs’ diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses. PMID:27282974

  12. Weighted Automata and Weighted Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droste, Manfred; Gastin, Paul

    In automata theory, a fundamental result of Büchi and Elgot states that the recognizable languages are precisely the ones definable by sentences of monadic second order logic. We will present a generalization of this result to the context of weighted automata. We develop syntax and semantics of a quantitative logic; like the behaviors of weighted automata, the semantics of sentences of our logic are formal power series describing ‘how often’ the sentence is true for a given word. Our main result shows that if the weights are taken in an arbitrary semiring, then the behaviors of weighted automata are precisely the series definable by sentences of our quantitative logic. We achieve a similar characterization for weighted Büchi automata acting on infinite words, if the underlying semiring satisfies suitable completeness assumptions. Moreover, if the semiring is additively locally finite or locally finite, then natural extensions of our weighted logic still have the same expressive power as weighted automata.

  13. Post-weaning Social Isolation Impairs Observational Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Yusufishaq, Shabana; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

    2013-01-01

    Many mammals can utilize social information to learn by observation of conspecifics (social learning). Social learning of fear is expected to be especially advantageous for survival. However, disruption of social development in early life can impair social cognition and might also be expected to disrupt social learning. Social isolation during a critical period of adolescence disrupts social development. The purpose of this study was to determine whether disruption of social development through post-weaning social isolation leads to impairments of social fear learning. Rats were reared in isolation or pair-housed from immediately post-weaning, for 3 weeks. Social fear learning in rats was acquired by observation of tone-footshock pairings administered to a conspecific. Isolation-reared rats displayed less conditioned freezing than pair-housed rats when tested the next day. This reduction of conditioned freezing was correlated with conspecific-oriented behaviors during conditioning, was measured despite similarities in demonstrator behaviors, and occurred despite a manipulation that equalized freezing during conditioning between the pair-housed and isolation-reared rats. The results could not be explained by abnormal sensitization to a repeated tone or deficits in freezing or direct fear conditioning. These results demonstrate that observational fear conditioning is impaired by social isolation, and provide a model to study impaired social affective learning. Impaired social cognition, manifested as inability to recognize or appropriately interpret social cues, is a symptom of several psychiatric disorders. Better understanding of the mechanisms of impaired social fear learning can lead to novel treatments for social cognition symptoms of psychiatric disorders. PMID:23295398

  14. Post-weaning social isolation impairs observational fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Yusufishaq, Shabana; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

    2013-04-01

    Many mammals can utilize social information to learn by observation of conspecifics (social learning). Social learning of fear is expected to be especially advantageous for survival. However, disruption of social development in early life can impair social cognition and might also be expected to disrupt social learning. Social isolation during a critical period of adolescence disrupts social development. The purpose of this study was to determine whether disruption of social development through post-weaning social isolation leads to impairments of social fear learning. Rats were reared in isolation or pair-housed from immediately post-weaning, for 3 weeks. Social fear learning in rats was acquired by observation of tone-footshock pairings administered to a conspecific. Isolation-reared rats displayed less conditioned freezing than pair-housed rats when tested the next day. This reduction of conditioned freezing was correlated with conspecific-oriented behaviors during conditioning, was measured despite similarities in demonstrator behaviors, and occurred despite a manipulation that equalized freezing during conditioning between the pair-housed and isolation-reared rats. The results could not be explained by abnormal sensitization to a repeated tone or deficits in freezing or direct fear conditioning. These results demonstrate that observational fear conditioning is impaired by social isolation, and provide a model to study impaired social affective learning. Impaired social cognition, manifested as inability to recognize or appropriately interpret social cues, is a symptom of several psychiatric disorders. Better understanding of the mechanisms of impaired social fear learning can lead to novel treatments for social cognition symptoms of psychiatric disorders.

  15. Ventilatory weaning practices in intensive care units in the city of Cali

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Vilma; Calvo, Lucía; Ramírez, María Fernanda; Arias, Marcela; Villota, Mario; Wilches-Luna, Esther Cecilia; Soto, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Early weaning from mechanical ventilation is one of the primary goals in managing critically ill patients. There are various techniques and measurement parameters for such weaning. The objective of this study was to describe the practices of ventilatory weaning in adult intensive care units in the city of Cali. Methods A survey of 32 questions (some multiple choice) evaluating weaning practices was distributed to physiotherapists and respiratory therapists working in intensive care units, to be answered anonymously. Results The most common strategy for the parameter set was the combination of continuous positive airway pressure with pressure support (78%), with a large variability in pressure levels, the most common range being 6 to 8cmH2O. The most common weaning parameters were as follows: tidal volume (92.6%), respiratory rate (93.3%) and oxygen saturation (90.4%). The most common waiting time for registration of the parameters was >15 minutes (40%). The measurements were preferably obtained from the ventilator display. Conclusion The methods and measurement parameters of ventilatory weaning vary greatly. The most commonly used method was continuous positive airway pressure with more pressure support and the most commonly used weaning parameters were the measured tidal volume and respiratory rate. PMID:25028947

  16. Chronic Powder Diet After Weaning Induces Sleep, Behavioral, Neuroanatomical, and Neurophysiological Changes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Yuji; Okuro, Masashi; Sakai, Noriaki; Nishino, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of chronic powder diet feeding on sleep patterns and other physiological/anatomical changes in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were divided into two groups from weaning: a group fed with solid food (SD) and a group fed with powder food (PD), and sleep and physiological and anatomical changes were compared between the groups. PD exhibited less cranial bone structure development and a significant weight gain. Furthermore, these PD mice showed reduced number of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Sleep analysis showed that PD induced attenuated diurnal sleep/wake rhythm, characterized by increased sleep during active period and decreased sleep during rest period. With food deprivation (FD), PD showed less enhancement of wake/locomotor activity compared to SD, indicating reduced food-seeking behavior during FD. These results suggest that powder feeding in mice results in a cluster of detrimental symptoms caused by abnormal energy metabolism and anatomical/neurological changes. PMID:26630494

  17. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces endothelial dysfunctions in rats.

    PubMed

    de Belchior, Aucelia C S; Angeli, Jhuli K; Faria, Thaís de O; Siman, Fabiana D M; Silveira, Edna A; Meira, Eduardo F; da Costa, Carlos P; Vassallo, Dalton V; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition during critical periods in early life may increase the subsequent risk of hypertension and metabolic diseases in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in aortic rings (conductance artery) and isolated-perfused tail arteries (resistance artery) from control (fed with Labina®) and post-weaning protein malnutrition rats (offspring that received a diet with low protein content for three months). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. In the aortic rings, reactivity to phenylephrine (10(-10)-3.10(-4) M) was similar in both groups. Endothelium removal or L-NAME (10(-4) M) incubation increased the response to phenylephrine, but the L-NAME effect was greater in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. The protein expression of the endothelial nitric oxide isoform increased in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. Incubation with apocynin (0.3 mM) reduced the response to phenylephrine in both groups, but this effect was higher in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, suggesting an increase of superoxide anion release. In the tail artery of the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (0.001-300 µg) and the relaxation to acetylcholine (10(-10)-10(-3) M) were increased. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces vascular dysfunction. Although the vascular reactivity in the aortic rings did not change, an increase in superoxide anion and nitric oxide was observed in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. However, in the resistance arteries, the increased vascular reactivity may be a potential mechanism underlying the increased blood pressure observed in this model.

  18. Post-Weaning Protein Malnutrition Increases Blood Pressure and Induces Endothelial Dysfunctions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Siman, Fabiana D. M.; Silveira, Edna A.; Meira, Eduardo F.; da Costa, Carlos P.; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Padilha, Alessandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition during critical periods in early life may increase the subsequent risk of hypertension and metabolic diseases in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in aortic rings (conductance artery) and isolated-perfused tail arteries (resistance artery) from control (fed with Labina®) and post-weaning protein malnutrition rats (offspring that received a diet with low protein content for three months). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. In the aortic rings, reactivity to phenylephrine (10−10–3.10−4 M) was similar in both groups. Endothelium removal or L-NAME (10−4 M) incubation increased the response to phenylephrine, but the L-NAME effect was greater in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. The protein expression of the endothelial nitric oxide isoform increased in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. Incubation with apocynin (0.3 mM) reduced the response to phenylephrine in both groups, but this effect was higher in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, suggesting an increase of superoxide anion release. In the tail artery of the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (0.001–300 µg) and the relaxation to acetylcholine (10−10–10−3 M) were increased. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces vascular dysfunction. Although the vascular reactivity in the aortic rings did not change, an increase in superoxide anion and nitric oxide was observed in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. However, in the resistance arteries, the increased vascular reactivity may be a potential mechanism underlying the increased blood pressure observed in this model. PMID:22529948

  19. Oral sodium chlorate, topical disinfection, and younger weaning age reduce Salmonella enterica shedding in pigs.

    PubMed

    Patchanee, Prapas; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Bahnson, Peter B

    2007-08-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica can cause swine illness or human foodborne disease. Although nontoxic to mammalian cells, chlorate can be converted to cytotoxic chlorite by salmonellae. To test whether chlorate is effective at reducing Salmonella shedding in weaned pigs exposed to shedding dams, a chlorate-nitrate-lactate (chlorate) oral dose was administered daily for 5 days following weaning, and this treatment was evaluated in combination with two weaning ages and a topical disinfectant. A total of 80 pigs were weaned at 10 or 21 days of age. Half within each age group were topically disinfected at weaning. Piglets were selected from dams for which Salmonella was detected in feces shortly after giving birth. Chlorate treatment reduced Salmonella prevalence and estimated Salmonella concentration in feces, cecal contents, and ileocolic lymph nodes. Younger weaning age (10 days of age) was associated with reduced shedding (lower concentration and prevalence) in samples collected at 10 days postweaning (DPW) and later. Chlorate treatment reduced the concentration of Salmonella in fecal samples at 5 DPW and in cecal samples at 14 DPW. The protective effects persisted through the end of the study at 14 DPW, 9 days after the final administration of chlorate. Disinfectant treatment reduced shedding in fecal samples at 14 DPW. Interactions were detected between the effects of chlorate and disinfection and between chlorate and weaning age. Chlorate treatment, topical disinfection, and younger weaning age may be useful tools for reducing Salmonella shedding on farms that practice segregated weaning and where sow-to-piglet transfer of Salmonella is an important source of infection in nursery pigs.

  20. Nutritional quality of germinated cowpea flour (Vigna unguiculata) and its application in home prepared powdered weaning foods.

    PubMed

    Jirapa, P; Normah, H; Zamaliah, M M; Asmah, R; Mohamad, K

    2001-01-01

    Amino acid profiles, protein digestibility, corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), chemical scores, essential amino acid indexes, and calculated biological values of controlcowpea flour (CCF), germinated cowpea flour (GCF) prepared from cowpeas germinated at 25 degrees C for either 24 h or 48 h and weaning foods prepared from cowpea flours were determined. Locally available rice, cowpea flour, banana-pumpkin slurry, and skim milk powder and sucrose in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5 were used to formulate weaning food containing not less than 15% protein. The ingredients were cooked into a slurry and oven-dried to produce flakes. The nutritional and sensory qualities of the weaning products were evaluated. Germination had little effect on the amino acid profile of cowpeas. In vitro protein quality and starch digestibility were improved in germinated cowpea flour. The PDCAAS of 24 h germinated cowpea flour (GCF) weaning food was higher (55.49%) than CCF-weaning food (46.74%). Vitamin A activity in 24 h GCF weaning food was higher than in CCF-weaning food. In vitro starch digestibilities of 24 h GCF and 48 h GCF-weaning foods were higher than that of CCF weaning food. The 24 h GCF-weaning food which had a higher overall acceptability score by sensory panelist than 48 h GCF and CCF-weaning food is recommended for household consumption.

  1. Effects of cinnamaldehyde or monensin on performance of weaned Holstein dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Chapman, C E; Chester-Jones, H; Ziegler, D; Clapper, J A; Erickson, P S

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this 70-d study was to determine the effects of the essential oil cinnamaldehyde compared with the ionophore monensin on performance of weaned Holstein dairy heifers. Eighty-four Holstein dairy heifers (91 ± 3.33 d of age; 109 ± 7.55 kg) were housed in a naturally ventilated curtain sidewall, straw-bedded barn in 12 pens with 7 heifers/pen (3.98 m(2)/head). Heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized design: (1) control (CON; carrier, 908 g of ground corn), (2) monensin sodium [MON; 1 mg/kg of body weight (BW) + carrier], (3) cinnamaldehyde (CIN1; 1 mg/kg of BW + carrier), or (4) cinnamaldehyde (CIN2; 2 mg/kg of BW + carrier). The treatments were hand-mixed into a 20% crude protein (CP) whole shelled corn and protein pellet mix fed at 2.21 kg/heifer daily. Heifers had access to free-choice hay and water daily. Initial BW and hip heights were taken at the start of the study and every other week thereafter until calves reached 23 wk of age. Blood samples were also taken on each weigh day to determine plasma urea nitrogen, glucose, and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations. Fecal samples were taken from the same 3 heifers/pen initially and then at d 28, 56, and 70 of the study for coccidia counts. Cinnamaldehyde had no performance effects on growth, hay intake, hip height, or blood metabolites compared with MON or CON. Average daily gains were 0.98, 0.99, 1.01, and 1.03 kg/d, and average hay intakes per pen were 17.08, 16.34, 18.11, and 17.60 kg/d for CON, MON, CIN1, and CIN2, respectively. Fecal samples by pens indicated the presence of viable coccidia, but the counts were low and not consistent across heifers within each pen. No benefits were associated with supplementing cinnamaldehyde or monensin into grain mixes for weaned heifers.

  2. Factor weighting in DRASTIC modeling.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, F A L; Pires, L M G R; Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F

    2015-02-01

    Evaluation of aquifer vulnerability comprehends the integration of very diverse data, including soil characteristics (texture), hydrologic settings (recharge), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), environmental parameters (relief), and ground water quality (nitrate contamination). It is therefore a multi-geosphere problem to be handled by a multidisciplinary team. The DRASTIC model remains the most popular technique in use for aquifer vulnerability assessments. The algorithm calculates an intrinsic vulnerability index based on a weighted addition of seven factors. In many studies, the method is subject to adjustments, especially in the factor weights, to meet the particularities of the studied regions. However, adjustments made by different techniques may lead to markedly different vulnerabilities and hence to insecurity in the selection of an appropriate technique. This paper reports the comparison of 5 weighting techniques, an enterprise not attempted before. The studied area comprises 26 aquifer systems located in Portugal. The tested approaches include: the Delphi consensus (original DRASTIC, used as reference), Sensitivity Analysis, Spearman correlations, Logistic Regression and Correspondence Analysis (used as adjustment techniques). In all cases but Sensitivity Analysis, adjustment techniques have privileged the factors representing soil characteristics, hydrologic settings, aquifer properties and environmental parameters, by leveling their weights to ≈4.4, and have subordinated the factors describing the aquifer media by downgrading their weights to ≈1.5. Logistic Regression predicts the highest and Sensitivity Analysis the lowest vulnerabilities. Overall, the vulnerability indices may be separated by a maximum value of 51 points. This represents an uncertainty of 2.5 vulnerability classes, because they are 20 points wide. Given this ambiguity, the selection of a weighting technique to integrate a vulnerability index may require additional

  3. No direct by maternal effects interaction detected for pre-weaning growth in Romane sheep using a reaction norm model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The pre-weaning growth of lambs, an important component of meat production, depends on maternal and direct effects. These effects cannot be observed directly and models used to study pre-weaning growth assume that they are additive. However, it is reasonable to suggest that the influence of direct effects on growth may differ depending on the value of maternal effects i.e. an interaction may exist between the two components. Methods To test this hypothesis, an experiment was carried out in Romane sheep in order to obtain observations of maternal phenotypic effects (milk yield and milk quality) and pre-weaning growth of the lambs. The experiment consisted of mating ewes that had markedly different maternal genetic effects with rams that contributed very different genetic effects in four replicates of a 3 × 2 factorial plan. Milk yield was measured using the lamb suckling weight differential technique and milk composition (fat and protein contents) was determined by infrared spectroscopy at 15, 21 and 35 days after lambing. Lambs were weighed at birth and then at 15, 21 and 35 days. An interaction between genotype (of the lamb) and environment (milk yield and quality) for average daily gain was tested using a restricted likelihood ratio test, comparing a linear reaction norm model (interaction model) to a classical additive model (no interaction model). Results A total of 1284 weights of 442 lambs born from 166 different ewes were analysed. On average, the ewes produced 2.3 ± 0.8 L milk per day. The average protein and fat contents were 50 ± 4 g/L and 60 ± 18 g/L, respectively. The mean 0–35 day average daily gain was 207 ± 46 g/d. Results of the restricted likelihood ratio tests did not highlight any significant interactions between the genotype of the lambs and milk production of the ewe. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis of additivity of maternal and direct effects on growth that is currently applied in genetic

  4. Effects of the antimicrobial peptide cecropin AD on performance and intestinal health in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shudan; Zhang, Fengrui; Huang, Zhimin; Liu, Hong; Xie, Chunyuan; Zhang, Jiang; Thacker, Philip A; Qiao, Shiyan

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of the antimicrobial peptide cecropin on performance and intestinal health in piglets. Newly weaned barrows were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n=8), including a corn-soybean basal diet or similar diets supplemented with antibiotics (100 mg/kg kitasamycin plus 800 mg/kg colistin sulfate) or 400 mg/kg cecropin AD. On day 13, all piglets were orally challenged with 10(9)CFU/mL of Escherichia coli K88. On day 19, all piglets were euthanized and sampled. Before challenge, piglets fed antibiotics had greater weight gain, feed efficiency, nitrogen and energy retention than the control (P<0.05). E. coli challenge decreased weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency for the control piglets (P<0.05) but not for the antibiotic or cecropin AD treated piglets. The incidence of diarrhea post-challenge in the antibiotic and cecropin AD treatments decreased compared with the control piglets. The total viable counts of cecal E. coli were lower while the Lactobacilli counts were higher in the antibiotic and cecropin AD treatments compared with the control (P<0.05). Cecropin AD treatment decreased total aerobes while increasing total anaerobes in the ileum (P<0.05). A higher villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum and ileum as well as a deeper crypt depth in the jejunum and higher villus height in the ileum were observed in piglets fed antibiotics or cecropin AD compared with control piglets (P<0.05). Piglets fed the control diet had lower levels of secretory IgA in their jejunum and lower serum IgA, IgG, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). Overall, these data suggest that cecropin AD enhances pig performance through increasing immune status and nitrogen and energy retention as well as reducing intestinal pathogens in weaned piglets.

  5. Study the live weight and live weight gain of black bengal and jamunapari goat breeds by fitting the linear regression under semi-intensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Khan, M K I; Naznin, M

    2013-10-01

    The present study was conducted to know the live weight gain of goats under semi-intensive conditions of Chittagong district of Bangladesh during the period of July, 2012 to January, 2013. Data were collected from 72 black Bengal and 32 Jamunapari goats and the kids birth weight and their subsequent live weight at weekly intervals up to age and weight of weaning at sexual maturity was recorded. The weight gains from birth to sexual maturity of two different breeds under 2 different farms were studied. Average birth weight of male and female black Bengal goats kids were 1.22 +/- 0.15, 1.01 +/- 0.14, 1.42 +/- 0.10 and 1.12 +/- 0.27 kg, respectively for farm 1 and 2. For Jamunapari goat's kid birth weight were 1.51 +/- 0.07 and 1.42 +/- 0.09 kg, for male and females, respectively in the farm 2. The average weaning age was 4 months and the average weaning weight of male and female black Bengal goats were 5.19 +/- 0.358, 5.05 +/- 0.28, 5.63 +/- 0.61 and 5.54 +/- 0.41 kg, in the farm 1 and 2, respectively. However, the average weaning weight of male and female Jamunapari was 6.59 +/- 0.69 and 6.79 +/- 0.31 kg, respectively in farm 2 which was higher than black Bengal. The average age at sexual maturity of black Bengal goat was 8 months. The average weight at sexual maturity of male and female black Bengal goats were 9.82 +/- 0.75 and 9.52 +/- 0.62 kg, respectively in farm 1 and 9.65 +/- 0.75 and 9.138 +/- 0.70 kg, respectively in farm 2. The average age at sexual maturity was 9 months for Jamunapari goat. The average weight at sexual maturity of male and female Jamunapari goats was 13.2 +/- 0.75 and 14.1 +/- 0.82 kg, respectively. The average daily body weight gain from birth to weaning for male and female black Bengal goat was 33.70, 35.11 g day(-1) and was 35.67 and 45.94 g day(-1), respectively in farm 1 and 2 and for Jamunapari goat was 42.97 and 45.47 g day(-1), respectively. The males were grew faster than the females. The predicted live weight gains for both

  6. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  7. Effects of antibacterial peptide on cellular immunity in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Ren, Z H; Yuan, W; Deng, H D; Deng, J L; Dan, Q X; Jin, H T; Tian, C L; Peng, X; Liang, Z; Gao, S; Xu, S H; Li, G; Hu, Y

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of antibacterial peptide (ABP) sufficiency on cellular immune functions by determining the spleen cell cycle and apoptosis, peripheral blood T cell subsets, and T cell proliferation function in weaned piglets. A total of 90 piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) of both sexes were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments. Each treatment consisted of 3 replicates with 6 piglets per replicate. The dietary treatments consisted of the negative control (NC; basal diet), positive control (PC; basal diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg Astragalus polysaccharide), and ABP (basal diet mixed with 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg ABP). The experimental lasted for 28 d. Two piglets from each replicate were selected randomly for blood samples extraction from the jugular vein to obtain peripheral blood T cell subsets, and T cell proliferation function analysis was performed on d 32, 39, 46, and 53. Two piglets from each replicate were selected and euthanized to observe the spleen cell cycle and apoptosis on d 39 and 53. In ABP-sufficient piglets, the G0/G1 phase of the spleen cell cycle was much lower (P < 0.05) and the S and G2 + M phases and proliferation index (PI) were greater (P < 0.05) than in NC piglets. The percentage of apoptotic cells in the spleen significantly decreased under ABP sufficiency (P < 0.05). The proliferation function of peripheral blood T cells increased (P < 0.05) in ABP-sufficient piglets. Percentages of CD3 (+) and CD3 (+)CD4 (+) ratios (d 39, 46, and 53) and CD4 (+)CD8 (+) ratios (d 32, 39, 46, and 53) increased remarkably (P < 0.05) under ABP sufficiency compared with NC. These results suggest that ABP sufficiency could increase the T cell population and proliferation function of T cells and could induce decreased percentages of apoptotic cells. Overall, the cellular immune function was evidently improved in weaned piglets. We suggest optimal dosages of 500 mg/kg ABP for 4-wk addition and 1,000 mg/kg ABP for

  8. Postmortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Winther, K D; Secher, J O; Callesen, H

    2015-10-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig embryos than in those with LW embryos (26% and 24% vs. 6%). Piglets (n = 815) were born from 128 sows with 6.5 ± 0.4 full-born piglets per litter. The overall rate of stillborn piglets was 21% of all born with the number of stillborn piglets ranging from one to nine in a litter. The mortality of the surviving piglets during the first month was 48%. Thus, altogether 58% of the full-born piglets died before weaning. In 87 of the 128 litters (68%), one to 12 of the piglets showed major or minor malformations. Malformations were found in 232 piglets (29.5% of all born). A single malformation was registered in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17%). There was a gender difference in the transgenic minipigs because male piglets had a higher rate of malformations (49.1%) than females (29.7%). The most common defects in the cloned piglets were in the digestive (12.2%), circulatory (9.4%), reproductive (11.3%), and musculoskeletal (9.1%) systems. Malformations of the musculoskeletal system were most frequent in Göttingen (16.3% vs. approximately 5.5% in the two other breeds), whereas abnormal cardiopulmonary systems were most

  9. Effect of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae colonization at weaning on disease severity in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Fano, Eduardo; Pijoan, Carlos; Dee, Scott; Deen, John

    2007-07-01

    To determine whether Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae colonization at weaning in off-site weaning systems is associated with the severity of respiratory disease due to this agent in growing pigs, we studied 20 groups, each group representing a different week in production, in sow herds at 3 farms of 3000 sows each that had a prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae colonization at weaning higher than 5%. The calculated sample size for assessment at weaning was 39 piglets for each group under study; 39 litters were randomly selected, and 1 piglet was randomly selected from each litter for testing and ear-tagged. In total, 780 piglets were tested. The presence of M. hyopneumoniae in nasal swabs at weaning was established by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All groups were followed until slaughter, at which time blood samples were collected from each ear-tagged pig to test for M. hyopneumoniae antibodies, bronchial swabs were collected for detection of M. hyopneumoniae DNA by nested PCR, and the lung lesion score and percentage of affected lungs in the same animals were calculated. Correlation analyses showed a positive correlation between colonization at weaning and all 4 dependent variables indicating infection at slaughter: average lung lesion score, percentage of affected lungs, presence of M. hyopneumoniae on the bronchial epithelium, and seroconversion. This study provides evidence that severity of the disease can be predicted by the prevalence at weaning in segregated systems. Therefore, strategies focused on reducing colonization at weaning seem to be important elements in the global control of M. hyopneumoniae in segregated production systems.

  10. Short communication: Effect of diet changes on sorting behavior of weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Costa, J H C; Adderley, N A; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-07-01

    Dairy cows sort mixed rations; in some cases sorting can lead to digestive disorders. How sorting behavior develops in calves is poorly understood. The objective of this observational study was to determine if sorting behavior of total mixed ration (TMR)-fed dairy calves was affected by the removal of supplementary concentrate. Dairy bull calves (n=18) were provided access to both a TMR (49.1% dry matter) and calf starter fed separately during the preweaning period starting at 3 d of age. Sorting of the TMR was assessed after weaning when calves were provided both feeds at 65 d of age, and again at 70 d immediately following the removal of calf starter from the calf pen. Sorting was measured by comparing the particle size composition of the TMR offered with that of the orts following 24h of feed access. Feed particle fractions were measured using the Penn State Particle Separator with 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18mm) and a bottom pan to separate the TMR into long, medium, short, and fine fractions, respectively. At d 65, calves sorted for long particles (133±9%) and against small particles (92±3%), with no differences for the remaining fractions (99±5% for medium; 107±5% for fine); these preferences were reversed at d 70 when calf starter was no longer available with calves preferentially selecting fine particles (113±4%), but showing no preference for other fractions (101±11% for long; 99±6% for medium; 97±4% for short). These results indicate that young dairy calves are capable of sorting a TMR and they adjust this behavior in response to the availability of grain.

  11. Effect of agro-ecological zone, season of birth and sex on pre-weaning performance of Nguni calves in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mpofu, T J; Ginindza, M M; Siwendu, N A; Nephawe, K A; Mtileni, B J

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of agro-ecological zone, season of birth and sex on Nguni calves' pre-weaning performance. Production indices such as birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), pre-weaning average daily gain (P-ADG) and pre-weaning gain (P-WG) were assessed in the different agro-ecological zones. Herd records on performance of 826 Nguni calves' from nine Nguni herds representing different agro-ecological zones: arid zone (n = 217); semi-arid zone (n = 296); dry sub-humid zone (n = 118) and humid zone (n = 195) were used for the analysis of pre-weaning calf performance. General linear model (GLM) procedure of SAS (2013) was used to analyse data, whereas mean separation was conducted using Tukey's HSD test. Agro-ecological zone had a great influence (P < 0.01) on performance levels arising from pasture conditions which were dependent on rain, temperature, topography and soil type. Fluctuations in WW, P-ADG and P-WG performance across agro-ecological zones depicted the sensitivity of Nguni calves' to postnatal stress. Calves' in humid zone had higher performance with 121.21 kg for WW, 96.83 kg for P-WG and 0.477 kg/day for P-ADG. The lowest WW (114.51 kg), P-WG (89.98 kg) and P-ADG (0.438 kg/day) were observed in arid zone. Male calves were heavier at weaning (128.18 kg), P-ADG (0.503 kg/day) and total gain (103.03 kg); however, similar BW of 25 kg was observed for both male and female calves. Season had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on BW, P-ADG and P-WG. The P-ADG was 0.461 kg/day for calves born in summer and 0.449 kg/day for calves born in winter season. Calves born in summer gained 94.69 kg and calves born in winter gained 92.10 kg. Summer calves gained 2.59 kg more than winter calves. Summer heifer calves performed poorly whilst summer male calves outperformed heifer calves in terms of WW, P-WG and P-ADG. Pre-weaned calves in humid zone outperformed all calves in other agro-ecological zones

  12. [Weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation at 72 hours of spontaneous breathing].

    PubMed

    Villalba, Darío; Plotnikow, Gustavo; Feld, Viviana; Rivero Vairo, Noelia; Scapellato, José; Díaz Nielsen, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the population admitted to a weaning center (WC) to receive invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), analyze their evolution and identify weaning failure predictors. The medical records of 763 patients admitted to the respiratory care service in the period between May 2005 and January 2012 were reviewed; 372 were selected among 415 tracheotomized and mechanically ventilated. Different variables were analyzed as weaning failure predictors. The mean age of patients admitted was 69 years (SD 14.7), 57% were men. The median length of hospitalization in ICU was 33 days (IQR 26-46). Admission to ICU was due to medical causes in 86% of cases. During hospitalization in WC 186 (50%) patients achieved the successful weaning at a median of 13 days (interquartile range-IQR 5-38). A predictor of weaning failure was age. When we studied the subpopulation with partial disconnection of mechanical ventilation, we found a history of COPD and ageas predictors. Although 25% of the patients died, or required referral to a center of major complexity before 2 weeks of hospitalization, more than half of the patients were able to be removed permanently from the invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), this could support the care of chronic critical patients in MV and rehabilitation centers in Argentina because patients in these centers have a chance of weaning from MV, despite the high chances of developing complications.

  13. Physiological and behavioural responses to weaning conflict in free-ranging primate infants

    PubMed Central

    Mandalaywala, Tara M.; Higham, James P.; Heistermann, Michael; Parker, Karen J.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Weaning, characterized by maternal reduction of resources, is both psychologically and energetically stressful to mammalian offspring. Despite the importance of physiology in this process, previous studies have reported only indirect measures of weaning stress from infants, because of the difficulties of collecting physiological measures from free-ranging mammalian infants. Here we present some of the first data on the relationship between weaning and energetic and psychological stress in infant mammals. We collected data on 47 free-ranging rhesus macaque infants on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, showing that faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations were directly related to the frequency of maternal rejection, with fGCM concentrations increasing as rates of rejection increased. Infants with higher fGCM concentrations also engaged in higher rates of mother following, and mother following was associated with increased time on the nipple, suggesting that infants that experienced greater weaning-related stress increased their efforts to maintain proximity and contact with their mothers. Infants experiencing more frequent rejection uttered more distress vocalizations when being rejected; however, there was no relationship between rates of distress vocalizations and fGCM concentrations, suggesting a disassociation between behavioural and physiological stress responses to weaning. Elevated glucocorticoid concentrations during weaning may function to mobilize energy reserves and prepare the infant for continued maternal rejection and shortage of energetic resources. PMID:25431499

  14. Japan–France–US comparison of infant weaning from mother's viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Negayama, Koichi; Norimatsu, Hiroko; Barratt, Marguerite; Bouville, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background: Breastfeeding and weaning are strongly connected with infant–mother mutual autonomy, and hence are good touchstones to examine the characteristics of the mother–child relationship. Comparison of the weaning practice gives a framework to understand characteristics of the mother–infant relationship. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare three industrialised countries concerning the relationship between feeding and weaning practices and its reasons, mother's perception of child care, and of breast milk and formula. Methods: A questionnaire study on weaning practice was conducted for 310 Japanese, 756 French, and 222 American mothers with 4- to 20-month-old infants. Results: French mothers expected and had accomplished weaning at an earlier age of the infant, compared to Japanese and American mothers. Perceived insufficiency of breast milk was the leading reason for the termination of breastfeeding for Japanese mothers at the earlier stages, whereas back to work was the more important reason for French mothers. Japanese mothers were more negative in their image of themselves as mothers, whereas French mothers felt more burdened by child-care. Japanese mothers who terminated breastfeeding because of perceived breast milk insufficiency were also those who were less motivated to breastfeed. Conclusion: Weaning is a significant framework to interpret cultural differences in mother–infant relationship. The perceived insufficiency is interpreted as a solution of conflict between the social pressure to breastfeed and its burden. PMID:22745518

  15. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  16. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  17. Genetic relationships of lamb weight, maternal ability, and mature ewe weight in Swedish finewool sheep.

    PubMed

    Näsholm, A; Danell, O

    1996-02-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for weights of lambs from birth to 1 d before slaughter and mature ewe weight (EMW) using REML procedures and single- and two-trait animal models. The data consisted of weight registrations from 5,001 animals descended from 131 sires, 788 dams, 48 maternal grandsires, and 530 maternal granddams in an experimental flock with Swedish finewool sheep. Direct heritabilities increased with lamb age from .07 for birth weight to .21 for weight before slaughter. Maternal heritabilities declined with age from .30 to .07. Direct-maternal genetic correlations were positive and increased with age from .11 for birth weight to .73 for weight before slaughter. For daily gain during shorter periods, direct heritability increased from .07 for the period from birth until 3 wk of age to .14 for the period from weaning until 1 d before slaughter. The values for maternal heritabilities were .16 and .03, respectively. The direct-maternal genetic correlations ranged from -.11 to .59. The direct heritability for EMW varied between analyses from .29 to .63. A nonsignificant maternal heritability of .22 was noted for EMW. Direct genetic correlations between EMW and various lamb weights varied between .36 to .85. Genetic correlations between direct effects on EMW and maternal effects on lamb weights varied between .39 and .53. Direct and maternal genetic correlations between the lamb weights were positive. The results showed that the maternal influence on lamb weights decreased with age. It was indicated that positive genetic relationships exist between ewe weight and maternal effects on lamb weight. Therefore, selection for larger lamb weights alone will not only increase ewe weights but also improve the maternal ability to the ewe.

  18. Genetic trends for live weight traits reflect breeding strategies in registered Charolais Farms in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Parra-Bracamonte, G M; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Morris, S T; Sifuentes-Rincón, A M; Lopez-Bustamante, L A

    2016-12-01

    Genetic trends are commonly used to verify genetic improvement; however, there are few reports on beef cattle in Mexico. Data from 1998 to 2013 from four Charolais bull breeding farms were examined to verify the genetic responses to different breeding management and selection criteria. Analysis included the comparison of regression lines of breeding values for birth (BW), weaning (WW) and yearling weights (YW), and maternal weaning weight (MWW) on the year of birth of the animals. Results revealed differential genetic progress for BW and YW and indicated that the overall analysis may have diluted the perception of genetic progress from the farmer's point of view. The use of breeding values as a tool for selection is effective to achieve genetic progress, even in negatively correlated traits, such as birth weight and yearling weight.

  19. Effects of Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-1501-BPA on growth performance, faecal microflora, faecal enzyme activities and blood parameters of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Che, Jianmei; Ye, Shaowen; Liu, Bo; Deng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Qianqian; Ge, Cibin; Liu, Guohong; Wang, Jieping

    2016-12-01

    A feeding expriment was performed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation on the growth performance, faecal microflora, faecal enzyme activities and blood parameters of weaned piglets. A total of 150 weaned piglets were randomly assigned to different treatments groups, which were fed the same basic diet supplemented with 10, 1, 0.1, 0.01 and 0 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation. The results showed that a diet supplemented with 10 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation could significantly increase the final body weight (P < 0.05) and decrease feed to gain ratio, which was 37.1 % lower than that of the control group. The addition of B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA exhibited a trend of reducing the contents of the Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Salmonella compared with the control. During the 35 day experimental period, cellulase and protease activities were significantly increased by the dietary inclusion of the B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation (P < 0.05). The cellulase activity for piglets fed diet containing 1 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation, 21.8 U/g, was highest among the different treatments. The protease activity for piglets fed diet containing 10 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation, 50.4 U/g, was highest among the different treatments. The amylase and hemicellulase activities for piglets fed diet containing 10 % B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation were significantly higher than those on the control diet and other treatments (P < 0.05). Moreover, usage of feed dietary supplementation with B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA had positive effects on levels of enzymes and minerals in blood. The alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, Fe and Mg concentrations for weaned piglets fed diet containing B. brevis FJAT-1501-BPA fermentation were significantly higher than for those on the control diet (P < 0.05). Furthermore, concentration of IgG in serum was higher in weaned

  20. Growth performance, digestibility and faecal coliform bacteria in weaned piglets fed a cereal-based diet including either chicory (Cichorium intybus L) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L) forage.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, E; Frankow-Lindberg, B E; Andersson, H K; Lindberg, J E

    2011-02-01

    Twenty-five weaned 35-day-old piglets were used in a 35-day growth experiment to evaluate the effect of inclusion of chicory and ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility and shedding of faecal coliform bacteria. A total of seven experimental diets were formulated, a cereal-based basal diet (B), and six diets with inclusion of 40, 80 and 160 g/kg chicory (C40, C80 and C160) or ribwort (R40, R80 and R160). Piglets had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experiment. Three and five weeks post-weaning faeces samples for determination of digestibility were collected once a day for five subsequent days. Additional faeces samples for determination of coliform counts were collected at days 1, 16 and 35 post-weaning. Piglets fed diet R160 had the lowest average daily feed intake (DFI) and daily weight gain (DWG), and differed (P < 0.05) from piglets fed diets B, R40 and R80. There were no differences in DFI and DWG between the chicory diets and diet B. Inclusion of chicory or ribwort had a minor negative impact on the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein, whereas inclusion of both chicory and ribwort resulted in higher CTTAD of non-starch polysaccharides and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The CTTAD of arabinose were higher for diets C160 and R160 than for diet B (P < 0.05), and the CTTAD of uronic acid was higher for diets C40, C80, C160, R80 and R160 than for diet B (P < 0.05). Age affected the CTTAD for all parameters (P < 0.05) except for NDF, with higher values at 5 than at 3 weeks post-weaning. The coliform counts decreased with increasing age (P < 0.05), but was not affected by treatment. The results indicate that inclusion of up to 160 g/kg of chicory do not negatively affect performance, whereas high inclusion of ribwort have a negative impact on feed consumption and consequently on growth rate. Both herbs have a higher digestibility of

  1. Impact of baseline weight on smoking cessation and weight gain in quitlines

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Terry M.; Levine, Michele D.; Magnusson, Brooke; Cheng, Yu; Chen, Xiaotian; Mahoney, Lisa; Miles, Lyndsay; Zbikowski, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Use and effectiveness of tobacco quitlines by weight is unknown. Purpose Determine if baseline weight is associated with treatment engagement, cessation or weight gain following quitline treatment. Methods Quitline participants (n=595) were surveyed at baseline, three and six months. Results Baseline weight was not associated with treatment engagement. In unadjusted analyses, overweight smokers reported higher quit rates and were more likely to gain weight after quitting than obese or normal weight smokers. At three months, 40% of overweight vs. 25% of normal weight or obese smokers quit smoking (p=0.01); 42% of overweight, 32% of normal weight, 33% of obese quitters gained weight (p=0.05). After adjusting for covariates, weight was not significantly related to cessation (approaching significance at six months, p=.06) or weight gain. Conclusions In the first quitline study of this kind, we found no consistent patterns of association between baseline weight and treatment engagement, cessation or weight gain. PMID:24048952

  2. Rattling the plate--reasons and rationales for early weaning.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A S; Guthrie, C A; Alder, E M; Forsyth, S; Howie, P W; Williams, F L

    2001-08-01

    To identify a range of attitudes and beliefs which influence the timing of introduction to solid food, five focus group discussions were undertaken within a maternity hospital setting. These sessions explored early feeding behaviour, stimuli to changing feeding habits and subsequent responses in 22 primiparous and seven multiparous mothers (mean age 27.0+/-4.8 years) with babies aged 8-18 weeks (mean age 13.0+/-4.2 weeks). One-third of the participants had introduced solid food to their infants (mean age of introduction 11.6 weeks, range 2-16 weeks). Mothers believed that the introduction of solids was baby led and initiated by some physical characteristic or behavioural action of the infant. All mothers were aware of current recommendations to avoid the introduction of solid food until 4 months. Few knew why this should be and concepts of long-term ill health were difficult to conceptualize. The conflict between rigid feeding guidelines and flexible advice from supportive health professionals created confusion over the importance of good weaning practices. The current findings highlight issues relevant to the introduction of solid food, and provide a foundation for further research which can identify the relative importance of these factors and provide a rationale for the design of contemporary intervention strategies.

  3. Effects of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds inclusion in low-fiber diets on post-weaned rabbits' health status, growth performances, carcass characteristics, and meat chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Mabrouki, Sabah; Chalghoumi, Raja; Abdouli, Hedi

    2017-03-01

    Newly weaned rabbits frequently suffer from digestive disorders particularly when fed low-fiber diets. Fenugreek seeds are rich in dietary fiber and would be suited to moderate such disorders. This study investigated the effect of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds (PGFS) on rabbits' health, digestibility, growth performance, and carcass parameters. Fourteen weaned rabbits were fed one of the following diets: (1) low fiber as negative control (NC), (2) low fiber containing 5% PGFS (F5), (3) low fiber containing 10% PGFS (F10), and (4) adequate fiber as positive control (PC). Each rabbit was reared in an individual cage for 7 weeks. Morbidity and sanitary risk indexes were not different (P > 0.05) between the four diets. Only 20% of the rabbits had a detectable caecal Escherichia Coli (E. coli) count (<10(5) cfu/g), and all rabbits did not show Eimeria oocysts in their feces. Compared to NC, PC gave a lower (P < 0.05) weight gain and a higher (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). It was associated with a lighter (P < 0.05) chilled carcass weight, and its meat had slightly more moisture and ether extract with less protein. Inclusion of PGFS decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake at the 10% level and, consequently, tended to improve FCR, while no effect was detected on carcass characteristics and meat composition. This study suggested that (1) the low-fiber diet was adequate for both health and growth aspects of post-weaned rabbits, and (2) the inclusion of PGFS was without consequence on rabbits' health status and growth performance.

  4. Clinical factors associated with weaning failure in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hong-Joon; Chang, Jin-Sun; Ahn, Seong; Kim, Tae-Ok; Park, Cheol-Kyu; Lim, Jung-Hwan; Oh, In-Jae; Kim, Yu-Il; Lim, Sung-Chul; Kim, Young-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Background For patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV), weaning is difficult and mortality is very high. PMV has been defined recently, by consensus, as constituting ≥21 consecutive days of mechanical ventilation (MV) for ≥6 hours per day. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical factors predicting weaning failure in patients undergoing PMV in medical intensive care unit (ICU). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and laboratory characteristics of 127 patients who received MV for more than 21 days in the medical ICU at Chonnam National University Hospital in South Korea between January 2005 and December 2014. Patients who underwent surgery or experienced trauma were excluded from this study. Results Among the 127 patients requiring PMV, 41 (32.3%) were successfully weaned from MV. The median age of the weaning failure group was higher than that of the weaning success group (74.0 vs. 70.0 years; P=0.003). The proportion of male patients was 58.5% in the weaning success group and 72.1% in the weaning failure group, respectively. The most common reasons for ICU admission were respiratory causes (66.1%) followed by cardiovascular causes (16.5%) in both groups. ICU mortality and in-hospital mortality rates were 55.1% and 55.9%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, respiratory causes of ICU admission [odds ratio (OR), 3.98; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29–12.30; P=0.016] and a high sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score on day 21 of MV (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.17–1.85; P=0.001) were significantly associated with weaning failure in patients requiring PMV. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the SOFA score on day 21 of MV for predicting weaning failure was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67–0.87; P=0.000). Conclusions Respiratory causes of ICU admission and a high SOFA score on day 21 of MV could be predictive of weaning failure in patients requiring PMV. PMID:28203417

  5. Effects of dietary supplementation with epidermal growth factor-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae on duodenal development in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujin; Guo, Chunhua; Zhou, Lin; Zhong, Zhendong; Zhu, Wuzheng; Huang, Yanling; Zhang, Zhengfan; Gorgels, Theo G M F; Berendschot, Tos T J M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation with epidermal growth factor (EGF)-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae on duodenal development in weaned piglets. In total, forty piglets weaned at 21-26 d of age were assigned to one of the five groups that were provided basic diet (control group) or diet supplemented with S. cerevisiae expressing either empty-vector (INVSc1(EV) group), tagged EGF (T-EGF) (INVSc1-TE(-) group), extracellular EGF (EE-EGF) (INVSc1-EE(+) group) or intracellular EGF (IE-EGF) (INVSc1-IE(+) group). All treatments were delivered as 60·00 μg/kg body weight EGF/d. On 0, 7, 14 and 21 d, eight piglets per treatment were sacrificed to analyse the morphology, activities and mRNA expressions of digestive enzymes, as well as Ig levels (IgA, IgM, IgG) in duodenal mucosa. The results showed significant improvement on 7, 14 and 21 d, with respect to average daily gain (P<0·05), mucosa morphology (villus height and crypt depth) (P<0·05), Ig levels (P<0·01), activities and mRNA expressions of digestive enzymes (creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and sucrase) (P<0·05) and the mRNA expression of EGF-receptor (P<0·01) in NVSc1-TE(-), INVSc1-EE(+) and INVSc1-IE(+) groups compared with control and INVSc1(EV) groups. In addition, a trend was observed in which the INVSc1-IE(+) group showed an improvement in Ig levels (0·05weaned piglets enhanced duodenal development. Moreover, biological activity (Ig levels, mRNA expressions of digestive enzymes and EGF-receptor) of IE-EGF was better than either EE-EGF or T-EGF.

  6. Use of re-esterified palm oils, differing in their acylglycerol structure, in weaning-piglet diets.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, E; Barroeta, A C; Tres, A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2015-08-01

    Re-esterified oils are new fat sources obtained from chemical esterification of acid oils with glycerol (both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively). The different fatty acid (FA) positional distribution and acylglycerol composition of re-esterified oils may enhance the apparent absorption of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and, thus, their overall nutritive value. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified palm oils, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils, and also with an unsaturated fat source in weaning-piglet diets. The parameters assessed were: FA apparent absorption, acylglycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) composition of feces, and growth performance. One-hundred and twenty weaning piglets (average weight of 8.50±1.778 kg) were blocked by initial BW (six blocks) and randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, resulting in four piglets per pen and six replicates per treatment. Dietary treatments were a basal diet supplemented with 10% (as-fed basis) of native soybean oil (SN), native palm oil (PN), acid palm oil (PA), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- (MAG) and diacylglycerols (DAG) (PEL), or re-esterified palm oil high in MAG and DAG (PEH). Results from the digestibility balance showed that SN reached the greatest total FA apparent absorption, and statistically different from PN, PA and PEL (P0.05), but PEH achieved the greatest total FA apparent absorption. Animals fed PEL, despite the fact that PEL oil contained more sn-2 SFA, did not show an improved absorption of SFA (P>0.05). Animals fed PA and PN showed similar apparent absorption coefficients (P>0.05), despite the high FFA content of PA oil. The acylglycerol and FFA composition of feces was mainly composed of FFA. There were no significant differences in growth performance (P>0.05). Results of the present study suggest that, despite the different acylglycerol structure of re

  7. Adjustments for weighing clothed babies at high altitude or in cold climates.

    PubMed

    Roche, Marion L; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Sarsoza, Julieta; Kuhnlein, Harriet V

    2015-01-01

    Public health nutritionists rely on anthropometry for nutritional assessment, program planning, and evaluation. Children are usually heavily clothed at high altitudes and in cold climates. Failing to adjust for clothing weight could underestimate malnutrition prevalence. The objective of this paper is to validate an adjustment process for estimating clothing weight and quantify potential misclassification error. In March and September 2009, 293 and 272 children under 2 years of age, respectively, were measured for weight and length in 14 highlands communities in Ecuador. Weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) were compared using clothing-unadjusted weights and two types of clothing-adjusted weights: individual clothing-weights and population-mean clothing-weights. Modelling showed up to 24% of children's nutritional status and degree of malnutrition were misclassified for WAZ, and 13% for WHZ, when clothing was not taken into account in this cold climate. Compared with the more time-intensive individual clothing-weight adjustment, the population-mean clothing-weight adjustments had high specificity and sensitivity for WAZ. In cold climates, adjusting for population mean clothing weight provides a better estimate of the prevalence of malnutrition to inform appropriate program decisions for addressing underweight. An individual clothing weight adjustment may also be essential to classify a specific child's nutritional status when acute malnutrition is a concern.

  8. Recirculating valve lash adjuster

    SciTech Connect

    Stoody, R.R.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine with a valve assembly of the type including overhead valves supported by a cylinder head for opening and closing movements in a substantially vertical direction and a rotatable overhead camshaft thereabove lubricated by engine oil pumped by an engine oil pump. A hydraulic lash adjuster with an internal reservoir therein is solely supplied with run-off lubricating oil from the camshaft which oil is pumped into the internal reservoir of the lash adjuster by self-pumping operation of the lash adjuster produced by lateral forces thereon by the rotative operation of the camshaft comprising: a housing of the lash adjuster including an axially extending bore therethrough with a lower wall means of the housing closing the lower end thereof; a first plunger member being closely slidably received in the bore of the housing and having wall means defining a fluid filled power chamber with the lower wall means of the housing; and a second plunger member of the lash adjuster having a portion being loosely slidably received and extending into the bore of the housing for reciprocation therein. Another portion extends upwardly from the housing to operatively receive alternating side-to-side force inputs from operation of the camshaft.

  9. Evidence for litter differences in play behaviour in pre-weaned pigs

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sarah Mills; Klaffenböck, Michael; Nevison, Ian Macleod; Lawrence, Alistair Burnett

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse spontaneous play behaviour in litters of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) for sources of variation at individual and litter levels and to relate variation in play to measures of pre and postnatal development. Seven litters of commercially bred piglets (n = 70) were born (farrowed) within a penning system (PigSAFE) that provided opportunities for the performance of spontaneous play behaviours. Individual behaviour was scored based on an established play ethogram for 2 days per week over the 3 week study period. We found strong evidence of litter differences in play behaviour (F(6,63) = 27.30, p < 0.001). Of the variance in total play, 50% was attributable to differences between litters with a lesser proportion (11%) to between piglets within litters. We found similar evidence of litter differences when we analysed the separate play categories (e.g. for locomotor play: F(6,63) = 27.50, p < 0.001). For social and locomotor play the variance was partitioned in a broadly similar way to total play; however for object play the variance was distributed with a more even balance across and within litters. In terms of explanatory factors we found little evidence that at the litter level differences in play were associated with differences in general activity. Of the prenatal factors measured, we found that birth weight was positively associated with total play and the play categories (e.g. with total play: F(1,64) = 12.8, p < 0.001). We also found that postnatal piglet growth up to weaning (as a percentage of birth weight) had a significant positive association with total play and the play categories (e.g. with object play: F(1,66) = 20.55, p < 0.001). As found in other studies, on average males engaged in more social play (e.g. non-injurious play fighting: F(1,63) = 39.8, p < 0.001). Males also initiated more play bouts on average than females (F(1,62) = 4.41, p = 0.040). We conclude that the study of differences

  10. Effect of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility and faecal microbiota of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cangyou; Zhang, Shihai; Yang, Qing; Peng, Qian; Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangfang; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the experiment on 180 weaned piglets (8.9 kg body weight) was to investigate the influence of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea incidence and numbers of faecal microbiota. The dietary treatments included a Control diet and five high fibre diets formulated with different fibre sources including wheat bran, soybean hulls, naked oat hulls, palm kernel expeller and bamboo fibre. The high fibre diets averaged 14.6% neutral detergent fibre with different non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) components and were fed ad libitum for 28 d. Faecal samples were collected during the last 3 d of the experiment and the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fibre components were determined. Pigs fed the Control and wheat bran diets had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) than pigs fed the palm kernel expeller and bamboo meal diets. The reduced ADG for pigs appeared to be related to reductions in the digestibility of gross energy and dry matter, respectively. The feed-to-gain ratio was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the fibre diets. The digestibility of NSP components was different among the treatments. The diarrhoea incidence was not affected by treatments. The abundance of faecal bifidobacteria was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the wheat bran diet than for pigs fed the bamboo meal diet. It was concluded that the diets formulated with different fibre sources when fed to weaned piglets have different effects on pig performance, nutrient digestibility and numbers of faecal microbiota. The wheat bran diet rich in arabinoxylans enabled a better performance than the other tested diets with fibre addition.

  11. Effects of Bacillus subtilis KN-42 on Growth Performance, Diarrhea and Faecal Bacterial Flora of Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuanliang; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Zhao, Shumiao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang

    2014-01-01

    This research focused on the effects of different doses of Bacillus subtilis KN-42 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, faecal bacterial flora, and the relative number of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli in faeces of weaned piglets to determine whether the strain can serve as a candidate antimicrobial growth promoter. A total of 360 piglets (initial body weight 7.14±0.63 kg) weaned at 26±2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 treatment groups (4 pens per treatment with 18 pigs per pen) for a 28-day trial. Dietary treatments were basal diet without any antimicrobial (negative control; NC), basal diet supplemented with 120 mg/kg feed of neomycin sulfate (positive control; PC) and basal diet supplemented with 2×109 (L), 4×109 (M) and 20×109 (H) CFU/kg feed of B. subtilis KN-42. During the overall period, average daily gain and feed efficiency of piglets were higher in groups PC, M, and H than those in group NC (p<0.05), and all probiotics and antibiotics groups had a lower diarrhea index than group NC (p<0.05). The 16S rDNA gene-based methods were used to analyze faecal bacterial flora on day 28 of experiment. The result of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that supplementation of B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet changed the bacterial communities, with a higher bacterial diversity and band number in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the relative number of Lactobacillus were higher in groups PC and H than in group NC (p<0.05), and the supplemented B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet also reduced the relative number of E. coli (p<0.05). These results suggest that dietary addition of B. subtilis KN-42 can improve the growth performance and gastrointestinal health of piglets. PMID:25083107

  12. Foetal life protein restriction in male mink (Neovison vison) kits lowers post-weaning protein oxidation and the relative abundance of hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA.

    PubMed

    Matthiesen, C F; Blache, D; Thomsen, P D; Tauson, A-H

    2012-01-01

    Foetal life malnutrition has been studied intensively in a number of animal models. Results show that especially foetal life protein malnutrition can lead to metabolic changes later in life. This might be of particular importance for strict carnivores, for example, cat and mink (Neovison vison) because of their higher protein requirement than in other domestic mammals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of low protein provision during foetal life to male mink kits on their protein metabolism during the early post-weaning period of rapid growth and to investigate whether foetal life protein deficiency affects the response to adequate or deficient protein provision post weaning. Further, we intended to study whether the changes in the gene expression of key enzymes in foetal hepatic tissue caused by maternal protein deficiency were manifested post-weaning. A total of 32 male mink kits born to mothers fed either a low-protein diet (LP), that is, 14% of metabolizable energy (ME) from protein (foetal low - FL), n = 16, or an adequate-protein (AP) diet, that is, 29% of ME from protein (foetal adequate - FA), n = 16) in the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of pregnancy were used. The FL offspring had lower birth weight and lower relative abundance of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2ase) and pyruvate kinase mRNA in foetal hepatic tissue than FA kits. The mothers were fed a diet containing adequate protein until weaning. At weaning (7 weeks of age), half of the kits from each foetal treatment group were fed an AP diet (32% of ME from protein; n = 8 FA and 8 FL) and the other half were fed a LP diet (18% of ME from protein; n = 8 FA and 8 FL) until 9.5 weeks of age, yielding four treatment groups (i.e. FA-AP, FA-LP, FL-AP and FL-LP). Low protein provision in foetal life lowered the protein oxidation post-weaning compared with the controls (P = 0.006), indicating metabolic flexibility and a better ability to conserve protein. This could not, however, be supported by

  13. The injury of serotonin on intestinal epithelium cell renewal of weaned diarrhoea mice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y; Yang, C; Wang, Z; Qin, Z; Cao, J; Chen, Y

    2016-12-28

    Diarrhoea is a common cause of death in children and weaned animals. Recent research has found that serotonin (5-HT) in the gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in regulating growth and the maintenance of mucosa, which protect against diarrhoea. To determine the influence of 5-HT on intestinal epithelium cell renewal under weaned stress diarrhoea, a weaned-stress diarrhoea mouse model was established with senna infusion (15 mL/Kg) via intragastric administration and stress restraint (SR). Mice with an increase in 5-HT were induced by intraperitoneal injection with citalopram hydrobromide (CH, 10 mg/Kg). The results demonstrated that compared with the control animals, diarrhoea appeared in weaned stress mice and the 5-HT content in the small intestine was significantly increased (P<0.05). Further, the caspase-3 cells and cells undergoing apoptosis in the small intestine were significantly increased, but the VH (villus height), V/C (villus height /crypt depth), and PCNA-positive rate significantly decreased. Compared with the control animals, CH increased the intestinal 5-HT content, caspase-3 cells and cells undergoing apoptosis but decreased the VH and V/C. Compared with both control and weaned stress animals, weaned stress animals that were pre-treated with CH showed higher 5-HT concentrations, positive caspase-3 cells and cells undergoing apoptosis but lower VH, V/C and PCNA-positive rate. In vitro, a low concentration of 5-HT inhibit, IEC-6 cell line apoptosis but a higher concentration of 5-HT promoted it. Therefore, weaned stress diarrhoea mice were accompanied by a 5-HT increase in the small intestine and vice versa, and the increase in 5-HT induced by CH caused diarrhoea. In brief, 5-HT and diarrhoea slowed the intestinal epithelium cell renewal and injured the abortion function and mucosal barrier by decreasing VH, V/C and proliferation and increasing epithelium cell apoptosis.

  14. Effects of intermittent suckling on body composition of Iberian piglets weaned at 35 days of age.

    PubMed

    Castellano, R; Aguinaga, M A; Nieto, R; Aguilera, J F; Haro, A; Seiquer, I

    2014-05-01

    Piglet body composition at weaning could be a determinant for pig's viability and may be influenced by factors such as the nutritional management followed during suckling. An experiment was conducted to study whether intermittent suckling (IS) affects body composition at weaning and nutrient and energy retention during a 34-day lactation period in Iberian piglets. Litters were subjected to conventional suckling (CS) or IS (n=10 litters of six piglets per treatment) in two trials. All piglets had ad libitum access to creep feed from day 15 onwards. In IS, piglets were progressively separated from the sow for 6, 8 and 10 h daily during the last week of lactation, whereas in CS piglets had continuous access to their dams. Creep feed intake in litters and BW development of individual piglets were measured throughout the 34-day lactation. Within each litter, both at birth and at weaning (day 35), one piglet was used to assess nutrient retention and body composition by the comparative slaughter approach. During days 29 to 35 of the experiment, daily creep feed intake was greater in IS piglets (IS 124, CS 67 g/piglet, P=0.040), and average daily gain differed significantly between groups (IS 190, CS 150 g/day, P=0.010). BW at weaning was higher in the IS than in the CS piglets (IS 8.19, CS 7.48 kg, P=0.011). Empty-body fat and energy content at weaning were higher in the IS compared with CS litters, as well as fat content in the carcass (P=0.04). The IS treatment did not affect empty-body protein deposition, but significantly increased daily retention of fat, energy, ash and calcium, compared with CS litters (P<0.05). Thus, IS in Iberian piglets seems to enhance feed intake, growth rate and retention of some body components, which may contribute to a higher body fat content at weaning and facilitate the weaning process.

  15. Validity and reliability of “Persian Weaning Tool” in mechanically ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Fatemeh; Irajpour, Alireza; Abbasi, Saeed; Mahaki, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Persian Weaning Tool” (PWT) is the only specific, national protocol designed to assess patients’ readiness for weaning from mechanical ventilation in Iran. This study was developed to determine the validity and reliability of this protocol. Materials and Methods: This is a psychometric study conducted on 31 patients connected to mechanical ventilation were ready from weaning according to anesthesiologist's diagnosis and was selected through convenient sampling. The patients selected from Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan. The sheet data collection includes demographic data, PWT; Burn's Wean Assessment Program (BWAP), and Morganroth's scale. To determine the inter-rater reliability between researcher and his partner, Pearson correlation and paired t-test were used. To assess the criterion validity of the PWT in relation to Burn's and Morganroth's weaning scales (as criteria), Pearson correlation and McNemar tests were used. To specify a minimum acceptable score of the PWT for weaning from mechanical ventilation, receiver operating characteristic curve was used. Results: The results showed that there was statistically significant correlation between score of PWT and BWAP (r = 0.370 with P < 0.05) and there were no statistically significant differences between these tools in terms of identification of patients’ readiness for weaning (P = 0.453). There was statistically significant correlation between PWT score obtained by researcher and his colleague (r = 0.928), and the reliability of this tool was approved. The PWTs cut of point was calculated as 57 (sensitivity = 0.679, specificity = 1). Conclusions: The reliability and validity of the PWT were confirmed for this study's sample size. Consequently, the findings of this study can be used to measure the PWTs effectiveness and applicability in ICUs. PMID:27761432

  16. Subclinical zinc deficiency impairs pancreatic digestive enzyme activity and digestive capacity of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Daniel; Windisch, Wilhelm M

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of short-term subclinical Zn deficiency on exocrine pancreatic activity and changes in digestive capacity. A total of forty-eight weaned piglets were fed ad libitum a basal diet (maize and soyabean meal) with adequate Zn supply (88 mg Zn/kg diet) during a 2-week acclimatisation phase. Animals were then assigned to eight dietary treatment groups (n 6) according to a complete randomised block design considering litter, live weight and sex. All pigs were fed restrictively (450 g diet/d) the basal diet but with varying ZnSO4.7H2O additions, resulting in 28·1, 33·6, 38·8, 42·7, 47·5, 58·2, 67·8 and 88·0 mg Zn/kg diet for a total experimental period of 8 d. Pancreatic Zn concentrations and pancreatic activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A and B, elastase and α-amylase exhibited a broken-line response to stepwise reduction in dietary Zn by declining beneath thresholds of 39·0, 58·0, 58·0, 41·2, 47·5, 57·7 and 58·0 mg Zn/kg diet, respectively. Furthermore, carboxypeptidase B and α-amylase activities were significantly lower in samples with reduced pancreatic Zn contents. Coefficients of faecal digestibility of DM, crude protein, total lipids and crude ash responded similarly to pancreatic enzyme activities by declining below dietary thresholds of 54·7, 45·0, 46·9 and 58·2 mg Zn/kg diet, respectively. In conclusion, (1) subclinical Zn deficiency impaired pancreatic exocrine enzymes, (2) this response was connected to pancreatic Zn metabolism and (3) the decline in catalytic activity impaired faecal digestibility already after 1 week of insufficient alimentary Zn supply and very early before clinical deficiency symptoms arise.

  17. Binge toluene exposure in pregnancy and pre-weaning developmental consequences in rats.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Scott E; Hannigan, John H

    2013-01-01

    Binge Toluene Exposure in Pregnancy and Pre-weaning Developmental Consequences in Rats. Bowen, S.E. and Hannigan, J.H. The persistent rate of abuse of inhaled organic solvents, especially among women of child-bearing age, raises the risk for teratogenic effects of maternal toluene abuse. In this study, timed-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were exposed from Gestation Day (GD) 8 to GD20 to 12,000 or 8000 parts per million (ppm) toluene, or 0ppm (controls) for 30min twice daily, 60min total daily exposure. Pups were assessed from postnatal day (PN) 4 to PN21 using a developmental battery measuring growth (i.e., body weight), maturational milestones (e.g., eye opening & incisor eruption), and biobehavioral development (e.g., negative geotaxis & surface righting). Pups exposed in utero to 12,000ppm or 8000ppm toluene weighed significantly less than the non-exposed control pups beginning at PN4 and PN12 (respectively) until PN21. Toluene resulted in significant increases in an index of poor perinatal outcome, specifically a composite of malformations, defined "runting" and neonatal death. No significant delays were observed in reaching maturational milestones. The results reveal that brief, repeated, prenatal exposure to high concentrations of toluene can cause growth retardation and malformations in rats. A comparison of the present, conservative results with findings in previous studies implies that binge patterns of toluene exposure in pregnant rats modeling human solvent abuse can result in developmental and morphological deficits in offspring. These results do not exclude the possibility that maternal toxicity as well as teratogenic effects of toluene may contribute to outcomes. The results suggest that abuse of inhaled organic solvents like toluene may result in similar early developmental outcomes in humans.

  18. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (P<0.01) in serum concentrations of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and GH and an increase (P<0.01) in the serum concentration of TSH at PNDs 17 and 18. These conspicuous perturbations led to some histopathological deterioration in the thyroid gland characterized by follicular degeneration, edema, fibrosis, hemorrhage, luminal obliteration, and hypertrophy with reduced colloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (P<0.01) serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor and lower (P<0.01) serum concentrations of IGF1 and insulin at both PNDs compared with the control group. Interestingly, the body weight of the neonates in the PCB 95 group exhibited severe decreases throughout the experimental period in relation to that of the control group. These results imply that PCB 95 may act as a disruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept.

  19. Effects of oregano on performance and immunmodulating factors in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Stelter, Katrin; Frahm, Jana; Paulsen, Jana; Berk, Andreas; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Many health effects can be attributed to the Mediterranean herb oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and several studies demonstrated the improving effect on performance, changes in blood count, antibacterial, antifungal and immunmodulating abilities. The majority of these investigations were carried out with processed essential oil, while whole plant material was only used in a few studies. Thus, the aim of the present experiment was to test the effect of increasing proportions of dried oregano in piglet feed on health and performance, with a special focus on immune modulation. A total of 80 male castrated weaned piglets (body weight [BW] 7.9 kg ± 1.0 kg) were used in a feeding experiment lasting 5 weeks. They were assigned to 4 experimental groups: a control diet, and three diets with an oregano supplementation at 2 g, 4 g and 8 g per kg feed, respectively, corresponding to 23.5 mg, 46.9 mg and 93.9 mg carvacrol/kg DM. After 3 weeks, half of each group was challenged with 5 µg lipopolysaccharides (LPS) per kg BW. Blood samples were collected 2 h after LPS stimulation and analysed for T-cell phenotypes, granulocyte activity, clinical-chemistry as well as white and red blood count. The results indicate no effects of oregano on performance. In contrast, oregano altered the lymphocyte proportion and the ratio of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells as well as the triglyceride concentration in the serum of non-stimulated and in LPS-stimulated piglets. In conclusion, whole plant supplementation of oregano to piglet feed altered immune-related parameters, but did not modulate the acute inflammatory response induced by LPS stimulation.

  20. Effects of Maternal Isocaloric Diet Containing Different Amounts of Soy Oil and Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Weight, Serum Glucose, and Lipid Profile of Female Mice Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Koohdani, Fariba; Shidfar, Farzad; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Izadi, Pantea; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Shafieineek, Leila; Tohidinik, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health status of offspring is programmed by maternal diet throughout gestation and lactation. The present study investigates the lasting effects of maternal supplementation with different amounts of soy oil or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on weight and biochemical parameters during gestation and lactation of female mice offspring. Methods: Eight weeks old female C57BL/6 mice (n=40) were assigned through simple randomization into four isocaloric dietary groups (16% of calories as soy oil (LSO) or EVOO (LOO) and 45% of calories as soy oil (HSO) or EVOO (HOO)) during three weeks of gestation and lactation. After weaning (at 3 weeks), all offspring received a diet containing 16% of calories as soy oil and were sacrificed at 6 weeks. Two-way ANOVA was used to adjust for confounding variables and repeated measures test for weight gain trend. Statistical analyses were performed with the IBM SPSS package. Results: At birth and adolescence, the weight of offspring was significantly higher in the soy oil than the olive oil groups (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Adolescence weight was significantly higher in the offspring born to mothers fed with 16% oil than those with 45% oil (P=0.001). Serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the LSO than LOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001), LSO than HSO (P<0.001, P=0.03 and P<0.001), and LOO than HOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001) dietary groups, respectively. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the offspring of HSO than HOO fed mothers (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: A maternal diet containing EVOO has better effects on birth weight, as well as weight and serum biochemical parameters in offspring at adolescence. PMID:28360442

  1. Capping risk adjustment?

    PubMed

    Eugster, Patrick; Sennhauser, Michèle; Zweifel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    When premiums are community-rated, risk adjustment (RA) serves to mitigate competitive insurers' incentive to select favorable risks. However, unless fully prospective, it also undermines their incentives for efficiency. By capping its volume, one may try to counteract this tendency, exposing insurers to some financial risk. This in term runs counter the quest to refine the RA formula, which would increase RA volume. Specifically, the adjuster, "Hospitalization or living in a nursing home during the previous year" will be added in Switzerland starting 2012. This paper investigates how to minimize the opportunity cost of capping RA in terms of increased incentives for risk selection.

  2. Effects of neonatal iron status, iron injections at birth, and weaning in young pigs from sows fed either organic or inorganic trace minerals.

    PubMed

    Peters, J C; Mahan, D C

    2008-09-01

    Hct values, whereas pigs injected with Fe did not respond to Fe injection at weaning, which resulted in interactions (P < 0.05) in those criteria at most measurement periods. The results indicated a reduced Fe bioavailability when sows were fed the organic Fe source, but this may also have been due to the greater Fe need, lowered Fe status, or both, of the sow because of the greater number of pigs farrowed and heavier litter weights at parturition and weaning. The results also indicated that Fe injections at birth may be critical to achieving maximum pig growth response to weaning. There was no apparent advantage to injecting Fe at weaning when neonatal pigs received Fe injections.

  3. Trends in Weaning Practices among Infants and Toddlers in a Hilly Terrain of a Newly Formed State of India

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Shaili; Kandpal, S. D.; Semwal, Jayanti; Chauhan, Sandhya; Nautiyal, Vipul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weaning plays a major role in determining the nutritional status of a child. Poor weaning practices during infancy and early childhood, resulting in malnutrition, contribute to impairment of cognitive and social development, poor school performance and reduced productivity in later life. The objective of this study is to know weaning practices of mothers of difficult terrain. Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted in all villages under Rural Health Training Center, the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine. A total of 500 mothers with children within 3 years of age were included in the study. Pre-tested pre-designed semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on weaning practices. Results: Majority of children (51.57%) were weaned at >6 months and were observed to be more under nourished (79.34%) as compared with those between 4 months and 6 months (61.50%). Majority of boys were weaned earlier than girls irrespective of the age of the weaning. Malnutrition was found in majority of those children who were weaned inadequately in terms of both frequency and amount. Conclusions: The present study revealed suboptimal weaning practices among the mothers of hilly region. Thus, appropriate educational strategies should be directed particularly on counteracting various myths related to infant feeding Moreover, promotion of appropriate feeding should target not only on maternal caregivers, but also on other family members, particularly husbands and grandmothers, taking into account the social and cultural situation of the area. PMID:25013694

  4. Selection for feed efficiency traits and correlated genetic responses in feed intake and weight gain of Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Grion, A L; Mercadante, M E Z; Cyrillo, J N S G; Bonilha, S F M; Magnani, E; Branco, R H

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for indicator traits of feed efficiency and to recommend traits that would result in better responses to selection for increased weaning weight (weaning weight adjusted to 210 d of age [W210]), ADG, and metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) and lower DMI. Records of W210 from 8,004 Nellore animals born between 1978 and 2011 and postweaning performance test records from 678 males and females born between 2004 and 2011 were used. The following feed efficiency traits were evaluated: G:F, partial efficiency of growth (PEG), relative growth rate (RGR), Kleiber's ratio (KR), residual feed intake (RFI), residual weight gain (RWG), and residual intake and gain (RIG). Covariance and variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using multitrait analysis under an animal model. Estimates of genetic gain and correlated responses were obtained considering single-stage and 2-stage selection. Heritability estimates were 0.22 ± 0.03 (W210), 0.60 ± 0.08 (DMI), 0.42 ± 0.08 (ADG), 0.56 ± 0.06 (BW(0.75)), 0.19 ± 0.07 (G:F), 0.25 ± 0.09 (PEG), 0.19 ± 0.07 (RGR), 0.22 ± 0.07 (KR), 0.33 ± 0.10 (RFI), 0.13 ± 0.07 (RWG), and 0.19 ± 0.08 (RIG). The genetic correlations of DMI with W210 (0.64 ± 0.10), ADG (0.87 ± 0.06), and BW(0.75) (0.84 ± 0.05) were high. The only efficiency traits showing favorable responses to selection for lower DMI were G:F, PEG, RFI, and RIG. However, the use of G:F, PEG, or RFI as a selection criterion results in unfavorable correlated responses in some growth traits. The linear combination of RFI and RWG through RIG is the best selection criterion to obtain favorable responses in postweaning growth and feed intake of Nellore cattle in single-stage selection. Genetic gains in feed efficiency are expected even after preselection for W210 and subsequent feed efficiency testing of the preselected animals.

  5. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  6. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  7. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  8. Effects of pre-weaning feed supplementation and total versus fenceline weaning on the physiology and performance of beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-eight Angus steer calves (initial body weight = 312 ± 28 kilograms), housed on pasture with their dams, were equalized by initial body weight and assigned randomly to receive a highly palatable, high fiber supplement (YS; 4.5 kilograms/head/day) or no supplement (NS) for 7 days prior to weani...

  9. Effects of supplementation with digestible undegradable protein in late pregnancy on ewe colostrums production and lamb output to weaning.

    PubMed

    Amanlou, H; Karimi, A; Mahjoubi, E; Milis, C

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with digestible undegradable protein (DUP) in diet during late pregnancy on colostrum production, lamb survival and growth. For 3 weeks prior to lambing, 41 Afshari ewes were assigned at random to three dietary treatments, namely a control (CDUP), moderate (MDUP) and high (HDUP) DUP group. The ewes (n = 14) in CDUP group were fed a protein maintenance level for pregnant ewes [83 g metabolizable protein (MP)/kg dry matter (DM)], while ewes in the MDUP (n = 13) and HDUP (n = 14) groups were fed diets provided 14% (94.7 g MP/kg DM) and 24% (104.3 g MP/kg DM) MP in excess of these requirements respectively, which this increment was coming from DUP (DUP/MP ratio 43.8; 51.0% and 57.6% respectively). All diets were isoenergetic (12 MJ ME/kg DM). All ewes received the same lactation diet after lambing. Ewes in HDUP tend to produce more colostrums (p < 0.1) and had higher protein, fat, and solids non-fat content (p < 0.05) in colostrums during the first 24 h after lambing. MDUP group had higher colostrum yield compared to CDUP (p < 0.1). The changes in body weight and body condition score of ewes were similar for all diets but placenta weight was higher in MDUP group (p < 0.05) than for HDUP and CDUP ewes. Lamb body weight at weaning was higher for males compared to females (p < 0.05), but was not different between treatments. HDUP ewes had higher blood glucose concentration in the pre-lambing period than other treatments (p < 0.05). In this period, increasing the level of DUP in diet increased the content of blood urea nitrogen (p < 0.05). It was concluded that increasing the DUP content of diet for 3 weeks prior to lambing above the standard requirements resulted in an increase in colostrums production but had no effect on lamb outcome to weaning.

  10. Genetic correlations between mature cow weight and productive and reproductive traits in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Regatieri, I C; Boligon, A A; Baldi, F; Albuquerque, L G

    2012-08-29

    We investigated genetic associations between mature cow weight (MW) and weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), weight gain from birth to weaning (GBW), weight gain from weaning to yearling (GWY), weaning hip height (WHH), yearling hip height (YHH), scrotal circumference (SC), and age at first calving (AFC). Data from 127,104 Nellore animals born between 1993 and 2006, belonging to Agropecuária Jacarezinho Ltda., were analyzed. (Co)variance components were obtained by the restricted maximum likelihood method, applying an animal model in a multi-traits analysis. The model included direct genetic and residual effects as random effects, the fixed effects of contemporary group, and the linear and quadratic effects of animal age at recording (except for AFC, GBW, and GWY) and age of cow at calving as covariates (except for MW). The numbers of days from birth to weaning and from weaning to yearling were included as covariates for GBW and GWY, respectively. Estimated direct heritabilities were 0.43 ± 0.02 (MW), 0.33 ± 0.01 (WW), 0.36 ± 0.01 (YW), 0.28 ± 0.02 (GBW), 0.31 ± 0.01 (GWY), 0.44 ± 0.02 (WHH), 0.48 ± 0.02 (YHH), 0.44 ± 0.01 (SC), and 0.16 ± 0.03 (AFC). Genetic correlations between MW and productive traits were positive and of medium to high magnitude (ranging from 0.47 ± 0.03 to 0.71 ± 0.01). A positive and low genetic correlation was observed between MW and SC (0.24 ± 0.04). A negative genetic correlation (-0.19 ± 0.03) was estimated between MW and AFC. Selection to increase weight or weight gains at any age, as well as hip height, will change MW in the same direction. Selection for higher SC may lead to a long-term increase in MW. The AFC can be included in selection indices to improve the reproductive performance of beef cattle without significant changes in MW.

  11. Toxicological effects of acrylamide on the reproductive system of weaning male rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuxin; Shi, Jing; Zheng, Meige; Liu, Jing; Tian, Sumin; He, Xinhong; Zhang, Dexing; Li, Guoying; Zhu, Jiayong

    2011-08-01

    It has been reported that acrylamide can be detected in starchy food treated by high temperature (120 °C). People could be exposed to acrylamide in factory, laboratory, or even in daily life via diet and drinking water. Recently, the toxicity of acrylamide receives more attention. In addition to the neurotoxicity in humans, other toxic effects of acrylamide are worth further investigation. In this study, we investigated whether acrylamide affected the male reproductive system using high-performance liquid chromatography. In this study, the reproductive toxicity of acrylamide was observed in 3-week-old weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with acrylamide at various doses (0, 5, 15 or 30 mg/kg/day). The results showed that food availability and reproductive organ indexes of the weaning male rats decreased. Levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone in serum increased while luteinizing hormone in serum decreased. The histopathological lesions and abnormal sperms presented in weaning rats after acrylamide treatment. The results suggested that there is a toxicological effect of acrylamide on the reproductive system of weaning male rats. Based on the findings above, we suggested that more attention should be paid to the toxicological study of acrylamide on weaning male rats or human beings, rather than just on adult male animals.

  12. A Comparison of Diets Supplemented with a Feed Additive Containing Organic Acids, Cinnamaldehyde and a Permeabilizing Complex, or Zinc Oxide, on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea, Selected Bacterial Populations, Blood Measures and Performance in Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with Enterotoxigenic E. coli †

    PubMed Central

    Stensland, Ingunn; Kim, Jae Cheol; Bowring, Bethany; Collins, Alison M.; Mansfield, Josephine P.; Pluske, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of three diets on diarrhoea, performance (weight change, feed intake and feed conversion ratio), selected bacterial populations and blood measures of weaner pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. The three diets were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds), base diet containing zinc oxide, and base diet containing a feed additive (blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex). Only feeding zinc oxide decreased diarrhoea, with zinc oxide-fed pigs performing better than base diet-fed pigs. Zinc oxide-fed pigs performed similarly to pigs fed the organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex. Significant interactions between treatment and day after weaning were found for some bacterial populations, although the implications of such findings require further examination. Abstract The effects of feeding a diet supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) or a blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and a permeabilizing complex (OACP) on post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and performance in pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were examined. Additionally, changes in selected bacterial populations and blood measures were assessed. A total of 72 pigs weaned at 22 d of age and weighing 7.2 ± 1.02 kg (mean ± SEM) was used. Treatments were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds); base diet + 3 g ZnO/kg; base diet + 1.5 g OACP/kg. Dietary treatments started on the day of weaning and were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. All pigs were infected with an F4 ETEC on d 4, 5 and 6 after weaning. The incidence of PWD was lower in pigs fed ZnO (p = 0.026). Overall, pigs fed ZnO grew faster (p = 0.013) and ate more (p = 0.004) than the base diet-fed pigs, with OACP-fed pigs performing the same (p > 0.05) as both the ZnO- and base diet-fed pigs. Feed conversion ratio was similar for all diets (p > 0.05). The percentage of E. coli with F4 fimbriae was affected a day by treatment interaction (p

  13. Impact of the post-weaning nutritional history on the response to an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole goats and Black Belly sheep.

    PubMed

    Ceï, W; Salah, N; Paut, C; Dumoulin, P-J; Arquet, R; Félicité, Y; Alexandre, G; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C

    2016-03-15

    In small ruminants, the response against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections is influenced not only by the host genotype and the physiological stage but also by environmental factors, particularly the nutritional status at the time of infection. In this study we evaluated the long-term effect and the interaction between the host species and the nutritional history on the response to GIN infection in two animal models differing in their phenotypic growth and their level of GIN resistance: Black Belly sheep and Creole goats. Lambs and kids were subjected to three distinct nutritional conditions at weaning: low dietary conditions (100% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance, corresponding to 548v. 484KJ/Kg BW(0.75) for lambs and kids respectively and 6% of crude protein, CP), medium dietary conditions (150% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 13% CP) and high dietary conditions (200% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 20% CP). This 3-months period was followed by a 1-month period on the medium dietary conditions for all the animals before an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection. We monitored the impact of the nutritional history (nutritional condition after weaning), on the intensity of the GIN infection by measuring individual faecal egg counts (FEC), growth rate (ADG), blood eosinophil counts and other pathophysiological parameters. The FEC, growth rate and blood eosinophil counts were significantly affected by the nutritional history in lambs but not in kids. The lowest FEC was found for lambs placed in high dietary conditions, however during the same period body weight loss was observed in this group. In low dietary conditions, kids were more resistant than lambs and the ADG was higher in lambs. However, the anaemia and the level of serum pepsinogen, marker of the abomasal mucosa integrity, were higher in kids. Our data suggest that the impact of the post-weaning nutritional history on the

  14. Effect of ketoprofen on pre-weaning piglet mortality on commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Homedes, Josep; Salichs, Marta; Sabaté, David; Sust, Mariano; Fabre, Ramon

    2014-09-01

    The effect of ketoprofen on pre-weaning piglet mortality was evaluated in a large-scale study on commercial farms. Sows (n= 1486) from 15 farms were included. Half of the sows received 3 mg/kg ketoprofen in a single intramuscular administration within 12 h after farrowing. The other half remained untreated. Pre-weaning mortality was lower in the ketoprofen-treated group than in the control group (8.43% vs. 10.24%, respectively; P= 0.010). The major impact of ketoprofen on mortality was seen between days 2 and 7 postpartum (mortality rates of 2.75% vs. 4.02% for treated and control groups, respectively; P= 0.001). In addition, ketoprofen treatment was associated with a higher number of piglets weaned per litter than when no treatment was given (10.0 vs. 9.84, respectively; P= 0.012).

  15. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  16. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  17. Clinical prediction of weaning and extubation in Australian and New Zealand intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Rose, L; Presneill, J J

    2011-07-01

    Our objective was to describe, in Australian and New Zealand adult intensive care units, the relative frequency in which various clinical criteria were used to predict weaning and extubation, and the weaning methods employed. Participant intensivists at 55 intensive care units completed a self-administered questionnaire, using visual analogue scales (0 = not at all predictive, 10 = perfectly predictive, not used = null score) to record the perceived utility of 30 potential predictors. Survey response rate was 71% (164/230). Those variables thought most predictive of weaning readiness were respiratory rate (median score 8.0, interquartile range 7.0 to 8.6) effective cough (7.3, 5.9 to 8.2) and pressure support setting (7.2, 6.0 to 8.0). The most highly rated predictors of extubation success were effective cough (8.0, 7.0 to 9.0), respiratory rate (8.0, 7.0 to 8.5) and Glasgow Coma Score (7.9, 6.1 to 8.3). Variables perceived least predictive of weaning and extubation success were P0.1, Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation score II, mean arterial pressure, electrolytes and maximum inspiratory pressure (individual median scores < 5). Most popular clinical criteria were those perceived to have high predictive accuracy, both for weaning (respiratory rate 96%, pressure support setting 94% and Glasgow coma score 91%) and extubation readiness (respiratory rate 98%, effective cough 94% and Glasgow Coma Score 92%). Weaning mostly employed pressure support ventilation (55%), with less use of synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation (32%) and spontaneous breathing trials (13%). Classic ventilatory performance predictors including respiratory rate and effective cough were reported to be of greater clinical utility than other more recently proposed measures.

  18. HIV-1 concentrations in human breast milk before and after weaning

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Louise; Kim, Hae-Young; Walter, Jan; Thea, Donald M.; Sinkala, Moses; Mwiya, Mwiya; Kankasa, Chipepo; Decker, Don; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in mucosal compartments influence the risk of sexual transmission and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Breast milk production is physiologically regulated such that supply is a function of infant demand but whether demand also influences HIV-1 dynamics in breast milk is unknown. We tested whether minor and major changes in feeding frequency influence breast milk viral concentrations in 958 HIV-1-infected women, who were followed with their infants for 24 months as part of a trial in Lusaka, Zambia. Women were randomized to wean abruptly at 4 months or to continue breastfeeding for a duration of their own choosing. Two weeks after breastfeeding cessation i.e. weaning (4.5 months) HIV-1 concentrations in breast milk were substantially higher (median RNA 2,708 copies/ml and DNA 14 copies/ml) than if breastfeeding continued (median RNA <50 copies/ml and DNA <1 copy/ml, p<0.0001). Among those continuing breastfeeding, HIV-1 concentrations in milk were higher if breastfeeding was non-exclusive (median RNA 293 copies/ml and DNA 2 copies/ml, p=0.0006). Elevated milk viral concentrations after stopping breastfeeding explained higher than expected rates of late postnatal HIV transmission in those who weaned early. Changes in the frequency of breastfeeding peri-weaning and with non-exclusive breastfeeding influenced milk viral concentrations. This may explain the reduced risk of HIV-1 transmission associated with exclusive breastfeeding and may explain why early weaning does not achieve the magnitude of HIV prevention predicted by models. Our results support continuation of maternal antiretroviral drug interventions over the full duration of time when any breast milk exposures are likely to occur after planned weaning. PMID:23596203

  19. Calf health from birth to weaning. III. housing and management of calf pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. A three part review series has been developed focusing on calf health from birth to weaning. In this paper, the last of the three part series, we review disease prevention and management with particular reference to pneumonia, focusing primarily on the pre-weaned calf. Pneumonia in recently weaned suckler calves is also considered, where the key risk factors are related to the time of weaning. Weaning of the suckler calf is often combined with additional stressors including a change in nutrition, environmental change, transport and painful husbandry procedures (castration, dehorning). The reduction of the cumulative effects of these multiple stressors around the time of weaning together with vaccination programmes (preconditioning) can reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality in the feedlot. In most studies, calves housed individually and calves housed outdoors with shelter, are associated with decreased risk of disease. Even though it poses greater management challenges, successful group housing of calves is possible. Special emphasis should be given to equal age groups and to keeping groups stable once they are formed. The management of pneumonia in calves is reliant on a sound understanding of aetiology, relevant risk factors, and of effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Early signs of pneumonia include increased respiratory rate and fever, followed by depression. The single most important factor determining the success of therapy in calves with pneumonia is early onset of treatment, and subsequent adequate duration of treatment. The efficacy and economical viability of vaccination against respiratory disease in calves remains unclear. PMID:22018053

  20. Factors influencing estrus and ovulation in weaned sows as determined by transrectal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Knox, R V; Zas, S L

    2001-12-01

    Characterization of factors influencing estrus and ovulation in sows may facilitate development of procedures for improving reproductive performance. The experiment was conducted in confinement during 1997 to 1999 using 174 Large White x Landrace sows. After weaning, sows were checked for estrus twice daily. In the 1st yr, transrectal ultrasound was performed once daily and in the 2nd yr twice daily at estrus and on every day until ovulation. The effects of lactation length (< or = 16 d, 17 to 24 d, 25 to 31 d or > or = 32 d), parity (1, 2, or > or = 3), season (winter, spring, summer, or fall) and weaning-to-estrus interval (3, 4, 5, or 6 to 8 d) and their interactions on estrual and ovulatory responses were studied. There was no effect of frequency of ultrasound on any response variable, so data across years were pooled. Percentage of sows expressing estrus within 8 d of weaning was influenced by lactation length (P < 0.001), with sows lactating < or = 16 d (35.2%) less likely to express estrus than sows lactating > or = 17 d (94%). A parity x season interaction was observed (P < 0.001) for estrus, with the lowest expression in parity 1 (73.0%) and parity 2 sows in fall (67.2%), compared with > or = parity 3 sows (98.1%). No explanatory variable had a significant effect on weaning-to-estrus interval (4.4 d) or on follicle size at estrus (8.1 mm). Ovulation hour after onset of estrus was affected by weaning-to-estrus interval (P < 0.01), with sows returning in 3 d ovulating at 46.2 h and between 6 and 8 d at 30.2 h. For sows that expressed estrus within 8 d of weaning, the percentage of sows ovulating was influenced by lactation length (P < 0.001) and weaning-to-estrus interval (P < 0.001). Sows that lactated < or = 16 d were less likely to ovulate (78.0%) than those lactating > or = 17 d (> 92%). Sows that returned to estrus in 3 d were also less likely to ovulate (79.5%) than sows returning > or = 4 d after weaning (> 92%). A parity x season interaction was also

  1. Can countries of the WHO African Region wean themselves off donor funding for health?

    PubMed

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Diarra-Nama, Alimata J

    2008-11-01

    More than 20% of total health expenditure in 48% of the 46 countries in the WHO African Region is provided by external sources. Issues surrounding aid effectiveness suggest that these countries ought to implement strategies for weaning off aid dependency. This paper broaches the following question: what are some of the strategies that countries of the region can employ to wean off donor funding for health? Five strategies are discussed: reduction in economic inefficiencies; reprioritizing public expenditures; raising additional tax revenues; increased private sector involvement in health development; and fighting corruption.

  2. Long term intubation and successful weaning in two children with Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Javed, H; Nair, M P; Koul, R L; Chacko, A; Fazalullah, M

    2000-07-01

    No definite criteria exists in Guillian-Barre syndrome in children regarding prolonged ventilation through an endo-tracheal tube without tracheostomy and successful weaning using a T-piece. Here we report two such cases of Guillian-Barre syndrome requiring prolonged intubation for 56 days and ventilation for 30 days and ultimately successfully weaning them using the T-piece. Both the children eventually made a complete recovery, highlighting the point that in children prolonged intubation and ventilation using the portex tube is equally good, if not, better than tracheostomy with its attendant risks.

  3. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth...

  4. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Boran, Tuli, and Belgian Blue sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birt...

  5. Genetic Effects on Circulating Concentrations of Cortisol At and After Weaning in Breed-types Adapted to the Subtropics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate circulating concentrations of cortisol in calves (heifers and steers) at weaning (day 0) and on d 1 and 3 post-weaning. Calves (n = 938) were produced from a three breed diallel mating design and included calf crops from 2002 to 2004. Breed-types of calves...

  6. Effects of two-stage and total vs. fence-line weaning on the physiology and performance of beef calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calves weaned using a two-stage method where nursing is prevented between cow-calf pairs prior to separation (Stage 1) experience less weaning stress after separation (Stage 2) based on behavior and growth measures. The aim of this study was to document changes in various physiological measures of s...

  7. Is non-thyroidal illness syndrome a predictor for prolonged weaning in intubated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients?

    PubMed Central

    Yasar, Zehra; Kirakli, Cenk; Cimen, Pınar; Ucar, Zeynep Zeren; Talay, Fahrettin; Tibet, Gultekin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is considered to be associated with adverse outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In this study, we evaluated the association between NTIS and prolonged weaning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients admitted to the ICU. Materials and methods: In total, 125 patients with COPD admitted to our ICU who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) were enrolled. We collected each patient’s baseline characteristics including Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, body mass index (BMI), and thyroid hormones 24 h after ICU admission. The presence of pulmonary infection was also recorded. The primary outcome was prolonged weaning, defined as patients who failed at least three weaning attempts or required > 7 days of weaning after the first spontaneous breathing trial. Results: Of the 127 patients studied, 64 had normal thyroid function tests and 61 had NTIS. Patients with NTIS had significantly higher APACHE II scores, prolonged weaning, and pulmonary infection. Patients with NTIS had a higher risk for prolonged weaning (odds ratio, OR = 3.21; 95% CI = 1.31-7.83).The presence of pulmonary infection was also an independent risk factors for prolonged weaning. Conclusions: NTIS may be an independent predictor for prolonged weaning in intubated COPD patients. PMID:26309710

  8. Effect of breast feeding time on physiological, immunological and microbial parameters of weaned piglets in an intensive breeding farm.

    PubMed

    García, G R; Dogi, C A; Ashworth, G E; Berardo, D; Godoy, G; Cavaglieri, L R; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Greco, C R

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the long-lasting consequences of different weaning age on physiological, immunological and microbiological parameters of weaned piglets. Piglets were weaned at 14 days (14W) or 21 days (21W). Blood samples were taken for IgG and cortisol determination on preweaning day and at 4; 20 and 40 post-weaning days. Three animals of each group were sacrificed. Small intestines for morphometric studies and secretory-IgA determination in fluid were taken. The cecum was obtained for enterobacteria, lactobacilli and total anaerobes enumeration. A significant decrease in piglet's plasma IgG concentrations was observed immediately after weaning and no differences were found between 14W and 21W. An increase in intestinal S-IgA was observed according to piglet's age. This increase was significantly higher in piglets 14W compared to piglets 21W. Animals from 14W group showed a decrease in villus length and in the number of goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Other parameters were not affected by the weaning age. A short-term increase in cortisol was observed after weaning in both experimental groups. Enterobacteria decreased significantly after weaning in both groups, reaching values of weaning after 40 days. Lactobacilli counts decreased in both groups after weaning; however their counts were always higher than those obtained for enterobacteria. No differences were observed between 14W and 21W with regards to counts of anaerobes. The shortening of breast feeding time would favor an early synthesis of intestinal S-IgA after weaning. The changes observed in the microbiota could decrease postweaning enteric infections. However, early weaning induced negative effects on the cells of gut innate immunity and villi atrophy. This work provides knowledge about advantages and disadvantages at different weaning and long-lasting consequences on pig health. It is critical that swine producers become aware of the biological impacts of weaning age, so

  9. Gastrointestinal health and function in weaned pigs: a review of feeding strategies to control post-weaning diarrhoea without using in-feed antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    Heo, J M; Opapeju, F O; Pluske, J R; Kim, J C; Hampson, D J; Nyachoti, C M

    2013-04-01

    For the last several decades, antimicrobial compounds have been used to promote piglet growth at weaning through the prevention of subclinical and clinical disease. There are, however, increasing concerns in relation to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and the potential of these and associated resistance genes to impact on human health. As a consequence, European Union (EU) banned the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in swine and livestock production on 1 January 2006. Furthermore, minerals such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are not feasible alternatives/replacements to antibiotics because their excretion is a possible threat to the environment. Consequently, there is a need to develop feeding programs to serve as a means for controlling problems associated with the weaning transition without using antimicrobial compounds. This review, therefore, is focused on some of nutritional strategies that are known to improve structure and function of gastrointestinal tract and (or) promote post-weaning growth with special emphasis on probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, trace minerals and dietary protein source and level.

  10. Effect of liquid feeding weaned pigs on growth performance to harvest.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, P G; Lynch, P B; Gardiner, G E; Caffrey, P J; O'Doherty, J V

    2002-07-01

    Four experiments were undertaken to examine the effect of feeding postweaning diets as dry pelleted feed, fresh liquid feed, acidified liquid feed, and fermented liquid feed on pig performance from weaning (26 d) to harvest. In Exp. 1 (n = 12 replicates) and 2 (n = 10 replicates), the treatments were 1) dry pelleted feed and 2) fresh liquid feed. In Exp. 1, 2 kg of starter diet (16.7 MJ of DE/kg and 1.6% lysine) per pig and 5 kg of transition diet (16.7 MJ of DE/kg and 1.5% lysine) per pig followed by a weaner diet (14.0 MJ of DE/kg and 1.36% lysine) were offered to 27 d after weaning. In Exp. 3 (n = 8 replicates), the treatments were 1) dry pelleted feed, 2) fresh liquid feed, and 3) acidified liquid feed. In Exp. 4 (n = 8 replicates), the treatments were 1) dry pelleted feed, 2) acidified liquid feed, and 3) fermented liquid feed. In Exp. 2, 3, and 4, 3 kg of starter diet (16.1 MJ of DE/kg and 1.74% lysine) per pig and 6 kg of transition diet (15.3 MJ of DE/kg and 1.5% lysine) per pig followed by a weaner diet (14.0 MJ of DE/kg and 1.36% lysine) was offered to 27 d after weaning. All treatments were balanced for boars and gilts and diets were offered for ad libitum consumption. Acidified liquid feed was produced by adding lactic acid to the liquid feed so that its pH was decreased to 4.0. Fermented liquid feed was produced by adding an inoculum of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 303 (1.3%, vol/wt) to the first mix. In Exp. 1, ADG from weaning to d 27 after weaning was 338 and 286 g/d (SEM = 10; P < 0.01) and DM gain/feed in the same period was 888 and 594 g/kg (SEM = 23.1; P < 0.001) for dry pelleted feed and fresh liquid feed, respectively. In Exp. 2, ADG was 391 and 352 g/d (SEM = 6.4; P < 0.01) and DM gain/feed was 856 and 642 g/kg (SEM = 9.9; P < 0.001) for dry pelleted feed and fresh liquid feed, respectively, during the period from weaning to d 27 after weaning. In Exp. 3, ADG was 408, 416, and 433 g/d (SEM = 12.7; P > 0.05) and DM gain/feed was 865, 755

  11. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P < 0.05) gestation length but did not differ in their average birth weight from A backcrosses. Among B backcrosses, B x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P < 0.05) birth weight (F(1) x A and B x F(1); 38.1 and 38.4 kg, respectively) than their respective reciprocal crosses (A x F(1) and F(1) x B; 34.3 and 33.5 kg, respectively). The F(1) x A and B x F(1) crosses showed a large difference in birth weight between males and females (5.3 and 4.1 kg, respectively), whereas A x F(1) and F(1) x B crosses showed a small difference (P > 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning

  12. A maternal cafeteria diet during gestation and lactation promotes adiposity and impairs skeletal muscle development and metabolism in rat offspring at weaning.

    PubMed

    Bayol, Stéphanie A; Simbi, Bigboy H; Stickland, Neil C

    2005-09-15

    We examined the effects of a maternal cafeteria diet on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue development in the offspring at weaning. Rats born to mothers fed the cafeteria diet either during gestation alone or during both gestation and lactation exhibited a 25% reduction in muscle cross-sectional area with approximately 20% fewer fibres compared with pups fed a balanced chow diet. Maintaining the cafeteria diet during lactation increased intramuscular lipid content and fat pad weights characterized by adipocyte hypertrophy but not hyperplasia. These pups also had elevated muscle IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor, and PPARgamma mRNA levels, which may indicate an attempt to maintain normal insulin sensitivity. The increased adiposity and elevated IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor and PPARgamma mRNAs were not seen in the pups rehabilitated to the balanced diet during lactation. However, these pups exhibited reduced muscle cell proliferation (PCNA) with reduced insulin receptor and a trend towards reduced glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 mRNAs when compared with pups fed a balanced chow diet, indicating possible alterations in glucose uptake by muscle tissue. Therefore, rats born to mothers fed a cafeteria diet during gestation alone or during both gestation and lactation exhibited impaired skeletal muscle development and metabolic disorders normally associated with insulin resistance as early as the weaning stage.

  13. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  14. Direct and maternal (co)variance components and heritability estimates for body weights in Chokla sheep.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, B P; Mandal, A; Arora, A L; Kumar, R; Kumar, S; Notter, D R

    2009-08-01

    Estimates of (co)variance components were obtained for weights at birth, weaning and 6, 9 and 12 months of age in Chokla sheep maintained at the Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, Rajasthan, India, over a period of 21 years (1980-2000). Records of 2030 lambs descended from 150 rams and 616 ewes were used in the study. Analyses were carried out by restricted maximum likelihood (REML) fitting an animal model and ignoring or including maternal genetic or permanent environmental effects. Six different animal models were fitted for all traits. The best model was chosen after testing the improvement of the log-likelihood values. Direct heritability estimates were inflated substantially for all traits when maternal effects were ignored. Heritability estimates for weight at birth, weaning and 6, 9 and 12 months of age were 0.20, 0.18, 0.16, 0.22 and 0.23, respectively in the best models. Additive maternal and maternal permanent environmental effects were both significant at birth, accounting for 9% and 12% of phenotypic variance, respectively, but the source of maternal effects (additive versus permanent environmental) at later ages could not be clearly identified. The estimated repeatabilities across years of ewe effects on lamb body weights were 0.26, 0.14, 0.12, 0.13, and 0.15 at birth, weaning, 6, 9 and 12 months of age, respectively. These results indicate that modest rates of genetic progress are possible for all weights.

  15. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) Overweight and Obesity Weight and Diabetes Growth Charts ... Losing Weight: Brandon's Story (Video) Managing Your Weight Weight Loss Surgery When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem Who ...

  16. Ultraviolet Light (UV) Inactivation of Porcine Parvovirus in Liquid Plasma and Effect of UV Irradiated Spray Dried Porcine Plasma on Performance of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Polo, Javier; Rodríguez, Carmen; Ródenas, Jesús; Russell, Louis E.; Campbell, Joy M.; Crenshaw, Joe D.; Torrallardona, David; Pujols, Joan

    2015-01-01

    A novel ultraviolet light irradiation (UV-C, 254 nm) process was designed as an additional safety feature for manufacturing of spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP). In Exp. 1, three 10-L batches of bovine plasma were inoculated with 105.2±0.12 tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) of porcine parvovirus (PPV) per mL of plasma and subjected to UV-C ranging from 0 to 9180 J/L. No viable PPV was detected in bovine plasma by micro-titer assay in SK6 cell culture after UV-C at 2295 J/L. In Exp. 2, porcine plasma was subjected to UV-C (3672 J/L), then spray dried and mixed in complete mash diets. Diets were a control without SDPP (Control), UV-C SDPP either at 3% (UVSDPP3) or 6% (UVSDPP6) and non-UV-C SDPP at 3% (SDPP3) or 6% (SDPP6). Diets were fed ad libitum to 320 weaned pigs (26 d of age; 16 pens/diet; 4 pigs/pen) for 14 d after weaning and a common diet was fed d 15 to 28. During d 0 to 14, pigs fed UVSDPP3, UVSDPP6, or SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control. During d 0 to 28, pigs fed UVSDPP3 and UVSDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control and SDPP3, and SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) feed intake than control. Also, pigs fed UVSDPP had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain than pigs fed SDPP. In conclusion, UV-C inactivated PPV in liquid plasma and UVSDPP used in pig feed had no detrimental effects on pig performance. PMID:26171968

  17. Ultraviolet Light (UV) Inactivation of Porcine Parvovirus in Liquid Plasma and Effect of UV Irradiated Spray Dried Porcine Plasma on Performance of Weaned Pigs.

    PubMed

    Polo, Javier; Rodríguez, Carmen; Ródenas, Jesús; Russell, Louis E; Campbell, Joy M; Crenshaw, Joe D; Torrallardona, David; Pujols, Joan

    2015-01-01

    A novel ultraviolet light irradiation (UV-C, 254 nm) process was designed as an additional safety feature for manufacturing of spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP). In Exp. 1, three 10-L batches of bovine plasma were inoculated with 10(5.2 ± 0.12) tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) of porcine parvovirus (PPV) per mL of plasma and subjected to UV-C ranging from 0 to 9180 J/L. No viable PPV was detected in bovine plasma by micro-titer assay in SK6 cell culture after UV-C at 2295 J/L. In Exp. 2, porcine plasma was subjected to UV-C (3672 J/L), then spray dried and mixed in complete mash diets. Diets were a control without SDPP (Control), UV-C SDPP either at 3% (UVSDPP3) or 6% (UVSDPP6) and non-UV-C SDPP at 3% (SDPP3) or 6% (SDPP6). Diets were fed ad libitum to 320 weaned pigs (26 d of age; 16 pens/diet; 4 pigs/pen) for 14 d after weaning and a common diet was fed d 15 to 28. During d 0 to 14, pigs fed UVSDPP3, UVSDPP6, or SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control. During d 0 to 28, pigs fed UVSDPP3 and UVSDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control and SDPP3, and SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) feed intake than control. Also, pigs fed UVSDPP had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain than pigs fed SDPP. In conclusion, UV-C inactivated PPV in liquid plasma and UVSDPP used in pig feed had no detrimental effects on pig performance.

  18. Effects of energy and protein restriction, followed by nutritional recovery on morphological development of the gastrointestinal tract of weaned kids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z H; He, Z X; Zhang, Q L; Tan, Z L; Han, X F; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Wang, M; Yan, Q X

    2013-09-01

    Effects of energy, protein, or both energy and protein restriction on gastrointestinal morphological development were investigated in 60 Liuyang Black kids, which were sourced from local farms and weaned at 28 d of age. Weaned kids were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 dietary treatments (15 kids per treatment), which consisted of adequate nutrient supply (CON), energy restriction (ER), protein restriction (PR), or energy and protein restriction (EPR). The entire experiment included adaptation period (0 to 6 d), nutritional restriction period (7 to 48 d), and recovery period (49 to 111 d). Three kids from each group were killed at d 48 and 111, and the rumen, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were harvested. On d 48 (end of nutritional restriction), lengths of the duodenum (P = 0.005), jejunum (P = 0.003), and ileum (P = 0.003), and weights of the rumen (P = 0.004), duodenum (P = 0.006), jejunum (P = 0.006), and ileum (P = 0.004) of kids in ER, PR, and EPR were less than those of kids in CON. Compared with CON, PR decreased papillae width (P = 0.03) and surface area (P = 0.05) of the rumen epithelium, villus surface area (P = 0.05), and N concentration (P = 0.02) of the jejunum mucosa on d 48. Compared with CON, EPR decreased papillae height (P = 0.001), width (P = 0.001), and surface area (P = 0.003), N concentration (P = 0.01), and the ratio of N to DNA (P = 0.03) of the rumen epithelium. Compared with CON, EPR also decreased villus height (P = 0.01), width (P = 0.006), and surface area (P = 0.006), N concentration (P < 0.001), and the ratio of N to DNA (P < 0.001) of the jejunum mucosa on d 48. On d 111 (end of nutritional recovery), lengths of the duodenum (P = 0.001), jejunum (P = 0.001), and ileum (P = 0.001), weights of the rumen (P < 0.001), duodenum (P = 0.001), jejunum (P < 0.001), and ileum (P < 0.001) of kids in ER, PR, and EPR were still less than those of kids in CON; N concentrations of rumen epithelium of kids in PR (P = 0.01) and EPR (P = 0.001), and

  19. The effect of group composition and age on social behavior and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Faerevik, G; Jensen, M B; Bøe, K E

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were homogeneous and 3 groups were heterogeneous (including 6 young and 6 old calves). The 9.8 mx9.5 m large experimental pen had 4 separate lying areas as well as a feeding area. Behavior and subgrouping were recorded on d 1, 7, and 14 after grouping, and calves were weighed before and after the experimental period of 14 d. Analysis of the effect of group composition on behavior and weight gain included young calves in heterogeneous groups and calves in homogeneous groups within the same age range at grouping (30 to 42 d). Irrespective of group composition, time spent feeding and lying increased, whereas time spent active decreased from d 1 to 7. In homogeneous groups, calves were more explorative on d 1 after grouping. Finally, calves in homogeneous groups had a higher average daily weight gain than calves in heterogeneous groups. Analysis of the effect of age included young and old calves of heterogeneous groups. Young calves were less explorative than old calves. Young calves were more active than old calves on d 1 but less active on d 7. Time spent lying and lying alone increased over time. More displacements from the feed manger were performed by old calves than by young calves. An analysis including all calves in both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups showed that when lying, calves were evenly distributed on the 4 lying areas and formed subgroups of on average 3 calves. In conclusion, age heterogeneity leads to increased competition, which may have a negative influence on the young calves' performance.

  20. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  1. Impact of rotational grazing on management of gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control for ‘natural’ or organic lamb production is needed, especially where Haemonchus contortus is prevalent. The objective was to determine the impact of rotational grazing on GIN infection of weaned lambs. In year 1, naturally infected Katahdin lambs (120 days of ...

  2. Triiodothyronine facilitates weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation by improved mitochondrial substrate utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Files, Matthew D.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Des Rosiers, Christine; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-03-20

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a bridge to recovery after myocardial injury in infants and children, yet morbidity and mortality remain high. Weaning from the circuit requires adequate cardiac contractile function, which can be impaired by metabolic disturbances induced either by ischemia-reperfusion and / or by ECMO.

  3. Influence of light exposure on horizontal transmission of Salmonella typhimurium in weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the following experiment was to examine the effect of light exposure on horizontal transmission of Salmonella typhimurium in weaned pigs. Twenty crossbred pigs (average BW = 15 kg) were housed in isolation rooms (10 pigs/room) and randomly assigned to one of two lighting regimes: ...

  4. Spatial and temporal free-ranging cow behaviour pre and post-weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology can be used to study free-ranging cow behaviors. GPS equipment was deployed on each of ten cows ranging in age from 3 to 15 years in order to compare and contrast mean ± standard errors for pre- and post-weaning travel (m·time-1) in two similar (= 433 ha) a...

  5. Effect of meloxicam on gain and inflammatory response of calves castrated by banding post-weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castration may detrimentally affect the health and performance of weaned calves, and painful procedures are increasingly becoming a public concern. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of castration (by banding) with or without administration of meloxicam, a non-steroid anti-infl...

  6. Influence of weaning on fecal shedding of pathogenic bacteria in dairy calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the current research were to determine the effect of weaning on fecal shedding of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in dairy calves and to examine cultured isolates (to include Enterococcus) for antimicrobial susceptibility. This research was conducted on one large commercial dairy (...

  7. Intestinal microbial affects of yeast products on weaned and transport stressed pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Study objectives were to determine effects of a commercially available yeast product (XPC, Diamond-V Mills) and stress of transportation on total Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Lactobacilli populations in the intestine of weaning pigs. In a RCB design with a 2 x 2 factorial ar...

  8. Methanogen prevalence throughout the gastrointestinal tract of pre-weaned dairy calves

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mi; Chen, Yanhong; Griebel, Philip J; Guan, Le Luo

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic community throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pre-weaned calves has not been well studied. The current study firstly investigated the distribution and composition of the methanogenic community in the rumen, ileum, and colon of 3–4 week-old milk-fed dairy calves (n = 4) using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The occurrence of methanogens in the GIT of pre-weaned calves was further validated by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was applied to quantify the methanogenic community in the rumen, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum of 8 3–4 week old animals. Both cloning libraries and PCR-DGGE revealed that phylotypes close to Methanobrevibacter were the main taxon along the GIT in pre-weaned sucking calves. The composition and abundance of methanogens varied significantly among individual animals, suggesting that host conditions may influence the composition of the symbiotic microbiota. Segregation of methanogenic communities throughout the GIT was also observed within individual animals, suggesting possible functional differences among methanogens residing in different GIT regions. This is the first study to analyze methanogenic communities throughout the GIT of milk-fed newborn dairy calves and reveal both their diversity and abundance. The identification of methanogens in the lower GIT of pre-weaned dairy calves warrants further investigation to better define methanogen roles in GIT function and their impact on host metabolism and health. PMID:25483332

  9. Polymorphism within thyroid hormone responsive (THRSP) associated with weaning-to-oestrus interval in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess polymorphisms within lipogenic-related candidate genes for association with the reproductive traits; age at puberty (AP), ovulation rate (OR), and weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI). Variations within the anorectic gene Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Trans...

  10. Effects of syndyphalin-33 on immune function during a Salmonella challenge in recently weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to characterize the effect of Syndyphalin-33 (SD-33) on immune cell populations with and without a concurrent inoculation with a common enteric pathogen, Salmonella enterica (SALM) in recently weaned pigs. On d 0, pigs (8 barrows and 6 gilts, 24 ± 1 d of age, 8.4...

  11. Characterization of differentially expressed genes in calf rumen epithelium in response to weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During weaning, rumen epithelial cell function must transition from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant state for efficient nutrient absorption and metabolism. During this time, the rumen grows to represent from 30 to 70% of the capacity of the gut, directly impacting net efficiency of feed conversion...

  12. Gene expression in bovine rumen epithelium during weaning indentifies molecular regulators of rumen development and growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During weaning, rumen epithelial cell function must transition from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant state for efficient nutrient absorption and metabolism. During this time, the rumen increases from 30 to 70% of the capacity of the gut, significantly impacting net efficiency of feed conversion in ...

  13. CLOSTAT® reduces the negative impacts of a Salmonella challenge in weaned Holstein steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects of a patented Bacillus subtillus probiotic (CLOSTAT®), weaned Holstein steers, (n=200; ~90kg) were supplemented (CLO) or not (CON) with CLOSTAT® (13 g/hd/d; Kemin Industries, Des Moines, IA) in a starter ration at a calf ranch for 35 d (n=50 head per pen; 2 pens/trt.). A sub...

  14. Postpartum amenorrhoea in Ethiopia: the role of weaning, child death, and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Berhanu, B; Hogan, D

    1998-01-01

    Using data from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey (NFFS) and employing discrete-time hazards models, we examine the effect of weaning, child death, and socioeconomic factors on postpartum amenorrhoea in Ethiopia. The results show that 91 in every 100 mothers breastfed their child for at least 6 months. The median duration of breastfeeding stands at 18 months, and amenorrhoea lasts for a median duration of 12 months. Significant variations in breastfeeding and amenorrhoea duration are also observed among the different categories of breastfeeding women. The median duration of breastfeeding for lactating women is 24 months, 6 months for those who weaned, and 2 months for those whose child died. The median duration of postpartum amenorrhoea is 14 months for breastfeeding women, 12 months for those who weaned, and 6 months for those whose child died. Discrete-time hazard models reveal that child death has the strongest effect on the resumption of menses. Net of other factors, the risk of returning to menses increased 3 times for mothers whose child died. The effect of child death, however, decreases over time. Weaning also has a significant positive effect; and, like child death, its effect diminishes as time passes. The study further shows significant differences in the risk of returning to postpartum menses by socioeconomic characteristics of the women, even though they are breastfeeding.

  15. Post-weaning nutritional programming of ovarian development in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From weaning to breeding, the nutritional management of replacement females is critical to their lifetime productivity. Traditionally, cereal grains have been used to develop replacement heifers to enter the breeding system at a younger age. However, overfeeding heifers decreased number of calves ...

  16. Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations, fecal specimens were collected from 819 6- to18-month-old calves in 20 states. After cleaning and concentrating cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each specimen. The presence of G. duodenalis was de...

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Swiss weaned pigs and sows.

    PubMed

    Stannarius, C; Bürgi, E; Regula, G; Zychowska, M A; Zweifel, C; Stephan, R

    2009-03-01

    Based on Directive (EC) No 99/2003, monitoring programs on the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from livestock are implemented in many European countries. The aim of the present study was (i) to establish comprehensive baseline data on the antimicrobial resistance situation in Escherichia coli isolates obtained from healthy pigs (pooled fecal samples) originating from 60 Swiss pig-breeding farms, and (ii) to analyze differences in the resistance frequency between Escherichia coli isolates from weaned pigs and sows. Susceptibility testing (disc diffusion method) was performed on 429 isolates from weaned pigs and 431 isolates from sows. Overall, 17.7% of the isolates from weaned pigs and 22.5% of the Escherichia coli isolates from sows were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Low resistance prevalence was found for amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefquinome, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, and gentamicin. The most frequently found resistances were against streptomycin (60.6% of the isolates from weaners and 64.3% of the isolates from sows), sulfonamide (51.5% and 26.9%), tetracycline (35.2% and 22.0%), and trimethoprim (27.5% and 11.1%). With exception of colistin, most resistances were found for those antibiotics commonly used on the farms. Except for ciprofloxacin and streptomycin, isolates from weaned pigs showed higher resistance prevalence than those from sows. This difference was significant for cefquinome, florfenicol, sulfonamide, tetracycline, and trimethoprim (p<0.05).

  18. Effects of Weaning and Spatial Enrichment on Behavior of Turkish Saanen Goat Kids.

    PubMed

    Tölü, Cemil; Göktürk, Semra; Sava, Türker

    2016-06-01

    As is in all economic activities, the highest yield per unit area is the main goal in animal production, while addressing the temperamental needs of animals often is ignored. Animal welfare is not only an ethical fact; it also has an economic value. Spatial environmental enrichment contributes positively to animal welfare by addressing their behavioral and mental requirements. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of weaning and spatial environmental arrangements on behaviors of goat-kids. Experimental groups were arranged in structured and unstructured spatial environments. Roughage feeder, semi-automatic concentrate feeder, bunk, bridge, and wood block were placed in the structured environment. No equipment was placed in the unstructured environment and paddock sides were enclosed with an iron sheet to prevent bipedal stance and to provide environmental isolation. In the study 10 male and 10 female Turkish Saanen goat kids were used in each group. Spatial environmental arrangements did not have significant impacts on the growth performance of kids (p>0.05). All objects in the structured group were accepted by the kids. Average use ratios of roughage feeder, semi-automatic concentrate feeder, bunk, bridge and wood block were observed as 19.3%, 14.0%, 12.6%, 3.8%, and 0.7%, respectively. There were significant differences between before- and after-weaning in use of all objects except for underneath bridge (p≤0.05). Concentrate feed consumption, locomotion, and resting behaviors in kids showed significant differences by structural group and growth period. Roughage consumption was similar between groups, while it differed by growth period (p≤0.05). Interaction frequency was significantly higher in structured group (p = 0.0023). Playing behavior significantly differentiated based on the growth period rather than on groups (p≤0.05). Playing behavior significantly decreased after weaning. Abnormal oral activity was significantly higher in the

  19. Effect of weaning on small intestinal structure and function in the piglet.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xianhong; Li, Defa; She, Ruiping

    2002-08-01

    Fifty-four piglets were selected from 12 litters weaned at 17 (Treatment 1), 21 (Treatment 2), 28 (Treatment 3) and 35 (Treatment 4) days old, respectively, to determine the effect of weaning age on small intestinal villus morphology, immunology and histochemistry. From proximal duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum and middle ileum, intestinal samples with three replicates (piglets) in each treatment were taken at 18, 22, 28 and 36; 22, 28, 36 and 43; 28, 36, 43, and 50; and 18, 22, 28, 36, 43 and 50 d of age in Treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. This was equivalent to 12 h, 3 d, 1 week, 2 week postweaning in Treatment 1; 12 h, 1 week, 2 week, 3 week postweaning in Treatment 2 and 3, and all the same age in Treatment 4 as in Treatment 1, 2, 3, respectively. The results showed that villous height of duodenum and proximal jejunum decreased significantly in Treatment 1 and 3. Crypt depth in the duodenum, proximal jejunum and ileum also decreased significantly in Treatment 1. Date had significant effect on villous height of the duodenum, distal jejunum and ileum with the shortest on day 29 and crypt depth of all positions increased with piglet age except the crypt depth in proximal jejunum decreased on day 50. Weaning age and day of age had significant effects on intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) number and goblet cell (GC) number at all positions of small intestinal mucosa in piglets. The number of IEL at all segments of small intestinal mucosa in Treatment 3 increased significantly compared to those in other treatments, but IEL number at all locations of small intestinal mucosa in Treatment 2 decreased significantly compared to those in other treatments. The number of GC in small intestinal mucosa increased significantly in early-weaned (< day 21) piglets. It appears that providing fluid milk replacer for a few days postweaning could dramatically reduce the negative impact of weaning on villous morphology and digestive and absorptive function, especially in

  20. Gastrointestinal nematode infection and performance of weaned stocker calves in response to anthelmintic control strategies.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Miller, J E; Monlezun, C J; LaMay, D; Navarre, C; Ensley, D

    2013-10-18

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite control recommendations are in a state of flux because of the increase in anthelmintic resistant cattle parasites, such as Cooperia spp. In addition, Cooperia spp. infection is typically high in warm-season grass pastures and can affect growth performance of grazing stocker calves in the Gulf Coast Region. This study evaluated the effects of moxidectin pour-on, oxfendazole oral suspension, or a combination of the two given at separate times on infection and performance of weaned beef calves grazing summer forages. Steers (n=42) and heifers (n=31) were stratified by sex, d-11 fecal egg count (FEC), and d-1 shrunk body weight (BW) to one of 10 pastures with four anthelmintic treatments and one control. Treatments included: (1) oxfendazole given on d 0 and moxidectin on d 73 (O+M), (2) moxidectin given on d 0 and oxfendazole on d 73 (M+O), (3) moxidectin given on d 0 (M), (4) oxfendazole given on d 0 (O) and (5) no anthelmintic given (CON). Calves grazed for d-110 beginning May 27th. Response variables were FEC (collected on d-11, 14, 31, 45, 59, 73, 87 and 108), coprocultures (evaluated for d 87 and 108), final shrunk BW, shrunk BW gain, average daily gain (ADG), and full BW gain (collected on d 31, 59, 73, 87, and 108). Calves treated with either oxfendazole (O+M and O) or moxidectin (M+O and M) on d 0 had significantly lower (P<0.001) FEC than the CON calves on d 14, 31 and 45. However, the M+O treated calves had significantly higher (P<0.001) FEC than both oxfendazole treated groups. In addition, calves treated with a second dewormer on d 73 (O+M and M+O) had significantly lower (P<0.001) FEC by d 87 than the CON or M treated calves. Shrunk BW gain and ADG were significantly greater (P=0.005) for the O+M compared to the M treated and CON calves, but comparable with the M+O and O treated calves, respectively. Coprocultures sampled on d 87 and 108 for calves not receiving a second dewormer were predominantly Cooperia spp. and

  1. Effect of the dietary oregano (Origanum vulgare) on Cu and Zn balance in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Untea, Arabela; Criste, Rodica; Panaite, Tatiana; Costache, Iulian

    2011-01-01

    A 4-week study conducted on 20 weaned piglets (average initial weight 15 kg) evaluated the effects of dietary oregano (Origanum vulgare) used in the presence/absence of phytase on the Cu and Zn balance, while reducing/eliminating their inclusion in the diet as inorganic salts. Oregano was harvested from the wild flora. The Cu and Zn concentrations that were taken into consideration (9.85 ppm and 53.31 pmm, respectively) were the consensus values obtained in an interlaboratory study. The piglets were assigned to 4 groups (C, E1, E2, E3), housed in individual metabolic cages and fed on corn-soybean meal-based diets. The diet of the control group (C) with addition of 1% inorganic mineral premix (MP), contained: 40.92 ppm Cu, 144.96 ppm Zn. The experimental diets differed from the C diet as follows: E1--3% oregano, 0% phytase (5000 PU/g), 0% MP; E2--3% oregano, 0.01% phytase, 0% MP; E3--3% oregano, 0% phytase, 0.5% MP, E4--3% oregano, 0.01% phytase, 0,5% premix. For groups E1, E2, E3 and E4, 0.5% Zn of the MP were included in the diet, because the dietary oregano amount did not meet the requirements (NRC) for piglets. The mineral balance was determined during 3 periods of 5 days each. The levels of Cu and Zn were measured by FAAS in the samples (weekly samples/piglet) of ingesta, faeces and urine. It was noticed that although the dietary Cu ingested by the groups without MP was 75% (10.08 ppm) lower than C, the absorption coefficients were only 47% (28.83) lower than for group C (54.22%), while in the groups with 0.5% MP, the absorption was just 10% (48.86%) lower than for group C. For Zn, where the amount ingested by the experimental groups was 33% (97.62 ppm) lower than for group C, the absorption coefficients were just 20% (46.3%) lower than for group C (57.64%). No significant differences were noticed for Cu and Zn in terms of apparent absorption, between the groups with/without phytase. The deposits of Cu and Zn in the main organs and serum (from slaughtered

  2. Spontaneous novelty seeking and amphetamine-induced conditioning and sensitization in adult mice: evidence of dissociation as a function of age at weaning.

    PubMed

    Adriani, Walter; Laviola, Giovanni

    2002-08-01

    Individual differences in coping with novelty and in the response to psychoactive drugs have been related to early life events, such as the age of weaning. Outbred CD-1 mice underwent a precocious (postnatal day (pnd) 15, Wean-15 group), regular (pnd 21, Wean-21 group), or delayed (pnd 27, Wean-27 group) weaning, and were tested as adults (pnd > 60). In Experiment 1, animals underwent a treatment history with d-amphetamine (AMPH 0, 1, or 5 mg/kg once/day for three days) in a familiar environment. On testing day, mice were challenged with SAL or a standard 1 mg/kg AMPH dose (to evaluate acute drug effects and sensitization), and placed in the familiar environment. As expected, regular Wean-21 animals showed an AMPH-induced hyperactivity and a profile of conditioned locomotion, whereas the same dosage failed to induce any change in Wean-15 and Wean-27 groups. Levels of spontaneous novelty seeking were particularly elevated for Wean-27 mice, when compared with the other weaning groups. In Experiment 2, pairing of AMPH administration (0, 1, 2, 3.3, or 5 mg/kg once/day for three days) with a distinct environment produced a classical conditioned place preference. The magnitude of the preference profile was significantly more marked for Wean-15 mice, when compared with the other two weaning groups. Both experiments also provided evidence that the development of sensitization was particularly evident in Wean-27 mice. In summary, delayed weaning was associated in adult mice with both elevated levels of novelty seeking and increased sensitization to drug effects. Conversely, animals weaned precociously were much more responsive to AMPH-induced incentive conditioning. These results appear relevant to the issue of early experiences as possible risk factors for a number of psychiatric disorders in humans, including the abuse of drugs.

  3. Plasma metabolomic profiles and immune responses of piglets after weaning and challenge with E. coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The processes of weaning and exposure to pathogenic bacteria induce stress responses, which may alter the metabolism. In this study, we investigated the changes in plasma metabolites and immune responses in piglets in response to the stress induced by weaning and Escherichia coli challenge. Results Fecal dry matter decreased (P = 0.003) and nearly half (44.4%) the piglets developed diarrhea on day 2 and 3 postweaning. The concentration of plasma immunoglobulin A was higher (P < 0.001) on day 11 postweaning than on day 0 or 4 postweaning. The levels of white blood cells increased continuously (P < 0.001) from day 0 to day 11 postweaning. Differences in the percentages of neutrophils (P = 0.029) and lymphocytes (P = 0.022) were seen, but the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio did not differ in the period after weaning. A clear separation of the metabolomic profile data for day 0 and day 4 postweaning was observed with a principal components analysis (PCA) scores plot, and the data for day 11 were located between those for day 0 and day 4 postweaning. The plasma levels of proline, taurine, and carnitine were higher, whereas those of betaine, creatine, L-arginine and acetylcarnitine were lower on day 4 postweaning than on day 0. Levels of lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine were either higher or lower after weaning, depending on the chain lengths or characters of these metabolites. Conclusions Our results show a clear separation in the plasma metabolomic profiles of piglets that corresponded to the fecal responses to stress on the piglets induced by weaning or exposure to a pathogen (E. coli). These plasma metabolite profiles suggest that the challenges induced proinflammatory responses in the piglets, resulting in postweaning diarrhea, which was associated with higher concentrations of IgA in the plasma. PMID:24624922

  4. Weaning Markedly Affects Transcriptome Profiles and Peyer’s Patch Development in Piglet Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Ryo; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Ogawa, Shohei; Harayama, Tomoko; Nagino, Takayuki; Hatanaka, Hironori; Fukuta, Kikuto; Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A.; Ushida, Kazunari; Kelly, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analyses were conducted on the ileal mucosa of 14- to 35-day-old piglets to investigate postnatal gut development during suckling and postweaning. The transcriptome profiles of 14-day-old suckling piglets showed a considerably higher number of differentially expressed genes than did those of 21-, 28-, and 35-day olds, indicating an intensive gut development during the first 14–21 postnatal days. In addition, the analysis of biological pathways indicated that Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was the most significantly affected pathway in suckling piglets between 14 and 21 days of age. Weaning negatively affected pathways associated with acquired immunity, but positively affected those associated with innate immunity. Interestingly, pathway Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was found positively affected when comparing 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets, but negatively affected in 28-day-old piglets weaned at 21 days of age, when compared with 28-day-old suckling piglets. Genes CXCL13, SLA-DOA (MHC class II), ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 were involved in the pathway Chemotaxis Leukocyte chemotaxis and they were found to significantly change between 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets and between groups of suckling and weaned piglets. The expression of these genes significantly declined after weaning at 14, 21, and 28 days of age. This decline indicated that CXCL13, SLA-DOA, ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 may be involved in the development of Peyer’s patches (PP) because lower gene expression clearly corresponded with smaller areas of PP in the ileal mucosa of piglets. Moreover, weaning piglets prior to a period of intensive gut development, i.e., 14 days of age, caused significant adverse effects on the size of PP, which were not reverted even 14 days postweaning. PMID:26697021

  5. Triiodothyronine activates lactate oxidation without impairing fatty acid oxidation and improves weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a rescue for children with severe cardiac failure. We previously showed that triiodothyronine (T3) improves cardiac function by modulating pyruvate oxidation during weaning. This study was focused on fatty acid (FA) metabolism modulated by T3 for weaning from ECMO after cardiac injury. Methods: Nineteen immature piglets (9.1-15.3 kg) were separated into 3 groups with ECMO (6.5 hours) and wean: normal circulation (Group-C);transient coronary occlusion (10 minutes) followed by ECMO (Group-IR); and IR with T3 supplementation (Group-IR-T3). 13-Carbon labeled lactate, medium-chain and long-chain FAs were infused as oxidative substrates. Substrate fractional contribution to the citric acid cycle (FC) was analyzed by 13-Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: ECMO depressed circulating T3 levels to 40% baseline at 4 hours and were restored in Group-IR-T3. Group-IR decreased cardiac power, which was not fully restorable and 2 pigs were lost because of weaning failure. Group-IR also depressed FC-lactate, while the excellent contractile function and energy efficiency in Group-IR-T3 occurred along with a marked FC-lactate increase and [ATP]/[ADP] without either decreasing FC-FAs or elevating myocardial oxygen consumption over Group-C or -IR. Conclusions: T3 releases inhibition of lactate oxidation following ischemia-reperfusion injury without impairing FA oxidation. These findings indicate that T3 depression during ECMO is maladaptive, and that restoring levels improves metabolic flux and enhances contractile function during weaning.

  6. Triiodothyronine Facilitates Weaning From Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation by Improved Mitochondrial Substrate Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Files, Matthew D.; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Des Rosiers, Christine; Isern, Nancy; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a bridge to recovery after myocardial injury in infants and children, yet morbidity and mortality remain high. Weaning from the circuit requires adequate cardiac contractile function, which can be impaired by metabolic disturbances induced either by ischemia‐reperfusion and/or by ECMO. We tested the hypothesis that although ECMO partially ameliorates metabolic abnormalities induced by ischemia‐reperfusion, these abnormalities persist or recur with weaning. We also determined if thyroid hormone supplementation (triiodothyronine) during ECMO improves oxidative metabolism and cardiac function. Methods and Results Neonatal piglets underwent transient coronary ischemia to induce cardiac injury then were separated into 4 groups based on loading status. Piglets without coronary ischemia served as controls. We infused into the left coronary artery [2‐13C]pyruvate and [13C6, 15N]l‐leucine to evaluate oxidative metabolism by gas chromatography‐mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. ECMO improved survival, increased oxidative substrate contribution through pyruvate dehydrogenase, reduced succinate and fumarate accumulation, and ameliorated ATP depletion induced by ischemia. The functional and metabolic benefit of ECMO was lost with weaning, yet triiodothyronine supplementation during ECMO restored function, increased relative pyruvate dehydrogenase flux, reduced succinate and fumarate, and preserved ATP stores. Conclusions Although ECMO provides metabolic rest by decreasing energy demand, metabolic impairments persist, and are exacerbated with weaning. Treating ECMO‐induced thyroid depression with triiodothyronine improves substrate flux, myocardial oxidative capacity and cardiac contractile function. This translational model suggests that metabolic targeting can improve weaning. PMID:24650924

  7. 40 CFR 86.129-80 - Road load power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... power, test weight, and inertia weight class determination. (a) (b) Power absorption unit adjustment—light-duty trucks. (1) The power absorption unit shall be adjusted to reproduce road load power at 50... of the table. (c) Power absorption unit adjustment—light-duty vehicles. (1) The power absorption...

  8. Short communication: Effect of canola meal use as a protein source in a starter mixture on feeding behavior and performance of calves during the weaning transition.

    PubMed

    Hadam, D; Kański, J; Burakowska, K; Penner, G B; Kowalski, Z M; Górka, P

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of canola meal use as a protein source in a starter mixture (SM) on feeding behavior and performance of calves during weaning transition. A total of 36 female Holstein calves of a mean age 14.9±1.6 d and body weight 40.1±4.2 kg (mean ± SD) were allocated to 1 of 3 treatments differing in the main source of protein for the SM (12 calves per treatment): (1) soybean meal (TSBM); (2) soybean meal and canola meal (TSBM/TCM); and (3) canola meal (TCM). The SM was offered for ad libitum consumption beginning on the first day of the study, whereas milk replacer (MR) was fed in amounts equal to 900 g (as fed) per day from d 1 to 35 and 450 g/d from d 36 to 42 of the study. Calves were completely weaned on d 43 of the study (57.9±1.6 d of age; mean ± SD), and their performance was monitored for an additional 2 wk. Calf body weight was recorded weekly, and MR and SM intake and fecal fluidity were recorded daily. Feeding behavior of calves during weaning transition, including frequency (no./d), time (min/d), and rate (g/min) of eating the SM as well as frequency and time of drinking water, was monitored on 6 calves per treatment for 2 consecutive days before MR step-down (d 34-35), at MR step-down (d 41-42), and after weaning (d 48-49 of study). Starter mixture intake tended to be higher for TSBM calves as compared with TSBM/TCM calves from d 1 to 35 of the study but was not different between TSBM and TCM calves and was not different between treatments in the whole study period. Calves from TCM treatment had reduced average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (g of ADG/kg of dry matter intake) and a higher fecal score in the period from d 1 to 35 of the study and had lower feed efficiency and tended to have lower ADG in the whole study period as compared with TSBM calves. Average daily gain and feed efficiency did not differ between TSBM and TSBM/TCM calves. Frequency of eating the SM and drinking water as well as time

  9. Vitamin A Activity of Rice-based Weaning Foods Enriched with Germinated Cowpea Flour, Banana, Pumpkin and Milk Powder.

    PubMed

    Hashim, N; Pongjata, J

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of different drying methods on vitamin A activity of formulated weaning food. Weaned foods on vitamin A activity of formulated using treated cowpea flour, locally available rice flour, banana-pumpkin, skim milk powder and sugar in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5. Treated cowpea flour consisted of original cowpea flour, 24 h germinated cowpea flour. Each treated flour was mixed separately with the other ingredients and cooked into a slurry. Each mixture was either oven-dried or freeze-dried to produce a dry flaky mixture. The carotenoid composition of the product was determined by HPLC. Vitamin A activity of oven-dried weaning food was significantly reduced (p<0.05) compared to freeze-dried weaning food. The freeze-dried weaning foods showed a higher retinol equivalent than oven-dried weaning foods for all treatments. The results of the study found that an intake of 100 g of freeze-dried weaning foods enriched with banana-pumpkin and cowpea flour provided an adequate amount of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin A for infants.

  10. Music therapy as an adjunctive treatment in the management of stress for patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Bryan C; Oliva, Rosemary; Sahler, Olle Jane Z; Gaisser, D'Arcy; Salipante, Diane M; Arezina, Clare H

    2010-01-01

    This project investigated music therapy (MT) in managing anxiety associated with weaning from mechanical ventilation. The use of sedation to treat anxiety during weaning is problematic because side effects (e.g., respiratory depression) are precisely the symptoms that cause the weaning process to be interrupted and consequently prolonged. Study goals were to determine the feasibility of incorporating MT into the weaning process and to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention, based on levels of anxiety, Days to Wean (DTW), and patient/nurse satisfaction. Adult patients received multiple MT sessions per week while undergoing weaning trials from mechanical ventilation. Feasibility was determined by successful enrollment in the study and nurse survey. Efficacy was evaluated through anxiety, as measured by heart rate, respiratory rate, and patient/nurse survey; DTW; and patient/nurse satisfaction. Nurse surveys reported that MT was successfully incorporated into the milieu and 61 subjects were enrolled. Significant differences in heart rate and respiratory rate were found from the beginning to the end of MT sessions (p < .05 and p < .0001, respectively), indicating a more relaxed state. No significant difference in mean DTW was found between study and control subjects. Patient/nurse satisfaction was high. Music therapy can be used successfully to treat anxiety associated with weaning from mechanical ventilation. Limitations and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  11. Transient changes of enzyme activities and expression of stress proteins in the small intestine of piglets after weaning.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xin; Xu, Ziwei; Men, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    To determine the transient effects of weaning on the small intestine, 16 piglets were slaughtered at days 0, 1, 4 and 7 after weaning. Jejunal samples were collected to examine different enzyme activities and mRNA expressions of two stress protein families, namely, heat-shock proteins (HSP) and trefoil factors (TFF). Results showed that the activities of ceruloplasmin, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, were significantly changed at Day 1 and/or Day 4. The mRNA expressions of HSP10, HSP60 and HSP90 showed a pattern of increased expression with time after weaning. Expression significantly differed between Day 0 and Day 7 after weaning. The mRNA expression of HSP70 was significantly increased on Day 1 only. Similarly, the mRNA expressions of TFF1 and TFF2 were significantly increased on Day 7 compared with those on Day 0. Expression of TFF3 was not affected by time after weaning. In conclusion, the present study indicated that weaning induced transient injury to small intestinal morphology and function. Particularly it changed enzyme activities and gene expression of stress proteins in the small intestine of piglets. At first time, a change in the gene expression of HSP10 and a gene overexpression of TFF1 in the small intestine of piglets after weaning was found.

  12. Supplementing the maternal diet of rats with butyrate enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in the skeletal muscles of weaned offspring.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanping; Gao, Shixing; Jun, Guo; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal dietary butyrate supplementation on energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in offspring skeletal muscle and the possible mediating mechanisms. Virgin female rats were randomly assigned to either control or butyrate diets (1 % butyrate sodium) throughout gestation and lactation. At the end of lactation (21 d), the offspring were killed by exsanguination from the abdominal aorta under anaesthesia. The results showed that maternal butyrate supplementation throughout gestation and lactation did not affect offspring body weight. However, the protein expressions of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPR) 43 and 41 were significantly enhanced in offspring skeletal muscle of the maternal butyrate-supplemented group. The ATP content, most of mitochondrial DNA-encoded gene expressions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 4 protein contents and the mitochondrial DNA copy number were significantly higher in the butyrate group than in the control group. Meanwhile, the protein expressions of type 1 myosin heavy chain, mitochondrial transcription factor A, PPAR-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and uncoupling protein 3 were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle of the treatment group compared with the control group. These results indicate for the first time that maternal butyrate supplementation during the gestation and lactation periods influenced energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis through the GPR and PGC-1α pathways in offspring skeletal muscle at weaning.

  13. Effect of a natural feed additive (Macleaya cordata), containing sanguinarine, on the performance and health status of weaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Kantas, Dimitrios; Papatsiros, Vasileios G; Tassis, Panagiotis D; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Tzika, Eleni D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Sangrovit(®) , a plant-derived feed additive, given throughout the nursery stage via feed at 15 ppm and 50 ppm, on the health status and performance of weaners against negative controls. In a 900-sow farrow-to-finish farm, a total of 864 piglets were divided into three groups: (i) negative controls (NC); (ii) Sang 15: same feed as NCs, plus 15 g Sangrovit(®) /t of feed; (iii) Sang 50: same feed as NCs plus 50 g Sangrovit(®) /t of feed. The results indicated that administration of 50 ppm(-) Sangrovit(®) had the most beneficial effects on growth performance in weaning pigs. Specifically there was increase of body weight and average daily gain, as well as reduction of feed conversion ratio. Blood analysis from the Sang groups and especially the Sang 50 group revealed low values of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A.

  14. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchang; Liu, Jin; Sun, Yan; Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  15. On regression adjustment for the propensity score.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, S; Daniel, R M

    2014-10-15

    Propensity scores are widely adopted in observational research because they enable adjustment for high-dimensional confounders without requiring models for their association with the outcome of interest. The results of statistical analyses based on stratification, matching or inverse weighting by the propensity score are therefore less susceptible to model extrapolation than those based solely on outcome regression models. This is attractive because extrapolation in outcome regression models may be alarming, yet difficult to diagnose, when the exposed and unexposed individuals have very different covariate distributions. Standard regression adjustment for the propensity score forms an alternative to the aforementioned propensity score methods, but the benefits of this are less clear because it still involves modelling the outcome in addition to the propensity score. In this article, we develop novel insights into the properties of this adjustment method. We demonstrate that standard tests of the null hypothesis of no exposure effect (based on robust variance estimators), as well as particular standardised effects obtained from such adjusted regression models, are robust against misspecification of the outcome model when a propensity score model is correctly specified; they are thus not vulnerable to the aforementioned problem of extrapolation. We moreover propose efficient estimators for these standardised effects, which retain a useful causal interpretation even when the propensity score model is misspecified, provided the outcome regression model is correctly specified.

  16. Recombinant porcine epidermal growth factor-secreting Lactococcus lactis promotes the growth performance of early-weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important growth factor in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Studies showed that food-grade Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) and NICE expression system have superior performance in exogenous protein expression. This study aimed to construct and express porcine EGF (pEGF), and use L. lactis as vehicle for producing and delivering pEGF. Furthermore, investigating biological activity of pEGF and exploring applications feasibility of combination effects of L. lactis and pEGF on early weaned piglets’ production. Results A recombinant Lactococcus lactis which produced and secreted pEGF at 1000 ng/ml in culture supernatant was generated. Secreted pEGF was a fully biologically active protein, as demonstrated by its capacity to stimulate L929 mouse fibroblast cell line proliferation in vitro. For in vivo study, forty piglets were randomly allocated to control, antibiotic control, empty vector-expressing L. lactis (LL-EV) and pEGF-secreting L. lactis (LL-pEGF). After 14 d of rearing, final body weight and average daily gain in LL-pEGF were greater (P < 0.05, 8.95 vs. 8.37 kg, 206.1 vs. 157.7 g/day, respectively) than those in control, but no significant differences between LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control. Overall period average daily feed intake was higher in LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control than in control (P < 0.05, 252.9, 255.6, 250.0, 207.3 g/day, respectively). No significant difference was observed on ADFI/ADG. LL-pEGF increased villous height in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum than in control and LL-EV (P < 0.05). Sucrase in the 3 intestinal segments, aminopeptidase A in the duodenum and Jejunum, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidase IV in the duodenum in LL-pEGF were higher than those in control (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus counts decreased in the ileum and Lactobacillus increased in the ileum and cecum digesta in LL-pEGF compare with the

  17. Effects of Bacillus subtilis KN-42 on Growth Performance, Diarrhea and Faecal Bacterial Flora of Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanliang; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Zhao, Shumiao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang

    2014-08-01

    This research focused on the effects of different doses of Bacillus subtilis KN-42 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, faecal bacterial flora, and the relative number of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli in faeces of weaned piglets to determine whether the strain can serve as a candidate antimicrobial growth promoter. A total of 360 piglets (initial body weight 7.14±0.63 kg) weaned at 26±2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 treatment groups (4 pens per treatment with 18 pigs per pen) for a 28-day trial. Dietary treatments were basal diet without any antimicrobial (negative control; NC), basal diet supplemented with 120 mg/kg feed of neomycin sulfate (positive control; PC) and basal diet supplemented with 2×10(9) (L), 4×10(9) (M) and 20×10(9) (H) CFU/kg feed of B. subtilis KN-42. During the overall period, average daily gain and feed efficiency of piglets were higher in groups PC, M, and H than those in group NC (p<0.05), and all probiotics and antibiotics groups had a lower diarrhea index than group NC (p<0.05). The 16S rDNA gene-based methods were used to analyze faecal bacterial flora on day 28 of experiment. The result of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that supplementation of B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet changed the bacterial communities, with a higher bacterial diversity and band number in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the relative number of Lactobacillus were higher in groups PC and H than in group NC (p<0.05), and the supplemented B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet also reduced the relative number of E. coli (p<0.05). These results suggest that dietary addition of B. subtilis KN-42 can improve the growth performance and gastrointestinal health of piglets.

  18. Social factors, weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Villatoro, Jorge; Delgadillo, Marlene; Fleiz, Clara; Fregoso, Diana; Unikel, Claudia

    2016-04-22

    We evaluated the association of social factors and weight control practices in adolescents, and the mediation of this association by weight perception, in a national survey of students in Mexico (n = 28,266). We employed multinomial and Poisson regression models and Sobel's test to assess mediation. Students whose mothers had a higher level of education were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight and also to engage in weight control practices. After adjusting for body weight perception, the effect of maternal education on weight control practices remained significant. Mediation tests were significant for boys and non-significant for girls.

  19. Dietary protein intake is associated with body mass index and weight up to 5 y of age in a prospective cohort of twins12

    PubMed Central

    Pimpin, Laura; Jebb, Susan; Johnson, Laura; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few large epidemiologic studies have investigated the role of postweaning protein intake in excess weight and adiposity of young children, despite children in the United Kingdom consistently consuming protein in excess of their physiologic requirements. Objective: We investigated whether a higher proportion of protein intake from energy beyond weaning is associated with greater weight gain, higher body mass index (BMI), and risk of overweight or obesity in children up to 5 y of age. Design: Participants were 2154 twins from the Gemini cohort. Dietary intake was collected by using a 3-d diet diary when the children had a mean age of 21 mo. Weight and height were collected every 3 mo, from birth to 5 y. Longitudinal models investigated associations of protein intake with BMI, weight, and height, with adjustment for age at diet diary, sex, total energy intake, birth weight/length, and rate of prior growth and clustering within families. Logistic regression investigated protein intake in relation to the odds of overweight or obesity at 3 and 5 y of age. Results: A total of 2154 children had a mean ± SD of 5.7 ± 3.2 weight and height measurements up to 5 y. Total energy from protein was associated with higher BMI (β = 0.043; 95% CI: 0.011, 0.075) and weight (β = 0.052; 95% CI: 0.031, 0.074) but not height (β = 0.088; 95% CI: −0.038, 0.213) between 21 mo and 5 y. Substituting percentage energy from fat or carbohydrate for percentage energy from protein was associated with decreases in BMI and weight. Protein intake was associated with a trend in increased odds of overweight or obesity at 3 y (OR = 1.10; 95% CI 0.99, 1.22, P = 0.075), but the effect was not statistically significant at 5 y. Conclusion: A higher proportion of energy from protein during the complementary feeding stage is associated with greater increases in weight and BMI in early childhood in this large cohort of United Kingdom children. PMID:26718416

  20. A divergent artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat is associated with erythrocyte traits and weight of lamb weaned in domestic sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to investigate seven red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes in over 500 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from three breeds (Columbia, Polypay, and Rambouillet). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showed genome-wide significant association with increased m...

  1. Adolescents' experience of comments about their weight – prevalence, accuracy and effects on weight misperception

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wing-Sze; Ho, Sai-Yin; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Yuen-Kwan; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2009-01-01

    Background Weight comments are commonly received by adolescents, but the accuracy of the comments and their effects on weight misperception are unclear. We assessed the prevalence and accuracy of weight comments received by Chinese adolescents from different sources and their relation to weight misperception. Methods In the Hong Kong Student Obesity Surveillance (HKSOS) project 2006–07, 22612 students aged 11–18 (41.5% boys) completed a questionnaire on obesity. Students responded if family members, peers and professionals had seriously commented over the past 30 days that they were "too fat" or "too thin" in two separate questions. The accuracy of the comments was judged against the actual weight status derived from self-reported height and weight. Self-perceived weight status was also reported and any discordance with the actual weight status denoted weight misperception. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odd ratios for weight misperception by the type of weight comments received. Results One in three students received weight comments, and the mother was the most common source of weight comments. Health professional was the most accurate source of weight comments, yet less than half the comments were correct. Adolescents receiving incorrect comments had increased risk of having weight misperception in all weight status groups. Receiving conflicting comments was positively associated with weight misperception among normal weight adolescents. In contrast, underweight and overweight/obese adolescents receiving correct weight comments were less likely to have weight misperception. Conclusion Weight comments, mostly incorrect, were commonly received by Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong, and such incorrect comments were associated with weight misperception. PMID:19642972

  2. Association of diarrhoea and upper respiratory infections with weight and height gains in Bangladeshi children aged 5 to 11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, A. M.; Peterson, K. E.; de Souza, A. C.; Orav, E. J.; Hughes, M.; Chen, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The association between infection and growth delay is not well documented in school-age children in developing countries. We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the association between infectious disease and weight and height gains among Bangladeshi children. METHODS: A one-year follow-up study was performed to elucidate the determinants and consequences of physical growth of children under five years of age. The study included 135 households randomly selected from four villages in the Matlab area. RESULTS: The most frequent infections were upper respiratory infections (mean = 4 episodes or 27 days per year) followed by non-dysenteric diarrhoea (mean = 2.3 episodes or 15 days per year) and dysentery (mean = 0.2 episodes or 2 days per year). The number of episodes and their duration decreased significantly with age. Over a 12-month period the mean weight gain was 1.3 kg and the mean increase in height was 2.9 cm. The total number of days when diarrhoea occurred was negatively associated with annual weight gain (regression coefficient beta = -7 g per day, P = 0.02), with adjustment for age, sex, energy and protein intake, and household land ownership. The incidence of diarrhoeal disease was significantly associated with weight gain in intermediate models but only marginally associated with it in the final multivariate model (P = 0.08). Neither the incidence nor the duration of upper respiratory infections was associated with weight gain. Height gain was not significantly associated with the duration or incidence of either category of illness. Diarrhoea was a significant correlate of retarded weight gain among children above preschool age, whereas upper respiratory infections were not. DISCUSSION: Diarrhoeal morbidity slowed growth in children well beyond the weaning age, suggesting that increased attention should be given to the study of the continuous impact of diarrhoea in children aged over 5 years. An understanding of the determinants of

  3. Adjustment of adaptive sum comb filter for PPG signals.

    PubMed

    Pilt, Kristjan; Meigas, Kalju; Ferenets, Rain; Kaik, Juri

    2009-01-01

    AC component of photoplethysmography signal carries important information for diagnostics. Registered signal may be affected by noises, which are sharing the same bandwidth. Adaptive comb filter is used for the AC component extraction. Due to filter averaging behavior it decreases the signal shape difference between consecutive beats. Comb filter needs to be adjusted for PPG signal. Comb filter new weight values are determined through numerical computation. Experiments with generated photoplethysmographic signals were carried out to compare adjusted and non-adjusted adaptive sum comb filter.

  4. Delay Adjusted Incidence

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  5. Nonlinear Hydrostatic Adjustment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannon, Peter R.

    1996-12-01

    The final equilibrium state of Lamb's hydrostatic adjustment problem is found for finite amplitude heating. Lamb's problem consists of the response of a compressible atmosphere to an instantaneous, horizontally homogeneous heating. Results are presented for both isothermal and nonisothermal atmospheres.As in the linear problem, the fluid displacements are confined to the heated layer and to the region aloft with no displacement of the fluid below the heating. The region above the heating is displaced uniformly upward for heating and downward for cooling. The amplitudes of the displacements are larger for cooling than for warming.Examination of the energetics reveals that the fraction of the heat deposited into the acoustic modes increases linearly with the amplitude of the heating. This fraction is typically small (e.g., 0.06% for a uniform warming of 1 K) and is essentially independent of the lapse rate of the base-state atmosphere. In contrast a fixed fraction of the available energy generated by the heating goes into the acoustic modes. This fraction (e.g., 12% for a standard tropospheric lapse rate) agrees with the linear result and increases with increasing stability of the base-state atmosphere.The compressible results are compared to solutions using various forms of the soundproof equations. None of the soundproof equations predict the finite amplitude solutions accurately. However, in the small amplitude limit, only the equations for deep convection advanced by Dutton and Fichtl predict the thermodynamic state variables accurately for a nonisothermal base-state atmosphere.

  6. Understanding DALYs (disability-adjusted life years).

    PubMed

    Murray, C J; Acharya, A K

    1997-12-01

    The measurement unit disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), used in recent years to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries and risk factors on human populations, is grounded on cogent economic and ethical principles and can guide policies toward delivering more cost-effective and equitable health care. DALYs follow from a fairness principle that treats 'like as like' within an information set comprising the health conditions of individuals, differentiated solely by age and sex. The particular health state weights used to account for non-fatal health outcomes are derived through the application of various forms of the person trade-off.

  7. [Effect of wheat bran fiber on vitamin status of weaning rats with alimentary polyhypovitaminosis].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Sokol'nikov, A A; Aksenov, I V; Baturina, V A

    2014-01-01

    Effect of wheat bran on the vitamin status of rats adequately provided with vitamins or insufficiently supplied with vitamins has been investigated. 32 male Wistar weaning rats (initial body mass--49-67g) were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed with complete semi-synthetic diet, containing 100 or 20% of vitamin mixture with or without addition of wheat bran (5% of diet mass) for 35 days. The animals of the control group received 100% of vitamin mixture without adding of wheat bran; 2 group--received those diet with wheat bran; 3 deficient group--20% of vitamin mixture with full exclusion of vitamins E, B1 and B2; 4 group--20% of vitamin mixture and wheat bran. The inclusion of wheat bran in full semi-synthetic diet has been accompanied by significant decrease of alpha-tocopherol liver content on 17% (p = 0.006), significant increase of vitamin B1 liver level on the 16% (p = 0.027) and blood plasma vitamin D elevation on 19% (p = 0.017), as well as a tendency (p = 0.059) to increase the liver level of vitamin B2. Indicators of vitamin A status as well as plasma vitamin E concentration, liver and blood plasma MDA levels were not changed in this group rats. The 5-fold reduction of the vitamin mixture quota and the exclusion of vitamins E, B1 and B2 resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) 1.6-1.8 fold decreased in animal body weight and liver mass and the manifestation of the deep external signs of vitamin deficiency. Young animals were more sensitive than adult animals to a lack of vitamins in the diet. Vitamin A (retinol palmitate) liver content in rats from this group was 25.1-fold reduced, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)--2.1-fold, vitamins B1 and B2--by 57 and 38% compared with animals received a complete control diet (p < 0.05). Blood plasma concentration of vitamins A, E, D was 19-34% decreased. Adding of bran in vitamin deficit diet led to increased consumption of vitamin B--on 40%, vitamins B2 and E--21%, both due to their natural content in the bran, and as a

  8. Patients classification on weaning trials using neural networks and wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Arizmendi, Carlos; Viviescas, Juan; González, Hernando; Giraldo, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the optimal time of the patients in weaning trial process from mechanical ventilation, between patients capable of maintaining spontaneous breathing and patients that fail to maintain spontaneous breathing, is a very important task in intensive care unit. Wavelet Transform (WT) and Neural Networks (NN) techniques were applied in order to develop a classifier for the study of patients on weaning trial process. The respiratory pattern of each patient was characterized through different time series. Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Forward Selection were used as feature selection techniques. A classification performance of 77.00±0.06% of well classified patients, was obtained using a NN and GA combination, with only 6 variables of the 14 initials.

  9. Changes in abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning.

    PubMed

    Su, Yong; Yao, Wen; Perez-Gutierrez, Odette N; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2008-12-01

    This present study investigated the changes in bacterial community composition, with an emphasis on Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis populations as potentially beneficial and harmful groups, in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning (21 days postpartum) by 16S rRNA gene-based methods. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that, after weaning, predominant bands related to Lactobacillus spp. disappeared and were replaced by potential pathogenic species, such as Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Moraxella cuniculi, S. suis and Porphyromonas catoniae. Real-time PCR revealed that the abundances of lactobacilli and Lactobacillus sobrius as a proportion of total bacterial abundance were significantly lower in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of weaned piglets than in 21-day-old piglets. A specific and sensitive real-time PCR assay was developed for quantification of the important pathogen S. suis within gastrointestinal microbiota. The assay showed that S. suis predominated in the stomach samples of weaned piglets with population levels up to 10(7) copies g(-1) digesta, while it was not detected in the stomach before weaning. Streptococcus suis was not dominant in the jejunum and ileum digesta before weaning, but became dominant after weaning, with population levels up to 10(7) copies g(-1) digesta. The results demonstrated for the first time the postweaning dominance of the potentially harmful S. suis in piglet intestine. The results also suggest that the defensive barrier of the stomach can be impaired as S. suis became dominant while the proportion of Lactobacillus populations decreased after weaning, which may further result in an increase of S. suis abundance in the intestine.

  10. Characterization of the interferon-α response of pigs to the weaning stress.

    PubMed

    Razzuoli, Elisabetta; Villa, Riccardo; Sossi, Enrico; Amadori, Massimo

    2011-02-01

    The interferon (IFN)-α response of pigs to the stressing event of early weaning was investigated in a field trial. All the animals under study remained healthy and tested negative for common viral infections. However, a low-titered IFN-α response was detected in many sera by a bioassay on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells on day +6 after weaning. Porcine IFN-α was unambiguously identified by a neutralization assay on a pool of IFN-α-positive sera. By gel filtration chromatography, the antiviral activity of sera on MDBK cells could be traced back to 3 components of apparent molecular mass 27/18/<14 kDa. Additional components of apparent molecular mass 58 and 41 kDa were revealed by ELISA in Nonidet P-40 lysates of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Also, many pigs tested positive in flow cytometry assays on PBMC for intracellular IFN-α. The expression of porcine IFN-α genes was investigated by reverse transcriptase (RT) real-time polymerase chain reaction at days -1, +6, and +12 with regard to weaning in PBMC of 9 piglets. On days -1 and +12, IFN A5, A6, A12, as well as (in fewer pigs) A1, A7, A11, and A2 genes were shown to be expressed. On the contrary, none of the above genes was expressed on day +6, when plenty of pig sera were IFN-α-positive. Our results indicate that weaning causes the release of IFN-α and the transient shut-off of the corresponding gene transcriptions in PBMC. Interestingly, only IFN A9 gene transcription was shown in vitro to be virus induction-dependent.

  11. Abdominal Functional Electrical Stimulation to Assist Ventilator Weaning in Acute Tetraplegia: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McCaughey, Euan J.; Berry, Helen R.; McLean, Alan N.; Allan, David B.; Gollee, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe impairment of the major respiratory muscles resulting from tetraplegia reduces respiratory function, causing many people with tetraplegia to require mechanical ventilation during the acute stage of injury. Abdominal Functional Electrical Stimulation (AFES) can improve respiratory function in non-ventilated patients with sub-acute and chronic tetraplegia. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical feasibility of using an AFES training program to improve respiratory function and assist ventilator weaning in acute tetraplegia. Methods AFES was applied for between 20 and 40 minutes per day, five times per week on four alternate weeks, with 10 acute ventilator dependent tetraplegic participants. Each participant was matched retrospectively with a ventilator dependent tetraplegic control, based on injury level, age and sex. Tidal Volume (VT) and Vital Capacity (VC) were measured weekly, with weaning progress compared to the controls. Results Compliance to training sessions was 96.7%. Stimulated VT was significantly greater than unstimulated VT. VT and VC increased throughout the study, with mean VC increasing significantly (VT: 6.2 mL/kg to 7.8 mL/kg VC: 12.6 mL/kg to 18.7 mL/kg). Intervention participants weaned from mechanical ventilation on average 11 (sd: ± 23) days faster than their matched controls. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that AFES is a clinically feasible technique for acute ventilator dependent tetraplegic patients and that this intervention may improve respiratory function and enable faster weaning from mechanical ventilation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02200393 PMID:26047468

  12. Gene expression in bovine rumen epithelium during weaning identifies molecular regulators of rumen development and growth.

    PubMed

    Connor, Erin E; Baldwin, Ransom L; Li, Cong-jun; Li, Robert W; Chung, Hoyoung

    2013-03-01

    During weaning, epithelial cell function in the rumen transitions in response to conversion from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant environment to ensure efficient nutrient absorption and metabolism. To identify gene networks affected by weaning in bovine rumen, Holstein bull calves were fed commercial milk replacer only (MRO) until 42 days of age, then were provided diets of either milk + orchardgrass hay (MH) or milk + grain-based calf starter (MG). Rumen epithelial RNA was extracted from calves sacrificed at four time points: day 14 (n = 3) and day 42 (n = 3) of age while fed the MRO diet and day 56 (n = 3/diet) and day 70 (n = 3/diet) while fed the MH and MG diets for transcript profiling by microarray hybridization. Five two-group comparisons were made using Permutation Analysis of Differential Expression® to identify differentially expressed genes over time and developmental stage between days 14 and 42 within the MRO diet, between day 42 on the MRO diet and day 56 on the MG or MH diets, and between the MG and MH diets at days 56 and 70. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of differentially expressed genes during weaning indicated the top 5 gene networks involving molecules participating in lipid metabolism, cell morphology and death, cellular growth and proliferation, molecular transport, and the cell cycle. Putative genes functioning in the establishment of the rumen microbial population and associated rumen epithelial inflammation during weaning were identified. Activation of transcription factor PPAR-α was identified by IPA software as an important regulator of molecular changes in rumen epithelium that function in papillary development and fatty acid oxidation during the transition from pre-rumination to rumination. Thus, molecular markers of rumen development and gene networks regulating differentiation and growth of rumen epithelium were identified for selecting targets and methods for improving and assessing rumen development and

  13. Marine macroalgal extracts to maintain gut homeostasis in the weaning piglet.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, T; O'Doherty, J V

    2016-07-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a dynamic environment, where a symbiotic relationship exists between the resident microbiota and the digestive and immune systems of the host. The development of the immune system begins in-utero and is further developed after the colonization of the GIT with microbiota during birth and postnatal life. The early establishment of this relationship is fundamental to the development and long-term maintenance of gut homeostasis. Regulatory mechanisms ensure an appropriate level of immune reactivity in the gut to accommodate the presence of beneficial and dietary microorganisms, whereas allowing effective immune responses to clear pathogens. However, unfavorable alterations in the composition of the microbiota, known as dysbiosis, have been implicated in many conditions including post-weaning diarrhea in pigs. Weaning is a major critical period in pig husbandry. It involves complex dietary, social, and environmental stresses that interfere with gut development. Post-weaning complications in piglets are characterized by a reduction in-feed intake and growth, atrophy of small intestine architecture, upregulation of intestinal inflammatory cytokines, alterations in GIT microflora, diarrhea, and heightened susceptibility to infection. These challenges have been controlled with in-feed prophylactic antibiotics and dietary minerals. However, these strategies are under scrutiny because of their role in promoting multidrug resistant bacteria and the accumulation of minerals in the environment, respectively. Therefore, significant efforts are being made to identify natural alternatives to support homeostasis in the piglet GIT, in particular during the weaning period. Chemodiversity in nature; including microorganisms, terrestrial plants, seaweeds, and marine organisms, offers a valuable source for novel bioactives. In this review, we discuss the advances in our understanding of the immune mechanisms by which the dynamic interplay of

  14. [Psychomotor education and speech therapy when weaning a child off artificial feeding].

    PubMed

    Malécot-Le Meur, Gaëlle; Soulez-Larivière, Laure; Abadie, Véronique; Thouvenin, Béatrice; Rastel, Christine; Chalouhi, Christel

    To support children and their families with weaning off artificial nutrition, a psychomotor therapist and speech therapist from the 'Pierre Robin syndrome and congenital sucking-swallowing disorders' specialist rare disease centre at Necker-Enfant Malades hospital in Paris, have set up a joint consultation, as a complement to medical consultations. This programme shows how speech therapy and psychomotor education can complement each other in order to help children and their parents during this difficult period.

  15. Classification of patients undergoing weaning from mechanical ventilation using the coherence between heart rate variability and respiratory flow signal.

    PubMed

    Arcentales, A; Caminal, P; Diaz, I; Benito, S; Giraldo, B F

    2015-07-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation is still one of the most challenging problems in intensive care. Unnecessary delays in discontinuation and weaning trials that are undertaken too early are both undesirable. This study investigated the contribution of spectral signals of heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory flow, and their coherence to classifying patients on weaning process from mechanical ventilation. A total of 121 candidates for weaning, undergoing spontaneous breathing tests, were analyzed: 73 were successfully weaned (GSucc), 33 failed to maintain spontaneous breathing so were reconnected (GFail), and 15 were extubated after the test but reintubated within 48 h (GRein). The power spectral density and magnitude squared coherence (MSC) of HRV and respiratory flow signals were estimated. Dimensionality reduction was performed using principal component analysis (PCA) and sequential floating feature selection. The patients were classified using a fuzzy K-nearest neighbour method. PCA of the MSC gave the best classification with the highest accuracy of 92% classifying GSucc versus GFail patients, and 86% classifying GSucc versus GRein patients. PCA of the respiratory flow signal gave the best classification between GFail and GRein patients (79% accuracy). These classifiers showed a good balance between sensitivity and specificity. Besides, the spectral coherence between HRV and the respiratory flow signal, in patients on weaning trial process, can contribute to the extubation decision.

  16. Weaning induces NOS-2 expression through NF-κB modulation in the lactating mammary gland: importance of GSH

    PubMed Central

    Zaragozá, Rosa; Miralles, Vicente J.; Rus, A. Diana; García, Concha; Carmena, Rafael; García-Trevijano, Elena R.; Barber, Teresa; Pallardó, Federico V.; Torres, Luís; Viña, Juan R.

    2005-01-01

    At the end of lactation the mammary gland undergoes involution, a process characterized by apoptosis of secretory cells and tissue remodelling. To gain insight into this process, we analysed the gene expression profile by oligonucleotide microarrays during lactation and after forced weaning. Up-regulation of inflammatory mediators and acute-phase response genes during weaning was found. Expression of IκBα (inhibitory κBα), a protein known to modulate NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) nuclear translocation, was significantly up-regulated. On the other hand, there was a time-dependent degradation of IκBα protein levels in response to weaning, suggesting a role for NF-κB. Furthermore, we have demonstrated, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, binding of NF-κB to the NOS-2 (inducible nitric oxide synthase) promoter at the early onset of events triggered during weaning. The three isoforms of NOS are constitutively present in the lactating mammary gland; however, while NOS-2 mRNA and protein levels and, consequently, NO production are increased during weaning, NOS-3 protein levels are diminished. Western blot analyses have demonstrated that protein nitration is increased in the mammary gland during weaning, but this is limited to a few specific tyrosine-nitrated proteins. Interestingly, inhibition of GSH synthesis at the peak of lactation partially mimics these findings, highlighting the role of NO production and GSH depletion during involution. PMID:15954866

  17. Effect of a high-protein diet on food intake and liver metabolism during pregnancy, lactation and after weaning in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Björn; Kucia, Marzena; Görs, Solvig; Albrecht, Dirk; Langhammer, Martina; Kuhla, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2010-07-01

    Major hepatic metabolic pathways are involved in the control of food intake but how dietary proteins affect global metabolism to adjust food intake is incompletely understood, particularly under physiological challenging conditions such as lactation. In order to identify these molecular events, mice were fed a high-protein (HP) diet from pregnancy, during lactation until after weaning and compared with control fed counterparts. Liver specimens were analyzed for regulated proteins using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-MS and plasma samples for metabolites. Based on the 26 differentially expressed proteins associated with depleted liver glycogen content, elevated urea and citrulline plasma concentrations, we conclude that HP feeding during lactation leads to an activated amino acid, carbohydrate and fatty acid catabolism while it activates gluconeogenesis. From pregnancy to lactation, plasma arginine, tryptophan, serine, glutamine and cysteine decreased, whereas urea concentrations increased in both groups. Concomitantly, hepatic glycogen content decreased while total fat content remained unaltered in both groups. Consideration of 59 proteins differentially expressed between pregnancy and lactation highlights different strategies of HP and control fed mice to meet energy requirements for lactation by adjusting amino acid degradation, carbohydrate and fat metabolism, citrate cycle, but also ATP-turnover, protein folding, secretion of proteins and (de)activation of transcription factors.

  18. Effect of High Dietary Tryptophan on Intestinal Morphology and Tight Junction Protein of Weaned Pig

    PubMed Central

    Tossou, Myrlene Carine B.; Bai, Miaomiao; Chen, Shuai; Cai, Yinghua; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Liu, Hongbin; Adebowale, Tolulope O.; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Long, Lina; Tarique, Hussain; Oso, Abimbola O.; Liu, Gang; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) plays an essential role in pig behavior and growth performances. However, little is known about Trp's effects on tight junction barrier and intestinal health in weaned pigs. In the present study, twenty-four (24) weaned pigs were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments with 8 piglets/treatments. The piglets were fed different amounts of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as follows: 0.0%, 0.15, and 0.75%, respectively, named zero Trp (ZTS), low Trp (LTS), and high Trp (HTS), respectively. No significant differences were observed in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain: feed (G/F) ratio between the groups. After 21 days of the feeding trial, results showed that dietary Trp significantly increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth and significantly decreased (P < 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio (VH/CD) in the jejunum of pig fed HTS. In addition, pig fed HTS had higher (P < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactate. Furthermore, pig fed HTS significantly decreased mRNA expression of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 but not claudin-1 in the jejunum. The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and goblet cells were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between the groups. Collectively, these data suggest that dietary Trp supplementation at a certain level (0.75%) may negatively affect the small intestinal structure in weaned pig. PMID:27366740

  19. Aspects on Feed Related Prophylactic Measures Aiming to Prevent Post Weaning Diarrhoea in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Melin, L; Wallgren, P

    2002-01-01

    The ability of feed related measures to prevent or reduce post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was examined in a split litter study including 30 pigs from 6 litters allotted into 5 groups. Four groups were exposed to 3 pathogenic strains of E. coli via the environment at weaning. Three of them were given zinc oxide, lactose+fibres or non-pathogenic strains of E. coli as probiotics. The challenged and the unchallenged control groups were given a standard creep feed. Diarrhoea was observed in all challenged groups but not among uninfected animals, and the incidence of diarrhoea was lower in the group given non-pathogenic E. coli compared to all other challenged groups. The severity of PWD also differed between litters. When corrected for mortality due to PWD, a decreased incidence of diarrhoea was also seen in the groups given zinc oxide or lactose+fibres. The dominating serotype of E. coli within faecal samples varied from day to day, also among diarrhoeic pigs, indicating that diarrhoea was not induced by one single serotype alone. The diversity of the faecal coliform populations decreased in all piglets during the first week post weaning, coinciding with an increased similarity between these populations among pigs in the challenged groups. This indicated an influence of the challenge strains, which ceased during the second week. The group given lactose+fibres was least affected with respect to these parameters. In conclusion feed related measures may alleviate symptoms of PWD. PMID:12831176

  20. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods.

    PubMed

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy.

  1. Inspiratory muscle training to facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In intensive care, weaning is the term used for the process of withdrawal of mechanical ventilation to enable spontaneous breathing to be re-established. Inspiratory muscle weakness and deconditioning are common in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, especially that of prolonged duration. Inspiratory muscle training could limit or reverse these unhelpful sequelae and facilitate more rapid and successful weaning. Methods This review will involve systematic searching of five electronic databases to allow the identification of randomised trials of inspiratory muscle training in intubated and ventilated patients. From these trials, we will extract available data for a list of pre-defined outcomes, including maximal inspiratory pressure, the duration of the weaning period, and hospital length of stay. We will also meta-analyse comparable results where possible, and report a summary of the available pool of evidence. Discussion The data generated by this review will be the most comprehensive answer available to the question of whether inspiratory muscle training is clinically useful in intensive care. As well as informing clinicians in the intensive care setting, it will also inform healthcare managers deciding whether health professionals with skills in respiratory therapy should be made available to provide this sort of intervention. Through the publication of this protocol, readers will ultimately be able to assess whether the review was conducted according to a pre-defined plan. Researchers will be aware that the review is underway, thereby avoid duplication, and be able to use it as a basis for planning similar reviews. PMID:21835031

  2. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy.

  3. The effect of spontaneous breathing on systemic interleukin-6 during ventilator weaning.

    PubMed

    Sellarés, J; Loureiro, H; Ferrer, M; Amaro, R; Farré, R; Torres, A

    2012-03-01

    During the weaning process, spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) involve cardiopulmonary stress for ventilated patients. As interleukin (IL)-6 is a major modulator of the stress response, we hypothesised that systemic IL-6 increases during a SBT and that this increase is more evident in SBT failure. 49 SBTs of 30-min duration were performed on different mechanically ventilated patients, and classified as SBT failure or success. Blood samples were drawn before and at the end of the SBT. An additional sample was drawn 24 h later in a subset of patients (n = 39). Serum IL-6 levels and other inflammatory mediators commonly associated with stress were determined. IL-6 levels increased from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous breathing in all patients (p = 0.02) and in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) population (p = 0.05) with SBT failure compared with success, but not in non-COPD patients (p = 0.12). After 24 h of SBT stress, IL-6 levels decreased in patients with SBT failure (under mechanical ventilation at that point) (p = 0.02) and those with weaning success (p = 0.04). No changes were observed in the remaining inflammatory mediators. Systemic IL-6 increases during a 30-min, failed SBT, especially in COPD patients. Future studies may corroborate the different IL-6 responses among different populations who initiate weaning, together with the potential clinical implications.

  4. The Effects of Guided Imagery on Patients Being Weaned from Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Spiva, LeeAnna; Hart, Patricia L.; Gallagher, Erin; McVay, Frank; Garcia, Melida; Malley, Karen; Kadner, Marsha; Segars, Angela; Brakovich, Betsy; Horton, Sonja Y.; Smith, Novlette

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose was to assess the effects of guided imagery on sedation levels, sedative and analgesic volume consumption, and physiological responses of patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation. Forty-two patients were selected from two community acute care hospitals. One hospital served as the comparison group and provided routine care (no intervention) while the other hospital provided the guided imagery intervention. The intervention included two sessions, each lasting 60 minutes, offered during morning weaning trials from mechanical ventilation. Measurements were recorded in groups at baseline and 30- and 60-minute intervals and included vital signs and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) score. Sedative and analgesic medication volume consumption were recorded 24 hours prior to and after the intervention. The guided imagery group had significantly improved RASS scores and reduced sedative and analgesic volume consumption. During the second session, oxygen saturation levels significantly improved compared to the comparison group. Guided imagery group had 4.88 less days requiring mechanical ventilation and 1.4 reduction in hospital length of stay compared to the comparison group. Guided imagery may be complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) intervention to provide during mechanical ventilation weaning trials. PMID:26640501

  5. Holistic Care for Patients During Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Khalafi, Ali; Elahi, Nasrin; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Weaning patients from mechanical ventilation is a complex and highly challenging process. It requires continuity of care, the overall assessment of patients, and a focus on all aspects of patients’ needs by critical care nurses. Objectives The aim of the present study was to explore holistic care while patients are being weaned from mechanical ventilation from the perspective of the critical care nurses. Methods The study was carried out in the intensive care units (ICUs) of six hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran, from 2014 to 2015. In this qualitative study, 25 ICU staff including nurses, nurse managers, and nurse educators were selected by means of purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The interview transcripts were then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The four main themes that emerged to explain nurses’ experiences of holistic care when weaning patients from mechanical ventilation include continuous care, a holistic overview of the patient, promoting human dignity, and the overall development of well-being. Conclusions It was found that avoiding routine pivotal expertise, increasing consciousness of the nonphysical aspects of patients while providing treatment and presenting exclusive care, utilizing experienced ICU nurses, and placing more emphasis on effective communication with patients in order to honor them as human beings can all enhance the holistic quality of care. PMID:28191345

  6. Effect of infant cereals on zinc and copper absorption during weaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.; Loennerdal, B.

    1987-10-01

    Zinc and copper absorption from five infant cereal products mixed with water, human milk, or cow's milk was measured using an in vivo absorption model (rat pup) involving gastric intubation of extrinsically radiolabeled diets. Whole-body copper 64 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 14% to 31% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. The resultant bioavailability of copper from human milk-cereal combinations (23% to 26%) was significantly lower than that from human milk alone (38%). Whole-body zinc 65 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 13% to 54% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. These values were significantly lower than the whole-body zinc 65 uptake from milk alone (61%). Zinc availability was lower (13% to 25%) from dry cereal combinations that contained phytic acid (oatmeal and high-protein varieties) compared with the ready-to-serve cereal-fruit combinations (24% to 54%). The highest zinc uptake (37% to 54%) was from rice-fruit combinations that do not contain phytic acid. We estimated the amounts of zinc and copper that would be absorbed from these cereal products and speculated on the potential impact of these foods on the weaning infant's zinc and copper nutriture. Depending on the feeding practices employed during the weaning period, it is apparent that infant cereals may compromise utilization of zinc and copper from milk diets during weaning.

  7. Reduction of chlortetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli in weaned piglets fed fermented liquid feed.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, Yuri; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Kawashima, Tomoyuki; Uchiyama, Hiroo

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the change in chlortetracycline resistance in 360 Escherichia coli strains separated from the feces of piglets fed fermented liquid feed (FLF) in comparison with those fed dry feed (control). The total amount of lactic acid bacteria in feces was 8.77 x 10(8) CFU/g DM at weaning, which increased to 1.23 x 10(12) CFU/g DM (FLF) at 28 days after weaning (P<0.001). As a result of the antibiotic susceptibility test, almost all isolates were chlortetracycline-resistant (CTCR) until 14 days after weaning both in the FLF and control groups. At 28 days, the CTCR E. coli decreased to 22.2% in the FLF group, while the proportion of resistant bacteria was 88.9% in the control group. In addition, as a result of the gene analysis, it was clarified that there is a relation between the decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration values and the possession rate of the tetracycline-resistance gene tet(A), tet(B) and tet(D). These results show that FLF caused an increase in the number of lactic acid bacteria in the intestines, and suggested that the feeding of FLF can possibly reduce antibiotic-resistance bacteria.

  8. Post-weaning maternal effects and the evolution of female dominance in the spotted hyena.

    PubMed

    Watts, Heather E; Tanner, Jaime B; Lundrigan, Barbara L; Holekamp, Kay E

    2009-06-22

    Mammalian societies in which females dominate males are rare, and the factors favouring the evolution of female dominance have yet to be clearly identified. We propose a new hypothesis for the evolution of female dominance and test its predictions with empirical data from the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), a well-studied species characterized by female dominance. We suggest that constraints imposed by the development of a feeding apparatus specialized for bone cracking, in combination with the intensive feeding competition characteristic of spotted hyenas, led to the evolution of female dominance. Specifically, we propose that protracted development of the feeding apparatus in young hyenas led to selection for increased aggressiveness in females as a compensatory mechanism for mothers to secure food access for their young after weaning. Our analyses yielded results consistent with this hypothesis. Morphological and behavioural measurements indicate that skull development is indeed protracted in this species; spotted hyenas do not achieve adult skull size or feeding performance capabilities until after sexual maturity. The period between weaning and completed skull development is particularly challenging, as indicated by high mortality. Finally, maternal presence between weaning and full skull maturity, as well as the relative ability of females to aggressively displace conspecifics from food, are important determinants of offspring survival.

  9. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  10. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  11. Somatotypes of weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Orvanová, E

    1990-01-01

    The present paper reviews published studies on the body shape of weight lifters. The differences between the somatotype ratings of weight lifters studied using the Sheldon and the Heath-Carter methods, and the differences between performance levels and age groups of weight lifters are discussed. The differences in mean somatoplots among the weight lifters studied as a whole group, weight lifters divided into two, three or four groups according to body weight, and weight lifters considered according to the official weight classes, are assessed. Weight lifters in the lighter weight classes are found to be ectomorphic or balanced mesomorphs, while those in the heavier weight classes tend to be endomorphic mesomorphs. Ectomorphy decreases, whereas mesomorphy and endomorphy increase with weight class. When three age groups of weight lifters were compared within each weight class, the same pattern of differences between ages occurs. The younger lifters in each weight class have higher endomorphy and lower mesomorphy than the senior lifters. Ectomorphy is higher in the younger lifters below the weight class of 82.5 kg. Since significant differences in all three somatotype components between 10 weight classes of weight lifters and also within three age groups were noted, it will be necessary in future studies to consider the somatotypes of weight lifters according to the official weight classes.

  12. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  13. Post-Weaning Diet Affects Faecal Microbial Composition but Not Selected Adipose Gene Expression in the Cat (Felis catus)

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Kittelmann, Sandra; Young, Wayne; Kerr, Katherine R.; Swanson, Kelly S.; Roy, Nicole C.; Thomas, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation) and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat. Queens were maintained on a moderate protein:fat:carbohydrate kibbled (“Diet A”; 35:20:28% DM; n  =  4) or high protein:fat:carbohydrate canned (“Diet B”; 45:37:2% DM; n = 3) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto these diets in a nested design (n  =  5 per treatment). Faecal samples were collected at wk 8 and 17 of age. DNA was isolated from faeces and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analysed by pyrosequencing. RNA was extracted from blood (wk 18) and adipose tissue and ovarian/testicular tissues (wk 24) and gene expression levels determined using RT-qPCR. Differences (P<0.05) in composition of faecal bacteria were observed between pregnant queens fed Diet A or B. However, pre-weaning diet had little effect on faecal bacterial composition in weaned kittens. In contrast, post-weaning diet altered bacterial population profiles in the kittens. Increased (P<0.05) abundance of Firmicutes (77% vs 52% of total reads) and Actinobacteria (0.8% vs 0.2% of total reads), and decreased (P<0.05) abundance of Fusobacteria (1.6% vs 18.4% of total reads) were observed for kittens fed the Diet A compared to those fed Diet B post-weaning. Feeding Diet B pre-weaning increased (P<0.05) the expression levels of INRS, LEPT, PAI-1 and tended to increase GLUT1, while the expression levels of IRS-1 in blood increased in kittens fed Diet A pre-weaning. Post-weaning diet had no effect on expression levels of target genes. Correlations between the expression levels of genes involved in glucose and insulin pathways and faecal Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla were identified. The reasons for why post-weaning diet affects microbial populations and not gene expression levels are of interest. PMID:24312255

  14. Age-dependent variation in innate immune responses to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection in suckling versus weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Thavamathi; Saif, Linda J; Lu, Zhongyan; Jung, Kwonil

    2015-12-15

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an enteric coronaviral infection that causes severe morbidity and mortality in suckling pigs, but less severe disease in older pigs. Consequently, it causes significant economic losses to the pork industry. There are limited studies on the innate immune responses to PED virus (PEDV) in pigs. The aims of our study were to investigate differences in innate immune responses to PEDV infection in suckling and weaned pigs and to examine if disease severity coincides with reduced innate immune responses. Weaned 26-day-old pigs (n=20) and 9-day-old nursing pigs (n=20) were assigned to PEDV inoculated or uninoculated control groups. The pigs were observed daily for clinical signs, virus shedding and were euthanized at post-inoculation days (PIDs) 1 and 5 to assay immune responses. Blood samples were collected at PIDs 1, 3 and 5. The natural killer (NK) cell frequencies, NK cell activities (lysis of target K562 tumor cells in vitro), CD3+CD4+ T cell and CD3+CD8+ T cell frequencies were measured in blood and ileum at PIDs 1 and 5. The PEDV infected suckling pigs showed severe diarrhea and vomiting at PID 1, whereas the PEDV infected weaned pigs showed milder clinical signs starting at PID 3. PEDV infected suckling pigs had significantly higher diarrhea scores, earlier fecal PEDV RNA shedding and significantly higher viremia (viral RNA in serum) compared to weaned pigs. There was no mortality in either infected suckling or infected weaned pigs. The control pigs not inoculated with PEDV did not show any clinical signs and no detectable fecal or serum PEDV RNA. Strikingly, PEDV infected suckling pigs had significantly lower NK cell frequencies, undetectable NK cell activity and lower IFNγ producing NK cells in blood and ileum compared to PEDV infected weaned pigs. Pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles of PEDV infected suckling pigs differed from those of PEDV infected weaned pigs and coincided with onset of fecal PEDV RNA shedding and serum PEDV

  15. Effects of lactation length and weaning-to-service interval on subsequent farrowing rate and litter size in Landrace and Yorkshire sows in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tantasuparuk, W; Lundeheim, N; Dalin, A M; Kunavongkrit, A; Einarsson, S

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of lactation length (LL) on weaning-to-service interval (WSI), and the effect of LL and WSI on the subsequent farrowing rate and litter size among purebred Landrace and Yorkshire sows under tropical conditions. The variation in litter weight at weaning (LWW) was also studied. Data were analyzed from three purebred sow herds located in the central part of Thailand, including sows weaned during the period from January 1993 to December 1996. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance using SAS software. The procedure MIXED was used for analysis of the continuous outcome variables (namely LL, LWW, WSI, number of total born and number of live born piglets). The GLIMMIX macro was used for analysis of the categorical outcome variable, farrowing rate (FR). In the statistical analyses, WSI was grouped into 7 groups, when it was an independent variable, as follows: 1 to 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, to 10, and 11 to 21 days. Lactation length was grouped into 4 groups as follows: 17 to 24, 25 to 27, 28 to 30 and 31 to 35 days. Parities were grouped into 4 groups as follows: 1, 2, 3 + 4, and 5 to 8. Landrace sows had significantly higher LWW (P < 0.001) compared with Yorkshire sows (56.1 vs. 53.6 kg). The LL was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter during the cool season than during the other seasons while no difference was found in LWW between the hot and the cool season. The LL had no effect on WSI, FR and litter sizes. The FR was significantly lower when the WSI was 7 to 10 days than when the WSI was 1 to 6 days. An increase in WSI between Days 9 to 10 and Day 21 resulted in a significant increase in FR. Subsequent litter size decreased by about 0.5 piglets when the WSI increased from 1 to 5 days to 6 to 7 days. Thereafter, litter size increased as the WSI increased from 9 to 10 days to 21 days.

  16. Combining biomarkers for classification with covariate adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Huang, Ying

    2017-03-09

    Combining multiple markers can improve classification accuracy compared with using a single marker. In practice, covariates associated with markers or disease outcome can affect the performance of a biomarker or biomarker combination in the population. The covariate-adjusted receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve has been proposed as a tool to tease out the covariate effect in the evaluation of a single marker; this curve characterizes the classification accuracy solely because of the marker of interest. However, research on the effect of covariates on the performance of marker combinations and on how to adjust for the covariate effect when combining markers is still lacking. In this article, we examine the effect of covariates on classification performance of linear marker combinations and propose to adjust for covariates in combining markers by maximizing the nonparametric estimate of the area under the covariate-adjusted ROC curve. The proposed method provides a way to estimate the best linear biomarker combination that is robust to risk model assumptions underlying alternative regression-model-based methods. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. We conduct simulations to evaluate the performance of our estimator in cohort and case/control designs and compare several different weighting strategies during estimation with respect to efficiency. Our estimator is also compared with alternative regression-model-based estimators or estimators that maximize the empirical area under the ROC curve, with respect to bias and efficiency. We apply the proposed method to a biomarker study from an human immunodeficiency virus vaccine trial. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Recruitment and Retention for a Weight Loss Maintenance Trial Involving Weight Loss Prior to Randomization

    PubMed Central

    Grubber, J. M.; McVay, M. A.; Olsen, M. K.; Bolton, J.; Gierisch, J. M.; Taylor, S. S.; Maciejewski, M. L.; Yancy, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective A weight loss maintenance trial involving weight loss prior to randomization is challenging to implement due to the potential for dropout and insufficient weight loss. We examined rates and correlates of non‐initiation, dropout, and insufficient weight loss during a weight loss maintenance trial. Methods The MAINTAIN trial involved a 16‐week weight loss program followed by randomization among participants losing at least 4 kg. Psychosocial measures were administered during a screening visit. Weight was obtained at the first group session and 16 weeks later to determine eligibility for randomization. Results Of 573 patients who screened as eligible, 69 failed to initiate the weight loss program. In adjusted analyses, failure to initiate was associated with lower age, lack of a support person, and less encouragement for making dietary changes. Among participants who initiated, 200 dropped out, 82 lost insufficient weight, and 222 lost sufficient weight for randomization. Compared to losing sufficient weight, dropping out was associated with younger age and tobacco use, whereas losing insufficient weight was associated with non‐White race and controlled motivation for physical activity. Conclusions Studies should be conducted to evaluate strategies to maximize recruitment and retention of subgroups that are less likely to initiate and be retained in weight loss maintenance trials. PMID:28090340

  18. Vocal mother-offspring communication in guinea pigs: females adjust maternal responsiveness to litter size

    PubMed Central

    Kober, Melanie; Trillmich, Fritz; Naguib, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Background In parent-offspring communication, vocal signals are often used to attract attention and offspring might call to induce parental behaviour. In guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) mothers wean larger litters later than small ones, but it is unknown whether this difference depends on processes induced during pregnancy or is influenced post-natally by the number of pups present. We here tested with playback-experiments using pup separation calls whether mothers with cross-fostered large experimental litters (four-pup-litters) were more responsive to offspring calls and maintained responsiveness for longer than mothers with small experimental litters (two-pup-litters). Mothers were tested when two pups were suckling i.e. when both teats were occupied. Results Mothers of four-pup litters responded stronger to broadcast pup separation calls than those with two-pup litters. Additionally, we tested the mothers' responsiveness to pup separation calls in the absence of their pups on day 8 and 20 of lactation. Mothers of four-pup litters responded stronger and showed no decrease in responsiveness from day 8 to 20, whereas mothers of two-pup litters responded less and decreased responsiveness from day 8 to 20. Mothers of four-pup litters also weaned their pups 5 days later than those of two-pup litters. Conclusion Measured by their response to pup calls and by time to weaning, guinea pig mothers adjust maternal responsiveness to litter size. This behaviour is likely to be an adaptive strategy in resource allocation during reproduction. PMID:18783602

  19. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Weight Loss Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Weight Loss Surgery A A ... Risks and Side Effects? What Is Weight Loss Surgery? For some people, being overweight is about more ...

  20. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious medical problems. Weight loss surgery (also called bariatric surgery) can help very obese people lose weight. But ... Gastric banding is the simplest of the three weight loss surgeries. People who get it might not lose as ...

  1. Early weaning is associated with higher neuropeptide Y (NPY) and lower cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) expressions in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Younes-Rapozo, Viviane; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; da Silva Lima, Natália; Barradas, Penha Cristina; Manhães, Alex C; de Oliveira, Elaine; Lisboa, Patricia Cristina

    2012-12-28

    The interruption of lactation for a short period, without the use of pharmacological substances or maternal separation, causes offspring malnutrition and hypoleptinaemia and programmes for metabolic disorders such as higher body weight and adiposity, hyperphagia, hyperleptinaemia and central leptin resistance in adulthood. Here, in order to clarify the mechanisms underlying the phenotype observed in adult early-weaned (EW) rats, we studied the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in different hypothalamic nuclei by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. In the EW group, the teats of lactating rats were blocked with a bandage to interrupt lactation during the last 3 d, while control pups had free access to milk throughout the entire lactation period. At age 180 d, EW offspring showed higher NPY staining in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as well as NPY protein content (+68 %) in total hypothalamus than control ones. AgRP showed no changes in staining or Western blot. POMC content was not affected; however, its distribution pattern was altered. CART-positive cells of EW offspring had lower immunoreactivity associated with reduced cell number in the PVN and lower protein content ( - 38 %) in total hypothalamus. The present data indicate that precocious weaning can imprint the neuronal circuitry, especially in the PVN, and cause a long-term effect on the expression of specific orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as NPY and CART, that can be caused by leptin resistance and are coherent with the hyperphagia observed in these animals.

  2. Maternal and post-weaning high-fat, high-sucrose diet modulates glucose homeostasis and hypothalamic POMC promoter methylation in mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2015-10-01

    Substantial evidence demonstrated that maternal dietary nutrients can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing metabolic disorders in the offspring. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the later-life effects of maternal and postweaning diets interaction on epigenetic modification of the central nervous system in the offspring. We examined the effects of dams fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (FS) diet during pregnancy and lactation and weaned to FS diet continuously until 32 weeks of age. Then, DNA methylation and gene expressions of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) were determined in the offspring. Offspring of FS diet had heavier body weight, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity and higher serum leptin level at 32-week age (p < 0.05). The expression of POMC and MC4R genes were significantly increased in offspring exposed to FS diet during gestation, lactation and into 32-week age (p < 0.05). Consistently, hypomethylation of POMC promoter in the hypothalamus occurred in the FS diet offspring (p < 0.05), compared with the C group. However, no methylation was detected of MC4R promoter in both the two groups. Furthermore, POMC-specific methylation (%) was negatively associated with glucose response to a glucose load (r = -0.273, p = 0.039). Maternal and post-weaning high-fat diet predisposes the offspring for obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in later life. Our findings can advance our thinking around the DNA methylation status of the promoter of the POMC and MC4R genes between long-term high-fat, high-sucrose diet and glucose homeostasis in mouse.

  3. Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy Affects Testicular and Bone Development, Glucose Metabolism and Response to Overnutrition in Weaned Horses Up to Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Luis; Peugnet, Pauline; Dubois, Cédric; Dahirel, Michèle; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Caudron, Isabelle; Guenon, Isabelle; Camous, Sylvaine; Tarrade, Anne; Wimel, Laurence; Serteyn, Didier; Bouraima-Lelong, Hélène; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pregnant mares and post-weaning foals are often fed concentrates rich in soluble carbohydrates, together with forage. Recent studies suggest that the use of concentrates is linked to alterations of metabolism and the development of osteochondrosis in foals. The aim of this study was to determine if broodmare diet during gestation affects metabolism, osteoarticular status and growth of yearlings overfed from 20 to 24 months of age and/or sexual maturity in prepubertal colts. Material and methods Twenty-four saddlebred mares were fed forage only (n = 12, group F) or cracked barley and forage (n = 12, group B) from mid-gestation until foaling. Colts were gelded at 12 months of age. Between 20 and 24 months of age, all yearlings were overfed (+140% of requirements) using an automatic concentrate feeder. Offspring were monitored for growth between 6 and 24 months of age, glucose homeostasis was evaluated via modified frequently sampled intra veinous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) at 19 and 24 months of age and osteoarticular status was investigated using radiographic examinations at 24 months of age. The structure and function of testicles from prepubertal colts were analyzed using stereology and RT-qPCR. Results Post-weaning weight growth was not different between groups. Testicular maturation was delayed in F colts compared to B colts at 12 months of age. From 19 months of age, the cannon bone was wider in B vs F yearlings. F yearlings were more insulin resistant at 19 months compared to B yearlings but B yearlings were affected more severely by overnutrition with reduced insulin sensitivity. The osteoarticular status at 24 months of age was not different between groups. Conclusion In conclusion, nutritional management of the pregnant broodmare and the growing foal may affect sexual maturity of colts and the metabolism of foals until 24 months of age. These effects may be deleterious for reproductive and sportive performances in older horses. PMID

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation of fermented Ginkgo biloba L. residues on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters and immune function in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Wang, Chengzhang; Ye, Jianzhong; Chen, Hongxia; Tao, Ran

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of fermented Ginkgo biloba L. residues (FGBLR) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters and immune function in weaned piglets. Pigs were allotted to five dietary treatments, including negative control (NC: antibiotic free basal diet), positive control (PC) (NC + 30 mg apramycin/kg) and FGBLR-50, 100, 150 (NC + 50, 100, 150 g FGBLR/kg). Pigs in FGBLR-100 and PC treatments showed increased final body weight, average daily gain, gain:feed and apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, N and gross energy (P < 0.05) compared with NC, FGBLR-50 and FGBLR-150 treatments, In addition, pigs fed with FGBLR-100 diet showed higher serum total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, hemoglobin, total iron, total iron binding capacity, superoxide dismutase and glutathione superoxide dismutase levels, and lower serum blood urea nitrogen, malondialdehyde, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels than those fed with PC and NC diets (P < 0.05). Moreover, feeding FGBLR-100 could increase levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA and IgM, as well as lymphocyte transformation rates, ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ cells and proportions of CD2+, CD4+, B, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I and MHC-II cells, and can decrease proportion of CD8+ cells in blood of piglets compared with PC and NC groups (P < 0.05). These results indicate that dietary supplementation with 10% of FGBLR showed greatest beneficial effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters and immune function in weaned piglets, which were superior to antibiotic supplemental diets.

  5. Usefulness of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels to predict success of weaning from intra-aortic balloon pumping.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Yukichi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Sato, Naoki; Hosokawa, Yusuke; Munakata, Ryo; Akutsu, Koichi; Shimizu, Wataru; Tanaka, Keiji

    2014-09-15

    There is currently no reliable method of predicting the success of weaning from intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP). The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level to predict the success of weaning from IABP. Consecutive patients scheduled for weaning from IABP were prospectively enrolled. NT-proBNP levels were measured at baseline (before the start of weaning) and cessation (just before cessation of IABP). Changes in NT-proBNP level between baseline and cessation were analyzed in 2 groups of patients: those who were successfully weaned and those who were not successfully weaned for any reason, including a decision to discontinue weaning, worsening of pulmonary edema after cessation of IABP, or unstable hemodynamics after cessation of IABP. A total of 30 patients were enrolled (mean age 66 ± 12 years, 16 men, 16 with acute myocardial infarctions, and 14 with acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure). Median (interquartile range) baseline NT-proBNP levels were not significantly different between the successful and unsuccessful weaning groups (4,200 [1,400 to 8,752] pg/ml vs (5,620 [2,035 to 13,950] pg/ml, p = 0.30). In the unsuccessful weaning group, the median NT-proBNP level was significantly higher at cessation (9,995 [2,920 to 15,100] pg/ml) than at baseline (p = 0.008). All patients with decreases in NT-proBNP level between baseline and cessation were successfully weaned from IABP. In conclusion, these results show that NT-proBNP levels were useful for predicting the success of weaning from IABP. If the NT-proBNP level increases during weaning from IABP, more intense management should be considered.

  6. Characterisation of Early-Life Fecal Microbiota in Susceptible and Healthy Pigs to Post-Weaning Diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Dou, Samir; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Rome, Véronique; Hamoudi, Dounia; Rhazi, Larbi; Lakhal, Lyes; Larcher, Thibaut; Bahi-Jaber, Narges; Pinon-Quintana, Arturo; Guyonvarch, Alain; Huërou-Luron, Isabelle L E; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa

    2017-01-01

    Early-life microbial exposure is of particular importance to growth, immune system development and long-lasting health. Hence, early microbiota composition is a promising predictive biomarker for health and disease but still remains poorly characterized in regards to susceptibility to diarrhoea. In the present study, we aimed to assess if gut bacterial community diversity and composition during the suckling period were associated with differences in susceptibility of pigs to post-weaning diarrhoea. Twenty piglets from 5 sows (4 piglets / litter) were weaned in poor housing conditions to challenge their susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea. Two weeks after weaning, 13 pigs exhibited liquid faeces during 2 or 3 days and were defined as diarrhoeic (D) pigs. The other 7 pigs did not have diarrhea during the whole post-weaning experimental periodand were defined as healthy (H) pigs. Using a molecular characterisation of fecal microbiota with CE-SSCP fingerprint, Next Generation Sequencing and qPCR, we show that D and H pigs were mainly discriminated as early as postnatal day (PND) 7, i.e. 4 weeks before post-weaning diarrhoea occurence. At PND 7 H pigs displayed a lower evenness and a higher abundance of Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminocacaceae and Lactobacillaceae compared to D pigs. The sPLS regression method indicates that these bacterial families were strongly correlated to a higher Bacteroidetes abundance observed in PND 30 H pigs one week before diarrhoea. These results emphasize the potential of early microbiota diversity and composition as being an indicator of susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea. Furthermore, they support the health promoting strategies of pig herds through gut microbiota engineering.

  7. Characterisation of Early-Life Fecal Microbiota in Susceptible and Healthy Pigs to Post-Weaning Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Samir; Gadonna-Widehem, Pascale; Rome, Véronique; Hamoudi, Dounia; Rhazi, Larbi; Lakhal, Lyes; Larcher, Thibaut; Bahi-Jaber, Narges; Pinon-Quintana, Arturo; Guyonvarch, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Early-life microbial exposure is of particular importance to growth, immune system development and long-lasting health. Hence, early microbiota composition is a promising predictive biomarker for health and disease but still remains poorly characterized in regards to susceptibility to diarrhoea. In the present study, we aimed to assess if gut bacterial community diversity and composition during the suckling period were associated with differences in susceptibility of pigs to post-weaning diarrhoea. Twenty piglets from 5 sows (4 piglets / litter) were weaned in poor housing conditions to challenge their susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea. Two weeks after weaning, 13 pigs exhibited liquid faeces during 2 or 3 days and were defined as diarrhoeic (D) pigs. The other 7 pigs did not have diarrhea during the whole post-weaning experimental periodand were defined as healthy (H) pigs. Using a molecular characterisation of fecal microbiota with CE-SSCP fingerprint, Next Generation Sequencing and qPCR, we show that D and H pigs were mainly discriminated as early as postnatal day (PND) 7, i.e. 4 weeks before post-weaning diarrhoea occurence. At PND 7 H pigs displayed a lower evenness and a higher abundance of Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminocacaceae and Lactobacillaceae compared to D pigs. The sPLS regression method indicates that these bacterial families were strongly correlated to a higher Bacteroidetes abundance observed in PND 30 H pigs one week before diarrhoea. These results emphasize the potential of early microbiota diversity and composition as being an indicator of susceptibility to post-weaning diarrhoea. Furthermore, they support the health promoting strategies of pig herds through gut microbiota engineering. PMID:28072880

  8. Physical exercise introduced after weaning enhances pancreatic islet responsiveness to glucose and potentiating agents in adult MSG-obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, R A; Bonfleur, M L; Vanzela, E C; Zotti, A I; Scomparin, D X; Boschero, A C; Balbo, S L

    2014-08-01

    Physical exercise represents an alternative way to prevent and/or ameliorate chronic metabolic diseases. Disruption of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity contributes to adiposity in obese subjects. Here, we verified the preventive effect of swimming training upon adiposity, adrenal catecholamine storage, and pancreatic islet function in obese monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated rats. Male neonatal Wistar rats received MSG (4 mg/g body weight) during the first 5 days of life and, at weaning, half of the rats were submitted to swimming training, 30 min/day, 3 days a week, until 90 days of age (exercised rats: MSGex). Half of the rats were used as controls (sedentary group, MSGsd). Exercise training (ET) decreased insulinemia and fat deposition in MSGex, and increased adrenal catecholamine content, compared with MSGsd rats. Insulinemia during the ivGTT was lower in MSGex rats, despite a lack of difference in glycemia. Swimming training enhanced insulin release in islets challenged by 2.8-8.3 mmol/l glucose, whereas, at supraphysiological glucose concentrations (11.1-16.7 mmol/l), MSGex islets secreted less insulin than MSGsd. No differences in insulin secretion were observed following l-arginine (Arg) or K(+) stimuli. In contrast, islets from MSGex rats secreted more insulin when exposed to carbachol (100 μmol/l), forskolin (10 μmol/l), or IBMX (1 mmol/l) at 8.3 mmol/l glucose. Additionally, MSGex islets presented a better epinephrine inhibition upon insulin release. These results demonstrate that ET prevented the onset of obesity in MSG rats, probably by enhancing adrenal catecholamine levels. ET ameliorates islet responsiveness to several compounds, as well as insulin peripheral action.

  9. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( < 0.05). Romosinuano direct effects (of the cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( < 0.05) for calves of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( < 0.05) than other groups. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( < 0.05) at all times but had more weight loss in late lactation. Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to

  10. Fecal Microbial Diversity in Pre-Weaned Dairy Calves as Described by Pyrosequencing of Metagenomic 16S rDNA. Associations of Faecalibacterium Species with Health and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomou, Georgios; Teixeira, Andre Gustavo Vieira; Foditsch, Carla; Bicalho, Marcela Lucas; Machado, Vinicius Silva; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the fecal microbiota of neonatal calves and identify possible relationships of certain microbiota profiles with health and weight gain. Fecal samples were obtained weekly from 61 calves from birth until weaning (seventh week of the calves' life). Firmicutes was the most prevalent phylum, with a prevalence ranging from 63.84% to 81.90%, followed by Bacteroidetes (8.36% to 23.93%), Proteobacteria (3.72% to 9.75%), Fusobacteria (0.76% to 5.67%), and Actinobacteria (1.02% to 2.35%). Chao1 index gradually increased from the first to the seventh postnatal week. Chao1 index was lower during the third, fourth, and fifth week of life in calves that suffered from pneumonia and were treated with antibiotics. Diarrhea incidence during the first four weeks of the calves' life was also associated with a reduction of microbial diversity during the third week of life. Increased fecal microbial diversity after the second week of life was associated with higher weight gain. Using discriminant analysis we were able to show differences in the microbiota profiles between different weeks of life, between high and low weight gain groups of calves, and between calves affected and not affected with diarrhea during the first four weeks life. The prevalence of Faecalibacterium spp. in the first week of life was associated with weight gain and the incidence of diarrhea, with higher prevalence being associated with higher weight gain and less diarrhea. Representative sequences from Faecalibacterium spp. were closely affiliated to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results presented here provide new information regarding the intestinal microbiota of neonatal calves and its association with health and growth. Fecal microbial diversity was associated with calf age, disease status and growth rates. Results suggesting a possible beneficial effect of Faecalibacterium spp. on health and growth are promising. PMID:23646192

  11. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-11-17

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086-12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure through

  12. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure

  13. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  14. Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.

    PubMed

    Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood.

  15. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  16. Combined use of Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) and Vertical Expandable Prostethic Titanium Rib (VEPTR) in a patient with Spondylocostal dysostosis and associated bronchomalacia.

    PubMed

    Pons-Odena, Martí; Verges, Alba; Arza, Natalia; Cambra, Francisco José

    2017-02-14

    Jarcho-Levin syndrome is a rare disorder characterised by defects in vertebral and costal segmentation of varying severity. Respiratory complications are the main cause of death or severe comorbidity due to a restrictive rib cage. A 3 months old infant with Spondylocostal dysostosis and associated bronchomalacia experiencing severe asynchrony during the weaning process is reported. The Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) mode was used to improve adaptation to mechanical ventilation after Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Ribs (VEPTRs) were implanted. The synchrony achieved with the NAVA mode allowed a decrease of the sedoanalgesia he received. A follow-up CT scan showed a reduction in the volume of the posterobasal atelectasis. The evolution of this patient suggests that the combined use of VEPTR for thoracic expansion and ventilation using NAVA can favour the global improvement. This mode could be an option to consider in selected patients with difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation in paediatric intensive care units.

  17. Combined use of Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) and Vertical Expandable Prostethic Titanium Rib (VEPTR) in a patient with Spondylocostal dysostosis and associated bronchomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Odena, Martí; Verges, Alba; Arza, Natalia; Cambra, Francisco José

    2017-01-01

    Jarcho-Levin syndrome is a rare disorder characterised by defects in vertebral and costal segmentation of varying severity. Respiratory complications are the main cause of death or severe comorbidity due to a restrictive rib cage. A 3 months old infant with Spondylocostal dysostosis and associated bronchomalacia experiencing severe asynchrony during the weaning process is reported. The Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) mode was used to improve adaptation to mechanical ventilation after Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Ribs (VEPTRs) were implanted. The synchrony achieved with the NAVA mode allowed a decrease of the sedoanalgesia he received. A follow-up CT scan showed a reduction in the volume of the posterobasal atelectasis. The evolution of this patient suggests that the combined use of VEPTR for thoracic expansion and ventilation using NAVA can favour the global improvement. This mode could be an option to consider in selected patients with difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation in paediatric intensive care units. PMID:28196820

  18. Post-weaning living with parents during juvenile period alters locomotor activity, social and parental behaviors in mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruiyong; Song, Zhenzhen; Tai, Fadao; Wang, Lu; Kong, Lingzhe; Wang, Jianli

    2013-09-01

    Neonatal parental care plays an important role in the development of offspring behavior, but little is known about the effect of post-weaning contact between offspring and parents on locomotory, social and parental behavior. Here, we explore this concept using socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). Voles were assigned to live with parents and siblings from the same litter until 45d (natural dispersal time in the field) or to live with siblings from the same litter after weaning at 21d (normally weaned time, the control). At 70d of age, behaviors were recorded in open field and social interaction tests, and parental care toward their own offspring was measured. Results show that voles that live with parents post-weaning engaged in less locomotory activity and rearing behavior in the open field test, less sniffing of novel individuals and displayed more parental care, compared to voles that did not continue to live with their parents. These findings demonstrate that parent-offspring interaction post-weaning alters locomotory activity, social behavior and parental behavior of offspring at adulthood.

  19. Low folate and selenium in the mouse maternal diet alters liver gene expression patterns in the offspring after weaning.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Matthew P G; Bermingham, Emma N; Young, Wayne; Bassett, Shalome A; Hesketh, John E; Maciel-Dominguez, Anabel; McNabb, Warren C; Roy, Nicole C

    2015-05-08

    During pregnancy, selenium (Se) and folate requirements increase, with deficiencies linked to neural tube defects (folate) and DNA oxidation (Se). This study investigated the effect of a high-fat diet either supplemented with (diet H), or marginally deficient in (diet L), Se and folate. Pregnant female mice and their male offspring were assigned to one of four treatments: diet H during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet L during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet H during gestation and lactation but diet L fed to offspring post-weaning; or diet L during gestation and lactation followed by diet H fed to offspring post-weaning. Microarray and pathway analyses were performed using RNA from colon and liver of 12-week-old male offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis of liver gene expression showed that diet L affected several pathways including regulation of translation (protein biosynthesis), methyl group metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism; this effect was stronger when the diet was fed to mothers, rather than to offspring. No significant differences in individual gene expression were observed in colon but there were significant differences in cell cycle control pathways. In conclusion, a maternal low Se/folate diet during gestation and lactation has more effects on gene expression in offspring than the same diet fed to offspring post-weaning; low Se and folate in utero and during lactation thus has persistent metabolic effects in the offspring.

  20. Rearing conditions affected responses of weaned pigs to organic acids showing a positive effect on digestibility, microflora and immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Kuang, Yiwen; Zhang, Yalin; Song, Yumo; Zhang, Xiaoling; Lin, Yan; Che, Lianqiang; Xu, Shengyu; Wu, De; Xue, Bai; Fang, Zhengfeng

    2016-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the response of weaned pigs to organic acid SF3, which contains 34% calcium formate, 16% calcium lactate, 7% citric acid and 13% medium chain fatty acids. Dietary treatments had no effect on growth performance of piglets (21-day weaning) fed the commercial prestart diet for 1 week before receiving the experimental diets supplemented with SF3 at 0, 3 or 5 g/kg diet (Exp. 1), whereas diarrhea frequency averaged across a week was decreased by SF3 supplementation (5 g/kg diet) in piglets fed the experimental diets immediately after weaning (Exp. 2). In Exp. 3, piglets (28-day weaning) were fed the control (containing pure colistin sulfate and enramycin, respectively, at 20 mg/kg diet) for 1 week and then were fed the control or SF3-supplemented (5 g/kg diet) diet for 2 weeks. The SF3-fed piglets had greater apparent ileal digestibility of calcium and dry matter, while also demonstrating greater overall gross energy, up-regulated jejunal expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 and transforming growth factor-β, down-regulated jejunal expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, higher ileal Lactobacillus, with lower total bacteria content, lower plasma TNF-α but higher IgG levels than the control-fed piglets. Collectively, SF3 consumption improved diarrhea resistance of weaned pigs by improving nutrient digestibility, piglet immunity and intestinal bacteria profile. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Low Folate and Selenium in the Mouse Maternal Diet Alters Liver Gene Expression Patterns in the Offspring after Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Matthew P.G.; Bermingham, Emma N.; Young, Wayne; Bassett, Shalome A.; Hesketh, John E.; Maciel-Dominguez, Anabel; McNabb, Warren C.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, selenium (Se) and folate requirements increase, with deficiencies linked to neural tube defects (folate) and DNA oxidation (Se). This study investigated the effect of a high-fat diet either supplemented with (diet H), or marginally deficient in (diet L), Se and folate. Pregnant female mice and their male offspring were assigned to one of four treatments: diet H during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet L during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet H during gestation and lactation but diet L fed to offspring post-weaning; or diet L during gestation and lactation followed by diet H fed to offspring post-weaning. Microarray and pathway analyses were performed using RNA from colon and liver of 12-week-old male offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis of liver gene expression showed that diet L affected several pathways including regulation of translation (protein biosynthesis), methyl group metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism; this effect was stronger when the diet was fed to mothers, rather than to offspring. No significant differences in individual gene expression were observed in colon but there were significant differences in cell cycle control pathways. In conclusion, a maternal low Se/folate diet during gestation and lactation has more effects on gene expression in offspring than the same diet fed to offspring post-weaning; low Se and folate in utero and during lactation thus has persistent metabolic effects in the offspring. PMID:26007332

  2. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  3. Effect of Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder supplementation on intestinal morphology and intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Gang; Qiu, Yin; He, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ling; Shi, Fei; Lv, Cheng; Jing, Bo; Li, Yinglun

    2015-01-01

    A total of 75 pigs were used to investigate effects of feeding Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder (TMFP) on small intestinal morphology, intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs. The dietary treatments were: a control diet; control diet + 3 g/kg TMFP; control diet + 0.3 g/kg colistin sulfate (ANT). The results showed that supplementation with TMFP increased (P < 0.05) villus height at duodenum, jejunum at 3 time points, increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth at duodenum, jejunum at day 14, improved villus height: crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05) in jejunum at day 21 as compared with ANT. Supplementation of TMFP and ANT had lower (P < 0.05) E. coli counts in the ileum, cecum and colon at day 7 as compared with control. Supplementation of TMFP had higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria counts in the ileum, cecum and colon compared with ANT, except for colon at day 21. No effect (P > 0.05) on lactobacilli in colon has been seen with supplementation of TMFP and ANT at 3 time points, while both of supplementations showed increased the number of lactobacilli in cecum at day 14 and day 21. Analysis of DGGE fingerprints indicated that a highest similarity was observed for profiles from samples taken 14 d, 21 d from TMFP. The diversity of DGGE fingerprints of TMFP was higher than those of ANT and control. The results suggest that TMFP is potential to enhancing intestinal morphology and microbiota of weaning pigs, and can be served as an effective and safe dietary additive for weaning pigs.

  4. Species of Cryptosporidium detected in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fayer, Ronald; Santín, Monica; Dargatz, David

    2010-06-24

    To determine the species and distribution of Cryptosporidium in weaned beef calves in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 cattle between 6 and 18 months of age from 49 operations in 20 states (Alabama, California, Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and Wyoming). Fresh feces, collected either from the ground or directly from the rectum of each animal, were sieved and subjected to density gradient centrifugation to remove fecal debris and to concentrate oocysts. DNA extracted from each specimen was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers for the SSU rRNA gene. All PCR positive specimens were subjected to sequence analysis. Cryptosporidium was detected in 20.5% of the fecal samples. Cryptosporidium ryanae, C. bovis and C. andersoni were detected in 1.8, 4.8, and 14.0% of the 819 samples, respectively. California (number operations [n]=2), Iowa (n=3), and Nebraska (n=7) had the highest prevalence of infected weaned cattle with 44.4, 41.0 and 40.2% infected, respectively. Cryptosporidium was not detected in any weaned cattle from Alabama (number operations [n]=1), Georgia (n=2), New Mexico (n=1), South Dakota (n=1), Tennessee (n=1), or Texas (n=1). The zoonotic species, C. parvum, was not detected in any samples from 6- to 18-month-old cattle, a finding that parallels reports for dairy cattle of similar age in which less than 1% were found to harbor this species.

  5. Comparative effects of three phytases on the phosphorus and calcium use in the weaned piglet.

    PubMed

    Guggenbuhl, P; Wache, Y; Simoes Nunes, C; Fru, F

    2012-12-01

    The addition of phytase to swine diets has generally increased P digestibility and consequently reduced fecal excretion of P. The comparative effects on P and Ca digestibility of dietary inclusion of 5 different phytases were evaluated in the weaned piglet. RONOZYME HiPhos is a microbial 6-phytase produced by synthetic genes, mimicking a gene from Citrobacter braakii, and was compared to the Escherichia coli-derived phytases Phyzyme and OptiPhos. In total, 112 weaned piglets (28 d old) were allocated to 8 equal groups of 14 animals. Pigs were fed for 29 d a vegetable-based diet without addition of mineral P [Co(-)] or this diet supplemented with 12 g/kg feed of CaHPO(4) [Co(+)] or with HiPhos at 1000 units/kg (H1000) or 1500 units/kg (H1500), Phyzyme at 500 units/kg (P500) or 750 units/kg (P750), or OptiPhos at 500 units/kg (O500) or 750 units/kg (O750). All phytases reduced (P < 0.05) fecal P concentration and excretion and increased (P < 0.05) P digestibility and apparent P absorption. The digestible P equivalences of H1000, H1500, P500, P750, O500, and O750 were 0.94, 1.50, 0.67, 0.92, 0.58, and 1.11 g of full available P/kg of feed, respectively. Calcium digestibility was increased (P < 0.05) and Ca excretion reduced (P < 0.05) by the phytases. The 3 phytase preparations increased digestibility and apparent absorption of P and Ca in weaned piglets fed a diet containing P exclusively from plant origin.

  6. Effect of Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder supplementation on intestinal morphology and intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Gang; Qiu, Yin; He, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ling; Shi, Fei; Lv, Cheng; Jing, Bo; Li, Yinglun

    2015-01-01

    A total of 75 pigs were used to investigate effects of feeding Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder (TMFP) on small intestinal morphology, intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs. The dietary treatments were: a control diet; control diet + 3 g/kg TMFP; control diet + 0.3 g/kg colistin sulfate (ANT). The results showed that supplementation with TMFP increased (P < 0.05) villus height at duodenum, jejunum at 3 time points, increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth at duodenum, jejunum at day 14, improved villus height: crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05) in jejunum at day 21 as compared with ANT. Supplementation of TMFP and ANT had lower (P < 0.05) E. coli counts in the ileum, cecum and colon at day 7 as compared with control. Supplementation of TMFP had higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria counts in the ileum, cecum and colon compared with ANT, except for colon at day 21. No effect (P > 0.05) on lactobacilli in colon has been seen with supplementation of TMFP and ANT at 3 time points, while both of supplementations showed increased the number of lactobacilli in cecum at day 14 and day 21. Analysis of DGGE fingerprints indicated that a highest similarity was observed for profiles from samples taken 14 d, 21 d from TMFP. The diversity of DGGE fingerprints of TMFP was higher than those of ANT and control. The results suggest that TMFP is potential to enhancing intestinal morphology and microbiota of weaning pigs, and can be served as an effective and safe dietary additive for weaning pigs. PMID:25785165

  7. The neural background of hyper-emotional aggression induced by post-weaning social isolation.

    PubMed

    Toth, Mate; Tulogdi, Aron; Biro, Laszlo; Soros, Petra; Mikics, Eva; Haller, Jozsef

    2012-07-15

    Post-weaning social isolation in rats is believed to model symptoms of early social neglect-induced externalizing problems including aggression-related problems. We showed earlier that rats reared in social isolation were hyper-aroused during aggressive contacts, delivered substantially more attacks that were poorly signaled and were preferentially aimed at vulnerable body parts of opponents (head, throat and belly). Here we studied the neural background of this type of aggression by assessing the expression of the activation marker c-Fos in 22 brain areas of male Wistar rats submitted to resident-intruder conflicts. Post-weaning social isolation readily produced the behavioral alterations noticed earlier. Social isolation significantly increased the activation of brain areas that are known to directly or indirectly control inter-male aggression. Particularly, the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, anterior cingulate cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial and basolateral amygdala, hypothalamic attack area, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and locus coeruleus showed increased activations. This contrasts our earlier findings obtained in rats with experimentally induced hypoarousal, where abnormal attack patterns were associated with over-activated central amygdala, lateral hypothalamus, and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray that are believed to control predatory attacks. We have observed no similar activation patterns in rats socially isolated from weaning. In summary, these findings suggest that despite some phenotypic similarities, the neuronal background of hypo and hyperarousal-associated abnormal forms of aggression are markedly different. While the neuronal activation patterns induced by normal rivalry and hypoarousal-driven aggression are qualitative different, hyperarousal-associated aggression appears to be an exaggerated form of rivalry aggression.

  8. Caring for Tube-Fed Children: A Review of Management, Tube Weaning, and Emotional Considerations.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sarah; Davis, Ann M; Bruce, Amanda; Mousa, Hayat; Lyman, Beth; Cocjin, Jose; Dean, Kelsey; Ernst, Linda; Almadhoun, Osama; Hyman, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Enteral nutrition is the practice of delivering nutrition to the gut either orally or through a tube or other device. Many children are reliant on enteral feedings to either supplement their nutrition or as a complete source of their nutrition. Managing children on tube feedings requires a team of providers to work through such dilemmas as feeding schedules, weaning from tube feeding, sensory implications of tube feeding, treatment of pain or nausea associated with eating, oral-motor issues, and behavioral issues in the child and family. The purpose of the current review is to summarize the multidisciplinary aspects of enteral feeding. The multidisciplinary team consists of a variable combination of an occupational therapist, speech-language pathologist, gastroenterologist, psychologist, nurse, pharmacist, and dietitian. Children who have minimal oral feeding experience and are fed via a nasogastric or gastrostomy tube often develop oral aversions. Limited data support that children with feeding disorders are more likely to have sensory impairment and that early life pain experiences contribute to feeding refusal. There are inpatient and outpatient programs for weaning patients from tube feeding to eating. The parent-child interaction is an important part of the assessment and treatment of the tube-fed child. This review also points out many information gaps, including data on feeding schedules, blenderized tube feedings, the best methods for weaning children off enteral feedings, the efficacy of chronic pain medications with tube-fed children, and, finally, the necessity of the assessment of parental stress among all parents of children who are tube fed.

  9. Dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) improve weaned intestinal microbiota and mucosal barrier using a piglet model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Meng; Song, Peixia; Huang, Chang; Rezaei, Arash; Farrar, Shabnam; Brown, Michael A.; Ma, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins have been suggested as an effective antibiotic alternative, however their mechanisms are still unknown. The present study investigated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins on gut microbiota and mucosal barrier using a weaned piglet model in comparison with colistin. Piglets weaned at 28 day were randomly assigned to four groups treated with a control ration, or supplemented with 250 mg/kg proanthocyanidins, kitasamycin/colistin, or 250 mg/kg proanthocyanidins and half-dose antibiotics, respectively. On day 28, the gut chyme and tissue samples were collected to test intestinal microbiota and barrier function, respectively. Proanthocyanidins treated piglets had better growth perform