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Sample records for adjusted weaning weights

  1. Correcting bias from the standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to an age-constant basis for beef calves.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D J; Kress, D D; Tess, M W; Burfening, P J

    1992-05-01

    Standard linear adjustment of weaning weight to a constant age has been shown to introduce bias in the adjusted weight due to nonlinear growth from birth to weaning of beef calves. Ten years of field records from the five strains of Beefbooster Cattle Alberta Ltd. seed stock herds were used to investigate the use of correction factors to adjust standard 180-d weight (WT180) for this bias. Statistical analyses were performed within strain and followed three steps: 1) the full data set was split into an estimation set (ES) and a validation set (VS), 2) WT180 from the ES was used to develop estimates of correction factors using a model including herd (H), year (YR), age of dam (DA), sex of calf (S), all two and three-way interactions, and any significant linear and quadratic covariates of calf age at weaning deviated from 180 d (DEVCA) and interactions between DEVCA and DA, S or DA x S, and 3) significant DEVCA coefficients were used to correct WT180 from the VS, then WT180 and the corrected weight (WTCOR) from the VS were analyzed with the same model as in Step 2 and significance of DEVCA terms were compared. Two types of data splitting were used. Adjusted R2 was calculated to describe the proportion of total variation of DEVCA terms explained for WT180 from the ES. The DEVCA terms explained .08 to 1.54% of the total variation for the five strains. Linear and quadratic correction factors were both positive and negative. Bias in WT180 from the ES within 180 +/- 35 d of age ranged from 2.8 to 21.7 kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1526901

  2. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  3. Drought effect on weaning weight and efficiency relative to cow size in semiarid rangeland.

    PubMed

    Scasta, J D; Henderson, L; Smith, T

    2015-12-01

    Cow size has been suggested to be an important consideration for selecting cattle to match their production environment. Over the last several decades, the trend in genetic selection for maximum growth has led to gradual increases in beef cow size. An unrelated trend during this same period in the western United States has been an increase in temperature, drought frequency, and drought severity. Due to the potential influence of the increasing cow size trend on nutritional maintenance costs and production, we assessed the effect of cow size on weaning weight and efficiency in relation to drought on a semiarid high-elevation ranch in Wyoming. This study addresses a lack of empirical studies on the interaction between cow size and drought. We measured calf weaning weights of 80 Angus × Gelbvieh cows from 2011 to 2014 and assessed how drought affected weaning weights, efficiency (considered as calf weight relative to cow weight), intake requirements, and potential herd sizes relative to cow size. We stratified cows into 5 weight classes (453, 498, 544, 589, and 634 kg) as a proxy for cow size and adjusted weaning weights to a 210-d calf sex adjusted value. Cow size was a significant factor every year, with different cow sizes having advantages or disadvantages different years relative to weaning weight. However, efficiency for the smallest cows (453 kg) was always greater than efficiency for largest cows (634 kg; < 0.001). Efficiency for the smallest cows was greater in the driest year (0.41 ± 0.02) than efficiency of the largest cows in the wettest years (0.37 ± 0.01). The change in efficiency (ΔE) between wet and dry years was 0.18 for the smallest cow size and 0.02 for the largest cow size, and ΔE decreased as cow size increased. This is an indication of the ability of smaller cows to lower maintenance requirements in response to changes in the production environment but with optimal upside potential when conditions are favorable. These results indicate large

  4. Sex effects on breed of sire differences for birth, weaning, and yearling weights.

    PubMed

    Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V

    1998-06-01

    Weights of males and females can be considered to be correlated traits with different averages and variances. This study attempted to determine whether defining traits as expressed in males or in females would change estimates of breed of sire differences needed to calculate across-breed factors for adjustment of within-breed EPD to across-breed EPD. Records from the US Meat Animal Research Center of progeny of Hereford, Angus, and MARC III composite dams mated to 12 sire breeds that had been used to calculate breed of sire adjustments in 1996 were used. Breeds of sire were Hereford, Angus, Shorthorn, Brahman, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Maine-Anjou, Gelbvieh, Pinzgauer, Tarentaise, and Salers. Female and male records for birth (BWT), weaning (WWT), and yearling (YWT) weights were considered to be separate although correlated traits. Heritability estimates for expression as females and males were as follows: .44 and .47 for BWT, .25 and .19 for WWT, and .55 and .49 for YWT. Corresponding genetic correlations between expression in males and females were .85, 1.00, and .92. Phenotypic standard deviations were slightly larger and coefficients of variation slightly smaller for males than for females; the largest differences were for YWT. Breeds ranked similarly for female and male weights; the major exception was Brahman for BWT. Averages of breed of sire contrasts for expression in females and males were almost identical to contrasts from analyses of combined male and female records. Largest differences between averaged and combined breed of sire contrasts were approximately 1 kg for BWT and WWT and approximately 2 kg for YWT. The results show that considering male and female weights as separate traits is not needed in calculation of across-breed adjustment factors from US Meat Animal Research Center records. PMID:9655571

  5. Genetic parameters for weaning weight by age of dam for Brazilian Nellore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic parameters by age of dam subclass for weaning weight of Nellore cattle raised on pasture in two regions of São Paulo State, Brazil, between 1975 and 2001. The data were from ABCZ / EMBRAPA and included 51,664 weights at 205 d (W205) from progeny of 24,996 cows....

  6. Body weights at weaning and 18 months of Zebu, Brown Swiss, Charolais and crossbred heifers in south-east Mexico.

    PubMed

    Magaña, J G; Segura-Correa, J C

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the body weights up to 18 months of age of 12 breed groups of Zebu (Z), Brown Swiss (BS) and Charolais heifers (CH), and their crosses under tropical conditions. A total of 1434 data on weaning weights adjusted to 240 days (WW8), average daily gain to 240 days (ADG8) and 1025 body weights adjusted to 550 days (BW18) and average postweaning daily gain (ADG18) of heifers born from 1981 to 1995 were used. Cows and calves remained together from birth to weaning and grazed on Guinea grass (Panicum maximum). Years of birth were grouped in three periods, because of the small numbers of observations per year (1981-85, 1986-90 and 1991-95). Similarly, months of birth were grouped in three seasons: dry (February to May), rainy (June to September) and windy and rainy (October to January). Ages of dams were classified in six groups (or=8 years). Breed groups were animals with 12.5%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 62.5%, 75.0% and 100% BS genes and 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% and 100% CH genes and also Z and undefined crossbred animals. Data were analysed using a fixed model that included effects of period, and season of birth, age of dam and breed group of heifer. Analyses of variance showed significant (p < 0.05) effects of period, season and breed group for all traits. However, parity was significant (p < 0.05) only for WW8 and ADG8. Interactions among main factors were not significant (p > 0.05). Z heifers gained the least weight to weaning but were similar to BS at 18 months of age. CH were heavier at 18 months of age than BS heifers, but not at weaning. Body weights at 18 months of age of 1/8 and 1/4 BS crossbred heifers were similar (p > 0.05) and lower than F1 (BS x Z) (p < 0.05); however, the later and higher grades of BS had the highest body weights at 18 months of age and were similar to CH and 1/4 CH x 3/4 Z heifers. Undefined crossbred heifers had better performance than the Z breed group. Environmental factors were

  7. Estimation of breed-specific heterosis effects for birth, weaning, and yearling weight in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterosis, assumed proportional to expected breed heterozygosity, was calculated for 6,834 individuals with birth, weaning and yearling weight records from Cycle VII and advanced generations of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) project. Breeds represented in t...

  8. ESTIMATES OF GENETIC PARAMETERS AND AN EVALUATION OF GENOTYPE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION FOR WEANING WEIGHT IN NELLORE CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of 105,645 Nellore calves born from 1977 to 1994 in eight different regions of Brazil were used to estimate genetic parameters for weaning weight (kg). The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and environmental parameters and evaluate genotype x environment interaction for weaning...

  9. Estimation of breed-specific heterosis effects for birth, weaning, and yearling weight in cattle.

    PubMed

    Schiermiester, L N; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A; Kachman, S D; Spangler, M L

    2015-01-01

    Heterosis, assumed proportional to expected breed heterozygosity, was calculated for 6834 individuals with birth, weaning and yearling weight records from Cycle VII and advanced generations of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) project. Breeds represented in these data included: Angus, Hereford, Red Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Simmental, Limousin and Composite MARC III. Heterosis was further estimated by proportions of British × British (B × B), British × Continental (B × C) and Continental × Continental (C × C) crosses and by breed-specific combinations. Model 1 fitted fixed covariates for heterosis within biological types while Model 2 fitted random breed-specific combinations nested within the fixed biological type covariates. Direct heritability estimates (SE) for birth, weaning ,and yearling weight for Model 1 were 0.42 (0.04), 0.22 (0.03), and 0.39 (0.05), respectively. The direct heritability estimates (SE) of birth, weaning, and yearling weight for Model 2 were the same as Model 1, except yearling weight heritability was 0.38 (0.05). The B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis estimates for birth weight were 0.47 (0.37), 0.75 (0.32), and 0.73 (0.54) kg, respectively. The B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis estimates for weaning weight were 6.43 (1.80), 8.65 (1.54), and 5.86 (2.57) kg, respectively. Yearling weight estimates for B × B, B × C, and C × C heterosis were 17.59(3.06), 13.88 (2.63), and 9.12 (4.34) kg, respectively. Differences did exist among estimates of breed-specific heterosis for weaning and yearling weight, although the variance component associated with breed-specific heterosis was not significant. These results illustrate that there are differences in breed-specific heterosis and exploiting these differences can lead to varying levels of heterosis among mating plans. PMID:25568356

  10. 7 CFR 981.401 - Adjusted kernel weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... weight of delivery 10,000 10,000 2. Percent of edible kernel weight 53.0 84.0 3. Less weight loss in... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjusted kernel weight. 981.401 Section 981.401... Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.401 Adjusted kernel weight. (a) Definition. Adjusted kernel...

  11. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1506293

  12. Genetic variation of the weaning weight of beef cattle as a function of accumulated heat stress.

    PubMed

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the genetic variation in the weaning weight (WW) of beef cattle as a function of heat stress. The WWs were recorded at approximately 205 days of age in three Brazilian beef cattle populations: Nelore (93,616), Brangus (18,906) and Tropical Composite (62,679). In view of the cumulative nature of WW, the effect of heat stress was considered as the accumulation of temperature and humidity index units (ACTHI) from the animal's birth to weaning. A reaction norm model was used to estimate the (co)variance components of WW across the ACTHI scale. The accumulation of THI units from birth to weaning negatively affected the WW. The definition of accumulated THI units as an environmental descriptor permitted to identify important genetic variation in the WW as a function of heat stress. As evidence of genotype by environment interaction, substantial heterogeneity was observed in the (co)variance components for WW across the environmental gradient. In this respect, the best animals in less stressful environments are not necessarily the best animals in more stressful environments. Furthermore, the response to selection for WW is expected to be lower in more stressful environments. PMID:26061790

  13. Effects of Chitosan on Body Weight Gain, Growth Hormone and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanqing; Shi, Binlin; Yan, Sumei; Li, Tiyu; Guo, Yiwei; Li, Junliang

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of chitosan on the concentrations of GH and IGF-I in serum and small intestinal morphological structure of piglets, in order to evaluate the regulating action of chitosan on weaned pig growth through endocrine and intestinal morphological approaches. A total of 180 weaned pigs (35 d of age; 11.56±1.61 kg of body weight) were selected and assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatments, including 1 basal diet (control) and 4 diets with chitosan supplementation (100, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg, respectively). Each treatment contained six replicate pens with six pigs per pen. The experiment lasted for 28 d. The results showed that the average body weight gain (BWG) of pigs was improved quadratically by dietary chitosan during the former 14 d and the later 14 d after weaned (p<0.05). Furthermore, dietary supplementation of chitosan tended to quadratically increase the concentration of serum GH on d 14 (p = 0.082) and 28 (p = 0.087). Diets supplemented with increasing levels of chitosan increased quadratically the villus height of jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p = 0.089, p<0.01) and 28 (p = 0.074, p<0.01), meanwhile, chitosan increased quadratically the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 14 (p<0.05, p = 0.055, p<0.01) and 28 (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.01), however, it decreased quadratically crypt depth in ileum on d 14 (p<0.05) and that in duodenum, jejunum and ileum on d 28 (p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.05). In conclusion, these results indicated that chitosan could quadratically improve growth in weaned pigs, and the underlying mechanism may due to the increase of the serum GH concentration and improvement of the small intestines morphological structure. PMID:25049731

  14. Heifer calving date positively influences calf weaning weights through six parturitions.

    PubMed

    Cushman, R A; Kill, L K; Funston, R N; Mousel, E M; Perry, G A

    2013-09-01

    Longevity and lifetime productivity are important factors influencing profitability for the cow-calf producer. Heifers that conceive earlier in the breeding season will calve earlier in the calving season and have a longer interval to rebreeding. Calves born earlier in the calving season will also be older and heavier at weaning. Longevity data were collected on 2,195 heifers from producers in South Dakota Integrated Resource Management groups. Longevity and weaning weight data were collected on 16,549 individual heifers at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Data were limited to heifers that conceived during their first breeding season. Heifers were grouped into 21-d calving periods. Heifers were determined to have left the herd when they were diagnosed not pregnant at the end of the breeding season. Heifers that left the herd for reasons other than reproductive failure were censored from the data. Heifers that calved with their first calf during the first 21-d period of the calving season had increased (P < 0.01) longevity compared with heifers that calved in the second 21-d period, or later. Average longevity for South Dakota heifers that calved in the first or later period was 5.1 ± 0.1 and 3.9 ± 0.1 yr, respectively. Average longevity for USMARC heifers that calved in the first, second, or third period was 8.2 ± 0.3, 7.6 ± 0.5, and 7.2 ± 0.1 yr, respectively. Calving period as a heifer influenced (P < 0.01) unadjusted weaning BW of the first 6 calves. Estimated postpartum interval to conception as a 2-yr-old cow was greater for females that calved in the first period as heifers but did not differ between heifer calving periods in subsequent calving seasons. In summary, heifers that calved early in the calving season with their first calf had increased longevity and kilograms weaned, compared with heifers that calved later in the calving season. PMID:23825337

  15. Investigation of three strategies for an international genetic evaluation of beef cattle weaning weight

    PubMed Central

    Phocas, Florence; Donoghue, Kath; Graser, Hans Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Weaning weights from 83 389 Limousin calves born between 1993 and 2002 in France and the Trans-Tasman block (Australia/New Zealand) were analysed to compare different strategies for running an international genetic evaluation for the breed. These records were a subset of the complete data for both countries and comprised a sample of herds that had recorded progeny of sires used across both countries. Genetic and phenotypic parameters for weaning weight were estimated within the countries. The estimates of direct genetic heritabilities were higher in France than in the Trans-Tasman block (0.31 vs. 0.22), while direct-maternal genetic correlations were less negative in the Trans-Tasman block (-0.10) than in France (-0.21). Different strategies for an international evaluation were studied, and the correlations between the estimated breeding values (EBV) of national evaluations and these strategies were derived. The international evaluation strategies were a) an animal model on raw performance data with non unity genetic correlations and heterogeneous residual and genetic variances across countries; b) the same animal model applied to pre-corrected (for fixed effects) performance data; and c) a sire model on de-regressed proofs (MACE). Estimates of the genetic correlations between weaning weight in both countries were 0.86 (0.80) for direct (maternal) genetic effects for the first strategy. Estimation of variance components by MACE appeared to be very sensitive to the sample of bulls and their reliability approximations. Variance component estimates obtained using pre-corrected data were inconsistent with estimates on raw data. However, the EBV predicted using pre-corrected data and parameters estimated from the raw data were similar to those predicted from raw data. Correlations between national and international EBV were always high (> 0.90) for sires, whichever genetic effect (direct or maternal) or international evaluation model was considered. The ranking of the

  16. Using Weighting Adjustments to Compensate for Survey Nonresponse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    Weighting adjustments are used in some studies to compensate for biased estimators produced by survey nonresponse. Using data from the 2004 National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) and the NSSE poststratification weighting algorithm, this study found that weighting adjustments were needed for some, but not all institutions. Unfortunately, no…

  17. Genetic evaluation of weaning weight and probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic control of 120-day weaning weight and the probability of lambing at 1 year of age in Targhee ewe lambs. Records of 5,967 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2012 and first exposed to rams for breeding at approximately 7 months of age were analyzed. Reco...

  18. Identification of polymorphisms in the promoter region of the bovine heat shock protein gene and associations with bull calf weaning weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between genotypic variation of the bovine HSP-70 promoter and bull calf weaning weights and serum concentrations of HSP-70 at weaning. Blood samples were collected from 33 crossbred bull calves. Calves were sired by Angus bulls and had Brahman-cross dam...

  19. [Weight-for-height in adults: comparison of classifications adjusted and non adjusted by frame size].

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, R A; Hernández de Valera, Y

    1998-03-01

    The present study is to analyze the concordance, agreements and divergence of anthropometry nutritional classification of weight-height (WH) in adults, using criteria that include frame size adjustments and no adjustment at all. 224 adults were studied (127 female and 117 males) from the "Simón Bolívar" University Administrative Employees Health Project, 1993. Using as basis, the variables weight, height, wrist circumference and elbow breadth, we determined: a) frame size by wrist circumference methods (WC) (Grant, 1980) and elbow breadth (EB) (Frame index 2 by Frisancho, 1989); b) classification by weight-height (WH) according to table by frame size (Frisancho, 1984). 57%, 38% and 6% corresponded to small, medium and large frame sizes, by WC. 16%, 60% and 25% by EB. When classifying by WH those results showed differences between 16-25% in female and 15-21% in males. When contrasting the three criteria, it was observed a bigger coincidence between WH without frame size adjustment and WH adjustment by EB. The smallest coincidence between WH adjusted by WC method and weight height without frame size adjustment in the whole group, while male and female got the biggest coincidence in WH adjustment by WC and HW without frame size adjustment. The smallest concordance (k = 0.37) was obtained when contrasting WH frame size adjustment by EB vs weight-height without adjustment in female, and biggest concordance (k = 0.60) when contrasting WH by WC and without adjustment in males. This results show that, there are significative differences in nutritional classification of weight-height in adults adjusted and non adjusted by frame size within the same group of persons. PMID:9754399

  20. Incorporating the sampling design in weighting adjustments for panel attrition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qixuan; Gelman, Andrew; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2015-12-10

    We review weighting adjustment methods for panel attrition and suggest approaches for incorporating design variables, such as strata, clusters, and baseline sample weights. Design information can typically be included in attrition analysis using multilevel models or decision tree methods such as the chi-square automatic interaction detection algorithm. We use simulation to show that these weighting approaches can effectively reduce bias in the survey estimates that would occur from omitting the effect of design factors on attrition while keeping the resulted weights stable. We provide a step-by-step illustration on creating weighting adjustments for panel attrition in the Galveston Bay Recovery Study, a survey of residents in a community following a disaster, and provide suggestions to analysts in decision-making about weighting approaches. PMID:26239405

  1. Genetic response to selection for weaning weight or yearling weight or yearling weight and muscle score in Hereford cattle: efficiency of gain, growth, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Koch, R M; Cundiff, L V; Gregory, K E; Van Vleck, L D

    2004-03-01

    An experiment involving crosses among selection and control lines was conducted to partition direct and maternal additive genetic response to 20 yr of selection for 1) weaning weight, 2) yearling weight, and 3) index of yearling weight and muscle score. Selection response was evaluated for efficiency of gain, growth from birth through market weight, and carcass characteristics. Heritability and genetic correlations among traits were estimated using animal model analyses. Over a time-constant interval, selected lines were heavier, gained more weight, consumed more ME, and had more gain/ME than the control. Over a weight-constant interval, selected lines required fewer days, consumed less ME, had more efficient gains, and required less energy for maintenance than control. Direct and maternal responses were estimated from reciprocal crosses among unselected sires and dams of control and selection lines. Most of the genetic response to selection in all three lines was associated with direct genetic effects, and the highest proportion was from postweaning gain. Indirect responses of carcass characteristics to selection over the 20 yr were increased weight of carcasses that had more lean meat, produced with less feed per unit of gain. At a constant carcass weight, selected lines had 1.32 to 1.85% more retail product and 1.62 to 2.24% less fat trim and 10/100 to 25/100 degrees less marbling than control. At a constant age, heritability of direct and maternal effects and correlations between them were as follows: market weight, 0.36, 0.14, and 0.10; carcass weight, 0.26, 0.15, and 0.03; longissimus muscle area, 0.33, 0.00, and 0.00; marbling, 0.36, 0.07, and -0.35; fat thickness, 0.41, 0.05, and -0.18; percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, 0.12, 0.08, and -0.76; percentage of retail product, 0.46, 0.05, and -0.29; retail product weight, 0.44, 0.08, -0.14; and muscle score, 0.37, 0.14, and -0.54. Selection criteria in all lines improved efficiency of postweaning gain

  2. Impact of initiating a fixed-time AI program on herd calving date and weaning weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved reproductive efficiency is critical for profitability in cow-calf operations. Cows that give birth early wean more pounds of calf and stay in the herd longer. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the impact of implementing a fixed time AI protocol in a herd that had a defined 6...

  3. Field trial to determine the impact of providing additional care to litters on weaning weight of pigs

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, Catherine E.; Gomes, Tara; Richardson, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this field trial was to determine if maximal care of pigs from birth until 16 d of age would result in a significant alteration in the survivorship and growth performance of the pigs compared with control pigs born in the same time period. Sows were randomly assigned to treatment group prior to farrowing. Control pigs received the standard, commercial farm care. In maximal care litters, pigs were dried off at farrowing, given a rubber mat in the creep area, and given electrolytes, chilled pigs were warmed and given colostrum or glucose, surgical instruments used for processing were dipped into an antiseptic between pigs, the castration wounds were sprayed with iodine, and sows were fed 3 times rather than twice a day. Pigs that received the maximal care weighed 170 g (+/− 80 g) more at 16 d of age than standard care pigs. Factors that reduced weight at 16 d included having a low birth weight, nursing a gilt or a parity 5–6 sow, nursing in a large litter, being clinically ill or being lame after 3 d of age, being cross-fostered and nursing an ill sow. In general, maximal care did not reduce mortality. Providing maximal care did improve weaning weights and enabled small birth weight pigs to reach 3.7 kg at 16 d of age. PMID:19086370

  4. Age at Weaning and Infant Growth: Primary Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vail, Brennan; Prentice, Philippa; Dunger, David B.; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Ong, Ken K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether earlier age at weaning (age 3-6 months) may promote faster growth during infancy. Study design Weaning at age 3.0-7.0 months was reported by 571 mothers of term singletons in a prospective birth cohort study conducted in Cambridge, UK. Infant weight and length were measured at birth and at age 3 months and 12 months. Anthropometric values were transformed into age- and sex-adjusted z-scores. Three linear regression models were performed, including adjustment for confounders in a stepwise manner. Measurements at age 3 months, before weaning, were used to consider reverse causality. Results Almost three-quarters (72.9%) of infants were weaned before age 6 months. Age at weaning of 3.0-7.0 months was inversely associated with weight and length (but not with body mass index) at 12 months (both P ≤ .01, adjusted for maternal and demographic factors). These associations were attenuated after adjustment for type of milk feeding and weight or length at age 3 months (before weaning). Rapid weight gain between 0 and 3 months predicted subsequent earlier age at weaning (P = .01). Our systematic review identified 2 trials, both reporting null effects of age at weaning on growth, and 15 observational studies, with 10 reporting an inverse association between age at weaning and infant growth and 4 reporting evidence of reverse causality. Conclusion In high-income countries, weaning between 3 and 6 months appears to have a neutral effect on infant growth. Inverse associations are likely related to reverse causality. PMID:26073105

  5. A Divergent Artiodactyl MYADM-like Repeat Is Associated with Erythrocyte Traits and Weight of Lamb Weaned in Domestic Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Michael V.; Mousel, Michelle R.; Herndon, David R.; Jiang, Yu; Dalrymple, Brian P.; Reynolds, James O.; Johnson, Wendell C.; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M.; White, Stephen N.

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to investigate seven red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes in over 500 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from three breeds (Columbia, Polypay, and Rambouillet). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showed genome-wide significant association with increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, P = 6.2×10−14) and genome-wide suggestive association with decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV, P = 2.5×10−6). The ovine HapMap project found the same genomic region and the same peak SNP has been under extreme historical selective pressure, demonstrating the importance of this region for survival, reproduction, and/or artificially selected traits. We observed a large (>50 kb) variant haplotype sequence containing a full-length divergent artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat in strong linkage disequilibrium with the associated SNP. MYADM gene family members play roles in membrane organization and formation in myeloid cells. However, to our knowledge, no member of the MYADM gene family has been identified in development of morphologically variant RBCs. The specific RBC differences may be indicative of alterations in morphology. Additionally, erythrocytes with altered morphological structure often exhibit increased structural fragility, leading to increased RBC turnover and energy expenditure. The divergent artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat was also associated with increased ewe lifetime kilograms of lamb weaned (P = 2×10−4). This suggests selection for normal RBCs might increase lamb weights, although further validation is required before implementation in marker-assisted selection. These results provide clues to explain the strong selection on the artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat locus in sheep, and suggest MYADM family members may be important for RBC morphology in other mammals. PMID:24023702

  6. High d(+)-fructose diet adversely affects testicular weight gain in weaning rats─protection by moderate d(+)-glucose diet.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The use of high D(+)-fructose corn syrup has increased over the past several decades in the developed countries, while overweight and obesity rates and the related diseases have risen dramatically. However, we found that feeding a high D(+)-fructose diet (80% D(+)-fructose as part of the diet) to weaning rats for 21 days led to reduced food intake (50% less, P < 0.0001) and thus delayed the weight gains in the body (40% less, P < 0.0001) and testes (40% less, P < 0.0001) compared to the no D(+)-fructose diet. We also challenged a minimum requirement of dietary D(+)-glucose for preventing the adverse effects of D(+)-fructose, such as lower food intake and reduction of body weight and testicular weight; the minimum requirement of D(+)-glucose was ≈23% of the diet. This glucose amount may be the minimum requirement of exogenous glucose for reducing weight gain. PMID:23935370

  7. A randomized clinical trial of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist versus conventional weaning mode in patients with COPD and prolonged mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Nai-Ying; Tu, Mei-Lien; Hung, Tsai-Yi; Liu, Shih-Feng; Chung, Yu-Hsiu; Lin, Meng-Chih; Wu, Chao-Chien

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-ventilator asynchrony is a common problem in mechanically ventilated patients; the problem is especially obvious in COPD. Neutrally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) can improve patient-ventilator asynchrony; however, the effect in COPD patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation is still unknown. The goals of this study are to evaluate the effect of NAVA and conventional weaning mode in patients with COPD during prolonged mechanical ventilation. Methods The study enrolled a total of 33 COPD patients with ventilator dependency for more than 21 days in the weaning center. A diaphragm electrical activity (Edi) catheter was inserted in patients within 24 hours after admission to the respiratory care center, and patients were randomly allocated to NAVA or conventional group. A spontaneous breathing trial was performed every 24 hours. The results correlated with the clinical parameters. Results There were significantly higher asynchrony incidence rates in the whole group after using Edi catheter (before vs post-Edi catheter insertion =60.6% vs 87.9%, P<0.001). Asynchrony index: before vs post-Edi catheter insertion =7.4%±8.5% vs 13.2%±13.5%, P<0.01. Asynchrony incidence: NAVA vs conventional =0% vs 84.2%, P<0.001. Asynchrony index: NAVA vs conventional =0 vs 11.9±11.2 (breath %), P<0.001. The most common asynchrony events were ineffective trigger and delayed trigger. Conclusion Compared to conventional mode, NAVA mode can significantly enhance respiratory monitoring and improve patient-ventilator interaction in COPD patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation in respiratory care center. PMID:27274216

  8. Field Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Oral Toltrazuril and Iron Combination (Baycox® Iron) in Maintaining Weaning Weight by Preventing Coccidiosis and Anaemia in Neonatal Piglets.

    PubMed

    Streyl, Kristina; Carlstron, Janaina; Dantos, Eliana; Mendoza, Roberto; Islas, Juan Agustin Torres; Bhushan, Chandra

    2015-08-01

    Effectiveness of an oral combination of toltrazuril and iron dextran (Baycox(®) Iron) to maintain weaning weight by preventing coccidiosis caused by Isospora suis and iron-deficiency anaemia in neonatal piglets was investigated on three commercial pig farms with a history of coccidiosis: two in Mexico and one in Brazil. On day (SD) 2 of life, piglets were randomised within litter by bodyweight to treatment or control group. On SD 3 piglets allocated to the control group (CG) each received 1 mL Baycox(®), containing 50 mg/mL toltrazuril orally and commercially available iron (200 mg/piglet) by intramuscular injection. Piglets allocated to the treatment group (TG) each received 1 mL toltrazuril and iron combination orally (Baycox(®) Iron) containing 50 mg/mL toltrazuril and 228 mg iron as iron dextran. All piglets had access to creep feed. 6493 piglets completed the study. Bodyweight at weaning on SD 21 of piglets treated with the oral toltrazuril and iron combination was confirmed to be non-inferior to the control treatment with <1 % difference between group mean body weights. Faecal samples from at least 10 % of litters on SD 14 demonstrated control of coccidiosis. Haemoglobin levels on SD 21 were lower in the oral toltrazuril and iron combination treated piglets compared to control levels but above minimum haemoglobin levels to maintain health. There was no difference in mortality between the two groups. This large scale field evaluation clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of oral toltrazuril and iron (Baycox(®) Iron) in maintaining body weight at weaning compared to conventional treatment. The combination was effective in preventing coccidiosis and anaemia and thus provides a valuable alternative that reduces stressful events in neonatal piglets. There were no product related adverse events. PMID:26152420

  9. The relationship of cow size and calf birth weight to calf weaning weight in a commercial Brangus cow/calf operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profitability and sustainability of cow/calf operations are dependent on cow efficiency. Annual forage consumption is a logical input component included in cow efficiency models and large cows generally consume more forage annually than small cows. The ratio of additional kg of calf weaning BW to ea...

  10. SMAD7, an antagonist of TGF-beta signaling, is a candidate of prenatal skeletal muscle development and weaning weight in pigs.

    PubMed

    Hua, Chaoju; Wang, Zishuai; Zhang, Jianbing; Peng, Xing; Hou, Xinhua; Yang, Yalan; Li, Kui; Tang, Zhonglin

    2016-04-01

    SMAD7 promotes and enhances skeletal muscle differentiation by inhibiting transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/activin signaling and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways. However, its function, the mechanism regulating its translation, and its association with production meat traits remain unclear in pigs. In this study, we explored SMAD7 gene spatio-temporal and tissue distribution, conducted a single nucleotide polymorphism association analysis, and examined regulation of its expression during skeletal muscle development. We found that SMAD7 was positively related to TGF-β pathway genes and mainly expressed in prenatal developing muscle, and dual luciferase and western blot assays demonstrated that SMAD7 expression was regulated by miRNA-21 at the protein level via inhibition of mRNA translation. Finally, the association analysis showed that a single nucleotide mutation (Exon 4_28816;C/A) was significantly associated with the weaning weight of piglets among Yorkshire pigs. These data indicate that SMAD7 plays a potentially important role in mammalian prenatal skeletal muscle development and is a candidate gene for promoting greater weaning weight in pig breeding. PMID:26902861

  11. Association Between Body Weight at Weaning and Remodeling in the Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Obese Adult Mice With Undernourishment In Utero

    PubMed Central

    Kohmura, Yukiko Kobayashi; Kanayama, Naohiro; Muramatsu, Keiko; Tamura, Naoaki; Yaguchi, Chizuko; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kazunao; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Aoe, Seiichiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Suganami, Takayoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Rapid growth in infancy considerably increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood especially among neonates born small. To investigate the mechanism involved, we developed an animal model of undernourishment in utero by maternal caloric restriction, in which the Z scores of body weight at weaning (19.5 days) positively correlated with parameters of obesity, metabolic disorders, and remodeling of subcutaneous adipose tissue, such as numbers of macrophages in adipose tissue, the ratio of inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, estimated by gene expression of specific antigens, and the relative ratio of small adipocytes less than 30 μm in diameter, on a high-fat diet at 17 weeks of age. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a possible connection between infantile body weight and adipose tissue remodeling in obesity after undernourishment in utero. PMID:23296035

  12. The water delivery system affects the rate of weight gain in C57BL/6J mice during the first week after weaning.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Alexander; Wyatt, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Facility planners, IACUCs, veterinary staff, and researchers make choices on water delivery systems for rodents on the basis of cost effectiveness, water quality, risk of malfunction, and potential effect on animal health and welfare. Here we compare biometrics, including weight trends, of newly arrived mice unfamiliar with automated watering; weight trends of weanlings; fecundity of mice; and risk of malfunction among 3 water delivery techniques: water bottle only, combination of automated delivery and water bottle, and automated system only. There was no statistically significant difference among the 3 experimental groups with respect to fecundity, mortality, and delivery malfunction. On the basis of body weight trends, the health and wellbeing of the mice used in these studies were not affected by the water delivery system or housing density after the first week; however, there was a significant difference in the growth rate at 21 to 28 d of age among the 3 groups of pups. The mice receiving both automated delivery and water bottles experienced higher growth rates from 21 to 28 d of age than did the other experimental groups. However, after 35 d of age, weight trends did not differ among the groups. Our results suggest that mice weaned into the same method of water delivery as their respective dams thrive equally well among the 3 tested water delivery systems. PMID:21333161

  13. Weaning Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for reflection on the…

  14. [Weaning from mechanical ventilation. Weaning categories and weaning concepts].

    PubMed

    Geiseler, J; Kelbel, C

    2016-04-01

    The international classification of three weaning categories (simple weaning, difficult weaning, prolonged weaning) has been modified in the German weaning guidelines: the group of prolonged weaning has been subclassified into weaning without noninvasive ventilation (NIV), weaning with NIV, if necessary with continuing NIV in the form of home mechanical ventilation, and weaning failure.Strategies to prevent prolonged weaning comprise daily interruption of sedation, daily screening of capability of spontaneous breathing by a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) and early implementation of NIV instead of continuing invasive mechanical ventilation especially in hypercapnic patients. The comorbidity left heart failure plays a major role in weaning failure and need for re-intubation-in this case early diagnosis and if necessary modification of heart therapy are important.Specialised weaning-centres offer the option for successful weaning for about 50-60 % of patients declared as unweanable by usual intensive care units. A multimodal therapy concept with respiratory therapists, physiotherapists and speech therapy is necessary to reach this goal. In case of weaning failure a professional discharge management to invasive home mechanical ventilation is important. Competent care by physicians in the out-of-hospital area is restricted by the sectoral division of responsibility by the German health care system. Improvement in this area is urgently needed. PMID:27084181

  15. An asymmetric re-weighting method for the precision combined bundle adjustment of aerial oblique images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Linfu; Hu, Han; Wang, Jingxue; Zhu, Qing; Chen, Min

    2016-07-01

    Combined bundle adjustment is a fundamental step in the processing of massive oblique images. Traditional bundle adjustment designed for nadir images gives identical weights to different parts of image point observations made from different directions, due to the assumption that the errors in the observations follow the same Gaussian distribution. However, because of their large tilt angles, aerial oblique images have trapezoidal footprints on the ground, and their areas correspond to conspicuously different ground sample distances. The errors in different observations no longer conform to the above assumption, which leads to suboptimal bundle adjustment accuracy and restricts subsequent 3D applications. To model the distribution of the errors correctly for the combined bundle adjustment of oblique images, this paper proposes an asymmetric re-weighting method. The scale of each pixel is used to determine a re-weighting factor, and each pixel is subsequently projected onto the ground to identify another anisotropic re-weighting factor using the shape of its quadrangle. Next, these two factors are integrated into the combined bundle adjustment using asymmetric weights for the image point observations; greater weights are assigned to observations with fine resolutions, and those with coarse resolutions are penalized. This paper analyzes urban and rural images captured by three different five-angle camera systems, from both proprietary datasets and the ISPRS/EuroSDR benchmark. The results reveal that the proposed method outperforms the traditional method in both back-projected and triangulated precision by approximately 5-10% in most cases. Furthermore, the misalignments of point clouds generated by the different cameras are significantly alleviated after combined bundle adjustment.

  16. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and functional parameters. Low muscle mass was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean height-adjusted (hSMI) or weight-adjusted (wSMI) muscle mass of a young reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.7% vs. 0.4% (male/female) by hSMI, and 4.0% vs. 10.7% (male/female) by wSMI. The κ coefficients for these two criteria were 0.39 vs. 0.03 (male/female), and 0.17 in all subjects. Serum myostatin levels correlated positively with gait speed (r = 0.142, p = 0.007) after adjustment for gender. hSMI correlated with grip strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. wSMI correlated with grip strength, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. Since hSMI correlated more closely with grip strength and more muscular functions, we recommend hSMI in the diagnosis of low muscle mass. PMID:26785759

  17. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and functional parameters. Low muscle mass was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean height-adjusted (hSMI) or weight-adjusted (wSMI) muscle mass of a young reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.7% vs. 0.4% (male/female) by hSMI, and 4.0% vs. 10.7% (male/female) by wSMI. The κ coefficients for these two criteria were 0.39 vs. 0.03 (male/female), and 0.17 in all subjects. Serum myostatin levels correlated positively with gait speed (r = 0.142, p = 0.007) after adjustment for gender. hSMI correlated with grip strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. wSMI correlated with grip strength, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. Since hSMI correlated more closely with grip strength and more muscular functions, we recommend hSMI in the diagnosis of low muscle mass. PMID:26785759

  18. Oral vaccination with a rough attenuated mutant of S. Infantis increases post-wean weight gain and prevents clinical signs of salmonellosis in S. Typhimurium challenged pigs.

    PubMed

    Foster, Neil; Richards, Luke; Higgins, John; Kanellos, Theo; Barrow, Paul

    2016-02-01

    We show that oral inoculation of 14day old conventional piglets with a rough attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis 1326/28Ф(r) (serogroup C1), 24h prior to oral challenge with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 4/74 (serogroup B), resulted in significant weight gain (~10%) measured at 14days post-weaning (38days of age). Two days after challenge the S. Typhimurium induced stunting and, in some cases loss, of villi but this was prevented by pre-inoculation with the S. Infantis strain. The clinical signs of disease associated with S. Typhimurium 4/74 challenge and faecal shedding were also significantly (P<0.05) reduced by pre-inoculation with the S. Infantis mutant. Pre-inoculation of pigs with the S. Infantis mutant also increased weight gain in pigs challenged with pathogenic Escherichia coli. However, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, an unrelated intracellular bacterium, did not protect against challenge with S. Typhimurium 4/74. PMID:26850554

  19. Marginal Mean Weighting through Stratification: Adjustment for Selection Bias in Multilevel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Guanglei

    2010-01-01

    Defining causal effects as comparisons between marginal population means, this article introduces marginal mean weighting through stratification (MMW-S) to adjust for selection bias in multilevel educational data. The article formally shows the inherent connections among the MMW-S method, propensity score stratification, and…

  20. Effects of dietary enrichment with a marine oil-based n-3 LCPUFA supplement in sows with predicted birth weight phenotypes on birth litter quality and growth performance to weaning.

    PubMed

    Smit, M N; Spencer, J D; Patterson, J L; Dyck, M K; Dixon, W T; Foxcroft, G R

    2015-03-01

    The effects of a marine oil-based n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (mLCPUFA) supplement fed to the sow from weaning, through the rebreeding period, during gestation and until end of lactation on litter characteristics from birth until weaning were studied in sows with known litter birth weight phenotypes. It was hypothesized that low birth weight (LBW) litters would benefit more from mLCPUFA supplementation than high birth weight litters. A total of 163 sows (mean parity=4.9 ± 0.9) were rebred after weaning. Sows were pair-matched by parity and litter average birth weight of the previous three litters. Within pairs, sows were allocated to be fed either standard corn/soyabean meal-based gestation and lactation diets (CON), or the same diets enriched with 0.5% of the mLCPUFA supplement at the expense of corn. Each litter between 9 and 16 total pigs born was classified as LBW or medium/high average birth weight (MHBW) litter and there was a significant correlation (P<0.001) between litter average birth weight of the current and previous litters within sows (r=0.49). Sow serum was harvested at day 113 of gestation for determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. The number of pigs born total and alive were lower (P=0.01) in mLCPUFA than CON sows, whereas the number of stillborn and mummified pigs were similar between treatments. Number of stillborns (trend) and mummies (P<0.01) were higher in LBW than MHBW litters. Tissue weights and brain : tissue weight ratios were similar between treatments, but LBW litters had decreased tissue weights and increased brain : tissue weight ratios compared with MHBW litters. Placental weight was lower (P=0.01) in LBW than MHBW litters, but was not different between treatments. Average and total litter weight at day 1 was similar between treatments. mLCPUFA increased weaning weight (P=0.08) and average daily gain (P<0.05) in MHBW litters, but not in LBW litters. Pre-weaning mortality was similar between treatments

  1. Frequency of tail lesions and risk factors for tail biting in heavy pig production from weaning to 170 kg live weight.

    PubMed

    Scollo, A; Contiero, B; Gottardo, F

    2016-01-01

    Tail biting lesions have a negative effect on both the welfare of pigs and on the revenue of the pig farm. Due to the multifactorial nature of this abnormal behaviour and its sporadic onset, an epidemiological approach was adopted to identify the management and housing factors influencing the occurrence of tail biting and the frequency of bitten pigs in the weaning and fattening phases up to 170 kg live weight in heavy pig production. Data were collected from a sample of 67 commercial pig farms via an on-farm visit and a questionnaire to the farmer. Data collected included general farm information, hygiene and herd health, prevention, management, climate control, feeding and production traits. In the weaning phase, the occurrence of tail biting was increased by a factor of 16.64 for tipped vs. short-docked tails, by a factor of 68.09 when the observer detected poor air quality, and by a factor of 14.44 when the feeding time was variable. In fattening pigs, a high stocking density increased the risk of tail biting by a factor of 18.00. The frequency of lesions in weaners was greater in pigs with tipped tails (0.29 vs. 0.03%; P = 0.034), whereas in fatteners the frequency of lesions was greater when drinkers were not present in the lying area (0.71 vs. 0.05%; P = 0.009) and when air turnover was not detected in the barn (0.70 vs. 0.07%; P = 0.005). There was also a trend for increased tail biting when the stocking density was high (1.06 vs. 0.33%; P = 0.057). Many of the risk factors that emerged for heavy pigs in the present study could be easily managed to reduce the risk of tail biting and the frequency of tail lesions through the systematic evaluation and control of stocking density, climate, and feed and water management. PMID:26626091

  2. Effect of weaning age on cortisol release in piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, L A; Yang, J J; Li, Y; Lv, L; Xie, J J; Du, G M; Jin, T M; Qin, S Y; Jiao, X L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of weaning age on the adrenal cortex, which plays a vital role in the stress response, is currently unknown. Therefore, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, weights and relative weights of adrenal glands, and steroidogenesis-related protein and enzyme expression levels in piglets weaned on different days were determined. Piglets weaned at 35 days had significantly lower ACTH levels than those weaned at 14 or 21 days, and cortisol levels of piglets weaned at 21, 28, and 35 days were significantly lower than those of piglets weaned on day 14. Adrenal gland weights of piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days and relative adrenal gland weights of piglets weaned at 35 days were significantly lower than those of piglets weaned at 14 days. However, no significant difference was detected in the expression of melanocortin-type 2 receptor mRNA, which is associated with weaning age. Steroidogenic acute-regulatory (StAR) mRNA and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 mRNA expression levels in piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days were significantly lower than in those weaned at 14 or 21 days, and P450 11β mRNA expression levels in piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days were significantly lower than in those weaned at 14 days. Therefore, early-weaned piglets exhibited increased adrenal gland weights and StAR and steroidogenic enzyme expression, all of which contributed to high cortisol levels. The high plasma ACTH and cortisol levels in early-weaned piglets indicate that these animals would be greatly affected by stress. PMID:27173313

  3. Covariate adjustment of cumulative incidence functions for competing risks data using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Anke; Billionnet, Cécile

    2016-06-01

    In observational studies without random assignment of the treatment, the unadjusted comparison between treatment groups may be misleading due to confounding. One method to adjust for measured confounders is inverse probability of treatment weighting. This method can also be used in the analysis of time to event data with competing risks. Competing risks arise if for some individuals the event of interest is precluded by a different type of event occurring before, or if only the earliest of several times to event, corresponding to different event types, is observed or is of interest. In the presence of competing risks, time to event data are often characterized by cumulative incidence functions, one for each event type of interest. We describe the use of inverse probability of treatment weighting to create adjusted cumulative incidence functions. This method is equivalent to direct standardization when the weight model is saturated. No assumptions about the form of the cumulative incidence functions are required. The method allows studying associations between treatment and the different types of event under study, while focusing on the earliest event only. We present a SAS macro implementing this method and we provide a worked example. PMID:27084321

  4. ACROSS-BREED ADJUSTMENT FACTORS FOR EXPECTED PROGENY DIFFERENCES FOR CARCASS TRAITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adjustment factors to allow comparison of EPD from several breed associations for birth, weaning and yearling weights have been available for more than 10 years. This paper describes steps to calculate adjustment factors for EPD for four carcass traits: marbling score (MAR), fat thickness (FAT), rib...

  5. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    PubMed

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus. PMID:26613658

  6. Factors Affecting the Weaning from Nasal CPAP in Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shantanu; Rajasekhar, Hariprem; Gupta, Anju; Bhutada, Alok; Rastogi, Deepa; Wung, Jen-Tien

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Identification of the weight and postmenstrual age (PMA) at successful weaning of NCPAP in preterm neonates and the factors influencing the successful wean. Study Design. Retrospective review of 454 neonates ≤32 weeks of gestational age (GA) who were placed on NCPAP and successfully weaned to room air was performed. Results. Neonates had a mean birth weight (BW) of 1357 ± 392 grams with a mean GA of 29.3 ± 2.2 weeks. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611 ± 432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9 ± 2.4 weeks. Univariate analysis showed that chorioamnionitis, intubation, surfactant use, PDA, sepsis/NEC, anemia, apnea, GER and IVH were significantly associated with the time to NCPAP wean. On multivariate analysis, among neonates that were intubated, BW was the only significant factor (P < 0.001) that was inversely related to time to successful NCPAP wean. Amongst non-intubated neonates, along with BW (P < 0.01), chorioamnionitis (P < 0.01), anemia (P < 0.0001), and GER (P < 0.02) played a significant role in weaning from NCPAP. Conclusion. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611 ± 432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9 ± 2.4 weeks. BW significantly affects weaning among intubated and non-intubated neonates, though in neonates who were never intubated chorioamnionitis, anemia and GER also significantly affected the duration on NCPAP. PMID:22187570

  7. Inverse propensity weighting to adjust for bias in fatal crash samples

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David E.; Hannan, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) has data from all areas of the United States, but is limited to fatal crashes. The National Automotive Sampling System – General Estimates System (NASS-GES) includes all types of serious traffic crashes, but is limited to a few sampling areas. Combining the strengths of these two samples might offset their limitations. Methods Logistic regression (allowing for sample design, and conditional upon selected person-, event-, and geographic-level factors) was used to determine the propensity (PFC) for each injured person in 2002–2008 NASS-GES data to be in a fatal crash sample. NASS-GES subjects injured in fatal crashes were then reweighted by a factor of WFC = (1/PFC) to create a “pseudopopulation”. The weights (WFC) derived from NASS-GES were also applied to injured subjects in 2007 FARS data to create another pseudopopulation. Characteristics and mortality predictions from these artificial pseudopopulations were compared to those obtained using the original NASS-GES sample. The sum of WFC for FARS cases was also used to estimate the number of crash injuries for rural and urban locations, and compared to independently reported data. Results Compared to regression results using the original NASS-GES sample, unadjusted models based on fatal crash samples gave inaccurate estimates of covariate effects on mortality for injured subjects. After reweighting using WFC, estimates based upon the pseudopopulations were similar to results obtained using the original NASS-GES sample. The sum of WFC for FARS cases gave reasonable estimates for the number of crash injuries in rural and urban locations, and provided an estimate of the rural effect on mortality after controlling for other factors. Conclusions Weights derived from analysis of NASS-GES data (the inverse propensity for selection into a fatal crash sample) allow appropriate adjustment for selection bias in fatal crash samples, including FARS. PMID:23084095

  8. Outcomes for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia dosed on actual or adjusted body weight

    PubMed Central

    Bivona, Cory; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, Dave; Grauer, Dennis; Abhyankar, Sunil; Aljitawi, Omar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; McGuirk, Joseph; Singh, Anurag; Lin, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data from solid tumor malignancies suggest that actual body weight (ABW) dosing improves overall outcomes. There is the potential to compromise efficacy when chemotherapy dosages are reduced, but the impact of dose adjustment on clinical response and toxicity in hematologic malignancies is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of utilizing a percent of ABW for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induction chemotherapy dosing. Methods This retrospective, single-center study included 146 patients who received 7 + 3 induction (cytarabine and anthracycline) for treatment of AML. Study design evaluated the relationship between percentage of ABW dosing and complete response (CR) rates in patients newly diagnosed with AML. Results Percentage of ABW dosing did not influence CR rates in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for AML (p = 0.83); nor did it influence rate of death at 30 days or relapse at 6 months (p = 0.94). When comparing patients dosed at 90–100 % of ABW compared to <90 % ABW, CR rates were not significantly different in patients classified as poor risk (p = 0.907). All favorable risk category patients obtained CR. Conclusions Preemptive dose reductions for obesity did not influence CR rates for patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy and did not influence the composite endpoint of death at 30 days or disease relapse at 6 months. PMID:26231954

  9. Breed comparisons of Angus, Charolais, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, Simmental, and South Devon for weight, weight adjusted for body condition score, height, and body condition score of cows.

    PubMed

    Arango, J A; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D

    2002-12-01

    Breed means and differences for weight (CW, n = 19,851), height (CH, n = 14,553), and condition scores (CS, n = 19,536) recorded in four seasons per year were evaluated for 881 cows ranging from 2 to 7 yr of age from Cycle I of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Cows were straightbred Herefords and Angus and topcrosses from mating of Hereford, Angus, South Devon, Jersey, Simmental, Limousin, and Charolais sires to Hereford and Angus dams. The model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, with year of birth, pregnancy-lactation (PL) code, and breed group as fixed effects for CW and CS. Analyses of weight adjusted for condition score included CS as covariate. Model for CH excluded PL. Random effects were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Data were analyzed by REML. Differences due to breeds of sire were significant for all traits. Differences were generally maintained across ages, with few interchanges in ranking through maturity. Rankings were in the following order: Jersey (lightest and shortest), Hereford-Angus (and reciprocal), Limousin, South Devon, Simmental, and Charolais (heaviest and tallest). The only exception was that Limousin-sired cows were heavier than South Devon-sired cows after 5 yr of age. Cows sired by breeds of British origin tended to be lighter than breeds of continental European origin. Adjustment for condition score changed estimates of breed differences. Rankings of breed groups, however, were generally the same for actual weight and weight adjusted for condition score. Results indicated that the part of the differences in weight due to differences in condition were of small magnitude. Differences tended to increase when adjusted for condition score, especially in contrasts of continental vs British breeds. Differences among breed groups for height followed differences for weight closely. PMID:12542152

  10. Effects of weaning age and formic acid-based feed additives on pigs from weaning to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Kirsi; Siljander-Rasi, Hilkka; Pentikäinen, Jaana; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Fossi, Marja

    2007-10-01

    Two hundred and forty piglets were used in a 2 x 6 factorial experiment to study the effects of weaning age (26 or 36 d) and four formic acid-based feed additives on the performance of pigs from weaning to slaughter. Either formic acid (F) or a mixture of formic acid, propionic acid, and potassium sorbate (FPS) or a mixture of formic acid, propionic acid, and sodium benzoate (FPB) or formic acid in a diatomaceous earth carrier (FD) were added to the diets of weaned piglets (from weaning to 60 d of age) and growing (18-46 kg) and finishing pigs (46-107 kg) to provide 8, 6, and 6 g acid per kg feed, respectively. The negative control treatment's (C) diets contained no growth promoters, whereas the positive control treatment's weaner and grower diets were supplemented with 40 mg/kg of avilamycin (A). The piglets weaned at the age of 26 and 36 d weighed 7.6 and 10.7 kg at weaning (p < 0.001), and 18.5 and 17.9 kg at the age of 60 d (p > 0.05), respectively. There was a weaning age x feed additive interaction in the weight gain of piglets after weaning (p < 0.05). The weight gain of piglets weaned on day 26 was enhanced by A, FPS, and FD (p < 0.05), and that of piglets weaned on day 36 by A and FPB (p < 0.05). The feed conversion ratio was not affected by weaning ages but was decreased in groups A, F, FBS, and FPB (p < 0.05). The severity of post-weaning diarrhoea was less in groups A, F, FPS, and FD than in C (p < 0.05). In piglets weaned on day 26, faecal water content and the total Escherichia coli count were highest 9 d after weaning. The total E. coli count was reduced only by FD (p < 0.05). Increased faecal water content was characterized by increased faecal Na+ and decreased K+ concentrations. Weaning age did not influence performance or carcass quality in the growing-finishing pigs. Feed additives did not affect weight gain in the growing pigs, but FPS and FPB enhanced weight gain during finishing period and total fattening (p < 0.05). In summary, the pigs

  11. Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions. PMID:24724516

  12. Correction Equations to Adjust Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected…

  13. Neurally adjusted ventilator assist in very low birth weight infants: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Narchi, Hassib; Chedid, Fares

    2015-01-01

    Continuous improvements in perinatal care have resulted in increased survival of premature infants. Their immature lungs are prone to injury with mechanical ventilation and this may develop into chronic lung disease (CLD) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strategies to minimize the risk of lung injury have been developed and include improved antenatal management (education, regionalization, steroids, and antibiotics), exogenous surfactant administration and reduction of barotrauma by using exclusive or early noninvasive ventilatory support. The most frequently used mode of assisted ventilation is pressure support ventilation that may lead to patient-ventilator asynchrony that is associated with poor outcome. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction or disuse atrophy of diaphragm fibers may also occur. This has led to the development of new ventilation modes including neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). This ventilation mode is controlled by electrodes embedded within a nasogastric catheter which detect the electrical diaphragmatic activity (Edi) and transmit it to trigger the ventilator in synchrony with the patient’s own respiratory efforts. This permits the patient to control peak inspiratory pressure, mean airway pressure and tidal volume. Back up pressure control (PC) is provided when there is no Edi signal and no pneumatic trigger. Compared with standard conventional ventilation, NAVA improves blood gas regulation with lower peak inspiratory pressure and oxygen requirements in preterm infants. NAVA is safe mode of ventilation. The majority of studies have shown no significant adverse events in neonates ventilated with NAVA nor a difference in the rate of intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, or necrotizing enterocolitis when compared to conventional ventilation. Future large size randomized controlled trials should be established to compare NAVA with volume targeted and pressure controlled ventilation in newborns with mature respiratory drive

  14. Neurally adjusted ventilator assist in very low birth weight infants: Current status.

    PubMed

    Narchi, Hassib; Chedid, Fares

    2015-06-26

    Continuous improvements in perinatal care have resulted in increased survival of premature infants. Their immature lungs are prone to injury with mechanical ventilation and this may develop into chronic lung disease (CLD) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strategies to minimize the risk of lung injury have been developed and include improved antenatal management (education, regionalization, steroids, and antibiotics), exogenous surfactant administration and reduction of barotrauma by using exclusive or early noninvasive ventilatory support. The most frequently used mode of assisted ventilation is pressure support ventilation that may lead to patient-ventilator asynchrony that is associated with poor outcome. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction or disuse atrophy of diaphragm fibers may also occur. This has led to the development of new ventilation modes including neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). This ventilation mode is controlled by electrodes embedded within a nasogastric catheter which detect the electrical diaphragmatic activity (Edi) and transmit it to trigger the ventilator in synchrony with the patient's own respiratory efforts. This permits the patient to control peak inspiratory pressure, mean airway pressure and tidal volume. Back up pressure control (PC) is provided when there is no Edi signal and no pneumatic trigger. Compared with standard conventional ventilation, NAVA improves blood gas regulation with lower peak inspiratory pressure and oxygen requirements in preterm infants. NAVA is safe mode of ventilation. The majority of studies have shown no significant adverse events in neonates ventilated with NAVA nor a difference in the rate of intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, or necrotizing enterocolitis when compared to conventional ventilation. Future large size randomized controlled trials should be established to compare NAVA with volume targeted and pressure controlled ventilation in newborns with mature respiratory drive

  15. Weaning Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... aren't ready to wean. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that moms breastfeed for ... patient as your little one begins exploring the world of food. Here's some more ways to make ...

  16. 9 CFR 442.3 - Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (These... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scale requirements for accurate... PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCURATE WEIGHTS § 442.3 Scale requirements for accurate weights,...

  17. 9 CFR 442.3 - Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (These... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scale requirements for accurate... PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCURATE WEIGHTS § 442.3 Scale requirements for accurate weights,...

  18. 9 CFR 442.3 - Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (These... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scale requirements for accurate... PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCURATE WEIGHTS § 442.3 Scale requirements for accurate weights,...

  19. 9 CFR 442.3 - Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (These... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scale requirements for accurate... PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCURATE WEIGHTS § 442.3 Scale requirements for accurate weights,...

  20. 9 CFR 442.3 - Scale requirements for accurate weights, repairs, adjustments, and replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (These... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scale requirements for accurate... PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCURATE WEIGHTS § 442.3 Scale requirements for accurate weights,...

  1. The relation between weight-based teasing and psychological adjustment in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goldfield, Gary; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of weight-based teasing, and evaluate its association with depression, anxiety and unhealthy eating behaviour in a large sample of adolescents in the Ottawa (Ontario) area. METHODS: A total of 1491 adolescents from public and private middle schools and high schools in rural and urban areas of Ottawa responded confidentially to surveys. RESULTS: More girls than boys reported that they experienced weight-based teasing (33% versus 18%). The prevalence of weight-based teasing by peers was significantly higher among overweight and obese youth than among normal weight youth (45% versus 22%). Teasing about body weight was consistently associated with anxiety, psychological distress and disordered eating, and these associations held for both boys and girls, and were independent of weight status. CONCLUSIONS: Weight-based teasing is a common experience among Ottawa-area adolescents, especially among overweight girls, and was found to be associated with psychological morbidity. Effective interventions are needed to help victims cope with and prevent further weight-based teasing and its harmful psychological sequelae. PMID:21532792

  2. Comparisons of Angus-, Braunvieh-, Chianina-, Hereford-, Gelbvieh-, Maine Anjou-, and Red Poll-sired cows for weight, weight adjusted for body condition score, height, and body condition score.

    PubMed

    Arango, J A; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D

    2002-12-01

    Data from Angus, Hereford, and top-cross cows (n = 641) from 2- to 8-yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, comprising cow weight (CW, n = 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676), and condition score (CS, n = 15,667), were used to estimate breed-group differences. Data were recorded in four seasons of each year (1975 to 1982). The mixed model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, year of birth, pregnancy-lactation code (PL), and breed-group as fixed effects for CW and CS. Analyses of weight adjusted for condition score included CS as covariate. The model for CH excluded PL. Random effects were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Differences among breed-groups were significant for all traits at different ages and were maintained across ages, with few interchanges in ranking through maturity. Cows were ranked (by breed of sire) in the following order for weight: Red Poll (lightest), Hereford-Angus (reciprocal), Braunvieh, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, and Chianina (heaviest). In general, cows sired by breeds of British origin were lighter and shorter than those of continental origin. Differences in weight due to differences in condition seemed to be of small magnitude because making an adjustment for condition score did not affect rankings of breed groups across ages. Differences among breed groups for height were consistent with differences for weight. Cows from Chianina sires were taller than Hereford-Angus cows by 14 to 15 cm across ages. In this study, breed of sire effects were significantly different for the mature size of their daughters. PMID:12542153

  3. Adjusting Measured Weight Loss of Aged Graphite Fabric/PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the growth of the surface damage layer in polymer matrix composites (PMC's) fabricated with graphite fabric reinforcement and to determine the effects of the cut-surface degradation on the overall thermo-oxidative (TOS) stability of these materials. Four important conclusions were made about the TOS behavior of T650-35/PNIR- 15 fabric-reinforced composites: (1) Three stages of composite weight loss were seen on the plot of weight loss versus aging time; (2) the depth of the cut-edge damage is related to the composite thickness; (3) the actual weight loss realized by a mechanical test specimen that has had all the aging-induced cut-edge damage removed during the preparation process is significantly less than the weight loss measured using specimens with a high percentage of cut edges exposed to the damaging environment; and (4) an extrapolation of a section of the weight loss curve can be used to obtain a more correct estimate of the actual weight loss after extended periods of aging at elevated temperatures.

  4. 9 CFR 201.71 - Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they exist on the date... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scales; accurate weights, repairs... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.71 Scales; accurate...

  5. 9 CFR 201.71 - Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they exist on the date... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scales; accurate weights, repairs... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.71 Scales; accurate...

  6. 9 CFR 201.71 - Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they exist on the date... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scales; accurate weights, repairs... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.71 Scales; accurate...

  7. 9 CFR 201.71 - Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they exist on the date... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scales; accurate weights, repairs... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.71 Scales; accurate...

  8. 9 CFR 201.71 - Scales; accurate weights, repairs, adjustments or replacements after inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These materials are incorporated as they exist on the date... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scales; accurate weights, repairs... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.71 Scales; accurate...

  9. Effect of birth weight on adulthood renal function: A bias-adjusted meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Mannan, Munim; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Ahmed, Tahmeed; McIntyre, Harold David; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    While the association between low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) and development of adult chronic renal disease (CKD) is inconsistently reported, less information is available regarding association of high birth weight (HBW; ≥4000 g) with CKD. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies published before 30 September 2015 and report associations between birth weight and renal function. Blood (glomerular filtration rate (GFR)) and urine (microalbuminuria/albumin excreation rate (AER)/urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR)) parameters were used to define CKD. Three different effect size estimates were used (odds ratio, regression coefficient and mean difference). The odds of developing CKD in the life course among those born LBW was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.20) times and 1.68 (1.27, 2.33) times, assessed by blood and urine parameters respectively. Higher risk was also observed among Asian and Australian populations (blood: OR 2.68; urine: OR 2.28), individuals aged ≤30 years (blood: OR 2.30; urine: OR 1.26), and ≥50 years (blood: OR 3.66; urine: OR 3.10), people with diabetes (blood: OR 2.51), and aborigines (urine: OR 2.32). There was no significant association between HBW and CKD. For every 1 kg increase in BW, the estimated GFR increased by 2.09 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (1.33-2.85), and it was negatively associated with LogACR (ß -0.07, 95% CI: -0.14, 0.00). LBW inborn had lower mean GFR -4.62 (-7.10, -2.14) compared with normal BW. Findings of this study suggest that LBW increased the risk of developing CKD, and HBW did not show any significant impact. PMID:26807855

  10. Exponentially weighted moving average charts to compare observed and expected values for monitoring risk-adjusted hospital indicators.

    PubMed

    Cook, D A; Coory, M; Webster, R A

    2011-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To introduce a new type of risk-adjusted (RA) exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) chart and to compare it to a commonly used type of variable life adjusted display chart for analysis of patient outcomes. DATA Routine inpatient data on mortality following admission for acute myocardial infarction, from all public and private hospitals in Queensland, Australia. METHODS The RA-EWMA plots the EWMA of the observed and predicted values. Predicted values were obtained from a logistic regression model for all hospitals in Queensland. The EWMA of the predicted values is a moving centre line, reflecting current patient case mix at a particular hospital. Thresholds around this moving centre line provide a scale by which to assess the importance of trends in the EWMA of the observed values. RESULTS The RA-EWMA chart can be designed to have equivalent performance, in terms of average run lengths, as variable life adjusted display chart. The advantages of the RA-EWMA are that it communicates information about the current level of an indicator in a direct and understandable way, and it explicitly displays information about the current patient case mix. Also, because it is not reset, the RA-EWMA is a more natural chart to use in health, where it is exceedingly rare to stop or dramatically and abruptly alter a process of care. CONCLUSION The RA-EWMA chart is a direct and intuitive way to display information about an indicator while accounting for differences in case mix. PMID:21209145

  11. Design and Fabrication of Ultralight Weight, Adjustable Multi-electrode Probes for Electrophysiological Recordings in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Li; Siegle, Joshua H.; Voigts, Jakob; Wilson, Matthew; Halassa, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The number of physiological investigations in the mouse, mus musculus, has experienced a recent surge, paralleling the growth in methods of genetic targeting for microcircuit dissection and disease modeling. The introduction of optogenetics, for example, has allowed for bidirectional manipulation of genetically-identified neurons, at an unprecedented temporal resolution. To capitalize on these tools and gain insight into dynamic interactions among brain microcircuits, it is essential that one has the ability to record from ensembles of neurons deep within the brain of this small rodent, in both head-fixed and freely behaving preparations. To record from deep structures and distinct cell layers requires a preparation that allows precise advancement of electrodes towards desired brain regions. To record neural ensembles, it is necessary that each electrode be independently movable, allowing the experimenter to resolve individual cells while leaving neighboring electrodes undisturbed. To do both in a freely behaving mouse requires an electrode drive that is lightweight, resilient, and highly customizable for targeting specific brain structures. A technique for designing and fabricating miniature, ultralight weight, microdrive electrode arrays that are individually customizable and easily assembled from commercially available parts is presented. These devices are easily scalable and can be customized to the structure being targeted; it has been used successfully to record from thalamic and cortical regions in a freely behaving animal during natural behavior. PMID:25225749

  12. Evaluation of crossbred Brahman and continental European beef cattle in a subtropical environment for birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Williamson, W D; Humes, P E

    1985-11-01

    A total of 528 birth and 475 weaning records collected over a 3-yr period were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of several beef cattle breed crosses. The calves were produced by artificial insemination using 17 Brahman, 15 Chianina, 15 Maine Anjou and 16 Simmental sires bred to Angus and Hereford dams varying in age from 3 to 11 yr. Breed-of-sire effects were important (P less than .05 to P less than .001) for gestation length, birth weight, conformation score and condition score, but were not observed for birth weight adjusted for gestation length, percentage calving assistance, survival rate or weaning weight. Brahman crosses had the longest gestation lengths, being 4.7 d longer than Simmental crosses, which were the shortest in length. Chianina crosses were the heaviest at birth and experienced the most calving difficulty. Simmental crosses had the highest survival rate. Although breed-of-sire differences were observed in conformation score, the difference was less than one-third of a grade between the highest-scoring Simmental crosses and the lowest-scoring Brahman and Chianina crosses. Brahman crosses had the highest condition scores, being approximately one-third of a grade higher than the lowest-ranking Chianina crosses. Differences among the sire breeds for weaning weight were surprisingly small, varying only 3 kg from the heaviest to lightest breed-of-sire groups. Angus dams had shorter gestation lengths (P less than .001) and produced calves that weighed more at weaning (P less than .001) and scored higher for conformation (P less than .001) and condition (P less than .001) score than Hereford dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4077759

  13. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  14. Insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides in diets for weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, R; van der Aar, P; Molist, F

    2012-12-01

    To examine the effect of inclusion insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides (iNSP) in weaned diets on postweaning piglet performance, intestinal activity, and microbial composition 2 experiments were designed. In Exp. 1, 180 piglets were weaned at 28 d of age and divided over 3 treatments: positive control (PC; highly digestible protein), negative control (NC; standard cereal-based diet), and an experimental diet {iNSP; standard + 15% iNSP [wheat straw and oat (Avena sativa) hull]}. Diets were fed during 14 d after weaning. The ADFI, ADG, and G:F were determined. The inclusion of iNSP increased (P < 0.001) ADFI and G:F during days 0 to 14 after weaning and increased the ADG (P = 0.008) during days 0 to 7 after weaning compared with the NC diet. In Exp. 2, 36 piglets were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. On days 5 and 14 after weaning, 18 piglets were euthanized to determine enzyme activity, intestinal morphology, and microbial population in the ileum and colon and organ weight. The iNSP diet reduced the concentration of Escherichia coli bacteria in the ileum (P = 0.021) and in the colon (P = 0.002) digesta and tended to increase (P = 0.060) the amylase activity. The iNSP diet stimulated the physical adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract because stomach weight as percentage of BW was heavier (P = 0.004) than for the NC diet. In conclusion, the consumption of diets with higher iNSP content in the early weaning period affects the microbial colonization without reducing enzyme activity or animal performance compared with a standard weaned pig diet. PMID:23365366

  15. Effect of Provision of Feed and Water during Transport on the Welfare of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Arlene; Pirner, Glenna; Picinin, Guilherme; May, Matthew; Guay, Kimberly; Backus, Brittany; Sutherland, Mhairi; McGlone, John

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Transportation is a complex stressor, which has the potential to negatively impact the health and welfare of weaned pigs. Transport duration and withdrawal from feed and water are two factors that could potentially adversely affect the welfare of pigs transported at weaning. In this study, the effect of a 32 h transport period and the provision of feed and water on the welfare of weaned pigs was investigated using a multi-disciplinary approach. Body weight decreased in weaned pigs over time and this response was exacerbated by exposing pigs to a 32 h transport period and withdrawing feed and water. The greatest changes in body weight loss were observed after 8 h of transport or weaning. Furthermore, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N:L) stress measure was elevated in pigs in response to an 8 h transport period or 8 h after weaning alone. With the exception of weaned pigs provided with feed and water, transported and weaned pigs continued to be different from control pigs until 16 h after weaning or exposure to a 16 h transport period. These findings suggest that pigs experience an acute stress response due to transport and weaning, but these two stressors do not appear to be additive. Overall, transportation had a negative effect on performance, physiology and behavior of weaned and transported pigs, especially if not provided with feed and water for more than 24 h. Abstract Transportation is a complex stressor made up of factors including weaning itself and withdrawal from feed and water. Therefore, transportation has the potential to negatively impact the health and welfare of weaned pigs. Pigs were transported for 32 h and measures of performance, physiology, and behavior were taken to assess piglet welfare. Treatment groups included pigs not weaned or transported (CON), weaned pigs provided with feed and water (WEAN+), weaned pigs not provided with feed and water (WEAN−), weaned and transported pigs provided with feed and water (TRANS+), and

  16. [Smoking and smoking weaning].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, F; Bucher, H

    1994-10-01

    Stop-smoking counselling is a challenging task in primary health care, its efficacy being often underestimated by the physician. Health care physicians are not very inclined to advise their smoking patients to stop smoking and give specific counselling. This is in contradiction with the expectations of more than two thirds of the smoking patients, who expect their physicians to help them. The present article discusses the therapeutical methods for stop-smoking counselling in primary health care. In particular, the article illustrates the importance for this support (including the possibilities for nicotin substitution in the weaning stage). PMID:7839325

  17. Logistic regression analysis to predict weaning-to-estrous interval in first-litter gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed return to estrus after weaning is a significant problem for swine producers. In this study, we investigated the relationships between weaning-to-estrous interval (WEI) and body weight (BW), back fat (BF), plasma leptin (L), glucose (G), albumin (A), urea nitrogen (PUN) concentrations and lit...

  18. A Prospective Study of Adequacy of Anticoagulation with Fixed Dose Weight Adjusted Unfractionated Heparin in Patients with Deep Vein Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Bose, Subash Chandra; Kar, Rakhee; Shamanna, Suryanarayana Bettadpura

    2016-03-01

    Weight adjusted fixed dose subcutaneous unfractionated heparin (UFH) is one of the options for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), but the degree of its anticoagulant effect has not been tested in India. This was a prospective observational study, conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India between September 2012 and March 2014. DVT was diagnosed using compression ultrasonography. UFH was given as an initial loading dose of 333 U/kg followed by a maintenance dose of 250 U/kg twice daily subcutaneously. aPTT was done on day 2 and day 4 after 6 h of the morning dose of heparin. Patients were categorized based on aPTT ratios. Fifty five patients treated for proximal lower limb DVT had received UFH. Their median age was 41 years. DVT was secondary to malignancy, immobilisation or pro-coagulant state. No obvious etiology was found in 47 % of the patients. The mean aPTT on day 2 was 41.8 s and 51.7 s on day 4. The aPTT ratio was subtherapeutic in 63.6 % and therapeutic in 32.7 % of the patients on day 2. Five patients had adverse events in the hospital. Three patients died and two other patients had confirmed pulmonary embolism. Death was due to pulmonary embolism in one patient and metastatic malignancies in the other two. No bleeding manifestation had occurred. Caution is required in implementing this UFH regimen as this preliminary investigation has found predominantly subtherapeutic aPTT ratios during the initial phase of anticoagulation. PMID:26855511

  19. Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Blood Profiles of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Seo, J.; Kim, W.; Kim, J.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Jang, Y.; Jang, K.; Kim, K.; Kim, B.; Park, S.; Park, I.; Kim, M. K.; Seo, K. S.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, I. H.; Seo, S.; Song, M.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood profiles of weaned pigs. A total of 88 weaned pigs (6.94±0.76 kg body weight [BW]; 28 d old) were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments (4 pigs/pen; 11 replicates/treatment) in a randomized complete block design (sex as a block). The dietary treatments were a typical nursery diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE). Pigs were fed for 6 wk using a 3-phase feeding program with declining diet complexity and with phases of 1, 2, and 3 wk, respectively. Blood was collected from randomly selected 2 pigs in each pen before weaning and on d 7 after weaning. Pigs were fed respective dietary treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 29 to 35 after weaning. Fecal samples were collected from randomly selected 2 pigs in each pen daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were growth performances, digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and energy, white and red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, and incidence of diarrhea. The PKE increased average daily gain (ADG) (246 vs 215 g/d; p = 0.06) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (470 vs 343 g/d; p<0.05) and decreased gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) (0.522 vs 0.628 g/g; p<0.05) during phase 2 compared with CON, but did not affect growth performance during phase 1 and 3. During overall experimental period, PKE increased ADG (383 vs 362 g/d; p = 0.05) and ADFI (549 vs 496 g/d; p<0.05) compared with CON, but did not affect G:F. However, no differences were found on digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy between CON and PKE. The PKE reduced frequency of diarrhea (15% vs 25%; p = 0.08) for the first 2 wk after weaning compared with CON. Similarly, PKE decreased white blood cells (8.19 vs 9.56×103/μL; p = 0.07), red blood cells (2.92 vs 3.25×106/μL; p = 0.09), and packed cell volume (11.1% vs 12

  20. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Sehested, J

    2016-04-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW gain⩾0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from

  1. Comparison of three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Myers, S E; Faulkner, D B; Ireland, F A; Parrett, D F

    1999-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits. Crossbred steers (n = 168; 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Angus x 1/4 Hereford) were randomly assigned to three treatments with eight pens per treatment: groups were 1) weaned at an average of 90 d of age (90 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot, 2) weaned at an average of 152 d of age (152 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot, and 3) weaned at an average of 215 d of age (215 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot. The number of days steers were finished decreased by 55 and 38 d (linear, P = .0001) as weaning age increased when slaughtered at a constant fat end point (.81 cm). Weaning at an average of 90 and 152 d of age improved overall ADG by .15 and .07 kg/d, respectively, over weaning at an average of 215 d of age (linear, P = .005). Over the entire finishing period, intake increased (linear, P = .0006) and efficiency was poorer (linear, P = .004) as weaning age increased. Owing to differences in finishing days and intake, total concentrate consumed increased (linear, P = .03) as weaning age decreased. No differences (P > .21) were observed for carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, or yield grade. No differences (P > .19) were observed in marbling score or percentage of steers grading greater than or equal to Choice or Average Choice. Cow body condition score improved (linear, P = .0001) as weaning age decreased. Pregnancy rate improved 12 percentage units (linear, P = .15) for cows on the 90-d weaning treatment. In this study, early weaning improved gain and feed efficiency, but it increased total concentrate consumed. PMID:10100659

  2. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves

    PubMed Central

    Aref, Nasr-Eldin M.; El-Sebaie, Ali; Hammad, Hammad Zaghloul

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was designed to: (1) Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2) Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift) in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo) were included in the study. Animals were divided into three groups according to their age at weaning as following: Cow calves (n=8) weaned at 4.5 months, buffalo calves (n=6) weaned at 3.5 months (early-weaned), and buffalo calves (n=4) weaned at 5.5 months (late-weaned). Morphological traits, growth metabolites, and hormonal profile were measured at monthly interval over the period of the study and around the time of weaning (2 weeks pre- and post-weaning). Results: The obtained results showed that the trend of growth pattern was significantly increased in a linear pattern in cow calves and late-weaned buffalo calves, whereas early-weaned buffalo calves showed sharp decline in their body weight (BW) post-weaning. By the end of the study, early-weaned buffalo calves showed the lowest BW gain (ill-thrift). There is a positive association between the morphological traits and various growth metabolites and hormonal indices. A significant decrease (p<0.05) in the concentrations of growth hormones (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1] and insulin) and other metabolites were reported in early-weaned buffalo calves compared to other animals. There is no association between stress indices (cortisol level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio) and growth rate. Conclusion: Suboptimal growth rate (ill-thriftiness) is common in early-weaned buffalo calves and is attributed to low blood levels of growth metabolites, in particularly, IGF-1. In addition, the strong positive associations between concentrations of IGF-1 and morphological

  3. Genetic Parameters of Pre-adjusted Body Weight Growth and Ultrasound Measures of Body Tissue Development in Three Seedstock Pig Breed Populations in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Yun Ho; Mahboob, Alam; Cho, Chung Il; Choi, Jae Gwan; Choi, Im Soo; Choi, Tae Jeong; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Byoung Ho

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of body weight growth adjustment methods on genetic parameters of body growth and tissue among three pig breeds. Data collected on 101,820 Landrace, 281,411 Yorkshire, and 78,068 Duroc pigs, born in Korean swine breeder farms since 2000, were analyzed. Records included body weights on test day and amplitude (A)-mode ultrasound carcass measures of backfat thickness (BF), eye muscle area (EMA), and retail cut percentage (RCP). Days to 90 kg body weight (DAYS90), through an adjustment of the age based on the body weight at the test day, were obtained. Ultrasound measures were also pre-adjusted (ABF, EMA, AEMA, ARCP) based on their test day measures. The (co)variance components were obtained with 3 multi-trait animal models using the REMLF90 software package. Model I included DAYS90 and ultrasound traits, whereas model II and III accounted DAYS90 and pre-adjusted ultrasound traits. Fixed factors were sex (sex) and contemporary groups (herd-year-month of birth) for all traits among the models. Additionally, model I and II considered a linear covariate of final weight on the ultrasound measure traits. Heritability (h2) estimates for DAYS90, BF, EMA, and RCP ranged from 0.36 to 0.42, 0.34 to 0.43, 0.20 to 0.22, and 0.39 to 0.45, respectively, among the models. The h2 estimates of DAYS90 from model II and III were also somewhat similar. The h2 for ABF, AEMA, and ARCP were 0.35 to 0.44, 0.20 to 0.25, and 0.41 to 0.46, respectively. Our heritability estimates varied mostly among the breeds. The genetic correlations (rG) were moderately negative between DAYS90 and BF (−0.29 to −0.38), and between DAYS90 and EMA (−0.16 to −0.26). BF had strong rG with RCP (−0.87 to −0.93). Moderately positive rG existed between DAYS90 and RCP (0.20 to 0.28) and between EMA and RCP (0.35 to 0.44) among the breeds. For DAYS90, model II and III, its correlations with ABF, AEMA, and ARCP were mostly low or negligible except the r

  4. Genetic Parameters of Pre-adjusted Body Weight Growth and Ultrasound Measures of Body Tissue Development in Three Seedstock Pig Breed Populations in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choy, Yun Ho; Mahboob, Alam; Cho, Chung Il; Choi, Jae Gwan; Choi, Im Soo; Choi, Tae Jeong; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Byoung Ho

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of body weight growth adjustment methods on genetic parameters of body growth and tissue among three pig breeds. Data collected on 101,820 Landrace, 281,411 Yorkshire, and 78,068 Duroc pigs, born in Korean swine breeder farms since 2000, were analyzed. Records included body weights on test day and amplitude (A)-mode ultrasound carcass measures of backfat thickness (BF), eye muscle area (EMA), and retail cut percentage (RCP). Days to 90 kg body weight (DAYS90), through an adjustment of the age based on the body weight at the test day, were obtained. Ultrasound measures were also pre-adjusted (ABF, EMA, AEMA, ARCP) based on their test day measures. The (co)variance components were obtained with 3 multi-trait animal models using the REMLF90 software package. Model I included DAYS90 and ultrasound traits, whereas model II and III accounted DAYS90 and pre-adjusted ultrasound traits. Fixed factors were sex (sex) and contemporary groups (herd-year-month of birth) for all traits among the models. Additionally, model I and II considered a linear covariate of final weight on the ultrasound measure traits. Heritability (h(2)) estimates for DAYS90, BF, EMA, and RCP ranged from 0.36 to 0.42, 0.34 to 0.43, 0.20 to 0.22, and 0.39 to 0.45, respectively, among the models. The h(2) estimates of DAYS90 from model II and III were also somewhat similar. The h(2) for ABF, AEMA, and ARCP were 0.35 to 0.44, 0.20 to 0.25, and 0.41 to 0.46, respectively. Our heritability estimates varied mostly among the breeds. The genetic correlations (rG) were moderately negative between DAYS90 and BF (-0.29 to -0.38), and between DAYS90 and EMA (-0.16 to -0.26). BF had strong rG with RCP (-0.87 to -0.93). Moderately positive rG existed between DAYS90 and RCP (0.20 to 0.28) and between EMA and RCP (0.35 to 0.44) among the breeds. For DAYS90, model II and III, its correlations with ABF, AEMA, and ARCP were mostly low or negligible except the r

  5. BREED COMPARISONS OF ANGUS, BRAHMAN, HEREFORD, PINZGAUER, SAHIWAL AND TARENTAISE FOR WEIGHT, WEIGHT ADJUSTED FOR BODY CONDITION SCORE, HEIGHT AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from topcross cows (N = 468) from 6 breeds of sire and two breeds of dam (Angus and Hereford) of Cycle III of the Germplasm Evaluation Program (GPE) at the US Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) comprising cow weight (CW, n = 9,012), height (CH, n = 9,010) and condition score (CS, n = 8,991) r...

  6. COMPARISONS OF ANGUS-, BRAUNVIEH-, CHIANINA-, HEREFORD-, GELBVIEH-, MAINE ANJOU-, AND RED POLL-SIRED COWS FOR WEIGHT, WEIGHT ADJUSTED FOR BODY CONDITION SCORE, HEIGHT AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from Angus, Hereford and topcross cows (n = 641) from 2 to 8 yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center comprising cow weight (CW, n= 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676) and condition score (CS, n = 15,...

  7. Preweaning and weaning heterosis for maternal effects of beef x beef and beef x dairy crosses.

    PubMed

    Knapp, B W; Pahnish, O F; Urick, J J; Brinks, J S; Richardson, G V

    1980-05-01

    Effects of maternal heterosis were estimated from preweaning and weaning data on 178 three-breed cross progeny of straight Hereford, Angus and Charolais heifers (beef) and contemporary reciprocal cross heifers. In addition, 27 three-breed cross calves produced by beef x Brown swiss females were used for a comparison of beef x beef with beff x Brown Swiss crossbred dams. Statistical analyses were performed with and without the data from the 27 beef x Brown Swiss calves. Only first-calf records, obtained from 1965 through 1967, were used to evaluate maternal qualities of straightbred and crossbred dams. Breed of sire of sow was a source of variation (P less than .01) in all progeny traits, and breed of dam of cow was a source of variation (P less than .05 to P less than .01) in all of these traits except birth weight. Interaction effects of breed of sire of cow x breed of dam of cow were consistenetly nonsignificant. Estimated maternal heterosis percentages were 1.4, 1.0, 1.1 and .4 (.02 of one grade) for birth weight, average daily gain from birth to weaning, 205-day weaning weight and weaning conformation score of progeny, respectively. Comparison of beef x Brown Swiss dams with beef cross dams showed that beef x Brown Swiss dams had calves with higher average birth weight, higher preweaning average daily gain, higher average 205-day weaning weight and higher average weaning score (P less than .05 to P less than .01). PMID:7390939

  8. Genetic relationships between carcass cut weights predicted from video image analysis and other performance traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Pabiou, T; Fikse, W F; Amer, P R; Cromie, A R; Näsholm, A; Berry, D P

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the genetic associations between a range of carcass-related traits including wholesale cut weights predicted from video image analysis (VIA) technology, and a range of pre-slaughter performance traits in commercial Irish cattle. Predicted carcass cut weights comprised of cut weights based on retail value: lower value cuts (LVC), medium value cuts (MVC), high value cuts (HVC) and very high value cuts (VHVC), as well as total meat, fat and bone weights. Four main sources of data were used in the genetic analyses: price data of live animals collected from livestock auctions, live-weight data and linear type collected from both commercial and pedigree farms as well as from livestock auctions and weanling quality recorded on-farm. Heritability of carcass cut weights ranged from 0.21 to 0.39. Genetic correlations between the cut traits and the other performance traits were estimated using a series of bivariate sire linear mixed models where carcass cut weights were phenotypically adjusted to a constant carcass weight. Strongest positive genetic correlations were obtained between predicted carcass cut weights and carcass value (min r g(MVC) = 0.35; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.69), and animal price at both weaning (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.37; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.66) and post weaning (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.50; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.67). Moderate genetic correlations were obtained between carcass cut weights and calf price (min r g(HVC) = 0.34; max r g(LVC) = 0.45), weanling quality (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.12; max r (g(VHVC)) = 0.49), linear scores for muscularity at both weaning (hindquarter development: min r(g(MVC)) = -0.06; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.46), post weaning (hindquarter development: min r(g(MVC)) = 0.23; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.44). The genetic correlations between total meat weight were consistent with those observed with the predicted wholesale cut weights. Total fat and total bone weights were generally negatively correlated with carcass value, auction

  9. Adjustment of Measurements with Multiplicative Errors: Error Analysis, Estimates of the Variance of Unit Weight, and Effect on Volume Estimation from LiDAR-Type Digital Elevation Models

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-01

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880

  10. Adjustment of measurements with multiplicative errors: error analysis, estimates of the variance of unit weight, and effect on volume estimation from LiDAR-type digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2013-01-01

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880

  11. ESTIMATING THE INFLUENCE OF INDIVIDUAL POVERTY-ADJUSTED EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT ON TERM BIRTH WEIGHT USING CONDITIONAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported maternal education is an important predictor of pregnancy outcomes. Like income, it is believed to allow women to locate in more favorable conditions than less educated or affluent peers. We examine the effect of reported educational attainment on term birth weight (birt...

  12. Effect of different feeding regimes on pre-weaning growth rumen fermentation and its influence on post-weaning performance of lambs.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Tripathi, M K; Verma, D L; Karim, S A

    2009-10-01

    Influence of pre-weaning live weight on post-weaning growth performance was assessed on thirty-nine 15-day-old Indian native lambs, randomly fed in three equal groups until 180 days of age. During pre-weaning phase lambs were maintained under feeding regimen of grazing (C-0; Control), grazing and ad lib creep mixture supplementation (C-AL) or grazing, with ad lib creep mixture and milk replacer supplementation (C-ALMR). Lambs were allowed to suckle respective dam in morning and evening till 90 days of age, and fed ad lib green leaves of Ailanthus excelsa after grazing. After weaning all lambs were maintained on grazing and ad lib finisher concentrates supplementation. Pre-weaning performance of lambs in terms of weaning weight (17.2 kg), average daily gain (ADG; 154 g) and feed conversion ratio 3.73 was higher (p < 0.01) in C-ALMR lambs but total gain and ADG were similar among three groups during post-weaning phase. However, improved pre-weaning plane of nutrition and growth rate increased (p < 0.01) finishing weight (FW) of lambs in C-AL, 33 kg and C-ALMR, 32 kg. Dry matter intake was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in C-AL and C-ALMR lambs due to combined effect of feeding. Rumen pH was lowest (p = 0.049) in C-AL lambs. Rumen ciliate protozoa population (10(4)/ml) decreased in C-ALMR lambs (4.3) but increased in C-AL lambs (50.0) more so in C-0 Lambs (19.8). Concentrate feeding of C-AL lamb improved nutrient digestibility. Lambs of C-0 group consumed more DM during post-weaning phase that improved growth performance, while nutrient digestibility was not affected by pre-weaning nutrition. Thus, pre-weaning nutrition has significant influence on FW, however influence of milk replacer feeding on lamb growth need further studies. PMID:19141102

  13. Response bias, weighting adjustments, and design effects in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gebler, Nancy; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Stein, Murray B.; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) is a multi-component epidemiological and neurobiological study designed to generate actionable recommendations to reduce U.S. Army suicides and increase knowledge about determinants of suicidality. Three Army STARRS component studies are large-scale surveys: one of new soldiers prior to beginning Basic Combat Training (BCT; n=50,765 completed self-administered questionnaires); another of other soldiers exclusive of those in BCT (n=35,372); and a third of three Brigade Combat Teams about to deploy to Afghanistan who are being followed multiple times after returning from deployment (n= 9,421). Although the response rates in these surveys are quite good (72.0-90.8%), questions can be raised about sample biases in estimating prevalence of mental disorders and suicidality, the main outcomes of the surveys based on evidence that people in the general population with mental disorders are under-represented in community surveys. This paper presents the results of analyses designed to determine whether such bias exists in the Army STARRS surveys and, if so, to develop weights to correct for these biases. Data are also presented on sample inefficiencies introduced by weighting and sample clustering and on analyses of the trade-off between bias and efficiency in weight trimming. PMID:24318218

  14. NT-proBNP Is Predictive of the Weaning from Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Seok; Bae, Eunjin; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yon Su; Han, Jin Suk; Joo, Kwon Wook

    2016-01-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a dialysis modality used to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury. Nevertheless, there is limited information on the predictors of weaning from CRRT. The present study examined whether the N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) can predict weaning from CRRT, based on the fact that this cardiac neurohormone is known to predict kidney dysfunction. Plasma NT-proBNP and several other baseline parameters at the time of starting CRRT were retrieved from 160 patients. The odds ratio (OR) for weaning from the CRRT within two weeks was calculated using a multivariate stepwise logistic model. We calculated the cut off value predicting weaning outcome by using the receiver operating characteristic curve and corresponding Youden index, and then divided patients into high (n = 74) and low (n = 86) NT-proBNP groups. The high NT-proBNP group had a lower weaning rate than the low NT-proBNP group [adjusted OR, 0.36 (0.170-0.756); P = 0.007]. We additionally found other predictors of weaning, such as sex, serum creatinine, urine output, and the score from the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, but all of these were not better than NT-proBNP in the predictability of weaning outcome. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, a well-known biomarker of acute kidney injury and originating from kidney, was not related with the CRRT weaning, which indicated the usefulness of NT-proBNP in the cases of CRRT despite originating from heart. The present study addresses the potential of NT-proBNP as an independent predictor of weaning from CRRT. PMID:27109635

  15. Lactation feed disappearance and weaning to estrus interval for sows fed spray-dried plasma.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, J D; Boyd, R D; Campbell, J M; Russell, L E; Moser, R L; Wilson, M E

    2007-12-01

    Four experiments involving 265, 410, 894, and 554 sows (Exp. 1 to 4, respectively) were conducted to determine the effect of spray-dried plasma (SDP) at 0 or 0.25% (Exp. 1 and 2) and 0 or 0.50% (Exp. 3 and 4) in lactation diets on average daily feed disappearance (FD), sum of sow BW, fetal and placental loss from d 110 gestation to weaning (SWL), litter size at weaning, litter weight at weaning, and average days from weaning to first estrus (WEI). Experiments 1, 3, and 4 were conducted during summer months, and Exp. 2 was conducted during fall to winter months. Experiment 1 used only parity 1 and parity 2 sows and Exp. 4 used only mature (>2 parities) sows, whereas Exp. 2 and 3 used all parity groups. Sows fed SDP in Exp. 1 had increased (P < 0.01) FD and a tendency for reduced (P = 0.06) SWL and WEI (P = 0.06). Sows fed SDP in Exp. 2 had a tendency for increased (P = 0.09) sow BW at weaning and reduced (P = 0.09) SWL, whereas other variables were not different between diets. Parity 1 and 2 sows fed SDP in Exp. 3 had increased (P < 0.01) FD, but mature sows fed SDP had reduced (P = 0.02) FD. Pig survival and litter size at weaning for all parity groups was not different between diets. The WEI for parity 1 sows fed SDP was reduced (P = 0.02) and tended to be reduced (P = 0.10) for mature sows fed SDP, but was not different between diets for parity 2 sows. More parity 1 sows fed SDP were detected (P = 0.01) in estrus 4 to 6 d after weaning, and fewer were detected (P < 0.01) in estrus 6 d after weaning compared with control parity 1 sows. In Exp. 4, FD was reduced (P < 0.01) for mature sows fed SDP; however, litter weight and average pig BW at weaning was increased (P < 0.01) with more (P < 0.01) marketable pigs (pig BW > 3.6 kg) weaned per litter. Relatively low dietary levels of SDP (0.25 to 0.50%) fed to parity 1 sows farrowed during summer months increased lactation FD and reduced WEI. Mature sows fed SDP during summer months consumed less lactation feed without

  16. Effect of feeding fat and altering weaning schedule on rebreeding in primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Cox, N M; Britt, J H; Armstrong, W D; Alhusen, H D

    1983-01-01

    Primiparous sows that farrowed on a commercial farm during late summer in 1980 (n = 65) or late winter in 1981 (n = 62) and lactated 3 to 4 wk were used. Sows were assigned in a factorial experiment to one of two lactation diets (control or 10% fat-supplemented) and one of three periods (0, 2 or 5 d) of early weaning of the heaviest one-half of the litter. Days from weaning to estrus averaged 16.7 +/- 1.5 and 8.7 +/- 1.6 in summer and winter, respectively, and the season X diet interaction was significant for days from weaning to estrus and percentage of sows that exhibited estrus after weaning. In summer, supplementing diets with fat reduced the weaning-to-estrus interval from 20.9 +/- 2.1 to 12.6 +/- 2.1 d and increased percentage of sows in estrus by 10 d postweaning from 34 to 59. In winter, days from weaning to estrus tended to be greater and percentage of sows in estrus by 10 d postweaning tended to be less in sows fed fat-supplemented diets (10.3 +/- 2.5, 74%) than in sows fed control diets (7.1 +/- 2.9, 82%). Over both seasons, weaning one-half the litter 2 d early (2-d group) increased the percentage of sows in estrus by 10 d after weaning (77%) compared with 5-d (58%) or 0-d (51%) groups. Total litter weight at weaning was not affected by season, diet or days with one-half litter. However, piglets of lightest weight remaining on sows two or five extra days gained .09 +/- .03 kg/d more than lightest weight pigs in control (0-d) litters over the same interval. Early weaning of heaviest pigs may improve reproductive performance of primiparous sows in summer and winter, while supplementing lactation diets with fat may improve performance in summer, when weaning-to-estrus interval is longer than in winter. PMID:6826476

  17. Use of recombinant porcine β-defensin 2 as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zixin; Wang, Anru; Xie, Linqi; Song, Weiping; Wang, Jie; Yin, Zhe; Zhou, Dongsheng; Li, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) in piglets is associated with colonization of the intestine with bacterial pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the use of recombinant porcine β-defensin 2 (rpBD2) as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. The crude extract from the culture supernatant of rpBD2-expressing Pichia pastoris was used as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. Dietary treatments included a positive control (basal diet + antibiotics, designated PC) and three different rpBD2 treatments without antibiotics (basal diet supplemented with 1, 5, or 15 g of crude rpBD2/kg basal diet, designated 1PD, 5PD, and 15PD, respectively). Of all the treatments, 5PD had the greatest impact on the weaned piglets. It increased their body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake, and intestinal villus height in the duodenum and jejunum, and reduced the incidence of PWD. The diversity of the cecal digesta and mucosa microflora was compared between the weaned piglets in the PC and 5PD groups. Piglets treated with 5PD had lower diversity indices and fewer bacterial pathogens in their cecal digesta and mucosa than the PC group. Our results demonstrate that crude rpBD2 could provide an alternative to the traditional antibiotic feed additives given to weaned piglets. PMID:27225034

  18. Use of recombinant porcine β-defensin 2 as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zixin; Wang, Anru; Xie, Linqi; Song, Weiping; Wang, Jie; Yin, Zhe; Zhou, Dongsheng; Li, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) in piglets is associated with colonization of the intestine with bacterial pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the use of recombinant porcine β-defensin 2 (rpBD2) as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. The crude extract from the culture supernatant of rpBD2-expressing Pichia pastoris was used as a medicated feed additive for weaned piglets. Dietary treatments included a positive control (basal diet + antibiotics, designated PC) and three different rpBD2 treatments without antibiotics (basal diet supplemented with 1, 5, or 15 g of crude rpBD2/kg basal diet, designated 1PD, 5PD, and 15PD, respectively). Of all the treatments, 5PD had the greatest impact on the weaned piglets. It increased their body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake, and intestinal villus height in the duodenum and jejunum, and reduced the incidence of PWD. The diversity of the cecal digesta and mucosa microflora was compared between the weaned piglets in the PC and 5PD groups. Piglets treated with 5PD had lower diversity indices and fewer bacterial pathogens in their cecal digesta and mucosa than the PC group. Our results demonstrate that crude rpBD2 could provide an alternative to the traditional antibiotic feed additives given to weaned piglets. PMID:27225034

  19. S2k-Guideline "Prolonged Weaning".

    PubMed

    Schönhofer, B; Geiseler, J; Dellweg, D; Moerer, O; Barchfeld, T; Fuchs, H; Karg, O; Rosseau, S; Sitter, H; Weber-Carstens, S; Westhoff, M; Windisch, W

    2015-10-01

    All mechanically ventilated patients must be weaned from the ventilator at some stage. According to an International Consensus Conference the criteria for "prolonged weaning" are fulfilled if patients fail at least 3 weaning attempts (i. e. spontaneous breathing trial, SBT) or require more than 7 days of weaning after the first SBT. This occurs in about 15 - 20 % of patients.Because of the growing number of patients requiring prolonged weaning a German guideline on prolonged weaning has been developed. It is an initiative of the German Respiratory Society (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin e. V., DGP) in cooperation with other societies (see acknowledgement) engaged in the field chaired by the Association of Scientific and Medical Societies in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften, AWMF).This guideline deals with the definition, epidemiology, weaning categories, underlying pathophysiology, therapeutic strategies, the weaning unit, transition to out-of-hospital ventilation and therapeutic recommendations for end of life care. This short version summarises recommendations on prolonged weaning from the German guideline. PMID:26444135

  20. Improvement of radar quantitative precipitation estimation based on real-time adjustments to Z-R relationships and inverse distance weighting correction schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaili; Liu, Liping; Ding, Yuanyuan

    2012-05-01

    The errors in radar quantitative precipitation estimations consist not only of systematic biases caused by random noises but also spatially nonuniform biases in radar rainfall at individual rain-gauge stations. In this study, a real-time adjustment to the radar reflectivity-rainfall rates ( Z-R) relationship scheme and the gauge-corrected, radar-based, estimation scheme with inverse distance weighting interpolation was developed. Based on the characteristics of the two schemes, the two-step correction technique of radar quantitative precipitation estimation is proposed. To minimize the errors between radar quantitative precipitation estimations and rain gauge observations, a real-time adjustment to the Z-R relationship scheme is used to remove systematic bias on the time-domain. The gauge-corrected, radar-based, estimation scheme is then used to eliminate non-uniform errors in space. Based on radar data and rain gauge observations near the Huaihe River, the two-step correction technique was evaluated using two heavy-precipitation events. The results show that the proposed scheme improved not only in the underestimation of rainfall but also reduced the root-mean-square error and the mean relative error of radar-rain gauge pairs.

  1. Development of Computerized Scheme for Adjustment of Display Grayscale in Brain Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Harakawa, Tetsumi; Doi, Kunio

    We developed a computerized scheme for proper adjustment of display grayscale in brain diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DWI) with acute ischemic stroke by using thalamic signal intensity on concurrent images (b0 image). In our computerized scheme, the gray level of b0 image was first normalized, and the brain region was segmented using thresholding and labeling techniques. The lateral inclination in b0 image was then corrected semi-automatically by rotating and shifting. Each of the thalamic positions was determined by using the coordinate information in the brain region. The average signal intensity of the thalamus was measured on the region of interest (ROI) selected, and the thalamus in one side with the low signal intensity was selected. The display grayscale in DWI was finally adjusted by using the signal intensity of the selected thalamus. The thalamus positions in all cases were confirmed to be included in the thalamic outline. In 30 training cases, the average error between the thalamic signal intensity obtained from the manual selection and the computerized scheme were 1.8%±1.5, and in 30 testing cases, 1.3%±1.2. Our computerized scheme has a potential in the determination of the display grayscale of brain DWI, and would be useful to radiologists in decision-making for radiological diagnosis.

  2. Impact of Providing Feed and/or Water on Performance, Physiology, and Behavior of Weaned Pigs during a 32-h Transport

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Arlene; Sutherland, Mhairi; Pirner, Glenna; Picinin, Guilherme; May, Matthew; Backus, Brittany; McGlone, John

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Transportation has the potential to negatively affect the health and welfare of weaned pigs, especially those already experiencing weaning stress. Piglets were transported for 32 h, with and without feed and water, and measures of performance, physiology, and behavior were taken to assess piglet welfare. Transportation negatively impacted body weight, Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio (N:L), and post-transport body weight gain, indicating that not providing water during transport can negatively impact the well-being of recently weaned pigs. Provision of water may aid in reducing stress during long distance transport and improve the animals’ well-being. Abstract Transportation at weaning is a complex stressor made up of many factors, including withdrawal from feed and water, which can potentially negatively affect the health and welfare of pigs, especially those already experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weaning and extended transport durations (up to 32 h), with and without the provision of feed and/or water, on pig welfare. Treatment groups included: pigs neither weaned nor transported, control (CON); weaned pigs transported and provided with feed and water (T+); weaned pigs transported without feed and water (T−); weaned pigs transported with only feed (T+F); and weaned pigs transported with only water provided (TRAN+W). The effect of transport (with and without feed and/or water) on weaned pigs was assessed using behavior, performance, and physiology. After a 32-h transport period, pigs transported without water lost markedly more weight than those transported with water (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was markedly higher in male pigs transported without water (p < 0.05). Overall, transportation had a negative effect on pig well-being, especially when water was not provided. PMID:27153096

  3. [Effects of different growth rates in weaned piglets, starvation and hormonal action, on various metabolic parameters in the blood plasma].

    PubMed

    Dvorák, M

    1979-05-01

    Changes in concentrations of metabolites of the main nutrients in the blood plasma, caused by weaning and by different body weight gains, by starvation, exogenous adrenaline and ASTH administration were studied in 141 weaned piglets of the Large White breed at an age of 26 to 69 days. After weaning, the total protein level showed a faster decrease in the intensively growing piglets than in those with lower growth rates. This rapid decrease was induced by adrenaline. The post-weaning levels of glucose decreased irrespective of the growth rate of the piglets. Adrenaline caused hyperglycaemia and, after 48 hours of starvation, hypoglycaemia. Urea levels significantly increased after weaning. During starvation they remained unchanged, even under exposure to hormonal effects. Cholesterol concentration decreased after weaning, after ACTH and adrenaline administration also showed a decrease. The concentration of non-esterified fatty acids decreased after weaning, the decrease being more pronounced in the piglets with less intensive growth. The action of adrenaline, ACTH, together with an increased level of glucocorticoids, increased the concentration of these acids even in the state of starvation. It is assumed that early piglet weaning implies great metabolic changes which need not impair growth if their character is transient. The author evaluates the suitability of the starter used and parameters chosen for the determination of the metabolic profile of pigs. PMID:223271

  4. Effects of Oxytocin Administration on the Response of Piglets to Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Rault, Jean-Loup; Dunshea, Frank R.; Pluske, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Weaning is a stressful milestone for domestic animals. It is often performed at an early age and as an abrupt change in comparison to the transitional period seen in feral or wild animals. Oxytocin, a hormone associated with attachment, could improve the response of piglets to weaning. Piglets were either given oxytocin intranasally, subcutaneously, or handled as controls. Oxytocin had no effect on the physiological response to weaning. However, oxytocin increased the frequency of mild aggressive social behaviors between OT-administered and control pigs. Hence, the use of a single administration of oxytocin prior to weaning in pigs is not recommended. Abstract Weaning is often an abrupt and stressful process. We studied the effects of administering oxytocin, subcutaneously or intranasally, on the ability of pigs to cope with weaning. On a commercial farm 144, 30 day-old pigs from 24 litters were used. On the day of weaning, one male and one female in each litter were administered one of three treatments: intranasal oxytocin (24 International Unit), subcutaneous oxytocin (10 International Unit per kg of body weight), or handled as a control. The pigs were placed in one of eight weaner pens, split by sex and with an equal representation of treatments. Data included body weight and growth, physiology (neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio, plasma cortisol, C-reactive protein and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α concentrations), and behavior (feeding, drinking, social behavior). Both oxytocin treatments tended to result in higher levels of mild aggression within groups (p = 0.08), specifically between oxytocin-administered and control pigs (subcutaneous to control p = 0.03; intranasal to control p = 0.10). Subcutaneously-administered pigs tended to frequent the feeder more often than intranasally-administered pigs (p < 0.10), with the latter having slightly lower body weight 38 days post-weaning (p = 0.03). However, acute oxytocin administration did not result in any

  5. Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; van den Brand, Henry; Roura, Eugeni; Kemp, Bas

    2010-04-19

    Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently show a period of anorexia, reduced health, and stress-induced behaviors. We investigated the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure through the maternal diet on acceptance of a similarly flavored food and subsequent growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets. Sows were offered anise-flavored (F) or control (C) food during late gestation. Piglets were cross-fostered after birth, with each sow fostering 5 piglets from an F sow and 5 from a C sow. During lactation, sows were offered F or C food, resulting in FF, CF, FC and CC piglets. Piglets were weaned on day 25 and were given both control and flavored food for two weeks using a double food choice approach. The flavored food was not preferred. Yet, prenatally exposed animals showed a higher food intake and a higher body weight in the first days after weaning, and a lower occurrence of diarrhoea than non-exposed piglets. Prenatal exposure also increased the latency to fight, and reduced oral manipulation of pen mates and mounting during the first two weeks after weaning. Prenatal exposure, but not postnatal exposure alone, to anisic flavor through the maternal diet reduced weaning-associated problems in piglets and enhanced their health and welfare in the period after weaning. PMID:20138069

  6. Biology of Cryptosporidium parvum in pigs: from weaning to market.

    PubMed

    Guselle, N J; Appelbee, A J; Olson, M E

    2003-04-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is commonly identified as infecting domestic livestock and humans. Prevalence of C. parvum in pigs has been reported, however, the duration and infection pattern of naturally acquired Cryptosporidium infections in pigs has not been reported. This study was undertaken to investigate the age of oocyst shedding and duration of natural Cryptosporidium parvum infections in pigs from weaning to market weight. Fecal samples were collected from weaned Yorkshire-Landrace piglets (n=33) twice per week until Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected. Upon oocyst detection, fecal samples were collected three times per week and pigs were monitored throughout the study for diarrhea and examined after concentration and immunofluroescent staining. Cryptosporidium isolates were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction to amplify the HSP70 gene which was subsequently sequence analyzed. All 33 pigs shed oocysts some time during the study. The mean age of initial oocyst detection was 45.2 days post-weaning with the mean duration of infection 28.7 days. Mean number of Cryptosporidium oocysts was low and declined to zero prior to study completion. Episodes of diarrhea were not associated with oocyst excretion. Genetic sequences were obtained for 10 of the pigs. All of the 10 isolates aligned as the Cryptosporidium parvum 'pig' genotype. This study demonstrates that the age and duration of oocyst shedding in pigs infected with C. parvum porcine genotype is different from other livestock species. PMID:12651214

  7. Is Automated Weaning Superior to Manual Spontaneous Breathing Trials?

    PubMed

    Holets, Steven R; Marini, John J

    2016-06-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation involves the reduction or withdrawal of ventilatory support in proportion to the patient's ability to sustain spontaneous ventilation. Protocolized weaning has been shown to reduce weaning duration; however, its weakness lies in the reliance on human intervention. Automated weaning is theoretically superior to manual weaning because of its ability to rapidly recognize deviations from desired behavior and enforce compliance with a standardized weaning strategy unencumbered by external influences. Whether currently available methods for automated weaning fulfill that potential to achieve superiority depends on patient type, care environment, and cause of ventilator dependence. PMID:27235311

  8. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2016 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of progeny of 18 breeds were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects of weaning weight, among 15 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling and ribeye area and among 14 of the 18 breeds for fat depth and carcass weight. The r...

  9. Comparison of sire breed solutions for growth traits adjusted by mean expected progeny differences to a 1993 base.

    PubMed

    Barkhouse, K L; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Buchanan, D S; Marshall, D M

    1998-09-01

    Records on growth traits were obtained from five Midwestern agricultural experiment stations as part of a beef cattle crossbreeding project (NC-196). Records on birth weight (BWT, n =3,490), weaning weight (WWT, n = 3,237), and yearling weight (YWT, n = 1,372) were analyzed within locations and pooled across locations to obtain estimates of breed of sire differences. Solutions for breed of sire differences were adjusted to the common base year of 1993. Then, factors to use with within-breed expected progeny differences (EPD) to obtain across-breed EPD were calculated. These factors were compared with factors obtained from similar analyses of records from the U. S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC). Progeny of Brahman sires mated to Bos taurus cows were heaviest at birth and among the lightest at weaning. Simmental and Gelbvieh sires produced the heaviest progeny at weaning. Estimates of heritability pooled across locations were .34, .19, and .07 for BWT, WWT, and YWT, respectively. Regression coefficients of progeny performance on EPD of sire were 1.25+/-.09, .98+/-.13, and .62+/-.18 for BWT, WWT, and YWT, respectively. Rankings of breeds of sire generally did not change when adjusted for sire sampling. Rankings were generally similar to those previously reported for MARC data, except for Limousin and Charolais sires, which ranked lower for BWT and WWT at NC-196 locations than at MARC. Adjustment factors used to obtain across-breed EPD were largest for Brahman for BWT and for Gelbvieh for WWT. The data for YWT allow only comparison of Angus with Simmental and of Gelbvieh with Limousin. PMID:9781484

  10. Impact of Providing Feed and/or Water on Performance, Physiology, and Behavior of Weaned Pigs during a 32-h Transport.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Arlene; Sutherland, Mhairi; Pirner, Glenna; Picinin, Guilherme; May, Matthew; Backus, Brittany; McGlone, John

    2016-01-01

    Transportation at weaning is a complex stressor made up of many factors, including withdrawal from feed and water, which can potentially negatively affect the health and welfare of pigs, especially those already experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weaning and extended transport durations (up to 32 h), with and without the provision of feed and/or water, on pig welfare. Treatment groups included: pigs neither weaned nor transported, control (CON); weaned pigs transported and provided with feed and water (T+); weaned pigs transported without feed and water (T-); weaned pigs transported with only feed (T+F); and weaned pigs transported with only water provided (TRAN+W). The effect of transport (with and without feed and/or water) on weaned pigs was assessed using behavior, performance, and physiology. After a 32-h transport period, pigs transported without water lost markedly more weight than those transported with water ( p < 0.01). Furthermore, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was markedly higher in male pigs transported without water ( p < 0.05). Overall, transportation had a negative effect on pig well-being, especially when water was not provided. PMID:27153096

  11. Impaired arsenic metabolism in children during weaning

    SciTech Connect

    Faengstroem, Britta; Hamadani, Jena; Nermell, Barbro; Grander, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie

    2009-09-01

    Background: Methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) via one-carbon metabolism is a susceptibility factor for a range of arsenic-related health effects, but there is no data on the importance of arsenic metabolism for effects on child development. Aim: To elucidate the development of arsenic metabolism in early childhood. Methods: We measured iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), the metabolites of iAs, in spot urine samples of 2400 children at 18 months of age. The children were born to women participating in a population-based longitudinal study of arsenic effects on pregnancy outcomes and child development, carried out in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh with a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Arsenic metabolism was evaluated in relation to age, sex, anthropometry, socio-economic status and arsenic exposure. Results: Arsenic concentrations in child urine (median 34 {mu}g/L, range 2.4-940 {mu}g/L), adjusted to average specific gravity of 1.009 g/mL, were considerably higher than that measured at 3 months of age, but lower than that in maternal urine. Child urine contained on average 12% iAs, 9.4% MA and 78% DMA, which implies a marked change in metabolite pattern since infancy. In particular, there was a marked increase in urinary %MA, which has been associated with increased risk of health effects. Conclusion: The arsenic metabolite pattern in urine of children at 18 months of age in rural Bangladesh indicates a marked decrease in arsenic methylation efficiency during weaning.

  12. Calving system, weaning age, and post-weaning management impacts on cow and steer calf performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3-yr study evaluated late winter (LW), early spring (ES), and late spring (LS) calving systems (avg n . SC-1 . year-1 = 168) in conjunction with varied weaning strategies on beef cow and calf performance from Northern Great Plains rangelands. Calves in LW and ES systems were weaned at 190- and 240...

  13. Alternative parameterizations of relatedness in whole genome association analysis of pre-weaning traits of Nelore-Angus calves

    PubMed Central

    Riley, David G.; Gill, Clare A.; Herring, Andy D.; Riggs, Penny K.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Sanders, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Gestation length, birth weight, and weaning weight of F2 Nelore-Angus calves (n = 737) with designed extensive full-sibling and half-sibling relatedness were evaluated for association with 34,957 SNP markers. In analyses of birth weight, random relatedness was modeled three ways: 1) none, 2) random animal, pedigree-based relationship matrix, or 3) random animal, genomic relationship matrix. Detected birth weight-SNP associations were 1,200, 735, and 31 for those parameterizations respectively; each additional model refinement removed associations that apparently were a result of the built-in stratification by relatedness. Subsequent analyses of gestation length and weaning weight modeled genomic relatedness; there were 40 and 26 trait-marker associations detected for those traits, respectively. Birth weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA5. Gestation length associations included 37 SNP on BTA21, 2 on BTA27 and one on BTA3. Weaning weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA10. Twenty-one SNP markers on BTA14 were detected in both birth and weaning weight analyses. PMID:25249774

  14. Effect of daily concentrate intake at weaning on performance of Belgian Blue double-muscled rearing calves.

    PubMed

    Fiems, Leo; De Boever, Johan; De Campeneere, Sam; Vanacker, José; De Brabander, Daniël

    2005-12-01

    Weaning at a different daily concentrate intake was investigated during a 140-d experimental period, using 54 male and 68 female newborn Belgian Blue double-muscled animals. They were divided into three comparable groups and received milk at 10% of their birth weight up to weaning. Concentrate was levelled off at a maximum daily intake of 3 kg, while grass hay was freely available. Weaning occurred at a daily concentrate intake level (CL) of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg, respectively. Weaning at an increased CL prolonged the milk-feeding period by 13.1 and 14.6 days, and resulted in a higher pre- and post-weaning growth rate (p < 0.05). Daily gain during the entire experimental period averaged 0.84, 0.85 and 0.88 kg for the respective groups (p = 0.065). Daily concentrate intake was not different among groups, with only a small effect of CL on intake around weaning. Early weaning resulted in a significant reduction of hay intake (p = 0.032). Total daily net energy intake increased slightly with a higher CL at weaning, so that energy conversion was slightly improved, amounting to 17.7, 17.6 and 17.4 MJ/kg gain, respectively. Energy balance during the first week after weaning was negative for CL 0.5 kg (-22%), while it was close to 0 for CL 0.75 kg (-2%) or positive for CL 1.0 kg. Most effects of CL at weaning were similar for males and females, but male calves tended to have a higher intake and a faster growth rate than females. It can be concluded that weaning should be delayed until Belgian Blue double-muscled calves consume at least 0.75 kg per day or more for reasons of welfare, although performance was hardly improved by weaning at a daily concentrate intake of more than 0.5 kg per day. PMID:16429825

  15. Calf health from birth to weaning. II. Management of diarrhoea in pre-weaned calves

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. The second of this three part review series considers the management of diarrhoeic diseases in pre-weaned calves. In neonatal calf diarrhoea, oral rehydration therapy is the single most important therapeutic measure to be carried out by the farmer and is usually successful if instigated immediately after diarrhoea has developed. Continued feeding of milk or milk replacer to diarrhoeic calves is important, to prevent malnourishment and weight loss in affected calves. Indiscriminative antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated diarrhoea is discouraged, whereas systemically ill calves can benefit from systemic antibiotic treatment for the prevention of septicaemia or concurrent diseases. Ancillary treatments and specific preventive measures are discussed. Eimeriosis has a high economic impact on the farming industries due to direct cost of treatment and calf losses, but especially due to decreased performance of clinically as well as sub-clinically affected animals. Emphasis lies on prophylactic or metaphylactic treatment, since the degree of damage to the intestinal mucosa once diarrhoea has developed, makes therapeutic intervention unrewarding. PMID:21917151

  16. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2011 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  17. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2012 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  18. Across-Breed EPD Tables for the Year 2009 Adjusted to Breed Differences for Birth Year of 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 11 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  19. Across-Breed EPD Tables for the Year 2010 Adjusted to Breed Differences for Birth Year of 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  20. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2008 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 16 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects of weaning weight and among 8 of the 16 breeds for carcass marbling, ribeye area, and f...

  1. Difficult to wean: think of the diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Suryanarayana, Jandhyala; Varma, Muralidhar; Vidyasagar, Sudha; Vivek, Ganapathiraman

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman, treated for non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and unexplained type 2 respiratory failure, was referred to our hospital in view of difficulty in weaning off the ventilator. She was evaluated in detail for persistent hypercapnia. Ultrasound of the diaphragm showed minimal excursion of diaphragm while she was off the ventilator and fluoroscopy confirmed bilateral diaphragmatic palsy. As extensive radiological, immunological and microbiological workup ruled out other possible aetiologies, a diagnosis of idiopathic Bell's palsy of the diaphragm was made. She was treated with valacyclovir and steroids after which she gradually recovered and was weaned off the ventilator. PMID:24473427

  2. A simulation model on the optimization time for the sudden weaning of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, D. N.; Sumarti, N.

    2014-02-01

    In the aquaculture production chain, a weaning is a process in larval rearing where the tiny fish larvae are separatedly fed with nutritious food in order to grow well. Live feed, for example feeding Artemia nauplii into angelfish larvae (Pteraphylum Scalare), is generally considered as the most suitable food for first feeding larvae. In practice, the fish farmer could replace the life feed with a formulated feed, which is sold commercially in the store. By experiments conducted by Herath et al (2013), the effect of sudden weaning of angelfish from Artemia sp. to formulated feed is observed with the change in weight of fish during the observation periods. In this paper, we construct a mathematical model describing the growth in weight of fish during this sudden weaning process using logistic model based on data from Herath et al (2013). The resulted model is solved numerically. Furthermore using this model, we consider the production cost of live feed in order to determine the optimal time to wean angelfish larvae.

  3. Testicular size at weaning in tropically-adapted beef bulls as influenced by breed of sire and dam.

    PubMed

    Browning, R; Warrington, B G; Holloway, J W; Randel, R D

    1997-07-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate testicular size at weaning for bulls representing diverse tropically-adapted genotypes. Calves from 2 locations were weighed and castrated at weaning. In one herd, calves were born to Brahman dams and Angus, Tuli, and Brahman sires. Body weights and paired testes weights were heavier (P < 0.01) for Angus x Brahman (AB) genotype than for Tuli x Brahman (TB) and purebred Brahman (BB) genotype calves. The testes:body weight ratio was greater (P < 0.01) for AB than for TB and BB calves. In a second herd, calves were born to Angus cows and Brahman, Tuli, and Senepol sires. Means were similar between Brahman- (BA), Tuli-(TA), and Senepol-sired (SA) calves for body weight and testes:body weight ratio. Paired testes weight was heavier (P < 0.05) for SA than BA calves. Across locations, paired testes weights were heavier (P < 0.01) for TA than TB calves but their body weights were similar. Within-herd deviations were greater (P < 0.01) for AB than BA calves for paired testes weight and testes:body weight ratio. The correlation between the proportion of Bos indicus genetic contribution and testes:body weight ratio was significantly negative. Tropically-adapted calves differed in testicular size at weaning due to breed of sire and dam effects. PMID:16728125

  4. Neonatal oxytocin administration and supplemental milk ameliorate the weaning transition and alter hormonal expression in the gastrointestinal tract in pigs.

    PubMed

    Rault, J-L; Ferrari, J; Pluske, J R; Dunshea, F R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of milk supplementation during lactation, over 1 wk after weaning, and oxytocin administration for the first 14 d of life on the pigs' response to weaning. Pigs from 20 litters were allocated to each of these 3 treatments in a randomized factorial design. Oxytocin was administered subcutaneously daily from 0 to 14 d of age at a rate of 10 I.U. per kg. The milk supplement consisted of a mixture of 25% skim milk powder offered either during lactation between 10 and 20 d of age or for the first week after weaning as a transitional diet along with dry pellets. Pigs were weaned at 21 d of age. Growth rate was measured from birth to slaughter at 140 d of age and feed intake of supplemental milk or feed from 10 to 56 d of age. Organ weights (heart, liver, stomach, and kidneys) and the gene expression of ghrelin, leptin, and glucagon-like peptides (glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-2) were measured in the stomach, ileum, and duodenum at 10, 21, and 28 d of age. Milk supplementation after weaning resulted in immediate feed intake and partially alleviated the depression in growth rate over the first 7 d postweaning (P < 0.001), but milk supplementation during lactation had no effects (P > 0.1). However, effects were only transient and disappeared once the milk liquid diet was removed. Neonatal oxytocin administration reduced weight loss over the first 2 d after weaning (P = 0.03), without affecting feed intake (P > 0.1), hence possibly reducing weaning stress. Seven days after weaning, oxytocin-treated pigs had greater stomach ghrelin and leptin expression (both P = 0.02), and pigs supplemented with milk after weaning had greater stomach leptin and glucagon-like peptide-2 expression (P = 0.02 and P = 0.05, respectively). Hence, neonatal oxytocin administration or postweaning milk supplementation are both effective means of enhancing gastric leptin expression and reducing weight loss at weaning, likely

  5. Weaning age affects growth, feed intake, gastrointestinal development, and behavior in Holstein calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning stage.

    PubMed

    Eckert, E; Brown, H E; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J; Steele, M A

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has revealed potential advantages of feeding an elevated plane of nutrition to calves during the preweaning period. However, calves fed more nutrients preweaning may be more susceptible to depressed growth and weaning stress during the transition from liquid to solid feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the age of weaning and feed intake, and its influence on growth, gastrointestinal development, and behavioral indicators in dairy calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning period. To meet this objective, 20 female Holstein calves were randomly assigned at birth to be weaned at 6 or 8 wk. Milk replacer (mixed at 150 g/L) was offered at 1.2 kg/calf per day in 2 meals until a 1-wk step-down, when meals were reduced by 50% 1 wk before weaning. Daily starter, chopped oat straw, water intake, and weekly body weights were measured until d 70 of life. To assess digestive tract development, rumen fluid, fecal, and blood samples were taken before and after weaning (d 35, 49, and 63) and analyzed for ruminal short-chain fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, and fecal starch, respectively. Behavioral indicators of weaning stress, including vocalizing and non-nutritive oral behavior, were measured by visual observation for 1 h, 3 times per week, before the second feeding of the day during the period from 2 wk before weaning to 2 wk after weaning. The calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher average daily gain for the week preweaning (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.34±0.10 kg/d) and postweaning (1.05±0.09 vs. 0.35±0.11 kg/d), and were heavier at d 70 (99.9±1.81 vs. 91.0±2.26 kg). From 5 to 8 wk of age, starter and water intakes were lower in calves weaned at 8 wk of age. However, overall starter intake did not differ during the last week of the experiment. Furthermore, calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher starter intake for 1 wk preweaning (1.36±0.13 vs. 0.40±0.08 kg/d) and

  6. Managing the weaning of a temporary tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Everitt, Erica

    The second article of this four-part series on tracheostomy care describes the process of weaning patients off a tracheostomy, decannulation of the tube and aftercare. The role of the multidisciplinary team is discussed, as well as the importance of psychological care of patients who may be anxious about their ability to breathe without a tube. PMID:27386708

  7. Improving cow herd production through early weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early weaning, in spring calving production systems, has intrigued many producers to consider this alternative management practice especially during extended droughts and as a tool to promote stayability within a cow herd for young developing cows. The first objective of this study was to evaluate ...

  8. Effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein and behavioural responses of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein response, metabolic and behavioural response, and performance of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves was investigated. Calves were grazed with their dams until the end of the grazing season when they were weaned and housed (day (d) 0) in a concrete slatted floor shed, and offered grass silage ad libitum plus supplementary concentrates. Twenty-six days prior to weaning and housing, 20 singled suckled, pure-bred Simmental male (non-castrated), (n = 10, m) and female (n = 10, f) calves were assigned to one of two treatments (i) concentrate supplement (CS: n = 10 (5 m and 5 f), mean age (s.d.) 201 (12.8) d, mean weight (s.d.) 258 (20.2) kg) or (ii) no concentrate supplement (controls) (NCS: n = 10, (5 m and 5 f), mean age (s.d.) 201 (13.4) d, mean weight (s.d.) 257 (19.6) kg) pre-weaning. Results There was a treatment × sampling time interaction (P < 0.05) for percentage CD4+ and WC1+ (γδ T cells) lymphocytes and concentration of plasma globulin. On d 2, percentage CD4+ lymphocytes decreased (P < 0.001) in both treatments. Subsequently on d 7, percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes increased (P < 0.01) in CS compared with d 0, whereas percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes in NCS did not differ (P > 0.05) from d 0. On d 2, WC1+ lymphocytes decreased (P < 0.05) in both treatments but the decrease was greater (P <0.05) in NCS than CS. Subsequently, percentages did not differ (P > 0.05) from pre-weaning baseline. On d 2, the increase in concentration of globulin was greater (P < 0.05) in CS compared with NCS, and subsequently there was no difference between treatments. Pre-weaning ADG was 1.07 (s.e.m.) (0.26) kg and 0.99 (s.e.m.) (0.26) kg for CS and NCS, respectively. Post-weaning, CS calves spent more time lying compared with NCS calves. Conclusions Calves supplemented with concentrate prior to weaning had a lesser

  9. A prospective trial for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in morbidly obese adolescents: an interim report of weight loss, metabolic and quality of life outcomes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outcome of patients completing 12 months of follow-up in a prospective longitudinal trial of the safety/efficacy of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), for morbidly obese adolescents aged 14 to 17 years using a Food and Drug Administration Institutional Device Exemption for the use o...

  10. Prenatal and pre-weaning growth and nutrition of cattle: long-term consequences for beef production.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, P L; Cafe, L M

    2007-10-01

    Severe, chronic growth retardation of cattle early in life reduces growth potential, resulting in smaller animals at any given age. Capacity for long-term compensatory growth diminishes as the age of onset of nutritional restriction resulting in prolonged growth retardation declines. Hence, more extreme intrauterine growth retardation can result in slower growth throughout postnatal life. However, within the limits of beef production systems, neither severely restricted growth in utero nor from birth to weaning influences efficiency of nutrient utilisation later in life. Retail yield from cattle severely restricted in growth during pregnancy or from birth to weaning is reduced compared with cattle well grown early in life, when compared at the same age later in life. However, retail yield and carcass composition of low- and high-birth-weight calves are similar at the same carcass weight. At equivalent carcass weights, cattle grown slowly from birth to weaning have carcasses of similar or leaner composition than those grown rapidly. However, if high energy, concentrate feed is provided following severe growth restriction from birth to weaning, then at equivalent weights post-weaning the slowly-grown, small weaners may be fatter than their well-grown counterparts. Restricted prenatal and pre-weaning nutrition and growth do not adversely affect measures of beef quality. Similarly, bovine myofibre characteristics are little affected in the long term by growth in utero or from birth to weaning. Interactions were not evident between prenatal and pre-weaning growth for subsequent growth, efficiency, carcass, yield and beef-quality characteristics, within our pasture-based production systems. Furthermore, interactions between genotype and nutrition early in life, studied using offspring of Piedmontese and Wagyu sired cattle, were not evident for any growth, efficiency, carcass, yield and beef-quality parameters. We propose that within pasture-based production systems for

  11. Association Between Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Birth Weight: An Appropriately Adjusted Model From the Japan Environment and Children’s Study

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kohta; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sato, Miri; Otawa, Sanae; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been no large nationwide population-based study to examine the effects of maternal smoking status during pregnancy on birth weight that simultaneously controlled for clinical information, socioeconomic status, and maternal weight. Thus, this study aimed to determine the association between maternal smoking status during pregnancy and birth weight, while taking these confounding factors into consideration. Methods This study examined the first-year fixed dataset from a large nationwide birth cohort study that commenced in 2011. The dataset consisted of information on 9369 singleton infants born before December 31, 2011. Children were divided into 4 groups for statistical analysis: those born to mothers who did not smoke (NS), who quit smoking before pregnancy, who quit smoking during early pregnancy, and who smoked (SM). Multiple linear regression models were conducted for each sex to examine the association between maternal smoking status during early pregnancy and fetal growth. Birth weight was estimated using the least-squares method after controlling for covariates. Results After controlling for potential confounding factors, maternal smoking status during pregnancy was significantly associated with birth weight. There was a significant difference in birth weight between NS and SM for both male and female infants (male infants, 3096.2 g [NS] vs 2959.8 g [SM], P < 0.001; female infants, 3018.2 g [NS] vs 2893.7 g [SM], P < 0.001). Conclusions Using data from a large nationwide birth cohort study in Japan, we have shown that maternal smoking during pregnancy may reduce birth weight by 125–136 g. PMID:26902166

  12. Technologies that affect the weaning rate in beef cattle production systems.

    PubMed

    Dill, Matheus Dhein; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Costa, João Batista Gonçalves; Canellas, Leonardo Canali; Peripolli, Vanessa; Neto, José Braccini; Sant'Anna, Danilo Menezes; McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the differences between weaning rates and technologies adopted by farmers in cow-calf production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Interviews were carried out with 73 farmers about 48 technologies that could affect reproductive performance. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis using a non-hierarchical cluster method. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Three distinct clusters of farmers were created (R (2) = 0.90), named as low (LWR), intermediate (IWR), and high (HWR) weaning rate, with 100, 91, and 96 % of the farmers identified within their respective groups and average weaning rates of 59, 72, and 83 %, respectively. IWR and HWR farmers used more improved natural pasture, fixed-time artificial insemination, selection for birth weight, and proteinated salt compared to LWR. HWR farmers used more stocking rate control, and IWR farmers used more ultrasound to evaluate reproductive performance compared to the LWR group. IWR and HWR adopted more technologies related to nutrition and reproductive aspects of the herd in comparison to LWR. We concluded that farmers with higher technology use on farm had higher weaning rates which could be used to benefit less efficient farmers. PMID:26048693

  13. Neonatal Mortality Risk Associated with Preterm Birth in East Africa, Adjusted by Weight for Gestational Age: Individual Participant Level Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara; Katz, Joanne; Clarke, Siân; Kariuki, Simon; ter Kuile, Feiko; Lusingu, John; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Armstrong Schellenberg, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Background Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa. Methods and Findings Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1) birth weight, (2) gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3) neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania) contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999–2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (<2,500 g) babies were either preterm (<37 weeks gestation) or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age). 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born <34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4–121.4]), with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34–36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0–10.7]), but the likelihood for babies born 34–36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3–47.4]). Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non

  14. Effect of weaning status and implant regimen on growth, performance, and carcass characteristics of steers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, J P; Fluharty, F L; Loerch, S C; Turner, T B; Moeller, S J; Wulf, D M

    2001-05-01

    One hundred forty-three Angus x Simmental crossbred steers (initial BW = 155.1 +/- 4.5 kg) were used in a 2-yr study (yr 1, n = 67; yr 2, n = 76) to determine the effects of weaning age, implant regimen, and the weaning age x implant regimen interaction on steer growth and performance, organ mass, carcass characteristics, and cooked beef palatability. Steers were early-weaned at an average age of 108 d (EW) or normally weaned at an average age of 202 d (NW) and allotted by weight to an aggressive or nonaggressive implant regimen. On their respective weaning dates, EW and NW steers were penned individually and fed a grain-based diet until they were slaughtered at a final BW of 546 kg. A subsample of steers (n = 2 per treatment) were slaughtered at 254 kg. At 254 kg, EW steers implanted with the aggressive implant regimen had 64% greater backfat depth than those implanted with the nonaggressive implant regimen; conversely, NW steers implanted with the aggressive implant regimen had 52% lower backfat depth than those implanted with the nonaggressive implant regimen (weaning status x implant regimen interaction; P < 0.01). A similar interaction was observed for empty visceral organ weights. Early-weaned steers were younger (354.7 vs 372.4 d; P < 0.01) at final slaughter but were in the feedlot longer (246.5 vs 169.6 d; P < 0.01) than NW steers, whereas the aggressive implant regimen decreased days fed (203.3 vs 212.7; P < 0.07) compared to the nonaggressive implant regimen. Overall ADG was greater for EW than for NW steers (1.61 vs 1.50 kg/d; P < 0.01) and for the aggressive compared with the nonaggressive implant regimen (1.59 vs 1.52 kg/d; P < 0.02). Early-weaned steers consumed less DM per day (7.4 vs 8.5 kg/d; P < 0.01) and were more efficient (0.217 vs 0.208 kg/kg; P < 0.02) but consumed more total DM (1,817 vs 1,429 kg; P < 0.01) than NW steers while in the feedlot. Implant regimen did not affect DMI (P > 0.37) or feed efficiency (P > 0.15). Weaning status did

  15. Weaning and Post-Weaning Performance of Fall-Born Calves Weaned on Different Dates from Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pastures Managed with Two Different Rotation Frequencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of studies have reported performance by spring-calving cows grazing Neotyphodium - infected fescue [E+, Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.], but post-weaning calf performance from the majority of those studies is limited. Furthermore, both pre- and post-weaning information pertaining t...

  16. Temporal changes in carbohydrate digestive capacity and growth rate of piglets in response to glucocorticoid administration and weaning age.

    PubMed

    Chapple, R P; Cuaron, J A; Easter, R A

    1989-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted that demonstrated that a single injection of hydrocortisone 21-acetate (HYD, 25 mg/kg BW) administered to 6-d-old nursing piglets resulted in a twofold elevation (P less than .02) of pancreatic amylase within 2 d; activity was unaffected by an injection of 15 IU adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)/kg BW (P greater than .20). Intestinal sucrase and maltase activity tended to be elevated (P less than .20) 2 and 4 d postinjection with HYD but returned to normal (uninjected) levels by 14 d of age. The normal decline of intestinal lactase activity was delayed by at least 4 d in response to both hormones (P less than .10). Organ weights were not affected by either hormone. In a separate experiment, postweaning mortality was reduced (12 vs 27%) and growth rate was substantially improved by administration of HYD to piglets 4 and 2 d prior to weaning at 14 d of age. Hydrocortisone resulted in a faster rate of gain the 1st wk postweaning for pigs weaned at 21 or 28 d. Subsequent gain by control and HYD piglets weaned on d 21 was similar, but HYD subsequently impaired growth rate of piglets weaned at 28 d of age. Growth rates of control and ACTH piglets were similar at each postweaning period regardless of weaning age (weaning age [lin.] x week postweaning [quad.] x treatment, P less than .07). This differential treatment response of daily gain may be due in part to effects on feed intake (weaning age [lin.] x week postweaning [lin.] x treatment, P less than .10). We conclude that a single injection of HYD to 6-d-old piglets precociously induces pancreatic amylase and that the sensitivity of piglets to HYD is age-dependent. PMID:2556357

  17. Effect of Feeding Selenium-Fertilized Alfalfa Hay on Performance of Weaned Beef Calves

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jean A.; Bobe, Gerd; Hunter, Janice K.; Vorachek, William R.; Stewart, Whitney C.; Vanegas, Jorge A.; Estill, Charles T.; Mosher, Wayne D.; Pirelli, Gene J.

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB) Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60) were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively). Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (PLinear<0.001) and body weights (PLinear = 0.002) depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations. PMID:23536788

  18. Ventilator Weaning and Spontaneous Breathing Trials; an Educational Review

    PubMed Central

    Zein, Hossam; Baratloo, Alireza; Negida, Ahmed; Safari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The term "weaning" is used to describe the gradual process of decreasing ventilator support. It is estimated that 40% of the duration of mechanical ventilation is dedicated to the process of weaning. Spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) assesses the patient's ability to breathe while receiving minimal or no ventilator support. The collective task force in 2001 stated that the process of SBT and weaning should start by assessing whether the underlying cause of respiratory failure has been resolved or not. Weaning predictors are parameters that are intended to help clinicians predict whether weaning attempts will be successful or not. Although the international consensus conference in 2005 did not recommend their routine use for clinical decision making, researchers did not stop working in this area. In the present article, we review some of the recent studies about weaning predictors, criteria, procedure, as well as assessment for extubation a mechanically ventilated patient. PMID:27274515

  19. Digestive development of the early-weaned pig. 2. Effect of level of food intake on digestive enzyme activity during the immediate post-weaning period.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D; Smyth, J A; McCracken, K J

    1991-03-01

    Gastric intubation was adopted as a means of comparing the effect of two feeding levels, continuous nutrient supply (C) and restricted nutrient supply (R), on the digestive development of pigs weaned at 14 d of age, during the first 5 d post-weaning. The absolute weights of the stomach and the pancreas were significantly greater (P less than 0.001) in C compared with R pigs. The effect was not significant for pancreas weight when expressed per kg body-weight but was significant (P less than 0.05) for stomach weight. The weights of the small intestine (SI), SI mucosa and total mucosal protein were significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in C pigs but protein content per g mucosa was similar in the C and R groups. There was no significant effect of treatment on the activity of lactase (beta-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.23) or sucrase (sucrose-alpha-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.48) irrespective of the basis of comparison used. The specific activity (mumol/min per g protein) of maltase (alpha-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.20) and of glucoamylase (glucan-1,4-alpha-glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.3) were similar in C and R groups but activities of maltase (mumol/g mucosa) (P less than 0.05), and maltase and glucoamylase (mol/d) (P less than 0.01) were significantly higher in C pigs. Villous height and crypt depth were significantly greater in C pigs (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05 respectively). Enteroglucagon was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in C compared with R pigs. Xylose absorption and the digestibility of energy were not affected by treatment. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (nitrogen x 6.25) and carbohydrate were significantly higher (P less than 0.001, P less than 0.01, P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.001 respectively) in R pigs compared with C pigs but the differences were small, ranging from 1.3 to 2.5%. These results demonstrate that (1) nutrient intake in the weaned pig affects the anatomy, morphology and function of the gut, (2) there is

  20. Weaning from mechanical ventilation in paediatrics. State of the art.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Jorge; Araneda, Patricio; Cruces, Pablo

    2014-03-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation is one of the greatest volume and strength issues in evidence-based medicine in critically ill adults. In these patients, weaning protocols and daily interruption of sedation have been implemented, reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation and associated morbidity. In paediatrics, the information reported is less consistent, so that as yet there are no reliable criteria for weaning and extubation in this patient group. Several indices have been developed to predict the outcome of weaning. However, these have failed to replace clinical judgement, although some additional measurements could facilitate this decision. PMID:23542044

  1. Production, acceptability and microbiological evaluation of weaning food formulations.

    PubMed

    Badau, M H; Jideani, I A; Nkama, I

    2006-06-01

    Weaning food formulations were produced from pearl millet cultivar (SOSAT C-88), cowpea and groundnut in the ratio of 70:20:10 and 5 per cent malt from six pearl millet cultivars (SOSAT C-88, ZANGO, EX-BORNO, ICMV IS 94206, GWAGWA, GB 8735) and one sorghum cultivar (ICSV III) were added to produce seven formulations plus the one without malt. Microbiological quality of eight weaning food formulations was evaluated. Twenty weaning mothers were used to determine the acceptability of gruels from the eight weaning food formulations using a nine-point hedonic scale. Addition of 5 per cent malt did not affect the microbial count of weaning food formulations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Klebsiella aerogenes and Aspergillus niger were found in all the weaning food formulations. Shigella and Salmonella were not encountered in this study. Addition of 5 per cent SOSAT C-88, ZANGO, EX-BORNO, ICMV-IS 94206 and GWAGWA malt improved the taste and texture of weaning food formulations. The population of micro-organisms isolated from weaning formulations was not high enough to produce effective dose. However, the need for processors of weaning foods to adopt strict hygiene practices cannot be overemphasized. PMID:16169859

  2. Cardiorespiratory and sympathoadrenal responses during weaning from controlled ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, S K; Weintraub, R M; Skillman, J J

    1977-08-01

    Weaning from controlled ventilation was attempted in 20 patients who were ventilated with volume constant ventilators for at least 24 hours before study. Measurement of alveolar to arterial oxygen tension differences on 100% oxygen (Aa DO2 1.0) in patients who failed to wean (nonweaners, n = 10), showed a mean AaDO21.0 at 5 minutes after beginning to wean of 388 +/- 56 mm Hg (SEM), and right-to-left shunt (QS/Qt) of 21% values which were significantly different from control (p less than 0.025) and significantly different from ten patients who weaned (p less than 0.005). Since rises in QS/Qt were not accompanied by increased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, the increased QS/Qt was most likely due to acute atelectasis and not left ventricular failure. These data suggest that patients who fail an initial period of weaning should be placed on positive end-expiratory pressure during subsequent weaning attempts. Significant increases in cardiac output and atrial PCO2 occurred in both groups. Assessment of urinary catecholamine excretion during weaning suggests that sympathoadrenal stimulation often is intense and usually is greater in those patients who weaned successfully. Increased arterial PCO2 may be the mechanism for sympathoadrenal stimulation and rises in cardiac output (r = 0.39, p less than 0.01) during weaning. PMID:877867

  3. Treatment of pregnant rats with oleoyl-estrone slows down pup fat deposition after weaning

    PubMed Central

    García-Peláez, Beatriz; Vilà, Ruth; Remesar, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Background In rats, oral oleoyl-estrone (OE) decreases food intake and body lipid content. The aim of this study was to determine whether OE treatment affects the energy metabolism of pregnant rats and eventually, of their pups; i.e. changes in normal growth patterns and the onset of obesity after weaning. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with daily intragastric gavages of OE in 0.2 ml sunflower oil from days 11 to 21 of pregnancy (i.e. 10 nmol oleoyl-estrone/g/day). Control animals received only the vehicle. Plasma and hormone metabolites were determined together with variations in cellularity of adipose tissue. Results Treatment decreased food intake and lowered weight gain during late pregnancy, mainly because of reduced adipose tissue accumulation in different sites. OE-treated pregnant rats' metabolic pattern after delivery was similar to that of controls. Neonates from OE-treated rats weighed the same as those from controls. They also maintained the same growth rate up to weaning, but pups from OE-treated rats slowed their growth rate afterwards, despite only limited differences in metabolite concentrations. Conclusion The OE influences on pup growth can be partially buffered by maternal lipid mobilization during the second half of pregnancy. This maternal metabolic "imprinting" may condition the eventual accumulation of adipose tissue after weaning, and its effects can affect the regulation of body weight up to adulthood. PMID:18570654

  4. Criteria for selecting replacements at weaning, before breeding, and after breeding.

    PubMed

    Lamb, G Cliff

    2013-11-01

    At weaning, heifers should be considered for replacements based on their dam's previous performance; heifer calving date, age, and weight; and previous exposure to implants. Before breeding, heifers should be selected as replacements based on whether they have attained puberty (determined by a prebreeding examination), do not have abnormal pelvic areas, or fail to meet temperament standards. After breeding, heifers should be selected as replacements if they conceive early in the breeding season, are capable of achieving 85% of their mature weight by calving, and calve at a body condition of 5.5 to 6.0. PMID:24182435

  5. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  6. Effects of goat milk–based formula on development in weaned rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meihong; Wei, Liren; Dai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Yong; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this article is to study the effect of goat milk–based formula (GMF) on development in weaned rats. Methods One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, 20% cow milk–based formula (CMF), and 5%-GMF, 10%-GMF, and 20%-GMF groups. Results GMF did play an active role in accelerating body and femur length, but not body weight growth. Compared with the control, GMF had better cognitive, space, and locomotor activity. The level of IFN was increased in GMF groups, as well as the level of IL-2 and TNF was decreased in GMF groups. Conclusion These results indicate that GMF has an effect on development and immunity improvability in weaned rats. PMID:26652258

  7. Responses to n-3 fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of gestating gilts, and lactating and weaned sows.

    PubMed

    Smit, M N; Patterson, J L; Webel, S K; Spencer, J D; Cameron, A C; Dyck, M K; Dixon, W T; Foxcroft, G R

    2013-05-01

    Feeding n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to gilts or sows has shown different responses to litter growth, pre-weaning mortality and subsequent reproductive performance of the sow. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that feeding a marine oil-based supplement rich in protected n-3 LCPUFAs to gilts in established gestation would improve the growth performance of their litters; and (2) that continued feeding of the supplement during lactation and after weaning would offset the negative effects of lactational catabolism induced, using an established experimental model involving feed restriction of lactating primiparous sows. A total of 117 primiparous sows were pair-matched at day 60 of gestation by weight, and when possible, litter of origin, and were allocated to be either control sows (CON) fed standard gestation and lactation diets, or treated sows (LCPUFA) fed the standard diets supplemented with 84 g/day of a n-3 LCPUFA rich supplement, from day 60 of first gestation, through a 21-day lactation, and until euthanasia at day 30 of their second gestation. All sows were feed restricted during the last 7 days of lactation to induce catabolism, providing a background challenge against which to determine beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on subsequent reproduction. In the absence of an effect on litter size or birth weight, n-3 LCPUFA tended to improve piglet BW gain from birth until 34 days after weaning (P = 0.06), while increasing pre-weaning mortality (P = 0.05). It did not affect energy utilization by the sow during lactation, thus not improving the catabolic state of the sows. Supplementation from weaning until day 30 of second gestation did not have an effect on embryonic weight, ovulation rate or early embryonic survival, but did increase corpora lutea (CL) weight (P = 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were increased in sow serum and CL (P < 0.001), whereas only DHA levels increased in embryos (P

  8. Evaluation of response to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 vaccination and timing of weaning on yearling ultrasound body composition, performance, and carcass quality traits in Angus calves.

    PubMed

    Tait, R G; Downey, E D; Mayes, M S; Park, C A; Ridpath, J F; Garrick, D J; Reecy, J M

    2013-11-01

    There are concerns about antagonisms between immunity and animal productivity in livestock production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibody levels through a response to vaccination protocol, weaning timing, and their interaction on performance and carcass quality traits in Angus beef cattle. Final antibody level and response to vaccination were based on neutralizing serum antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV2). Calves were followed through development and the feedlot phase, with collection of yearling ultrasound (n=957), preharvest (n=762), and carcass (n=673) data. In this study, 48% of the animals were observed to have positively responded to the vaccine, as evidenced by higher final antibody levels compared to prevaccination antibody levels. Increased final antibody levels were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased yearling weight and increased subcutaneous fat over the rump. An interaction between final antibody level and weaning time also was associated (P<0.05) with Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and meat pH, with a favorable, negative relationship between final antibody and WBSF in calves weaned at initial vaccination. Overall antibody response by wean time interaction had a significant (P<0.05) association with ADG and meat pH, with calves weaned at initial vaccination having a favorable, positive relationship between overall antibody response and ADG. Under both the final antibody and overall antibody response models, animals weaned at initial vaccination had significantly (P<0.05) lower intramuscular fat at yearling time and conversely higher harvest weight than animals weaned at the booster vaccination. When antibody response was grouped (none, low, high), a significant interaction (P<0.05) between antibody response group and weaning time was identified for ADG, harvest weight, and HCW. Animals weaned at the initial vaccination in the high antibody response group had the advantage for

  9. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions. PMID:12287620

  10. Inspiratory muscle strength training improves weaning outcome in failure to wean patients: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Most patients are readily liberated from mechanical ventilation (MV) support, however, 10% - 15% of patients experience failure to wean (FTW). FTW patients account for approximately 40% of all MV days and have significantly worse clinical outcomes. MV induced inspiratory muscle weakness has been implicated as a contributor to FTW and recent work has documented inspiratory muscle weakness in humans supported with MV. Methods We conducted a single center, single-blind, randomized controlled trial to test whether inspiratory muscle strength training (IMST) would improve weaning outcome in FTW patients. Of 129 patients evaluated for participation, 69 were enrolled and studied. 35 subjects were randomly assigned to the IMST condition and 34 to the SHAM treatment. IMST was performed with a threshold inspiratory device, set at the highest pressure tolerated and progressed daily. SHAM training provided a constant, low inspiratory pressure load. Subjects completed 4 sets of 6-10 training breaths, 5 days per week. Subjects also performed progressively longer breathing trials daily per protocol. The weaning criterion was 72 consecutive hours without MV support. Subjects were blinded to group assignment, and were treated until weaned or 28 days. Results Groups were comparable on demographic and clinical variables at baseline. The IMST and SHAM groups respectively received 41.9 ± 25.5 vs. 47.3 ± 33.0 days of MV support prior to starting intervention, P = 0.36. The IMST and SHAM groups participated in 9.7 ± 4.0 and 11.0 ± 4.8 training sessions, respectively, P = 0.09. The SHAM group's pre to post-training maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) change was not significant (-43.5 ± 17.8 vs. -45.1 ± 19.5 cm H2O, P = 0.39), while the IMST group's MIP increased (-44.4 ± 18.4 vs. -54.1 ± 17.8 cm H2O, P < 0.0001). There were no adverse events observed during IMST or SHAM treatments. Twenty-five of 35 IMST subjects weaned (71%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 55% to 84

  11. [Effects of sorting weaner pigs by weight on growth performance, aggressive interactions and skin lesion score after mixing].

    PubMed

    Fels, Michaela; Hoy, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Weaning piglets at the age of three or four weeks is an integral part of certain production rhythms in modern pig farming. Sorting piglets by weight and mixing them into new groups is a common method in agricultural practice. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the formation of homogeneous weight groups after weaning affects weight development and aggressive behaviour. We compared homogeneous and heterogeneous weight groups and entire litters that were weaned and reared completely. All groups including entire litters were composed of 12 animals. All piglets were weighed the day before weaning, four days later, and on day 38. The number of all aggressive interactions occurring within a group was determined by video analysis for 72 hours after mixing.There during four days after weaning or over the rearing period. Rearing entire litters resulted in significantly higher daily weight gain within four days after weaning and throughout the rearing period. Sorting piglets by weight did not affect the development of weight dispersion in a group. The coefficients of variation of weights in homogeneous and heterogeneous groups which differed significantly at the beginning were on a similar level after 38 days. Neither weight balance of piglet batches at the end of rearing nor growth performance or aggressive interactions were influenced by sorting piglets by weight at weaning. PMID:23540194

  12. Changes in tail length between docking and weaning of lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted with crossbred lambs (n = 109 female and 120 male) to quantify tail length at docking and weaning. Lambs were born in April of one year and weaned at ˜ 125 d of age. Within 24 h after birth, lambs were weighed and ear tagged, and rubber rings were applied to dock tails. R...

  13. Veal marketing could return more than traditional weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    How profitable is a system of marketing early-weaned calves for veal production versus a traditional system based on more traditional weaning and marketing feeder calves? In an attempt to answer this question, decision support software (Decision Evaluator for the Cattle Industry, DECI) developed at...

  14. Which role for prebiotics at weaning?

    PubMed

    Fanaro, Silvia; Vigi, Vittorio

    2008-09-01

    It is now generally recognized that the intestinal microflora plays a key role for human health and well being. In fact, the gut ecosystem is involved in a number of biologic functions, such as direct and indirect antipathogen activity (nutritive competition, reduction of pH, production of short-chain fatty acids, maturation and protection of the mucosal barrier, etc), synthesis of vitamins, detoxification of potentially harmful substances, and maturation and regulation of the immune system. Weaning represents a crucial step in the development of the intestinal flora and, at the same time, corresponds to a very delicate phase of immunologic maturation. A safe and effective way to beneficially influence the intestinal microflora is the administration of prebiotics, which selectively promote the growth and/or activity of beneficial bacteria, such as bifidobacteria. Some of the studies, which investigated the microbiologic and clinical effectiveness of prebiotics have been conducted at weaning, reporting interesting results. Anyway, many of the promising beneficial effects evidenced still need to be confirmed by further large randomized trials. PMID:18685502

  15. Ventilatory failure, ventilator support, and ventilator weaning.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Martin J; Laghi, Franco; Jubran, Amal

    2012-10-01

    The development of acute ventilatory failure represents an inability of the respiratory control system to maintain a level of respiratory motor output to cope with the metabolic demands of the body. The level of respiratory motor output is also the main determinant of the degree of respiratory distress experienced by such patients. As ventilatory failure progresses and patient distress increases, mechanical ventilation is instituted to help the respiratory muscles cope with the heightened workload. While a patient is connected to a ventilator, a physician's ability to align the rhythm of the machine with the rhythm of the patient's respiratory centers becomes the primary determinant of the level of rest accorded to the respiratory muscles. Problems of alignment are manifested as failure to trigger, double triggering, an inflationary gas-flow that fails to match inspiratory demands, and an inflation phase that persists after a patient's respiratory centers have switched to expiration. With recovery from disorders that precipitated the initial bout of acute ventilatory failure, attempts are made to discontinue the ventilator (weaning). About 20% of weaning attempts fail, ultimately, because the respiratory controller is unable to sustain ventilation and this failure is signaled by development of rapid shallow breathing. Substantial advances in the medical management of acute ventilatory failure that requires ventilator assistance are most likely to result from research yielding novel insights into the operation of the respiratory control system. PMID:23720268

  16. The evolutionary ecology of early weaning in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wander, Katherine; Mattison, Siobhán M

    2013-10-01

    Public health recommendations promote prolonged breastfeeding of all children; however, parental investment (PI) theory predicts that breastfeeding will be allocated among a mothers' offspring to maximize her reproductive success. We evaluated PI in terms of risk for weaning before age two among 283 children in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Results demonstrate: (i) a Trivers-Willard effect--high socioeconomic status (SES) females and low SES males were more likely to be weaned early; (ii) later-born children were less likely to be weaned early; (iii) higher birthweight children were less likely to be weaned early, and (iv) no effect of cattle (a source of supplementary milk) ownership. These associations were largely independent and remained significant in models controlling for potential confounders; however, the inverse association between early weaning and birth order lost significance in the model containing birthweight. These patterns were observed despite public health recommendations encouraging breastfeeding for at least two years. PMID:23926151

  17. Biomarker responses to weaning stress in beef calves.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Aran; McGee, Mark; Doyle, Sean; Earley, Bernadette

    2014-10-01

    The study objective was to investigate the physiological effects of weaning on beef calves and identify a panel of blood-based welfare biomarkers. On the day (d) of weaning (d 0), 16 spring-born, single-suckled, beef bull calves that previously grazed with their dams at pasture, were assigned to one of two treatments: (1) control (n = 8), calves were loose-housed with their dam, (2) weaned (n = 8), calves were abruptly separated from their dam and loose-housed. Jugular blood was collected on d -4, 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 relative to weaning (d 0) and assayed for inflammatory and steroid variables. Total leukocyte counts were measured in whole blood. It is concluded that neutrophil number is a robust biomarker of stress and that plasma CXCL8 is a sensitive indicator of stress in weaned and control calves. In future studies, these two biomarkers should be central to the characterisation of stress responses. PMID:24992823

  18. The evolutionary ecology of early weaning in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Wander, Katherine; Mattison, Siobhán M.

    2013-01-01

    Public health recommendations promote prolonged breastfeeding of all children; however, parental investment (PI) theory predicts that breastfeeding will be allocated among a mothers' offspring to maximize her reproductive success. We evaluated PI in terms of risk for weaning before age two among 283 children in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Results demonstrate: (i) a Trivers–Willard effect—high socioeconomic status (SES) females and low SES males were more likely to be weaned early; (ii) later-born children were less likely to be weaned early; (iii) higher birthweight children were less likely to be weaned early, and (iv) no effect of cattle (a source of supplementary milk) ownership. These associations were largely independent and remained significant in models controlling for potential confounders; however, the inverse association between early weaning and birth order lost significance in the model containing birthweight. These patterns were observed despite public health recommendations encouraging breastfeeding for at least two years. PMID:23926151

  19. Halplotypes of the ovine ADRB3 gene (ADRB3) and their association with post-weaning growth in New Zealand Suffolk sheep.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo; Zhou, Huitong; Forrest, Rachel H; Fang, Qian; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G H

    2013-08-01

    The β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) regulates thermogenesis and lipolysis in brown and white adipose tissue. Previously, sixteen ovine ADRB3 haplotypes have been defined. In this study, the relationship between these ADRB3 haplotypes and variation in post-weaning growth was investigated in 797 New Zealand Suffolk lambs from 38 sire lines and eight studs, using PCR-SSCP and General Linear Mixed-effects Models. Seven haplotypes were found in these sheep and they comprised five previously reported intron sequences and four previously reported 3'UT sequences. The frequencies of the various diplotypes ranged from 0.1 to 17.6% and individual haplotypes from 0.8 to 32.5%. The presence of haplotype A-b was associated with a decreased weaning-weight (P=0.001). Sheep with the B-c/F-e diplotype had a higher mean weaning-weight than those with A-b/B-c or A-b/E-e (P<0.05). The presence of C-a was found to be associated with increased post-weaning growth (P=0.008), while the presence of B-c was associated with decreased post-weaning growth (P=0.005). Sheep with A-b/C-a had higher mean post-weaning growth than those with A-b/A-b, A-b/B-c, B-c/B-c, B-c/E-e or B-c/F-e (P<0.05). Sheep with B-c/B-c had lower mean post-weaning growth than those with A-b/C-a or B-c/C-a (P<0.05). Additive effects for the different forms of the B-c haplotypes on post-weaning growth were identified. The effects of the ovine ADRB3 haplotypes on weaning-weight and post-weaning growth confirm that they could be used as a candidate gene-marker for improving sheep growth. PMID:23653006

  20. Evaluation of Beef Cattle Operations Utilizing Different Seasons of Calving, Weaning Strategies, Post-weaning Management, and Retained Ownership

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production data from a 3-yr study conducted at Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory near Miles City, MT were utilized to evaluate impacts of season of calving, weaning strategy, post-weaning management of replacement heifers, and retained ownership of steer calves on enterprise profita...

  1. Development of Ruminal and Fecal Microbiomes Are Affected by Weaning But Not Weaning Strategy in Dairy Calves

    PubMed Central

    Meale, Sarah J.; Li, Shucong; Azevedo, Paula; Derakhshani, Hooman; Plaizier, Jan C.; Khafipour, Ehsan; Steele, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of weaning, considered the most stressful and significant transition experienced by dairy calves, influences the ability of a calf to adapt to the dramatic dietary shift, and thus, can influence the severity of production losses through the weaning transition. However, the effects of various feeding strategies on the development of rumen or fecal microbiota across weaning are yet to be examined. Here we characterized the pre- and post-weaning ruminal and fecal microbiomes of Holstein dairy calves exposed to two different weaning strategies, gradual (step-down) or abrupt. We describe the shifts toward a mature ruminant state, a transition which is hastened by the introduction of the solid feeds initiating ruminal fermentation. Additionally, we discuss the predicted functional roles of these communities, which also appear to represent that of the mature gastrointestinal system prior to weaning, suggesting functional maturity. This assumed state of readiness also appeared to negate the effects of weaning strategy on ruminal and fecal microbiomes and therefore, we conclude that the shift in gastrointestinal microbiota may not account for the declines in gain and intakes observed in calves during an abrupt weaning. PMID:27199916

  2. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  3. High Flow Nasal Cannula as a Method for Rapid Weaning From Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Badiee, Zohreh; Eshghi, Alireza; Mohammadizadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: To compare two methods of weaning premature infants from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). Methods: Between March and November 2012, 88 preterm infants who were stable on NCPAP of 5 cmH2O with FIO2 <30% for a minimum of 6 h were randomly allocated to one of two groups. The high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) group received HFNC with flow of 2 L/min and FIO2 = 0.3 and then stepwise reduction of FIO2 and then flow. The non-HFNC group was maintained on NCPAP of 5 cmH2O and gradual reduction of oxygen until they were on FIO2 = 0.21 for 6 h, and we had weaned them directly from NCPAP (with pressure of 5 cmH2O) to room air. Results: No significant differences were found between 2 study groups with regards to gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min after birth, patent ductus arteriosus and use of xanthines. The mean duration of oxygen therapy after randomization was significantly lower in HFNC group compared to non-HFNC group (20.6 ± 16.8 h vs. 49.6 ± 25.3 h, P < 0.001). Also, the mean length of hospital stay was significantly lower in HFNC group compared to non-HFNC group (11.3 ± 7.8 days vs. 14.8 ± 8.6 days, P = 0.04). The rate of successful weaning was not statistically different between two groups. Conclusions: Weaning from NCPAP to HFNC could decrease the duration of oxygen therapy and length of hospitalization in preterm infants. PMID:25949783

  4. Pig characteristics associated with mortality and light exit weight for the nursery phase

    PubMed Central

    Wattanaphansak, S.; Neumann, E.J.; Bradford, J.; Morrison, R.B.; Deen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract One thousand and ten weaned pigs that were reared in 1 nursery in Iowa from weaning (17 ± 2 days ) until 10 weeks of age were evaluated. A weaning weight threshold of 3.6 kg maximized the sensitivity and specificity to correctly predict the likelihood of dying or being light in weight at exit from the nursery (≤ 14.5 kg). Weaning weight ≤ 3.6 kg (OR = 2.92), barrow (OR = 1.75), and sow unit (A versus B, OR = 2.14) were significant predictors of mortality in the nursery. Birth weight ≤ 1.0 kg (OR = 2.66), weaning weight ≤ 3.6 kg (OR = 8.75), gilt (OR = 1.4), sow unit (OR = 2.38), and gilt as nursing sow at weaning (OR = 1.66) were significant predictors of being lightweight at nursery exit. Eighteen per cent of the nursery deaths and almost half of lightweight nursery pigs could be prevented if there were no lightweight pigs at weaning. PMID:16808228

  5. Breastfeeding and weaning practices in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, S; Stephenson, P A; Koepsell, T D; Gloyd, S S; Lopez, J L; Bain, C E

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the breastfeeding and weaning practices of rural women in two Mexican towns and the cultural beliefs upon which these practices are based. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect information. Women thought breastfeeding preferable to bottle-feeding. Eighty percent initiated breastfeeding and 69% gave colostrum. Breastfeeding was discontinued early (mean age 4 months). The mean age at which children were introduced to other liquids was 2 months (range 0-5 months) and to solids, 4 months (range 1-8 months). Women's decisions regarding infant feeding were influenced most by custom and advice from doctors and family members. In some instances medical advice conflicted with traditional practices. These findings suggest important avenues for intervention in hospital practices, education for health care workers, and in the development of health promotion services. PMID:8065664

  6. Effect of Tracheostomy on Weaning Parameters in Difficult-to-Wean Mechanically Ventilated Patients: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chor-Kuan; Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Lin, Feng-Ching; Wu, Chao-Ling; Chang, Hou-Tai; Jerng, Jih-Shuin; Wu, Huey-Dong; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Weaning parameters are commonly measured through an endotracheal tube in mechanically ventilated patients recovering from acute respiratory failure, however this practice has rarely been evaluated in tracheostomized patients. This study aimed to investigate changes in weaning parameters measured before and after tracheostomy, and to explore whether the data measured after tracheostomy were associated with weaning outcomes in difficult-to-wean patients. Methods In a two-year study period, we enrolled orotracheally intubated patients who were prepared for tracheostomy due to difficult weaning. Weaning parameters were measured before and after the conversion to tracheostomy and compared, and the post-tracheostomy data were tested for associations with weaning outcomes. Results A total of 86 patients were included. After tracheostomy, maximum inspiratory pressure (mean difference (Δ) = 4.4, 95% CI, 2.7 to 6.1, P<0.001), maximum expiratory pressure (Δ = 5.4, 95% CI, 2.9 to 8.0, P<0.001) and tidal volume (Δ = 33.7, 95% CI, 9.0 to 58.5, P<0.008) significantly increased, and rapid shallow breathing index (Δ = -14.6, 95% CI, -25.4 to -3.7, P<0.009) and airway resistance (Δ = -4.9, 95% CI, -5.8 to -4.0, P<0.001) significantly decreased. The patients who were successfully weaned within 90 days of the initiation of mechanical ventilation had greater increments in maximum inspiratory pressure (5.9 vs. 2.4, P = 0.04) and maximum expiratory pressure (8.0 vs. 2.0, P = 0.02) after tracheostomy than those who were unsuccessfully weaned. Conclusions In conclusion, the conversion from endotracheal tube to tracheostomy significantly improved the measured values of weaning parameters in difficult-to-wean patients who subsequently weaned successfully from the mechanical ventilator. The change was significant only for airway resistance in patients who failed weaning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01312142 PMID:26379127

  7. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, H; Santos, I S; Matijasevich, A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aims were to investigate the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with breastfeeding (BF) duration and BF pattern at 3 months of age. Subjects/Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 4231 children who were enrolled at birth and were followed-up at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months of age to gather information on maternal and offspring characteristics including BF patterns and BF duration. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was categorized according to the WHO classification and GWG according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to assess whether pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were associated with BF and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration. Predicted probabilities of BF patterns at 3 months were estimated by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Information on BF was available to 4011 infants. The total BF and EBF median durations were 7.0 months and 1.5 months, respectively. There were no differences in duration of any BF or EBF according to pre-pregnancy BMI or GWG categories. There was an increased predicted probability for weaning before the age of 3 months among infants from obese women, compared with those from mothers with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, with margins adjusted predictions of 0.36 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31–0.41) and 0.23 (95% CI 0.21–0.25), respectively. Conclusions: Infants from pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers presented higher probability of early weaning compared with infants from normal-weight mothers. Obese/overweight pregnant women need supplementary guidance about BF benefits to infant health during prenatal and postnatal care. PMID:26813940

  8. Sudden weaning of angel fish pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein) (Pisces; Cichlidae) larvae from brine shrimp (Artemia sp) nauplii to formulated larval feed.

    PubMed

    Herath, Sandamali Sakunthala; Atapaththu, Kerthi Sri Senarathna

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of sudden weaning of angel fish larvae (Pteraphylum scalari) from Artemia nauplii to commercial larval feed. Four days post hatch (DPH) larvae were reared in four different weaning protocols (TR1-TR4) with triplicates in a complete randomize design. Larvae in TR1 and TR4 were exclusively fed Artemia nauplii and dry feed respectively. In TR2 and TR3, larvae were initially fed Artemia nauplii and suddenly wean to formulated feed on 14 DPH and 7 DPH respectively. The experiment was lasted for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, final mean weight (FW), total length (FL), height (FH), Daily Weight Gain (DWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), survival and stress index were compared. Significantly highest (P < 0.05) FW, DWG and SGR were observed in TR1 and TR2 while former values of TR3 were not significantly different from TR1. Highest FL observed in TR1 and TR2 while FL of TR2 was statistically similar to that of TR3. The poorest growth was observed in larvae solely fed formulated feed. Survival and the stress index were independent from weaning methods. Although sudden weaning is possible on 7 DPH, larvae showed comparatively higher growth when switch off to formulate feed on 14 DPH. PMID:23626927

  9. Differential Effects of Early Weaning for HIV-Free Survival of Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers by Severity of Maternal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Semrau, Katherine; Kasonde, Prisca; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Thea, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Background We previously reported no benefit of early weaning for HIV-free survival of children born to HIV-infected mothers in intent-to-treat analyses. Since early weaning was poorly accepted, we conducted a secondary analysis to investigate whether beneficial effects may have been hidden. Methods 958 HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomized to abrupt weaning at 4 months (intervention) or to continued breastfeeding (control). Children were followed to 24 months with regular HIV PCR tests and examinations to determine HIV infection or death. Detailed behavioral data were collected on when all breastfeeding ended. Most participants were recruited before antiretroviral treatment (ART) became available. We compared outcomes among mother-child pairs who weaned earlier or later than intended by study design adjusting for potential confounders. Results Of infants alive, uninfected and still breastfeeding at 4 months in the intervention group, 16.1% who weaned as instructed acquired HIV or died by 24 months compared to 16.0% who did not comply (p = 0.98). Children of women with less severe disease during pregnancy (not eligible for ART) had worse outcomes if their mothers weaned as instructed (RH = 2.60 95% CI: 1.06–6.36) compared to those who continued breastfeeding. Conversely, children of mothers with more severe disease (eligible for ART but did not receive it) who weaned early had better outcomes (p-value interaction = 0.002). In the control group, weaning before 15 months was associated with 3.94-fold (95% CI: 1.65–9.39) increase in HIV infection or death among infants of mothers with less severe disease. Conclusion Incomplete adherence did not mask a benefit of early weaning. On the contrary, for women with less severe disease, early weaning was harmful and continued breastfeeding resulted in better outcomes. For women with more advanced disease, ART should be given during pregnancy for maternal health and to reduce transmission

  10. Short communication: Cinnamaldehyde taste preferences of weaned dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Chapman, C E; Cabral, R G; Aragona, K M; Erickson, P S

    2016-05-01

    Within a dairy enterprise, one major cost is raising young calves. Optimizing the feeding programs of dairy calves is imperative for the sustainability and profitability of dairy operations. Essential oils appear to be natural alternatives to antibiotics and function similarly to ionophores. Supplemental antibiotic ionophores have been very successful in improving feed efficiency and rate of gain in calves, as well as decreasing disease incidences; however, calves may be developing resistance to ionophores and the use of antibiotics in animal feeds has been a major concern for consumers. No current research has examined the value or palatability of supplementing essential oils to dairy heifers. The purpose of this sequential elimination experiment was to evaluate the taste preferences of 6 weaned dairy heifers [approximately 3mo old; 95±10.8kg of body weight (BW)] provided with 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, or 4mg/kg of BW of cinnamaldehyde daily. Heifers had 2 d of adaptation to the new feeding regimen before the experiment started and were then offered the 5 experimental diets for 5 d. The most preferred diet was removed and the study continued with the 4 remaining diets. The most preferred diets were again eliminated sequentially, so that only 2 diets remained on d 13 and 14. Each diet was ranked based on the weight of feed refused at the end of each feeding segment. Overall ranking of the 5 treatments were control, 2, 1, 3, and 4mg/kg of BW of cinnamaldehyde. Results indicated that heifers preferred diets without cinnamaldehyde; however, when only cinnamaldehyde diets remained, dry matter intake was not negatively affected regardless of the concentration of cinnamaldehyde provided. PMID:26995118

  11. Prospective observational cohort study of patients with weaning failure admitted to a specialist weaning, rehabilitation and home mechanical ventilation centre

    PubMed Central

    Mifsud Bonnici, Denise; Sanctuary, Thomas; Murphy, Patrick B; Steier, Joerg; Marino, Philip; Pattani, Hina; Creagh-Brown, Ben C; Hart, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives According to National Health Service England (NHSE) specialist respiratory commissioning specification for complex home ventilation, patients with weaning failure should be referred to a specialist centre. However, there are limited data reporting the clinical outcomes from such centres. Setting Prospective observational cohort study of patients admitted to a UK specialist weaning, rehabilitation and home mechanical ventilation centre between February 2005 and July 2013. Participants 262 patients admitted with a median age of 64.2 years (IQR 52.6–73.2 years). 59.9% were male. Results 39.7% of patients had neuromuscular and/or chest wall disease, 21% were postsurgical, 19.5% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 5.3% had obesity-related respiratory failure and 14.5% had other diagnoses. 64.1% of patients were successfully weaned, with 38.2% weaned fully from ventilation, 24% weaned to nocturnal non-invasive ventilation (NIV), 1.9% weaned to nocturnal NIV with intermittent NIV during the daytime. 21.4% of patients were discharged on long-term tracheostomy ventilation. The obesity-related respiratory failure group were most likely to wean (relative risk (RR) for weaning success=1.48, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.77; p<0.001), but otherwise weaning success rates did not significantly vary by diagnostic group. The median time-to-wean was 19 days (IQR 9–33) and the median duration of stay was 31 days (IQR 16–50), with no difference observed between the groups. Weaning centre mortality was 14.5%, highest in the COPD group (RR=2.15, 95% CI 1.19 to 3.91, p=0.012) and lowest in the neuromuscular and/or chest wall disease group (RR=0.34, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.75, p=0.007). Of all patients discharged alive, survival was 71.7% at 6 months and 61.8% at 12 months postdischarge. Conclusions Following NHSE guidance, patients with weaning delay and failure should be considered for transfer to a specialist centre where available, which can demonstrate

  12. Behavioral Characteristics of Weaned Piglets Mixed in Different Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Kang; Eom, Tae-Kyung; Son, Seung-Hun; Hong, Joon-Ki; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Rhim, Shin-Jae

    2016-01-01

    With regard to animal welfare concerns, behavioral information of weaned and mixed piglets is great interest in swine production. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in behavior of weaned piglets over time in two different groups (littermates and piglets from different litters) after mixing. Two weaned groups of piglets (72 individuals in all) housed either with littermates or with foreign piglets (6 individuals in 1.8 m×1.4 m pens, 28°C±1°C temperature) were observed with the aid of video technology for 9 consecutive hours on days 1, 2, and 3 after mixing. The behaviors of the weaned piglets in the control and treatment groups were significantly different among the days after mixing. Piglets were, however, more active and aggressive in the groups with foreign piglets. This study reveals a lower level of agonistic behavior in groups of piglets that came from the same litter. PMID:26954152

  13. Behavioral Characteristics of Weaned Piglets Mixed in Different Groups.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Kang; Eom, Tae-Kyung; Son, Seung-Hun; Hong, Joon-Ki; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Rhim, Shin-Jae

    2016-07-01

    With regard to animal welfare concerns, behavioral information of weaned and mixed piglets is great interest in swine production. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in behavior of weaned piglets over time in two different groups (littermates and piglets from different litters) after mixing. Two weaned groups of piglets (72 individuals in all) housed either with littermates or with foreign piglets (6 individuals in 1.8 m×1.4 m pens, 28°C±1°C temperature) were observed with the aid of video technology for 9 consecutive hours on days 1, 2, and 3 after mixing. The behaviors of the weaned piglets in the control and treatment groups were significantly different among the days after mixing. Piglets were, however, more active and aggressive in the groups with foreign piglets. This study reveals a lower level of agonistic behavior in groups of piglets that came from the same litter. PMID:26954152

  14. Brief communication: Orphaned Male Chimpanzees die young even after weaning.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Michio; Hayaki, Hitoshige; Hosaka, Kazuhiko; Itoh, Noriko; Zamma, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    If a social-living animal has a long life span, permitting different generations to co-exist within a social group, as is the case in many primate species, it can be beneficial for a parent to continue to support its weaned offspring to increase the latter's survival and/or reproductive success. Chimpanzees have an even longer period of dependence on their mothers' milk than do humans, and consequently, offspring younger than 4.5-5 years old cannot survive if the mother dies. Most direct maternal investments, such as maternal transportation of infants and sharing of night shelters (beds or nests), end with nutritional weaning. Thus, it had been assumed that a mother's death was no longer critical to the survival of weaned offspring, in contrast to human children, who continue to depend on parental care long after weaning. However, in theory at least, maternal investment in a chimpanzee son after weaning could be beneficial because in chimpanzees' male-philopatric society, mother and son co-exist for a long time after the offspring's weaning. Using long-term demographic data for a wild chimpanzee population in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania, we show the first empirical evidence that orphaned chimpanzee sons die younger than expected even if they lose their mothers after weaning. This suggests that long-lasting, but indirect, maternal investment in sons continues several years after weaning and is vital to the survival of the sons. The maternal influence on males in the male-philopatric societies of hominids may be greater than previously believed. PMID:24318948

  15. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  16. Changes in caecal microbiota and mucosal morphology of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Marisol; Martín-Orúe, Susana M; Nofrarías, Miquel; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Gasa, Josep

    2007-10-01

    An experiment was designed to monitor the changes in caecal microbiota associated with early weaning. Twelve piglets (20+/-2 days) from six different litters were selected from a commercial source. For the two experimental groups, one animal from each litter was weaned onto a post-weaning diet (W) and the other remained with the sow (S). After 1 week, animals were sacrificed and caecal samples taken. Microbial counts for total bacteria, enterobacteria and lactobacilli populations were determined by quantitative PCR using SYBR Green dye. Microbial profiles were assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). Weaning promoted an increase in the enterobacteria:lactobacilli ratio (0.27 versus 1.67 log/log 16S rRNA gene copy number, P=0.05). Total bacteria and richness of the caecal microbial ecosystem (number of peaks) were similar in both experimental groups (49.3 for S and 53.4 for W, respectively, P=0.22), although the band patterns were clearly grouped in two different clusters by dendogram analysis. Weaning was also associated with a decrease in crypt density, an increase in mytotic index and a decrease in the number of goblet cells. A reduced immunological response was also observed and was manifested by an increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes and lymphocyte density in the lamina propria. Weaning appears to be critical in the establishment of the caecal microbiota in pigs with important changes, particularly in microbial groups and in caecal mucosal architecture. PMID:17532151

  17. Artificial weaning of Old World monkeys: benefits and costs.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Permanent mother-infant separation prior to natural weaning is a common hus-bandry practice in monkey breeding colonies. In the United States, all eight Re-gional Primate Research Centers have such colonies. Under undisturbed conditions, Old World monkey mothers wean their infants at the age of about 1 year (Hall & DeVore, 1965; Poirier, 1970; Roonwal & Mohnot, 1977; Southwick, Beg, & Siddiqi, 1965). Natural weaning is a gradual process. It implies that the mother, over a period of several weeks or months, more and more consistently discourages her infant to suck on her breasts. Once the mother stops nursing the infant for good, the affectionate bond between the two is not broken (Altmann, Altmann, Hausfater, & McCuskey, 1977; Lindburg, 1971; Poirier, 1970; Roonwal & Mohnot, 1977). The young usually remains in the ma-ternal group at least until prepuberty. Under confinement conditions, artificial weaning is an abrupt occurrence that takes place several months prior to the biologically normal age of weaning. It im-plies that the still-nursed infant is taken away from the mother and subsequently reared alone or with other artificially weaned infants. PMID:12738583

  18. VWPS: A Ventilator Weaning Prediction System with Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Austin H.; Chen, Guan-Ting

    How to wean patients efficiently off mechanical ventilation continues to be a challenge for medical professionals. In this paper we have described a novel approach to the study of a ventilator weaning prediction system (VWPS). Firstly, we have developed and written three Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms to predict a weaning successful rate based on the clinical data. Secondly, we have implemented two user-friendly weaning success rate prediction systems; the VWPS system and the BWAP system. Both systems could be used to help doctors objectively and effectively predict whether weaning is appropriate for patients based on the patients' clinical data. Our system utilizes the powerful processing abilities of MatLab. Thirdly, we have calculated the performance through measures such as sensitivity and accuracy for these three algorithms. The results show a very high sensitivity (around 80%) and accuracy (around 70%). To our knowledge, this is the first design approach of its kind to be used in the study of ventilator weaning success rate prediction.

  19. Intestinal calcium absorption of women during lactation and after weaning.

    PubMed

    Kalkwarf, H J; Specker, B L; Heubi, J E; Vieira, N E; Yergey, A L

    1996-04-01

    We investigated whether intestinal calcium absorption and serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) concentrations are higher in women during lactation and after weaning to compensate for calcium lost in breast milk. Measurements were obtained at 4.6 mo postpartum in 24 lactating women and 24 nonlactating women, at 9.6 mo postpartum in 24 lactating women (2.6 mo after complete weaning) and 24 nonlactating women. One-half of the women in each group were randomly assigned to receive 1 g supplemental Ca/d as calcium carbonate. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by using stable isotopic tracers 42Ca and 44Ca. Fractional absorption was 0.32+/-0.02 (+/-SEM) in both lactating and nonlactating women, but was higher in lactating women after weaning (0.37+/-0.02) compared with nonlactating postpartum control subjects (0.31+/-0.02). These effects were independent of calcium intake. Changes in serum calcitriol paralleled changes in fractional absorption. There were no differences in calcitriol concentrations between lactating and nonlactating women, but calcitriol was greater in women after weaning compared with postpartum control subjects. Lactating women who had resumed menses had higher fractional absorption and serum calcitriol than did lactating women who had not. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were greater in lactating compared with nonlactating women; there were no differences between groups after weaning. We conclude that lactation stimulates increases in fractional calcium absorption and serum calcitriol, but the responses are only apparent after weaning or the resumption of menses. PMID:8599316

  20. Newborn piglet traits associated with survival and growth performance until weaning.

    PubMed

    Panzardi, A; Bernardi, M L; Mellagi, A P; Bierhals, T; Bortolozzo, F P; Wentz, I

    2013-06-01

    Pre-weaning piglet mortality represents significant economic losses, and approximately half of this mortality occurs within the first 3 days after birth. Factors involved in postnatal mortality can also be associated with a poor growth performance until weaning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some variables measured right after birth on piglet survival during the first week of life and growth performance until weaning. Piglets included in the analysis (n=612) were born from 3 to 5 parity sows. Piglets were monitored for blood oxygen saturation (SatO2), heart rate (HR), blood glucose concentration, rectal temperature at birth (RT0 h) and at 24h after birth (RT24 h). Genetic line, birth following or not an obstetric intervention, birth order, sex, skin color, integrity of the umbilical cord, and time elapsed from birth until first attempts to stand were also recorded. Piglets were weighed at birth (BW), and at 7, 14 and 21 days after birth in order to evaluate their postnatal development. Cumulative mortality rates were 3.3%, 5.4% and 8.7% at 3, 7 and 21 days after birth, respectively. Body temperature at birth (RT0 h) did not affect (P>0.05) the survival nor the piglet growth performance. Piglets with cyanotic skin and those that took more than 5 min to stand showed higher chance of mortality (P<0.05) compared to normal skin piglets and to piglets which stood before 1 min, respectively. Piglets with broken umbilical cord had higher odds (P<0.05) of mortality up to 3 days after birth, respectively. Higher odds (P<0.05) of mortality up to 3 or 7 days were associated with later birth order (>9), low BW (<1275g), low (24-30 mg/dl) and high (45-162 mg/dl) blood glucose concentrations, or low RT24 h (<38.1°C). Piglets with BW<1545 g, low RT24 h (<38.6°C) and female piglets had higher odds of a low weight at weaning (P<0.05). Among the factors studied, cyanotic skin, delay for standing, broken umbilical cord, high birth order, low BW, low RT24 h, and

  1. Eating and drinking activity of newly weaned piglets: effects of individual characteristics, social mixing, and addition of extra zinc to the feed.

    PubMed

    Dybkjaer, L; Jacobsen, A P; Tøgersen, F A; Poulsen, H D

    2006-03-01

    In production systems, piglets usually fast for a period after weaning, thereby increasing the risk of diarrhea and a reduction in growth. The low level of eating may relate to insufficient drinking activity, as solid feed intake must be accompanied by water intake. Mixing of newly weaned piglets is a well-known stressor and a common procedure in pig production. The effect of mixing on the temporal development of eating and drinking activity in newly weaned piglets has not been elucidated. High concentrations of zinc (Zn) in the feed improve the health and performance of piglets after weaning, but the underlying mechanisms are still obscure. One possibility is that Zn affects eating and drinking behavior. The effects of mixing 4 littermates from each of 2 litters and adding zinc oxide (ZnO; 2,500 ppm of Zn) to the feed were studied in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment using 123 piglets weaned at 27 d of age. Individual eating and drinking times during the initial 48 h after weaning were analyzed on 2 levels of aggregation, day and hour. The piglets spent less time eating on the first day after weaning compared with the second day (20 +/- 5 vs. 98 +/- 10 min, respectively; P < 0.001), whereas they spent more time drinking on the first day compared with the second day (13 +/- 1 vs. 9 +/- 0.5 min, respectively; P < 0.001). Eating and drinking times were positively associated (P < 0.001). Females ate for longer than males (61 +/- 8 vs. 44 +/- 7 min/24 h, respectively, P = 0.002), whereas sex did not affect drinking time. Drinking time increased (P = 0.003) and eating time decreased (P = 0.001) with increasing preweaning growth rate and weaning weight. Neither mixing nor addition of ZnO affected the daily eating time. However, nonmixed piglets given 2,500 ppm of Zn as ZnO in the feed spent more time drinking per day (12 +/- 1 min) than did nonmixed piglets offered 100 ppm of Zn as ZnO (10 +/- 1 min; P = 0.002). Mixing also affected the hourly distribution of the drinking

  2. Growth performance of early-weaned pigs is enhanced by feeding epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Andrea; Huynh, Evanna; Fu, Molei; Zhu, Cuilan; Wey, Doug; de Lange, Cornelis; Li, Julang

    2014-03-10

    We have previously generated epidermal growth factor expressing Lactococcus lactis (EGF-LL) using bioengineering approach, and shown that feeding newly-weaned piglets EGF-LL improves digestive function. To address concerns over the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO), the objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding the EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of the genetically modified EGF-LL, on growth performance and intestine development of newly-weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty newly-weaned piglets were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program. Four pens were assigned to each of three treatments: (1) complete EGF-LL fermentation product (Ferm), (2) supernatant of EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of EGF-LL (Supern), or (3) blank M17GE media (Control). EGF-LL or its fermented supernatant was administrated to piglets in the first 3 weeks post-weaning; their growth performance was monitored throughout treatment, and for the following week. Daily body weight gain (254.8g vs. 200.5g) and Gain:Feed (0.541kg/kg vs. 0.454kg/kg) of pigs on the Supern group were significantly improved compared to that of Control, although no difference was observed between the Ferm and Control pigs. Intestinal sucrase activity was increased in Supern- compared to Control group (166.3±62.1 vs. 81.4±56.5nmol glucose released/mg protein; P<0.05). The lack of growth response with Ferm pigs may be attributed to an overload of bacteria (daily dose included 4.56×10(10)CFU/kg BW/day EGF-LL). These results suggest that GMO-free EGF-LL fermentation product is effective in increasing growth performance of early-weaned piglets. PMID:24445174

  3. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol) soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol) molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol) sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (p<0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed ratio than weaned piglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry. PMID:26104525

  4. Optimizing Production of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Piglet Feces as Feed Additives for Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ming-Lun; Chen, Hsi-Chia; Chen, Kun-Nan; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Ya-Ting; Chen, Ming-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii x-1d-2 and Lactobacillus mucosae x-4w-1, originally isolated from piglet feces, have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activities, antibiotic resistances and interleukin-6 induction ability in RAW 267.4 macrophages in our previous study. These characteristics make L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 good candidates for application in feed probiotics. In this study, soybeal meal, molasses and sodium acetate were selected to optimize the growth medium for cultivation of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1. These two strains were then freeze-dried and mixed into the basal diet to feed the weaned piglets. The effects of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 on the growth performance and fecal microflora of weaned piglets were investigated. The results showed that the bacterial numbers of L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 reached a maximum of 8.90 and 9.30 log CFU/mL, respectively, when growing in optimal medium consisting of 5.5% (wt/vol) soybean meal, 1.0% (wt/vol) molasses and 1.0% (wt/vol) sodium acetate. The medium cost was 96% lower than the commercial de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium. In a further feeding study, the weaned piglets fed basal diet supplemented with freeze-dried probiotic cultures exhibited higher (p<0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and gain/feed ratio than weaned piglets fed basal diet. Probiotic feeding also increased the numbers of lactobacilli and decreased the numbers of E. coli in the feces of weaned piglets. This study demonstrates that L. johnsonii x-1d-2 and L. mucosae x-4w-1 have high potential to be used as feed additives in the pig industry. PMID:26104525

  5. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  6. The influence of age and weaning on permeability of the gastrointestinal tract in Holstein bull calves.

    PubMed

    Wood, K M; Palmer, S I; Steele, M A; Metcalf, J A; Penner, G B

    2015-10-01

    Fourteen Holstein bull calves were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate the effect of calf age and weaning on permeability of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) a weaning protocol that was initiated on d 35; WN; n=7), or (2) a control treatment where calves were not weaned (CON; n=7). Calves were bottle-fed milk replacer (150 g/L), in 3 equal portions/d targeting 15% of their body weight (BW) in liquid milk intake [approximately 21.1g/kg of BW/d, dry matter (DM) basis]. On d 35, the amount of milk replacer offered to WN calves was reduced to 7.5% of BW for 7 d before calves were weaned on d 42. On d 14, 28, and 42, calves were orally dosed with 500 mL of Cr-EDTA (179 mM Cr-EDTA solution) and housed in a metabolism crate to enable total urine collection and determination of total urinary Cr recovery as an indicator of total-tract permeability. On d 44, calves were killed and tissues from the rumen, omasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and proximal and distal colon were collected, rinsed, and transported in buffer solution (pH 7.4 at 38.5°C). Tissues were incubated in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions with buffer solutions designed to mimic the mucosal and serosal energy source that would be available in vivo (glucose for tissues from the small intestine and short-chain fatty acids for tissues that would be exposed to fermentation; rumen, omasum, and large intestinal tissues). The serosal to mucosal flux of (14)C-mannitol and (3)H-inulin was measured for each region. Although we detected treatment × period interactions for BW and starter intake, dietary treatments did not differ within a week. Overall, the time that ruminal pH was <5.5 was less before weaning than after weaning. We observed a differential response for the appearance of Cr in urine for WN and CON calves, where the appearance of Cr (mg/48 h) in urine decreased for both treatments from d 14 to 28, but

  7. Feeding a diet containing resistant potato starch influences gastrointestinal tract traits and growth performance of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Heo, J M; Agyekum, A K; Yin, Y L; Rideout, T C; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of feeding resistant potato starch (RPS) as a natural source of resistant starch to weaned pigs for 28 d immediately after weaning. Sixty piglets (Yorkshire-Landrace × Duroc) weaned at 21 ± 2 d (1:1 male:female) with an initial BW of 7.2 ± 0.78 kg were assigned in a completely randomized design to 1 of 5 dietary treatments to give 6 observations per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. Dietary treatments consisted of a negative control corn-soybean meal-wheat-wheat middlings-based diet (NC; no antimicrobial agents added) or the NC supplemented with RPS either as powder or in capsules and each included at 0.5 or 1.0% as a top-dressing on each day. Diets were formulated to meet 1998 NRC specifications. Pigs were offered the experimental diets on an ad libitum basis for 28 d and water was available at all times. The ADG, ADFI, and G:F were determined weekly. Fecal score was determined daily for 14 d after weaning. At the conclusion of study, 1 pig from each pen was randomly selected and euthanized (n = 6 per treatment) to determine visceral organ weight, digesta pH, VFA, and ammonia N (NH3-N) concentrations. Resistant potato starch supplementation improved (P < 0.001) fecal score, and pigs offered 1.0% RPS had more solid feces (P < 0.05) than those offered 0.5% RPS during the first 14 d after weaning, independent of the form of RPS. Resistant potato starch supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) ileal and cecal digesta pH regardless of the levels of RPS or mode of delivery. The total VFA concentrations in cecal digesta were greater (P < 0.05) but the molar proportion of branched-chain fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the RPS-containing diets compared with those fed the NC, irrespective of the RPS levels or the form of RPS. However, there were no differences (P > 0.10) in visceral organ weights, growth performance, and digestibilities of DM, CP, Ca, and P among treatments. The results of this experiment indicate that

  8. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  9. Estimating non-genetic and genetic parameters of pre-weaning growth traits in Raini Cashmere goat.

    PubMed

    Barazandeh, Arsalan; Moghbeli, Sadrollah Molaei; Vatankhah, Mahmood; Mohammadabadi, Mohammadreza

    2012-04-01

    Data and pedigree information used in the present study were 3,022 records of kids obtained from the breeding station of Raini goat. The studied traits were birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), average daily gain from birth to weaning (ADG) and Kleiber ratio at weaning (KR). The model included the fixed effects of sex of kid, type of birth, age of dam, year of birth, month of birth, and age of kid (days) as covariate that had significant effects, and random effects direct additive genetic, maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental effects and residual. (Co) variance components were estimated using univariate and multivariate analysis by WOMBAT software applying four animal models including and ignoring maternal effects. Likelihood ratio test used to determine the most appropriate models. Heritability (h(a)(2)) estimates for BW, WW, ADG, and KR according to suitable model were 0.12 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.06, 0.10 ± 0.06, and 0.06 ± 0.05, respectively. Estimates of the proportion of maternal permanent environmental effect to phenotypic variance (c(2)) were 0.17 ± 0.03, 0.07 ± 0.03, and 0.07 ± 0.03 for BW, WW, and ADG, respectively. Genetic correlations among traits were positive and ranged from 0.53 (BW-ADG) to 1.00 (WW-ADG, WW-KR, and ADG-KR). The maternal permanent environmental correlations between BW-WW, BW-ADG, and WW-ADG were 0.54, 0.48, and 0.99, respectively. Results indicated that maternal effects, especially maternal permanent environmental effects are an important source of variation in pre-weaning growth trait and ignoring those in the model redound incorrect genetic evaluation of kids. PMID:21901301

  10. Providing supplementary milk to suckling dairy calves improves performance at separation and weaning.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, J F; Beaver, A; Mejdell, C M; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Weary, D M

    2015-07-01

    Dam rearing can provide health and welfare benefits, but separation and weaning are major welfare challenges. We investigated whether access to an additional source of milk from an automatic milk feeder (AMF) would improve weight gains after separation and weaning. During the first 6wk of life (dam phase), calves were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments using a parallel group design with repeated measures: nursing (n=10) and combined (n=10) calves could suckle from their dams at night (between 2000 and 0800h), and combined calves also had access to 12 L of milk/d accessible 24h/d from an AMF. Milk feeder calves (n=10) also had access to an AMF 24h/d and were housed with the dam at night but were prevented from suckling by an udder net. Separation from the dam occurred after 6wk in 2 phases with decreasing contact between cow and calf: partial separation (duration 4d) and total separation (duration 3d). At separation, all calves were granted access to 12 L of milk 24h/d from the AMF until weaning began at 7wk of age. We hypothesized that access to an AMF during the dam phase would result in less weight loss at separation and weaning compared with calves that had been nutritionally dependent upon the cow (i.e., nursing calves). Calf weight gain during the dam phase averaged (±SD) 1.1±0.26kg/d and did not vary with treatment. Combined calves drank less milk from the AMF compared with milk feeder calves during the dam phase (mean ± SEM daily milk intake: 1.1±0.38 vs. 8.2±0.34 L/d) and tended to drink less during partial separation (6.7±1.28 vs. 9.8±1.02 L/d), but milk intake from the AMF did not differ between these treatments in the later phases. During the same phases, nursing calves consumed less milk from the AMF than the other treatments; of the 10 calves, 6 did not use the AMF (consuming <1.5 L/d) after the dam phase. After separation, nursing calves gained less weight than calves in both the milk feeder and combined treatments (0.8±0.16 vs. 1.2±0.08kg

  11. Body mass dynamics in hand reared clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) cubs from birth to weaning.

    PubMed

    Nájera, Fernando; Brown, Janine; Wildt, David E; Virolle, Laurie; Kongprom, Urarikha; Revuelta, Luis; Goodrowe-Beck, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To study the dynamics of body mass changes in hand reared clouded leopards, we analyzed 3,697 weight data points during the first 3 months of life in 49 cubs from 24 zoo-born litters from 2003 through 2012. All cubs were fed the same formula mixture after a similar weaning protocol. The hand rearing process was divided into three periods based on feeding protocols: Stage 1: formula only (Days 1-28; Day 0 = day of birth); Stage 2, formula supplemented with protein (e.g., turkey baby food; Days 29-42); Stage 3, formula in decreasing amounts supplemented with meat (chicken and/or beef; Days 43-90). Weights at birth were 11.2% higher (P < 0.001) for males (n = 29) than females (n = 20). Daily weight gain was slowest (P < 0.05) during Stage 1 when cubs were fed straight formula only and fastest during Stage 3 when provided a mixture of formula and meat. Mean growth rate (± SD) during hand rearing differed (P < 0.05) by gender, being 34.6 ± 1.4 g/day for male and 30.0 ± 1.2 g/day for female cubs. Eighteen cubs (37%) exhibited mild to severe diarrhea during the study; however, palliative treatment resulted in similar (P > 0.05) growth and weaning weights compared to healthy counterparts. These are the first data documenting, on a large scale, the growth patterns for zoo born, hand reared clouded leopard cubs. Findings are valuable as an aid in managing this rare species, including for helping identify early onset of medical issues and further determining key factors regulating the first 3 months of development. PMID:25716685

  12. Normal birth weight piglets with impaired preweaning growth utilize alternative metabolic pathways in the liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was designed to determine if normal weight pigs that grow poorly during the pre-weaning period have altered hepatic metabolism, as reported for intrauterine growth retarded pigs. Eight pairs of average birth weight pigs (1.57 +/- 0.05 kg) were identified that diverged in weight by...

  13. The effects of early weaning on innate immune responses of Holstein calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to compare innate immune responses of calves weaned early (EW; n = 23; weaned at 23.7 ± 2.3 d of age) to conventionally-weaned calves (CW; n = 22; weaned at 44.7 ± 2.3 d of age). All calves were fed 3.8 L of colostrum within 12 h of birth and were subsequently fed m...

  14. Risk factors of weaning diarrhea in puppies housed in breeding kennels.

    PubMed

    Grellet, Aurélien; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie; Robin, Coralie; Feugier, Alexandre; Boogaerts, Cassandre; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Grandjean, Dominique; Polack, Bruno

    2014-11-01

    Diarrhea represents one of the most frequent disorders in dogs. In puppies, degradation of feces quality is associated with a reduced daily weight gain and an increased risk of death. Prevention of diarrhea in puppies requires a global approach encompassing enteropathogens, environment and management practices especially when housed in groups. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of enteropathogens in puppies in breeding kennels and to identify risk factors of diarrhea. Two hundred and sixty six puppies (between 5 and 14 weeks of age) from 29 French breeding kennels were included. For each kennel, data about environment, management of the kennel and puppies' characteristics (age, sex and breed) were collected. For each puppy, fecal consistency and fecal excretion of enteropathogens (viruses and parasites) was evaluated. At least one enteropathogen was identified in 77.1% of puppies and 24.8% of puppies presented abnormal feces. The main risk factor of weaning diarrhea was fecal excretion of canine parvovirus type 2 (odds ratio=5; confidence interval 95%: 1.7-14.7). A targeted sanitary and medical prophylaxis against canine parvovirus type 2 should be implemented to decrease risk of weaning diarrhea. PMID:25175676

  15. Evaluation of a Mapleson D CPAP system for weaning of mechanical ventilation in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Palomero-Rodríguez, Miguel Angel; de Arteaga, Héctor Chozas; Báez, Yolanda Laporta; de Vicente Sánchez, Jesús; Carretero, Pascual Sanabria; Conde, Pilar Sánchez; Ferrer, Antonio Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the last years, we have used a flow-inflating bag circuit with a nasotracheal or nasopharyngeal tube as an interface to deliver effective CPAP support in infants (“Mapleson D CPAP system”). The primary goal of this study was to assess the usefulness of the “Mapleson D CPAP system” for weaning of mechanical ventilation (MV) in infants who received MV over 24 h. Materials and Methods: All infants who received MV for more than 24 h in the last year were enrolled in the study. Demographic data included age, gender, weight, and admission diagnosis. Heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were measured during MV, 2 h after the nasotracheal Mapleson D CPAP system and 2 h after extubation. Patients were classified into two groups: patients MV more than 48 h, and patients with MV fewer than 48 h. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 50 children were enrolled in the study, with a median age was 34 ± 45 months (range, 1–59 months) and median weight was 11.98 ± 9.31 kg (range, 1–48 kg). Median duration of MV was 480 h (range, 2–570). There were no significant differences in PaO2, PaCO2, and pH among MV, 2 h after the nasotracheal Mapleson D CPAP system and 2 h after extubation and spontaneous ventilation with the nasopharyngeal Mapleson D CPAP system or with nasal prongs. The overall extubation failure rate was 26% (n = 13). Weight and age were significantly associated with extubation failure (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The Mapleson D CPAP system, in our opinion, is a useful and safe alternative to more complex and expensive noninvasive CPAP and BiPAP weaning from MV in infants.

  16. Effect of increasing distillers grains inclusion on performance and carcass characteristics of early-weaned steers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, J P; Claeys, M C; Lemenager, R P

    2013-04-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain elevated concentrations of CP, oil, and S, which can negatively impact performance and carcass characteristics in steers weaned at 205 d of age. Early weaned (EW) cattle, however, consume less DM and require increased CP. Furthermore, the energy required to dispose of excess N may actually decrease excessive fat accumulation, which can occur in EW cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding diets with increased concentrations of DDGS to EW steers for the first 99 d would decrease fat thickness and increase harvest weights, and would not inhibit performance or marbling deposition. To test this hypothesis, 90 Angus × Simmental steers (199.7 ± 12.2 kg) were weaned at 134 d of age (EW) and allotted to 3 high concentrate diets (20% corn silage) containing either 0%, 30%, or 60% DDGS (15.7%, 15.8% and 21.7% CP, respectively). Dietary treatments were fed for 99 d, after which steers were placed on a common diet containing no DDGS (12.9% CP) until harvest at a common weight of 599 kg. Concentration of dietary DDGS did not affect ADG, DMI, or G:F during the growing phase (P > 0.41), did not produce any carryover effects on ADG, DMI, or G:F during the finishing phase (P > 0.26), and resulted in similar overall performance (P > 0.52). Dressing percentage (P < 0.05), HCW (P = 0.06), fat thickness (P = 0.10), and % KPH (P = 0.08) responded quadratically to early DDGS supplementation, increasing from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and decreasing from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion, respectively. Marbling score was not affected (P > 0.46) by DDGS inclusion, but there was a tendency (P = 0.08) for the ratio of subcutaneous (SC) to intramuscular (IM) fat to be altered by DDGS inclusion. The ratio of IM to SC fat decreased from 0 to 30% DDGS inclusion and increased from 30 to 60% DDGS inclusion. These data suggest that inclusion of increased concentrations of dietary DDGS early in the feedlot phase does not negatively impact growth and

  17. How Feasible Is Baby-Led Weaning as an Approach to Infant Feeding? A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Sonya L.; Heath, Anne-Louise M.; Taylor, Rachael W.

    2012-01-01

    Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is an alternative method for introducing complementary foods to infants in which the infant feeds themselves hand-held foods instead of being spoon-fed by an adult. The BLW infant also shares family food and mealtimes and is offered milk (ideally breast milk) on demand until they self-wean. Anecdotal evidence suggests that many parents are choosing this method instead of conventional spoon-feeding of purées. Observational studies suggest that BLW may encourage improved eating patterns and lead to a healthier body weight, although it is not yet clear whether these associations are causal. This review evaluates the literature with respect to the prerequisites for BLW, which we have defined as beginning complementary foods at six months (for safety reasons), and exclusive breastfeeding to six months (to align with WHO infant feeding guidelines); the gross and oral motor skills required for successful and safe self-feeding of whole foods from six months; and the practicalities of family meals and continued breastfeeding on demand. Baby-Led Weaning will not suit all infants and families, but it is probably achievable for most. However, ultimately, the feasibility of BLW as an approach to infant feeding can only be determined in a randomized controlled trial. Given the popularity of BLW amongst parents, such a study is urgently needed. PMID:23201835

  18. Calf training for loading onto vehicle at weaning.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Michiru

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether calf training for loading at the weaning period improves later loading. Five calves were allocated to the trained group and the control group, respectively. Calves in the trained group were loaded onto a livestock trailer for 5 successive days at weaning. Trainers led or hauled the calves by rope only. When loading was completed, trainers fed calves with sugar cubes as rewards. Calves in the control group were weaned without any treatment. Five weeks after weaning, tests were carried out under similar conditions as the trained group. Loading efficiency, physical effort on the handler and handling stress on calves between groups were compared. Trained calves were loaded significantly faster than control calves. Trained calves balked less during loading than control calves. Heart rates of handlers after loading were significantly lower in the trained group than in the control group; however, salivary amylase activity and cortisol concentration was not different between groups. Physical effort and stress on handlers would be almost the same in both groups. Heart rate, plasma cortisol, NEFA and CPK of calves were significantly increased only in the control group after loading. These results show calf training improves loading efficiency and reduces stress on calves. PMID:23126329

  19. Gene expression profiling in bovine rumen during development and weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In calves, efficient nutrient delivery, absorption, and metabolism depend upon the transition of the rumen from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant state during weaning. The rumen epithelium is responsible for several physiologically important functions, including absorption, transport, volatile fatty...

  20. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Thallman, R M; Cundiff, L V

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle (Bos taurus). Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth weight, weaning weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG was measured in 1,370 calves born and 1,285 calves weaned. Calves were obtained by mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) mature cows to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires. Calves were born during the spring of 1997 and 1998. Sire breed was significant for gestation length, birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Swedish Red and White and Friesian had the shortest gestation length (282 d), whereas offspring from Wagyu sires had the longest gestation length (286 d). Progeny from British breeds were the heaviest at birth (40.5 kg) and at 205 d (237 kg), and grew faster (0.97 kg/d) than offspring from other breeds. Offspring from Wagyu sires were the lightest at birth (36.3 kg) and at 205 d (214 kg), and had the slowest growth (0.91 kg/d). Dam breed was significant for gestation length (P < 0.001), birth weight (P = 0.009), BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Offspring from Hereford cows had the longest gestation length (284 d), whereas offspring from Angus cows had the shortest (282 d). Offspring from MARC III cows were the heaviest at birth (39.4 kg) when compared with offspring from Hereford (38.2 kg) and Angus (38.6 kg) cows. Progeny from Angus cows were the heaviest at 205 d (235 kg) and grew faster (0.96 kg/d), whereas offspring from Hereford cows were the lightest at 205 d (219 kg) and were the slowest in growth (0.88 kg/d). Sex was significant for gestation length (P = 0.026), birth weight, BW at 205 d, and ADG (P < 0.001). Male calves had a longer gestation length

  1. Effects of Graded Levels of Isomaltooligosaccharides on the Performance, Immune Function and Intestinal Status of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. X.; Song, P. X.; Wu, H.; Xue, J. X.; Zhong, X.; Zhang, L. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) on the performance, immune function and intestinal microflora and intestinal mucosal morphology of weaned pigs. In a 28-day experiment, one hundred eighty, twenty eight-day-old, crossbred (Duroc×Large White×Landrace), weaned pigs, with an initial body weight of 8.19±1.45 kg, were fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal based diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, or 0.8% IMO added at the expense of corn. Each treatment was replicated six times with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts) per pen. From day 0 to 14, weight gain was linearly increased (p<0.05), while gain:feed (p<0.05) was linearly improved and diarrhea rate (p = 0.05) linearly declined as the IMO level increased. On d 14, the level of the immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, and IgG in the serum of pigs were linearly increased (p<0.05) with increasing IMO supplementation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was linearly (p<0.05) and quadratically (p<0.05) decreased as IMO intake increased. From day 15 to 28, there was a trend for weight gain to be linearly increased, and IL-2 was linearly (p<0.05) increased as IMO supplementation increased on d 28. Over the entire experiment, weight gain was linearly increased (p<0.05), while gain:feed (p<0.05) was linearly improved and diarrhea rate (p<0.05) was linearly decreased as the IMO level increased. Supplementation with IMO had no effect on the intestinal microflora of pigs in the ileum and cecum of pigs, as well as the villus height and crypt depth in the ileum and jejunum (p>0.05). These results indicate that dietary inclusion of IMO increases weight gain, gain:feed and enhanced the immune status of pigs, and could be a valuable feed additive for use in weaned pigs, particularly during the period immediately after weaning. PMID:26732450

  2. Expression of Ghrelin in gastrointestinal tract and the effect of early weaning on Ghrelin expression in lambs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weimin; Cheng, Liang; Guo, Jiangpeng; Ma, Youji; Li, Fadi

    2014-02-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor, plays an important role in stimulating hormone secretion, development of gastrointestinal tract, food intake and regulating energy balance of animals. In this study we isolated the cDNA sequence of ovine Ghrelin from the abomasums of 7-day-aged lambs. Real-time PCR was used to determine the abundance of Ghrelin mRNA in lamb gastrointestinal tract, and analyze the development changes of abomasums Ghrelin mRNA expression in 0-56 days lambs, as well as find the effects of 42-day weaning on Ghrelin mRNA expression in lamb abomasums. The results showed that: (1) Ghrelin mRNA was expressed widely in gastrointestinal tract and was significantly higher in the abomasums than in other tissues (rumen, reticulum, omasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum) (P < 0.01); (2) The expression of abomasums Ghrelin mRNA in lamb increased with the growth of age, it reached a plateau at the age of 49 days, however, got a slightly decrease at the age of 56 days; (3) The expression of abomasums Ghrelin mRNA of the 42 days-weaned groups were significantly lower than the no-weaned groups (P < 0.05), and the Ghrelin mRNA expression of the two treatments reached a maximum at the age of 49 days; (4) Correlation analysis indicated that the linear correlativity between abomasums Ghrelin mRNA expression and abomasums weight was very prominent (R(2) = 0.647, P = 0.009). Our results suggested that ovine Ghrelin gene may play an important role in the development of lamb abomasums and 42-day weaning could down regulate the expression of abomasum Ghrelin mRNA, but the mechanism of these needs further research. PMID:24385298

  3. Vasopressin for refractory hypotension in extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Bidegain, Margarita; Greenberg, Rachel; Simmons, Catherine; Dang, Chi; Cotten, C Michael; Smith, P Brian

    2010-09-01

    Intravenous vasopressin at 0.01 to 0.04 units/kg/h increased median mean blood pressure from 26 mm Hg (range 18-44) to 41 mm Hg (range 17-90) by 12 hours of infusion (P=.002) and allowed weaning of catecholamines in a group of extremely low birth weight infants with refractory hypotension. PMID:20727442

  4. The effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on glucose metabolism and gut microbiota in male mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2016-07-01

    Substantial studies demonstrated that maternal nutrition can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing some metabolic diseases in offspring. However, investigations into the later-life effects of these diets on gut microbiota in the offspring are limited. Our objective was to explore the effects of maternal and post-weaning diet interaction on offspring's gut microbiota and glucose metabolism in later life. The male offspring of dams fed on either a high-fat (HF) diet or control (C) diet and then weaned to either a HF or C diet, generating four groups: C-C, HF-C, C-HF and HF-HF (n=8 in each group). The C-C offspring had lower body weight than C-HF group at 16 weeks of age (P<0.01) and both C-HF and HF-HF offspring had higher body weight than C-C group at 24 and 32 weeks of age (P<0.001 respectively). The blood glucose (BG) levels of the male offspring from the C and HF dams weaned HF diet were significantly higher at 30 min, 60 min and 120 min (P<0.001) after intraperitoneal glucose administration compared with those of the C-C group. The C-HF group had higher BG at 30 min than HF-HF group (P<0.01). Furthermore, area under the curve (AUC) in C-HF and HF-HF groups was also significantly larger than C-C group (P<0.001). Fasting BG and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) of the offspring were significantly higher in C-HF and HF-HF groups than C-C group at 32 weeks of age (P<0.05). Operational taxonomic unit (OTU), Chao and Shannon indexes showed a significantly lower diversity in C-HF offspring compared with HF-C and C-C groups (P<0.05). The dominant phyla of all the groups were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which also showed significantly different percentages in the group (P<0.05). Furthermore, it is indicated that Lactobacillus and Bacteroides were significantly associated with glucose response to a glucose load (P<0.05). In conclusion, maternal and post-weaning diet interaction predisposes the

  5. Effect of weaning and in-feed high doses of zinc oxide on zinc levels in different body compartments of piglets.

    PubMed

    Davin, R; Manzanilla, E G; Klasing, K C; Pérez, J F

    2013-05-01

    High doses of Zn are widely used for prevention and treatment of diarrhoea in weaning piglets; however, the mechanism of action of Zn against diarrhoea is still not well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether weaning induces Zn deficiency in piglets. Eight litters of primiparous sows were selected for the experiment, and 3 piglets presenting similar weights were selected within each litter. Two of the three selected piglets from each litter were weaned at 21d of age and fed two different diets: a commercial control diet (WCt) and the same diet plus 2000 ppm of Zn as ZnO (WZn). The third selected pig from each litter was kept unweaned (Uw) with the sow and the rest of the litter. All 24 selected animals were killed at 28 d of age, and blood, gastrointestinal content, liver, pancreas and spleen were sampled for Zn, Fe and Cu analysis (mg/kg or L of sample). Data were analysed using anova including treatment as a fixed factor. Weaned pigs fed WCt diet presented a lower Zn concentration in plasma than Uw animals (0.76 ± 0.091 vs. 1.10 ± 0.099 mg/L, p = 0.05). Zinc levels in liver, pancreas and spleen were not affected by weaning. Total concentration of Zn was higher in gastrointestinal contents of weaned animals fed WCt diet than in Uw pigs (p ≤ 0.001 for stomach, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon). Supplementation with high doses of ZnO increased levels of Zn in gastrointestinal content (p < 0.001), liver (p < 0.001) and pancreas (p < 0.001) compared to WCt diet. It also increased plasma Zn to non-deficient levels (1.32 ± 0.086), but the increase was not as marked as in other locations and final concentration was not different than that in Uw animals (p = 0.231). Weaning creates a Zn deficiency situation in weaned pigs as observed by plasma Zn concentrations. ZnO supplementation counteracts Zn deficiency. PMID:23639012

  6. Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa

    PubMed Central

    Htoo, Nay Nang; Khaing, Aung Tun; Abba, Yusuf; Htin, Nwe Nwe; Abdullah, Jesse Faez Firdaus; Kyaw, Than; Khan, Mohd Azam Khan Goriman; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF) supplementation (with or without Alfalfa) on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48), 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg) were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM). The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA) while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control) had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than kids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g) and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g) groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from CF (12.1±0.56 kg) and DM (9.9±0.59 kg) groups. Conclusion: This result shows that supplementation of CF combined with alfalfa from birth to weaning enhances growth performance of cross-bred Boer goat kids. PMID:27065636

  7. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. II. Maternal influence on calf traits, cow weight, and measures of maternal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman in subtropical Florida and to estimate heterosis for size traits of their calves, their own weight, and maternal efficiency traits. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred in to bulls of the other 2 breeds. Calves were spring-born from 2005 through 2011. Evaluated calf (n = 1,254) traits included birth weight and weight, ADG, BCS, and hip height at weaning. Cow weight (n = 1,389) was recorded at weaning. Maternal efficiency traits evaluated included weaning weight per 100 kg cow weight, weaning weight per calving interval, and weaning weight per cow exposed to breeding (n = 1,442). Fixed effects and their interactions were investigated included sire and dam breed of cow, sire breed of calf, cow age, year, calf gender, and weaning age as a linear covariate (calf traits at weaning). Direct and maternal additive genetic effects were random in models for calf traits; only direct additive effects were modeled for cow traits. Cows sired by Angus bulls from outside the research herd had calves that were heavier at birth and weaning and greater ADG, BCS, and hip height (P < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis for weaning weight, BCS, and ADG ranged from 1.3 to 13.2% for all pairs of breeds (P < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis for birth weight (3.2 to 8.2%) and hip height (2.3%) were significant for Romosinuano-Angus and Brahman-Angus. Heterosis for cow weight was 65 ± 8 kg for Brahman-Angus (P < 0.001), and estimates for other pairs of breeds were approximately one-half that value. Heterosis for weaning weight/100 kg cow weight was 3.4 ± 0.75 kg for Romosinuano-Angus. Heterosis estimates for weaning weight/calving interval (P < 0.001) ranged from 0.08 ± 0.01 to 0.12 ± 0.01. Heterosis for weaning weight

  8. Performance and carcass traits of early-weaned steers receiving either a pasture growing period or a finishing diet at weaning.

    PubMed

    Myers, S E; Faulkner, D B; Nash, T G; Berger, L L; Parrett, D F; McKeith, F K

    1999-02-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to evaluate 1) steers fed ad libitum high concentrate after weaning (CONC), or 2) steers grown on pasture for 82 d, followed by high-concentrate finishing (PAST), on the performance and carcass traits of 74 early-weaned (117 d of age) steers. Potential breed differences were evaluated using crossbred steers of three types: 1) 3/4 Angus x 1/4 Simmental (BRI), 2) 3/4 Simmental x 1/4 Angus (CON), and 3) 1/2 Wagyu x 1/4 Angus x 1/4 Simmental (WAG). Steers were randomly assigned within breed to the two treatments. There was no interactions (P > .10), so the data were pooled over years. The CONC steers had an ADG that was .17 kg/d higher (P = .0001), intake 1.09 kg/d lower (P = .0001), and gain:feed ratio .013 unit better (.190 vs .177, P = .008) than PAST steers overall. Growing treatment did not affect total concentrate consumed (P = .97). The BRI steers required 31 d less than did CON steers (P = .008), and 23 d less than WAG steers (P = .05) when fed to a constant fat end point (1.1 cm). The BRI steers exhibited an ADG .16 kg/d higher (P = .0003), tended (P = .07) to have an ADG intake .49 kg/d higher, and exhibited gain:feed .01 unit better (.189 vs 180) than WAG steers. When compared with CON steers, BRI steers consumed 310 kg less total concentrate (P = .0003). No differences (P > .38) were observed between growing treatments for carcass characteristics or sensory attributes except that CONC steers tended (P = .11) to improve percentage of steers grading Average Choice or higher by 47% over PAST steers. The WAG steers had a 76-unit higher marbling score (1,000 = Small00, 1,100 = Modest00) (P = .006) than BRI steers, resulting in 19% more (P = .09) steers grading > or = Choice and 82% more (P = .03) grading > or = Average Choice. Liver (P = .15) and rumen (P = .01) weights as a percentage of hot carcass weight were reduced for CONC steers. The CONC steers had higher gain, lower intake, better efficiency, reduced liver and rumen weights

  9. Adjustable Fiber Optic Microwave Transversal Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shadaram, Mehdi; Lutes, George F.; Logan, Ronald T.; Maleki, Lutfollah

    1994-01-01

    Microwave transversal filters implemented as adjustable tapped fiber optic delay lines developed. Main advantages of these filters (in comparison with conventional microwave transversal filters) are small size, light weight, no need for matching of radio-frequency impedances, no need for shielding against electromagnetic radiation at suboptical frequencies, no need for mechanical tuning, high stability of amplitude and phase, and active control of transfer functions. Weights of taps in fiber optic delay lines adjusted.

  10. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-01-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  11. Effects of stress associated with weaning on the adaptive immune system in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kick, A R; Tompkins, M B; Flowers, W L; Whisnant, C S; Almond, G W

    2012-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of weaning age on specific components of the adaptive immune system in pigs. Twenty-three crossbred pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: weaning at 14 (14D, n = 8), 21 (21D, n = 7), or 28 (28D, n = 8) d of age. Peripheral blood samples, obtained when pigs were 13, 15, 20, 22, 27, 29, and 35 d of age, were analyzed for peripheral blood cell percentages and concentrations of neutrophils, lymphocytes, T cell subsets, mature B cells, and plasma cortisol concentrations. For each of the 3 groups, weaning increased plasma cortisol concentrations (P < 0.001) and reduced BW percentage change (P < 0.017). Lymphocyte concentrations displayed a treatment effect for the 14D (P = 0.074) and 28D (P = 0.014) groups. Albeit inconsistent, lymphocyte concentrations were less in weaned pigs on the day after weaning than in pigs remaining on the sow or weaned at a younger age. Specifically, mature B cells (CD21(+)) and CD4(+)CD8(+) cells decreased (P < 0.05) after weaning at 28 d of age. Other differences occurred among treatments; however, the differences apparently were not associated with weaning. Based upon the immunological measures used in the present study, there was not an explicit benefit to the adaptive immune system for any weaning age. Early weaning did not negatively affect the adaptive immunological competence of pigs as determined by changes in populations of immune cells. PMID:21926316

  12. Offspring size at weaning affects survival to recruitment and reproductive performance of primiparous gray seals.

    PubMed

    Bowen, William D; den Heyer, Cornelia E; McMillan, Jim I; Iverson, Sara J

    2015-04-01

    Offspring size affects survival and subsequent reproduction in many organisms. However, studies of offspring size in large mammals are often limited to effects on juveniles because of the difficulty of following individuals to maturity. We used data from a long-term study of individually marked gray seals (Halichoerus grypus; Fabricius, 1791) to test the hypothesis that larger offspring have higher survival to recruitment and are larger and more successful primiparous mothers than smaller offspring. Between 1998 and 2002, 1182 newly weaned female pups were branded with unique permanent marks on Sable Island, Canada. Each year through 2012, all branded females returning to the breeding colony were identified in weekly censuses and a subset were captured and measured. Females that survived were significantly longer offspring than those not sighted, indicating size-selective mortality between weaning and recruitment. The probability of female survival to recruitment varied among cohorts and increased nonlinearly with body mass at weaning. Beyond 51.5 kg (mean population weaning mass) weaning mass did not influence the probability of survival. The probability of female survival to recruitment increased monotonically with body length at weaning. Body length at primiparity was positively related to her body length and mass at weaning. Three-day postpartum mass (proxy for birth mass) of firstborn pups was also positively related to body length of females when they were weaned. However, females that were longer or heavier when they were weaned did not wean heavier firstborn offspring. PMID:25897381

  13. Tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation weaning in children affected by respiratory virus according to a weaning protocol in a pediatric intensive care unit in Argentina: an observational restrospective trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We describe difficult weaning after prolonged mechanical ventilation in three tracheostomized children affected by respiratory virus infection. Although the spontaneous breathing trials were successful, the patients failed all extubations. Therefore a tracheostomy was performed and the weaning plan was begun. The strategy for weaning was the decrease of ventilation support combining pressure control ventilation (PCV) with increasing periods of continuous positive airway pressure + pressure support ventilation (CPAP + PSV) and then CPAP + PSV with increasing intervals of T-piece. They presented acute respiratory distress syndrome on admission with high requirements of mechanical ventilation (MV). Intervening factors in the capabilities and loads of the respiratory system were considered and optimized. The average MV time was 69 days and weaning time 31 days. We report satisfactory results within the context of a directed weaning protocol. PMID:21244710

  14. Tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation weaning in children affected by respiratory virus according to a weaning protocol in a pediatric intensive care unit in Argentina: an observational restrospective trial.

    PubMed

    Caprotta, Gustavo; Crotti, Patricia Gonzalez; Frydman, Judith

    2011-01-01

    We describe difficult weaning after prolonged mechanical ventilation in three tracheostomized children affected by respiratory virus infection. Although the spontaneous breathing trials were successful, the patients failed all extubations. Therefore a tracheostomy was performed and the weaning plan was begun. The strategy for weaning was the decrease of ventilation support combining pressure control ventilation (PCV) with increasing periods of continuous positive airway pressure + pressure support ventilation (CPAP + PSV) and then CPAP + PSV with increasing intervals of T-piece. They presented acute respiratory distress syndrome on admission with high requirements of mechanical ventilation (MV). Intervening factors in the capabilities and loads of the respiratory system were considered and optimized. The average MV time was 69 days and weaning time 31 days.We report satisfactory results within the context of a directed weaning protocol. PMID:21244710

  15. Stabilization of the murine gut microbiome following weaning

    PubMed Central

    Schloss, Patrick D.; Schubert, Alyxandria M.; Zackular, Joseph P.; Iverson, Kathryn D.; Young, Vincent B.; Petrosino, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    Ecologists hypothesize that community structure and stability affect productivity, sensitivity to invasion and extinction, and resilience and resistance to perturbations. Viewed in the context of the gut microbiome, the stability of the gut community is important for understanding the effects of antibiotics, diet change and other perturbations on host health and colonization resistance. Here we describe the dynamics of a self-contained community, the murine gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal samples collected daily from individual mice, we characterized the community membership and structure to determine whether there were significant changes in the gut community during the first year of life. Based on analysis of molecular variance, we observed two community states. The first was observed in the 10 days following weaning and the second was observed by 15 days following weaning. Interestingly, these two states had the same bacterial populations, but those populations had different relative abundances in the two states. By calculating the root mean squared distances between samples collected in the early and late states for each mouse, we observed that the late state was more stable than the early state. This increase in stability was not correlated with increased taxonomic richness, taxonomic diversity, or phylogenetic diversity. In the absence of an experimentally induced perturbation, the second community state was relatively constant through 364 days post weaning. These results suggest a high degree of stability in the microbiome once the community reached the second state. PMID:22688727

  16. Experimental Eimeria debliecki infections in nursing and weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L; Boosinger, T R

    1987-06-01

    Three litters of six, 3-day-old nursing pigs were inoculated via a stomach tube with 8.0 X 10(5), 1.6 X 10(6) or 5.0 X 10(6) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria debliecki and four groups of six, 4-week-old weaned pigs were inoculated with 8.0 X 10(5), 1.6 X 10(6), 5.0 X 10(6) or 1.0 X 10(7) sporulated oocysts of E. debliecki to determine its pathogenicity. Clinical coccidiosis or deaths did not result from infections. Infections were confined to the jejunum and occasionally the duodenum. Microscopic lesions of mild to moderate villous atrophy were observed in one nursing pig given 5.0 X 10(6) oocysts and three weaned pigs given 1.6 X 10(6), 5.0 X 10(6) and 1.0 X 10(7) oocysts and examined 5 days post-inoculation. Pathogenic bacteria or viruses were not demonstrated in any pigs. Results of this study indicate that E. debliecki is not a cause of neonatal or weaning diarrhea in pigs. PMID:3629902

  17. Weaning in an Arctic wolf pack: behavioral mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Packard, J.M.; Mech, L.D.; Ream, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    If behavioral mechanisms controlling suckling have been shaped by parent-offspring conflict in the ultimate sense, then proximate behavioral determinants of conflict should occur throughout lactation, with greatest intensity in the terminal phase, and offspring should have tactics for overcoming parental resistance. We observed the weaning process in a habituated wild wolf pack (Canis lupus) on Ellesmere Island, Canada, from estimated ages 5 through 10 weeks (including a continuous record for 192 h). The following variables declined with age: percentage of suckling bouts initiated by the nurser, persistence by pups, and mean duration of suckling bouts. Variables that increased with age were interbout interval, percentage of suckling bouts terminated by the nurser, and wincing or agonistic actions of the nurser. Behavioral conflict appeared in the develop mental stage (estimated age 7 -8 weeks) during which pups could feed on opened carcasses. Countertactics by pups to obtain milk were not apparent, although the pups developed diverse tactics for obtaining and sharing meat. In this group of wolves, weaning mechanisms were a complex function of food-delivery by adults, discomfort of the nursing female as pups developed, and declining persistence of pups. If there is a conflict over what is optimal for pups and for the nurser in the ultimate sense, behavioral conflict is more likely to be expressed with regard to access to meat, or as conditional tactics dependent on food availability, rather than weaning conflict being controlleg by fixed rules in this species.

  18. Infant feeding and weaning practices in Roman Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dupras, T L; Schwarcz, H P; Fairgrieve, S I

    2001-07-01

    Current knowledge of infant feeding and weaning practices during the Roman period in Egypt is limited to scanty documentary and iconographic evidence. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis provides another avenue to explore this question. A sample of 49 infant and juvenile human skeletal remains from the Kellis 2 cemetery in the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt, was used to determine patterns of infant feeding and weaning. delta(15)N values indicate that supplementary foods were introduced at around 6 months of age, and that weaning was complete by 3 years of age. By 6 months of age, delta(13)C values become increasingly enriched over adult values, and reach peak enrichment at approximately 1.5 years of age. Beyond this age, delta(13)C gradually declines to approach adult values. This enrichment in infant delta(13)C values is indicative of consumption of (13)C-enriched supplementary foods. Based on isotopic study of faunal and botanical remains from the ancient village of Kellis, we conclude that at approximately 6 months of age, infants were fed milk of goat and/or cow. PMID:11424072

  19. Application of Mechanical Ventilation Weaning Predictors After Elective Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mayara Gabrielle Barbosa e; Borges, Daniel Lago; Costa, Marina de Albuquerque Gonçalves; Baldez, Thiago Eduardo Pereira; da Silva, Luan Nascimento; Oliveira, Rafaella Lima; Ferreira, Teresa de Fátima Ramos; Albuquerque, Renato Adams Matos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test several weaning predictors as determinants of successful extubation after elective cardiac surgery. METHODS The study was conducted at a tertiary hospital with 100 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery from September to December 2014. We recorded demographic, clinical and surgical data, plus the following predictive indexes: static compliance (Cstat), tidal volume (Vt), respiratory rate (f), f/ Vt ratio, arterial partial oxygen pressure to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2), and the integrative weaning index (IWI). Extubation was considered successful when there was no need for reintubation within 48 hours. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were used to evaluate each index. RESULTS The majority of the patients were male (60%), with mean age of 55.4±14.9 years and low risk of death (62%), according to InsCor. All of the patients were successfully extubated. Tobin Index presented the highest SE (0.99) and LR+ (0.99), followed by IWI (SE=0.98; LR+ =0.98). Other scores, such as SP, NPV and LR-were nullified due to lack of extubation failure. CONCLUSION All of the weaning predictors tested in this sample of patients submitted to elective cardiac surgery showed high sensitivity, highlighting f/Vt and IWI. PMID:26934398

  20. Pressure mat analysis of the longitudinal development of pig locomotion in growing pigs after weaning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gait evaluation is difficult in pigs, especially when objective and quantitative data are needed, thus little research has been conducted in this species. There is considerable experience, however, with objective gait analysis in other species, such as horses and dogs. In this study, a pressure mat was used to establish baseline kinetic data for gait and its longitudinal development in growing, weaned piglets. Ten clinically healthy weaned piglets were trained to trot over a pressure mat. Measurements were performed weekly during 10 weeks, starting at 5 weeks of age. Four kinetic parameters were recorded for all four limbs: peak vertical force (PVF), load rate (LR), vertical impulse (VI) and peak vertical pressure (PVP). Three representative runs per measuring session per pig were collected. For each of the variables, left vs. right limb asymmetry-indices (ASI’s) were calculated based on the average for that parameter per week. A linear mixed model was used to determine the influence of time (week), velocity, and limb (left vs. right, and fore vs. hind). Intra-class correlations were calculated to assess within-session replicability. Results Intra-class correlations showed good within-session replicability. Body-weight normalized PVF (nPVF), LR (nLR), VI (nVI) and PVP (nPVP) were higher in the forelimbs than in the hind limbs. A higher velocity was associated with a higher nPVF, nLR and nPVP. All parameters varied between weeks. ASI of LR and VI were higher in the forelimbs than in the hind limbs. Velocity and time did not influence ASI of any of the variables. Conclusions Kinetic pressure mat measurements from healthy weaned piglets are highly replicable within-session. However, these variables present a significant variability between-session, which may be due to conformational changes of the young, growing piglets. Velocity clearly influences nPVF, nLR and nPVP, and all kinetic variables have higher values in forelimbs than in hind limbs. As time

  1. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: I. Five-year average pricing.

    PubMed

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine genetic, performance, and carcass factors explaining variation in carcass value and profitability. Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age and pen-fed a high-concentrate diet (108.99 dollars/t) for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d before allotment. Calves were implanted with Synovex C at weaning and successively with Synovex S (Fort Dodge Animal Health, Fort Dodge, IA) and Revalor S (Intervet, Inc., Millsboro, DE). Steers consumed a 90% concentrate diet (98.93 dollars/t), consisting primarily of coarse cracked corn and corn silage, for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Five-year price data were collected for feedstuffs, dressed beef, and grid premiums, and discounts. Average dressed beef price was 110.67 dollars/45.4 kg. Premiums (dollars/45.4 kg) were given for Prime (5.62 dollars), Average Choice (1.50 dollars), and yield grades (YG) 1 (2.46 dollars), 2A (1.31 dollars), and 2B (1.11 dollars). Discounts (dollars/45.4 kg) were given for Standard (-16.85 dollars), Select (-8.90 dollars), and YG 3A (-0.12 dollars), 3B (-0.19 dollars), 4 (-14.16 dollars), and 5 (-19.56 dollars). Discounts were given for HCW extremes as well (409 to 431 kg, -0.64 dollars; 432 to 454 kg -11.39 dollars; > 454 kg, -19.71 dollars). Input costs included annual cow costs (327.77 dollars), veterinary/medical and labor (35 dollars per animal), feed markup (22 dollars/t), yardage (0.25 dollars/d per animal), and interest (10%). Dependent variables were carcass value and profit per steer. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, G:F, HCW, calculated YG, and marbling score (MS). Carcass value was correlated (P < 0.05) with yearling weight and marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, feed efficiency, HCW, and MS. Carcass weight, MS, and YG accounted for nearly 80% of the variation in carcass value among steers, explaining 51, 10, and 8

  2. Prevalence and Genetic Characterizations of Cryptosporidium spp. in Pre-Weaned and Post-Weaned Piglets in Heilongjiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Aiqin; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Shen, Yujuan; Cao, Jianping; Ling, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal protozoa of humans and animals. There have been few studies conducted on the molecular characterizations of pig-derived Cryptosporidium isolates worldwide, especially in China. Thus, the aim of the present study was to understand the prevalence, distribution and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in pigs in Heilongjiang Province, China. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 568 fecal samples from pre-weaned and post-weaned piglets were collected from eight pig farms from four areas of Heilongjiang Province. The average infection rate of Cryptosporidium was 1.6% (9/568) by microscopy. 113 samples were subjected to PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium, with 55.8% (63/113) being positive for Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium suis (n = 31) and C. scrofarumn (n = 32) were identified by DNA sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene. Three types of C. scrofarumn were found at the SSU rRNA locus, with one novel type being detected. Using species/genotype-specific primers for pig-adapted Cryptosporidium spp., 22 and 23 respectively belonged to C. suis and C. scrofarum mono-infections, with 18 co-infections detected. The infection peaks for C. suis (60%, 24/40) and C. scrofarum (51.2%, 21/41) were respectively found in the piglets of 5 to 8 weeks and more than 8 weeks. Conclusion/Significance The detection of C. suis and C. scrofarum in pre-weaned and post-weaned piglets has public health implications, due to the fact that the two species are both zoonotic Cryptosporidium. The novel C. scrofarum type detected may be endemic to China. PMID:23844032

  3. Improvement in HC1-extractability of minerals in home made weaning foods.

    PubMed

    Gahlawat, P; Sehgal, S

    1995-02-01

    Three weaning foods were formulated from locally available cereals and pulses such as rice (Oryza sativa), kangini (Setaria italica), sanwak (Echinochloa frumentacea), green gram (Vigna radiata) and jaggery. Cereals and pulses were mixed in the proportion of 7:3. Nutrient composition of developed weaning foods was within range prescribed by Indian Standard Institute and was found to be acceptable. Roasting was the processing technique employed in developing weaning foods which resulted in significant increase in HC1-extractable minerals, an index of their bioavailability to humans. The higher HC1-extractability of the minerals may be ascribed to the decreased phytic acid in the processed home made weaning foods. PMID:7792266

  4. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: II. Days on feed endpoints and sorting strategies.

    PubMed

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine EPD, performance, and carcass measurements explaining variation in carcass value and profitability across incremental days on feed (DOF) when sorted by HCW, calculated yield grade (YG), or at their highest profit endpoint (BEST). Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age, pen-fed a high-concentrate diet for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d, individually fed for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d, and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Carcass weight, YG, and marbling score (MS) were predicted using real-time ultrasound throughout the finishing period to calculate carcass value and profitability at 90, 60, 30 d preslaughter and under three individual sorting strategies. Sorting strategies included marketing the 25 and 50% heaviest HCW, the highest YG at d 60 and 30, or the remaining 25% at 0-d endpoints. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, HCW, YG, and MS. Profit was quadratic in response to increased DOF; the greatest economic return was noted on d 30 (pre-slaughter). Final weight, DMI, HCW, MS, and YG increased (linear; P < 0.001) with additional DOF, and ADG and G:F decreased (linear; P < 0.001). Total cost of gain was quadratic (P < 0.001), and incremental cost of gain rose at an increasing rate (quadratic; P < 0.001) with increased DOF. With increasing DOF, HCW importance decreased from 58 to 21%; MS was variable, ranging from 18 to 23%; and YG and DMI were minor contributors to profit variation. Among sorting strategies, final BW and HCW were greater for BEST, whereas other measurements were similar. Sorting individuals by HCW, YG, or at BEST increased profitability 3.70 dollars, 2.52 dollars, or 30.65 dollars over the optimal group DOF endpoint (d 30). Retrospective analyses illustrated that sorting does not need to pinpoint each animal's profit optimum to result in economic gains; rather, increasing HCW and decreasing

  5. Weighted aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The use of a weighted aggregation technique to improve the precision of the overall LACIE estimate is considered. The manner in which a weighted aggregation technique is implemented given a set of weights is described. The problem of variance estimation is discussed and the question of how to obtain the weights in an operational environment is addressed.

  6. Obesogenic phenotype of offspring of dams fed a high multivitamin diet is prevented by a post-weaning high multivitamin or high folate diet

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Clara E.; Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Reza-López, Sandra A.; Huot, Pedro S.P.; Kim, Young-In; Anderson, G. Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Background High multivitamin (10-fold AIN-93G, HV) diets fed during pregnancy to Wistar rats increase characteristics of metabolic syndrome in offspring when weaned to the recommended vitamin (RV) diet. Objective To determine if the effects of HV gestational diets on obesogenic phenotypes in the offspring arise as a consequence of altered hypothalamic control of feeding behavior and if their increased food intake could be prevented by feeding them HV or high folate (10-fold folate, HFol) diets. Methods Male offspring of dams fed HV diet during pregnancy weaned to RV, HV or HFol diets were compared to those born to RV dams and weaned to RV diet for 29 weeks. Food intake over 72 hours and body weight were measured bi-weekly and weekly, respectively. Glucose response to a glucose load was measured at 18 weeks post-weaning. Hypothalamic gene expression of feeding-related neuropeptides including neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), insulin receptor, leptin receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), receptors for dopamine (DopaR1/2/5) and serotonin (SeroR1A/2A/2C), as well as global DNA methylation and brain and plasma folate concentrations were measured at 29 weeks post-weaning. Results HV or HFol pup diets increased brain and plasma folate concentrations and prevented the increase in food intake (5%, P=0.03), body weight (8%, P=0.0006) and glucose response to a glucose load (36%, P=0.02) found in those fed the RV diet. Expression of anorexigenic POMC (P=0.004) and BDNF (P=0.02) was higher, and DopaR1 was lower (P=0.06) in pups fed the HV diet. The HFol pup diet partially brought BDNF to the control level (P=0.02) and lowered SeroR2A (P=0.008). Expression of other genes was unaffected. Global DNA methylation was similar among the diet groups. Conclusion The obesogenic phenotype in offspring from HV fed dams is prevented by feeding HV or HFol pup diets, possibly due to post-weaning modulation of food intake regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23295499

  7. Effect of seaweed-derived laminarin and fucoidan and zinc oxide on gut morphology, nutrient transporters, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and selected microbial populations in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Heim, G; Walsh, A M; Sweeney, T; Doyle, D N; O'Shea, C J; Ryan, M T; O'Doherty, J V

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, two experiments were conducted to (1) evaluate the effect of laminarin and/or fucoidan on ileal morphology, nutrient transporter gene expression and coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients and (2) determine whether laminarin inclusion could be used as an alternative to ZnO supplementation in weaned pig diets. Expt 1 was designed as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, comprising four dietary treatments (n 7 replicates, weaning age 24 d, live weight 6·9 kg). The dietary treatments were as follows: (1) basal diet; (2) basal diet+300 ppm laminarin; (3) basal diet+240 ppm fucoidan; (4) basal diet+300 ppm laminarin and 240 ppm fucoidan. There was an interaction between laminarin and fucoidan on the CTTAD of gross energy (GE) (P< 0·05) and the expression of sodium-glucose-linked transporter 1 (SGLT1/SLC5A1) and GLUT1/SLC2A1 and GLUT2/SLC2A2 (P< 0·05) in the ileum. The laminarin diet increased the CTTAD of GE and increased the expression of SGLT1, GLUT1 and GLUT2 compared with the basal diet. However, there was no effect of laminarin supplementation on these variables when combined with fucoidan. Expt 2 was designed as a complete randomised design (n 8 replicates/treatment, weaning age 24 d, live weight 7·0 kg), and the treatments were (1) basal diet, (2) basal diet and laminarin (300 ppm), and (3) basal diet and ZnO (3100 ppm, 0-14 d, and 2600 ppm, 15-32 d post-weaning). The laminarin diet increased average daily gain and gain:feed ratio compared with the basal diet during days 0-32 post-weaning (P< 0·01) and had an effect similar to the ZnO diet. These results demonstrate that laminarin provides a dietary means to improve gut health and growth performance post-weaning. PMID:24502994

  8. An Overview of the Predictor Standard Tools for Patient Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Acieh; Abdeyazdan, Gholamhossein; Davaridolatabadi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Most patients staying in the intensive care unit (ICU) require respiratory support through a ventilator. Since prolonged mechanical ventilation and weaning from the ventilator without criteria or at the inappropriate time can result in many complications, it is required that patients be weaned off the ventilator as soon as possible. This study was conducted to investigate a few standard tools that predict successful and timely weaning of patients from the ventilator. In the literature, SOFA and APACHE II scores, along with various tools, including Burn, Morganroth, and Corgian, have been used in weaning patients from the ventilator. In most of these studies, the increase or decrease in the APACHE II score was correlated with the patient’s weaning time, and this score could be used as a criterion for weaning. Several authors have expressed their belief that the SOFA score in the ICU is a good indicator of the prognosis of patient’s weaning from the ventilator, length of stay, mortality, and rate of recovery. Several studies have compared SOFA and APACHE II scores and have shown that there is a positive correlation between the SOFA and APACHE II scores and that both mortality and dependence on the ventilator are related to these two scores. Another tool is Burn’s weaning program. A higher Burn score indicates successful weaning off of the ventilator, successful extubation, lower length of mechanical ventilation, and shorter stay in the hospital. However, the capabilities of the Morganroth scale and the Gluck and Corgian scoring systems were evaluated only for successful weaning off of the ventilator, and a decrease in the Morganroth and Gluck scores indicated successful weaning. PMID:27054004

  9. An Overview of the Predictor Standard Tools for Patient Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Acieh; Abdeyazdan, Gholamhossein; Davaridolatabadi, Elham

    2016-02-01

    Most patients staying in the intensive care unit (ICU) require respiratory support through a ventilator. Since prolonged mechanical ventilation and weaning from the ventilator without criteria or at the inappropriate time can result in many complications, it is required that patients be weaned off the ventilator as soon as possible. This study was conducted to investigate a few standard tools that predict successful and timely weaning of patients from the ventilator. In the literature, SOFA and APACHE II scores, along with various tools, including Burn, Morganroth, and Corgian, have been used in weaning patients from the ventilator. In most of these studies, the increase or decrease in the APACHE II score was correlated with the patient's weaning time, and this score could be used as a criterion for weaning. Several authors have expressed their belief that the SOFA score in the ICU is a good indicator of the prognosis of patient's weaning from the ventilator, length of stay, mortality, and rate of recovery. Several studies have compared SOFA and APACHE II scores and have shown that there is a positive correlation between the SOFA and APACHE II scores and that both mortality and dependence on the ventilator are related to these two scores. Another tool is Burn's weaning program. A higher Burn score indicates successful weaning off of the ventilator, successful extubation, lower length of mechanical ventilation, and shorter stay in the hospital. However, the capabilities of the Morganroth scale and the Gluck and Corgian scoring systems were evaluated only for successful weaning off of the ventilator, and a decrease in the Morganroth and Gluck scores indicated successful weaning. PMID:27054004

  10. Effects of Transport at Weaning on the Behavior, Physiology and Performance of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mhairi A.; Backus, Brittany L.; McGlone, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Pigs are commonly transported to separate production facilities at weaning to reduce disease transfer, enhance productivity and to improve overall operational efficiency. A review of the scientific literature suggests that these animals experience stress due to concurrent weaning and transport; however, gaps in the knowledge include the short and long term health and welfare implications of transporting pigs at weaning. Pig welfare and the efficiency of the swine industry may improve if science-based recommendations were in place. Abstract Transport of pigs to separate production facilities at the time of weaning is a common practice, primarily performed to reduce vertical transfer of disease and enhance production and overall farm efficiency. During transport, pigs are exposed to numerous stressors in conjunction with the stress experienced as a result of weaning. In this review, the behavioral and physiological response of pigs experiencing weaning and transport simultaneously will be described, including the effects of space allowance, season and transport duration. Based on the scientific literature, the gaps in the knowledge regarding potential welfare issues are discussed. Changes in behavior and physiology suggest that weaned pigs may experience stress due to transport. Space allowance, season and duration are aspects of transport that can have a marked impact on these responses. To date, the literature regarding the effects of transport on weaned pigs has primarily focused on the short term stress response and little is known about the effects of concurrent weaning and transport on other aspects of pig welfare including morbidity and mortality rates. Greater understanding of the short and long term consequences of transport on weaned pig welfare particularly in relation to factors such as trip duration, provision of feed and water, and best handling practices would benefit the swine industry. Furthermore, the development of guidelines and

  11. Effects of timing of anabolic implant insertion on growth and immunity of recently weaned beef steers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of timing of estrogenic implant insertion, relative to weaning, on growth performance and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves. On d -14, Angus × Simmental crossbred steers ( = 48; BW = 217 ± 5 kg; age = 191 ± 3 d) were stratified by BW, age, and cow parity and randomly assigned to receive no implant (NOIP) or 36 mg of zeranol on d -14, 0, or 14, relative to weaning (IP-14, IP0, and IP+14, respectively; 12 steers/treatment). From d -14 to 0, cow-calf pairs remained on a single, tall-fescue pasture with no access to concentrate supplementation. Steers were weaned on d 0, stratified by treatment and BW, and then allocated into 1 of 16 drylot pens to receive daily free-choice access to a corn silage-based diet during the preconditioning phase (d 0 to 56). Steers were vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and on d -27 and 0. From d 56 to 252 (postpreconditioning phase), steers remained in their respective feedlot pens and were provided free-choice access to corn silage-based growing (d 56 to 167) and finishing total mixed rations (d 168 to 252). Body weight on d 0 did not differ among treatments ( ≥ 0.29) but was greater for IP-14 and IP0 than NOIP and IP+14 steers on d 14, 42, and 56 ( ≤ 0.05). Treatment effects were not detected for G:F and DMI from d 0 to 56 ( ≥ 0.34), but ADG from d -14 to 56 was greater for IP-14 compared to NOIP ( ≤ 0.05) and intermediate for IP0 and IP+14 steers. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations were greater for IP-14 than NOIP ( ≤ 0.05) and intermediate for IP0 and IP+14 steers on d -7, 0, 14, and 21. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin and serum titers against BVDV types 1a and 2 did not differ among treatments from d 0 to 56 ( ≥ 0.37). However, serum IBRV titers were greater for IP+14 than NOIP, IP-14, and IP0 steers ( ≤ 0.02). On d 252, BW was greater for IP-14 and IP0 than NOIP steers ( ≤ 0.05) and

  12. Zearalenone Altered the Serum Hormones, Morphologic and Apoptotic Measurements of Genital Organs in Post-weaning Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X. X.; Yang, C. W.; Huang, L. B.; Niu, Q. S.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chi, F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg diet) on serum hormones, morphologic and apoptotic measurements of genital organs in post-weaning gilts. A total of twenty gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) weaned at 21 d with an average body weight of 10.36±1.21 kg were used in the study. Gilts were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Results showed that 3.2 mg/kg ZEA challenged gilts decreased (p<0.05) the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, however, serum levels of prolactin in gilts fed the diet containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more were increased (p<0.05) compared to those in the control. Linear effects on all tested serum hormones except progesterone were observed as dietary ZEA levels increased (p<0.05). Gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet showed increase (p<0.05) in genital organs size, hyperplasia of submucosal smooth muscles in the corpus uteri in a dose-dependent manner. However, the decreased numbers of follicles in the cortex and apoptotic cells in the ovarian were observed in gilts treated with ZEA in a dose-dependent manner. Degeneration and structural abnormalities of genital organs tissues were also observed in the gilts fed diet containing 1.1 mg/kg ZEA or more. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce endocrine disturbance and damage genital organs in post-weaning gilts. PMID:25557812

  13. Effect of pre- and postnatal growth and post-weaning activity on glucose metabolism in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Dellschaft, Neele S; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cecile; Gardner, David S; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Keisler, Duane H; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E; Sebert, Sylvain P

    2015-02-01

    Maternal caloric restriction during late gestation reduces birth weight, but whether long-term adverse metabolic outcomes of intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) are dependent on either accelerated postnatal growth or exposure to an obesogenic environment after weaning is not established. We induced IUGR in twin-pregnant sheep using a 40% maternal caloric restriction commencing from 110 days of gestation until term (∼147 days), compared with mothers fed to 100% of requirements. Offspring were reared either as singletons to accelerate postnatal growth or as twins to achieve standard growth. To promote an adverse phenotype in young adulthood, after weaning, offspring were reared under a low-activity obesogenic environment with the exception of a subgroup of IUGR offspring, reared as twins, maintained in a standard activity environment. We assessed glucose tolerance together with leptin and cortisol responses to feeding in young adulthood when the hypothalamus was sampled for assessment of genes regulating appetite control, energy and endocrine sensitivity. Caloric restriction reduced maternal plasma glucose, raised non-esterified fatty acids, and changed the metabolomic profile, but had no effect on insulin, leptin, or cortisol. IUGR offspring whose postnatal growth was enhanced and were obese showed insulin and leptin resistance plus raised cortisol. This was accompanied by increased hypothalamic gene expression for energy and glucocorticoid sensitivity. These long-term adaptations were reduced but not normalized in IUGR offspring whose postnatal growth was not accelerated and remained lean in a standard post-weaning environment. IUGR results in an adverse metabolic phenotype, especially when postnatal growth is enhanced and offspring progress to juvenile-onset obesity. PMID:25416820

  14. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. PMID:23796063

  15. [Experiences with early weaning of calves in Central America].

    PubMed

    Jarquín, R

    1989-09-01

    This study presents a review of traditional feed calves systems used in Central American specialized dairy farms. The systems discussed are considered costly, due to the high quantity of milk and concentrate required, besides causing shortage of milk for human consumption. The early weaning calf system developed by INCAP is also discussed, as well as its implementation with slight modifications oriented towards the application of research findings to achieve a reduction of the milk volume commonly used in the traditional rearing system. The development of appropriate concentrate formulations for animals of that age, using local feed ingredients, is also presented. PMID:2490888

  16. Bayesian estimation of the accuracy of the calf respiratory scoring chart and ultrasonography for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Buczinski, Sébastien; L Ollivett, Terri; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2015-05-01

    There is currently no gold standard method for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex in Holstein pre-weaned dairy calves. Systematic thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) has been used as a proxy for BRD, but cannot be directly used by producers. The Wisconsin calf respiratory scoring chart (CRSC) is a simpler alternative, but with unknown accuracy. Our objective was to estimate the accuracy of CRSC, while adjusting for the lack of a gold standard. Two cross sectional study populations with a high BRD prevalence (n=106 pre-weaned Holstein calves) and an average BRD prevalence (n=85 pre-weaned Holstein calves) from North America were studied. All calves were simultaneously assessed using CRSC (cutoff used ≥ 5) and TUS (cutoff used ≥ 1cm of lung consolidation). Bayesian latent class models allowing for conditional dependence were used with informative priors for BRD prevalence and TUS accuracy (sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp)) and non-informative priors for CRSC accuracies. Robustness of the model was tested by relaxing priors for prevalence or TUS accuracy. The SeCRSC (95% credible interval (CI)) and SpCRSC were 62.4% (47.9-75.8) and 74.1% (64.9-82.8) respectively. The SeTUS was 79.4% (66.4-90.9) and SpTUS was 93.9% (88.0-97.6). The imperfect accuracy of CRSC and TUS should be taken into account when using those tools to assess BRD status. PMID:25794838

  17. Prepartum supplement level and age at weaning: I. Effects on pre- and postpartum beef cow performance and calf performance through weaning.

    PubMed

    Shoup, L M; Kloth, A C; Wilson, T B; González-Peña, D; Ireland, F A; Rodriguez-Zas, S; Felix, T L; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Objectives were to determine the interaction of prepartum supplement level and age at weaning on cow BW, BCS, milk production, reproduction, and calf performance up to weaning in a fall-calving system over 2 yr. Mature, multiparous, Angus × Simmental cows (yr 1: 326 cows, 9 pastures, BW = 632 ± 67 kg, and BCS = 5.7 ± 0.58; yr 2: 383 cows, 9 pastures, BW = 606 ± 70 kg, and BCS = 5.8 ± 0.74) were used in a split-plot design that included 3 supplement levels-no supplement (NS), low supplement (LS; 2.16 kg∙cow∙d), or high supplement (HS; 8.61 kg∙cow∙d)-and 2 ages at weaning-78 ± 11 d of age (early weaned; EW) or 186 ± 11 d of age (normal weaned; NW). Cows grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue/red clover pastures and were bunk fed supplement (70% dried distillers' grains with solubles and 30% soybean hulls) 103 ± 11 d prepartum to 2 ± 11 d postpartum. Cow BW was greater ( < 0.01) for cows fed HS at precalving (49 ± 11 d prepartum), postcalving (26 ± 11 d postpartum), and postbreeding (81 d after AI) compared with cows fed NS and LS. Prepartum supplementation did not affect ( ≥ 0.62) calf birth BW, percent of calves dead at birth, or percent of cows calving unassisted. Prepartum supplementation tended ( = 0.10) to improve AI conception. Early weaning increased ( ≤ 0.05) AI conception and postbreeding cow BW and BCS compared with cows with NW calves. Neither prepartum supplementation nor age at weaning affected ( ≥ 0.28) overall pregnancy rate. At time of early weaning, BW was increased ( = 0.05) for steers from cows fed LS compared with steers from cows fed NS. Steer BW at time of normal weaning and ADG between early and normal weaning was greater ( < 0.01) for EW steers compared with NW steers. A year × age at weaning interaction occurred ( < 0.01) for ultrasound marbling score at time of normal weaning. In yr 1, marbling was decreased ( = 0.04) for EW steers compared with NW steers; however, in yr 2, marbling was increased ( < 0.01) for EW

  18. Economics of early weaning in Northern Great Plains beef cattle production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early weaning is a management option for producers to consider during extended droughts. Early removal of the calf from its dam reduces forage needs of the cow-calf enterprise and has been found to improve BW gain and pregnancy rates in the cow herd. However, early weaning may not always be economi...

  19. Early weaning in Northern Great Plains beef cattle production systems: II. Development of replacement heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr study was conducted to evaluate effects of weaning heifer calves early (approx. 80-d) or at the normal (approx. 215-d) weaning age on BW gain to 215-d, subsequent BW gain, luteal activity, and pregnancy rate in two herds located in the Northern Great Plains. In exp. 1 and 2, heifer calves fr...

  20. Maize 27 kDa gamma zein is a potential allergen for early weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean and maize are extensively used in animal feed, primarily in poultry, swine, and cattle diets. Soybean meal can affect pig performance in the first few weeks following weaning and elicit specific antibodies in weaned piglets. Though maize is a major component of pig feed it is not known if an...

  1. Increasing Efficiency in Academia: The Use of a Weaning Model in Fundraising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniaci, Vincent M.; Poole, Rob

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss a method to increase institutional efficiency and financial stability through strategic planning, by gradually reallocating funds raised for annual operations to quasi-endowment over a period of years using a weaning model. The weaning model is offered as a tactic to address issues of financial vulnerability developed in…

  2. Maternal Weaning Modulates Emotional Behavior and Regulates the Gut-Brain Axis.

    PubMed

    Farshim, Pamela; Walton, Gemma; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Givens, Ian; Saddy, Doug; Kitchen, Ian; R Swann, Jonathan; Bailey, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that nutritional and environmental stress stimuli during postnatal period influence brain development and interactions between gut and brain. In this study we show that in rats, prevention of weaning from maternal milk results in depressive-like behavior, which is accompanied by changes in the gut bacteria and host metabolism. Depressive-like behavior was studied using the forced-swim test on postnatal day (PND) 25 in rats either weaned on PND 21, or left with their mother until PND 25 (non-weaned). Non-weaned rats showed an increased immobility time consistent with a depressive phenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed non-weaned rats to harbor significantly lowered Clostridium histolyticum bacterial groups but exhibit marked stress-induced increases. Metabonomic analysis of urine from these animals revealed significant differences in the metabolic profiles, with biochemical phenotypes indicative of depression in the non-weaned animals. In addition, non-weaned rats showed resistance to stress-induced modulation of oxytocin receptors in amygdala nuclei, which is indicative of passive stress-coping mechanism. We conclude that delaying weaning results in alterations to the gut microbiota and global metabolic profiles which may contribute to a depressive phenotype and raise the issue that mood disorders at early developmental ages may reflect interplay between mammalian host and resident bacteria. PMID:26903212

  3. Effects of Weaning on Intestinal Upper Villus Epithelial Cells of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaocheng; Tan, Bie; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal upper villus epithelial cells represent the differentiated epithelial cells and play key role in digesting and absorbing lumenal nutrients. Weaning stress commonly results in a decrease in villus height and intestinal dysfunction in piglets. However, no study have been conducted to test the effects of weaning on the physiology and functions of upper villus epithelial cells. A total of 40 piglets from 8 litters were weaned at 14 days of age and one piglet from each litter was killed at 0 d (w0d), 1 d (w1d), 3 d (w3d), 5 d (w5d), and 7 d (w7d) after weaning, respectively. The upper villus epithelial cells in mid-jejunum were isolated using the distended intestinal sac method. The expression of proteins in upper villus epithelial cells was analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification or Western blotting. The expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, Golgi vesicle transport, protein amino acid glycosylation, secretion by cell, transmembrane transport, ion transport, nucleotide catabolic process, translational initiation, and epithelial cell differentiation and apoptosis, was mainly reduced during the post-weaning period, and these processes may be regulated by mTOR signaling pathway. These results indicated that weaning inhibited various cellular processes in jejunal upper villus epithelial cells, and provided potential new directions for exploring the effects of weaning on the functions of intestine and improving intestinal functions in weaning piglets. PMID:27022727

  4. The Care-Integrated Concentration Meditation Program for Patients With Weaning Difficulty: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Thinhuatoey, Benjamard; Songwathana, Praneed; Petpichetchian, Wongchan

    2016-01-01

    Because of the multifaceted process of weaning patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation, enhancing weaning success remains a challenge. The Care-Integrated Concentration Meditation Program was developed on the basis of Buddhist philosophy and implemented to determine its procedural feasibility. A qualitative case study with 3 participants was conducted, and the process and initial outcomes were evaluated. PMID:27309409

  5. Effects of Weaning on Intestinal Upper Villus Epithelial Cells of Piglets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huansheng; Xiong, Xia; Wang, Xiaocheng; Tan, Bie; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal upper villus epithelial cells represent the differentiated epithelial cells and play key role in digesting and absorbing lumenal nutrients. Weaning stress commonly results in a decrease in villus height and intestinal dysfunction in piglets. However, no study have been conducted to test the effects of weaning on the physiology and functions of upper villus epithelial cells. A total of 40 piglets from 8 litters were weaned at 14 days of age and one piglet from each litter was killed at 0 d (w0d), 1 d (w1d), 3 d (w3d), 5 d (w5d), and 7 d (w7d) after weaning, respectively. The upper villus epithelial cells in mid-jejunum were isolated using the distended intestinal sac method. The expression of proteins in upper villus epithelial cells was analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification or Western blotting. The expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism, Golgi vesicle transport, protein amino acid glycosylation, secretion by cell, transmembrane transport, ion transport, nucleotide catabolic process, translational initiation, and epithelial cell differentiation and apoptosis, was mainly reduced during the post-weaning period, and these processes may be regulated by mTOR signaling pathway. These results indicated that weaning inhibited various cellular processes in jejunal upper villus epithelial cells, and provided potential new directions for exploring the effects of weaning on the functions of intestine and improving intestinal functions in weaning piglets. PMID:27022727

  6. Empirical analysis of weaning and pasture rotation frequency with implications for retained ownership.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economic impact of rotation frequency (twice weekly vs. twice monthly until time of weaning) and time of weaning (early April vs. 56 d later) was examined for fall-calving cows using a modified put and take grazing strategy implemented to maintain equal grazing pressure across production systems...

  7. Early weaning alters the acute phase response to an endotoxin challenge in beef calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research indicates that early weaning prior to shipment can reduce transportation-induced increases in acute phase proteins (APP), and can increase subsequent performance in the feedlot. These data suggest that the combination of weaning and transport stress may compromise the immune system...

  8. Maternal Weaning Modulates Emotional Behavior and Regulates the Gut-Brain Axis

    PubMed Central

    Farshim, Pamela; Walton, Gemma; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Givens, Ian; Saddy, Doug; Kitchen, Ian; R. Swann, Jonathan; Bailey, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that nutritional and environmental stress stimuli during postnatal period influence brain development and interactions between gut and brain. In this study we show that in rats, prevention of weaning from maternal milk results in depressive-like behavior, which is accompanied by changes in the gut bacteria and host metabolism. Depressive-like behavior was studied using the forced-swim test on postnatal day (PND) 25 in rats either weaned on PND 21, or left with their mother until PND 25 (non-weaned). Non-weaned rats showed an increased immobility time consistent with a depressive phenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed non-weaned rats to harbor significantly lowered Clostridium histolyticum bacterial groups but exhibit marked stress-induced increases. Metabonomic analysis of urine from these animals revealed significant differences in the metabolic profiles, with biochemical phenotypes indicative of depression in the non-weaned animals. In addition, non-weaned rats showed resistance to stress-induced modulation of oxytocin receptors in amygdala nuclei, which is indicative of passive stress-coping mechanism. We conclude that delaying weaning results in alterations to the gut microbiota and global metabolic profiles which may contribute to a depressive phenotype and raise the issue that mood disorders at early developmental ages may reflect interplay between mammalian host and resident bacteria. PMID:26903212

  9. Early and simple detection of diastolic dysfunction during weaning from mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation imposes additional work on the cardiovascular system and can provoke or unmask left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with consecutive pulmonary edema or systolic dysfunction with inadequate increase of cardiac output and unsuccessful weaning. Echocardiography, which is increasingly used for hemodynamic assessment of critically ill patients, allows differentiation between systolic and diastolic failure. For various reasons, transthoracic echocardiographic assessment was limited to patients with good echo visibility and to those with sinus rhythm without excessive tachycardia. In these patients, often selected after unsuccessful weaning, echocardiographic findings were predictive for weaning failure of cardiac origin. In some studies, patients with various degrees of systolic dysfunction were included, making evaluation of the diastolic dysfunction to the weaning failure even more difficult. The recent study by Moschietto and coworkers included unselected patients and used very simple diastolic variables for assessment of diastolic function. They also included patients with atrial fibrillation and repeated echocardiographic examination only 10 minutes after starting a spontaneous breathing trial. The main finding was that weaning failure was not associated with systolic dysfunction but with diastolic dysfunction. By measuring simple and robust parameters for detection of diastolic dysfunction, the study was able to predict weaning failure in patients with sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation as early as 10 minutes after beginning a spontaneous breathing trial. Further studies are necessary to determine whether appropriate treatment tailored according to the echocardiographic findings will result in successful weaning. PMID:22770365

  10. QTL associations for weaning-to-estrus interval in a Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire swine population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) contributes to number of non-productive days of females within a breeding herd. Several reports have indicated females returning to estrus within seven days of weaning are more likely to settle on service thereby contributing to the overall economic potential of the...

  11. The effect of three space allowances on the physiology and behavior of weaned pigs during transportation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stocking density is an important aspect of transport which could affect animal health and welfare, especially in pigs simultaneously experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of three different space allowances on the physiology and behavior of weaned pig...

  12. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  13. Weight Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...

  14. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  15. Standardized weaning of infants <32 weeks of gestation from continuous positive airway pressure - a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kidszun, André; Plate, Maren; Arnold, Christine; Winter, Julia; Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan; Mildenberger, Eva

    2016-10-01

    The practice of weaning premature infants from continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) varies considerably and is usually performed without written standards. In this study, the feasibility of a standardized weaning approach was evaluated. In a quasi-experimental design, data from a prospective, post-intervention cohort (n=41) were compared to data from a pre-intervention cohort (n=36). Standardized weaning was feasible but no significant differences in short-term respiratory outcomes were observed. Weaning from CPAP was achieved at 32.1 ± 1.6 (post-intervention) versus 32.5 ± 2.3 weeks (pre-intervention) postmenstrual age. More rigorous, large-scale clinical trials are necessary before firm recommendations on distinct weaning regimens can be made. PMID:26552715

  16. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: why are we still looking for alternative methods?

    PubMed

    Frutos-Vivar, F; Esteban, A

    2013-12-01

    Most patients who require mechanical ventilation for longer than 24 hours, and who improve the condition leading to the indication of ventilatory support, can be weaned after passing a first spontaneous breathing test. The challenge is to improve the weaning of patients who fail that first test. We have methods that can be referred to as traditional, such as the T-tube, pressure support or synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV). In recent years, however, new applications of usual techniques as noninvasive ventilation, new ventilation methods such as automatic tube compensation (ATC), mandatory minute ventilation (MMV), adaptive support ventilation or automatic weaning systems based on pressure support have been described. Their possible role in weaning from mechanical ventilation among patients with difficult or prolonged weaning remains to be established. PMID:23084120

  17. Prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in post-weaned dairy calves in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Fayer, Ronald

    2004-07-01

    Fecal specimens were obtained from 3- to 8-month-old post-weaned dairy calves on farms in Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida. After removal of fecal debris by sieving and density gradient centrifugation, 59 of 452 calves (13%) from 11 farms in six states were found positive for Enterocytozoon bieneusi by PCR and DNA sequence analysis. Based on gene sequence data this genotype of E. bieneusi found in post-weaned calves was 100% identical to that found in pre-weaned calves in North America and differed by only two positions in 1,069 base pairs from specimens analyzed from humans. However, compared with previous reports, the prevalence of E. bieneusi was significantly higher in post-weaned than in pre-weaned calves from many of the same farms. PMID:15170566

  18. The influence of music during mechanical ventilation and weaning from mechanical ventilation: A review.

    PubMed

    Hetland, Breanna; Lindquist, Ruth; Chlan, Linda L

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) causes many distressing symptoms. Weaning, the gradual decrease in ventilator assistance leading to termination of MV, increases respiratory effort, which may exacerbate symptoms and prolong MV. Music, a non-pharmacological intervention without side effects may benefit patients during weaning from mechanical ventilatory support. A narrative review of OVID Medline, PsychINFO, and CINAHL databases was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of music intervention in MV and MV weaning. Music intervention had a positive impact on ventilated patients; 16 quantitative and 2 qualitative studies were identified. Quantitative studies included randomized clinical trials (10), case controls (3), pilot studies (2) and a feasibility study. Evidence supports music as an effective intervention that can lesson symptoms related to MV and promote effective weaning. It has potential to reduce costs and increase patient satisfaction. However, more studies are needed to establish its use during MV weaning. PMID:26227333

  19. Prevalence of and management factors contributing to Cryptosporidium sp. infection in pre-weaned and post-weaned calves in Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhid, Aida; Robertson, Ian; Ng, Josephine; Ryan, Una

    2011-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify species and determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. shedding in pre-weaned and post-weaned dairy calves and to identify management factors that may be contributing to disease. A total of 240 calf faecal samples were collected from 16 farms in two districts in Johor, Malaysia, and screened by PCR. The overall Cryptosporidium prevalence was 27.1%. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in pre-weaned calves was 32.4% for C. parvum, 26.5% for C. bovis, followed by C. andersoni (20.6%), C. ryanae (11.8%) and mixed sp. (8.8%). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in post-weaned calves was 35% for C. bovis followed by C. andersoni and C. ryanae (30% each) and mixed sp. (5%). Subtyping analysis of 8 of the 11 C. parvum isolates at the gp60 locus identified five isolates as IIdA15G1, one as IIa18A3R1 and two isolates as IIa17G2R1. Management factors that increased the risk of Cryptosporidium infection included having other cattle farms close by, feeding calves with saleable milk, keeping pre-weaned calves in pens with slatted floors and keeping post-weaned calves in pens with a sand floor. PMID:21050848

  20. Maternal high-fat diet induces obesity and adrenal and thyroid dysfunction in male rat offspring at weaning.

    PubMed

    Franco, J G; Fernandes, T P; Rocha, C P D; Calviño, C; Pazos-Moura, C C; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G; Trevenzoli, I H

    2012-11-01

    Maternal nutritional status affects the future development of offspring. Both undernutrition and overnutrition in critical periods of life (gestation or lactation) may cause several hormonal changes in the pups and programme obesity in the adult offspring. We have shown that hyperleptinaemia during lactation results in central leptin resistance, higher adrenal catecholamine secretion, hyperthyroidism, and higher blood pressure and heart rate in the adult rats. Here, we evaluated the effect of a maternal isocaloric high-fat diet on breast milk composition and its impact on leptinaemia, energy metabolism, and adrenal and thyroid function of the offspring at weaning. We hypothesised that the altered source of fat in the maternal diet even under normal calorie intake would disturb the metabolism of the offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed a normal (9% fat; C group) or high-fat diet (29% fat as lard; HF group) for 8 weeks before mating and during pregnancy and lactation. HF mothers presented increased total body fat content after 8 weeks (+27%, P < 0.05) and a similar fat content at the end of lactation. In consequence, the breast milk from the HF group had higher concentration of protein (+18%, P < 0.05), cholesterol (+52%, P < 0.05) and triglycerides (+86%, P < 0.05). At weaning, HF offspring had increased body weight (+53%, P < 0.05) and adiposity (2 fold, P < 0.05), which was associated with lower β3-adrenoreceptor content in adipose tissue (-40%, P < 0.05). The offspring also presented hyperglycaemia (+30%, P < 0.05) and hyperleptinaemia (+62%, P < 0.05). In the leptin signalling pathway in the hypothalamus, we found lower p-STAT3/STAT3 (-40%, P < 0.05) and SOCS3 (-55%, P < 0.05) content in the arcuate nucleus, suggesting leptin resistance. HF offspring also had higher adrenal catecholamine content (+17%, P < 0.05), liver glycogen content (+50%, P < 0.05) and hyperactivity of the thyroid axis at weaning. Our results suggest that a high fat diet increases

  1. Maternal high-fat diet induces obesity and adrenal and thyroid dysfunction in male rat offspring at weaning

    PubMed Central

    Franco, J G; Fernandes, T P; Rocha, C P D; Calviño, C; Pazos-Moura, C C; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G; Trevenzoli, I H

    2012-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status affects the future development of offspring. Both undernutrition and overnutrition in critical periods of life (gestation or lactation) may cause several hormonal changes in the pups and programme obesity in the adult offspring. We have shown that hyperleptinaemia during lactation results in central leptin resistance, higher adrenal catecholamine secretion, hyperthyroidism, and higher blood pressure and heart rate in the adult rats. Here, we evaluated the effect of a maternal isocaloric high-fat diet on breast milk composition and its impact on leptinaemia, energy metabolism, and adrenal and thyroid function of the offspring at weaning. We hypothesised that the altered source of fat in the maternal diet even under normal calorie intake would disturb the metabolism of the offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed a normal (9% fat; C group) or high-fat diet (29% fat as lard; HF group) for 8 weeks before mating and during pregnancy and lactation. HF mothers presented increased total body fat content after 8 weeks (+27%, P < 0.05) and a similar fat content at the end of lactation. In consequence, the breast milk from the HF group had higher concentration of protein (+18%, P < 0.05), cholesterol (+52%, P < 0.05) and triglycerides (+86%, P < 0.05). At weaning, HF offspring had increased body weight (+53%, P < 0.05) and adiposity (2 fold, P < 0.05), which was associated with lower β3-adrenoreceptor content in adipose tissue (−40%, P < 0.05). The offspring also presented hyperglycaemia (+30%, P < 0.05) and hyperleptinaemia (+62%, P < 0.05). In the leptin signalling pathway in the hypothalamus, we found lower p-STAT3/STAT3 (−40%, P < 0.05) and SOCS3 (−55%, P < 0.05) content in the arcuate nucleus, suggesting leptin resistance. HF offspring also had higher adrenal catecholamine content (+17%, P < 0.05), liver glycogen content (+50%, P < 0.05) and hyperactivity of the thyroid axis at weaning. Our results suggest that a high fat diet increases

  2. No Beneficial Effects Evident for Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 in Weaned Pigs Infected with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Susanne; Aßmus, Jens; Schmidt, Michael F. G.; Brockmann, Gudrun A.; Nöckler, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104 is the major pathogen for salmonellosis outbreaks in Europe. We tested if the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 can prevent or alleviate salmonellosis. Therefore, piglets of the German Landrace breed that were treated with E. faecium (n = 16) as a feed additive and untreated controls (n = 16) were challenged with S. Typhimurium 10 days after weaning. The presence of salmonellae in feces and selected organs, as well as the immune response, were investigated. Piglets treated with E. faecium gained less weight than control piglets (P = 0.05). The feeding of E. faecium had no effect on the fecal shedding of salmonellae and resulted in a higher abundance of the pathogen in tonsils of all challenged animals. The specific (anti-Salmonella IgG) and nonspecific (haptoglobin) humoral immune responses as well as the cellular immune response (T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells, γδ T cells, and B cells) in the lymph nodes, Peyer's patches of different segments of the intestine (jejunal and ileocecal), the ileal papilla, and in the blood were affected in the course of time after infection (P < 0.05) but not by the E. faecium treatment. These results led to the conclusion that E. faecium may not have beneficial effects on the performance of weaned piglets in the case of S. Typhimurium infection. Therefore, we suggest a critical discussion and reconsideration of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 administration as a probiotic for pigs. PMID:22544257

  3. Crossbred steer temperament as yearlings and whole genome association of steer temperament as yearlings and calf temperament post-weaning.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Gill, C A; Boldt, C R; Funkhouser, R R; Herring, A D; Riggs, P K; Sawyer, J E; Lunt, D K; Sanders, J O

    2016-04-01

    cattle often have the reputation for a poor or dangerous temperament. Identification of genomic regions that associate with temperament of such cattle may be useful for genetic improvement strategies. The objectives of this study were to evaluate subjective temperament scores (1 to 9; higher scores indicated more unfavorable temperament) for aggressiveness, nervousness, flightiness, gregariousness, and overall temperament of one-half steers in feedlot conditions at 1 yr of age and compare those scores of those steers when evaluated approximately 1 mo postweaning, and conduct whole genome association analyses using SNP markers and the temperament traits of those steers at 1 yr of age and for temperament traits of all calves at weaning. Contemporary groups ( < 0.001) were steers born in the same year and season, and fed in the same feedlot pen. Aggressiveness of steers at 1 yr of age was not associated with aggressiveness at weaning (linear regression coefficient did not differ from 0; = 0.96), but regressions of all other yearling scores of steers on the scores at weaning were positive (coefficients ranged from 0.26 ± 0.04 to 0.32 ± 0.04; < 0.001). Estimates of Pearson correlation coefficients (using unadjusted values and residual values) of the different traits measured at 1 yr of age were large ( > 0.63; < 0.008) except for aggressiveness with nervousness, flightiness, or gregariousness, which did not differ from 0 ( > 0.1). Five SNP on BTA 1, 24, and 29 had suggestive associations (0.17 < [adjusted for FDR] < 0.24) with aggressiveness, nervousness, or flightiness at evaluation postweaning and 13 SNP on 11 chromosomes had suggestive associations (0.07 < [adjusted for FDR] < 0.24) with aggressiveness, nervousness, flightiness, or overall temperament score of steers at 1 yr of age. Genes close to these loci with roles in neural systems of various organisms included synaptotagmin 4 (BTA 24), FAT atypical cadhedrin 3 (BTA 29), tubulin tyrosine ligase-like 1 (BTA 5

  4. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  5. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  6. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs.

    PubMed

    Jin, X H; Heo, P S; Hong, J S; Kim, N J; Kim, Y Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight) were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day) were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01), average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.01). During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08). In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01), ADFI (p<0.05) and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07) during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05). In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05) and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03) were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs' diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses. PMID:27282974

  7. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Jin, X. H.; Heo, P. S.; Hong, J. S.; Kim, N. J.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight) were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day) were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01), average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.01). During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08). In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01), ADFI (p<0.05) and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07) during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05). In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05) and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03) were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs’ diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses. PMID:27282974

  8. Sugar intake, soft drink consumption and body weight among British children: further analysis of National Diet and Nutrition Survey data with adjustment for under-reporting and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid; Neate, Deborah

    2007-09-01

    We investigated associations between body mass index (BMI) and intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) and caloric soft drinks using weighed 7-day food records, nutrient intakes, BMI measurements and 7-day physical activity (PA) diaries from the UK National Dietary and Nutritional Survey of Young People (n=1,294 aged 7-18 years). NMES and caloric soft drinks (excluding 100% fruit juice) were quantified by their contribution to energy intake. BMI z-scores were calculated from UK reference curves and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-off values were used to define overweight. The BMI z-score was weakly inversely correlated with percentage energy from NMES after adjustment for under-reporting and dieting (r=-0.06, P=0.03). The percentage of energy from soft drinks was not associated with the BMI z-score or PA. After excluding under-reporters and dieters, the heaviest children (top quintile: Q5 of BMI z-scores) consumed more total energy (+1,220 kJ/day) than those in the lowest quintile (Q1), but only 60 kJ (5%) was from soft drinks. In logistic regression (adjusted for age and gender, under-reporting, and dieting), overweight was positively associated with energy intake (MJ) (odds ratio [OR]=1.58, confidence interval [CI]=1.42-1.77) and sedentary activity (h) (OR=1.11, CI=1.01-1.23), and inversely associated with moderate/vigorous activity (h) (OR=0.71, CI=0.58-0.86). In the macronutrient model, high fat and protein intake (top tertile vs lowest tertile, g/day) were positively associated with overweight (OR>2.5, P<0.001) while starch had less impact (OR=1.60, CI=1.0-2.55, P<0.05). Top tertile intakes of caloric soft drinks were weakly associated with overweight (OR=1.39, CI=0.96-2.0, P=0.08), while other sources of NMES showed no association (OR=0.81, CI=0.52-1.27, P=0.4). Risk associated with caloric soft drinks appeared non-linear with an increase in odds only for very high consumers (top quintile, mean 870 kJ/day; OR=1.67, CI=1.04-2.66, P=0.03). These

  9. Effect of in-water iodine supplementation on weight gain, diarrhea and oral and dental health of nursery pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Anita L.; Farzan, Abdolvahab; Cassar, Glen; Friendship, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    A farm trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of in-water iodine on piglet growth, the incidence of diarrhea, and the development of deleterious oral and dental conditions. A total of 208 weaned piglets were included in the study. Piglets were weighed 3 times: within 24 h of weaning, and 3 wk and 6 wk after weaning. A concentration of 1 ppm iodine was provided in their drinking water. Swabs were taken from all water nipples and water lines and pooled fecal samples were collected from all pen floors. Fecal samples were also collected from sows at weaning. The swabs and fecal samples were tested for the presence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Within 24 h of each weighing, a complete oral examination was performed on each piglet. No significant difference in growth (P > 0.05) or dental conditions (P > 0.05) was found among treatment groups during the period that iodine was added to the drinking water. After weaning, all deleterious oral conditions increased (oral lesions from weaning to 6 wk, staining and caries from weaning to 3 wk, gingivitis from 3 wk to 6 wk; P < 0.05). Only gingivitis was found to be negatively associated with piglet weight (P < 0.05). Salmonella was cultured only twice from fecal samples and never from water nipples. Only 1 sow tested positive for Salmonella and E. coli O139: K82 and O157:K”V17 were cultured only rarely from the water nipples. No signs of diarrhea were noted throughout the study. Adding an aqueous iodine supplement to nursery pigs, therefore, did not provide an advantage for either growth or oral condition. Deleterious oral conditions do increase after weaning, with gingivitis being associated with lower piglet weight. PMID:22468027

  10. Digestibility and utilization of protein and energy from Nasha, a traditional Sudanese fermented sorghum weaning food.

    PubMed

    Graham, G G; MacLean, W C; Morales, E; Hamaker, B R; Kirleis, A W; Mertz, E T; Axtell, J D

    1986-06-01

    Whole grain sorghum flour was fermented into Nasha, a traditional Sudanese food, and freeze-dried or drum-dried. It was cooked and fed to convalescent malnourished infants and small children as 61% of total diet calories and all of 6.4% protein calories, with (Lys+) and without lysine supplementation to 3% of protein. Apparent absorptions of nitrogen were 73 +/- 5 and 74 +/- 6% of intake, significantly (P less than 0.01) less than those from preceding (Cas-1, 86 +/- 3%) and following (Cas-2, 85 +/- 3%) isonitrogenous casein diets. Apparent retentions of nitrogen from Nasha (26 +/- 10%) were significantly lower than those from Lys + (34 +/- 9%, P less than 0.05), Cas-1 (35 +/- 11%, P less than 0.01) or Cas-2 (49 +/- 9%, P less than 0.01). Retentions from Cas-2 were higher than those from Cas-1 or Lys + (P less than 0.01). Fecal wet and dry weights were higher (P less than 0.02) during both Nasha diets and Cas-2 than during Cas-1. Fecal energy and carbohydrate were significantly (P less than 0.01) higher from either Nasha diet than from either casein diet; fecal fat was not different. Two children received drum-dried Nasha without further cooking; digestibilities were not different from those of the cooked product but biological value was much lower. When properly cooked and consumed along with small amounts of a good source of lysine, Nasha is a satisfactory weaning food. PMID:3088228

  11. Chronic Powder Diet After Weaning Induces Sleep, Behavioral, Neuroanatomical, and Neurophysiological Changes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Yuji; Okuro, Masashi; Sakai, Noriaki; Nishino, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of chronic powder diet feeding on sleep patterns and other physiological/anatomical changes in mice. C57BL/6 male mice were divided into two groups from weaning: a group fed with solid food (SD) and a group fed with powder food (PD), and sleep and physiological and anatomical changes were compared between the groups. PD exhibited less cranial bone structure development and a significant weight gain. Furthermore, these PD mice showed reduced number of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Sleep analysis showed that PD induced attenuated diurnal sleep/wake rhythm, characterized by increased sleep during active period and decreased sleep during rest period. With food deprivation (FD), PD showed less enhancement of wake/locomotor activity compared to SD, indicating reduced food-seeking behavior during FD. These results suggest that powder feeding in mice results in a cluster of detrimental symptoms caused by abnormal energy metabolism and anatomical/neurological changes. PMID:26630494

  12. Effects of supplementation with cellooligosaccharides on growth performance of weaned calves on pasture.

    PubMed

    Kido, Kyoko; Tejima, Shigeki; Nagayama, Haruka; Uyeno, Yutaka; Ide, Yasuyuki; Kushibiki, Shiro

    2016-05-01

    We conducted two feeding experiments to evaluate the effects of cellooligosaccharide (CE) supplementation on growth performance in grazing beef calves. Calf sex and age and duration of the experimental period differed between the experiments. Experiment 1 (10 weeks) used 5.6-month-old castrated males; Experiment 2 (13 weeks) used 3.9-month-old females. Eight Japanese Black calves were assigned to either a control group (CON) or an experimental group (CE) fed CE at a rate of 10 g/day mixed with concentrate. Calves were stocked in fields in which Kentucky bluegrass was dominant. In both experiments, average daily gain tended to be greater in CE than in CON, especially in late stages of experiments, but no significant differences in body weight changes were observed. In Experiment 2, final heart girth was larger in CE than in CON calves. We monitored rumen microbial community composition in Experiment 2 and found increases in fibrolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in CE calves, but the overall microbial composition did not differ between the groups. Our results suggest that supplementation with CE may positively affect growth performance in weaned calves on pasture, but longer-term CE supplementation may be required to exhibit the effect. PMID:26304787

  13. Post-weaning Social Isolation Impairs Observational Fear Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Yusufishaq, Shabana; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

    2013-01-01

    Many mammals can utilize social information to learn by observation of conspecifics (social learning). Social learning of fear is expected to be especially advantageous for survival. However, disruption of social development in early life can impair social cognition and might also be expected to disrupt social learning. Social isolation during a critical period of adolescence disrupts social development. The purpose of this study was to determine whether disruption of social development through post-weaning social isolation leads to impairments of social fear learning. Rats were reared in isolation or pair-housed from immediately post-weaning, for 3 weeks. Social fear learning in rats was acquired by observation of tone-footshock pairings administered to a conspecific. Isolation-reared rats displayed less conditioned freezing than pair-housed rats when tested the next day. This reduction of conditioned freezing was correlated with conspecific-oriented behaviors during conditioning, was measured despite similarities in demonstrator behaviors, and occurred despite a manipulation that equalized freezing during conditioning between the pair-housed and isolation-reared rats. The results could not be explained by abnormal sensitization to a repeated tone or deficits in freezing or direct fear conditioning. These results demonstrate that observational fear conditioning is impaired by social isolation, and provide a model to study impaired social affective learning. Impaired social cognition, manifested as inability to recognize or appropriately interpret social cues, is a symptom of several psychiatric disorders. Better understanding of the mechanisms of impaired social fear learning can lead to novel treatments for social cognition symptoms of psychiatric disorders. PMID:23295398

  14. Clinical Verification of A Clinical Decision Support System for Ventilator Weaning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Weaning is typically regarded as a process of discontinuing mechanical ventilation in the daily practice of an intensive care unit (ICU). Among the ICU patients, 39%-40% need mechanical ventilator for sustaining their lives. The predictive rate of successful weaning achieved only 35-60% for decisions made by physicians. Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) are promising in enhancing diagnostic performance and improve healthcare quality in clinical setting. To our knowledge, a prospective study has never been conducted to verify the effectiveness of the CDSS in ventilator weaning before. In this study, the CDSS capable of predicting weaning outcome and reducing duration of ventilator support for patients has been verified. Methods A total of 380 patients admitted to the respiratory care center of the hospital were randomly assigned to either control or study group. In the control group, patients were weaned with traditional weaning method, while in the study group, patients were weaned with CDSS monitored by physicians. After excluding the patients who transferred to other hospitals, refused further treatments, or expired the admission period, data of 168 and 144 patients in the study and control groups, respectively, were used for analysis. Results The results show that a sensitivity of 87.7% has been achieved, which is significantly higher (p<0.01) than the weaning determined by physicians (sensitivity: 61.4%). Furthermore, the days using mechanical ventilator for the study group (38.41 ± 3.35) is significantly (p<0.001) shorter than the control group (43.69 ± 14.89), with a decrease of 5.2 days in average, resulting in a saving of healthcare cost of NT$45,000 (US$1,500) per patient in the current Taiwanese National Health Insurance setting. Conclusions The CDSS is demonstrated to be effective in identifying the earliest time of ventilator weaning for patients to resume and sustain spontaneous breathing, thereby avoiding unnecessary prolonged

  15. Reconstructing infant weaning histories at Roman period Kellis, Egypt using stable isotope analysis of dentition.

    PubMed

    Dupras, Tosha L; Tocheri, Matthew W

    2007-09-01

    Studies of infant feeding and weaning patterns in past populations that rely on a cross-sectional approach must make the assumption that no infant mortality bias exists. Previous investigations of infant weaning patterns at the Dakhleh Oasis, Egypt, relied on cross-sectional isotope data. In this study, we re-examine this weaning pattern, using a simulated longitudinal approach, which does not require any assumptions regarding potential infant mortality biases. This involves examining the dental isotopic signatures of individuals who survived the weaning process. Stable isotope signatures from juveniles and adults (102 individuals, 297 teeth) were examined to reconstruct the weaning history of those that survived the weaning process. Both deciduous and permanent teeth were sampled. Homogenized enamel and dentin samples were isolated from each tooth and analyzed for delta(13)C(ap) and delta(18)O(ap) from the enamel and delta(15)N(coll) and delta(13)C(coll) from dentin collagen. We investigate differences between in utero versus postbirth, preweaning versus postweaning, and juvenile versus adult stable isotope values as reflected in the dentition. A random permutation procedure was used to test for statistically significant differences in stable isotope values between tooth types. Statistically significant differences were observed in all stable isotopes between permanent and deciduous teeth, and between early and later forming permanent teeth in delta(13)C(ap) and delta(15)N(coll) isotopes. These results indicate dietary change between in utero and postbirth, and changes occurring during the weaning period. These results provide a more comprehensive picture of infant weaning practices at Kellis and provide further support that complete weaning occurred by 3 years of age. PMID:17568441

  16. Early weaning stress impairs development of mucosal barrier function in the porcine intestine

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Feli; Clark, Jessica E.; Overman, Beth L.; Tozel, Christena C.; Huang, Jennifer H.; Rivier, Jean E. F.; Blisklager, Anthony T.

    2010-01-01

    Early life stress is a predisposing factor for the development of chronic intestinal disorders in adult life. Here, we show that stress associated with early weaning in pigs leads to impaired mucosal barrier function. Early weaning (15- to 21-day weaning age) resulted in sustained impairment in intestinal barrier function, as indicated by reductions in jejunal transepithelial electrical resistance and elevations in mucosal-to-serosal flux of paracellular probes [3H]mannitol and [14C]inulin measured at 5 and 9 wk of age, compared with that shown in late-weaned pigs (23- to 28-day weaning age). Elevated baseline short-circuit current was observed in jejunum from early-weaned pigs and was shown to be mediated via enhanced Cl− secretion. Jejunal barrier dysfunction in early-weaned pigs coincided with increased lamina propria immune cell density particularly mucosal mast cells. The mast cell stabilizer drug sodium cromoglycolate ameliorated barrier dysfunction and hypersecretion in early-weaned pigs, demonstrating an important role of mast cells. Furthermore, activation of mast cells ex vivo with c48/80 and corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) in pig jejunum mounted in Ussing chambers induced barrier dysfunction and elevations in short-circuit current that were inhibited with mast cell protease inhibitors. Experiments in which selective CRF receptor antagonists were administered to early-weaned pigs revealed that CRF receptor 1 (CRFr1) activation mediates barrier dysfunction and hypersecretion, whereas CRFr2 activation may be responsible for novel protective properties in the porcine intestine in response to early life stress. PMID:19926814

  17. Nutritional quality of germinated cowpea flour (Vigna unguiculata) and its application in home prepared powdered weaning foods.

    PubMed

    Jirapa, P; Normah, H; Zamaliah, M M; Asmah, R; Mohamad, K

    2001-01-01

    Amino acid profiles, protein digestibility, corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), chemical scores, essential amino acid indexes, and calculated biological values of controlcowpea flour (CCF), germinated cowpea flour (GCF) prepared from cowpeas germinated at 25 degrees C for either 24 h or 48 h and weaning foods prepared from cowpea flours were determined. Locally available rice, cowpea flour, banana-pumpkin slurry, and skim milk powder and sucrose in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5 were used to formulate weaning food containing not less than 15% protein. The ingredients were cooked into a slurry and oven-dried to produce flakes. The nutritional and sensory qualities of the weaning products were evaluated. Germination had little effect on the amino acid profile of cowpeas. In vitro protein quality and starch digestibility were improved in germinated cowpea flour. The PDCAAS of 24 h germinated cowpea flour (GCF) weaning food was higher (55.49%) than CCF-weaning food (46.74%). Vitamin A activity in 24 h GCF weaning food was higher than in CCF-weaning food. In vitro starch digestibilities of 24 h GCF and 48 h GCF-weaning foods were higher than that of CCF weaning food. The 24 h GCF-weaning food which had a higher overall acceptability score by sensory panelist than 48 h GCF and CCF-weaning food is recommended for household consumption. PMID:11442221

  18. Effects of transportation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on body weight and feed intake of crossbred heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of transportation and LPS challenge on feed intake (FI) and body weight (BW) of calves. Brahman x British heifers (n=44) from Raymond, MS, were weaned and acclimated to a high roughage diet fed in GrowSafe® bunks for 25 d. Heifers were blocked by BW...

  19. Coated zinc oxide improves intestinal immunity function and regulates microbiota composition in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Shen, Junhua; Chen, Yan; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Anguo; He, Miao; Mao, Lei; Zou, Huawei; Peng, Quanhui; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi; Zhang, Xiangfei; Wu, Shilin; Lv, Yong

    2014-06-28

    The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that low concentrations of coated ZnO, as a substitute for a high concentration of ZnO (2250 mg Zn/kg), could improve intestinal immunity function and regulate microbiota composition, thus alleviating the incidence of diarrhoea in weaned piglets. A total of eighty-four cross-bred piglets, weaned at an age of 28 (SEM 1) d, were allocated randomly, on the basis of average initial body weight (7·72 (SEM 0·65) kg), to seven treatment groups as follows: a 250 mg Zn (ZnO)/kg group (low Zn; LZ) and a 2250 mg Zn (ZnO)/kg group (high Zn; HZ) that were offered diets containing ZnO at 250 and 2250 mg Zn/kg, respectively; and five experimental groups in which coated ZnO was added at 250, 380, 570, 760 and 1140 mg Zn/kg basal diet, respectively. The trial lasted 2 weeks. The results indicated that, compared with LZ treatment, supplementation with coated ZnO at 380 or 570 mg Zn/kg reduced (P< 0·05) diarrhoea index, increased (P< 0·05) duodenal villus height and the ratio of villus height:crypt depth, up-regulated (P< 0·05) the gene expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, zonula occludens protein-1, occludin, IL-10 and transforming growth factor β1, and elevated (P< 0·05) secretory IgA concentration in the jejunal mucosa. Microbiota richness and the Shannon diversity index were also decreased (P< 0·05). Furthermore, piglets in the group fed coated ZnO at 380 or 570 mg Zn/kg did not differ from those in the HZ-fed group in relation to the aforementioned parameters. Collectively, a low concentration of coated ZnO (380 or 570 mg Zn/kg) can alleviate the incidence of diarrhoea by promoting intestinal development, protecting the intestinal mucosal barrier from damage, stimulating the mucosal immune system and regulating the microbiota composition. PMID:24606984

  20. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...

  1. Relationship among GeneSTAR marbling marker, intramuscular fat deposition, and expected progeny differences in early weaned Simmental steers.

    PubMed

    Rincker, C B; Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B

    2006-03-01

    Research has demonstrated that triiodothyronine and thyroxin are correlated with marbling (MARB) deposition in Wagyu cattle. Polymorphisms in the 5' region of the thyroglobulin gene have been associated with an improvement in overall fattening and could be used as a gene marker for MARB. The commercially available GeneSTAR MARB test measures the specific thyroglobulin gene polymorphism and identifies cattle as having 0, 1, or 2 copies of the allele; these are identified as 0-STAR, 1-STAR, or 2-STAR, respectfully. Early weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed over a repeated 4-yr trial period to determine the correlations between GeneSTAR MARB test [Genetic Solutions/Bovigen Pty. Ltd. (Australia) in conjunction with Frontier Beef Systems, LLC (Louisville, CO)] results and intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition. Yearling weight, MARB, percent retail cuts, and carcass weight EPD were calculated for each steer. Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d, pen-fed a high-concentrate diet for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d before allotment, and subsequently individually fed a 90% concentrate diet composed primarily of cracked corn and corn silage for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d. Steers were slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d. Deoxyribonucleic acid samples were used by Genetic Solutions/Bovigen (Australia) for GeneSTAR MARB analysis. Steers with allele types of 0-STAR (n = 47), 1-STAR (n = 95), and 2-STAR (n = 33) had no effect (P > 0.10) on MARB score, chemically determined IMF percentage, quality grade, or percent low Choice and better. There were no differences (P > 0.10) in performance or other carcass parameters among the allele types. GeneSTAR results were not associated with MARB (P > 0.10). Conversely, MARB EPD was correlated (P < 0.01) with MARB score (r = 0.44) and IMF percentage (r = 0.27). Thus, in this management system, MARB EPD is an accurate predictor of IMF deposition. These data suggest that the GeneSTAR MARB marker was not an efficacious predictor of IMF

  2. No direct by maternal effects interaction detected for pre-weaning growth in Romane sheep using a reaction norm model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The pre-weaning growth of lambs, an important component of meat production, depends on maternal and direct effects. These effects cannot be observed directly and models used to study pre-weaning growth assume that they are additive. However, it is reasonable to suggest that the influence of direct effects on growth may differ depending on the value of maternal effects i.e. an interaction may exist between the two components. Methods To test this hypothesis, an experiment was carried out in Romane sheep in order to obtain observations of maternal phenotypic effects (milk yield and milk quality) and pre-weaning growth of the lambs. The experiment consisted of mating ewes that had markedly different maternal genetic effects with rams that contributed very different genetic effects in four replicates of a 3 × 2 factorial plan. Milk yield was measured using the lamb suckling weight differential technique and milk composition (fat and protein contents) was determined by infrared spectroscopy at 15, 21 and 35 days after lambing. Lambs were weighed at birth and then at 15, 21 and 35 days. An interaction between genotype (of the lamb) and environment (milk yield and quality) for average daily gain was tested using a restricted likelihood ratio test, comparing a linear reaction norm model (interaction model) to a classical additive model (no interaction model). Results A total of 1284 weights of 442 lambs born from 166 different ewes were analysed. On average, the ewes produced 2.3 ± 0.8 L milk per day. The average protein and fat contents were 50 ± 4 g/L and 60 ± 18 g/L, respectively. The mean 0–35 day average daily gain was 207 ± 46 g/d. Results of the restricted likelihood ratio tests did not highlight any significant interactions between the genotype of the lambs and milk production of the ewe. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis of additivity of maternal and direct effects on growth that is currently applied in genetic

  3. Effects of the antimicrobial peptide cecropin AD on performance and intestinal health in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shudan; Zhang, Fengrui; Huang, Zhimin; Liu, Hong; Xie, Chunyuan; Zhang, Jiang; Thacker, Philip A; Qiao, Shiyan

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of the antimicrobial peptide cecropin on performance and intestinal health in piglets. Newly weaned barrows were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n=8), including a corn-soybean basal diet or similar diets supplemented with antibiotics (100 mg/kg kitasamycin plus 800 mg/kg colistin sulfate) or 400 mg/kg cecropin AD. On day 13, all piglets were orally challenged with 10(9)CFU/mL of Escherichia coli K88. On day 19, all piglets were euthanized and sampled. Before challenge, piglets fed antibiotics had greater weight gain, feed efficiency, nitrogen and energy retention than the control (P<0.05). E. coli challenge decreased weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency for the control piglets (P<0.05) but not for the antibiotic or cecropin AD treated piglets. The incidence of diarrhea post-challenge in the antibiotic and cecropin AD treatments decreased compared with the control piglets. The total viable counts of cecal E. coli were lower while the Lactobacilli counts were higher in the antibiotic and cecropin AD treatments compared with the control (P<0.05). Cecropin AD treatment decreased total aerobes while increasing total anaerobes in the ileum (P<0.05). A higher villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum and ileum as well as a deeper crypt depth in the jejunum and higher villus height in the ileum were observed in piglets fed antibiotics or cecropin AD compared with control piglets (P<0.05). Piglets fed the control diet had lower levels of secretory IgA in their jejunum and lower serum IgA, IgG, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). Overall, these data suggest that cecropin AD enhances pig performance through increasing immune status and nitrogen and energy retention as well as reducing intestinal pathogens in weaned piglets. PMID:22490448

  4. Effects of zearalenone-diet on expression of ghrelin and PCNA genes in ovaries of post-weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Dai, Meiling; Jiang, Shuzhen; Yuan, Xuejun; Yang, Weiren; Yang, Zaibin; Huang, Libo

    2016-05-01

    Numerous reports have provided evidence that zearalenone (ZEN) can increase the weight of genital organs. These findings have been confirmed by many studies in which the ghrelin gene was expressed in the ovary and was implicated in the control of cells in reproductive tissues. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an important marker of cell proliferation. The present study investigates the effects of a ZEN-treated diet on the development of ovaries in post-weaning piglets by the detection of ghrelin and PCNA protein and relative abundance of mRNA using optical microscopy, immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time (qRT-PCR). A total of 20 piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) weaned at 28 d, with an average body weight of 8.74 ± 0.26 kg (P=0.919) were used in this study. Piglets in the control group (n=10) were fed a normal basal diet, and those in the treatment group (n=10) were fed a diet containing ZEN (1.04 mg/kg), for 35 d. The proportion of growing follicles and diameter of the largest growing follicle in ovaries were greater in piglets fed the diet with ZEN. The total integrated optical densities of protein and mRNA of ghrelin and PCNA were greater with the feeding of the ZEN-treatment diet. The results suggested that 1.04 mg/kg ZEN could promote the autocrine action or expression of the ghrelin gene in piglet ovary, and further accelerate the development of ovaries (follicles). PMID:27020865

  5. Factor weighting in DRASTIC modeling.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, F A L; Pires, L M G R; Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F

    2015-02-01

    Evaluation of aquifer vulnerability comprehends the integration of very diverse data, including soil characteristics (texture), hydrologic settings (recharge), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), environmental parameters (relief), and ground water quality (nitrate contamination). It is therefore a multi-geosphere problem to be handled by a multidisciplinary team. The DRASTIC model remains the most popular technique in use for aquifer vulnerability assessments. The algorithm calculates an intrinsic vulnerability index based on a weighted addition of seven factors. In many studies, the method is subject to adjustments, especially in the factor weights, to meet the particularities of the studied regions. However, adjustments made by different techniques may lead to markedly different vulnerabilities and hence to insecurity in the selection of an appropriate technique. This paper reports the comparison of 5 weighting techniques, an enterprise not attempted before. The studied area comprises 26 aquifer systems located in Portugal. The tested approaches include: the Delphi consensus (original DRASTIC, used as reference), Sensitivity Analysis, Spearman correlations, Logistic Regression and Correspondence Analysis (used as adjustment techniques). In all cases but Sensitivity Analysis, adjustment techniques have privileged the factors representing soil characteristics, hydrologic settings, aquifer properties and environmental parameters, by leveling their weights to ≈4.4, and have subordinated the factors describing the aquifer media by downgrading their weights to ≈1.5. Logistic Regression predicts the highest and Sensitivity Analysis the lowest vulnerabilities. Overall, the vulnerability indices may be separated by a maximum value of 51 points. This represents an uncertainty of 2.5 vulnerability classes, because they are 20 points wide. Given this ambiguity, the selection of a weighting technique to integrate a vulnerability index may require additional

  6. Effect of student's teaching about weaning on rural mother's knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP).

    PubMed

    El Nour, N M

    1992-04-01

    Teaching women the merits of breast feeding, how to use locally available and suitable solid foods to feed infants, and proper methods of weaning can have a considerable and direct positive impact upon infants' nutritional status. 50 mothers aged 15-40 of mean age 24 years from Shoubramant village participated in a study to assess the effect of teaching about weaning. 76% of mothers and 54% of fathers were illiterate. The mothers were interviewed at baseline on their weaning knowledge and practice, then re-interviewed after having been taught relevant information by community nursing students. Mothers' weaning-related knowledge, attitude, and practice were significantly improved by the nutrition education intervention. Mothers' level of education was found to be an important factor affecting knowledge, attitude, and practice. PMID:12320844

  7. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  8. Vitamin E supplementation of undernourished ewes pre- and post-lambing reduces weight loss of ewes and increases weight of lambs.

    PubMed

    Rosales Nieto, César Augusto; Meza-Herrera, César Alberto; Moron Cedillo, Felipe de Jesús; Flores Najera, Manuel de Jesús; Gámez Vázquez, Hector Guillermo; Ventura Pérez, Felipe de Jesús; Liu, Shimin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test if vitamin E supplementation during late gestation and early lactation would affect the weight of ewes under nutritional restriction and the performance of their lambs. Mature Rambouillet ewes (n = 37) were fed a diet that supplied 70 % of the energy and 80 % of recommended protein requirements and randomly assigned to either vitamin E (vit E, n = 20, 4 IU of α-tocopherol kg(-1) of live weight) or control (n = 17, without vitamin E supplementation). During the experimental period, the mean weight of ewes decreased from 74.6 ± 2.4 to 58.1 ± 2.2 kg. Weight loss of ewes was slightly less for the vit E than the control (-65 vs -124 g day(-1), SEM = 46; P = 0.07). Lambs born from vit E-supplemented ewes were heavier than lambs from the control and grew significantly faster (239 vs 195 g day(-1), SEM = 29.3, P < 0.05) with heavier weights at weaning (16.5 vs 13.5 kg, SEM = 1.8, P < 0.05). Besides, birth weight, weaning weight and daily weight gain favoured to single lambs and to male lambs (P < 0.05). Weaning weight was positively correlated to birth weight (P < 0.05) and weight gain (P < 0.001). When the nutrient requirements for ewes are not met, supplementation of vitamin E during late gestation and early lactation might be an effective strategy to minimise ewe weight loss as well as to increase lamb growth. PMID:26894501

  9. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  10. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  11. Effect of Post-Weaning Individual Housing on Autonomic Responses in Male Rats to Sexually Receptive Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Post-weaning individual housing induces significant alterations in the reward system of adult male rats presented with sexually receptive female rats. In this study, we examined the effects of post-weaning individual housing on autonomic nervous activity in adult male rats during encounters with sexually receptive female rats to assess whether different affective states depending on post-weaning housing conditions are produced. Changes in heart rate and spectral parameters of heart rate variability indicated that in post-weaning individually housed male rats, both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity increased with no change in the sympathovagal balance, while in post-weaning socially housed male rats, both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity decreased with a predominance of parasympathetic activity. These two patterns of shifts in sympathovagal balances closely resembled changes in autonomic nervous activity with regard to classical appetitive conditioning in male rats. The autonomic changes in male rats housed individually after weaning corresponded to changes associated with the reward-expecting state evoked by the conditioned stimulus, and the autonomic changes observed in male rats housed socially after weaning corresponded to changes associated with the reward-receiving state evoked by the unconditioned stimulus. These results suggest that different affective states were induced in adult male rats during sexual encounters depending on male–male social interactions after weaning. The remarkable change caused by post-weaning individual housing may be ascribed to alteration of the reward system during sexual encounters induced by deficiency of intermale social communication after weaning. PMID:23903058

  12. Effect of post-weaning individual housing on autonomic responses in male rats to sexually receptive female rats.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Post-weaning individual housing induces significant alterations in the reward system of adult male rats presented with sexually receptive female rats. In this study, we examined the effects of post-weaning individual housing on autonomic nervous activity in adult male rats during encounters with sexually receptive female rats to assess whether different affective states depending on post-weaning housing conditions are produced. Changes in heart rate and spectral parameters of heart rate variability indicated that in post-weaning individually housed male rats, both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity increased with no change in the sympathovagal balance, while in post-weaning socially housed male rats, both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity decreased with a predominance of parasympathetic activity. These two patterns of shifts in sympathovagal balances closely resembled changes in autonomic nervous activity with regard to classical appetitive conditioning in male rats. The autonomic changes in male rats housed individually after weaning corresponded to changes associated with the reward-expecting state evoked by the conditioned stimulus, and the autonomic changes observed in male rats housed socially after weaning corresponded to changes associated with the reward-receiving state evoked by the unconditioned stimulus. These results suggest that different affective states were induced in adult male rats during sexual encounters depending on male-male social interactions after weaning. The remarkable change caused by post-weaning individual housing may be ascribed to alteration of the reward system during sexual encounters induced by deficiency of intermale social communication after weaning. PMID:23903058

  13. Postmortem findings in cloned and transgenic piglets dead before weaning.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Winther, K D; Secher, J O; Callesen, H

    2015-10-01

    Important factors contributing to the well-known high mortality of piglets produced by SCNT are gross malformations of vital organs. The aim of the present retrospective study was to describe malformations found in cloned piglets, transgenic or not, dying or culled before weaning on Day 28. Large White (LW) embryos were transferred to 78 LW recipients, while 72 recipients received Göttingen embryos (67 transgenic and five not transgenic) and 56 received Yucatan embryos (43 transgenic and 13 not transgenic). Overall pregnancy rate was 76%, and there were more abortions in recipients with minipig embryos than in those with LW embryos (26% and 24% vs. 6%). Piglets (n = 815) were born from 128 sows with 6.5 ± 0.4 full-born piglets per litter. The overall rate of stillborn piglets was 21% of all born with the number of stillborn piglets ranging from one to nine in a litter. The mortality of the surviving piglets during the first month was 48%. Thus, altogether 58% of the full-born piglets died before weaning. In 87 of the 128 litters (68%), one to 12 of the piglets showed major or minor malformations. Malformations were found in 232 piglets (29.5% of all born). A single malformation was registered in 152 piglets, but several piglets showed two (n = 58) or more (n = 23) malformations (7.4% and 2.8% of all born, respectively). A significantly higher malformation rate was found in transgenic Göttingen and Yucatan piglets (32% and 46% of all born, respectively) than in nontransgenic LW (17%). There was a gender difference in the transgenic minipigs because male piglets had a higher rate of malformations (49.1%) than females (29.7%). The most common defects in the cloned piglets were in the digestive (12.2%), circulatory (9.4%), reproductive (11.3%), and musculoskeletal (9.1%) systems. Malformations of the musculoskeletal system were most frequent in Göttingen (16.3% vs. approximately 5.5% in the two other breeds), whereas abnormal cardiopulmonary systems were most

  14. Short communication: Effect of diet changes on sorting behavior of weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Costa, J H C; Adderley, N A; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-07-01

    Dairy cows sort mixed rations; in some cases sorting can lead to digestive disorders. How sorting behavior develops in calves is poorly understood. The objective of this observational study was to determine if sorting behavior of total mixed ration (TMR)-fed dairy calves was affected by the removal of supplementary concentrate. Dairy bull calves (n=18) were provided access to both a TMR (49.1% dry matter) and calf starter fed separately during the preweaning period starting at 3 d of age. Sorting of the TMR was assessed after weaning when calves were provided both feeds at 65 d of age, and again at 70 d immediately following the removal of calf starter from the calf pen. Sorting was measured by comparing the particle size composition of the TMR offered with that of the orts following 24h of feed access. Feed particle fractions were measured using the Penn State Particle Separator with 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18mm) and a bottom pan to separate the TMR into long, medium, short, and fine fractions, respectively. At d 65, calves sorted for long particles (133±9%) and against small particles (92±3%), with no differences for the remaining fractions (99±5% for medium; 107±5% for fine); these preferences were reversed at d 70 when calf starter was no longer available with calves preferentially selecting fine particles (113±4%), but showing no preference for other fractions (101±11% for long; 99±6% for medium; 97±4% for short). These results indicate that young dairy calves are capable of sorting a TMR and they adjust this behavior in response to the availability of grain. PMID:27108168

  15. Physiological and behavioural responses to weaning conflict in free-ranging primate infants

    PubMed Central

    Mandalaywala, Tara M.; Higham, James P.; Heistermann, Michael; Parker, Karen J.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Weaning, characterized by maternal reduction of resources, is both psychologically and energetically stressful to mammalian offspring. Despite the importance of physiology in this process, previous studies have reported only indirect measures of weaning stress from infants, because of the difficulties of collecting physiological measures from free-ranging mammalian infants. Here we present some of the first data on the relationship between weaning and energetic and psychological stress in infant mammals. We collected data on 47 free-ranging rhesus macaque infants on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, showing that faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations were directly related to the frequency of maternal rejection, with fGCM concentrations increasing as rates of rejection increased. Infants with higher fGCM concentrations also engaged in higher rates of mother following, and mother following was associated with increased time on the nipple, suggesting that infants that experienced greater weaning-related stress increased their efforts to maintain proximity and contact with their mothers. Infants experiencing more frequent rejection uttered more distress vocalizations when being rejected; however, there was no relationship between rates of distress vocalizations and fGCM concentrations, suggesting a disassociation between behavioural and physiological stress responses to weaning. Elevated glucocorticoid concentrations during weaning may function to mobilize energy reserves and prepare the infant for continued maternal rejection and shortage of energetic resources. PMID:25431499

  16. Intra-farm risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae colonization at weaning age.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Maria; Cline, Greg S; Payne, Brian J; Prado, Cesar; Ertl, Jonathan R; Rendahl, Aaron K

    2014-08-27

    The objective of this study was to identify intra-farm risk factors that affected the colonization with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae at weaning age. Three farrow-to-wean farms were visited at least 5 times each. An average of 54 piglets were sampled at each visit and assayed by means of real-time PCR in nasal swabs. The proportion of PCR positive piglets was evaluated as a response to several variables including dam's PCR status, piglet serological status, and local climatic conditions during the lactation period, as well as other factors. All piglets at weaning age were negative to M. hyopneumoniae in 2 of the 3 farms. M. hyopneumoniae positive piglets were demonstrated in 5 of 7 weaning groups in 1 farm. The proportion of M. hyopneumoniae positive piglets in each weaning group at the positive farm was correlated with the proportion of positive dams in the group. The prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae at weaning increased with the piglet's age in the groups where at least one dam was positive. These results highlight the influence of the sow in the sow-to-piglet colonization process, as previously reported, and contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the epidemiology of M. hyopneumoniae infections. PMID:24984946

  17. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium genotypes in pre and post-weaned pigs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Johanna; Buddle, Ross; Reid, Simon; Armson, Anthony; Ryan, Una M

    2008-07-01

    A total of 289 pig faecal samples were collected from pre-weaned and post-weaned piglets and sows from 1 indoor and 3 outdoor piggeries located in the south-west region of Western Australia and screened at the 18S rRNA locus for the presence of Cryptosporidium. An overall prevalence of 22.1% (64/289) was identified. Cryptosporidium was more prevalent in post-weaned animals (p<0.05); 32.7% (51/156) versus 10.6% (13/123) for pre-weaned animals. Sequence analysis identified Cryptosporidium suis in all pre-weaned isolates genotyped (7/13). In post-weaned pigs that were genotyped (n=38), the non-zoonotic Cryptosporidium species, pig genotype II was identified in 32 samples and C. suis in 6 samples. The zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum was not detected, suggesting that domestic pigs do not pose a significant public health risk. Pig genotype II was significantly (p<0.05) associated with 'normal' stools, indicating an asymptomatic nature in the porcine host. PMID:18486131

  18. Enhanced or Reduced Fetal Growth Induced by Embryo Transfer into Smaller or Larger Breeds Alters Post-Natal Growth and Metabolism in Pre-Weaning Horses

    PubMed Central

    Peugnet, Pauline; Wimel, Laurence; Duchamp, Guy; Sandersen, Charlotte; Camous, Sylvaine; Guillaume, Daniel; Dahirel, Michèle; Dubois, Cédric; Jouneau, Luc; Reigner, Fabrice; Berthelot, Valérie; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Tarrade, Anne; Serteyn, Didier; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    In equids, placentation is diffuse and nutrient supply to the fetus is determined by uterine size. This correlates with maternal size and affects intra-uterine development and subsequent post-natal growth, as well as insulin sensitivity in the newborn. Long-term effects remain to be described. In this study, fetal growth was enhanced or restricted through ET using pony (P), saddlebred (S) and draft (D) horses. Control P-P (n = 21) and S-S (n = 28) pregnancies were obtained by AI. Enhanced and restricted pregnancies were obtained by transferring P or S embryos into D mares (P-D, n = 6 and S-D, n = 8) or S embryos into P mares (S-P, n = 6), respectively. Control and experimental foals were raised by their dams and recipient mothers, respectively. Weight gain, growth hormones and glucose homeostasis were investigated in the foals from birth to weaning. Fetal growth was enhanced in P-D and these foals remained consistently heavier, with reduced T3 concentrations until weaning compared to P-P. P-D had lower fasting glucose from days 30 to 200 and higher insulin secretion than P-P after IVGTT on day 3. Euglycemic clamps in the immediate post-weaning period revealed no difference in insulin sensitivity between P-D and P-P. Fetal growth was restricted in S-P and these foals remained consistently lighter until weaning compared to S-D, with elevated T3 concentrations in the newborn compared to S-S. S-P exhibited higher fasting glycemia than S-S and S-D from days 30 to 200. They had higher maximum increment in plasma glucose than S-D after IVGTT on day 3 and clamps on day 200 demonstrated higher insulin sensitivity compared to S-D. Neither the restricted nor the enhanced fetal environment affected IGF-1 concentrations. Thus, enhanced and restricted fetal and post-natal environments had combined effects that persisted until weaning. They induced different adaptive responses in post-natal glucose metabolism: an early insulin-resistance was induced in

  19. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or ‘pinkeye’ is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species) eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects). Genetic correlations between IBK incidence and tick and helminth egg

  20. Experiences of baby-led weaning: trust, control and renegotiation.

    PubMed

    Arden, Madelynne A; Abbott, Rachel L

    2015-10-01

    Baby-led weaning (BLW) is an approach to introducing solid foods that relies on the presence of self-feeding skills and is increasing in popularity in the UK and New Zealand. This study aimed to investigate the reported experiences and feelings of mothers using a BLW approach in order to better understand the experiences of the mother and infant, the benefits and challenges of the approach, and the beliefs that underpin these experiences. Fifteen UK mothers were interviewed over the course of a series of five emails using a semi-structured approach. The email transcripts were anonymised and analysed using thematic analysis. There were four main themes identified from the analysis: (1) trusting the child; (2) parental control and responsibility; (3) precious milk; and (4) renegotiating BLW. The themes identified reflect a range of ideals and pressures that this group of mothers tried to negotiate in order to provide their infants with a positive and healthy introduction to solid foods. One of the key issues of potential concern is the timing at which some of the children ingested complementary foods. Although complementary foods were made available to the infants at 6 months of age, in many cases they were not ingested until much later. These findings have potentially important implications for mother's decision-making, health professional policy and practice, and future research. PMID:24521206

  1. Weaning practices among some Nigerian women: implication on oral health.

    PubMed

    Bankole, O O; Aderinokun, G A; Odenloye, O; Adeyemi, A T

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to document the various weaning diets given by some Nigerian women and consider their implication on the oral health of their children. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 700 volunteer mothers of young children aged between 6-18 months in Ibadan, a city in south-western Nigerian. Results revealed that pap was the most frequently given food to the infants as 607 (86.7%) of them ate it. Chocolate beverages, natural fruit juice and soft drinks were the most commonly given drinks as 88.1%, 79.9% and 70.3% babies were said to be given these respectively. Over 57% of mothers sweetened pap with sugar. Forty seven percent of mothers added glucose to children's drinking water. Over two-third (64.9%) of children ate biscuits several times a day. Soft drinks, commercial fruit juices and squash were consumed by 16.1%, 9.6% and 7.7% of the infants respectively on a daily basis. Judging by the findings of this study, it is evident that many infants are being exposed to a highly cariogenic diet at an early age. In the light of the harmful effect of these foods and drinks on the body and teeth, it is important that oral health care workers initiate moves to discourage this habit via health education programmes. Nurses, community health workers at various levels, pregnant women and mothers of young children should be the targets of such intervention. PMID:16704022

  2. Use of re-esterified palm oils, differing in their acylglycerol structure, in weaning-piglet diets.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, E; Barroeta, A C; Tres, A; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2015-08-01

    Re-esterified oils are new fat sources obtained from chemical esterification of acid oils with glycerol (both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively). The different fatty acid (FA) positional distribution and acylglycerol composition of re-esterified oils may enhance the apparent absorption of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and, thus, their overall nutritive value. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of re-esterified palm oils, in comparison with their corresponding acid and native oils, and also with an unsaturated fat source in weaning-piglet diets. The parameters assessed were: FA apparent absorption, acylglycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) composition of feces, and growth performance. One-hundred and twenty weaning piglets (average weight of 8.50±1.778 kg) were blocked by initial BW (six blocks) and randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, resulting in four piglets per pen and six replicates per treatment. Dietary treatments were a basal diet supplemented with 10% (as-fed basis) of native soybean oil (SN), native palm oil (PN), acid palm oil (PA), re-esterified palm oil low in mono- (MAG) and diacylglycerols (DAG) (PEL), or re-esterified palm oil high in MAG and DAG (PEH). Results from the digestibility balance showed that SN reached the greatest total FA apparent absorption, and statistically different from PN, PA and PEL (P0.05), but PEH achieved the greatest total FA apparent absorption. Animals fed PEL, despite the fact that PEL oil contained more sn-2 SFA, did not show an improved absorption of SFA (P>0.05). Animals fed PA and PN showed similar apparent absorption coefficients (P>0.05), despite the high FFA content of PA oil. The acylglycerol and FFA composition of feces was mainly composed of FFA. There were no significant differences in growth performance (P>0.05). Results of the present study suggest that, despite the different acylglycerol structure of re

  3. Effect of levels of starch, fiber, and lactose on digestion and growth performance of early-weaned rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, I; Espinosa, A; García, J; Carabaño, R; De Blas, J C

    2002-04-01

    The effect of source of carbohydrate on gut histology, digestion efficiency, and growth performance in early-weaned (25 d) rabbits at the starter period (25 to 39 d) was investigated. Six diets were factorially arranged to study the effect of partial substitution of starch (0, 25, or 50%) by lactose at two levels of fiber (30 or 36% NDF). Diets were formulated to meet or exceed essential nutrient requirements of growing rabbits. A feeding trial was conducted to measure the effect of treatments on growth performance in 252 rabbits that were fed the experimental diets in the starter period and thereafter received a common feed until 60 d of age. Fecal apparent digestibility was determined at 35 d of age in nine animals per diet. The four diets with extreme lactose content were used to determine ileal apparent digestibility of starch and lactose (nine replicates per diet), weights of stomach and cecum, stomach pH, cecal fermentation traits, amylase and disaccharidase activities (10 animals per diet), and jejunal morphology (six animals per diet). Weaning increased (P < 0.001) amylase activity by 59% but decreased (P < 0.001) maltase, sucrase, and lactase activities by 30, 48, and 72%, in parallel with a reduction of villus height by 19%. Dietary NDF level did not affect either jejunal morphology or sucrase and lactase activities but increased amylase (P = 0.05) and maltase (P < 0.001) activities by 22 and 92%, respectively. Substitution of starch by lactose had no effect on jejunal morphology or enzymatic activity. Ileal lactose and starch digestibility were not affected by dietary NDF or lactose level and averaged 73.8 and 90.8%, respectively. Substitution of starch by fiber and lactose affected ileal flux of starch plus lactose (by -0.5 and +1.7 g/d) and cecal pH (by +2.1 and -2.8%, respectively). Fecal NDF digestibility was relatively low (23.1% on average) and was not affected by treatments, whereas that of lactose and starch was almost complete. An increase of

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation with epidermal growth factor-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae on duodenal development in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujin; Guo, Chunhua; Zhou, Lin; Zhong, Zhendong; Zhu, Wuzheng; Huang, Yanling; Zhang, Zhengfan; Gorgels, Theo G M F; Berendschot, Tos T J M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation with epidermal growth factor (EGF)-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae on duodenal development in weaned piglets. In total, forty piglets weaned at 21-26 d of age were assigned to one of the five groups that were provided basic diet (control group) or diet supplemented with S. cerevisiae expressing either empty-vector (INVSc1(EV) group), tagged EGF (T-EGF) (INVSc1-TE(-) group), extracellular EGF (EE-EGF) (INVSc1-EE(+) group) or intracellular EGF (IE-EGF) (INVSc1-IE(+) group). All treatments were delivered as 60·00 μg/kg body weight EGF/d. On 0, 7, 14 and 21 d, eight piglets per treatment were sacrificed to analyse the morphology, activities and mRNA expressions of digestive enzymes, as well as Ig levels (IgA, IgM, IgG) in duodenal mucosa. The results showed significant improvement on 7, 14 and 21 d, with respect to average daily gain (P<0·05), mucosa morphology (villus height and crypt depth) (P<0·05), Ig levels (P<0·01), activities and mRNA expressions of digestive enzymes (creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and sucrase) (P<0·05) and the mRNA expression of EGF-receptor (P<0·01) in NVSc1-TE(-), INVSc1-EE(+) and INVSc1-IE(+) groups compared with control and INVSc1(EV) groups. In addition, a trend was observed in which the INVSc1-IE(+) group showed an improvement in Ig levels (0·05weaned piglets enhanced duodenal development. Moreover, biological activity (Ig levels, mRNA expressions of digestive enzymes and EGF-receptor) of IE-EGF was better than either EE-EGF or T-EGF. PMID:26983845

  5. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  6. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  7. 7 CFR 981.401 - Adjusted kernel weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... based on the analysis of a 1,000 gram sample taken from a lot of almonds weighing 10,000 pounds with less than 95 percent kernels, and a 1,000 gram sample taken from a lot of almonds weighing 10,000... percent kernels containing the following: Edible kernels, 530 grams; inedible kernels, 120 grams;...

  8. 7 CFR 981.401 - Adjusted kernel weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... based on the analysis of a 1,000 gram sample taken from a lot of almonds weighing 10,000 pounds with less than 95 percent kernels, and a 1,000 gram sample taken from a lot of almonds weighing 10,000... percent kernels containing the following: Edible kernels, 530 grams; inedible kernels, 120 grams;...

  9. 7 CFR 981.401 - Adjusted kernel weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... based on the analysis of a 1,000 gram sample taken from a lot of almonds weighing 10,000 pounds with less than 95 percent kernels, and a 1,000 gram sample taken from a lot of almonds weighing 10,000... percent kernels containing the following: Edible kernels, 530 grams; inedible kernels, 120 grams;...

  10. 7 CFR 981.401 - Adjusted kernel weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... based on the analysis of a 1,000 gram sample taken from a lot of almonds weighing 10,000 pounds with less than 95 percent kernels, and a 1,000 gram sample taken from a lot of almonds weighing 10,000... percent kernels containing the following: Edible kernels, 530 grams; inedible kernels, 120 grams;...

  11. Post-Weaning Performance of Fall-Born Beef Steers Weaned from Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pastures on Different Dates in the Spring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earlier weaning of fall-born calves grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue (E+) in the spring should reduced exposure of those calves to E+ toxins, resulting in improved long-term animal performance. However, a previous study did not support this hypothesis. A total of 118 Gelbvieh ×...

  12. Effects of Bacillus subtilis KN-42 on Growth Performance, Diarrhea and Faecal Bacterial Flora of Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuanliang; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Zhao, Shumiao; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang

    2014-01-01

    This research focused on the effects of different doses of Bacillus subtilis KN-42 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, faecal bacterial flora, and the relative number of Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli in faeces of weaned piglets to determine whether the strain can serve as a candidate antimicrobial growth promoter. A total of 360 piglets (initial body weight 7.14±0.63 kg) weaned at 26±2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 treatment groups (4 pens per treatment with 18 pigs per pen) for a 28-day trial. Dietary treatments were basal diet without any antimicrobial (negative control; NC), basal diet supplemented with 120 mg/kg feed of neomycin sulfate (positive control; PC) and basal diet supplemented with 2×109 (L), 4×109 (M) and 20×109 (H) CFU/kg feed of B. subtilis KN-42. During the overall period, average daily gain and feed efficiency of piglets were higher in groups PC, M, and H than those in group NC (p<0.05), and all probiotics and antibiotics groups had a lower diarrhea index than group NC (p<0.05). The 16S rDNA gene-based methods were used to analyze faecal bacterial flora on day 28 of experiment. The result of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that supplementation of B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet changed the bacterial communities, with a higher bacterial diversity and band number in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the relative number of Lactobacillus were higher in groups PC and H than in group NC (p<0.05), and the supplemented B. subtilis KN-42 to the diet also reduced the relative number of E. coli (p<0.05). These results suggest that dietary addition of B. subtilis KN-42 can improve the growth performance and gastrointestinal health of piglets. PMID:25083107

  13. Dietary supplementation with L-glutamate and L-aspartate alleviates oxidative stress in weaned piglets challenged with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jielin; Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Liu, Ting; Cui, Zhijie; Huang, Xingguo; Wu, Li; Kim, Sung Woo; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xi; Wu, Guoyao; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the protective roles of L-glutamate (Glu) and L-aspartate (Asp) in weaned piglets challenged with H2O2. Forty weaned piglets were assigned randomly into one of five groups (8 piglets/group): (1) control group (NC) in which pigs were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet and received intraperitoneal administration of saline; (2) H2O2 group (PC) in which pigs were fed the basal diet and received intraperitoneal administration of 10 % H2O2 (1 ml/kg body weight once on days 8 and repeated on day 11); (3) PC + Glu group (PG) in which pigs were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2.0 % Glu before intraperitoneal administration of 10 % H2O2; (4) PC + Asp group (PA) in which pigs were fed the basal diet supplemented with 1.0 % Asp before intraperitoneal administration of 10 % H2O2; (5) PC + Glu + Asp group (PGA) in which pigs were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2.0 % Glu plus 1.0 % Asp before intraperitoneal administration of 10 % H2O2. Measured parameters included daily feed intake (DFI), average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion rate (FCR), and serum anti-oxidative enzyme activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase-1), serum malondialdehyde and H2O2 concentrations, serum amino acid (AA) profiles, and intestinal expression of AA transporters. Dietary supplementation with Glu, Asp or their combination attenuated the decreases in DFI, ADG and feed efficiency, the increase in oxidative stress, the alterations of serum AA concentrations, and the changed expression of intestinal AA transporters in H2O2-challenged piglets. Thus, dietary supplementation with Glu or Asp alleviates growth suppression and oxidative stress, while restoring serum the amino acid pool in H2O2-challenged piglets. PMID:26255283

  14. Effect of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility and faecal microbiota of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cangyou; Zhang, Shihai; Yang, Qing; Peng, Qian; Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangfang; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the experiment on 180 weaned piglets (8.9 kg body weight) was to investigate the influence of high fibre diets formulated with different fibrous ingredients on performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea incidence and numbers of faecal microbiota. The dietary treatments included a Control diet and five high fibre diets formulated with different fibre sources including wheat bran, soybean hulls, naked oat hulls, palm kernel expeller and bamboo fibre. The high fibre diets averaged 14.6% neutral detergent fibre with different non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) components and were fed ad libitum for 28 d. Faecal samples were collected during the last 3 d of the experiment and the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fibre components were determined. Pigs fed the Control and wheat bran diets had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) than pigs fed the palm kernel expeller and bamboo meal diets. The reduced ADG for pigs appeared to be related to reductions in the digestibility of gross energy and dry matter, respectively. The feed-to-gain ratio was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the fibre diets. The digestibility of NSP components was different among the treatments. The diarrhoea incidence was not affected by treatments. The abundance of faecal bifidobacteria was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) for pigs fed the wheat bran diet than for pigs fed the bamboo meal diet. It was concluded that the diets formulated with different fibre sources when fed to weaned piglets have different effects on pig performance, nutrient digestibility and numbers of faecal microbiota. The wheat bran diet rich in arabinoxylans enabled a better performance than the other tested diets with fibre addition. PMID:27216554

  15. Evidence for litter differences in play behaviour in pre-weaned pigs

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sarah Mills; Klaffenböck, Michael; Nevison, Ian Macleod; Lawrence, Alistair Burnett

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse spontaneous play behaviour in litters of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) for sources of variation at individual and litter levels and to relate variation in play to measures of pre and postnatal development. Seven litters of commercially bred piglets (n = 70) were born (farrowed) within a penning system (PigSAFE) that provided opportunities for the performance of spontaneous play behaviours. Individual behaviour was scored based on an established play ethogram for 2 days per week over the 3 week study period. We found strong evidence of litter differences in play behaviour (F(6,63) = 27.30, p < 0.001). Of the variance in total play, 50% was attributable to differences between litters with a lesser proportion (11%) to between piglets within litters. We found similar evidence of litter differences when we analysed the separate play categories (e.g. for locomotor play: F(6,63) = 27.50, p < 0.001). For social and locomotor play the variance was partitioned in a broadly similar way to total play; however for object play the variance was distributed with a more even balance across and within litters. In terms of explanatory factors we found little evidence that at the litter level differences in play were associated with differences in general activity. Of the prenatal factors measured, we found that birth weight was positively associated with total play and the play categories (e.g. with total play: F(1,64) = 12.8, p < 0.001). We also found that postnatal piglet growth up to weaning (as a percentage of birth weight) had a significant positive association with total play and the play categories (e.g. with object play: F(1,66) = 20.55, p < 0.001). As found in other studies, on average males engaged in more social play (e.g. non-injurious play fighting: F(1,63) = 39.8, p < 0.001). Males also initiated more play bouts on average than females (F(1,62) = 4.41, p = 0.040). We conclude that the study of differences

  16. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  17. Can an interprofessional tracheostomy team improve weaning to decannulation times? A quality improvement evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Melissa; Catalig, Marifel; Chris, Juliana; Pataki, Janos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Percutaneous tracheostomy is a common procedure in the intensive care unit and, on patient transfer to the wards, there is a gap in ongoing tracheostomy management. There is some evidence that tracheostomy teams can shorten weaning to decannulation times. In response to lengthy weaning to decannulation times at Trillium Health Partners – Credit Valley Hospital site (Mississauga, Ontario), an interprofessional tracheostomy team, led by respiratory therapists and consisting of speech-language pathologists and intensive care physicians, was implemented. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the interprofessional tracheostomy team and its impact on time from weaning off mechanical ventilation to decannulation; and time from weaning to speech-language pathology referral. METHODS: Performance metrics were collected retrospectively through chart review pre- and post-team implementation. The primary metrics evaluated were the time from weaning off mechanical ventilation to decannulation, and time to referral to speech-language pathology. RESULTS: Following implementation of the interprofessional tracheostomy team, there was no improvement in decannulation times or time from weaning to speech-language pathology referral. A significant improvement was noted in the average time to first tracheostomy tube change (36.2 days to 22.9 days; P=0.01) and average time to speech-language pathology referral following initial tracheostomy insertion (51.8 days to 26.3 days; P=0.01). CONCLUSION: An interprofessional tracheostomy team can improve the quality of tracheostomy care through earlier tracheostomy tube changes and swallowing assessment referrals. The lack of improved weaning to decannulation time was potentially due to poor adherence with established protocols as well as a change in mechanical ventilation practices. To validate the findings from this particular institution, a more rigorous quality improvement methodology should be considered in addition to strategies to improve

  18. Effects of oregano on performance and immunmodulating factors in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Stelter, Katrin; Frahm, Jana; Paulsen, Jana; Berk, Andreas; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Many health effects can be attributed to the Mediterranean herb oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and several studies demonstrated the improving effect on performance, changes in blood count, antibacterial, antifungal and immunmodulating abilities. The majority of these investigations were carried out with processed essential oil, while whole plant material was only used in a few studies. Thus, the aim of the present experiment was to test the effect of increasing proportions of dried oregano in piglet feed on health and performance, with a special focus on immune modulation. A total of 80 male castrated weaned piglets (body weight [BW] 7.9 kg ± 1.0 kg) were used in a feeding experiment lasting 5 weeks. They were assigned to 4 experimental groups: a control diet, and three diets with an oregano supplementation at 2 g, 4 g and 8 g per kg feed, respectively, corresponding to 23.5 mg, 46.9 mg and 93.9 mg carvacrol/kg DM. After 3 weeks, half of each group was challenged with 5 µg lipopolysaccharides (LPS) per kg BW. Blood samples were collected 2 h after LPS stimulation and analysed for T-cell phenotypes, granulocyte activity, clinical-chemistry as well as white and red blood count. The results indicate no effects of oregano on performance. In contrast, oregano altered the lymphocyte proportion and the ratio of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells as well as the triglyceride concentration in the serum of non-stimulated and in LPS-stimulated piglets. In conclusion, whole plant supplementation of oregano to piglet feed altered immune-related parameters, but did not modulate the acute inflammatory response induced by LPS stimulation. PMID:24228909

  19. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (P<0.01) in serum concentrations of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and GH and an increase (P<0.01) in the serum concentration of TSH at PNDs 17 and 18. These conspicuous perturbations led to some histopathological deterioration in the thyroid gland characterized by follicular degeneration, edema, fibrosis, hemorrhage, luminal obliteration, and hypertrophy with reduced colloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (P<0.01) serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor and lower (P<0.01) serum concentrations of IGF1 and insulin at both PNDs compared with the control group. Interestingly, the body weight of the neonates in the PCB 95 group exhibited severe decreases throughout the experimental period in relation to that of the control group. These results imply that PCB 95 may act as a disruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept. PMID:24167152

  20. Subclinical zinc deficiency impairs pancreatic digestive enzyme activity and digestive capacity of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Daniel; Windisch, Wilhelm M

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of short-term subclinical Zn deficiency on exocrine pancreatic activity and changes in digestive capacity. A total of forty-eight weaned piglets were fed ad libitum a basal diet (maize and soyabean meal) with adequate Zn supply (88 mg Zn/kg diet) during a 2-week acclimatisation phase. Animals were then assigned to eight dietary treatment groups (n 6) according to a complete randomised block design considering litter, live weight and sex. All pigs were fed restrictively (450 g diet/d) the basal diet but with varying ZnSO4.7H2O additions, resulting in 28·1, 33·6, 38·8, 42·7, 47·5, 58·2, 67·8 and 88·0 mg Zn/kg diet for a total experimental period of 8 d. Pancreatic Zn concentrations and pancreatic activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A and B, elastase and α-amylase exhibited a broken-line response to stepwise reduction in dietary Zn by declining beneath thresholds of 39·0, 58·0, 58·0, 41·2, 47·5, 57·7 and 58·0 mg Zn/kg diet, respectively. Furthermore, carboxypeptidase B and α-amylase activities were significantly lower in samples with reduced pancreatic Zn contents. Coefficients of faecal digestibility of DM, crude protein, total lipids and crude ash responded similarly to pancreatic enzyme activities by declining below dietary thresholds of 54·7, 45·0, 46·9 and 58·2 mg Zn/kg diet, respectively. In conclusion, (1) subclinical Zn deficiency impaired pancreatic exocrine enzymes, (2) this response was connected to pancreatic Zn metabolism and (3) the decline in catalytic activity impaired faecal digestibility already after 1 week of insufficient alimentary Zn supply and very early before clinical deficiency symptoms arise. PMID:27230230

  1. Binge toluene exposure in pregnancy and pre-weaning developmental consequences in rats.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Scott E; Hannigan, John H

    2013-01-01

    Binge Toluene Exposure in Pregnancy and Pre-weaning Developmental Consequences in Rats. Bowen, S.E. and Hannigan, J.H. The persistent rate of abuse of inhaled organic solvents, especially among women of child-bearing age, raises the risk for teratogenic effects of maternal toluene abuse. In this study, timed-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were exposed from Gestation Day (GD) 8 to GD20 to 12,000 or 8000 parts per million (ppm) toluene, or 0ppm (controls) for 30min twice daily, 60min total daily exposure. Pups were assessed from postnatal day (PN) 4 to PN21 using a developmental battery measuring growth (i.e., body weight), maturational milestones (e.g., eye opening & incisor eruption), and biobehavioral development (e.g., negative geotaxis & surface righting). Pups exposed in utero to 12,000ppm or 8000ppm toluene weighed significantly less than the non-exposed control pups beginning at PN4 and PN12 (respectively) until PN21. Toluene resulted in significant increases in an index of poor perinatal outcome, specifically a composite of malformations, defined "runting" and neonatal death. No significant delays were observed in reaching maturational milestones. The results reveal that brief, repeated, prenatal exposure to high concentrations of toluene can cause growth retardation and malformations in rats. A comparison of the present, conservative results with findings in previous studies implies that binge patterns of toluene exposure in pregnant rats modeling human solvent abuse can result in developmental and morphological deficits in offspring. These results do not exclude the possibility that maternal toxicity as well as teratogenic effects of toluene may contribute to outcomes. The results suggest that abuse of inhaled organic solvents like toluene may result in similar early developmental outcomes in humans. PMID:23597557

  2. Selection for feed efficiency traits and correlated genetic responses in feed intake and weight gain of Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Grion, A L; Mercadante, M E Z; Cyrillo, J N S G; Bonilha, S F M; Magnani, E; Branco, R H

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for indicator traits of feed efficiency and to recommend traits that would result in better responses to selection for increased weaning weight (weaning weight adjusted to 210 d of age [W210]), ADG, and metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) and lower DMI. Records of W210 from 8,004 Nellore animals born between 1978 and 2011 and postweaning performance test records from 678 males and females born between 2004 and 2011 were used. The following feed efficiency traits were evaluated: G:F, partial efficiency of growth (PEG), relative growth rate (RGR), Kleiber's ratio (KR), residual feed intake (RFI), residual weight gain (RWG), and residual intake and gain (RIG). Covariance and variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using multitrait analysis under an animal model. Estimates of genetic gain and correlated responses were obtained considering single-stage and 2-stage selection. Heritability estimates were 0.22 ± 0.03 (W210), 0.60 ± 0.08 (DMI), 0.42 ± 0.08 (ADG), 0.56 ± 0.06 (BW(0.75)), 0.19 ± 0.07 (G:F), 0.25 ± 0.09 (PEG), 0.19 ± 0.07 (RGR), 0.22 ± 0.07 (KR), 0.33 ± 0.10 (RFI), 0.13 ± 0.07 (RWG), and 0.19 ± 0.08 (RIG). The genetic correlations of DMI with W210 (0.64 ± 0.10), ADG (0.87 ± 0.06), and BW(0.75) (0.84 ± 0.05) were high. The only efficiency traits showing favorable responses to selection for lower DMI were G:F, PEG, RFI, and RIG. However, the use of G:F, PEG, or RFI as a selection criterion results in unfavorable correlated responses in some growth traits. The linear combination of RFI and RWG through RIG is the best selection criterion to obtain favorable responses in postweaning growth and feed intake of Nellore cattle in single-stage selection. Genetic gains in feed efficiency are expected even after preselection for W210 and subsequent feed efficiency testing of the preselected animals. PMID:24492579

  3. Severe maternal undernutrition and post-weaning behavior of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, Panagiotis E; Symeon, George K; Kominakis, Antonios P; Bizelis, Iosif A; Chadio, Stella E; Abas, Zafeiris; Deligeorgis, Stelios G

    2015-03-15

    The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the implications of severe maternal undernutrition on the post-weaning behavior of rabbits. Thirty two does were randomly assigned to four groups: the control group (C) that was fed 100% of the recommended energy maintenance requirements throughout pregnancy and lactation and the U1, U2 and U3 groups that were fed 50% of the recommended energy maintenance requirements between the 6th and the 19th day of pregnancy, between the 20th and the 27th day of pregnancy and between the 3rd and the 10th day of lactation, respectively. At the age of 50 and 65 days, behavior of rabbits in cages was recorded and rabbits were further subjected to an open-field test; a paradigm used as an indicator of fear and emotional distress. Significant differences were found between the U2 and the other experimental groups for the duration of eating and drinking, and duration of locomotory and investigatory behaviors (P<0.05). At the age of 65 days, duration of comfort behaviors was also lower in the U2 compared to the other groups (P<0.05). On the other hand, duration of resting appeared to be the highest in the group of rabbits born from undernourished does between the 20th and the 27th day of pregnancy (P<0.05). Duration of resting was significantly increased, although frequency and duration of eating and drinking were significantly decreased at the age of 65 days (P<0.05). Male rabbits had greater values for locomotory and investigatory behaviors, and duration of eating and drinking compared to the females (P<0.01). A decreased activity of rabbits during the light period was observed (as expected), whereas an increase in duration of locomotory and investigatory behaviors was observed during the first four and the last 4h of the light and dark periods, respectively (P<0.05). Rabbits born from the U1 and U2 group of does displayed increased rates of latency to leave the start position compared to the other groups during the

  4. The reasons for early weaning among mothers in Teheran.

    PubMed

    Marandi, A; Afzali, H M; Hossaini, A F

    1993-01-01

    In order to identify the reasons for early weaning in Teheran, we interviewed 900 mothers using a systematic randomized sampling method. A total of 15% of the mothers were illiterate, 93% were housewives, and 97% had given birth in hospitals. Only 3% of the newborns benefited from rooming-in facilities in hospital, and 68% were bottle-fed while still in hospital. In 3.1% of cases the mother had not breast-fed her newborn at all. Of those who had breast-fed their infant, 38% used only their own milk, whereas 62% used a combination of breast milk and infant formula. The median duration of breast-feeding was 16 months (mean, 14 months). A total of 74% of mothers who used supplementary formula and 39% of those who had completely stopped breast-feeding blamed milk insufficiency, although 67% of these mothers had reached this conclusion only because their infants cried or were irritable. The following factors had a negative influence on the duration of breast-feeding: use of supplementary formula and of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives; fathers with high incomes; and mothers with a high educational level. In contrast, the mother's religious motive to breast-feed and her insistence on breast-feeding had a positive impact. Unfortunately, 21% of the mothers started using supplementary formula during the first month postpartum, and two-thirds before the end of the fourth month. Every month that bottle-feeding was started prematurely shortened the duration of breast-feeding by 20 days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8261559

  5. [Aspiration in a specialised weaning unit--an underestimated problem].

    PubMed

    Zenner, M; Meurer, D; Baumann-Emmel, S; Brand, M; Berndt, U; Rheinbay, G; Kienast, K H

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective case series shows that 45 % of patients aspirated straight after removal of the tracheal cannula. The present case series includes 82 patients with long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) admitted to a specialised weaning unit. Aspiration was proven after patients sipped water coloured with patent blue V. Colour was detected with a bronchoscope after passing through the tracheostoma and directed toward the VC. The aspiration rate in this study is in good agreement with other reports in the literature.We could find no significant statistical differences concerning age (p = 0.97), gender (47 % vs. 49), number of bronchoscopies (p = 0.91) and comorbidities (p = 0.326) between patients with and without aspiration. The duration of the stay at the ward and the duration of ventilation as well as the parameter Hb at the time of admission (p = 0.566), CO2(p = 0.288/p = 0.716), HCO3 (p = 0.915/p = 0.612) and CRP (p = 0.402/p = 0.523) at the time of admission and discharge also showed no significant differences.The Kaplan Meier curves show a considerable divergence between patients with and without aspiration. However, the Log Rank Test (p = 0.348) and the univariate Cox Regression (HR 1.4, 95 % CI 0.689 - 2.849) were not significant. We believe that this can be attributed to the event rate, which was too low in our collective. This trend to a higher mortality of patients with aspiration might be due to weakness of the respiratory muscles when there is reduced coughing. Proof of aspiration in these patients is only one aspect of a multidimensional problem. Larger, prospective cohort studies are needed to show whether aspiration can serve as a prognostic marker. PMID:25599139

  6. Respective influences of age and weaning on skeletal and visceral muscle protein synthesis in the lamb.

    PubMed Central

    Attaix, D; Aurousseau, E; Bayle, G; Rosolowska-Huszcz, D; Arnal, M

    1988-01-01

    1. The influences of age and weaning on muscle protein synthesis were studied in vivo, by injecting a large dose of [3H]valine into 1-, 5- and 8-week-old suckling or 8-week-old weaned lambs. 2. The fractional rates of protein synthesis, in red- and white-fibre-type skeletal muscles or striated and smooth visceral muscles, were in 8-week-old suckling animals 24-37% of their values at 1 week of age. This developmental decline was related to decreased capacities for protein synthesis, i.e. RNA/protein ratios. 3. At 8 weeks of age, suckling and weaned lambs had similar fractional synthesis rates, capacities for protein synthesis and efficiencies of protein synthesis (i.e. rates of protein synthesis relative to RNA) in skeletal muscles. 4. In contrast, visceral-muscle fractional synthesis rates were lower in 8-week-old suckling lambs than in weaned animals, owing to decreased efficiencies of protein synthesis. It was concluded that developmental factors and the change to a solid diet, or weaning in itself, or both, affect differently skeletal and visceral muscle protein synthesis in the immature lamb. PMID:3223952

  7. Frequency of enteropathogen detection in suckling and weaned pigs with diarrhea in Japan.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Ken; Kohmoto, Mariko; Kawashima, Kenji; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi

    2006-07-01

    Fecal samples from suckling (n=153) and weaned (n=116) piglets with diarrhea in Japan were examined for shedding of viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens using culture, microscopic, and polymerase chain reaction methods. In suckling piglets, diarrhea was attributed to infection with a single etiologic agent in 60.8% of cases and with combinations of agents in 22.2%. In weaned piglets, diarrhea was attributed to a single etiologic agent in 43.1% and to combinations of agents in 47.4% of cases. Rotavirus was the most prevalent agent in suckling (67.3%) and weaned (65.5%) piglets. The detection of other pathogens was associated with age of the animals examined. Coccidia were predominantly isolated from suckling piglets, whereas Escherichia coli was found predominantly in weaned piglets. Although a relationship was not observed between detection rate of rotavirus and age of piglets, a single group of rotavirus was detected in 87.5% of suckling piglets whereas multiple groups were detected in 51.6% of weaned piglets. The results of this study confirm that diarrhea in piglets can, to a variable degree, be causally associated with multiple agents. Additionally, these results suggest reasons why this syndrome can be difficult to control. PMID:16921873

  8. Prevalence and pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium suis in pre- and post-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Vítovec, J; Hamadejová, K; Landová, L; Kvác, M; Kvetonová, D; Sak, B

    2006-06-01

    A total of 4338 faecal samples, 135 of sows, 3368 of pre-weaned and 835 of post-weaned piglets from eight farms in South Bohemia, Czech Republic were collected and examined for Cryptosporidium infection. No sow, but 5.7% pre-weaned and 24.1% post-weaned piglets were positive for Cryptosporidium infection. No relationship was found between diarrhoea and Cryptosporidium infection in any of the different age groups (pre- and post-weaned piglets). Four piglets, which were sporadically shedding cryptosporidia in faeces, were necropsied. Neither clinical signs of diarrhoea nor macroscopical changes were found. Histologically, a moderate infection of cryptosporidia was detected in the glandular epithelium along the large intestine, with predisposition to the ansa centralis of the colon. No inflammatory response in the lamina propria was observed. Cryptosporidia were also commonly found in the glandular epithelium of submucosal lymphoglandular complexes in the colon. Cryptosporidium isolates from all farms were identified as Cryptosporidium suis using molecular markers (SSU rRNA). All of the C. suis strains obtained were larger [6.2 (6.0-6.8) x 5.5 (5.3-5.7) microm] than any isolate described so far [4.6 (4.4-4.9) x 4.2 (4.0-4.3) microm] and did not appear to be infective for neonatal BALB/c mice. PMID:16732883

  9. Weaning at Anglo-Saxon Raunds: Implications for changing breastfeeding practice in Britain over two millennia.

    PubMed

    Haydock, Hannah; Clarke, Leon; Craig-Atkins, Elizabeth; Howcroft, Rachel; Buckberry, Jo

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated stable-isotope ratio evidence of weaning for the late Anglo-Saxon population of Raunds Furnells, Northamptonshire, UK. δ(15)N and δ(13)C values in rib collagen were obtained for individuals of different ages to assess the weaning age of infants within the population. A peak in δ(15) N values at about 2-year-old, followed by a decline in δ(15) N values until age three, indicates a change in diet at that age. This change in nitrogen isotope ratios corresponds with the mortality profile from the site, as well as with archaeological and documentary evidence on attitudes towards juveniles in the Anglo-Saxon period. The pattern of δ(13) C values was less clear. Comparison of the predicted age of weaning to published data from sites dating from the Iron Age to the 19th century in Britain reveals a pattern of changing weaning practices over time, with increasingly earlier commencement and shorter periods of complementary feeding in more recent periods. Such a change has implications for the interpretation of socioeconomic changes during this period of British history, since earlier weaning is associated with decreased birth spacing, and could thus have contributed to population growth. PMID:23868173

  10. Some simple methods of home processing and their implication with weaning foods.

    PubMed

    Moussa, W A; Tadros, M D; Mekhael, K G; Darwish, A E; Shakir, A H; El-Rehim, E A

    1992-01-01

    One of the most practical solutions to combat protein energy malnutrition (PEM) in low income groups is the intelligent mixing of cereals and legumes to make available low cost weaning foods of high nutritional quality. One of the main obstacles to increase energy and nutrient density of weaning foods of cereals and legumes is the bulk factor. In this study some simple methods of home processing to improve the nutritional quality of the home prepared weaning foods were tested and the processed weaning foods were chemically and biologically evaluated. Biochemical evaluation revealed that the germination of wheat raised its protein and fat and reduced carbohydrate, while ther was almost no change on lentils. Comparing germination with a special "chapati" process, protein and fat content wee higher in the formula processed by the former method, while minerals were higher in the same formula but processed by the latter method. Biological evaluation of the formula processed by the two different methods showed that germination got the highest PER and NPU compared with chapati process figures were (2.02 and 81.0) and (1.70 and 40.0) respectively. Although further research is needed, germination of ingredients of weaning foods of vegetable origin seems to be a good option of the simple home processing technique. PMID:1579153

  11. Weaning Patients From Mechanical Ventilation: A Knowledge-Based System Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tong, David A.

    1990-01-01

    The WEANing PROtocol (WEANPRO) knowledge-based system assists respiratory therapists and nurses in weaning post-operative cardiovascular patients from mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. The knowledge contained in WEANPRO is represented by rules and is implemented in M.1® by Teknowledge, Inc. WEANPRO will run on any IBM® compatible microcomputer. WEANPRO's performance in weaning patients in the intensive care unit was evaluated three ways: (1) a statistical comparison between the mean number of arterial blood gases required to wean patients to a T-piece with and without the use of WEANPRO, (2) a critique of the suggestions offered by the system by clinicians not involved in the system development, and (3) an inspection of the user's acceptance of WEANPRO in the intensive care unit. The results of the evaluations revealed that using WEANPRO significantly decreases the number of arterial blood gas analyses needed to wean patients from total dependance on mechanical ventilation to independent breathing using a T-piece. In doing so, WEANPRO's suggestions are accurate and its use is accepted by the clinicians. Currently, WEANPRO is being used in the intensive care unit at the East Unit of Baptist Memorial Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee.

  12. Validation of a calf-side β-hydroxybutyrate test and its utility for estimation of starter intake in dairy calves around weaning.

    PubMed

    Deelen, S M; Leslie, K E; Steele, M A; Eckert, E; Brown, H E; DeVries, T J

    2016-09-01

    Recent research suggests that circulating β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels may be a meaningful indicator of grain intake and rumen development in pre-ruminant calves. As such, BHB levels may be a surrogate measure of rumen function to contribute to minimal weaning stress during the transition from liquid to solid feed. The primary objective of this study was to determine the optimal cut-point of circulating BHB levels that would be predictive of sufficient grain intake and rumen development for a successful transition from liquid to solid feed at the time of weaning. An additional objective was to validate the Precision Xtra (Abbott Diabetes Care, Abingdon, UK) calf-side test for determination of BHB in whole blood in calves around weaning, as compared with the gold standard laboratory method. A total of 20 Holstein female calves were randomly assigned at birth to be weaned at 6 wk (n=10) or 8 wk (n=10) of age. Milk replacer (mixed at 150 g/L) was offered at 1.2kg/calf per d in 2 meals until a 1-wk step down, when milk meals were reduced by 50% 1 wk before weaning. Daily measurements included the intakes of starter grain, chopped straw, and water. Weekly measurements included body weight and blood BHB, until 70 d of life. To assess digestive tract development, rumen fluid samples were taken before and after weaning (d 35, 49, and 63) and analyzed for ruminal short-chain fatty acids. Whole blood was collected by jugular venipuncture, and BHB was determined by the Precision Xtra test at calf-side. In addition, serum was separated from a clotted sample, frozen, and stored until laboratory analysis was performed. Laboratory BHB results were correlated with both the Precision Xtra test (r=0.95) and starter intake over 1 d (r=0.89), a 3-d average (r=0.90), and a 7-d average (r=0.90). Additionally, laboratory BHB results were associated with total ruminal volatile fatty acids (r=0.82), ruminal butyrate (r=0.77), and body weight (r=0.69). A receiver operating characteristic

  13. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  14. Effects of pre-weaning feed supplementation and total versus fenceline weaning on the physiology and performance of beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-eight Angus steer calves (initial body weight = 312 ± 28 kilograms), housed on pasture with their dams, were equalized by initial body weight and assigned randomly to receive a highly palatable, high fiber supplement (YS; 4.5 kilograms/head/day) or no supplement (NS) for 7 days prior to weani...

  15. A Comparison of Diets Supplemented with a Feed Additive Containing Organic Acids, Cinnamaldehyde and a Permeabilizing Complex, or Zinc Oxide, on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea, Selected Bacterial Populations, Blood Measures and Performance in Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with Enterotoxigenic E. coli †

    PubMed Central

    Stensland, Ingunn; Kim, Jae Cheol; Bowring, Bethany; Collins, Alison M.; Mansfield, Josephine P.; Pluske, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of three diets on diarrhoea, performance (weight change, feed intake and feed conversion ratio), selected bacterial populations and blood measures of weaner pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. The three diets were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds), base diet containing zinc oxide, and base diet containing a feed additive (blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex). Only feeding zinc oxide decreased diarrhoea, with zinc oxide-fed pigs performing better than base diet-fed pigs. Zinc oxide-fed pigs performed similarly to pigs fed the organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex. Significant interactions between treatment and day after weaning were found for some bacterial populations, although the implications of such findings require further examination. Abstract The effects of feeding a diet supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) or a blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and a permeabilizing complex (OACP) on post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and performance in pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were examined. Additionally, changes in selected bacterial populations and blood measures were assessed. A total of 72 pigs weaned at 22 d of age and weighing 7.2 ± 1.02 kg (mean ± SEM) was used. Treatments were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds); base diet + 3 g ZnO/kg; base diet + 1.5 g OACP/kg. Dietary treatments started on the day of weaning and were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. All pigs were infected with an F4 ETEC on d 4, 5 and 6 after weaning. The incidence of PWD was lower in pigs fed ZnO (p = 0.026). Overall, pigs fed ZnO grew faster (p = 0.013) and ate more (p = 0.004) than the base diet-fed pigs, with OACP-fed pigs performing the same (p > 0.05) as both the ZnO- and base diet-fed pigs. Feed conversion ratio was similar for all diets (p > 0.05). The percentage of E. coli with F4 fimbriae was affected a day by treatment interaction (p

  16. Impact of the post-weaning nutritional history on the response to an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole goats and Black Belly sheep.

    PubMed

    Ceï, W; Salah, N; Paut, C; Dumoulin, P-J; Arquet, R; Félicité, Y; Alexandre, G; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C

    2016-03-15

    In small ruminants, the response against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections is influenced not only by the host genotype and the physiological stage but also by environmental factors, particularly the nutritional status at the time of infection. In this study we evaluated the long-term effect and the interaction between the host species and the nutritional history on the response to GIN infection in two animal models differing in their phenotypic growth and their level of GIN resistance: Black Belly sheep and Creole goats. Lambs and kids were subjected to three distinct nutritional conditions at weaning: low dietary conditions (100% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance, corresponding to 548v. 484KJ/Kg BW(0.75) for lambs and kids respectively and 6% of crude protein, CP), medium dietary conditions (150% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 13% CP) and high dietary conditions (200% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 20% CP). This 3-months period was followed by a 1-month period on the medium dietary conditions for all the animals before an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection. We monitored the impact of the nutritional history (nutritional condition after weaning), on the intensity of the GIN infection by measuring individual faecal egg counts (FEC), growth rate (ADG), blood eosinophil counts and other pathophysiological parameters. The FEC, growth rate and blood eosinophil counts were significantly affected by the nutritional history in lambs but not in kids. The lowest FEC was found for lambs placed in high dietary conditions, however during the same period body weight loss was observed in this group. In low dietary conditions, kids were more resistant than lambs and the ADG was higher in lambs. However, the anaemia and the level of serum pepsinogen, marker of the abomasal mucosa integrity, were higher in kids. Our data suggest that the impact of the post-weaning nutritional history on the

  17. Analysis of the biological activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing intracellular EGF, extracellular EGF, and tagged EGF in early-weaned rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujin; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Huina; Cao, Yangchun; Zhang, Zhengfan; Yang, Jiabao; Huang, Yanlin; Guo, Chunhua

    2015-03-01

    A growing number of studies suggest that epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays an important role in early-weaned animals. The objective of this experiment was to compare the biological activity of intracellularly expressed EGF (IE-EGF), extracellularly expressed EGF (EE-EGF), and tagged EGF (T-EGF) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) both in vivo and in vitro. Strains of S. cerevisiae expressing IE-EGF, EE-EGF, and T-EGF were designated INVSc1-IE(+), INVSc1-EE(+), and INVSc1-TE(-), respectively. The production performance, intestinal development, physio-biochemical indexes, and immunological function of early-weaned rats were measured in vivo to evaluate the biological activity of IE-EGF, EE-EGF, and T-EGF. In addition, the proliferation of rat enterocyte was also measured in vitro. In the in vivo experiment, the recombinant S. cerevisiae was shown to survive throughout the intestinal tract. The production performance (e.g., body weight) and intestinal development (e.g., mean villous height, crypt depth, total protein, DNA, and RNA) of the rats were significantly enhanced in the INVSc1-IE(+) group compared with the INVSc1-EE(+) and INVSc1-TE(-) groups (P < 0.05). However, the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) showed no difference in the INVSc1-IE(+) group compared to the INVSc1-EE(+) and INVSc1-TE(-) groups (P > 0.05), with the only significant difference being found for creatine kinase (CK) (P < 0.05). In the in vitro experiment, the proliferation of enterocyte was significantly stimulated by both IE-EGF and EE-EGF compared with T-EGF (P < 0.05). Herein, IE-EGF is more suitable for application to early-weaned animals compared with EE-EGF and T-EGF. PMID:25200838

  18. Effect of rearing environment and dietary zinc oxide on the response of group-housed weaned pigs to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O149 challenge.

    PubMed

    Slade, R D; Kyriazakis, I; Carroll, S M; Reynolds, F H; Wellock, I J; Broom, L J; Miller, H M

    2011-06-01

    A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of rearing environment (indoor (In) v. outdoor (Out)) and dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) supplementation (0 (-Zn) v. 3100 (+Zn) mg/kg feed) on the response of weaned pigs to a challenge infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Pigs from the two rearing environments were weaned onto trial diets at 4 weeks of age, moved into conventional accommodation and infected 3 days later with 109 CFU ETEC per os. Faecal ETEC shedding was determined before and after challenge. After 7 days of ETEC infection, all pigs were euthanized for gut lactic acid bacteria (LAB)-to-coliform ratio, pH and small intestine morphological measurements. Both ZnO and outdoor rearing reduced ETEC excretion, and these effects were additive. Outdoor rearing increased small intestine and colon tissue weight. ZnO increased villus height and goblet cell number in the upper small intestine, LAB-to-coliform ratio (through reduced coliforms) in the lower small intestine and proximal colon, and improved growth performance. There were interactive effects of rearing environment and ZnO supplementation on upper small intestine villus height and daily gain, as outdoor rearing conferred advantages on these variables only with ZnO dietary supplementation. Daily gains were 233, 174, 277 and 347 (s.e.m. 27.2) g/day for the In - Zn, Out - Zn, In + Zn and Out + Zn, respectively. These results suggest different, but complementary mechanisms of intestinal health and performance in outdoor-reared pigs and those offered ZnO supplemented diets. The results indicate that the benefits of ZnO to the weaned pig extend beyond suppression of ETEC and appear mediated through altered development of the small intestine mucosa. PMID:22440169

  19. Pressure mat analysis of naturally occurring lameness in young pigs after weaning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lameness is a common problem in modern swine husbandry. It causes welfare problems in affected pigs as well as financial problems for farmers. To minimize these negative consequences of lameness, new treatment and prevention strategies need to be developed and validated using objective and quantitative measurement techniques. An example of such a putative diagnostic tool is the use of a pressure mat. Pressure mats are able to provide both objective loading (kinetic) as well as objective movement (kinematic) information on pig locomotion. In this study, pressure mat analysis was used to assess compensatory force redistribution in lame pigs; in particular a predefined set of four pressure mat parameters was evaluated for its use to objectively distinguish clinically lame from sound pigs. Kinetic data from 10 clinically lame and 10 healthy weaned piglets were collected. These data were analyzed to answer three research questions. Firstly the pattern of compensatory weight distribution in lame animals was studied using the asymmetry indices (ASI) for several combinations of limbs. Secondly, the correlation between total left-right asymmetry index and visual scores of lameness was assessed. Thirdly, by using receiver-operated curve (ROC) analysis, optimal cutoff values for these ASIs were then calculated to objectively detect lame pigs. Results Lame animals generally showed a shift in loading towards their diagonal and contralateral limbs, resulting in a clear left-right asymmetry. The degree of lameness as graded by visual scoring correlated well with the total left-right ASIs. Lame pigs could be objectively distinguished from sound pigs based on clear cutoff points calculated by ROC analysis for the complete set of four evaluated parameters. Conclusions The gait of lame pigs is asymmetric, due to the unloading of the affected limb and concomitant weight redistribution towards other limbs. This asymmetry objectively expressed as total left-right asymmetry

  20. [Sedation and weaning in neurocritical care: can concepts from general critical care be applied?].

    PubMed

    Bösel, J; Dziewas, R

    2012-12-01

    The translation of modern principles of sedation and weaning from mechanical ventilation from general intensive care to neurocritical care has to take into account specific aspects of brain-injured patients. These include interactions with intracranial hypertension, disturbed autoregulation, a higher frequency of seizures and an increased risk of delirium. The advantages of sedation protocols, scoring tools to steer sedation and analgesia and an individualized choice of drugs with emphasis on analgesia gain more interest and importance in neurocritical care as well, but have not been thoroughly investigated so far. When weaning neurological intensive care unit (ICU) patients from the ventilator and approaching extubation it has to be acknowledged that conventional ICU criteria for weaning and extubation can only have an orienting character and that dysphagia is much more frequent in these patients. PMID:23129066

  1. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum infections in weaned piglets and fattening porkers in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Izumiyama, S; Furukawa, I; Kuroki, T; Yamai, S; Sugiyama, H; Yagita, K; Endo, T

    2001-02-01

    Fecal samples from 232 weaned piglets (1 and 3 months old) and 252 fattening porkers (6 months old) in 8 stock-raising farms located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, from June 1998 to June 2000 were examined to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection. Detection of oocysts was performed using the ethyl acetate fecal concentration method and immunofluorescent staining. C. parvum oocysts were identified in 77 (33.2%) 1-3 months old weaned piglets from four farms. The odds of excreting among 1-3 months old piglets were more than 100 times greater than among 6 months old porkers (95% confidence interval: 17-902). This strongly suggests that weaned piglets are important reservoirs of pathogenic microbes whose potential contamination of drinking water has epidemiological implications for human health. PMID:11326125

  2. Optimization of weaning mix based on malted and extruded pearl millet and barley.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Kaur, Jaspreet; Singh, Deepak

    2014-04-01

    Weaning mix was developed using extrudates of plain and malted pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) flour. Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) with four independent variables PME (pearl millet extrudates), PMME (pearl millet malt extrudates), BE (barley extrudates), BME (barley malt extrudates) at five level and five dependent variables, i.e. lightness, peak viscosity (PV), water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI) and overall acceptability (OAA) scores, were used to conduct the experiments. Highly acceptable weaning mix was obtained by combining optimized ingredients with constant level of skim milk powder (SMP) 25%, WPC-70 5%, sugar 6% and refined vegetable oil 4 ml 100 g(-1) mix. The optimized level of ingredients was PME 20.77%, PMME 7.39%, BE 20.99%, BME 6.53% with 81.3% desirability. The nutrient content of optimized weaning mix was in accordance with the standards specified by PFA, 2004. PMID:24741161

  3. A slotted waveguide antenna with adjustable polarisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blommendaal, R.; Westerman, B. E.

    A new slotted waveguide antenna has been developed which has adjustable polarization, as well as good control of azimuth patterns, a light weight, and low windage. The design of the antenna is based on three slotted waveguides in a symmetrical configuration, which generate two orthogonal polarizations in a parallel plate region. Two arrays with matched inclined/displaced slots are used for the transverse polarization, while one array with matched edge slots is used for the longitudinal polarization. A corrugated horn is used to obtain equal vertical patterns. A prototype antenna with a 0.5 deg beamwidth and a weight of about 100 kg is presently under construction.

  4. Calf health from birth to weaning. III. housing and management of calf pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. A three part review series has been developed focusing on calf health from birth to weaning. In this paper, the last of the three part series, we review disease prevention and management with particular reference to pneumonia, focusing primarily on the pre-weaned calf. Pneumonia in recently weaned suckler calves is also considered, where the key risk factors are related to the time of weaning. Weaning of the suckler calf is often combined with additional stressors including a change in nutrition, environmental change, transport and painful husbandry procedures (castration, dehorning). The reduction of the cumulative effects of these multiple stressors around the time of weaning together with vaccination programmes (preconditioning) can reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality in the feedlot. In most studies, calves housed individually and calves housed outdoors with shelter, are associated with decreased risk of disease. Even though it poses greater management challenges, successful group housing of calves is possible. Special emphasis should be given to equal age groups and to keeping groups stable once they are formed. The management of pneumonia in calves is reliant on a sound understanding of aetiology, relevant risk factors, and of effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Early signs of pneumonia include increased respiratory rate and fever, followed by depression. The single most important factor determining the success of therapy in calves with pneumonia is early onset of treatment, and subsequent adequate duration of treatment. The efficacy and economical viability of vaccination against respiratory disease in calves remains unclear. PMID:22018053

  5. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  6. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  7. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  8. EFFECTS OF EARLY WEANING ON COW PERFORMANCE, GRAZING BEHAVIOR, AND WINTER FEED COSTS IN THE INTERMOUNTAIN WEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine the influence of early weaning (EW; approximately 130 d of age) and traditional weaning (TW; approximately 205 d of age) on cow performance, grazing behavior, and winter feed costs in a 2 yr study. Each year, 156 cow/calf pairs were stratified by calf sex, BCS, and ag...

  9. Konno-Mead analysis of ribcage-abdominal motion during successful and unsuccessful trials of weaning from mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Tobin, M J; Guenther, S M; Perez, W; Lodato, R F; Mador, M J; Allen, S J; Dantzker, D R

    1987-06-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue is considered a common cause of weaning failure but its detection is hampered by the lack of a satisfactory diagnostic test. Abdominal paradox has been proposed as a valuable clinical index of fatigue and thus its presence may lead to curtailment of weaning trials. However, sensitivity and specificity of this sign as a predictor of weaning outcome is unknown. We hypothesize that abnormal ribcage-abdominal (RC-Ab) motion is a common finding in the early stages of weaning and its presence does not inevitably imply an unsuccessful weaning outcome. We tested this hypothesis in patients undergoing a weaning trial: one group had a successful weaning outcome and were extubated (n = 10) and the other group failed the trial (n = 7). Normal RC-Ab motion was separately characterized in 17 healthy subjects. Employing a calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmograph, quantitative assessment of asynchrony and paradox was obtained by computing several indices from series of breaths at fixed time periods using the Konno-Mead method of analysis. During the weaning trial, both groups of patients displayed significant increases in asynchrony and Ab paradox compared to normal values. As a group, patients who failed the trial displayed significantly greater asynchrony and paradox of the RC and Ab than patients with a successful outcome. However, there was considerable overlap between the individual patients in the 2 study groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2954499

  10. Effects of two-stage and total vs. fence-line weaning on the physiology and performance of beef calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calves weaned using a two-stage method where nursing is prevented between cow-calf pairs prior to separation (Stage 1) experience less weaning stress after separation (Stage 2) based on behavior and growth measures. The aim of this study was to document changes in various physiological measures of s...

  11. Effects of feed supplementation and the method of weaning on the physiology and performance of beef calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to investigate growth performance and physiological measures of stress in pre- and post-weaned beef calves provided a grain supplement and weaned by fenceline or total separation. Angus steer calves (n = 48; 312.2 ± 27.9 kg), housed on pasture with their dams, were blocked by i...

  12. Genetic Effects on Circulating Concentrations of Cortisol At and After Weaning in Breed-types Adapted to the Subtropics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate circulating concentrations of cortisol in calves (heifers and steers) at weaning (day 0) and on d 1 and 3 post-weaning. Calves (n = 938) were produced from a three breed diallel mating design and included calf crops from 2002 to 2004. Breed-types of calves...

  13. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Brahman, Boran, Tuli, and Belgian Blue sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birt...

  14. Birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Wagyu, and Friesian sires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth...

  15. Reproductive performance in sows treated with estradiol benzoate/human chorionic gonadotrophin combination at weaning.

    PubMed Central

    Friendship, R M; Bosu, W T; King, G J

    1982-01-01

    The effects of estradiol benzoate plus human chorionic gonadotrophin administered on the day of weaning on the reproductive performance in sows was studied. The treatment advanced the onset of estrus but the duration of estrus was slightly prolonged. Breeding on the post-weaning estrus was associated with poor pregnancy rate and smaller litters. The treatment did not cause permanent damage to the reproductive tract as the reproductive performance of the treated sows after subsequent breedings were unaffected. The possible causes of the poor fertility in the estradiol benzoate plus human chorionic gonadotrophin treated sows are discussed. PMID:6890868

  16. Can countries of the WHO African Region wean themselves off donor funding for health?

    PubMed

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Diarra-Nama, Alimata J

    2008-11-01

    More than 20% of total health expenditure in 48% of the 46 countries in the WHO African Region is provided by external sources. Issues surrounding aid effectiveness suggest that these countries ought to implement strategies for weaning off aid dependency. This paper broaches the following question: what are some of the strategies that countries of the region can employ to wean off donor funding for health? Five strategies are discussed: reduction in economic inefficiencies; reprioritizing public expenditures; raising additional tax revenues; increased private sector involvement in health development; and fighting corruption. PMID:19030696

  17. Early weaning alters the acute-phase reaction to an endotoxin challenge in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J A; Arthington, J D; Chase, C C

    2009-12-01

    Previous research indicates that early weaning before shipment can reduce transportation-induced increases in acute-phase proteins (APP) and can increase feedlot performance in beef calves. These data suggest that the combination of weaning and transport stress may compromise the immune system of calves, thus hindering subsequent performance and health. Therefore, our objective was to determine if the innate immune response of early weaned calves (EW; 80 d of age) differed from normal-weaned calves (NW; 250 d of age) in response to an endotoxin challenge. Eighteen Brahman x Angus calves (8 and 10 EW and NW, respectively; 233 +/- 5 kg of BW) were used. Calves were maintained on pasture with supplement and then moved into individual pens for 1 wk of acclimation before the start of the study. Calves were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter 1 d before LPS challenge (0 h; 1.0 microg/kg of BW, intravenously). Blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals from -2 to 8 h. Serum samples were stored at -80 degrees C until analyzed for cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), IL-1 beta, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN), ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin. Whereas LPS increased serum cortisol (P weaning age effect (P >or= 0.15) was observed. A weaning age x time interaction (P weaning age effect (P weaning age x time interaction (P

  18. Effect of breast feeding time on physiological, immunological and microbial parameters of weaned piglets in an intensive breeding farm.

    PubMed

    García, G R; Dogi, C A; Ashworth, G E; Berardo, D; Godoy, G; Cavaglieri, L R; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; Greco, C R

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the long-lasting consequences of different weaning age on physiological, immunological and microbiological parameters of weaned piglets. Piglets were weaned at 14 days (14W) or 21 days (21W). Blood samples were taken for IgG and cortisol determination on preweaning day and at 4; 20 and 40 post-weaning days. Three animals of each group were sacrificed. Small intestines for morphometric studies and secretory-IgA determination in fluid were taken. The cecum was obtained for enterobacteria, lactobacilli and total anaerobes enumeration. A significant decrease in piglet's plasma IgG concentrations was observed immediately after weaning and no differences were found between 14W and 21W. An increase in intestinal S-IgA was observed according to piglet's age. This increase was significantly higher in piglets 14W compared to piglets 21W. Animals from 14W group showed a decrease in villus length and in the number of goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Other parameters were not affected by the weaning age. A short-term increase in cortisol was observed after weaning in both experimental groups. Enterobacteria decreased significantly after weaning in both groups, reaching values of weaning after 40 days. Lactobacilli counts decreased in both groups after weaning; however their counts were always higher than those obtained for enterobacteria. No differences were observed between 14W and 21W with regards to counts of anaerobes. The shortening of breast feeding time would favor an early synthesis of intestinal S-IgA after weaning. The changes observed in the microbiota could decrease postweaning enteric infections. However, early weaning induced negative effects on the cells of gut innate immunity and villi atrophy. This work provides knowledge about advantages and disadvantages at different weaning and long-lasting consequences on pig health. It is critical that swine producers become aware of the biological impacts of weaning age, so

  19. Changes in social instigation- and food restriction-induced aggressive behaviors and hippocampal 5HT1B mRNA receptor expression in male mice from early weaning.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kayo; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2008-03-01

    The time of weaning has numerous effects on neurobehavioral development. Previous findings suggest that the early weaning influences development of aggressive behaviors. Behavioral and neuroendocrine responsiveness to stressors in the adulthood are also influenced by maternal care received early in life, and early-weaned male mice and rats show higher responsiveness to acute stresses than do normally weaned males. Therefore, it is conceivable that early weaning influences stress-related aggressive behaviors. We investigated the effects of early weaning on aggressive behaviors under two stress conditions: social stress (social instigation) and ecological stress (food restriction), both of which augment aggression. Male ICR mice were divided into two groups based on weaning period. Normally weaned mice (weaned PD21) showed twice the baseline level of attack bites after 5 min of social instigation, whereas early-weaned animals (weaned PD14) were not more aggressive following social instigation. However, the early-weaned mice were more aggressive after food restriction stress than were the normally weaned mice, suggesting lower threshold for aggressive behavior after food shortage. We also measured 5HT1A and 5HT1B receptor mRNA expression in the hippocampus which involved in aggression using real-time PCR. Early-weaned mice had lower 5HT1B expression levels than did normally weaned mice; no effect was found for 5HT1A expression. These results suggest that manipulation of weaning time modulates adult aggressive behavior depending on the stressors imposed and that this change may involve the 5HT1B receptor system in the hippocampus. PMID:18022705

  20. Automated knowledge-based fuzzy models generation for weaning of patients receiving ventricular assist device (VAD) therapy.

    PubMed

    Tsipouras, Markos G; Karvounis, Evaggelos C; Tzallas, Alexandros T; Goletsis, Yorgos; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Adamopoulos, Stamatis; Trivella, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    The SensorART project focus on the management of heart failure (HF) patients which are treated with implantable ventricular assist devices (VADs). This work presents the way that crisp models are transformed into fuzzy in the weaning module, which is one of the core modules of the specialist's decision support system (DSS) in SensorART. The weaning module is a DSS that supports the medical expert on the weaning and remove VAD from the patient decision. Weaning module has been developed following a "mixture of experts" philosophy, with the experts being fuzzy knowledge-based models, automatically generated from initial crisp knowledge-based set of rules and criteria for weaning. PMID:23366361

  1. Elevating glucose and insulin secretion by carbohydrate formulation diets in late lactation to improve post-weaning fertility in primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Chen, T Y; Lines, D; Dickson, C; Go, C; Kirkwood, R N; Langendijk, P

    2016-10-01

    Primiparous (P1) sows commonly lose excessive body reserves to meet energy requirements for maintenance and milk production during lactation, and consequently, post-weaning reproductive performance may be compromised. The present studies determined whether ad libitum feeding a glucogenic carbohydrate diet (CHO) during late lactation could stimulate insulin and glucose secretion (experiment 1) and improve subsequent litter size (experiment 2). For experiment 1, 15 P1 sows, and for experiment 2, 99 P1 sows (198.5 ± 2.7 kg) were allocated randomly according to suckled litter size (≥10 piglets), either to a CHO diet (14.3 MJ DE/kg, 19.8% crude protein) or a standard lactation diet (control; 14.2 DE MJ/kg, 19.5% crude protein) at 8 days before weaning. The CHO diet aimed to provide glucogenic content (extruded wheat, dextrose and sugar) as energy sources instead of fat sources without changing total dietary energy. Pre-prandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were not influenced by treatments. However, post-prandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and their peaks were both higher (p < .05) compared to the control treatment. Body weight loss during lactation was relatively low at 3%-4% for both treatments and did not differ between control and CHO treatments (-7.6 ± 1.6 vs -5.4 ± 1.2 kg; p > .05). Second litter size was not influenced by diet (p > .05), but the weaning-to-mating interval was shorter in CHO sows (p < .05). This study demonstrates that providing an enriched CHO diet in late lactation did influence post-weaning follicle growth but did not improve subsequent litter size. This may be due to the primiparous sows in this study not experiencing severe negative energy balance and there was no second litter syndrome in this farm which limited the ability of diet to improve sow fertility. PMID:27548995

  2. Evaluation of reciprocal differences in Bos indicus x Bos taurus backcross calves produced through embryo transfer: I. Birth and weaning traits.

    PubMed

    Amen, T S; Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Gill, C A

    2007-02-01

    Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II distinguished between the 2 types of F(1) parents (AB vs. BA corresponding to A x B vs. B x A, respectively). Bos indicus backcross calves had a 4.3 d longer (P < 0.05) gestation length but did not differ in their average birth weight from A backcrosses. Among B backcrosses, B x F(1) calves had a 5.2 d longer (P = 0.01) gestation length than F(1) x B calves (290.5 vs. 285.3, respectively). Under method II analysis, there was a consistent trend for gestation length, in which BA F(1) parents produced calves that ranked greater than calves from AB F(1) parents, as sires and dams. Crosses with a greater proportion of B in the sire in relation to the amount in the dam had a heavier (P < 0.05) birth weight (F(1) x A and B x F(1); 38.1 and 38.4 kg, respectively) than their respective reciprocal crosses (A x F(1) and F(1) x B; 34.3 and 33.5 kg, respectively). The F(1) x A and B x F(1) crosses showed a large difference in birth weight between males and females (5.3 and 4.1 kg, respectively), whereas A x F(1) and F(1) x B crosses showed a small difference (P > 0.10) in birth weight between males and females (1.5 and 1.1 kg, respectively). Further examination within each sex showed a difference between male reciprocals that was generally much larger than that between female reciprocals. Calves with a greater percentage of B in the sire compared with the proportion in the dam ranked heavier for weaning weight as for birth weight, though these differences were not significant. In breeding systems involving B x Bos taurus crosses, even when using embryo transfer, not only does the breed composition of the calves affect their preweaning

  3. Responses of Growth Performance and Proinflammatory Cytokines Expression to Fish Oil Supplementation in Lactation Sows' and/or Weaned Piglets' Diets

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Huang, Feiruo; Xiao, Chenglin; Fang, Zhengfeng; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether dietary fish oil could influence growth of piglets via regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. A split-plot experimental design was used with sow diet effect in the main plots and differing piglet diet effect in the subplot. The results showed that suckling piglets from fish oil fed dams grew rapidly (P < 0.05) than control. It was also observed that these piglets had higher ADG, feed intake, and final body weight (P < 0.05) during postweaning than those piglets from lard fed dams. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the expression of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in longissimus dorsi muscle. In contrast, there was a tendency (P < 0.10) towards lower ADG and higher feed : gain in weaned piglets receiving fish oil compared with those receiving lard. Meanwhile, splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression was increased (P < 0.01) in piglets receiving fish oil during postweaning period. The results suggested that 7% fish oil addition to sows' diets alleviated inflammatory response via decreasing the proinflammatory cytokines expression in skeletal muscle and accelerated piglet growth. However, 7% fish oil addition to weaned piglets' diets might decrease piglet growth via increasing splenic proinflammatory cytokines expression. PMID:24078926

  4. Oral administration recombinant porcine epidermal growth factor enhances the jejunal digestive enzyme genes expression and activity of early-weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Lee, D N; Chuang, Y S; Chiou, H Y; Wu, F Y; Yen, H T; Weng, C F

    2008-08-01

    This study attempted to determine ingested porcine epidermal growth factor (pEGF) on the gastrointestinal tract development of early-weaned piglets. Thirty-two piglets (14-day weaned) were randomly allotted to supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mg pEGF/kg diet. Each treatment consisted of four replicates with two pigs per pen for a 14 days experimental period. Piglets were sacrificed and gastrointestinal tract samples were collected to measure mucosa morphology, mRNA expression and activities of digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets at the end of the experiment. Diets supplemented with pEGF failed to influence growth performance but tended to increase jejunal mucosa weight (p < 0.09) and protein content (p < 0.07). Piglets supplemental pEGF induced incrementally the gastric pepsin activity (p < 0.05) and stimulated jejunal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactase activities accompanied with the increase of jejunal ALP and maltase mRNA expression. No effect of pEGF on the activities of all enzymes in ileum except the stimulation of ileal aminopeptide N mRNA expression. These results reveal that dietary pEGF supplementation might enhance gene expression and activities of digestive enzymes in the stomach and jejunum of piglets. PMID:18662356

  5. The effect of early weaning on feedlot performance and measures of stress in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D; Spears, J W; Miller, D C

    2005-04-01

    Forty crossbred steers (Brahman x English) were categorized into two groups: 1) early weaned (EW; n = 20); and 2) normal weaned (NW; n = 20). Calves were 89 and 300 d of age at the time of EW and NW, respectively; SEM = 4.4. Early-weaned calves were kept on-site (University of Florida, Ona), provided supplement (1% of BW), and grazed on annual and perennial pastures until NW. At the time of normal weaning, all calves were loaded on a commercial livestock trailer and transported to the North Carolina State University Research Feedlot in Butner (approximately 1,200 km). Upon arrival, calves were stratified by BW and randomly allotted to four pens per weaning age treatment. Individual calf BW and blood samples were collected at the time of normal weaning, on arrival at the feedlot (d 1; 24 h following weaning), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the receiving period. Individual BW was collected at the start and end of the growing and finishing periods, and feed intake by pen was measured daily. As an estimate of stress during the receiving period, plasma was collected and analyzed for the acute-phase proteins, haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin. Early-weaned calves were lighter (P = 0.03) at normal weaning than NW calves (221 vs. 269 kg; SEM = 10.6). By d 28, EW calves tended (P = 0.12) to be lighter than NW calves (242 vs. 282 kg, respectively). Gain:feed was improved for EW compared with NW calves during both the receiving (G:F = 0.157 vs. 0.081) and growing (0.159 vs. 0.136) periods. There tended (P < 0.10) to be weaning age x day interactions for each acute-phase protein. Ceruloplasmin concentrations increased in NW, but not EW calves, and peaked on d 7 (27.6 and 34.2 mg/100 mL for EW and NW calves, respectively; P < 0.05). Haptoglobin concentrations increased in both groups and were greatest (P < 0.05) in NW calves on d 3 (7.63 vs. 14.86 mg of haptoglobin/hemoglobin complexing/100 mL). No differences in ADG or G:F were detected during the finishing phase; however

  6. Gastrointestinal health and function in weaned pigs: a review of feeding strategies to control post-weaning diarrhoea without using in-feed antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    Heo, J M; Opapeju, F O; Pluske, J R; Kim, J C; Hampson, D J; Nyachoti, C M

    2013-04-01

    For the last several decades, antimicrobial compounds have been used to promote piglet growth at weaning through the prevention of subclinical and clinical disease. There are, however, increasing concerns in relation to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and the potential of these and associated resistance genes to impact on human health. As a consequence, European Union (EU) banned the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in swine and livestock production on 1 January 2006. Furthermore, minerals such as zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are not feasible alternatives/replacements to antibiotics because their excretion is a possible threat to the environment. Consequently, there is a need to develop feeding programs to serve as a means for controlling problems associated with the weaning transition without using antimicrobial compounds. This review, therefore, is focused on some of nutritional strategies that are known to improve structure and function of gastrointestinal tract and (or) promote post-weaning growth with special emphasis on probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, trace minerals and dietary protein source and level. PMID:22416941

  7. Overnutrition during lactation leads to impairment in insulin signaling, up-regulation of GLUT1 and increased mitochondrial carbohydrate oxidation in heart of weaned mice.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Amélia F; Cortez, Erika; Neves, Fabiana A; Vieira, Anatalia K G; Soares, Vivian de M; Rodrigues-Cunha, Alessandra C de S; Andrade, Daniela C; Thole, Alessandra A; Gabriel-Costa, Daniele; Brum, Patricia C; Moura, Aníbal S; Garcia-Souza, Érica P

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that overnutrition during early postnatal period can increase the long-term risk of developing obesity and cardiac disorders, yet the short-term effects of postnatal overfeeding in cardiac metabolism remains unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the cardiac metabolism of weaned mice submitted to overnutrition during lactation, particularly as to mitochondrial function, substrate preference and insulin signaling. Postnatal overfeeding was induced by litter size reduction in mice at postnatal day 3. At 21 days of age (weaning), mice in the overfed group (OG) presented biometric and biochemical parameters of obesity, including increased body weight, visceral fat, liver weight and increased left ventricle weight/tibia length ratio; indicating cardiac hypertrophy, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and increased liver glycogen content compared to control group. In the heart, we detected impaired insulin signaling, mainly due to decreased IRβ, pTyr-IRS1, PI3K, GLUT4 and pAkt/Akt and increased PTP1B, GLUT1 and pAMPKα/AMPKα content. Activities of lactate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were increased, accompanied by enhanced carbohydrate oxidation, as observed by high-resolution respirometry. Moreover, OG hearts had lower CPT1, PPARα and increased UCP2 mRNA expression, associated with increased oxidative stress (4-HNE content), BAX/BCL2 ratio and cardiac fibrosis. Ultrastructural analysis of OG hearts demonstrated mild mitochondrial damage without alterations in OXPHOS complexes. In conclusion, overnutrition during early life induces short-term metabolic disturbances, impairment in heart insulin signaling, up-regulates GLUT-1 and switch cardiac fuel preference in juvenile mice. PMID:26608021

  8. Ultraviolet Light (UV) Inactivation of Porcine Parvovirus in Liquid Plasma and Effect of UV Irradiated Spray Dried Porcine Plasma on Performance of Weaned Pigs.

    PubMed

    Polo, Javier; Rodríguez, Carmen; Ródenas, Jesús; Russell, Louis E; Campbell, Joy M; Crenshaw, Joe D; Torrallardona, David; Pujols, Joan

    2015-01-01

    A novel ultraviolet light irradiation (UV-C, 254 nm) process was designed as an additional safety feature for manufacturing of spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP). In Exp. 1, three 10-L batches of bovine plasma were inoculated with 10(5.2 ± 0.12) tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) of porcine parvovirus (PPV) per mL of plasma and subjected to UV-C ranging from 0 to 9180 J/L. No viable PPV was detected in bovine plasma by micro-titer assay in SK6 cell culture after UV-C at 2295 J/L. In Exp. 2, porcine plasma was subjected to UV-C (3672 J/L), then spray dried and mixed in complete mash diets. Diets were a control without SDPP (Control), UV-C SDPP either at 3% (UVSDPP3) or 6% (UVSDPP6) and non-UV-C SDPP at 3% (SDPP3) or 6% (SDPP6). Diets were fed ad libitum to 320 weaned pigs (26 d of age; 16 pens/diet; 4 pigs/pen) for 14 d after weaning and a common diet was fed d 15 to 28. During d 0 to 14, pigs fed UVSDPP3, UVSDPP6, or SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control. During d 0 to 28, pigs fed UVSDPP3 and UVSDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control and SDPP3, and SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) feed intake than control. Also, pigs fed UVSDPP had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain than pigs fed SDPP. In conclusion, UV-C inactivated PPV in liquid plasma and UVSDPP used in pig feed had no detrimental effects on pig performance. PMID:26171968

  9. Ultraviolet Light (UV) Inactivation of Porcine Parvovirus in Liquid Plasma and Effect of UV Irradiated Spray Dried Porcine Plasma on Performance of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Polo, Javier; Rodríguez, Carmen; Ródenas, Jesús; Russell, Louis E.; Campbell, Joy M.; Crenshaw, Joe D.; Torrallardona, David; Pujols, Joan

    2015-01-01

    A novel ultraviolet light irradiation (UV-C, 254 nm) process was designed as an additional safety feature for manufacturing of spray dried porcine plasma (SDPP). In Exp. 1, three 10-L batches of bovine plasma were inoculated with 105.2±0.12 tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50) of porcine parvovirus (PPV) per mL of plasma and subjected to UV-C ranging from 0 to 9180 J/L. No viable PPV was detected in bovine plasma by micro-titer assay in SK6 cell culture after UV-C at 2295 J/L. In Exp. 2, porcine plasma was subjected to UV-C (3672 J/L), then spray dried and mixed in complete mash diets. Diets were a control without SDPP (Control), UV-C SDPP either at 3% (UVSDPP3) or 6% (UVSDPP6) and non-UV-C SDPP at 3% (SDPP3) or 6% (SDPP6). Diets were fed ad libitum to 320 weaned pigs (26 d of age; 16 pens/diet; 4 pigs/pen) for 14 d after weaning and a common diet was fed d 15 to 28. During d 0 to 14, pigs fed UVSDPP3, UVSDPP6, or SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control. During d 0 to 28, pigs fed UVSDPP3 and UVSDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake than control and SDPP3, and SDPP6 had higher (P < 0.05) feed intake than control. Also, pigs fed UVSDPP had higher (P < 0.05) weight gain than pigs fed SDPP. In conclusion, UV-C inactivated PPV in liquid plasma and UVSDPP used in pig feed had no detrimental effects on pig performance. PMID:26171968

  10. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  11. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  12. Effects of energy and protein restriction, followed by nutritional recovery on morphological development of the gastrointestinal tract of weaned kids.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z H; He, Z X; Zhang, Q L; Tan, Z L; Han, X F; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Wang, M; Yan, Q X

    2013-09-01

    Effects of energy, protein, or both energy and protein restriction on gastrointestinal morphological development were investigated in 60 Liuyang Black kids, which were sourced from local farms and weaned at 28 d of age. Weaned kids were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 dietary treatments (15 kids per treatment), which consisted of adequate nutrient supply (CON), energy restriction (ER), protein restriction (PR), or energy and protein restriction (EPR). The entire experiment included adaptation period (0 to 6 d), nutritional restriction period (7 to 48 d), and recovery period (49 to 111 d). Three kids from each group were killed at d 48 and 111, and the rumen, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were harvested. On d 48 (end of nutritional restriction), lengths of the duodenum (P = 0.005), jejunum (P = 0.003), and ileum (P = 0.003), and weights of the rumen (P = 0.004), duodenum (P = 0.006), jejunum (P = 0.006), and ileum (P = 0.004) of kids in ER, PR, and EPR were less than those of kids in CON. Compared with CON, PR decreased papillae width (P = 0.03) and surface area (P = 0.05) of the rumen epithelium, villus surface area (P = 0.05), and N concentration (P = 0.02) of the jejunum mucosa on d 48. Compared with CON, EPR decreased papillae height (P = 0.001), width (P = 0.001), and surface area (P = 0.003), N concentration (P = 0.01), and the ratio of N to DNA (P = 0.03) of the rumen epithelium. Compared with CON, EPR also decreased villus height (P = 0.01), width (P = 0.006), and surface area (P = 0.006), N concentration (P < 0.001), and the ratio of N to DNA (P < 0.001) of the jejunum mucosa on d 48. On d 111 (end of nutritional recovery), lengths of the duodenum (P = 0.001), jejunum (P = 0.001), and ileum (P = 0.001), weights of the rumen (P < 0.001), duodenum (P = 0.001), jejunum (P < 0.001), and ileum (P < 0.001) of kids in ER, PR, and EPR were still less than those of kids in CON; N concentrations of rumen epithelium of kids in PR (P = 0.01) and EPR (P = 0.001), and

  13. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  14. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...

  15. Reciprocated cross sucking between dairy calves after weaning off milk does not appear to negatively affect udder health or production.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Alison; Miguel-Pacheco, Giuliana G; Marie de Passillé, Anne; Rushen, Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    Cross sucking by dairy calves occurs most commonly before weaning, but is of most concern in older animals where it has been claimed to cause mastitis and udder damage. Providing ad libitum milk allowance via a teat and gradual weaning reduces cross sucking, but low levels of this behavior still persist. Our aims were to understand why this behavior persists in some calves after weaning off milk and to examine whether individuals which are cross sucked postweaning are more likely to sustain teat injury or develop mastitis during their first lactation. Fifty-six female Holstein calves were housed in groups of 8 and fed milk, grain, and hay ad libitum from automated feeders. During weaning, milk allowance was gradually reduced according to grain intake. Cross sucking was recorded using overhead video cameras (5 observation periods of 72h). The effects of weaning on cross sucking were examined; to examine whether cross sucking affected udder health, all incidences of damaged quarters or clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in the first lactation were recorded, as was milk production. The overall level of cross sucking after weaning, at 4 to 5mo of age, was low and a small proportion of individuals accounted for the majority of events. The duration of cross sucking that occurred at 4 to 5mo of age was correlated with the amount of cross sucking done before and immediately after weaning. After weaning, the calves that cross sucked did so on certain calves, with the most sucked calf within each pen accounting for 73.98% of all cross-sucking events. No relationship was found between cross sucking and being cross sucked in the period before weaning but a positive correlation was found by 4 to 5mo of age. The majority of calves reduced or ceased cross sucking after weaning. Individuals still observed to be cross sucking by 4 to 5mo of age had formed pairs with other cross-sucking individuals and cross-sucking events occurred almost exclusively between these pairs. Cows that

  16. Genetic effects on acute phase protein response to the stresses of weaning and transportation in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Qiu, X; Arthington, J D; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2007-10-01

    The objective herein was to estimate heterosis and breed effects in purebred and crossbred Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus calves on acute phase protein response to weaning and transportation. Calves (n = 1,032) were weaned in September of 2002, 2003, and 2004 at approximately 7 mo of age. Approximately 28 d after weaning, steer calves (n = 482) were transported 1,800 km (20 h) to Oklahoma. Concentrations of 3 acute phase proteins (ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, and haptoglobin) were measured in blood samples. Calves (steers and heifers) were sampled at weaning, and 24 and 72 h postweaning. For separate analyses, steers sent to Oklahoma were sampled before shipment, upon arrival, and 24 and 72 h after arrival. Combinations of the following fixed effects were investigated: sire breed, dam breed, sampling time, birth location, calf sex (weaning only), year, cow age, and interactions. Effects of special interest were sire breed x dam breed as an indication of breed group of calf, and the interaction of sire and dam breeds with sampling time. Weaning age and BW were investigated as linear and quadratic covariates. Sire of calf within sire breed was a random term. The correlation structure of repeated measures was determined by comparison of information criterion values for different structures within each analysis. In general, plasma acute phase protein concentrations in weaned calves increased with sampling time. Concentrations in the transported steers increased through sampling at 24 h after arrival, and were lower at 72 h. Significant estimates of heterosis were detected for Brahman-Angus haptoglobin concentrations at weaning (0.38 +/- 0.14 mg/dL x 100; 44%), and for Romosinuano-Angus fibrinogen concentrations at weaning (11.4 +/- 5.5 mg/dL; 10%) and in transported steers (22.5 +/- 8.4 mg/dL; 20%). The direct effect of Romosinuano was to increase (P <0.004) ceruloplasmin concentrations of weaned calves (4.1 +/- 0.9 mg/dL) and of transported steers (3.9 +/- 1.3 mg

  17. Influence of light exposure on horizontal transmission of Salmonella typhimurium in weaned pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the following experiment was to examine the effect of light exposure on horizontal transmission of Salmonella typhimurium in weaned pigs. Twenty crossbred pigs (average BW = 15 kg) were housed in isolation rooms (10 pigs/room) and randomly assigned to one of two lighting regimes: ...

  18. Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations, fecal specimens were collected from 819 6- to18-month-old calves in 20 states. After cleaning and concentrating cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each specimen. The presence of G. duodenalis was de...

  19. Comparison of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Inactivated Swine Influenza Virus Vaccine in Weaned Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare humoral and cellular immune responses to inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccine. Methods: Fifty 3-week-old weaned pigs from a herd free of SIV and PRRSV were randomly divided into the non-vaccinated control group and vaccinated group containing 25 pigs each....

  20. Comparison of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Inactivated Swine Influenza Virus Vaccine in Weaned Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humoral and cellular immune responses to inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccine were evaluated and compared. Fifty 3-week-old weaned pigs from a herd free of SIV and PRRSV were randomly divided into the non-vaccinated control group and vaccinated group containing 25 pigs each. Pigs were va...

  1. Polymorphism within thyroid hormone responsive (THRSP) associated with weaning-to-oestrus interval in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess polymorphisms within lipogenic-related candidate genes for association with the reproductive traits; age at puberty (AP), ovulation rate (OR), and weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI). Variations within the anorectic gene Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Trans...

  2. Effect of meloxicam on gain and inflammatory response of calves castrated by banding post-weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castration may detrimentally affect the health and performance of weaned calves, and painful procedures are increasingly becoming a public concern. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of castration (by banding) with or without administration of meloxicam, a non-steroid anti-infl...

  3. Influence of weaning on fecal shedding of pathogenic bacteria in dairy calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the current research were to determine the effect of weaning on fecal shedding of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in dairy calves and to examine cultured isolates (to include Enterococcus) for antimicrobial susceptibility. This research was conducted on one large commercial dairy (...

  4. Intestinal microbial affects of yeast products on weaned and transport stressed pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Study objectives were to determine effects of a commercially available yeast product (XPC, Diamond-V Mills) and stress of transportation on total Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Lactobacilli populations in the intestine of weaning pigs. In a RCB design with a 2 x 2 factorial ar...

  5. Triiodothyronine facilitates weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation by improved mitochondrial substrate utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Files, Matthew D.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Des Rosiers, Christine; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-03-20

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a bridge to recovery after myocardial injury in infants and children, yet morbidity and mortality remain high. Weaning from the circuit requires adequate cardiac contractile function, which can be impaired by metabolic disturbances induced either by ischemia-reperfusion and / or by ECMO.

  6. Maximum inspiratory pressure and rapid shallow breathing index as predictors of successful ventilator weaning

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Umilson dos Santos; Souza, Gerson Fonseca; Campos, Elisangela Siqueira; Farah de Carvalho, Etiene; Fernandes, Matheus Guedes; Santoro, Ilka; Costa, Dirceu; Arena, Ross; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the predictive value of maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) and the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) in a ventilator weaning protocol and to evaluate the differences between clinical and surgical patients in the intensive care unit. [Subjects and Methods] Patients aged ≥15 years who underwent orotracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation and who met the criteria of the weaning protocol were included in the study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for the analysis of each index. [Results] Logistic regression analysis was also performed. MIP showed greater sensitivity and specificity [area under the curve (AUC): 0.95 vs. 0.89] and likelihood ratios (LR) (positive(+): 20.85 vs. 9.45; negative(−): 0.07 vs. 0.17) than RSBI in the overall sample (OS) as well as in clinical patients (CP) (AUC: 0.99 vs. 0.90; LR+: 24.66 vs. 7.22; LR-: 0.01 vs. 0.15) and surgical patients (SP) (AUC: 0.99 vs. 0.87; LR+: 9.33 vs. 5.86; LR−: 0.07 vs. 0.14). The logistic regression analysis revealed that both parameters were significantly associated with the weaning success. The MIP showed greater accuracy than the RSBI (OS: 0.93 vs. 0.85; CP: 0.98 vs. 0.87; SP: 0.93 vs. 0.87). [Conclusion] Both parameters are good predictors of successful ventilator weaning. PMID:26834339

  7. Maximum inspiratory pressure and rapid shallow breathing index as predictors of successful ventilator weaning.

    PubMed

    Bien, Umilson Dos Santos; Souza, Gerson Fonseca; Campos, Elisangela Siqueira; Farah de Carvalho, Etiene; Fernandes, Matheus Guedes; Santoro, Ilka; Costa, Dirceu; Arena, Ross; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the predictive value of maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) and the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) in a ventilator weaning protocol and to evaluate the differences between clinical and surgical patients in the intensive care unit. [Subjects and Methods] Patients aged ≥15 years who underwent orotracheal intubation for mechanical ventilation and who met the criteria of the weaning protocol were included in the study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for the analysis of each index. [Results] Logistic regression analysis was also performed. MIP showed greater sensitivity and specificity [area under the curve (AUC): 0.95 vs. 0.89] and likelihood ratios (LR) (positive(+): 20.85 vs. 9.45; negative(-): 0.07 vs. 0.17) than RSBI in the overall sample (OS) as well as in clinical patients (CP) (AUC: 0.99 vs. 0.90; LR+: 24.66 vs. 7.22; LR-: 0.01 vs. 0.15) and surgical patients (SP) (AUC: 0.99 vs. 0.87; LR+: 9.33 vs. 5.86; LR-: 0.07 vs. 0.14). The logistic regression analysis revealed that both parameters were significantly associated with the weaning success. The MIP showed greater accuracy than the RSBI (OS: 0.93 vs. 0.85; CP: 0.98 vs. 0.87; SP: 0.93 vs. 0.87). [Conclusion] Both parameters are good predictors of successful ventilator weaning. PMID:26834339

  8. Low dose titration of copper oxide wire particles for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned kids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine whether a low dose of copper oxide wire particles (COWP) would be as effective as a higher dose in reducing gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection. In May 2006, 40 Boer x Spanish doe and wether kids naturally infected with GIN were weaned (97 ± 2 days of age) and ...

  9. EFFECTS OF NORMAL GUT MICROFLORA ADMINISTRATION ON POST-WEANING ESCHERICHIA COLI INFECTION IN SWINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the proposed research was to evaluate the effects of porcine- derived normal gut microflora (RPCF) on an experimental enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) infection in weaned pigs. The litters of eighteen sows, split into 3 studies, were used. Piglets in the RPCF group received the RPCF...

  10. Relationship between pre-weaning gain, age at puberty, and reproductive tract development in Angus heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef heifers should initiate reproductive cycles by 12 mo of age to insure multiple estrous cycles before the start of the breeding season to maximize fertility. Previous research indicated that pre-weaning gain positively influenced the onset of puberty and antral follicle numbers. Therefore, the...

  11. Characterization of differentially expressed genes in calf rumen epithelium in response to weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During weaning, rumen epithelial cell function must transition from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant state for efficient nutrient absorption and metabolism. During this time, the rumen grows to represent from 30 to 70% of the capacity of the gut, directly impacting net efficiency of feed conversion...

  12. High-fat diet lowers the nutritional status indicators of pantothenic acid in weaning rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Erina; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Ohtsubo, Masako; Shibata, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Weaning rats were fed a 5% or 30% fat diet containing limited calcium pantothenate for 28 d. The plasma, liver and adrenal pantothenic acid levels in the rats fed on the 30% fat diet were significantly lower than with the 5% fat diet. The results suggest that the high-fat diet affected pantothenic acid metabolism. PMID:20699566

  13. Post-weaning nutritional programming of ovarian development in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From weaning to breeding, the nutritional management of replacement females is critical to their lifetime productivity. Traditionally, cereal grains have been used to develop replacement heifers to enter the breeding system at a younger age. However, overfeeding heifers decreased number of calves ...

  14. Impact of rotational grazing on management of gastrointestinal nematodes in weaned lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control for ‘natural’ or organic lamb production is needed, especially where Haemonchus contortus is prevalent. The objective was to determine the impact of rotational grazing on GIN infection of weaned lambs. In year 1, naturally infected Katahdin lambs (120 days of ...

  15. Methanogen prevalence throughout the gastrointestinal tract of pre-weaned dairy calves

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mi; Chen, Yanhong; Griebel, Philip J; Guan, Le Luo

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic community throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pre-weaned calves has not been well studied. The current study firstly investigated the distribution and composition of the methanogenic community in the rumen, ileum, and colon of 3–4 week-old milk-fed dairy calves (n = 4) using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The occurrence of methanogens in the GIT of pre-weaned calves was further validated by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was applied to quantify the methanogenic community in the rumen, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum of 8 3–4 week old animals. Both cloning libraries and PCR-DGGE revealed that phylotypes close to Methanobrevibacter were the main taxon along the GIT in pre-weaned sucking calves. The composition and abundance of methanogens varied significantly among individual animals, suggesting that host conditions may influence the composition of the symbiotic microbiota. Segregation of methanogenic communities throughout the GIT was also observed within individual animals, suggesting possible functional differences among methanogens residing in different GIT regions. This is the first study to analyze methanogenic communities throughout the GIT of milk-fed newborn dairy calves and reveal both their diversity and abundance. The identification of methanogens in the lower GIT of pre-weaned dairy calves warrants further investigation to better define methanogen roles in GIT function and their impact on host metabolism and health. PMID:25483332

  16. Gene expression in bovine rumen epithelium during weaning indentifies molecular regulators of rumen development and growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During weaning, rumen epithelial cell function must transition from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant state for efficient nutrient absorption and metabolism. During this time, the rumen increases from 30 to 70% of the capacity of the gut, significantly impacting net efficiency of feed conversion in ...

  17. The impact of infection with Schmallenberg virus on weaning rate in Irish sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Damien; O'Neill, Ronan; Sammin, Donal; Clegg, Tracy A; More, Simon J

    2015-12-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) disease emerged in Europe in 2011, with the virus initially identified in Germany, and the first confirmed case of SBV infection in Ireland diagnosed in a dairy calf in October 2012. SBV was subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR in 49 cattle herds and 39 sheep flocks. While these studies provide a good representation of the spatial distribution of SBV in Ireland, they do not quantify the impact of SBV on productivity. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of SBV on weaning rate in Irish sheep flocks, based on data reported by Irish sheep farmers, and to evaluate weaning rate in sheep flocks as an indicator to be used in emerging disease surveillance systems. A questionnaire on productivity and management practices in sheep flocks was developed to gather data from sheep farmers. Valid responses from 267 sheep farmers were received. Negative binomial regression indicated that flocks with a confirmed SBV diagnosis had a weaning rate 0.9 times that of flocks free of SBV. The 10% reduction in weaning rates as a result of SBV is a justifiable concern for farmers and should be considered in formulating flock breeding policy. This study shows the value of a production database as an indicator of an emerging disease and the economic impact of that disease in Irish sheep flocks. PMID:26547824

  18. Spatial and temporal free-ranging cow behaviour pre and post-weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology can be used to study free-ranging cow behaviors. GPS equipment was deployed on each of ten cows ranging in age from 3 to 15 years in order to compare and contrast mean ± standard errors for pre- and post-weaning travel (m·time-1) in two similar (= 433 ha) a...

  19. Effect of drinker type on water intake and waste in newly weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Torrey, S; Toth Tamminga, E L M; Widowski, T M

    2008-06-01

    During the first few days after weaning, pigs often experience BW loss as they adapt to eating solid food. During this time period, they are also known to drink excessively and develop abnormal oral behavior such as belly nosing. The excessive drinking may stem from the piglets' attempt to satiate hunger through gut fill from a familiar ingestive source. Gut fill through water intake may affect the establishment of feeding behavior. Using drinker devices other than the standard nipple drinker may ease the piglets' transition at weaning by facilitating the initiation of feeding and preventing the development of behavioral problems such as excessive drinking and belly nosing. In this experiment, we examined the effect of drinker type on water and food intake, growth rates, and belly nosing in newly weaned piglets. Eighteen pens of 15 piglets each (270 piglets total) were weaned at 18.1 +/- 0.1 d of age and housed in pens containing 1 of 3 drinker devices (standard nipple, push-lever bowl, and float bowl). Piglets' water and feed intake, water use, BW, and behavior were examined on a pen basis through 2 wk after weaning. Piglets with nipple drinkers wasted more water than the other piglets (P < 0.001; float, 295 +/- 70 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); nipple, 1,114 +/- 63 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); and push-lever, 186 +/- 63 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1)), whereas piglets with float bowls consumed less water than the other piglets (P < 0.001; float, 475 +/- 81 mL . pig(-1) x d(-1); nipple, 870 +/- 76 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); push-lever, 774 +/- 76 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1)). Drinker type affected feeding behavior (P = 0.02); piglets with push-lever bowls spent less time at the feeder than the other piglets, although no difference was detected for feed intake (P = 0.64) or overall ADG (P = 0.16). Piglets with push-lever bowls also tended to perform less piglet-directed nosing behavior than piglets with the float bowl (P = 0.04). Piglets appear to use more water during the first 2 d after weaning with

  20. Effects of Weaning and Spatial Enrichment on Behavior of Turkish Saanen Goat Kids

    PubMed Central

    Tölü, Cemil; Göktürk, Semra; Sava, Türker

    2016-01-01

    As is in all economic activities, the highest yield per unit area is the main goal in animal production, while addressing the temperamental needs of animals often is ignored. Animal welfare is not only an ethical fact; it also has an economic value. Spatial environmental enrichment contributes positively to animal welfare by addressing their behavioral and mental requirements. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of weaning and spatial environmental arrangements on behaviors of goat-kids. Experimental groups were arranged in structured and unstructured spatial environments. Roughage feeder, semi-automatic concentrate feeder, bunk, bridge, and wood block were placed in the structured environment. No equipment was placed in the unstructured environment and paddock sides were enclosed with an iron sheet to prevent bipedal stance and to provide environmental isolation. In the study 10 male and 10 female Turkish Saanen goat kids were used in each group. Spatial environmental arrangements did not have significant impacts on the growth performance of kids (p>0.05). All objects in the structured group were accepted by the kids. Average use ratios of roughage feeder, semi-automatic concentrate feeder, bunk, bridge and wood block were observed as 19.3%, 14.0%, 12.6%, 3.8%, and 0.7%, respectively. There were significant differences between before- and after-weaning in use of all objects except for underneath bridge (p≤0.05). Concentrate feed consumption, locomotion, and resting behaviors in kids showed significant differences by structural group and growth period. Roughage consumption was similar between groups, while it differed by growth period (p≤0.05). Interaction frequency was significantly higher in structured group (p = 0.0023). Playing behavior significantly differentiated based on the growth period rather than on groups (p≤0.05). Playing behavior significantly decreased after weaning. Abnormal oral activity was significantly higher in the

  1. Effects of Weaning and Spatial Enrichment on Behavior of Turkish Saanen Goat Kids.

    PubMed

    Tölü, Cemil; Göktürk, Semra; Sava, Türker

    2016-06-01

    As is in all economic activities, the highest yield per unit area is the main goal in animal production, while addressing the temperamental needs of animals often is ignored. Animal welfare is not only an ethical fact; it also has an economic value. Spatial environmental enrichment contributes positively to animal welfare by addressing their behavioral and mental requirements. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of weaning and spatial environmental arrangements on behaviors of goat-kids. Experimental groups were arranged in structured and unstructured spatial environments. Roughage feeder, semi-automatic concentrate feeder, bunk, bridge, and wood block were placed in the structured environment. No equipment was placed in the unstructured environment and paddock sides were enclosed with an iron sheet to prevent bipedal stance and to provide environmental isolation. In the study 10 male and 10 female Turkish Saanen goat kids were used in each group. Spatial environmental arrangements did not have significant impacts on the growth performance of kids (p>0.05). All objects in the structured group were accepted by the kids. Average use ratios of roughage feeder, semi-automatic concentrate feeder, bunk, bridge and wood block were observed as 19.3%, 14.0%, 12.6%, 3.8%, and 0.7%, respectively. There were significant differences between before- and after-weaning in use of all objects except for underneath bridge (p≤0.05). Concentrate feed consumption, locomotion, and resting behaviors in kids showed significant differences by structural group and growth period. Roughage consumption was similar between groups, while it differed by growth period (p≤0.05). Interaction frequency was significantly higher in structured group (p = 0.0023). Playing behavior significantly differentiated based on the growth period rather than on groups (p≤0.05). Playing behavior significantly decreased after weaning. Abnormal oral activity was significantly higher in the

  2. Risk factors for post-weaning diarrhoea on piglet producing farms in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Taina M; Lyytikäinen, Tapani; Yliaho, Maija; Anttila, Marjukka

    2008-01-01

    Background Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) is a significant gastrointestinal disease in pigs. It is considered a multifactorial disease associated with proliferation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract of affected pigs. The aim of this study was to analyse risk factors related to the occurrence of PWD on Finnish piglet producing farms. Methods The data of a follow-up study of 73 conventional piglet producing farms was used in the case-control study. The selection of the 41 PWD case and 28 control farms was based on the use of antimicrobials for treating diarrhoea in weaned pigs and the answers related to the occurrence of diarrhoea after weaning in the questionnaire. Four intermediate farms were excluded from the statistical analysis. Altogether 39 factors related to herd characteristics, weaner pig management and pig health were studied. The median number of sows was 59.0 (IQR = 44.0; 74.5) and 52.5 (IQR = 36.8; 61.5) on the case and the control farms, respectively. The significances of the univariable associations between the explanatory variables and the outcome variable were tested, and in the multivariate analysis quasibinomial generalized linear models were applied. Results An increased risk of PWD was associated with the regimen of twice a day feeding and feed restriction after weaning (P = 0.02; compared to feeding three or more meals a day or the use of ad libitum feeding) and with a higher number of sows on the farm (P = 0.02; risk increasing with increasing number of sows). Automatic temperature control was associated with a decreased risk of PWD (P = 0.03; compared to manual temperature control). Conclusion Twice a day feeding of newly-weaned pigs should be avoided if the amount of feed given is restricted. Variation in ambient temperature should be minimized in housing of newly-weaned pigs and this can be achieved by using automatic temperature control. With increasing number of sows in the herds the risk of PWD increases and more

  3. The ontogeny of serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration in foals: effects of dam parity, diet, and age at weaning.

    PubMed

    Cymbaluk, N F; Laarveld, B

    1996-05-01

    The effects of dam parity, age at weaning, and preweaning diet were examined in the ontogeny of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations in foals. Foals born to 13 primiparous and 19 multiparous draft-cross mares were weighed and bled near birth. About one-half of the foals in each group were weaned early (about 13 wk old); the remaining foals were weaned late (about 16 wk of age). Pooled values for serum IGF-I concentrations between birth and 17 wk of age were higher (P < 0.065) for foals born to multiparous (386 ng/ml) than to primiparous mares (237.5 ng/ml). Colts (378 ng/ml) had higher (P < 0.05) serum IGF-I concentrations than fillies (254.5 ng/ml), regardless of dam parity. Colts (173.5 kg) also tended (P = 0.12) to be heavier than fillies (159.2 kg). Weaning, whether at 13 or 16 wk of age, reduced (P < 0.05) growth rates and serum IGF-I concentrations. Serum IGF-I values recovered to preweaning values within 1-3 wk postweaning concurrent to an improved weight gain. Fifteen 1-d-old foals in a second study were fed milk replacer for 7 wk and were compared with five foals that nursed their mares for 8 wk. During the first 2 wk, replacer-fed foals (0.46 kg/d) did not gain as rapidly (P < 0.03) as mare-nursed foals (1.73 kg/d). The associated serum IGF-I values for replacer foals (139.4 ng/ml) were lower (P < 0.0001) than values for mare-nursed foals (317.4 ng/ml). Despite similarity in gains for both groups there-after, serum IGF-I concentrations of replacer-fed foals were only 36 and 60% of values obtained for mare-nursed foals at 8 (weaning) and 18 wk of age, respectively. The intrinsic differences between mare-nursed and milk-replacer foals in serum IGF-I concentrations persisted to 1 yr of age despite similarities in dietary management and body weight of the foals. At 1 yr of age, the serum IGF-I concentration of mare-nursed foals (1,203 ng/ml) was 48% higher than that of replacer-fed foals (815 ng/ml). These data indicate that dam parity

  4. The effect of dexmedetomidine on agitation during weaning of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Shehabi, Y; Nakae, H; Hammond, N; Bass, F; Nicholson, L; Chen, J

    2010-01-01

    Ventilated patients receiving opioids and/or benzodiazepines are at high risk of developing agitation, particularly upon weaning towards extubation. This is often associated with an increased intubation time and length of stay in the intensive care unit and may cause long-term morbidity. Anxiety, fear and agitation are amongst the most common non-pulmonary causes of failure to liberate from mechanical ventilation. This prospective, open-label observational study examined 28 ventilated adult patients in the intensive care unit (30 episodes) requiring opioids and/or sedatives for >24 hours, who developed agitation and/or delirium upon weaning from sedation and failed to achieve successful extubation with conventional management. Patients were ventilated for a median (interquartile range) of 115 [87 to 263] hours prior to enrolment. Dexmedetomidine infusion was commenced at 0.4 microg/kg/hour for two hours, after which concurrent sedative therapy was preferentially weaned and titrated to obtain target Motor Activity Assessment Score score of 2 to 4. The median (range) maximum dose and infusion time of dexmedetomidine was 0.7 microg/kg/hour (0.4 to 1.0) and 62 hours (24 to 252) respectively. The number of episodes at target Motor Activity Assessment Score score at zero, six and 12 hours after commencement of dexmedetomidine were 7/30 (23.3%), 28/30 (93.3%) and 26/30 (86.7%), respectively (P < 0.001 for 6 and 12 vs. 0 hours). Excluding unrelated clinical deterioration, 22 episodes (73.3%) achieved successful weaning from ventilation with a median (interquartile range) ventilation time of 70 (28 to 96) hours after dexmedetomidine infusion. Dexmedetomidine achieved rapid resolution of agitation and facilitated ventilatory weaning after failure of conventional therapy. Its role as first-line therapy in ventilated, agitated patients warrants further investigation. PMID:20191782

  5. Triiodothyronine Facilitates Weaning From Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation by Improved Mitochondrial Substrate Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Files, Matthew D.; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Des Rosiers, Christine; Isern, Nancy; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a bridge to recovery after myocardial injury in infants and children, yet morbidity and mortality remain high. Weaning from the circuit requires adequate cardiac contractile function, which can be impaired by metabolic disturbances induced either by ischemia‐reperfusion and/or by ECMO. We tested the hypothesis that although ECMO partially ameliorates metabolic abnormalities induced by ischemia‐reperfusion, these abnormalities persist or recur with weaning. We also determined if thyroid hormone supplementation (triiodothyronine) during ECMO improves oxidative metabolism and cardiac function. Methods and Results Neonatal piglets underwent transient coronary ischemia to induce cardiac injury then were separated into 4 groups based on loading status. Piglets without coronary ischemia served as controls. We infused into the left coronary artery [2‐13C]pyruvate and [13C6, 15N]l‐leucine to evaluate oxidative metabolism by gas chromatography‐mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. ECMO improved survival, increased oxidative substrate contribution through pyruvate dehydrogenase, reduced succinate and fumarate accumulation, and ameliorated ATP depletion induced by ischemia. The functional and metabolic benefit of ECMO was lost with weaning, yet triiodothyronine supplementation during ECMO restored function, increased relative pyruvate dehydrogenase flux, reduced succinate and fumarate, and preserved ATP stores. Conclusions Although ECMO provides metabolic rest by decreasing energy demand, metabolic impairments persist, and are exacerbated with weaning. Treating ECMO‐induced thyroid depression with triiodothyronine improves substrate flux, myocardial oxidative capacity and cardiac contractile function. This translational model suggests that metabolic targeting can improve weaning. PMID:24650924

  6. Weaning Markedly Affects Transcriptome Profiles and Peyer’s Patch Development in Piglet Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Ryo; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Ogawa, Shohei; Harayama, Tomoko; Nagino, Takayuki; Hatanaka, Hironori; Fukuta, Kikuto; Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A.; Ushida, Kazunari; Kelly, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analyses were conducted on the ileal mucosa of 14- to 35-day-old piglets to investigate postnatal gut development during suckling and postweaning. The transcriptome profiles of 14-day-old suckling piglets showed a considerably higher number of differentially expressed genes than did those of 21-, 28-, and 35-day olds, indicating an intensive gut development during the first 14–21 postnatal days. In addition, the analysis of biological pathways indicated that Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was the most significantly affected pathway in suckling piglets between 14 and 21 days of age. Weaning negatively affected pathways associated with acquired immunity, but positively affected those associated with innate immunity. Interestingly, pathway Chemotaxis Leucocyte chemotaxis was found positively affected when comparing 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets, but negatively affected in 28-day-old piglets weaned at 21 days of age, when compared with 28-day-old suckling piglets. Genes CXCL13, SLA-DOA (MHC class II), ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 were involved in the pathway Chemotaxis Leukocyte chemotaxis and they were found to significantly change between 14- and 21-day-old suckling piglets and between groups of suckling and weaned piglets. The expression of these genes significantly declined after weaning at 14, 21, and 28 days of age. This decline indicated that CXCL13, SLA-DOA, ICAM1, VAV1, and VCAM1 may be involved in the development of Peyer’s patches (PP) because lower gene expression clearly corresponded with smaller areas of PP in the ileal mucosa of piglets. Moreover, weaning piglets prior to a period of intensive gut development, i.e., 14 days of age, caused significant adverse effects on the size of PP, which were not reverted even 14 days postweaning. PMID:26697021

  7. Triiodothyronine activates lactate oxidation without impairing fatty acid oxidation and improves weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a rescue for children with severe cardiac failure. We previously showed that triiodothyronine (T3) improves cardiac function by modulating pyruvate oxidation during weaning. This study was focused on fatty acid (FA) metabolism modulated by T3 for weaning from ECMO after cardiac injury. Methods: Nineteen immature piglets (9.1-15.3 kg) were separated into 3 groups with ECMO (6.5 hours) and wean: normal circulation (Group-C);transient coronary occlusion (10 minutes) followed by ECMO (Group-IR); and IR with T3 supplementation (Group-IR-T3). 13-Carbon labeled lactate, medium-chain and long-chain FAs were infused as oxidative substrates. Substrate fractional contribution to the citric acid cycle (FC) was analyzed by 13-Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: ECMO depressed circulating T3 levels to 40% baseline at 4 hours and were restored in Group-IR-T3. Group-IR decreased cardiac power, which was not fully restorable and 2 pigs were lost because of weaning failure. Group-IR also depressed FC-lactate, while the excellent contractile function and energy efficiency in Group-IR-T3 occurred along with a marked FC-lactate increase and [ATP]/[ADP] without either decreasing FC-FAs or elevating myocardial oxygen consumption over Group-C or -IR. Conclusions: T3 releases inhibition of lactate oxidation following ischemia-reperfusion injury without impairing FA oxidation. These findings indicate that T3 depression during ECMO is maladaptive, and that restoring levels improves metabolic flux and enhances contractile function during weaning.

  8. Evaluation of a new weaning index based on ventilatory endurance and the efficiency of gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Jabour, E R; Rabil, D M; Truwit, J D; Rochester, D F

    1991-09-01

    We hypothesized that the ventilatory capacity needed to wean from mechanical ventilation (mv) depends on two variables: ventilatory endurance and the efficiency of gas exchange. We also hypothesized that these variables could be assessed from data readily available at the bedside, including tidal volume (VT) on mv and during spontaneous breathing (sb), ventilator peak inspiratory pressure (Ppk), and patient negative inspiratory pressure (NIP). Ventilatory endurance was evaluated using a modified pressure-time index: PTI = TI/Ttot x Pbreath/NIP, where Pbreath = Ppk x VTsb/VTmv. Defining VE40 as the minute ventilation needed to bring PaCO2 to 40 mm Hg, the efficiency of gas exchange was evaluated by calculating VE40/VTsb = (VE x PaCO2)mv/VTsb x 40. Because high levels of inspiratory effort might cause patients to reduce VTsb and thereby compromise CO2 elimination, we devised a weaning index (WI) that combines ventilatory endurance and the efficiency of gas exchange: WI = PTI x (VE40/VTsb). The study population comprised 38 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, adult respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, neuromuscular disease, and miscellaneous other conditions. They had been mechanically ventilated more than 3 days and were considered by clinical criteria to be ready for weaning. Of 46 weaning trials, 19 were successful, 2 were partially successful, and 25 failed. PTI and VE40/VTsb were higher in patients who failed (p less than 0.05), but neither variable alone had sufficient sensitivity or specificity to predict the outcome of weaning trials accurately.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1892291

  9. Developmental plasticity of endocrine disorders in obesity model primed by early weaning in dams.

    PubMed

    Lima, N S; Moura, E G; Franco, J G; Pinheiro, C R; Pazos-Moura, C C; Cabanelas, A; Carlos, A S; Nascimento-Saba, C C; de Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2013-01-01

    Early weaning is associated with changes in the developmental plasticity. Here, we studied the adipocytes morphology, adipokines expression or content in adipose tissue as well as adrenal and thyroid function of neonate and adult offspring primed by early weaning. After birth, lactating rats were divided into 2 groups: EW (early weaning)--dams were wrapped with a bandage to block access to milk during the last 3 days of lactation, and Control--dams whose pups had free access to milk throughout lactation (21 days). At postnatal day (PN) 21, EW pups had lower visceral and subcutaneous adipocyte area (-67.7% and -62%, respectively), body fat mass (-26%), and leptin expression in visceral adipocyte (-64%) but higher leptin expression in subcutaneous adipocyte (2.9-fold increase). Adrenal evaluations were normal, but neonate EW pups presented lower serum T3 (-55%) and TSH (-44%). At PN 180, EW offspring showed higher food intake, higher body fat mass (+21.6%), visceral and subcutaneous adipocyte area (both 3-fold increase), higher leptin (+95%) and ADRβ3 (2-fold increase) content in visceral adipose tissue, and higher adiponectin expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (+47%) but lower in visceral adipose tissue (-40%). Adult EW offspring presented higher adrenal catecholamine content (+31%), but no changes in serum corticosterone or thyroid status. Thus, early weaning primed for hypothyroidism at weaning, which can be associated with the adipocyte hypertrophy at adulthood. The marked changes in catecholamine adrenal content and visceral adipocyte ADRB3 are generally found in obesity, contributing to the development of other cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances. PMID:22948547

  10. Plasma metabolomic profiles and immune responses of piglets after weaning and challenge with E. coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The processes of weaning and exposure to pathogenic bacteria induce stress responses, which may alter the metabolism. In this study, we investigated the changes in plasma metabolites and immune responses in piglets in response to the stress induced by weaning and Escherichia coli challenge. Results Fecal dry matter decreased (P = 0.003) and nearly half (44.4%) the piglets developed diarrhea on day 2 and 3 postweaning. The concentration of plasma immunoglobulin A was higher (P < 0.001) on day 11 postweaning than on day 0 or 4 postweaning. The levels of white blood cells increased continuously (P < 0.001) from day 0 to day 11 postweaning. Differences in the percentages of neutrophils (P = 0.029) and lymphocytes (P = 0.022) were seen, but the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio did not differ in the period after weaning. A clear separation of the metabolomic profile data for day 0 and day 4 postweaning was observed with a principal components analysis (PCA) scores plot, and the data for day 11 were located between those for day 0 and day 4 postweaning. The plasma levels of proline, taurine, and carnitine were higher, whereas those of betaine, creatine, L-arginine and acetylcarnitine were lower on day 4 postweaning than on day 0. Levels of lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine were either higher or lower after weaning, depending on the chain lengths or characters of these metabolites. Conclusions Our results show a clear separation in the plasma metabolomic profiles of piglets that corresponded to the fecal responses to stress on the piglets induced by weaning or exposure to a pathogen (E. coli). These plasma metabolite profiles suggest that the challenges induced proinflammatory responses in the piglets, resulting in postweaning diarrhea, which was associated with higher concentrations of IgA in the plasma. PMID:24624922

  11. Pre- and post-weaning cold exposure does not lead to an obese phenotype in adult Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, De-Hua

    2011-07-01

    Evidence has shown that postnatal undernutrition, overnutrition and cold stress are associated with imbalanced metabolic regulation as rodents achieve adulthood. In this study, we used a breeding colony of Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii), a wild rodent species from the Inner Mongolia grasslands in China, to examine the effects of pre- and post-weaning cold exposure on the adult body (fat) mass, serum hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. Unlike laboratory rodents, vole offspring exposed to pre-weaning cold did not exhibit overweight or obese phenotypes in adulthood compared with unexposed controls. Moreover, adult male voles that remained in colder conditions had less body mass and lower serum leptin levels despite having higher food intake compared to other groups. To understand the mechanism of this unexpected regulation, hypothalamic gene expression was assessed for pre- and post-weaning cold exposure. Voles exposed to cold before weaning increased hypothalamic, orexigenic agouti-related protein (AgRP) and decreased anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression at weaning. These expression changes were associated with hyperphagia and catch-up growth after weaning. Interestingly, these changes in hypothalamic neuropeptides were short lasting because in adult voles these differences were no longer apparent, which might explain why the pre-weaning, cold-exposed voles did not become obese in adulthood. These data suggest that some species do not develop an obese phenotype in response to early life cold stress. PMID:21635895

  12. Effects of Supplemental Glutamine on Growth Performance, Plasma Parameters and LPS-induced Immune Response of Weaned Barrows after Castration

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, C. B.; Lee, J. W.; Huang, H. J.; Wang, C. H.; Lee, T. T.; Yen, H. T.; Yu, B.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental glutamine on growth performance, plasma parameters and LPS-induced immune response of weaned barrows after castration. In experiment 1, forty-eight weaned male piglets were used and fed maize and soybean meal diets supplemented with 0 (Control) or 2% L-Gln (Gln+) for 25 days. The results indicated that the Gln+ group tended to increase average daily gain compared to control in stages of days 7 to 14 and 0 to 25. The Gln+ had significantly better feed efficiency than the control group did during days 14 to 25 and 0 to 25. The plasma blood urea nitrogen and alkaline phosphatase contents of Gln+ group were higher than those of the control group on day 14 post-weaning. In experiment 2, sixteen weaned male piglets were injected with E. coli K88+ lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on day 14 post-weaning. The results showed that the Gln+ group had lower concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol than the control group on day 14 pre-LPS challenge. In addition, Gln+ group had higher plasma IgG concentration than the control group for pre- or post-LPS challenged on day 14 post-weaning. In summary, dietary supplementation of Gln was able to alleviate the stressful condition and inflammation associated with castration in weaned barrows, and to improve their immunity and growth performance in the early starter stage. PMID:25049613

  13. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenxiang; Zhang, Wenchang; Liu, Jin; Sun, Yan; Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  14. Developmental expression of STATs, nuclear factor-κB and inflammatory genes in the jejunum of piglets during weaning.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hongbo; Jiang, Denghu; Zhang, Lin; Xiong, Haitao; Han, Feifei; Wang, Yizhen

    2016-07-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins play essential roles in apoptosis, proliferation and survival. However, the role of STATs in intestinal inflammation during weaning is unclear. This study aimed to investigate developmental expression of STATs, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inflammatory genes in the jejunum of piglets during weaning. Thirty-two piglets were weaned at 21d and sacrificed at 0, 1, 7, or 14d (n=8) after weaning. Villus height and the villus height/crypt depth ratio were decreased, whereas crypt depth was increased in the jejunum at 7 and 14d after weaning. In addition, the mRNA levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and IL-22 were increased in the jejunum at 7 and 14d after weaning, whereas transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SCOS3) and arginase-1 was decreased. Neutrophil infiltration was increased in the mucosa of the jejunum after weaning. Moreover, phosphorylation of IκB-α, NF-κB, AKT and STAT-3 was increased. However, the phosphorylation of STAT-1 (at 7 and 14d) and STAT-6 (at 1 and 7d) was suppressed in the jejunum after weaning. Treatment of porcine jejunal epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells with the STAT inhibitors fludarabine, niclosamide and teriflunomide, which inhibit the phosphorylation of STAT-1, STAT-3 and STAT-6, respectively, weakened the defense capacity of these cells against bacterial infection. In conclusion, weaning caused severe inflammation associated with activation of the NF-κB and STAT-3 pathways and suppression of STAT-1 and STAT-6 in the jejunum of piglets. PMID:27160867

  15. Dietary protein intake is associated with body mass index and weight up to 5 y of age in a prospective cohort of twins12

    PubMed Central

    Pimpin, Laura; Jebb, Susan; Johnson, Laura; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few large epidemiologic studies have investigated the role of postweaning protein intake in excess weight and adiposity of young children, despite children in the United Kingdom consistently consuming protein in excess of their physiologic requirements. Objective: We investigated whether a higher proportion of protein intake from energy beyond weaning is associated with greater weight gain, higher body mass index (BMI), and risk of overweight or obesity in children up to 5 y of age. Design: Participants were 2154 twins from the Gemini cohort. Dietary intake was collected by using a 3-d diet diary when the children had a mean age of 21 mo. Weight and height were collected every 3 mo, from birth to 5 y. Longitudinal models investigated associations of protein intake with BMI, weight, and height, with adjustment for age at diet diary, sex, total energy intake, birth weight/length, and rate of prior growth and clustering within families. Logistic regression investigated protein intake in relation to the odds of overweight or obesity at 3 and 5 y of age. Results: A total of 2154 children had a mean ± SD of 5.7 ± 3.2 weight and height measurements up to 5 y. Total energy from protein was associated with higher BMI (β = 0.043; 95% CI: 0.011, 0.075) and weight (β = 0.052; 95% CI: 0.031, 0.074) but not height (β = 0.088; 95% CI: −0.038, 0.213) between 21 mo and 5 y. Substituting percentage energy from fat or carbohydrate for percentage energy from protein was associated with decreases in BMI and weight. Protein intake was associated with a trend in increased odds of overweight or obesity at 3 y (OR = 1.10; 95% CI 0.99, 1.22, P = 0.075), but the effect was not statistically significant at 5 y. Conclusion: A higher proportion of energy from protein during the complementary feeding stage is associated with greater increases in weight and BMI in early childhood in this large cohort of United Kingdom children. PMID:26718416

  16. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  17. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  18. Dose-dependent effects of dietary zinc oxide on bacterial communities and metabolic profiles in the ileum of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Pieper, R; Vahjen, W; Neumann, K; Van Kessel, A G; Zentek, J

    2012-10-01

    Pharmacological levels of zinc oxide (ZnO) can improve the health of weaning piglets and influence the intestinal microbiota. This experiment aimed at studying the dose-response effect of five dietary concentrations of ZnO on small intestinal bacteria and metabolite profiles. Fifteen piglets, weaned at 25 ± 1 days of age, were allocated into five groups according to body weight and litter. Diets were formulated to contain 50 (basal diet), 150, 250, 1000 and 2500 mg zinc/kg by adding analytical-grade (>98% purity) ZnO to the basal diet and fed ad libitum for 14 days after a 7-day adaptation period on the basal diet. Ileal bacterial community profiles were analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and selected bacterial groups quantified by real-time PCR. Concentrations of ileal volatile fatty acids (VFA), D- and L-lactate and ammonia were determined. Species richness, Shannon diversity and evenness were significantly higher at high ZnO levels. Quantitative PCR revealed lowest total bacterial counts in the 50 mg/kg group. Increasing ZnO levels led to an increase (p = 0.017) in enterobacteria from log 4.0 cfu/g digesta (50 mg/kg) to log 6.7 cfu/g digesta (2500 mg/kg). Lactic acid bacteria were not influenced (p = 0.687) and clostridial cluster XIVa declined (p = 0.035) at highest ZnO level. Concentration of total, D- and L-lactate and propionate was not affected (p = 0.736, p = 0.290 and p = 0.630), but concentrations of ileal total VFA, acetate and butyrate increased markedly from 50 to 150 mg/kg and decreased with further increasing zinc levels and reached low levels again at 2500 mg/kg (p = 0.048, p = 0.048 and p = 0.097). Ammonia decreased (p < 0.006) with increasing dietary ZnO level. In conclusion, increasing levels of dietary ZnO had strong and dose-dependent effects on ileal bacterial community composition and activity, suggesting taxonomic variation in metabolic response to ZnO. PMID:21929727

  19. Recombinant porcine epidermal growth factor-secreting Lactococcus lactis promotes the growth performance of early-weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important growth factor in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Studies showed that food-grade Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) and NICE expression system have superior performance in exogenous protein expression. This study aimed to construct and express porcine EGF (pEGF), and use L. lactis as vehicle for producing and delivering pEGF. Furthermore, investigating biological activity of pEGF and exploring applications feasibility of combination effects of L. lactis and pEGF on early weaned piglets’ production. Results A recombinant Lactococcus lactis which produced and secreted pEGF at 1000 ng/ml in culture supernatant was generated. Secreted pEGF was a fully biologically active protein, as demonstrated by its capacity to stimulate L929 mouse fibroblast cell line proliferation in vitro. For in vivo study, forty piglets were randomly allocated to control, antibiotic control, empty vector-expressing L. lactis (LL-EV) and pEGF-secreting L. lactis (LL-pEGF). After 14 d of rearing, final body weight and average daily gain in LL-pEGF were greater (P < 0.05, 8.95 vs. 8.37 kg, 206.1 vs. 157.7 g/day, respectively) than those in control, but no significant differences between LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control. Overall period average daily feed intake was higher in LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control than in control (P < 0.05, 252.9, 255.6, 250.0, 207.3 g/day, respectively). No significant difference was observed on ADFI/ADG. LL-pEGF increased villous height in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum than in control and LL-EV (P < 0.05). Sucrase in the 3 intestinal segments, aminopeptidase A in the duodenum and Jejunum, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidase IV in the duodenum in LL-pEGF were higher than those in control (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus counts decreased in the ileum and Lactobacillus increased in the ileum and cecum digesta in LL-pEGF compare with the

  20. Effects of L-proline on the Growth Performance, and Blood Parameters in Weaned Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ping; Zhang, Lili; Hou, Yongqing; Ding, Binying; Yi, Dan; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Yulan; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    This trail was conducted to study the effect of L-proline on the growth performance, and blood parameter in the weaned lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged pigs. Thirty six pigs (9.13±0.85 kg) were assigned randomly to dietary treatments in a 2×3 factorial arrangement in a 20-d growth assay. Factors were intraperitoneal injection with saline or LPS, and three dietary L-proline supplement levels (0%, 0.5%, or 1.0%). On d 10, blood samples were collected at 3 h after LPS (100 μg LPS/kg body weight [BW]) or saline injection. On d 20 of the trial, all pigs were orally administrated D-xylose (0.1 g/kg BW) at 2 h, and blood samples were collected at 3 h after LPS or saline injection. As a result, dietary supplementation with 0.5% proline had a tendency to increase average daily gain (ADG) in piglets during d 10 to 20 (p = 0.088). Without LPS challenge, dietary supplementation with 1.0% proline had no effect on growth hormone (GH) concentrations on d 10 (p>0.05), but decreased it after LPS challenge (p<0.05). There was LPS challenge×proline interaction for GH concentrations on d 10 (p<0.05). Dietary supplementation with 1.0% proline decreased glucagon concentration on d 10 after LPS challenge (p<0.05). In addition, dietary supplementation with proline increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly on d 10 and 20 (p<0.05), and 1.0% proline increased heat shock proteins-70 concentration on d 10 (p<0.05). Moreover, proline supplementation increased diamine oxidase (DAO) concentrations after LPS challenge (p<0.05). There was LPS challenge×proline interaction for DAO (p<0.05). Furthermore, dietary supplementation with 1.0% proline increased the D-xylose level when no LPS challenge (p<0.05). These results indicate that proline supplementation could improve growth performance, increase SOD activities, and has a positive effect on the gastrointestinal tract digestibility in early weaned pigs. PMID:25083109

  1. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharides degrading enzymes to two hulless barley varieties fed in diets for weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Morlacchini, M; Giuberti, G; Moschini, M; Rzepus, M; Della Casa, G

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2 hulless barley varieties, with or without the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) enzyme complex (β-glucanase and xylanase), on growth performance of weaned piglets in a 42-d feeding study. The study was conducted with 140 piglets (PIC × Duroc). Pigs were allocated to pens (4 castrated males or 4 females per pen) based on BW and sex, and pens were assigned to 5 experimental diets with 4 pens of castrated males and 3 pens of females per treatment. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were compared: 1) control corn-based diet (CTR), 2) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Astartis hulless barley variety (AS), 3) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AS supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ASE), 4) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Alamo hulless barley variety (AL), and 5) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AL supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ALE). The diets were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient requirements and offered in 2 phases: d 0 to 14 and d 14 to 42. At the end of the study, pigs fed AS and AL had equal weights as pigs fed CTR. Pigs fed the hulless barley diets had greater (P < 0.05) ADG during the second phase (P2) and overall phase, BW at d 42, and G:F during the P2 than those fed the CTR. Pigs fed the ASE and ALE had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI during the P2 and overall ADG than those fed the AS and AL. The increases in ADG during the P2 and final BW obtained with NSP enzyme supplementation were greater in pigs fed the AS than those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). On the other hand, the NSP enzyme complex increased G:F in pigs fed the AS during the P2 and overall phase, but it had no effect on those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). In conclusion, hulless barley with or without the NSP enzyme complex can be a replacement ingredient for corn and wheat bran in weaned pig diets. Addition of the NSP enzyme complex to AS

  2. Association of diarrhoea and upper respiratory infections with weight and height gains in Bangladeshi children aged 5 to 11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, A. M.; Peterson, K. E.; de Souza, A. C.; Orav, E. J.; Hughes, M.; Chen, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The association between infection and growth delay is not well documented in school-age children in developing countries. We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the association between infectious disease and weight and height gains among Bangladeshi children. METHODS: A one-year follow-up study was performed to elucidate the determinants and consequences of physical growth of children under five years of age. The study included 135 households randomly selected from four villages in the Matlab area. RESULTS: The most frequent infections were upper respiratory infections (mean = 4 episodes or 27 days per year) followed by non-dysenteric diarrhoea (mean = 2.3 episodes or 15 days per year) and dysentery (mean = 0.2 episodes or 2 days per year). The number of episodes and their duration decreased significantly with age. Over a 12-month period the mean weight gain was 1.3 kg and the mean increase in height was 2.9 cm. The total number of days when diarrhoea occurred was negatively associated with annual weight gain (regression coefficient beta = -7 g per day, P = 0.02), with adjustment for age, sex, energy and protein intake, and household land ownership. The incidence of diarrhoeal disease was significantly associated with weight gain in intermediate models but only marginally associated with it in the final multivariate model (P = 0.08). Neither the incidence nor the duration of upper respiratory infections was associated with weight gain. Height gain was not significantly associated with the duration or incidence of either category of illness. Diarrhoea was a significant correlate of retarded weight gain among children above preschool age, whereas upper respiratory infections were not. DISCUSSION: Diarrhoeal morbidity slowed growth in children well beyond the weaning age, suggesting that increased attention should be given to the study of the continuous impact of diarrhoea in children aged over 5 years. An understanding of the determinants of

  3. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    PubMed

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment. PMID:1938641

  4. 77 FR 40387 - Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to adjust prices for several market dominant products... announcing its intent to adjust prices for several market dominant products within First-Class Mail...

  5. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in peri-weaned and post-weaned pigs in Belgium and The Netherlands: Prevalence and associations with climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Vangroenweghe, F A C J; Labarque, G G; Piepers, S; Strutzberg-Minder, K; Maes, D

    2015-07-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) is an important pathogen in modern intensive pig farming in Europe. The objectives of the present study were (1) to use the tracheobronchial swab (TBS) technique to obtain data on the distribution of M. hyo infections in recently weaned pigs in Belgium and The Netherlands, and (2) to look for associations between infection prevalence and specific climatic conditions. One hundred and seventy-six pig herds were randomly selected and 30 piglets sampled on each farm: 18 at 3-5 weeks of age and 12 at 6-11 weeks. Mucus collected from the tracheobronchial bifurcation and suspended in saline was subjected to PCR analysis for M. hyo. In 27% of herds (n= 44) at least one piglet tested positive for M. hyo at 3-5 weeks of age, and 29% (n= 47) at 6-11 weeks of age. The individual animal prevalence at the two ages was 7.1% and 10.9%, respectively. The probability of 3-5 week old piglets being M. hyo-positive was negatively associated with the precipitation rate (odds ratio [OR] = 0.971) during the week preceding the sampling. In the older post-weaning group, the odds of being M. hyo-positive at piglet level were significantly affected by season (OR of detection during autumn compared to summer 20.9). Thus, under Belgian and Dutch field conditions, piglets may be infected with M. hyo very early in life, with prevalence increasing further during the post-weaning period. PMID:25981930

  6. Adolescents' experience of comments about their weight – prevalence, accuracy and effects on weight misperception

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wing-Sze; Ho, Sai-Yin; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Yuen-Kwan; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2009-01-01

    Background Weight comments are commonly received by adolescents, but the accuracy of the comments and their effects on weight misperception are unclear. We assessed the prevalence and accuracy of weight comments received by Chinese adolescents from different sources and their relation to weight misperception. Methods In the Hong Kong Student Obesity Surveillance (HKSOS) project 2006–07, 22612 students aged 11–18 (41.5% boys) completed a questionnaire on obesity. Students responded if family members, peers and professionals had seriously commented over the past 30 days that they were "too fat" or "too thin" in two separate questions. The accuracy of the comments was judged against the actual weight status derived from self-reported height and weight. Self-perceived weight status was also reported and any discordance with the actual weight status denoted weight misperception. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odd ratios for weight misperception by the type of weight comments received. Results One in three students received weight comments, and the mother was the most common source of weight comments. Health professional was the most accurate source of weight comments, yet less than half the comments were correct. Adolescents receiving incorrect comments had increased risk of having weight misperception in all weight status groups. Receiving conflicting comments was positively associated with weight misperception among normal weight adolescents. In contrast, underweight and overweight/obese adolescents receiving correct weight comments were less likely to have weight misperception. Conclusion Weight comments, mostly incorrect, were commonly received by Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong, and such incorrect comments were associated with weight misperception. PMID:19642972

  7. A divergent artiodactyl MYADM-like repeat is associated with erythrocyte traits and weight of lamb weaned in domestic sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to investigate seven red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes in over 500 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from three breeds (Columbia, Polypay, and Rambouillet). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showed genome-wide significant association with increased m...

  8. Atrial Fibrillation on Intensive Care Unit Admission Independently Increases the Risk of Weaning Failure in Nonheart Failure Mechanically Ventilated Patients in a Medical Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yen-Han; Ko, Hsin-Kuo; Tseng, Yen-Chiang; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Kou, Yu Ru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most frequent arrhythmias in clinical practice. Previous studies have reported the influence of AF on patients with heart failure (HF). The effect of AF on the non-HF critically ill patients in a medical intensive care unit (ICU) remains largely unclear. The study aimed to investigate the impact of AF presenting on ICU admission on the weaning outcome of non-HF mechanically ventilated patients in a medical ICU. A retrospective observational case–control study was conducted over a 1-year period in a medical ICU at Taipei Veterans General Hospital, a tertiary medical center in north Taiwan. Non-HF mechanically ventilated patients who were successful in their spontaneous breathing trial and underwent ventilator discontinuation were enrolled. The primary outcome measure was the ventilator status after the first episode of ventilator discontinuation. A total of 285 non-HF patients enrolled were divided into AF (n = 62) and non-AF (n = 223) groups. Compared with the non-AF patients, the AF patients were significantly associated with old age (P = 0.002), a higher rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome causing respiratory failure (P = 0.015), a higher percentage of sepsis before liberation from mechanical ventilation (MV) (P = 0.004), and a higher serum level of blood urea nitrogen on the day of liberation from MV (P = 0.003). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that AF independently increased the risk of weaning failure [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.268; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.254–8.517; P = 0.015]. Furthermore, the AF patients were found to be independently associated with a high rate of ventilator dependence (log rank test, P = 0.026), prolonged total ventilator use (AOR, 1.979; 95% CI, 1.032–3.794; P = 0.040), increased length of ICU stay (AOR, 2.256; 95% CI, 1.049–4.849; P = 0.037), increased length of hospital stay (AOR, 2.921; 95% CI, 1

  9. Developmental Changes of TGF-β1 and Smads Signaling Pathway in Intestinal Adaption of Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Kan; Song, Ze-He; Jiao, Le-Fei; Ke, Ya-Lu; Hu, Cai-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Weaning stress caused marked changes in intestinal structure and function. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and canonical Smads signaling pathway are suspected to play an important regulatory role in post-weaning adaptation of the small intestine. In the present study, the intestinal morphology and permeability, developmental expressions of tight junction proteins and TGF-β1 in the intestine of piglets during the 2 weeks after weaning were assessed. The expressions of TGF-β receptor I/II (TβRI, TβRII), smad2/3, smad4 and smad7 were determined to investigate whether canonical smads signaling pathways were involved in early weaning adaption process. The results showed that a shorter villus and deeper crypt were observed on d 3 and d 7 postweaning and intestinal morphology recovered to preweaning values on d 14 postweaning. Early weaning increased (P<0.05) plasma level of diamine oxidase (DAO) and decreased DAO activities (P<0.05) in intestinal mucosa on d 3 and d 7 post-weaning. Compared with the pre-weaning stage (d 0), tight junction proteins level of occludin and claudin-1 were reduced (P<0.05) on d 3, 7 and 14 post-weaning, and ZO-1 protein was reduced (P<0.05) on d 3 and d 7 post-weaning. An increase (P<0.05) of TGF-β1 in intestinal mucosa was observed on d 3 and d 7 and then level down on d 14 post-weaning. Although there was an increase (P<0.05) of TβR II protein expression in the intestinal mucosa on d3 and d 7, no significant increase of mRNA of TβRI, TβRII, smad2/3, smad4 and smad7 was observed during postweaning. The results indicated that TGF-β1 was associated with the restoration of intestinal morphology and barrier function following weaning stress. The increased intestinal endogenous TGF-β1 didn't activate the canonical Smads signaling pathway. PMID:25170924

  10. Evolution of cooperation on adaptively weighted networks.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lang; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Wang, Bing; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have explored interactions between evolutionary game dynamics and population structure. Yet most studies so far mainly paid attention to unweighted and static networks. Here we explore evolutionary games played on dynamically weighted networks. Players update their strategies according to the payoffs they obtain. Players also update weights of their adjacent links depending on payoffs they gain through those links; profitable links are reinforced whereas unprofitable ones are weakened. The system is characterized by two time scales, the one for strategy update, β(S), and the other for weight adjustment, β(W). We find that, under a mean-field approximation, the asymptotic behavior of the system is described by the replicator equation with an effective payoff matrix, which is a combination of the original game matrix A and its transpose, A(T). Both analytical and numerical results show that such an adaptive weight adjustment mechanism dramatically promotes evolution of cooperation. PMID:21163270

  11. An unusual cause of difficult weaning in a patient with newly diagnosed small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Deslypere, G; Cuppens, K; Pat, K; Aumann, J; Demuynck, K; Spaas, L

    2015-01-01

    We describe a patient with acute respiratory insufficiency and difficult ventilator weaning in the ICU ward, leading to diagnosis of small cell lung cancer with superior vena cava superior syndrome. Bilateral vocal cord paralysis caused his respiratory distress and weaning difficulties. Thyroidectomy and neurological problems (such as Parkinson disease and Guillain Barré syndrome) are more common causes of bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Lung cancer patients are also at risk due to mediastinal invasion. The left recurrent laryngeal nerve is more prone to paralysis because of the typical anatomy. In contrary, bilateral vocal cord paralysis is rare and doesn't result in speech problems but rather breathing difficulties. Tracheostomy is the classic therapy, but laser cordectomy and Botulinum toxin injection in the laryngeal muscles are alternatives. PMID:26744682

  12. Patients classification on weaning trials using neural networks and wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Arizmendi, Carlos; Viviescas, Juan; González, Hernando; Giraldo, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The determination of the optimal time of the patients in weaning trial process from mechanical ventilation, between patients capable of maintaining spontaneous breathing and patients that fail to maintain spontaneous breathing, is a very important task in intensive care unit. Wavelet Transform (WT) and Neural Networks (NN) techniques were applied in order to develop a classifier for the study of patients on weaning trial process. The respiratory pattern of each patient was characterized through different time series. Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Forward Selection were used as feature selection techniques. A classification performance of 77.00±0.06% of well classified patients, was obtained using a NN and GA combination, with only 6 variables of the 14 initials. PMID:25000027

  13. Effect of average litter weight in pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of the offspring as depending on birth weight.

    PubMed

    Pardo, C E; Kreuzer, M; Bee, G

    2013-11-01

    Offspring born from normal litter size (10 to 15 piglets) but classified as having lower than average birth weight (average of the sow herd used: 1.46 ± 0.2 kg; mean ± s.d.) carry at birth negative phenotypic traits normally associated with intrauterine growth restriction, such as brain-sparing and impaired myofiber hyperplasia. The objective of the study was to assess long-term effects of intrauterine crowding by comparing postnatal performance, carcass characteristics and pork quality of offspring born from litters with higher (>1.7 kg) or lower (<1.3 kg) than average litter birth weight. From a population of multiparous Swiss Large White sows (parity 2 to 6), 16 litters with high (H = 1.75 kg) or low (L = 1.26 kg) average litter birth weight were selected. At farrowing, two female pigs and two castrated pigs were chosen from each litter: from the H-litters those with the intermediate (HI = 1.79 kg) and lowest (HL = 1.40 kg) birth weight, and from L-litters those with the highest (LH = 1.49 kg) and intermediate (LI = 1.26 kg) birth weight. Average birth weight of the selected HI and LI piglets differed (P < 0.05), whereas birth weight of the HL- and LH-piglets were similar (P > 0.05). These pigs were fattened in group pen and slaughtered at 165 days of age. Pre-weaning performance of the litters and growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits of the selected pigs were assessed. Number of stillborn and pig mortality were greater (P < 0.05) in L- than in H-litters. Consequently, fewer (P < 0.05) piglets were weaned and average litter weaning weight decreased by 38% (P < 0.05). The selected pigs of the L-litters displayed catch-up growth during the starter and grower-finisher periods, leading to similar (P > 0.05) slaughter weight at 165 days of age. However, HL-gilts were more feed efficient and had leaner carcasses than HI-, LH- and LI-pigs (birth weight class × gender interaction P < 0.05). Meat quality traits were mostly similar between groups. The

  14. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: a cross-sectional study of reference values and the discriminative validity of aging

    PubMed Central

    Corbellini, Camilo; Trevisan, Cristiane Brenner Eilert; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Doval da Costa, Alexandre; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate pre-extubation variables and check the discriminative validity of age as well as its correlation with weaning failure in elderly patients. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred thirty-nine consecutive patients (48% female) who were on mechanical ventilation and had undergone orotracheal intubation were divided into four subgroups according to their age: <59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years, and >80 years old. The expiratory volume (VE), respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), and respiratory frequency/tidal volume ratio (f/VT) were used to examine differences in weaning parameters between the four subgroups, and age was correlated with weaning failure. [Results] The rate of weaning failure was 27.8% in patients aged >80 years and 22.1% in patients aged <60 years old. Elderly patients presented higher f/VT and f values and lower VT values. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for f/VT ratio were smaller than those published previously. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that aging influences weaning criteria without causing an increase in weaning failure. PMID:26180354

  15. Effect of different processing techniques on nutritional characteristics of oat (Avena sativa) grains and formulated weaning mixes.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Neha; Awasthi, Pratima

    2014-09-01

    One of the variety of oat, UPO 94 was processed by two simple processing techniques. One method is malting and other is roasting. Malted and roasted oat flour as well as weaning mixes prepared from these two processed flour were analyzed for their nutrient composition, alpha amylase activity and in-vitro protein digestibility. For making weaning mix, oat flour, wheat flour, green gram and skim milk powder were taken in a ratio of 30:30:25:15 respectively. Higher moisture, ash, crude fat, energy, amylase activity, and in-vitro protein digestibility were reported in malted oat flour and weaning mix prepared from malted flour. The minerals, calcium (180.0 mg/100 g) and iron (7.9 mg/100 g) were also higher in malted weaning mix as compared to roasted weaning mix. Both malted and roasted weaning gruels were evaluated for sensory quality characteristics and both were found acceptable by the panel members. PMID:25190893

  16. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: a cross-sectional study of reference values and the discriminative validity of aging.

    PubMed

    Corbellini, Camilo; Trevisan, Cristiane Brenner Eilert; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Doval da Costa, Alexandre; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate pre-extubation variables and check the discriminative validity of age as well as its correlation with weaning failure in elderly patients. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred thirty-nine consecutive patients (48% female) who were on mechanical ventilation and had undergone orotracheal intubation were divided into four subgroups according to their age: <59 years, 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and >80 years old. The expiratory volume (VE), respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), and respiratory frequency/tidal volume ratio (f/VT) were used to examine differences in weaning parameters between the four subgroups, and age was correlated with weaning failure. [Results] The rate of weaning failure was 27.8% in patients aged >80 years and 22.1% in patients aged <60 years old. Elderly patients presented higher f/VT and f values and lower VT values. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for f/VT ratio were smaller than those published previously. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that aging influences weaning criteria without causing an increase in weaning failure. PMID:26180354

  17. Dissociation between the effects of pre-weaning and/or post-weaning social isolation on prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition in adult Sprague--Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Weiss, I C; Domeney, A M; Moreau, J L; Russig, H; Feldon, J

    2001-06-01

    Human attentional impairments can be modelled in the rat using the prepulse inhibition (PPI) or the latent inhibition (LI) paradigm. The present study investigated the consequences of a combination of pre-weaning maternal separation (MS) and post-weaning social isolation (SI) on both PPI and LI in male and female Sprague--Dawley rats tested as adults. We report here a double dissociation between the effects of MS (repeated 4 h daily separations) and SI on PPI and LI: MS did not modify PPI, but enhanced LI. In contrast, SI disrupted PPI, the deficits being restricted to male rats, but left LI intact. There were no additive effects of MS and SI on PPI or LI. While MS improved avoidance learning, SI impaired it. Although both PPI and LI assess processes of selective attention, our results support the contention, already stated in the literature, that they involve differing neuro-psychological mechanisms. Furthermore, the fact that only males exhibited PPI deficits following SI has implications for the well-known differential vulnerability of human males to certain psychiatric disorders (e.g. schizophrenia). Finally, the combination of MS and SI could represent a relevant animal model for some aspects of schizophrenia, since both PPI and LI were altered. PMID:11275298

  18. Gene expression in bovine rumen epithelium during weaning identifies molecular regulators of rumen development and growth.

    PubMed

    Connor, Erin E; Baldwin, Ransom L; Li, Cong-jun; Li, Robert W; Chung, Hoyoung

    2013-03-01

    During weaning, epithelial cell function in the rumen transitions in response to conversion from a pre-ruminant to a true ruminant environment to ensure efficient nutrient absorption and metabolism. To identify gene networks affected by weaning in bovine rumen, Holstein bull calves were fed commercial milk replacer only (MRO) until 42 days of age, then were provided diets of either milk + orchardgrass hay (MH) or milk + grain-based calf starter (MG). Rumen epithelial RNA was extracted from calves sacrificed at four time points: day 14 (n = 3) and day 42 (n = 3) of age while fed the MRO diet and day 56 (n = 3/diet) and day 70 (n = 3/diet) while fed the MH and MG diets for transcript profiling by microarray hybridization. Five two-group comparisons were made using Permutation Analysis of Differential Expression® to identify differentially expressed genes over time and developmental stage between days 14 and 42 within the MRO diet, between day 42 on the MRO diet and day 56 on the MG or MH diets, and between the MG and MH diets at days 56 and 70. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of differentially expressed genes during weaning indicated the top 5 gene networks involving molecules participating in lipid metabolism, cell morphology and death, cellular growth and proliferation, molecular transport, and the cell cycle. Putative genes functioning in the establishment of the rumen microbial population and associated rumen epithelial inflammation during weaning were identified. Activation of transcription factor PPAR-α was identified by IPA software as an important regulator of molecular changes in rumen epithelium that function in papillary development and fatty acid oxidation during the transition from pre-rumination to rumination. Thus, molecular markers of rumen development and gene networks regulating differentiation and growth of rumen epithelium were identified for selecting targets and methods for improving and assessing rumen development and

  19. Complete genome sequence of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ZLR003 isolated from healthy weaned pig.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongyan; Ji, Haifeng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Sixin; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yamin

    2016-06-20

    Lactobacillus reuteri ZLR003 was isolated from the caecum mucosa of healthy weaned pigs with displaying probiotic properties in our laboratory. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of L. reuteri ZLR003, which consists of a circular 2,234,097bp chromosome (G+C content of 38.66%). Such information will provide insights into the molecular mechanism of its probiotic activity and facilitate its application in animal production. PMID:27130498

  20. Marine macroalgal extracts to maintain gut homeostasis in the weaning piglet.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, T; O'Doherty, J V

    2016-07-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a dynamic environment, where a symbiotic relationship exists between the resident microbiota and the digestive and immune systems of the host. The development of the immune system begins in-utero and is further developed after the colonization of the GIT with microbiota during birth and postnatal life. The early establishment of this relationship is fundamental to the development and long-term maintenance of gut homeostasis. Regulatory mechanisms ensure an appropriate level of immune reactivity in the gut to accommodate the presence of beneficial and dietary microorganisms, whereas allowing effective immune responses to clear pathogens. However, unfavorable alterations in the composition of the microbiota, known as dysbiosis, have been implicated in many conditions including post-weaning diarrhea in pigs. Weaning is a major critical period in pig husbandry. It involves complex dietary, social, and environmental stresses that interfere with gut development. Post-weaning complications in piglets are characterized by a reduction in-feed intake and growth, atrophy of small intestine architecture, upregulation of intestinal inflammatory cytokines, alterations in GIT microflora, diarrhea, and heightened susceptibility to infection. These challenges have been controlled with in-feed prophylactic antibiotics and dietary minerals. However, these strategies are under scrutiny because of their role in promoting multidrug resistant bacteria and the accumulation of minerals in the environment, respectively. Therefore, significant efforts are being made to identify natural alternatives to support homeostasis in the piglet GIT, in particular during the weaning period. Chemodiversity in nature; including microorganisms, terrestrial plants, seaweeds, and marine organisms, offers a valuable source for novel bioactives. In this review, we discuss the advances in our understanding of the immune mechanisms by which the dynamic interplay of

  1. Ear necrosis syndrome in weaning pigs associated with PCV2 infection: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Papatsiros, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Porcine necrotic ear syndrome (PNES) in pigs has been reported as an increasing health problem in many countries with intensive pig farming. The etiology of this disease is complex and the presumed triggering factors can be divided into infectious and non-infectious agents. The present report describes a case of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2), infection associated with lesions of PNES at the weaning stage of a farrow-to-finish pig farm. Approximately 35% of weaners (1-3 weeks after weaning) presented clinical symptoms similar to Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS). About 2-3 weeks after weaning the first lesions of PNES occurred in approximately 20% of pigs, resulting in a significant health problem characterized by poor growth or severe wasting and finally mortality up to 15% in some batches. Moreover, approximately 5% of survived weaners, during growing / finishing stage, presented poor growth and secondary co-infections that lead to death. The present study based on the clinical signs, serological and pathological examinations, indicates that weaners suffered by sub-acute PCV2 infection resulting in PMWS associated with PNES. The lesions of PNES were initially observed at the same period (4-8 weeks of age) with the higher seroprevalence of PCV2 infection. Metaphylaxis of this case included intramuscular injection of florfenicol for the treatment and control of skin lesions and respiratory signs. Moreover, piglets were vaccinated against PCV2. In conclusion, sub-acute PCV2 infection could be included in triggering factors PNES in weaners. The mass vaccination against PCV2 of infected piglets might be effective in reduction of clinical signs and losses of PNES in cases of PCV2 infection associated with PNES. PMID:25610573

  2. Abdominal Functional Electrical Stimulation to Assist Ventilator Weaning in Acute Tetraplegia: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McCaughey, Euan J.; Berry, Helen R.; McLean, Alan N.; Allan, David B.; Gollee, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe impairment of the major respiratory muscles resulting from tetraplegia reduces respiratory function, causing many people with tetraplegia to require mechanical ventilation during the acute stage of injury. Abdominal Functional Electrical Stimulation (AFES) can improve respiratory function in non-ventilated patients with sub-acute and chronic tetraplegia. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical feasibility of using an AFES training program to improve respiratory function and assist ventilator weaning in acute tetraplegia. Methods AFES was applied for between 20 and 40 minutes per day, five times per week on four alternate weeks, with 10 acute ventilator dependent tetraplegic participants. Each participant was matched retrospectively with a ventilator dependent tetraplegic control, based on injury level, age and sex. Tidal Volume (VT) and Vital Capacity (VC) were measured weekly, with weaning progress compared to the controls. Results Compliance to training sessions was 96.7%. Stimulated VT was significantly greater than unstimulated VT. VT and VC increased throughout the study, with mean VC increasing significantly (VT: 6.2 mL/kg to 7.8 mL/kg VC: 12.6 mL/kg to 18.7 mL/kg). Intervention participants weaned from mechanical ventilation on average 11 (sd: ± 23) days faster than their matched controls. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that AFES is a clinically feasible technique for acute ventilator dependent tetraplegic patients and that this intervention may improve respiratory function and enable faster weaning from mechanical ventilation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02200393 PMID:26047468

  3. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  4. Effect of High Dietary Tryptophan on Intestinal Morphology and Tight Junction Protein of Weaned Pig

    PubMed Central

    Tossou, Myrlene Carine B.; Bai, Miaomiao; Chen, Shuai; Cai, Yinghua; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Liu, Hongbin; Adebowale, Tolulope O.; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Long, Lina; Tarique, Hussain; Oso, Abimbola O.; Liu, Gang; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) plays an essential role in pig behavior and growth performances. However, little is known about Trp's effects on tight junction barrier and intestinal health in weaned pigs. In the present study, twenty-four (24) weaned pigs were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments with 8 piglets/treatments. The piglets were fed different amounts of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as follows: 0.0%, 0.15, and 0.75%, respectively, named zero Trp (ZTS), low Trp (LTS), and high Trp (HTS), respectively. No significant differences were observed in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain: feed (G/F) ratio between the groups. After 21 days of the feeding trial, results showed that dietary Trp significantly increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth and significantly decreased (P < 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio (VH/CD) in the jejunum of pig fed HTS. In addition, pig fed HTS had higher (P < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactate. Furthermore, pig fed HTS significantly decreased mRNA expression of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 but not claudin-1 in the jejunum. The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and goblet cells were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between the groups. Collectively, these data suggest that dietary Trp supplementation at a certain level (0.75%) may negatively affect the small intestinal structure in weaned pig. PMID:27366740

  5. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods.

    PubMed

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy. PMID:25910465

  6. Effects of Chitosan on Intestinal Inflammation in Weaned Pigs Challenged by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dingfu; Wang, Yongfei; Liu, Gang; He, Jianhua; Qiu, Wei; Hu, Xionggui; Feng, Zemeng; Ran, Maoliang; Nyachoti, Charles M.; Kim, Sung Woo; Tang, Zhiru; Yin, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with chitosan (COS) could reduce diarrhea and to explore how COS alleviates intestinal inflammation in weaned pigs. Thirty pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire, initial BW of 5.65±0.27) weaned at age 21 d were challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli during a preliminary trial period, and then divided into three treatment groups. Pigs in individual pens were fed a corn-soybean meal diet, that contained either 0 (control), 50 mg/kg chlortetracycline, or 300 mg/kg COS for 21 days. The post-weaning diarrhea frequency, calprotectin levels and TLR4 protein expression were decreased (P<0.05) in both the COS and chlortetracycline groups compared with control. Simultaneously, supplemental COS and chlortetracycline had no effect on the mRNA expression of TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa, or on the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum. However, COS supplementation improved (P<0.05) the mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-6 in the jejunal mucosa. The results indicate that supplementation with COS at 300 mg/kg was effective for alleviating intestinal inflammation and enhancing the cell-mediated immune response. As feed additives, chitosan and chlortetracycline may influence different mechanisms for alleviating inflammation in piglets. PMID:25090447

  7. Glutamine supplementation maintains intramuscular glutamine concentrations and normalizes lymphocyte function in infected early weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Yoo, S S; Field, C J; McBurney, M I

    1997-11-01

    Numerous studies in humans and rats have shown that glutamine supplementation during stressful conditions has favorable outcomes. However, the requirements for glutamine during weaning are unknown. Thus, the effects of glutamine supplementation in healthy and infected weaned pigs were investigated. At 21 d of age, pigs were weaned to an elemental diet supplemented with glutamine (+Gln) or an isonitrogenous diet containing nonessential amino acids (-Gln). At 26 d of age, pigs were intraperitoneally injected with Escherichia coli (+Ecoli) or buffered saline (-Ecoli) and killed at 28 d of age. Infection decreased (P < 0.05) plasma and intramuscular glutamine concentrations, but infected pigs that received +Gln diets had higher intramuscular glutamine levels than those that received -Gln diets. Infected pigs had elevated (P < 0.05) total leukocyte counts, and blood lymphocyte responses ([3H]-thymidine incorporation) to a mixture of phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin were reduced. White blood cell counts were greater (P < 0.05) in +Gln than -Gln pigs. The peak responses to concanavalin A (Con A) by lymphocytes of +Ecoli+Gln pigs were greater (P < 0.05) than those of +Ecoli-Gln pigs and not different than those of noninfected pigs. Hence, glutamine supplementation maintained muscular glutamine concentrations and normalized lymphocyte function in infected pigs. PMID:9349855

  8. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy.

  9. Post-weaning maternal effects and the evolution of female dominance in the spotted hyena.

    PubMed

    Watts, Heather E; Tanner, Jaime B; Lundrigan, Barbara L; Holekamp, Kay E

    2009-06-22

    Mammalian societies in which females dominate males are rare, and the factors favouring the evolution of female dominance have yet to be clearly identified. We propose a new hypothesis for the evolution of female dominance and test its predictions with empirical data from the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), a well-studied species characterized by female dominance. We suggest that constraints imposed by the development of a feeding apparatus specialized for bone cracking, in combination with the intensive feeding competition characteristic of spotted hyenas, led to the evolution of female dominance. Specifically, we propose that protracted development of the feeding apparatus in young hyenas led to selection for increased aggressiveness in females as a compensatory mechanism for mothers to secure food access for their young after weaning. Our analyses yielded results consistent with this hypothesis. Morphological and behavioural measurements indicate that skull development is indeed protracted in this species; spotted hyenas do not achieve adult skull size or feeding performance capabilities until after sexual maturity. The period between weaning and completed skull development is particularly challenging, as indicated by high mortality. Finally, maternal presence between weaning and full skull maturity, as well as the relative ability of females to aggressively displace conspecifics from food, are important determinants of offspring survival. PMID:19324728

  10. The Effects of Guided Imagery on Patients Being Weaned from Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Spiva, LeeAnna; Hart, Patricia L.; Gallagher, Erin; McVay, Frank; Garcia, Melida; Malley, Karen; Kadner, Marsha; Segars, Angela; Brakovich, Betsy; Horton, Sonja Y.; Smith, Novlette

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose was to assess the effects of guided imagery on sedation levels, sedative and analgesic volume consumption, and physiological responses of patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation. Forty-two patients were selected from two community acute care hospitals. One hospital served as the comparison group and provided routine care (no intervention) while the other hospital provided the guided imagery intervention. The intervention included two sessions, each lasting 60 minutes, offered during morning weaning trials from mechanical ventilation. Measurements were recorded in groups at baseline and 30- and 60-minute intervals and included vital signs and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) score. Sedative and analgesic medication volume consumption were recorded 24 hours prior to and after the intervention. The guided imagery group had significantly improved RASS scores and reduced sedative and analgesic volume consumption. During the second session, oxygen saturation levels significantly improved compared to the comparison group. Guided imagery group had 4.88 less days requiring mechanical ventilation and 1.4 reduction in hospital length of stay compared to the comparison group. Guided imagery may be complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) intervention to provide during mechanical ventilation weaning trials. PMID:26640501

  11. Aspects on feed related prophylactic measures aiming to prevent post weaning diarrhoea in pigs.

    PubMed

    Melin, L; Wallgren, P

    2002-01-01

    The ability of feed related measures to prevent or reduce post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was examined in a split litter study including 30 pigs from 6 litters allotted into 5 groups. Four groups were exposed to 3 pathogenic strains of E. coli via the environment at weaning. Three of them were given zinc oxide, lactose+fibres or non-pathogenic strains of E. coil as probiotics. The challenged and the unchallenged control groups were given a standard creep feed. Diarrhoea was observed in all challenged groups but not among uninfected animals, and the incidence of diarrhoea was lower in the group given nonpathogenic E. coli compared to all other challenged groups. The severity of PWD also differed between litters. When corrected for mortality due to PWD, a decreased incidence of diarrhoea was also seen in the groups given zinc oxide or lactose+fibres. The dominating serotype of E. coil within faecal samples varied from day to day, also among diarrhoeic pigs, indicating that diarrhoea was not induced by one single serotype alone. The diversity of the faecal coliform populations decreased in all piglets during the first week post weaning, coinciding with an increased similarity between these populations among pigs in the challenged groups. This indicated an influence of the challenge strains, which ceased during the second week. The group given lactose+fibres was least affected with respect to these parameters. In conclusion feed related measures may alleviate symptoms of PWD. PMID:12831176

  12. Aspects on Feed Related Prophylactic Measures Aiming to Prevent Post Weaning Diarrhoea in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Melin, L; Wallgren, P

    2002-01-01

    The ability of feed related measures to prevent or reduce post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was examined in a split litter study including 30 pigs from 6 litters allotted into 5 groups. Four groups were exposed to 3 pathogenic strains of E. coli via the environment at weaning. Three of them were given zinc oxide, lactose+fibres or non-pathogenic strains of E. coli as probiotics. The challenged and the unchallenged control groups were given a standard creep feed. Diarrhoea was observed in all challenged groups but not among uninfected animals, and the incidence of diarrhoea was lower in the group given non-pathogenic E. coli compared to all other challenged groups. The severity of PWD also differed between litters. When corrected for mortality due to PWD, a decreased incidence of diarrhoea was also seen in the groups given zinc oxide or lactose+fibres. The dominating serotype of E. coli within faecal samples varied from day to day, also among diarrhoeic pigs, indicating that diarrhoea was not induced by one single serotype alone. The diversity of the faecal coliform populations decreased in all piglets during the first week post weaning, coinciding with an increased similarity between these populations among pigs in the challenged groups. This indicated an influence of the challenge strains, which ceased during the second week. The group given lactose+fibres was least affected with respect to these parameters. In conclusion feed related measures may alleviate symptoms of PWD. PMID:12831176

  13. Improving adaptation to weaning: effect of intermittent suckling regimens on piglet feed intake, growth, and gut characteristics.

    PubMed

    Berkeveld, M; Langendijk, P; Soede, N M; Kemp, B; Taverne, M A M; Verheijden, J H M; Kuijken, N; Koets, A P

    2009-10-01

    Daily separation of sows and piglets during lactation, intermittent suckling (IS), improves feed intake and postweaning adaptation in piglets. The aim of the current study was to determine how, in piglets that have been subjected to IS, age at weaning and the duration of the preceding IS period contribute to postweaning adaptation through effects on feed intake, growth, and gut characteristics. All piglets had ad libitum access to creep feed from d 7. Litters were subjected to conventional weaning (CW) or to 1 of 3 IS regimens. In CW, litters (n = 29) had continuous access to the sow until weaning (d 26, d 0 = farrowing). During IS, litters had access to the sow between 1600 and 0600 h. Litters in the IS treatments were subjected to IS 1) from d 19 onward and weaned at d 26 (IS19-7D, n = 33), 2) from d 19 onward and weaned at d 33 (IS19-14D, n = 28), or 3) from d 26 onward and weaned at d 33 (IS26-7D, n = 33). The IS19-7D regimen resulted in a relative growth check within the first 2 d after weaning similar to CW litters (72 +/- 13 and 90 +/- 7%, respectively), but in a greater piglet growth (P = 0.014) and feed intake (P = 0.001) between d 2 and 7 postweaning. Moreover, IS19-7D was not associated with a (further) reduction in villus height as observed at d 2 postweaning in CW litters. In IS piglets weaned after an extended lactation (d 33), a markedly smaller weaning-associated relative growth check was observed shortly postweaning (11 +/- 18 and 32 +/- 19% for IS19-14D and IS26-7D litters, respectively). In these litters, feed intake and growth within the first 2 d after weaning were slightly greater when piglets were subjected to IS for 2 wk (IS19-14D) rather than for 1 wk (IS26-7D; P = 0.032 and P = 0.037 for feed intake and growth, respectively). Irrespective of duration of IS, weaning at d 33 with IS was not associated with a reduction in villus height. Irrespective of treatment, plasma citrulline concentrations were reduced at d 2 and 8 postweaning compared

  14. [Nutrition and body weight].

    PubMed

    Gohlke, H

    2002-01-01

    Certain dietary components play a key role for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Complex carbohydrates lower the prevalence of CAD. Protein should provide 15% of daily calories. Populations with a high consumption of soy protein have a low coronary event rate and a high life expectancy. Soy protein has a favorable effect on LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol correlates with an increased incidence of CAD. Saturated fats increase cholesterol levels as well as the activity of clotting factor VII and promote progression of CAD. Mono-(MUFA) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids lower LDL-cholesterol to a similar extent. MUFA are contained in rape seed oil, olive oil and pea nut oil, but also in avocados and almonds. Omega-3-fatty acids are in fatty fish like salmon, tuna and herring and improve survival after myocardial infarction. They improve among others endothelial function (adhesion molecules). Eating 1-2 fish meals per week has a preventive effect on CAD and stroke. Dietary fiber decreases the risk for CAD up to 30% and favorably influences carbohydrate metabolism. Antioxidants have a favorable effect in their natural form (fruits and fresh vegetables). The secondary preventive effect of a mediterranean diet after myocardial infarction (probably by a combination of the above effects) has been validated. Body weight correlates with coronary risk, diabetes and use of health care resources. A reduction of body weight is best achieved by calory reduction plus an increase of physical activity. A calory-adjusted diet, low in total fat with a significant proportion of unsaturated fats and omega-3-fatty acids and rich in fiber is of great importance for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fruits, vegetables and whole grain products are important components of this diet, which lowers the coronary event rate, increases longevity and is associated with a low rate of malignancies and osteoporosis. PMID

  15. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  16. Comparison of the biological activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-expressed intracellular EGF, extracellular EGF, and tagged EGF in early-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujin; Guo, Chunhua; Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Zhengfan; Huang, Yanling; Yang, Jiabao; Bai, Xue; Yang, Kuanmin

    2015-09-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) ameliorates stress and prevents incomplete gastrointestinal development in early-weaned piglets in commercial swine farming. This study aimed to further analyze the biological activities of intracellularly expressed EGF (IE-EGF), extracellularly expressed EGF (EE-EGF), and tagged EGF (T-EGF) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in early-weaned pigs. In this study, we assigned 24 pigs to each of 5 groups that were provided a basic diet (the control group) or a diet supplemented with empty vector-expressing S. cerevisiae [the INVSc1(EV) group], T-EGF-expressing S. cerevisiae [the INVSc1-TE(-) group], EE-EGF-expressing S. cerevisiae [the INVSc1-EE(+) group], or IE-EGF-expressing S. cerevisiae [the INVSc1-IE(+) group]. All treatments were delivered at a dose of 60 μg EGF/kg body weight (BW) everyday. All the piglets were sacrificed after 21 day to determine their physio-biochemical indexes, immune functions, and intestinal development. In the piglet experiments, recombinant S. cerevisiae survived throughout the intestinal tract. The BW and intestinal development (e.g., mean villous height, crypt depth, villous height:crypt depth ratio (IVR), and total protein, DNA, and RNA contents) of the piglets were significantly enhanced in the INVSc1-IE(+) group compared with the animals in the INVSc1-EE(+) and INVSc1-TE(-) groups (P < 0.05). In addition, increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining was observed in the piglets that received the INVSc1-IE(+) treatment (approximately 80 %) compared with those that received the INVSc1-TE(-) (approximately 70 %) and INVSc1-EE(+) treatments (approximately 70 %). The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were also significantly increased in the INVSc1-IE(+) group compared with the INVSc1-EE(+) and INVSc1-TE(-) groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the proliferation of

  17. Physicochemical properties and nutritional quality of raw cereals for newly weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    White, G A; Doucet, F J; Hill, S E; Wiseman, J

    2008-06-01

    The digestibility of the starch component of raw cereals in newly weaned piglets is highly variable. Reasons for this must be elucidated if the most suitable cereals are to be used. A novel approach was employed, which consisted of assessing the physicochemical properties (rapid visco analysis, water absorption and solubility indices, particle size distribution and in vitro amylolytic digestion) of eight raw cereals contained within piglet diets and subsequently relating this in vitro data to the biological responses of weaned piglets. Trial 1 examined soft and hard wheat, trial 2 - soft wheat, barley, rye and triticale, and trial 3 - soft wheat, naked oats, whole oats and maize. The initial observation was that in vitro testing prior to animal trials is recommended in nutritional evaluation since it indicated fundamental differences between raw cereals, such as for example the levels of endogenous amylase in wheat. Starch and nitrogen digestibility differed between cereals (apparent digestibility coefficients at the 0.5 site of the small intestine ranged from 0.10 to 0.69 for starch and from 0.17 to 0.68 for nitrogen). There is also a probable relationship between the coefficients of ileal apparent starch digestibility, at approximately halfway from the gastric pylorus to the ileocaecal valve, and the presence of endogenous amylase (mean values of 0.53 and 0.62 in trials 2 and 3, respectively, for the higher amylase wheat; 0.38 for the low-amylase wheat used in trial 1). This additional variable (i.e. the unforeseen presence of endogenous amylase) in wheat made it more difficult to draw a firm conclusion about the nutritional suitability of the different cereals. All raw-cereal diets caused atrophy of the villi during the initial week following weaning, but the soft wheat was associated with the highest comparative villi height and might therefore be considered the best of all raw cereals in minimising the post-weaning growth check. For wheat, this might also

  18. Informed Test Component Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…

  19. Maternal and post-weaning high-fat, high-sucrose diet modulates glucose homeostasis and hypothalamic POMC promoter methylation in mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong

    2015-10-01

    Substantial evidence demonstrated that maternal dietary nutrients can significantly determine the susceptibility to developing metabolic disorders in the offspring. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the later-life effects of maternal and postweaning diets interaction on epigenetic modification of the central nervous system in the offspring. We examined the effects of dams fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (FS) diet during pregnancy and lactation and weaned to FS diet continuously until 32 weeks of age. Then, DNA methylation and gene expressions of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) were determined in the offspring. Offspring of FS diet had heavier body weight, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity and higher serum leptin level at 32-week age (p < 0.05). The expression of POMC and MC4R genes were significantly increased in offspring exposed to FS diet during gestation, lactation and into 32-week age (p < 0.05). Consistently, hypomethylation of POMC promoter in the hypothalamus occurred in the FS diet offspring (p < 0.05), compared with the C group. However, no methylation was detected of MC4R promoter in both the two groups. Furthermore, POMC-specific methylation (%) was negatively associated with glucose response to a glucose load (r = -0.273, p = 0.039). Maternal and post-weaning high-fat diet predisposes the offspring for obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in later life. Our findings can advance our thinking around the DNA methylation status of the promoter of the POMC and MC4R genes between long-term high-fat, high-sucrose diet and glucose homeostasis in mouse. PMID:25936720

  20. Response to weaning and dietary L-glutamine supplementation: metabolomic analysis in piglets by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ying-ping; Wu, Tian-xing; Hong, Qi-hua; Sun, Jiang-ming; Chen, An-guo; Yang, Cai-mei; Li, Xiao-yan

    2012-01-01

    A novel metabolomic method based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to determine the metabolites in the serum of piglets in response to weaning and dietary L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation. Thirty-six 21-d-old piglets were randomly assigned into three groups. One group continued to suckle from the sows (suckling group), whereas the other two groups were weaned and their diets were supplemented with 1% (w/w) Gln or isonitrogenous L-alanine, respectively, representing Gln group or control group. Serum samples were collected to characterize metabolites after a 7-d treatment. Results showed that twenty metabolites were down-regulated significantly (P<0.05) in control piglets compared with suckling ones. These data demonstrated that early weaning causes a wide range of metabolic changes across arginine and proline metabolism, aminosugar and nucleotide metabolism, galactose metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, and fatty acid metabolism. Dietary Gln supplementation increased the levels of creatinine,D-xylose, 2-hydroxybutyric acid, palmitelaidic acid, and α-L-galactofuranose (P<0.05) in early weaned piglets, and were involved in the arginine and proline metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. A leave-one-out cross-validation of random forest analysis indicated that creatinine was the most important metabolite among the three groups. Notably, the concentration of creatinine in control piglets was decreased (P=0.00001) compared to the suckling piglets, and increased (P=0.0003) in Gln-supplemented piglets. A correlation network for weaned and suckling piglets revealed that early weaning changed the metabolic pathways, leading to the abnormality of carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and lipid metabolism, which could be partially improved by dietary Gln supplementation. These findings provide fresh insight into the complex metabolic changes in response to early

  1. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Measure and Interpret Weight Status Adult Body Mass Index or BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms divided ... finding your height and weight in this BMI Index Chart 1 . If your BMI is less than ...

  2. Physical exercise introduced after weaning enhances pancreatic islet responsiveness to glucose and potentiating agents in adult MSG-obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, R A; Bonfleur, M L; Vanzela, E C; Zotti, A I; Scomparin, D X; Boschero, A C; Balbo, S L

    2014-08-01

    Physical exercise represents an alternative way to prevent and/or ameliorate chronic metabolic diseases. Disruption of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity contributes to adiposity in obese subjects. Here, we verified the preventive effect of swimming training upon adiposity, adrenal catecholamine storage, and pancreatic islet function in obese monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated rats. Male neonatal Wistar rats received MSG (4 mg/g body weight) during the first 5 days of life and, at weaning, half of the rats were submitted to swimming training, 30 min/day, 3 days a week, until 90 days of age (exercised rats: MSGex). Half of the rats were used as controls (sedentary group, MSGsd). Exercise training (ET) decreased insulinemia and fat deposition in MSGex, and increased adrenal catecholamine content, compared with MSGsd rats. Insulinemia during the ivGTT was lower in MSGex rats, despite a lack of difference in glycemia. Swimming training enhanced insulin release in islets challenged by 2.8-8.3 mmol/l glucose, whereas, at supraphysiological glucose concentrations (11.1-16.7 mmol/l), MSGex islets secreted less insulin than MSGsd. No differences in insulin secretion were observed following l-arginine (Arg) or K(+) stimuli. In contrast, islets from MSGex rats secreted more insulin when exposed to carbachol (100 μmol/l), forskolin (10 μmol/l), or IBMX (1 mmol/l) at 8.3 mmol/l glucose. Additionally, MSGex islets presented a better epinephrine inhibition upon insulin release. These results demonstrate that ET prevented the onset of obesity in MSG rats, probably by enhancing adrenal catecholamine levels. ET ameliorates islet responsiveness to several compounds, as well as insulin peripheral action. PMID:24554535

  3. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Rate Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances... On September 26, 2013, the Postal Service filed an exigent rate request with the Commission...

  4. Adjustable holder for transducer mounting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deotsch, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Positioning of acoustic sensor, strain gage, or similar transducer is facilitated by adjustable holder. Developed for installation on Space Shuttle, it includes springs for maintaining uniform load on transducer with adjustable threaded cap for precisely controlling position of sensor with respect to surrounding structure.

  5. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  6. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  7. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( < 0.05). Romosinuano direct effects (of the cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( < 0.05) for calves of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( < 0.05) than other groups. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( < 0.05) at all times but had more weight loss in late lactation. Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to

  8. Fecal Microbial Diversity in Pre-Weaned Dairy Calves as Described by Pyrosequencing of Metagenomic 16S rDNA. Associations of Faecalibacterium Species with Health and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomou, Georgios; Teixeira, Andre Gustavo Vieira; Foditsch, Carla; Bicalho, Marcela Lucas; Machado, Vinicius Silva; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the fecal microbiota of neonatal calves and identify possible relationships of certain microbiota profiles with health and weight gain. Fecal samples were obtained weekly from 61 calves from birth until weaning (seventh week of the calves' life). Firmicutes was the most prevalent phylum, with a prevalence ranging from 63.84% to 81.90%, followed by Bacteroidetes (8.36% to 23.93%), Proteobacteria (3.72% to 9.75%), Fusobacteria (0.76% to 5.67%), and Actinobacteria (1.02% to 2.35%). Chao1 index gradually increased from the first to the seventh postnatal week. Chao1 index was lower during the third, fourth, and fifth week of life in calves that suffered from pneumonia and were treated with antibiotics. Diarrhea incidence during the first four weeks of the calves' life was also associated with a reduction of microbial diversity during the third week of life. Increased fecal microbial diversity after the second week of life was associated with higher weight gain. Using discriminant analysis we were able to show differences in the microbiota profiles between different weeks of life, between high and low weight gain groups of calves, and between calves affected and not affected with diarrhea during the first four weeks life. The prevalence of Faecalibacterium spp. in the first week of life was associated with weight gain and the incidence of diarrhea, with higher prevalence being associated with higher weight gain and less diarrhea. Representative sequences from Faecalibacterium spp. were closely affiliated to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results presented here provide new information regarding the intestinal microbiota of neonatal calves and its association with health and growth. Fecal microbial diversity was associated with calf age, disease status and growth rates. Results suggesting a possible beneficial effect of Faecalibacterium spp. on health and growth are promising. PMID:23646192

  9. Transthoracic Echocardiography with Doppler Tissue Imaging predicts weaning failure from mechanical ventilation: evolution of the left ventricle relaxation rate during a spontaneous breathing trial is the key factor in weaning outcome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is growing evidence to suggest that transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) should be used to identify the cardiac origin of respiratory weaning failure. The aims of our study were: first, to evaluate the ability of transthoracic echocardiography, with mitral Doppler inflow E velocity to annular tissue Doppler Ea wave velocity (E/Ea) ratio measurement, to predict weaning failure from mechanical ventilation in patients, including those with atrial fibrillation; and second, to determine whether the depressed left ejection fraction and/or diastolic dysfunction participate in weaning outcome. Methods The sample included patients on mechanical ventilation for over 48 hours. A complete echocardiography was performed just before the spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) and 10 minutes after starting the SBT. Systolic dysfunction was defined by a left ventricle ejection fraction under 50% and relaxation impairment by a protodiastolic annulus mitral velocity Ea under or equal to 8 cm/second. Results A total of 68 patients were included. Twenty failed the weaning process and the other 48 patients succeeded. Before the SBT, the E/Ea ratio was higher in the failed group than in the successful group. The E/Ea measured during the SBT was also higher in the failed group. The cut-off value, obtained from receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, to predict weaning failure gave an E/Ea ratio during the SBT of 14.5 with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 95.8%. The left ventricular ejection fraction did not differ between the two groups whereas Ea was lower in the failed group. Ea increased during SBT in the successful group while no change occurred in the failed group. Conclusions Measurement of the E/Ea ratio with TTE could predict weaning failure. Diastolic dysfunction with relaxation impairment is strongly associated with weaning failure. Moreover, the impossibility of enhancing the left ventricle relaxation rate during the SBT seems to be the

  10. Relationship between Body Weight of Primiparous Sows during Late Gestation and Subsequent Reproductive Efficiency over Six Parities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Soo; Yang, Xiaojian; Baidoo, Samuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of parity 1 gilt body weight during late gestation (d 109) on subsequent reproductive performance of sows and performance of suckling pigs. A total of 2,404 farrowing records over 6 parities were divided into six groups on the basis of body weight (190, 200, 210, 220, 230, and 240 kg) at d 109 of gestation of 585 gilts. Significant effects (p< 0.05) of body weight on sow retention rate was noticed, with the 210 kg group having the lowest culling rate and highest total number of piglets born alive over the 6 parities. With increase of body weight, a linear increase (p<0.05) in losses of body weight and backfat during the lactation period of parity 1 and a linear decrease (p<0.05) in backfat loss for parities 4 and 6 were found. Compared with light sows, heavy sows had higher (p<0.05) litter weight at birth for parities 1 and 2 and at weaning in parity 1. Sow weaning-to-estrus interval of sows was not influenced (p>0.05) by body weight. In conclusion, maintaining optimal body weight during gestation would be beneficial to sows and suckling piglets. PMID:26954198

  11. Relationship between Body Weight of Primiparous Sows during Late Gestation and Subsequent Reproductive Efficiency over Six Parities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Soo; Yang, Xiaojian; Baidoo, Samuel Kofi

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the impact of parity 1 gilt body weight during late gestation (d 109) on subsequent reproductive performance of sows and performance of suckling pigs. A total of 2,404 farrowing records over 6 parities were divided into six groups on the basis of body weight (190, 200, 210, 220, 230, and 240 kg) at d 109 of gestation of 585 gilts. Significant effects (p< 0.05) of body weight on sow retention rate was noticed, with the 210 kg group having the lowest culling rate and highest total number of piglets born alive over the 6 parities. With increase of body weight, a linear increase (p<0.05) in losses of body weight and backfat during the lactation period of parity 1 and a linear decrease (p<0.05) in backfat loss for parities 4 and 6 were found. Compared with light sows, heavy sows had higher (p<0.05) litter weight at birth for parities 1 and 2 and at weaning in parity 1. Sow weaning-to-estrus interval of sows was not influenced (p>0.05) by body weight. In conclusion, maintaining optimal body weight during gestation would be beneficial to sows and suckling piglets. PMID:26954198

  12. Charting weight four times daily as an effective behavioural approach to obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomohide; Kiuchi, Yuka; Nemoto, Mitsuru; Yamashita, Shigeo

    2014-03-01

    Although many obese people successfully lose weight by dieting and/or behavioural therapy, most of them subsequently regain the lost weight. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are required to maintain weight loss. We report a woman with type 2 diabetes and moderate obesity who succeeded in achieving good glycaemic control and long-term weight loss with weaning from insulin therapy, while charting her weight four times daily. This charting method might be useful for long-term maintenance of weight reduction in obese diabetic patients. Obese patients can monitor their irregular weight fluctuations produced by overeating and correct both their food intake and their lifestyle. Further studies, including randomized control trials, will be needed to confirm the efficacy of this approach in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24227536

  13. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure

  14. Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 supplementation affects intestinal immune-associated gene expression in post-weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Siepert, Bianca; Reinhardt, Nicole; Kreuzer, Susanne; Bondzio, Angelika; Twardziok, Sven; Brockmann, Gudrun; Nöckler, Karsten; Szabó, Istvan; Janczyk, Pawel; Pieper, Robert; Tedin, Karsten

    2014-01-15

    In a Salmonella challenge study of weaned piglets supplemented with the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (SF68), we observed a delayed, post-infection proliferative response of purified blood mononuclear cell fractions towards Salmonella antigens. In order to clarify this observation, we examined the patterns of immune-associated gene expression in long-term feeding trials of both pre- and post-weaning piglets. Piglets supplemented with E. faecium NCIMB 10415 showed a post-weaning dysregulation in the expression patterns of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in intestinal tissues and spleen. Piglets of the supplemented group showed significantly reduced levels of IL-8, IL-10 and the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 mRNA expression in ileal Peyer's patches. The expression of CTLA4, an inhibitor of T-cell activation/proliferation, showed similar levels of expression in all tissues examined, particularly in ileal Peyer's patches post-weaning where IL-8, IL-10 and CD86 transcript levels were significantly reduced relative to control animals. Blood serum cytokine protein levels showed elevated TGFβ in pre-weaning piglets which, together with IL-6, may have suppressed IFNγ production in the probiotic-fed animals. In a second Salmonella challenge study, post-weaning, E. faecium-fed animals showed significantly elevated levels of IL-8 gene expression in mesenteric lymph nodes, but reduced levels in the spleen. At early times post-infection, the probiotic-fed group showed similar levels of IL-10, CD86 and CTLA4 mRNA expression as the control animals in intestinal Peyer's Patches, despite high relative levels of IL-8 expression in mesenteric lymph nodes. The sum of the observations suggests that supplementation of pre-weaning piglets with E. faecium affects intestinal immune-associated gene expression, which is aggravated post-weaning when the animals receive increased levels of the probiotic in feed. We suggest the post-weaning reductions in gene

  15. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  16. Should weaning be the start of the reproductive cycle in hyper-prolific sows? A physiological view.

    PubMed

    Kemp, B; Soede, N M

    2012-08-01

    Normally, sows are in anoestrus during lactation and start their new cycle at the day of weaning. Modern hybrid primiparous sows that suckle large numbers of piglets may lose substantial amounts of body reserves during lactation. This compromises follicle development during lactation. As modern sows have short weaning-to-oestrus intervals, these compromised follicles are recruited for ovulation directly after weaning, resulting in lower ovulation rates and lower embryo survival. Postponing or skipping first oestrus after weaning in primiparous sows may help to limit the negative consequences of lactation on subsequent reproduction. Multiparous sows may have very high litter sizes, especially after long lactations as applied in organic sows. These high litter sizes compromise piglet birthweight and survival and subsequent performance. Inducing lactation oestrus in multiparous sows may help to limit litter size and improve piglet survival and performance. This study discusses physiological and reproductive effects of extending the start of a new pregnancy after lactation in primiparous sows and induction of lactation oestrus in multiparous sows. We thereby challenge the view that weaning is an ideal start for the reproductive cycle in modern sows. PMID:22827387

  17. Humoral antibody response and oocyst shedding after experimental infection of histocompatible newborn and weaned piglets with Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed

    Arnault, I; Répérant, J M; Naciri, M

    1994-01-01

    Experimental inoculations (mono- and multi-inoculations) with C parvum isolated from a diarrheic child and maintained on calves, were performed on 2 histocompatible miniature (d/d haplotype) weaned 4-week-old piglets and 2 newborn piglets. In each group, 1 piglet received water at the moment of inoculation and served as a negative control. Our results showed that the piglet strain used was resistant to cryptosporidiosis. No clinical sign or oocyst shedding were observed in newborn piglets. A very weak shedding was noticed on day 6 (D6) post-inoculation in inoculated weaned piglets. Using ELISA, inoculated weaned piglets showed a peak of G, M and total antibodies on D10. Specific IgA antibody production peaked on D20. During the experiment on newborn piglets, no peak of specific IgA production was detected. Using immunoblotting, sera of both inoculated weaned piglets and one inoculated newborn piglet were shown to recognize a 14.5-16.5 kDa protein. A 23 kDa antigen was recognized by all 3 uninoculated and inoculated weaned piglets. A difference between mono and multi-inoculations was not clearly demonstrated. Age did not play any role. This pig strain does not seem to be a good model to induce acute cryptosporidiosis. PMID:8087146

  18. Low Folate and Selenium in the Mouse Maternal Diet Alters Liver Gene Expression Patterns in the Offspring after Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Matthew P.G.; Bermingham, Emma N.; Young, Wayne; Bassett, Shalome A.; Hesketh, John E.; Maciel-Dominguez, Anabel; McNabb, Warren C.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, selenium (Se) and folate requirements increase, with deficiencies linked to neural tube defects (folate) and DNA oxidation (Se). This study investigated the effect of a high-fat diet either supplemented with (diet H), or marginally deficient in (diet L), Se and folate. Pregnant female mice and their male offspring were assigned to one of four treatments: diet H during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet L during gestation, lactation and post-weaning; diet H during gestation and lactation but diet L fed to offspring post-weaning; or diet L during gestation and lactation followed by diet H fed to offspring post-weaning. Microarray and pathway analyses were performed using RNA from colon and liver of 12-week-old male offspring. Gene set enrichment analysis of liver gene expression showed that diet L affected several pathways including regulation of translation (protein biosynthesis), methyl group metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism; this effect was stronger when the diet was fed to mothers, rather than to offspring. No significant differences in individual gene expression were observed in colon but there were significant differences in cell cycle control pathways. In conclusion, a maternal low Se/folate diet during gestation and lactation has more effects on gene expression in offspring than the same diet fed to offspring post-weaning; low Se and folate in utero and during lactation thus has persistent metabolic effects in the offspring. PMID:26007332

  19. Evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40 days after arrival at a feedlot.

    PubMed

    Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Schryvers, Anthony B; Holman, Devin B; van der Meer, Frank; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. There is recent evidence suggesting that the nasopharyngeal microbiota has a key role in respiratory health and disease susceptibility in cattle. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota when cattle are most likely to develop BRDc (i.e., from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot). The objective was to describe the evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from 30 Angus-cross steers were collected at weaning, on arrival at a feedlot, and at day 40 after arrival. The DNA was extracted from DNS and the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced (Illumina MiSeq platform). Nasopharyngeal microbiota underwent a profound evolution from weaning to arrival at the feedlot and from arrival to day 40, with the abundance of 92 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) significantly changing over time. Mycoplasma (M. dispar and M. bovirhinis) was the most abundant genus in the nasopharynx, accounting for 53% of the total bacterial population. Because an evolving bacterial community may be less capable of resisting colonization by pathogenic bacteria, the instability of the nasopharyngeal microbiota documented in this study might explain why cattle are most likely to be affected with BRDc during the first weeks after weaning and arrival at a feedlot. PMID:27066712

  20. Association of weight misperception with weight loss in a diabetes prevention program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Weight misperception may have an impact on perceived risk and susceptibility for chronic diseases. Little has been reported on the long term effects of this misperception in chronic disease interventions, particularly in field of diabetes prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weight misperception and weight loss during a diabetes prevention project conducted in south-east Australia with individuals at moderate to high risk of developing diabetes. Methods A total of n=251 at risk individuals provided self-reported weight during recruitment from 2004-2006. Objectively measured weight was assessed at baseline (0-21 days after recruitment), and subsequently at three months and 12 months after the intervention. Differences between self-reported and actual weight status are presented as percentages. Linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between weight misperception and weight loss, adjusting for baseline weight and BMI. Results Those who had high levels of under-reporting at baseline had greater weight loss at three and 12 months compared with those who under-reported to some degree, and those over-reporting their weight. A significant association was found between weight misperception and weight loss at the three and the 12 month time points. Baseline weight was not associated with weight loss. Conclusions Weight misperception should be acknowledged as a factor to be addressed when screening and identifying individuals at risk for diabetes. Screening and giving feedback is important in terms of awareness of participants’ actual weight status and may have an effect on program outcomes. PMID:24476459

  1. Associations of Posthemodialysis Weights above and below Target Weight with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Abhijit V.; Falk, Ronald J.; Brunelli, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Fluid removal via ultrafiltration is a primary function of hemodialysis, and inadequate volume control is associated with significant morbidity and mortality among chronic dialysis patients. Treatment-to-treatment fluid removal goals are typically calculated on the basis of interdialytic weight gain and prescribed target weight. The clinical effect of frequent missed target weights is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the associations of postdialysis weights above and below the prescribed target weight (separately) and outcomes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Data were taken from a national cohort of 10,785 prevalent, thrice-weekly, in-center hemodialysis patients dialyzing from 2005 to 2008 (median time at risk, 2.1 [25th percentile, 75th percentile] years) at a single dialysis organization. Patients were characterized as having an above target weight miss if their postdialysis weight was >2 kg above target weight in at least 30% of baseline treatments (14.6% of cohort), or they were characterized as control otherwise. Below target weight miss characterization was analogous for patients with postdialysis weight >2 kg below target weight (6.6% of cohort). Coprimary endpoints were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Results Above target weight miss in at least 30% of treatments (versus not) was associated with greater all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 1.43); and below target weight miss in at least 30% of treatments (versus not) was associated with greater all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.40). Both above and below target weight misses were also significantly associated with greater cardiovascular mortality. Secondary analyses demonstrated dose-response relationships between target weight misses and mortality. Results from sensitivity analyses considering the difference in postdialysis and target weights as a

  2. Caring for Tube-Fed Children: A Review of Management, Tube Weaning, and Emotional Considerations.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sarah; Davis, Ann M; Bruce, Amanda; Mousa, Hayat; Lyman, Beth; Cocjin, Jose; Dean, Kelsey; Ernst, Linda; Almadhoun, Osama; Hyman, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Enteral nutrition is the practice of delivering nutrition to the gut either orally or through a tube or other device. Many children are reliant on enteral feedings to either supplement their nutrition or as a complete source of their nutrition. Managing children on tube feedings requires a team of providers to work through such dilemmas as feeding schedules, weaning from tube feeding, sensory implications of tube feeding, treatment of pain or nausea associated with eating, oral-motor issues, and behavioral issues in the child and family. The purpose of the current review is to summarize the multidisciplinary aspects of enteral feeding. The multidisciplinary team consists of a variable combination of an occupational therapist, speech-language pathologist, gastroenterologist, psychologist, nurse, pharmacist, and dietitian. Children who have minimal oral feeding experience and are fed via a nasogastric or gastrostomy tube often develop oral aversions. Limited data support that children with feeding disorders are more likely to have sensory impairment and that early life pain experiences contribute to feeding refusal. There are inpatient and outpatient programs for weaning patients from tube feeding to eating. The parent-child interaction is an important part of the assessment and treatment of the tube-fed child. This review also points out many information gaps, including data on feeding schedules, blenderized tube feedings, the best methods for weaning children off enteral feedings, the efficacy of chronic pain medications with tube-fed children, and, finally, the necessity of the assessment of parental stress among all parents of children who are tube fed. PMID:25791833

  3. Cryptosporidium suis infection in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Wang, Xing-Ye; Chen, Jian-Wen; Ding, Ling; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and microscopy at × 400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China. PMID:25748718

  4. Effects of soyabean meal- or whey-based diets on lipid metabolism in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, G; Papadomichelakis, G; Tsiplakou, E; Lampidonis, A D; Chadio, S; Zervas, G; Politis, I

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that dietary protein source influences lipid metabolism-related parameters weaned piglets. The effects of soyabean meal (SB) and whey proteins (WP) on gene expression of several genes involved in the lipogenic process in liver, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues, plasma insulin concentration and fatty acid (FA) profile were investigated in 18 weaned piglets. Weaned piglets were fed one of two diets containing either SB or WP as the main protein source. Following a 10-h fasting period, plasma insulin concentration and FA profile were assessed at 56 and 72 days of age, whereas gene expression in liver, VAT and SAT was assessed at 72 days of age. Plasma insulin concentration was not affected by diet, although it was 40% lower in SB fed pigs. The SB pigs had lower 14:0 (p < 0.01) and higher 18:3n-3 (p < 0.001) levels in plasma in comparison with WP pigs. However, these changes were attributed to background differences in the dietary FA profile and not to a direct protein source effect. Gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) in liver and VAT were lower (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) in SB compared to WP fed piglets, but no differences occurred in SAT. No changes were observed in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, liver X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 mRNA levels, either in liver or in adipose tissues. In conclusion, dietary protein source, accompanied likely by side alterations in the dietary composition, affects lipid metabolism in pigs through the downregulation of SREBP-1, which is a crucial determinant of lipogenic process. PMID:24924522

  5. Effect of Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder supplementation on intestinal morphology and intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Gang; Qiu, Yin; He, Xiaoli; Zhao, Ling; Shi, Fei; Lv, Cheng; Jing, Bo; Li, Yinglun

    2015-01-01

    A total of 75 pigs were used to investigate effects of feeding Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder (TMFP) on small intestinal morphology, intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs. The dietary treatments were: a control diet; control diet + 3 g/kg TMFP; control diet + 0.3 g/kg colistin sulfate (ANT). The results showed that supplementation with TMFP increased (P < 0.05) villus height at duodenum, jejunum at 3 time points, increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth at duodenum, jejunum at day 14, improved villus height: crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05) in jejunum at day 21 as compared with ANT. Supplementation of TMFP and ANT had lower (P < 0.05) E. coli counts in the ileum, cecum and colon at day 7 as compared with control. Supplementation of TMFP had higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria counts in the ileum, cecum and colon compared with ANT, except for colon at day 21. No effect (P > 0.05) on lactobacilli in colon has been seen with supplementation of TMFP and ANT at 3 time points, while both of supplementations showed increased the number of lactobacilli in cecum at day 14 and day 21. Analysis of DGGE fingerprints indicated that a highest similarity was observed for profiles from samples taken 14 d, 21 d from TMFP. The diversity of DGGE fingerprints of TMFP was higher than those of ANT and control. The results suggest that TMFP is potential to enhancing intestinal morphology and microbiota of weaning pigs, and can be served as an effective and safe dietary additive for weaning pigs. PMID:25785165

  6. Cryptosporidium suis Infection in Post-Weaned and Adult Pigs in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Wang, Xing-Ye; Chen, Jian-Wen; Ding, Ling; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather’s sugar flotation technique and microscopy at×400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China. PMID:25748718

  7. Oxygen isotope analysis of human bone phosphate evidences weaning age in archaeological populations.

    PubMed

    Britton, Kate; Fuller, Benjamin T; Tütken, Thomas; Mays, Simon; Richards, Michael P

    2015-06-01

    Here we report bone phosphate oxygen (δ(18)Op) values from perinates/neonates and infants (<3.5 years; n = 32); children (4-12 years; n = 12); unsexed juveniles (16-18 years; n = 2); and adult bones (n = 17) from Wharram Percy, North Yorkshire, England, in order to explore the potential of this method to investigate patterns of past breastfeeding and weaning. In prior studies, δ(15)N and δ(13)C analyses of bone collagen have been utilized to explore weaning age in this large and well-studied assemblage, rendering this material highly appropriate for the testing and development of this alternative method targeting the inorganic phase of bone. Data produced reveal (18)O-enrichment in the youngest perinatal/neonatal and infant samples, and an association between age and bone δ(18)Op (and previously-published δ(15)N values), with high values in both these isotope systems likely due to breastfeeding. After the age of 2-3 years, δ(18)Op values are lower, and all children between the ages of 4 and 12, along with the vast majority of sub-adults and adults sampled (aged 16 to >50 years), have δ(18)Op values consistent with the consumption of local modern drinking water. The implications of this study for the reconstruction of weaning practices in archaeological populations are discussed, including variations observed with bone δ(15)Ncoll and δ(18)Op co-analysis and the influence of culturally-modified drinking water and seasonality. The use of this method to explore human mobility and palaeoclimatic conditions are also discussed with reference to the data presented. PMID:25677569

  8. Evaluation of exploration and risk assessment in pre-weaning mice using the novel cage test.

    PubMed

    Marques, Joana M; Olsson, I Anna S; Ogren, Sven Ove; Dahlborn, Kristina

    2008-01-28

    Exploration and risk behaviour (risk assessment/risk taking) are critical to enable mice to cope with novel situations and gain control over their environment. Evaluation of those behaviours would therefore be a useful part of early phenotypic characterization of genetically modified mice, allowing early detection of behavioural phenotypes that require special attention and/or are of scientific interest. This study aimed to evaluate exploration and risk behaviour in pre-weaning mice using the novel cage test, which consists in exploration of a novel, clean, Makrolon type III cage. The results of this test were compared with those obtained in more complex and established tests to which the same mice were subjected as adolescents and young adults. Mice of two inbred strains (129S6/Bkl, n=10; C57BL/6Bkl, n=10) and one hybrid (B6CBAF1/Bkl, n=10) were used for validation of the test. The animals were tested in the novel cage (at weaning), the open field test (at 5 weeks), and from 9 weeks of age in three other tests: the elevated plus-maze, the concentric square field and the rat exposure test. The novel cage test effectively detected strain differences in pre-weaning mice as regards exploration and risk behaviour and the results were largely consistent with those obtained in the established tests later in life. In all tests 129S6 displayed a low locomotion and high risk assessment, while C57BL/6 and B6CBAF1 showed high locomotion and exploration. In addition high levels of risk taking were observed in C57BL/6. The novel cage test is rapid, requires no special equipment and is as discriminatory as more complex tests in detecting strain/genotype differences. This suggests that the novel cage test is a valuable tool for evaluation of exploration, risk assessment and risk taking in juvenile mice. PMID:17888463

  9. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  10. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight through diet and exercise or have serious health problems caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the ...

  11. Impact of bioactive substances on the gastrointestinal tract and performance of weaned piglets: a review.

    PubMed

    Lallès, J P; Bosi, P; Janczyk, P; Koopmans, S J; Torrallardona, D

    2009-12-01

    The EU ban on in-feed antibiotics has stimulated research on weaning diets as a way of reducing post-weaning gut disorders and growth check in pigs. Many bioactive components have been investigated but only few have shown to be effective. Amongst these, organic acids (OA) have been shown to exert a bactericidal action mediated by non-dissociated OA, by lowering gastric pH, increasing gut and pancreas enzyme secretion and improving gut wall morphology. It has been postulated that they may also enhance non-specific immune responses and improve disease resistance. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the impact of OA on the stomach but recent data show they can differently affect gastric histology, acid secretion and gastric emptying. Butyrate and precursors of butyric acid have received special attention and although promising results have been obtained, their effects are dependent upon the dose, treatment duration, initial age of piglets, gastrointestinal site and other factors. The amino acids (AA) like glutamine, tryptophan and arginine are supportive in improving digestion, absorption and retention of nutrients by affecting tissue anabolism, stress and (or) immunity. Glutamine, cysteine and threonine are important for maintaining mucin and permeability of intestinal barrier function. Spray-dried plasma (SDP) positively affects gut morphology, inflammation and reduces acquired specific immune responses via specific and a-specific influences of immunoglobulins and other bioactive components. Effects are more pronounced in early-weaned piglets and under poorer health conditions. Little interaction between plasma protein and antibiotics has been found, suggesting distinct modes of action and additive effects. Bovine colostrum may act more or less similarly to SDP. The composition of essential oils is highly variable, depending on environmental and clima