Science.gov

Sample records for adjusting supplemental assessment

  1. 76 FR 69083 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Shethir.Riva@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The final rule (76 FR 54078) amended the Cotton... Service 7 CFR Part 1205 Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports... contains corrections to the final rule published on August 31, 2011, regarding the Cotton Board Rules...

  2. 76 FR 32088 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Register (74 FR 32400) for the purpose of calculating assessments on imported cotton is $0.010880 per... the Federal Register on December 10, 1991 (56 FR 64470). A proposed rule implementing the amended Order was published in the Federal Register on December 17, 1991 (56 FR 65450). Implementing rules...

  3. 78 FR 39632 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports (2013 Amendment)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... the Federal Register (77 FR 51867) for the purpose of calculating assessments on imported cotton is $0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1205 Cotton Board Rules and Regulations... Register), amending the Cotton Board Rules and Regulations by decreasing the value assigned to...

  4. 27 CFR 70.73 - Supplemental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Supplemental assessments... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Assessment § 70.73 Supplemental assessments. If any assessment is... period of limitation, may make a supplemental assessment for the purpose of correcting or completing...

  5. 5 CFR 9901.333 - Setting and adjusting local market supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and adjusting local market... DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Local Market Supplements § 9901.333 Setting and adjusting local market supplements. (a) Standard local market supplements are...

  6. 5 CFR 9901.334 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a supplement adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) When a local market supplement is adjusted under § 9901.333, employees to whom the supplement applies...” will not receive a pay increase under this section (i.e., the employee's local market supplement... employee is entitled to the full amount of any applicable local market supplement effective on the date...

  7. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year`s objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  8. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project : Status Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown author

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  9. 5 CFR 9701.335 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a supplement adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with a supplement adjustment. 9701.335 Section 9701.335 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.335 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a supplement adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with a supplement adjustment. 9701.335 Section 9701.335 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality...

  11. 77 FR 19127 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Inflation Adjustment of Threshold for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Regulation Supplement; Inflation Adjustment of Threshold for Acquisition of Right-Hand Drive Passenger Sedans... Year 2012 that requires that the statutory limitation on the acquisition of right-hand drive passenger... limitation established in 10 U.S.C. 2253(a)(2) for the acquisition of right-hand drive passenger sedans...

  12. 77 FR 52252 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Inflation Adjustment of Threshold for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... published an interim rule in the Federal Register at 77 FR 19127 on March 30, 2012, to implement section 814... Change 0 Accordingly, the interim rule amending 48 CFR parts 201 and 212, which was published at 77 FR... Regulation Supplement: Inflation Adjustment of Threshold for Acquisition of Right-Hand Drive Passenger...

  13. Supplemental Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment - Hydrotreater

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-04-01

    A supplemental hazard analysis was conducted and quantitative risk assessment performed in response to an independent review comment received by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from the U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest Field Office (PNSO) against the Hydrotreater/Distillation Column Hazard Analysis Report issued in April 2013. The supplemental analysis used the hazardous conditions documented by the previous April 2013 report as a basis. The conditions were screened and grouped for the purpose of identifying whether additional prudent, practical hazard controls could be identified, using a quantitative risk evaluation to assess the adequacy of the controls and establish a lower level of concern for the likelihood of potential serious accidents. Calculations were performed to support conclusions where necessary.

  14. 20 CFR 416.553 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-defeat the purpose of the supplemental security income program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Waiver of adjustment or recovery-defeat the..., Overpayments, and Underpayments § 416.553 Waiver of adjustment or recovery—defeat the purpose of the supplemental security income program. We will waive adjustment or recovery of an overpayment when an...

  15. 20 CFR 416.553 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-defeat the purpose of the supplemental security income program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Waiver of adjustment or recovery-defeat the..., Overpayments, and Underpayments § 416.553 Waiver of adjustment or recovery—defeat the purpose of the supplemental security income program. We will waive adjustment or recovery of an overpayment when an...

  16. 20 CFR 416.553 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-defeat the purpose of the supplemental security income program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Waiver of adjustment or recovery-defeat the..., Overpayments, and Underpayments § 416.553 Waiver of adjustment or recovery—defeat the purpose of the supplemental security income program. We will waive adjustment or recovery of an overpayment when an...

  17. 20 CFR 416.553 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-defeat the purpose of the supplemental security income program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Waiver of adjustment or recovery-defeat the..., Overpayments, and Underpayments § 416.553 Waiver of adjustment or recovery—defeat the purpose of the supplemental security income program. We will waive adjustment or recovery of an overpayment when an...

  18. Safety assessment of plant food supplements (PFS).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Coppens, Patrick; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2011-12-01

    Botanicals and botanical preparations, including plant food supplements (PFS), are widely used in Western diets. The growing use of PFS is accompanied by an increasing concern because the safety of these PFS is not generally assessed before they enter the market. Regulatory bodies have become more aware of this and are increasing their efforts to ensure the safety of PFS. The present review describes an overview of the general framework for the safety assessment of PFS, focusing on the different approaches currently in use to assess the safety of botanicals and/or botanical compounds, including their history of safe use, the tiered approach proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and the Margin of Exposure (MOE) concept. Moreover, some examples of botanical compounds in PFS that may be of concern are discussed. Altogether, it is clear that "natural" does not equal "safe" and that PFS may contain compounds of concern at levels far above those found in the regular diet. In addition, the traditional use of a PFS compound as a herb or tea does not guarantee its safety when used as a supplement. This points at a need for stricter regulation and control of botanical containing products, especially given their expanding market volume. PMID:21804969

  19. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Faurot, Keturah R.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O.; Young, Laura A.; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A.; González, Hector M.; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen’s kappa: 0.31–0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use. PMID:26917949

  20. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    Faurot, Keturah R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O; Young, Laura A; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A; González, Hector M; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A; Talavera, Gregory A; Castañeda, Sheila F; Daviglus, Martha L; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen's kappa: 0.31-0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use.

  1. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    Faurot, Keturah R; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O; Young, Laura A; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A; González, Hector M; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A; Talavera, Gregory A; Castañeda, Sheila F; Daviglus, Martha L; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen's kappa: 0.31-0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use. PMID:26917949

  2. 26 CFR 301.6204-1 - Supplemental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplemental assessments. 301.6204-1 Section... AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6204-1 Supplemental assessments. If any assessment is incomplete or incorrect in any material respect, the district director...

  3. 26 CFR 301.6204-1 - Supplemental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplemental assessments. 301.6204-1 Section... AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6204-1 Supplemental assessments. If any assessment is incomplete or incorrect in any material respect, the district director...

  4. 20 CFR 416.553 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-defeat the purpose of the supplemental security income program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Waiver of adjustment or recovery-defeat the purpose of the supplemental security income program. 416.553 Section 416.553 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Payment of Benefits, Overpayments, and Underpayments...

  5. The assessment of social adjustment. A review of techniques.

    PubMed

    Weissman, M M

    1975-03-01

    Interest in the community adjustment of psychiatric patients has led to the development of rating techniques for its evaluation. Selection of an appropriate scale for the task should include a review of its item content, anchor points, coverage, method of obtaining information, informant, psychometric properties, precision, cost, scoring, and instructional material. While no scale is without limitations, this report describes 15 currently available scales that meet many of the important criteria for assessing social adjustment and are sufficiently developed to be useful in evaluative research. This review also contains a list of pertinent references to the scales and guide to the literature on behavioral rating scales.

  6. Assessing geomorphic sensitivity in relation to river capacity for adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, H. E.; Brierley, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    River sensitivity describes the nature and rate of channel adjustments. An approach to analysis of geomorphic river sensitivity outlined in this paper relates potential sensitivity based on the expected capacity of adjustment for a river type to the recent history of channel adjustment. This approach was trialled to assess low, moderate and high geomorphic sensitivity for four different types of river (10 reaches in total) along the Lower Tongariro River, North Island, New Zealand. Building upon the River Styles framework, river types were differentiated based upon valley setting (width and confinement), channel planform, geomorphic unit assemblages and bed material size. From this, the behavioural regime and potential for adjustment (type and extent) were determined. Historical maps and aerial photographs were geo-rectified and the channel planform digitised to assess channel adjustments for each reach from 1928 to 2007. Floodplain width controlled by terraces, exerted a strong influence upon reach scale sensitivity for the partly-confined, wandering, cobble-bed river. Although forced boundaries occur infrequently, the width of the active channel zone is constrained. An unconfined braided river reach directly downstream of the terrace-confined section was the most geomorphically sensitive reach. The channel in this reach adjusted recurrently to sediment inputs that were flushed through more confined, better connected upstream reaches. A meandering, sand-bed river in downstream reaches has exhibited negligible rates of channel migration. However, channel narrowing in this reach and the associated delta indicate that the system is approaching a threshold condition, beyond which channel avulsion is likely to occur. As this would trigger more rapid migration, this reach is considered to be more geomorphically sensitive than analysis of its low migration rate alone would indicate. This demonstrates how sensitivity is fashioned both by the behavioural regime of a reach

  7. Assessment of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in Greenland using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. A.; Bevis, M. G.; Sasgen, I.; van Dam, T. M.; Wahr, J. M.; Wouters, B.; Bamber, J. L.; Willis, M. J.; Knudsen, P.; Helm, V.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Muresan, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Greenland GPS network (GNET) was constructed to provide a new means to assess viscoelastic and elastic adjustments driven by past and present-day changes in ice mass. Here we assess existing glacial isostatic adjustments (GIA) predictions by analysing 1995-2015 data from 61 continuous GPS receivers located along the margin of the Greenland ice sheet. Since GPS receivers measure both the GIA and elastic signals, we isolate GIA, by removing the elastic adjustments of the lithosphere due to present-day mass changes using high-resolution fields of ice surface elevation change derived from satellite and airborne altimetry measurements (ERS1/2, ICESat, ATM, ENVISAT, and CryoSat-2). For most GPS stations, our observed GIA rates contradict GIA predictions; particularly, we find huge uplift rates in southeast Greenland of up to 14 mm/yr while models predict rates of 0-2 mm/yr. Our results suggest possible improvements of GIA predictions, and hence of the poorly constrained ice load history and Earth structure models for Greenland.

  8. Assessing infant cognitive development after prenatal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Martha Ann; Ross, Alleyne P; Goodman, Gay

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available on infant behavioral development outcomes of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Studies performed to date, all of which relied on global developmental assessments, have yielded inconsistent findings with regard to psychomotor development, negative findings with regard to mental development, and no information as to the development of specific cognitive functions. Our review of these studies leads us to suspect that the use of global developmental assessments might partially explain the negative and inconsistent findings. To identify cognitive processes that might be sensitive to prenatal iodine supplementation, we examined the timing of thyroid hormone action on specific brain systems. The development of infant visual attention is sensitive to thyroid hormone during the early prenatal period, when the fetus is entirely dependent on maternal thyroid hormone. For this reason, infant visual attention has the potential to be a sensitive measure of infant outcomes in prenatal iodine supplementation studies. We suggest the assessment of infant visual attention, with follow-up examination of childhood executive functions, as a means of capturing the effects of maternal iodine deficiency and prenatal iodine supplementation on specific cognitive processes. In particular, we propose comparison of infant performance on global developmental tests and specialized tests of visual attention in pilot trials of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Only by comparing the 2 types of tests side by side will it be possible to establish whether the use of a sensitive measure of infant visual attention will increase the reliability of such supplementation studies. Recognizing that exposure misclassification may also provide a partial explanation for the inconsistent neurodevelopmental outcomes in previous studies, we suggest that urinary iodine concentration or

  9. Assessing infant cognitive development after prenatal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Martha Ann; Ross, Alleyne P; Goodman, Gay

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available on infant behavioral development outcomes of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Studies performed to date, all of which relied on global developmental assessments, have yielded inconsistent findings with regard to psychomotor development, negative findings with regard to mental development, and no information as to the development of specific cognitive functions. Our review of these studies leads us to suspect that the use of global developmental assessments might partially explain the negative and inconsistent findings. To identify cognitive processes that might be sensitive to prenatal iodine supplementation, we examined the timing of thyroid hormone action on specific brain systems. The development of infant visual attention is sensitive to thyroid hormone during the early prenatal period, when the fetus is entirely dependent on maternal thyroid hormone. For this reason, infant visual attention has the potential to be a sensitive measure of infant outcomes in prenatal iodine supplementation studies. We suggest the assessment of infant visual attention, with follow-up examination of childhood executive functions, as a means of capturing the effects of maternal iodine deficiency and prenatal iodine supplementation on specific cognitive processes. In particular, we propose comparison of infant performance on global developmental tests and specialized tests of visual attention in pilot trials of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Only by comparing the 2 types of tests side by side will it be possible to establish whether the use of a sensitive measure of infant visual attention will increase the reliability of such supplementation studies. Recognizing that exposure misclassification may also provide a partial explanation for the inconsistent neurodevelopmental outcomes in previous studies, we suggest that urinary iodine concentration or

  10. 5 CFR 9901.333 - Setting and adjusting local market supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consider mission requirements, labor market conditions, cost, and pay adjustments received by employees of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Setting and adjusting local market... MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT...

  11. Quantification of chromatographic effects of vitamin B supplementation in urine and implications for hydration assessment.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Heavens, K R; Dennis, W E; Caruso, E M; Guerriere, K I; Charkoudian, N; Cheuvront, S N

    2015-07-15

    Changes in body water elicit reflex adjustments at the kidney, thus maintaining fluid volume homeostasis. These renal adjustments change the concentration and color of urine, variables that can, in turn, be used as biomarkers of hydration status. It has been suggested that vitamin supplementation alters urine color; it is unclear whether any such alteration would confound hydration assessment via colorimetric evaluation. We tested the hypothesis that overnight vitamin B2 and/or B12 supplementation alters urine color as a marker of hydration status. Thirty healthy volunteers were monitored during a 3-day euhydrated baseline, confirmed via first morning nude body mass, urine specific gravity, and urine osmolality. Volunteers then randomly received B2 (n = 10), B12 (n = 10), or B2 + B12 (n = 10) at ∼200 × recommended dietary allowance. Euhydration was verified on trial days (two of the following: body mass ± 1.0% of the mean of visits 1-3, urine specific gravity < 1.02, urine osmolality < 700 mmol/kg). Vitamin purity and urinary B2 concentration ([B2]) and [B12] were quantified via ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Two independent observers assessed urine color using an eight-point standardized color chart. Following supplementation, urinary [B2] was elevated; however, urine color was not different between nonsupplemented and supplemented trials. For example, in the B2 trial, urinary [B2] increased from 8.6 × 10(4) ± 7.7 × 10(4) to 5.7 × 10(6) ± 5.3 × 10(6) nmol/l (P < 0.05), and urine color went from 4 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 (P > 0.05). Both conditions met the euhydrated color classification. We conclude that a large overnight dose of vitamins B2 and B12 does not confound assessment of euhydrated status via urine color. PMID:25977447

  12. SIDS Family Adjustment Scale: A Method of Assessing Family Adjustment to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Harold J.; Breme, Frederick J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and the family's resultant grief process. Explores SIDS as a family crisis, and by identifying the psychological factors or tasks pertinent to family adjustment, proposes a SIDS Family Adjustment Scale which assists in recognizing adaptive and maladaptive grief responses. (Author)

  13. Validation of the Greek maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes scale for assessing early postpartum adjustment.

    PubMed

    Vivilaki, Victoria G; Dafermos, Vassilis; Gevorgian, Liana; Dimopoulou, Athanasia; Patelarou, Evridiki; Bick, Debra; Tsopelas, Nicholas D; Lionis, Christos

    2012-01-01

    The Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Scale is a self- administered scale, designed for use in primary care settings to identify postpartum maternal adjustment problems regarding body image, sex, somatic symptoms, and marital relationships. Women were recruited within four weeks of giving birth. Responses to the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Scale were compared for agreement with responses to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a gold standard. Psychometric measurements included: reliability coefficients, explanatory factor analysis, and confirmatory analysis by linear structural relations. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was carried out to evaluate the global functioning of the scale. Of 300 mothers screened, 121 (40.7%) were experiencing difficulties in maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes. Scores on the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Scale correlated well with those on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The internal consistency of the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Scale, Greek version-tested using Cronbach's alpha coefficient-was 0.859, and that of Guttman split-half coefficient was 0.820. Findings confirmed the multidimensionality of the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Scale, demonstrating a six-factor structure. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.610, and the logistic estimate for the threshold score of 57/58 fitted the model sensitivity at 68% and model specificity at 64.6%. Data confirmed that the Greek version of the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Scale is a reliable and valid screening tool for both clinical practice and research purposes to detect postpartum adjustment difficulties.

  14. 76 FR 19124 - United States Section, Notice of Availability of a Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Improvements to the Mission Levee Protective System in Hidalgo County, Texas AGENCY: United States Section, International Boundary... Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). SUMMARY: Pursuant...

  15. Biases and adjustments in nutritional assessments from dietary questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Arija, Victoria; Abellana, Rosa; Ribot, Blanca; Ramón, Josep M

    2015-02-26

    In nutritional epidemiology, it is essential to use Food Consumption Assessment Methods that have been validated and accepted by the international community for estimating food consumption of individuals and populations. This assessment must be made with the highest quality possible so as to avoid, as far as possible, sources of error and confusion in the processes. The qualities that are required in a measurement method are validity and accuracy; validity being the main factor. Lack of validity produces biases, or systematic errors. These can reside in the process of subject selection, or processes of information gathering where the lack of accuracy produces random errors. For many nutrients, the intra-individual variances are due to many factors such as day-of-the-week or season, and could create problems in the data analyses. Adjustments are needed to minimize these effects. Confounding factors may over- or under-state the real magnitude of the observed association, or even alter the direction of the real association. Total energy intake can be a confounding variable when studying a relationship between nutrient intake and disease risk. To control for this effect several approximations are proposed such as nutrient densities, standard multivariate models and the nutrient residual model.

  16. 5 CFR 9701.334 - Setting and adjusting locality and special rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... special rate supplements. 9701.334 Section 9701.334 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality...

  17. 5 CFR 9701.334 - Setting and adjusting locality and special rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... special rate supplements. 9701.334 Section 9701.334 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality...

  18. Development and Preliminary Validation of Diabetes Adjustment Assessment Scale (DAAS): a New Measure of Adjustment with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Namdar Areshtanab, Hossein; Jouybari, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several adjustment scales are available for Diabetes, but, unfortunately most of them focused on the limited dimensions of diabetes and are not specific for type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to develop a multidimensional scale for Diabetes type 2 Adjustment Assessment and to test preliminary validity, reliability and clinical utility of the scale for this population. Methods: In this methodological design study, the Diabetes Adjustment Assessment Scale was developed and the psychometric properties of this scale was assessed in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This study included internal consistency, content validity and exploratory factor analysis. Results: 1000 patients with type 2 diabetes completed the 45-item Diabetes Adjustment Scale. After eliminating two item, the 43-item measure demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α= 0.75). Factor analysis identified eight factors including; reshape (11 questions), seek to acceptance of illness (7 questions), normal life with the disease (6 questions), initial self-management (2 questions), comparing (4 questions), initial imaging of illness (4 questions), return to resources(3 questions), and advanced self- management (6 questions). Conclusion: Considering that validity and reliability indexes of the scale are reported in an appropriate level, it can be used as a valid and reliable tool in measuring level of adjustment with type2 diabetes. PMID:27354978

  19. Occupational Work Adjustment Resource Supplement to the Consumer Education Curriculum Guide for Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Activities described in this publicaiton are intended to provide suitable examples of consumer education problems to be used in occupational work adjustment programs. The overall themes of the program deal with income procurement and with spending. Student activities deal with factors involved in the attainment of a job, the methods by which wages…

  20. 75 FR 45072 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Inflation Adjustment of Acquisition-Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... (71 FR 75891). This is the second review of DFARS acquisition-related thresholds. DoD published a proposed rule on January 20, 2010 (75 FR 3187). The preamble to the proposed rule contained a detailed...; Inflation Adjustment of Acquisition-Related Thresholds (DFARS Case 2009-D003) AGENCY: Defense...

  1. Environmental assessment and management (TEAM) guide. Louisiana supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rouke, C.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, Defense Logistics Agency, and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Since 1984, the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL), in cooperation with numerous Department of Defense (DoD) components, have developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DoD Components. Currently there are five participating DoD Components: the Air Force, Air National Guard, Army, Civil Works, and Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this Guide. The Guide combines Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and management practices (MPs) into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. TEAM Guide is supplemented by DoD component-specific manuals detailing DoD component regulations and policies. The Louisiana Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the TEAM Guide, using existing Louisiana state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  2. Environment assessment and management (team) guide - Mississippi supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rourke, C.; Twait, S.

    1995-03-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, Defense Logistics Agency, and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since 1984, the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL), in cooperation with numerous Department of Defense (DOD) components, has developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DOD Components. Currently there are five participating DOD Components: the Air Force, Air National Guard, Army, Civil Works, and Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this Guide. The Guide combines Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and management practices (MPs) into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. TEAM Guide is supplemented by DOD component-specific manuals detailing DOD component regulations and policies. The Mississippi Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the TEAM Guide, using existing Mississippi state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  3. The environmental assessment and management (TEAM) guide, Idaho supplement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rouke, C.

    1998-04-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The US Air Force, US Army, Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Since 1984, the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories, in cooperation with numerous Department of Defense (DOD) components, has developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DOD components. Currently there are five participating DOD components: the Air Force, Air National Guard, Army, Civil Works, and DLA. These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this Guide. The Guide combines Code of Federal Regulations and management practices into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. TEAM Guide is supplemented by DOD component-specific manuals detailing DOD component regulations and policies. The Idaho Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the TEAM Guide, using existing Idaho state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  4. Mandatory pooling as a supplement to risk-adjusted capitation payments in a competitive health insurance market.

    PubMed

    Van Barneveld, E M; Lamers, L M; van Vliet, R C; van de Ven, W P

    1998-07-01

    Risk-adjusted capitation payments (RACPs) to competing health insurers are an essential element of market-oriented health care reforms in many countries. RACPs based on demographic variables only are insufficient, because they leave ample room for cream skimming. However, the implementation of improved RACPs does not appear to be straightforward. A solution might be to supplement imperfect RACPs with a form of mandatory pooling that reduces the incentives for cream skimming. In a previous paper it was concluded that high-risk pooling (HRP), is a promising supplement to RACPs. The purpose of this paper is to compare HRP with two other main variants of mandatory pooling. These variants are called excess-of-loss (EOL) and proportional pooling (PP). Each variant includes ex post compensations to insurers for some members which depend to various degrees on actually incurred costs. Therefore, these pooling variants reduce the incentives for cream skimming which are inherent in imperfect RACPs, but they also reduce the incentives for efficiency and cost containment. As a rough measure of the latter incentives we use the percentage of total costs for which an insurer is at risk. This paper analyzes which of the three main pooling variants yields the greatest reduction of incentives for cream skimming given such a percentage. The results show that HRP is the most effective of the three pooling variants.

  5. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). Hawaii supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, C.; Gifford, L.A.

    1994-07-01

    In response to the growing number of environmental laws and regulations worldwide, the U.S. Army has adopted an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in 1985, Major Army Commands (MACOMs) were required to conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle. The installations must also conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM was developing a separate assessment system, the Army mandated, through Army Regulation 200-1, one unified Army-wide assessment mechanism. The resulting system combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations, along with good management practices and risk management information, into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and which specific items or operations to review. Each assessment protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review the checklist items as effectively as possible. The Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates existing checklists from USEPA and private industry. The Hawaii Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the U.S. ECAS manual, using existing Hawaii state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS), Environmental law--Hawaii, Environmental checklists.

  6. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) - Wisconsin supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, C.; Gifford, L.A.

    1994-02-01

    In response to the growing number of environmental laws and regulations worldwide, the U.S. Army has adopted an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in 1985, Major Army Commands (MACOMs) were required to conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle. The installations must also conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM was developing a separate assessment system, the Army mandated, through Army Regulation 200-1, one unified Army-wide assessment mechanism. The resulting system combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations, along with good management practices and risk management information, into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and which specific items or operations to review. Each assessment protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review the checklist items as effectively as possible. The Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates existing checklists from USEPA and private industry. The Wisconsin Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the U.S. ECAS manual, using existing Wisconsin state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS), Environmental compliance checklists, Environmental Law - Wisconsin.

  7. Self-adjustable supplemental support system for a cylindrical container in a housing

    DOEpatents

    Blaushild, Ronald M.

    1987-01-01

    A self-adjustable supplementary support system for a cylindrical container coaxially disposed in a cylindrical housing by upper flanged supports has a plurality of outwardly extending bracket units on the external surface of the container which coact with inwardly extending resiliently outwardly extending bracket units on the inner wall of the cylindrical housing. The bracket units have flanges which form a concave surface that seats on support bars, attached by links to torsion bars that are secured to ring segments annularly spaced about the inner wall of the cylindrical housing and the bracket units and support bars coact with each other to radially position and support the container in the housing during movement of the two components from a vertical to a horizontal position, and during transportation of the same.

  8. Self-adjustable supplemental support system for a cylindrical container in a housing

    DOEpatents

    Blaushild, R.M.

    1987-01-30

    A self-adjustable supplementary support system for a cylindrical container coaxially disposed in a cylindrical housing by upper flanged supports has a plurality of outwardly extending bracket units on the external surface of the container which coact with inwardly extending resiliently outwardly extending bracket units on the inner wall of the cylindrical housing. The bracket units have flanges which form a concave surface that seats on support bars, attached by links to torsion bars that are secured to ring segments annularly spaced about the inner wall of the cylindrical housing and the bracket units and support bars coact with each other to radially position and support the container in the housing during movement of the two components from a vertical to a horizontal position, and during transportation of the same. 14 figs.

  9. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) - Oregon supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, C.; Gifford, L.A.

    1994-04-01

    In response to the growing number of environmental laws and regulations worldwide, the U.S. Army has adopted an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in 1985, Major Army Commands (MACOMs) were required to conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle. The installations must also conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM was developing a separate assessment system, the Army mandated, through Army Regulation 200-1, one unified Army-wide assessment mechanism. The resulting system combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations, along with good management practices and risk management information, into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and specific items or operations to review. Each assessment protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review the checklist items as effectively as possible. The Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates existing checklists from USEPA and private industry. The Oregon Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the U.S. ECAS manual, using existing Oregon state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  10. 7 CFR 1205.515 - Customs Service and the collection of the supplemental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES... supplemental assessment from any person acting as principal, agent, broker or consignee for cotton or...

  11. 76 FR 74806 - Adjustment of the Amount of an Administrative Costs Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Adjustment of the Amount of an Administrative Costs Assessment AGENCY: Bureau of... decreasing the amount of the administrative costs assessment set forth in the Acreage Limitation Rules and... administrative costs assessment is being decreased to $230. DATES: The decrease in the amount of...

  12. Adjusting an Available Online Peer Support Platform in a Program to Supplement the Treatment of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Schueller, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    Background Perinatal depression and anxiety are common and debilitating conditions. Novel, cost effective services could improve the uptake and the impact of mental health resources among women who suffer from these conditions. E-mental health products are one example of such services. Many publically available e-mental health products exist, but these products lack validation and are not designed to be integrated into existing health care settings. Objective The objective of the study was to present a program to use 7 Cups of Tea (7Cups), an available technological platform that provides online peer (ie, listener) based emotional support, to supplement treatment for women experiencing perinatal depression or anxiety and to summarize patient’s feedback on the resultant program. Methods This study consisted of two stages. First, five clinicians specializing in the treatment of perinatal mood disorders received an overview of 7Cups. They provided feedback on the 7Cups platform and ways it could complement the existing treatment efforts to inform further adjustments. In the second stage, nine women with perinatal depression or anxiety used the platform for a single session and provided feedback. Results In response to clinicians’ feedback, guidelines for referring patients to use 7Cups as a supplement for treatment were created, and a training program for listeners was developed. Patients found the platform usable and useful and their attitudes toward the trained listeners were positive. Overall, patients noted a need for support outside the scheduled therapy time and believed that freely available online emotional support could help meet this need. Most patients were interested in receiving support from first time mothers and those who suffered in the past from perinatal mood disorders. Conclusions The study results highlight the use of 7Cups as a tool to introduce accessible and available support into existing treatment for women who suffer from perinatal mood

  13. Sleep and activity monitoring for Returning Soldier Adjustment Assessment.

    PubMed

    Yardibi, T; Cleary, D; Wood, J; Stachura, M; Wood, E; Dicks, A

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of unobtrusive room sensors to discover relationships between sleep quality and the clinical assessments of combat soldiers suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We consider the use of a remote room sensor unit composed of a Doppler radar, light, sound and other room environment sensors. We also employ an actigraphy watch. We discuss sensor implementation, radar data analytics and preliminary results using real data from a Warrior Transition Battalion located in Fort Gordon, GA. Two radar analytical approaches are developed and compared against the actigraphy watch estimates--one, emphasizing system knowledge; and the other, clustering on several radar signal features. The radar analytic algorithms are able to estimate sleep periods, signal absence and restlessness in the bed. In our test cases, the radar estimates are shown to agree with the actigraphy watch. PTSD and mild-TBI soldiers do often show signs of sporadic and restless sleep. Ongoing research results are expected to provide further insight. PMID:23366346

  14. Sleep and activity monitoring for Returning Soldier Adjustment Assessment.

    PubMed

    Yardibi, T; Cleary, D; Wood, J; Stachura, M; Wood, E; Dicks, A

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of unobtrusive room sensors to discover relationships between sleep quality and the clinical assessments of combat soldiers suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). We consider the use of a remote room sensor unit composed of a Doppler radar, light, sound and other room environment sensors. We also employ an actigraphy watch. We discuss sensor implementation, radar data analytics and preliminary results using real data from a Warrior Transition Battalion located in Fort Gordon, GA. Two radar analytical approaches are developed and compared against the actigraphy watch estimates--one, emphasizing system knowledge; and the other, clustering on several radar signal features. The radar analytic algorithms are able to estimate sleep periods, signal absence and restlessness in the bed. In our test cases, the radar estimates are shown to agree with the actigraphy watch. PTSD and mild-TBI soldiers do often show signs of sporadic and restless sleep. Ongoing research results are expected to provide further insight.

  15. 76 FR 77019 - Final Adjusted Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals: Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 56807). That notice proposed to adjust the 2011 assessment of... calculation methodology previously described in the 2010 and 2011 assessment of annual needs (74 FR 60294 and 75 FR 79407 respectively). DEA considered changes in demand, changes in the national rate of...

  16. What Counts as a Reasonable Adjustment? Dyslexic Students and the Concept of Fair Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the construction of dyslexia in higher education and explores the nature of negotiations between students, lecturers and academic institutions over diagnosis, support and assessment. Disabled students are now entitled, under the terms of the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA), to reasonable adjustments in assessment.…

  17. Assessment of nutrient supplement to reduce gentamicin-induced ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Le Prell, C G; Ojano-Dirain, C; Rudnick, E W; Nelson, M A; DeRemer, S J; Prieskorn, D M; Miller, J M

    2014-06-01

    Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat gram-negative bacterial infections. Treatment with this antibiotic carries the potential for adverse side effects, including ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Ototoxic effects are at least in part a consequence of oxidative stress, and various antioxidants have been used to attenuate gentamicin-induced hair cell death and hearing loss. Here, a combination of nutrients previously shown to reduce oxidative stress in the hair cells and attenuate hearing loss after other insults was evaluated for potential protection against gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. Guinea pigs were maintained on a nutritionally complete standard laboratory animal diet or a diet supplemented with β-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium. Three diets with iterative increases in nutrient levels were screened; the final diet selected for study use was one that produced statistically reliable increases in plasma levels of vitamins C and E and magnesium. In two separate studies, significant decreases in gentamicin-induced hearing loss at frequencies including 12 kHz and below were observed, with less benefit at the higher frequencies. Consistent with the functional protection, robust protection of both the inner and outer hair cell populations was observed, with protection largely in the upper half of the cochlea. Protection was independently assessed in two different laboratories, using two different strains of guinea pigs. Additional in vitro tests did not reveal any decrease in antimicrobial activity with nutrient additives. Currently, there are no FDA-approved treatments for the prevention of gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. The current data provide a rationale for continued investigations regarding translation to human patients. PMID:24590390

  18. Assessing burden of disease as disability adjusted life years in life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yumi; Peters, Greg M; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Shiels, Sean; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-10-15

    Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) have been used to quantify endpoint indicators of the human burden of disease in life cycle assessment (LCA). The purpose of this paper was to examine the current use of DALYs in LCA, and also to consider whether DALYs as used in LCA have the potential to be compatible with DALYs as used in quantitative risk assessment (QRA) to facilitate direct comparison of the results of the two approaches. A literature review of current usage of DALYs in LCA was undertaken. Two prominent methods were identified: ReCiPe 2008 and LIME2. The methods and assumptions used in their calculations were then critically reviewed. The assumptions used for the derivation of characterization factors in DALYs were found to be considerably different between LCA methods. In many cases, transparency of these calculations and assumptions is lacking. Furthermore, global average DALY values are often used in these calculations, but may not be applicable for impact categories where the local factors play a significant role. The concept of DALYs seems beneficial since it enables direct comparison and aggregation of different health impacts. However, given the different assumptions used in each LCA method, it is important that LCA practitioners are aware of the differences and select the appropriate method for the focus of their study. When applying DALYs as a common metric between LCA and QRA, understanding the background information on how DALYs were derived is crucial to ensure the consistency of DALYs used in LCA and QRA for resulting DALYs to be comparable and to minimize any double counting of effects.

  19. Assessing burden of disease as disability adjusted life years in life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yumi; Peters, Greg M; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Shiels, Sean; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-10-15

    Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) have been used to quantify endpoint indicators of the human burden of disease in life cycle assessment (LCA). The purpose of this paper was to examine the current use of DALYs in LCA, and also to consider whether DALYs as used in LCA have the potential to be compatible with DALYs as used in quantitative risk assessment (QRA) to facilitate direct comparison of the results of the two approaches. A literature review of current usage of DALYs in LCA was undertaken. Two prominent methods were identified: ReCiPe 2008 and LIME2. The methods and assumptions used in their calculations were then critically reviewed. The assumptions used for the derivation of characterization factors in DALYs were found to be considerably different between LCA methods. In many cases, transparency of these calculations and assumptions is lacking. Furthermore, global average DALY values are often used in these calculations, but may not be applicable for impact categories where the local factors play a significant role. The concept of DALYs seems beneficial since it enables direct comparison and aggregation of different health impacts. However, given the different assumptions used in each LCA method, it is important that LCA practitioners are aware of the differences and select the appropriate method for the focus of their study. When applying DALYs as a common metric between LCA and QRA, understanding the background information on how DALYs were derived is crucial to ensure the consistency of DALYs used in LCA and QRA for resulting DALYs to be comparable and to minimize any double counting of effects. PMID:26042893

  20. Environment. Events, Assessment, Response. [Student Textbook and] Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Herbert G.; Fairbanks, Eugene B.

    This student textbook and accompanying teacher supplement strive to provide objective instruction in global environmental issues. Twenty-six study units present facts, opinions, and consequences of environmental issues, as well as responses which have been, and could be, made to the environmental issues. Each unit is introduced by a newspaper…

  1. Reasonable Adjustments in Assessment: Putting Law and Policy into Practice in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Joy; Dickson, Elizabeth; Webster, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The Australian Disability Standards for Education 2005 (Cth) require education providers to make reasonable adjustments in educational assessment so that students with disability can participate on the same basis as other students and be able to demonstrate what they know and can do. Reasonableness is governed by a determination of the balance of…

  2. 77 FR 55503 - Final Adjusted Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Phenylpropanolamine for 2012'' was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 42333). That notice proposed to adjust the... annual needs (74 FR 60294 and 75 FR 79407 respectively). DEA considered changes in demand, changes in the... determining the proposed 2012 assessment of annual needs, as published on September 14, 2011, at 76 FR...

  3. 76 FR 57992 - Assessment Rate Adjustment Guidelines for Large and Highly Complex Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... by the FDIC Board on February 7, 2011 (76 FR 10672 (Feb. 25, 2011)). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Adjustment Guidelines for Large Institutions and Insured Foreign Branches in Risk Category I, 72 FR 27122... into a total score.\\4\\ \\2\\ Assessments, Large Bank Pricing, 76 FR 10672 (Feb. 25, 2011) (codified at...

  4. Urinary concentrations of toxic substances: an assessment of alternative approaches to adjusting for specific gravity.

    PubMed

    Sorahan, Tom; Pang, Dong; Esmen, Nurtan; Sadhra, Steven

    2008-11-01

    Alternative approaches of adjusting urinary concentration of cadmium for differences in specific gravity of biological samples were assessed. The main analysis used 2922 cadmium-in-urine samples collected in the period 1968-1989 from workers at a UK nickel-cadmium battery facility. Geometric means of cadmium-in-urine, adjusted and unadjusted for specific gravity, were obtained for 21 different values of specific gravity ranging from 1.010 to 1.030. There was a highly significant positive trend (P < 0.001) of unadjusted cadmium-in-urine with specific gravity. Conventional adjustment for specific gravity led to a highly significant negative trend (P < 0.001) of adjusted cadmium-in-urine with specific gravity, SG. An approach proposed by Vij and Howell, involving the introduction of a z coefficient, led to satisfactory adjustment. Conventional adjustment of specific gravity leads to overcompensation of the confounding effects of specific gravity. An alternative method is available and should probably be adopted when interpreting urine biological samples for all chemical substances.

  5. CONTAIN assessment of the NUPEC mixing experiments. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stamps, D.W.; Murata, K.K.

    1998-02-01

    In the original report (Reference 1), to which this report is a supplement, the results of CONTAIN code calculations were presented for five thermal-hydraulic experiments performed in the NUPEC 1/4-scale model containment, including the International Standard Problem ISP-35. In the original report, calculated helium concentrations were presented per NUPEC`s specifications for ISP-35. In contrast, this supplemental report presents the helium concentrations on a conventional dry basis, which is physically consistent with the gas chromatography data. These conventionally defined dry helium concentrations are compared with the previously reported results and are found to exhibit trends that are more consistent with measured data. While agreement between the predicted results and data is substantially improved in general for the M-8-1 experiment using these helium concentrations as opposed to the ISP-35 specifications, general improvement in agreement is not observed in all cases.

  6. The Potential of Supplemental Instruction in Engineering Education--Helping New Students to Adjust to and Succeed in University Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a programme that is attached to difficult courses with the objective of increasing student performance and retention. However, an SI programme also has the potential to increase overall student performance and retention during the first critical year if applied to introductory courses. In this study the latter…

  7. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  8. 76 FR 54078 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Agriculture. The current value of imported cotton as published in the Federal Register (74 FR 32400) for the... Register on December 10, 1991, (56 FR 64470). A proposed rule implementing the amended Order was published in the Federal Register on December 17, 1991, (56 FR 65450). Implementing rules were published...

  9. 77 FR 51867 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Agriculture. The current value of imported cotton as published in the Federal Register (76 FR 54078) for the... Register on December 10, 1991, (56 FR 64470). A proposed rule implementing the amended Order was published in the Federal Register on December 17, 1991, (56 FR 65450). Implementing rules were published...

  10. 77 FR 34855 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports (2011 Amendments)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... 17-26, 1991, and the amended Order was published in the Federal Register on December 10, 1991, (56 FR... 17, 1991, (56 FR 65450). Implementing rules were published on July 1 and 2, 1992, (57 FR 29181) and (57 FR 29431), respectively. This proposed rule would increase the value assigned to imported...

  11. 78 FR 39551 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports (2013 Amendment)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Register on December 10, 1991, (56 FR 64470). A proposed rule implementing the amended Order was published in the Federal Register on December 17, 1991, (56 FR 65450). Implementing rules were published on July 1 and 2, 1992, (57 FR 29181) and (57 FR 29431), respectively. This direct final rule would...

  12. Evolving Adjustments to External (Gamma) Slope Factors for CERCLA Risk and Dose Assessments - 12290

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Stuart

    2012-07-01

    To model the external exposure pathway in risk and dose assessments of radioactive contamination at Superfund sites, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses slope factors (SFs), also known as risk coefficients, and dose conversion factors (DCFs). Without any adjustment these external radiation exposure pathways effectively assumes that an individual is exposed to a source geometry that is effectively an infinite slab. The concept of an 'infinite slab' means that the thickness of the contaminated zone and its aerial extent are so large that it behaves as if it were infinite in its physical dimensions. EPA has been making increasingly complex adjustments to account for the extent of the contamination and its corresponding radiation field to provide more accurate risk and dose assessment modeling when using its calculators. In most instances, the more accurate modeling results derived from these gamma adjustments are less conservative. The notable exception are for some radionuclides in rooms with contaminated walls, ceiling, and floors, and the receptor is in location of the room with the highest amount of radiation exposure, usually the corner of small rooms and the center of large conference rooms. (authors)

  13. Strategic Target Systems (STARS) environmental assessment. Supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Strategic Target System program (STARS) uses a three-stage solid propellant guided missile. The missile integrates selected parts of the Navy retired Polaris A3 fleet ballistic missile with a substantial number of newly developed subsystems. STARS will be used for testing various developmental elements of the Strategic Defense Initiative System. STARS will fly a payload of either single or multiple reentry vehicles to the Broad Ocean Area or will be targeted for impact or for reentry. As part of the STARS development process, an EA was prepared. It concluded with a finding of no significant impact (FNSI). The Army determined that the STARS program would have no significant environmental impacts and that any potential impacts could be mitigated. However, as a result of lawsuits the court ordered that a supplemental study be conducted of the potential effects on the Kauai environment from hydrogen chloride released during STARS launches and that a determination be made as to whether the release of freon from the second stage of the STARS would violate the Hawaii Ozone Layer Protection Statute.

  14. The potential of Supplemental Instruction in engineering education - helping new students to adjust to and succeed in University studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2015-07-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a programme that is attached to difficult courses with the objective of increasing student performance and retention. However, an SI programme also has the potential to increase overall student performance and retention during the first critical year if applied to introductory courses. In this study the latter objective is investigated in an engineering educational environment. The study shows that an SI programme attached to difficult first semester courses for new engineering students has substantial positive effects on both first-year student performance and retention. Both male and female students appear to benefit from attending SI to the same extent. Some potential reasons for these improved first-year student performances are that attendance at SI sessions appears to lead to improved self-confidence, a broader network of study partners, improved study strategies and problem-solving skills and an increased ability to critically review material and work with others.

  15. Assessing the utility of statistical adjustments for imperfect detection in tropical conservation science

    PubMed Central

    Banks-Leite, Cristina; Pardini, Renata; Boscolo, Danilo; Cassano, Camila Righetto; Püttker, Thomas; Barros, Camila Santos; Barlow, Jos

    2014-01-01

    1. In recent years, there has been a fast development of models that adjust for imperfect detection. These models have revolutionized the analysis of field data, and their use has repeatedly demonstrated the importance of sampling design and data quality. There are, however, several practical limitations associated with the use of detectability models which restrict their relevance to tropical conservation science. 2. We outline the main advantages of detectability models, before examining their limitations associated with their applicability to the analysis of tropical communities, rare species and large-scale data sets. Finally, we discuss whether detection probability needs to be controlled before and/or after data collection. 3. Models that adjust for imperfect detection allow ecologists to assess data quality by estimating uncertainty and to obtain adjusted ecological estimates of populations and communities. Importantly, these models have allowed informed decisions to be made about the conservation and management of target species. 4. Data requirements for obtaining unadjusted estimates are substantially lower than for detectability-adjusted estimates, which require relatively high detection/recapture probabilities and a number of repeated surveys at each location. These requirements can be difficult to meet in large-scale environmental studies where high levels of spatial replication are needed, or in the tropics where communities are composed of many naturally rare species. However, while imperfect detection can only be adjusted statistically, covariates of detection probability can also be controlled through study design. Using three study cases where we controlled for covariates of detection probability through sampling design, we show that the variation in unadjusted ecological estimates from nearly 100 species was qualitatively the same as that obtained from adjusted estimates. Finally, we discuss that the decision as to whether one should control for

  16. 76 FR 69283 - Notice of Availability of the Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Improvements to the Mission Levee Protective System in Hidalgo County, TX AGENCY: United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico (USIBWC). ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Final Supplemental...

  17. Writing Instructional Intervention Supplement (Benchmarks, Informal Assessments, Strategies), Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

    This Writing Instructional Intervention Supplement from the Mississippi Department of Education contains benchmarks, informal assessments, and suggested teaching strategies for the fourth through eighth grades. Benchmarks outline what students should know and be able to do to meet mandated competencies. Informal and observational assessments…

  18. Using Focus Groups To Supplement the Assessment of Technical Communication Texts, Programs, and Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubanks, Philip; Abbott, Christine

    2003-01-01

    Recommends focus groups as a useful research methodology for supplementing other, more commonly used measures of qualitative and quantitative assessment. Explains how focus groups can be used to examine teacher and practitioner perspectives of effective technical writing. Provides suggestions on how focus groups can also be used for evaluating…

  19. Assessing the Efficacy of Adjustable Moving Averages Using ASEAN-5 Currencies.

    PubMed

    Chan Phooi M'ng, Jacinta; Zainudin, Rozaimah

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the trends in the exchange rate markets of the ASEAN-5 countries (Indonesia (IDR), Malaysia (MYR), the Philippines (PHP), Singapore (SGD), and Thailand (THB)) through the application of dynamic moving average trading systems. This research offers evidence of the usefulness of the time-varying volatility technical analysis indicator, Adjustable Moving Average (AMA') in deciphering trends in these ASEAN-5 exchange rate markets. This time-varying volatility factor, referred to as the Efficacy Ratio in this paper, is embedded in AMA'. The Efficacy Ratio adjusts the AMA' to the prevailing market conditions by avoiding whipsaws (losses due, in part, to acting on wrong trading signals, which generally occur when there is no general direction in the market) in range trading and by entering early into new trends in trend trading. The efficacy of AMA' is assessed against other popular moving-average rules. Based on the January 2005 to December 2014 dataset, our findings show that the moving averages and AMA' are superior to the passive buy-and-hold strategy. Specifically, AMA' outperforms the other models for the United States Dollar against PHP (USD/PHP) and USD/THB currency pairs. The results show that different length moving averages perform better in different periods for the five currencies. This is consistent with our hypothesis that a dynamic adjustable technical indicator is needed to cater for different periods in different markets.

  20. Assessing the Efficacy of Adjustable Moving Averages Using ASEAN-5 Currencies.

    PubMed

    Chan Phooi M'ng, Jacinta; Zainudin, Rozaimah

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the trends in the exchange rate markets of the ASEAN-5 countries (Indonesia (IDR), Malaysia (MYR), the Philippines (PHP), Singapore (SGD), and Thailand (THB)) through the application of dynamic moving average trading systems. This research offers evidence of the usefulness of the time-varying volatility technical analysis indicator, Adjustable Moving Average (AMA') in deciphering trends in these ASEAN-5 exchange rate markets. This time-varying volatility factor, referred to as the Efficacy Ratio in this paper, is embedded in AMA'. The Efficacy Ratio adjusts the AMA' to the prevailing market conditions by avoiding whipsaws (losses due, in part, to acting on wrong trading signals, which generally occur when there is no general direction in the market) in range trading and by entering early into new trends in trend trading. The efficacy of AMA' is assessed against other popular moving-average rules. Based on the January 2005 to December 2014 dataset, our findings show that the moving averages and AMA' are superior to the passive buy-and-hold strategy. Specifically, AMA' outperforms the other models for the United States Dollar against PHP (USD/PHP) and USD/THB currency pairs. The results show that different length moving averages perform better in different periods for the five currencies. This is consistent with our hypothesis that a dynamic adjustable technical indicator is needed to cater for different periods in different markets. PMID:27574972

  1. Assessing the Efficacy of Adjustable Moving Averages Using ASEAN-5 Currencies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the trends in the exchange rate markets of the ASEAN-5 countries (Indonesia (IDR), Malaysia (MYR), the Philippines (PHP), Singapore (SGD), and Thailand (THB)) through the application of dynamic moving average trading systems. This research offers evidence of the usefulness of the time-varying volatility technical analysis indicator, Adjustable Moving Average (AMA′) in deciphering trends in these ASEAN-5 exchange rate markets. This time-varying volatility factor, referred to as the Efficacy Ratio in this paper, is embedded in AMA′. The Efficacy Ratio adjusts the AMA′ to the prevailing market conditions by avoiding whipsaws (losses due, in part, to acting on wrong trading signals, which generally occur when there is no general direction in the market) in range trading and by entering early into new trends in trend trading. The efficacy of AMA′ is assessed against other popular moving-average rules. Based on the January 2005 to December 2014 dataset, our findings show that the moving averages and AMA′ are superior to the passive buy-and-hold strategy. Specifically, AMA′ outperforms the other models for the United States Dollar against PHP (USD/PHP) and USD/THB currency pairs. The results show that different length moving averages perform better in different periods for the five currencies. This is consistent with our hypothesis that a dynamic adjustable technical indicator is needed to cater for different periods in different markets. PMID:27574972

  2. Research needs for assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements of the NIH convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in Rockville, Maryland, in 2014. The purpose of the current article is to summarize and briefly discuss a list of research and resource needs developed with the input of workshop participants. This list is composed of the basic, clinical, translational, and population studies required for characterizing the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation, along with related data, analyses, evaluations, methods development, and supporting activities. Ancillary studies designed to use the participant, biological sample, and data resources of ongoing and completed studies (including those not originally concerned with iodine) may provide an efficient, cost-effective means to address some of these research and resource needs. In the United States, the foremost question is whether neurobehavioral development in the offspring of mildly to moderately iodine-deficient women is improved by maternal iodine supplementation during pregnancy. It is important to identify the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation in all population subgroups so that supplementation can be targeted, if necessary, to avoid increasing the risk of thyroid dysfunction and related adverse health effects in those with high iodine intakes. Ultimately, there will be a need for well-designed trials and other studies to assess the impact of maternal supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring. However, 2 basic information gaps loom ahead of such a study: the development of robust, valid, and convenient biomarkers of individual iodine status and the identification of infant and toddler neurobehavioral development endpoints that are sensitive to mild maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy and its reversal by supplementation. PMID:27534640

  3. Assessment of the safety of supplementation with different amounts of vitamin E in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Meydani, S N; Meydani, M; Blumberg, J B; Leka, L S; Pedrosa, M; Diamond, R; Schaefer, E J

    1998-08-01

    We showed previously that supplementation for 30 d with 800 IU (727 mg) vitamin E/d did not adversely affect healthy elderly persons. We have now assessed the effects of 4 mo of supplementation with 60, 200, or 800 IU (55, 182, or 727 mg) all-rac-alpha-tocopherol/d on general health, nutrient status, liver enzyme function, thyroid hormone concentrations, creatinine concentrations, serum autoantibodies, killing of Candida albicans by neutrophils, and bleeding time in 88 healthy subjects aged >65 y participating in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. No side effects were reported by the subjects. Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on body weight, plasma total proteins, albumin, glucose, plasma lipids or the lipoprotein profile, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, serum aspartate aminotransferase, serum alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, serum urea nitrogen, total red blood cells, white blood cells or white blood cell differential counts, platelet number, bleeding time, hemoglobin, hematocrit, thyroid hormones, or urinary or serum creatinine concentrations. Values from all supplemented groups were within normal ranges for older adults and were not significantly different from values in the placebo group. Vitamin E supplementation had no significant effects on plasma concentrations of other antioxidant vitamins and minerals, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, or total homocysteine. There was no significant effect of vitamin E on serum nonspecific immunoglobulin concentrations or anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. The cytotoxic ability of neutrophils against Candida albicans was not compromised. Thus, 4 mo of supplementation with 60-800 IU vitamin E/d had no adverse effects. These results are relevant for determining risk-to-benefit ratios for vitamin E supplementation.

  4. Estrogenic endocrine disruptors present in sports supplements. A risk assessment for human health.

    PubMed

    Plotan, Monika; Elliott, Christopher T; Frizzell, Caroline; Connolly, Lisa

    2014-09-15

    Sports supplements are becoming a regular dietary addition for consumers who view such products as a means of improving their health and performance. Previously estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDs) were detected in 80% of 116 sports supplements investigated by biological in vitro reporter gene assays (RGAs). The aim of this study was to quantify the hormonal activity in 50 of these sports supplement samples using a validated estrogen RGA and perform an exposure and risk assessment for human health. Results showed that 17β-estradiol equivalent levels were higher than those reported as being present in the typical human omnivore diet in 33 of the sports supplements and higher than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) in 13 of these products. The highest activity samples presented a potential to influence the human daily exposure to 17β-estradiol like activity in various risk groups with a predicted hormonal impact of greatest concern in young boys and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, consumers of sports supplements may be exposed to high levels of estrogenic EDs.

  5. A Prospective, Multicentered Study to Assess Social Adjustment in Patients With an Intestinal Stoma in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karadağ, Ayişe; Karabulut, Hatice; Baykara, Zehra G; Harputlu, Deniz; Toyluk, Eylem; Ulusoy, Birgül; Karadağ, Sercan; Kahraman, Aysel; Hin, Aysel Ören; Altinsoy, Meral; Akıl, Yasemin; Leventoğlu, Sezai

    2015-10-01

    Patients with a stoma undergo physiological, psychological, and social adjustment to their new life situation. A descriptive, prospective study was conducted to assess adaptation among patients >18 years of age with a new temporary or permanent colostomy or ileostomy living in Turkey and receiving care at a participating stomatherapy unit. The study took place between September 1, 2011, and September 1, 2012. During hospitalization and following discharge, patients with a stoma received training and counseling according to their individual characteristics and their physiological, psychological, and social needs. Each participant completed the 19-item "Identification Form for Patients with a Stoma" at the beginning of the study to document sociodemographic and stoma characteristics. To assess adjustment to the stoma, The Ostomy Assessment Inventory (OAI-23) was administered 2 times - the first within 1 month and the second within 6 months after surgery or when a temporary stoma was closed (whichever came first). This instrument comprised 23 items regarding adaptation to the stoma using Likert-type response options (0-4 range). Total scores ranged from 10 to 92, with higher scores indicating better adjustment. The instruments were completed by stoma and wound care nurses during face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests. Of the 135 participants, the majority (77, 57.0%) were male; 73 (54.1%) had a colostomy, and 106 (78.5%) had a temporary stoma. The primary reason for stoma creation was cancer (89, 65.9%). Mean total OAI-23 scores were 48.63 ± 13.75 at the first administration and 50.59 ± 13.89 for the second. In terms of sociodemographic factors, significant increases in mean scores from the first to the second survey time were noted among patients in the 50-69 age group, women, married persons, and unemployed persons (P less than 0.05). With regard to stoma characteristics, the OAI-23 scores of patients

  6. Characterization of the human kinetic adjustment factor for the health risk assessment of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Valcke, Mathieu; Krishnan, Kannan

    2014-03-01

    A default uncertainty factor of 3.16 (√10) is applied to account for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics when performing non-cancer risk assessments. Using relevant human data for specific chemicals, as WHO/IPCS suggests, it is possible to evaluate, and replace when appropriate, this default factor by quantifying chemical-specific adjustment factors for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics (also referred to as the human kinetic adjustment factor, HKAF). The HKAF has been determined based on the distributions of pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., half-life, area under the curve, maximum blood concentration) in relevant populations. This article focuses on the current state of knowledge of the use of physiologically based algorithms and models in characterizing the HKAF for environmental contaminants. The recent modeling efforts on the computation of HKAF as a function of the characteristics of the population, chemical and its mode of action (dose metrics), as well as exposure scenario of relevance to the assessment are reviewed here. The results of these studies, taken together, suggest the HKAF varies as a function of the sensitive subpopulation and dose metrics of interest, exposure conditions considered (route, duration, and intensity), metabolic pathways involved and theoretical model underlying its computation. The HKAF seldom exceeded the default value of 3.16, except in very young children (i.e., <≈ 3 months) and when the parent compound is the toxic moiety. Overall, from a public health perspective, the current state of knowledge generally suggest that the default uncertainty factor is sufficient to account for human variability in non-cancer risk assessments of environmental contaminants. PMID:24038072

  7. Estimating covariate-adjusted measures of diagnostic accuracy based on pooled biomarker assessments.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Christopher S; McLain, Alexander C; Gallagher, Colin M; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2016-07-01

    There is a need for epidemiological and medical researchers to identify new biomarkers (biological markers) that are useful in determining exposure levels and/or for the purposes of disease detection. Often this process is stunted by high testing costs associated with evaluating new biomarkers. Traditionally, biomarker assessments are individually tested within a target population. Pooling has been proposed to help alleviate the testing costs, where pools are formed by combining several individual specimens. Methods for using pooled biomarker assessments to estimate discriminatory ability have been developed. However, all these procedures have failed to acknowledge confounding factors. In this paper, we propose a regression methodology based on pooled biomarker measurements that allow the assessment of the discriminatory ability of a biomarker of interest. In particular, we develop covariate-adjusted estimators of the receiver-operating characteristic curve, the area under the curve, and Youden's index. We establish the asymptotic properties of these estimators and develop inferential techniques that allow one to assess whether a biomarker is a good discriminator between cases and controls, while controlling for confounders. The finite sample performance of the proposed methodology is illustrated through simulation. We apply our methods to analyze myocardial infarction (MI) data, with the goal of determining whether the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 is a good predictor of MI after controlling for the subjects' cholesterol levels. PMID:26927583

  8. Geometric Quality Assessment of Bundle Block Adjusted Mulit- Sensor Satellite Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Bhawani Kumar, P. S.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Srinivas, V.; Saibaba, J.; Varadan, G.

    2014-11-01

    The integration of multi-sensor earth observation data belonging to same area has become one of the most important input for resource mapping and management. Geometric error and fidelity between adjacent scenes affects large-area digital mosaic if the images/ scenes are processed independently. A block triangulation approach "Bundle Block Adjustment (BBA)" system has been developed at ADRIN for combined processing of multi-sensor, multi-resolution satellite imagery to achieve better geometric continuity. In this paper we present the evaluation results of BBA software along with performance assessment and operational use of products thus generated. The application evaluation deals with functional aspects of block-adjustment of satellite imagery consisting of data from multiple sources, i.e. AWiFs, LISS-3, LISS-4 and Cartosat-1 in various combinations as single block. It has provision for automatic generation of GCPs and tie-points using image metafile/ Rational Polynomial Coefficient's (RPC's) and ortho/ merged/ mosaicked products generation. The study is carried out with datasets covering different terrain types (ranging from high mountainous area, moderately undulating terrain, coastal plain, agriculture fields, urban area and water-body) across Indian subcontinent with varying block sizes and spatial reference systems. Geometric accuracy assessment is carried out to figure out error propagation at scene based ortho/ merged products as well as block level. The experimental results confirm that pixel tagging, geometric fidelity and feature continuity across adjacent scenes as well as for multiple sensors reduced to a great extent, due to the high redundancy. The results demonstrate that it is one of the most affective geometric corrections for generating large area digital mosaic over High mountainous terrain using high resolution good swath satellite imagery, like Cartosat-1, with minimum human intervention.

  9. 25 CFR 171.510 - How does BIA calculate my annual operation and maintenance assessment if supplemental water is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... maintenance assessment if supplemental water is available on the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? 171.510 Section 171.510 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? (a) For projects where supplemental water is...

  10. 25 CFR 171.510 - How does BIA calculate my annual operation and maintenance assessment if supplemental water is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... assessment if supplemental water is available on the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? 171.510 Section 171.510 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION... irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? (a) For projects where supplemental water is available, and...

  11. 25 CFR 171.510 - How does BIA calculate my annual operation and maintenance assessment if supplemental water is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... maintenance assessment if supplemental water is available on the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? 171.510 Section 171.510 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? (a) For projects where supplemental water is...

  12. 25 CFR 171.510 - How does BIA calculate my annual operation and maintenance assessment if supplemental water is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... maintenance assessment if supplemental water is available on the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? 171.510 Section 171.510 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER... the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? (a) For projects where supplemental water is...

  13. 77 FR 42333 - Proposed Adjustment of the Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    .... 826(a) and 21 CFR 1315.11 (76 FR 77252). That Notice indicated that DEA would adjust the assessment of... previously in the 2010 and 2011 assessment of annual needs (74 FR 60294 and 75 FR 79407, respectively). As of... Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, and Phenylpropanolamine for 2012 AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration...

  14. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  15. 77 FR 76406 - Criteria and Procedures for Proposed Assessment of Civil Penalties; Inflation Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... such adjustments. MSHA last adjusted its civil penalties for inflation in 2008 (73 FR 7206). Section 5... updated civil penalties according to the Inflation Adjustment Act on February 7, 2008 (73 FR 7206, Feb. 7... final rule published on March 22, 2007 (72 FR 13592). The existing maximum penalty is $220,000 for...

  16. Assessment of isoflavone aglycones variability in soy food supplements using a validated HPLC-UV method

    PubMed Central

    UIFĂLEAN, ALINA; FARCAŞ, ANCA; ILIEŞ, MARIA; HEGHEŞ, SIMONA CODRUŢA; IONESCU, CORINA; IUGA, CRISTINA ADELA

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Soy supplements are often recommended in the management of menopause symptoms. The declared content of soy supplements is commonly expressed as total isoflavones per dosage form. Given that soy isoflavones have different estrogenic potencies, pharmacokinetics and metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the total isoflavone content and the aglycone profile of seven soy supplements and one soy seed extract. Label accuracy was assessed, in relation to the precise content and the recommended posology for estimating whether the optimal dose is achieved for alleviating menopause symptoms. Methods A high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for evaluating the aglycone content (genistein, daidzein, glycitein). After extraction and acidic hydrolysis, the aglycones were separated on a C18 column, using 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The flow rate was 1.5mL min−1 and the UV detector wavelength was set at 260nm. A linear relationship was found in the range 5–80μg mL−1. The method was validated using the accuracy profile methodology. Results The total isoflavone content ranged from 6.07 to 41.68mg dosage form−1. Various aglycone profiles were obtained for each supplement which can result in a different estrogenic activity, bioavailability and finally, in a different efficiency in alleviating menopause symptoms. In most clinical trials where soy isoflavones were evaluated, little attention was paid to determining the exact aglycone profile of the employed soy extracts. Conclusions As clinical outcomes continue to be controversial, this study highlights the need of standardization in genistein, rather than total isoflavones and labeling accuracy for soy supplements. PMID:26609272

  17. Disability adjusted life year (DALY): a useful tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Wang, Xiaochang C; Chen, Rong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-04-01

    Disability adjusted life year (DALY) has been widely used since 1990s for evaluating global and/or regional burden of diseases. As many environmental pollutants are hazardous to human health, DALY is also recognized as an indicator to quantify the health impact of environmental pollution related to disease burden. Based on literature reviews, this article aims to give an overview of the applicable methodologies and research directions for using DALY as a tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution. With an introduction of the methodological framework of DALY, the requirements on data collection and manipulation for quantifying disease burdens are summarized. Regarding environmental pollutants hazardous to human beings, health effect/risk evaluation is indispensable for transforming pollution data into disease data through exposure and dose-response analyses which need careful selection of models and determination of parameters. Following the methodological discussions, real cases are analyzed with attention paid to chemical pollutants and pathogens usually encountered in environmental pollution. It can be seen from existing studies that DALY is advantageous over conventional environmental impact assessment for quantification and comparison of the risks resulted from environmental pollution. However, further studies are still required to standardize the methods of health effect evaluation regarding varied pollutants under varied circumstances before DALY calculation.

  18. Comparison of validity of assessment methods using indices of adjusted agreement.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jun-mo

    2007-02-10

    For comparing the validity of rating methods, the adjusted kappa (S coefficient) and Yule's Y index are better than Cohen's kappa which is affected by marginal probabilities. We consider a validity study in which a subject is assessed as exposed or not-exposed by two competing rating methods and the gold standard. We are interested in one of the methods, which is closer in agreement with the gold standard. We present statistical methods taking correlations into account for comparing the validity of the rating methods using S coefficient and Y index. We show how the S coefficient and Yule's Y index are related to sensitivity and specificity. In comparing the two rating methods, the preference is clear when the inference is the same for both S and Y. If the inference using S differs from that using Y, then it is not obvious how to decide a preference. This may occur when one rating method is better than the other in sensitivity but not in specificity. Numerical examples for comparing asbestos-exposure assessment methods are illustrated.

  19. Assessment of net lost revenue adjustment mechanisms for utility DSM programs

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    Utility shareholders can lose money on demand-side management (DSM) investments between rate cases. Several industry analysts argue that the revenues lost from utility DSM programs are an important financial disincentive to utility DSM investment. A key utility regulatory reform undertaken since 1989 allows utilities to recover the lost revenues incurred through successful operation of DSM programs. Explicitly defined net lost revenue adjustment (NLRA) mechanisms are states` preferred approach to lost revenue recovery from DSM programs. This report examines the experiences states and utilities are having with the NLRA approach. The report has three objectives. First, we determine whether NLRA is a feasible and successful approach to removing the lost-revenue disincentive to utility operation of DSM programs. Second, we identify the conditions linked to successful implementation of NLRA mechanisms in different states and assess whether NLRA has changed utility investment behavior. Third, we suggest improvements to NLRA mechanisms. We first identify states with NLRA mechanisms where utilities are recovering lost revenues from DSM programs. We interview staff at regulatory agencies in all these states and utility staff in four states. These interviews focus on the status of NLRA, implementation issues, DSM measurement issues, and NLRA results. We also analyze regulatory agency orders on NLRA, as well as associated testimony, reports, and utility lost revenue recovery filings. Finally, we use qualitative and quantitative indicators to assess NLRA`s effectiveness. Contrary to the concerns raised by some industry analysts, our results indicate NLRA is a feasible approach to the lost-revenue disincentive.

  20. Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Measures of Psychosocial Adjustment and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Thill, Azure Welborn; Bachanas, Pamela; Garber, Judy; Miller, Karen Bearman; Abad, Mona; Bruno, Elizabeth Franks; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Jandasek, Barbara; Mennuti-Washburn, Jean E.; O’Mahar, Kerry; Zukerman, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide an evidence-based review of measures of psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology, with a specific focus on their use in the field of pediatric psychology. Methods As part of a larger survey of pediatric psychologists from the Society of Pediatric Psychology e-mail listserv (American Psychological Association, APA, Division 54), 37 measures were selected for this psychometric review. Measures that qualified for the review fell into one of the following three categories: (a) internalizing or externalizing rating scales, (b) broad-band rating scales, and (c) self-related rating scales. Results Psychometric characteristics (i.e., three types of reliability, two types of validity) were strong for the majority of measures reviewed, with 34 of the 37 measures meeting “well-established” evidence-based assessment (EBA) criteria. Strengths and weaknesses of existing measures were noted. Conclusions Recommendations for future work in this area of assessment are presented, including suggestions that more fine-grained EBA criteria be developed and that evidence-based “profiles” be devised for each measure. PMID:17728305

  1. Supplemental risk-assessment guidance for the Superfund program. Part 1. Guidance for Public-Health Risk Assessments. Part 2. Guidance for ecological Risk Assessments. Draft report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This guidance manual was developed to address the practical aspects and issues pertaining to the Superfund risk-assessment process for both public health and environment concerns. Part 1, Guidance for Public Health Risk Assessments, supplements the Superfund Public Health Evaluation Manual and Superfund Exposure Assessment Manual and the Endangerment Assessment Handbook. Explicit guidance on technical matters which should be followed in developing public health risk assessments for EPA Region 1. The guidance addresses hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, risk characterization, and uncertainty/limitations. Part 2 of the manual, Guidance for Ecological Risk Assessments, addresses the collection of site-specific data needed to support an ecological risk assessment, describes a framework for conducting the assessments, and provides several specific approaches for assessing risks to systems exposed to chemical contamination in different media.

  2. The PROMIS® Smoking Assessment Toolkit—Background and Introduction to Supplement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The PROMIS® Smoking Initiative has developed an assessment toolkit for measuring 6 domains of interest to cigarette smoking research: nicotine dependence, coping expectancies, emotional and sensory expectancies, health expectancies, psychosocial expectancies, and social motivations for smoking. The papers in this supplement describe the methods used to develop these item banks, their psychometric properties, and the preliminary evidence for their validity. This commentary is meant to provide background information for the material in this supplement. Methods: After discussing the use of item response theory in behavioral measurement, I will briefly review the initial developmental steps for the smoking assessment toolkit. Finally, I will describe the contents of this supplement and provide some closing remarks. Results: Psychometric evidence strongly supports the utility of the toolkit of item banks, short forms (SFs), and computer adaptive tests (CATs). The item banks for daily smokers produce scores with reliability estimates above 0.90 for a wide range of each cigarette smoking domain continuum, and SF and CAT administrations also achieve high reliability (generally greater than 0.85) using very few items (4–7 items for most banks). Performance of the banks for nondaily smokers is similar. Preliminary evidence supports the concurrent and the discriminant validity of the bank domains. Conclusions: The new smoking assessment toolkit has attractive measurement features that are likely to benefit smoking research as researchers begin to utilize this resource. Information about the toolkit and access to the assessments is available at the project Web site (http://www.rand.org/health/projects/promis-smoking-initiative.html) and can also be accessed via the PROMIS Assessment Center (www.assessmentcenter.net). PMID:25118225

  3. Market Assessment and Product Evaluation of Probiotic Containing Dietary Supplements Available in Bangladesh Market.

    PubMed

    Begum, Anjuman Ara; Jakaria, D M; Anisuzzaman, Sharif Md; Islam, Mahfuzul; Mahmud, Siraje Arif

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics containing food supplements available in Bangladesh market were identified and collected for assessment. To assess their label claim, they were resuspended into sterile distilled water. Then, series dilutions of each sample solution were prepared and immediately plated out, in duplicate, into De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar. These plates were then incubated at 37°C for 48 hours and colonies were counted. Viable cell numbers stated on the labels were compared with actual viable cell numbers. To assess the viability of the probiotics included in the products, probiotic strains were isolated from each of the four products and screened for inhibitory activity against six indicator strains. It was surprisingly found that although the viable cell numbers of all supplements were three to four log cycles lower than label claim of the products, however, this problem did not affect the inhibitory activity of the probiotic strains against indicator strains according to in vitro assessment. Legislation and regulation regarding prebiotic-probiotic containing products should be built up in Bangladesh to ensure quality products supply to the consumers. Moreover, manufacturers of probiotic containing products should take the responsibility for providing the consumer with scientifically and legally correct information. PMID:26649229

  4. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas; de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; de Medeiros Rocha, Érika Dantas; França, Mardone Cavalcante; de Almeida, Maria das Graças; Brandão-Neto, José

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31) and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31) for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results Our study showed (1) an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2) a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3) increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4) increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5) an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001). Conclusions Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations. PMID:26507491

  5. Market Assessment and Product Evaluation of Probiotic Containing Dietary Supplements Available in Bangladesh Market.

    PubMed

    Begum, Anjuman Ara; Jakaria, D M; Anisuzzaman, Sharif Md; Islam, Mahfuzul; Mahmud, Siraje Arif

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics containing food supplements available in Bangladesh market were identified and collected for assessment. To assess their label claim, they were resuspended into sterile distilled water. Then, series dilutions of each sample solution were prepared and immediately plated out, in duplicate, into De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar. These plates were then incubated at 37°C for 48 hours and colonies were counted. Viable cell numbers stated on the labels were compared with actual viable cell numbers. To assess the viability of the probiotics included in the products, probiotic strains were isolated from each of the four products and screened for inhibitory activity against six indicator strains. It was surprisingly found that although the viable cell numbers of all supplements were three to four log cycles lower than label claim of the products, however, this problem did not affect the inhibitory activity of the probiotic strains against indicator strains according to in vitro assessment. Legislation and regulation regarding prebiotic-probiotic containing products should be built up in Bangladesh to ensure quality products supply to the consumers. Moreover, manufacturers of probiotic containing products should take the responsibility for providing the consumer with scientifically and legally correct information.

  6. Market Assessment and Product Evaluation of Probiotic Containing Dietary Supplements Available in Bangladesh Market

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Anjuman Ara; Jakaria, D. M.; Anisuzzaman, Sharif Md; Islam, Mahfuzul; Mahmud, Siraje Arif

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics containing food supplements available in Bangladesh market were identified and collected for assessment. To assess their label claim, they were resuspended into sterile distilled water. Then, series dilutions of each sample solution were prepared and immediately plated out, in duplicate, into De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar. These plates were then incubated at 37°C for 48 hours and colonies were counted. Viable cell numbers stated on the labels were compared with actual viable cell numbers. To assess the viability of the probiotics included in the products, probiotic strains were isolated from each of the four products and screened for inhibitory activity against six indicator strains. It was surprisingly found that although the viable cell numbers of all supplements were three to four log cycles lower than label claim of the products, however, this problem did not affect the inhibitory activity of the probiotic strains against indicator strains according to in vitro assessment. Legislation and regulation regarding prebiotic-probiotic containing products should be built up in Bangladesh to ensure quality products supply to the consumers. Moreover, manufacturers of probiotic containing products should take the responsibility for providing the consumer with scientifically and legally correct information. PMID:26649229

  7. A comparison of clutching movements of freely adjusted and imposed pedal configurations for identifying discomfort assessment criteria.

    PubMed

    Pannetier, Romain; Wang, Xuguang

    2014-07-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of the free pedal position adjustment on clutching movements of the left lower limb as well as on the perceived discomfort. Six automotive clutch pedal configurations were tested by 20 subjects (5 young females, 5 young males, 5 older females, 5 older males) using a multi-adjustable experimental mock-up. Results showed that the pedal position was adjusted to ensure a good starting pedal position allowing a less flexed ankle and avoiding unnecessary leg displacement from the foot rest to the position at start depression. Pedal position adjustment seemed not motivated by reducing joint torque though discomfort ratings were found significantly correlated with knee and ankle torques at the end of depression. The present work also illustrates that the less-constrained motion concept is helpful for a better understanding of people preference and useful for identifying motion-related biomechanical parameters to be considered for defining assessment criteria. PMID:24524893

  8. Assessment of Burden of Malaria in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe, Using the Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Resign; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the burden of malaria in Gwanda District with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the impact of disease on affected communities. Data was collected from health facility malaria registers and the District Health Information System (DHIS) to estimate DALYs at household and district levels respectively. The household DALYs included 130 malaria cases from 2013 to 2015 while the DALYs for the district included 719 confirmed malaria cases from 2011 to 2015. Households lost a total of 153.89 DALYs with the majority of the disease burden (65.55%) occurring in the most economically productive age group (15-45 years) with a mean loss of 1.18 DALYs per malaria case. At district level, 251.09 DALYs were lost due to malaria and the calculated average district DALY rate for 2011-2015 was 36.29 DALYs/100,000 persons per year. It is important to estimate malaria burden to assist policy makers in making informed decisions when channelling resources for control and prevention of the disease. PMID:26907320

  9. Assessment of Burden of Malaria in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe, Using the Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Resign; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-02-22

    Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the burden of malaria in Gwanda District with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the impact of disease on affected communities. Data was collected from health facility malaria registers and the District Health Information System (DHIS) to estimate DALYs at household and district levels respectively. The household DALYs included 130 malaria cases from 2013 to 2015 while the DALYs for the district included 719 confirmed malaria cases from 2011 to 2015. Households lost a total of 153.89 DALYs with the majority of the disease burden (65.55%) occurring in the most economically productive age group (15-45 years) with a mean loss of 1.18 DALYs per malaria case. At district level, 251.09 DALYs were lost due to malaria and the calculated average district DALY rate for 2011-2015 was 36.29 DALYs/100,000 persons per year. It is important to estimate malaria burden to assist policy makers in making informed decisions when channelling resources for control and prevention of the disease.

  10. Assessment of Burden of Malaria in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe, Using the Disability Adjusted Life Years

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Resign; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the burden of malaria in Gwanda District with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the impact of disease on affected communities. Data was collected from health facility malaria registers and the District Health Information System (DHIS) to estimate DALYs at household and district levels respectively. The household DALYs included 130 malaria cases from 2013 to 2015 while the DALYs for the district included 719 confirmed malaria cases from 2011 to 2015. Households lost a total of 153.89 DALYs with the majority of the disease burden (65.55%) occurring in the most economically productive age group (15–45 years) with a mean loss of 1.18 DALYs per malaria case. At district level, 251.09 DALYs were lost due to malaria and the calculated average district DALY rate for 2011–2015 was 36.29 DALYs/100,000 persons per year. It is important to estimate malaria burden to assist policy makers in making informed decisions when channelling resources for control and prevention of the disease. PMID:26907320

  11. Assessment of Nutritional Status in Children With Cancer and Effectiveness of Oral Nutritional Supplements.

    PubMed

    Gürlek Gökçebay, Dilek; Emir, Suna; Bayhan, Turan; Demir, Hacı Ahmet; Gunduz, Mehmet; Tunc, Bahattin

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common consequence of cancer in children, but the most effective methods of nutrition intervention are under debate. We aimed to evaluate the nutritional status of children diagnosed with cancer, and to investigate the effect of oral nutritional supplements on anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters, and outcome. A randomized clinical study of 45 newly diagnosed cancer patients was performed. Anthropometric and biochemical data and related factors were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months after diagnosis. On initial anthropometric assessment, prevalence of malnutrition by weight or height was found to be lower as compared with body mass index (BMI), or weight for height (WFH), or arm anthropometry. Twenty-six of the patients (55%) received oral nutritional supplement. During the second 3 months after diagnosis, there was a statistically significant decrease in number of the patients with WFH <90th percentile and BMI <5th percentile (P = .003 and P = .04, respectively). Infectious complications occurred more frequently in malnourished patients during first 3 months, and survival of children who were malnourished at the 6th month was significantly lower than that of well-nourished children (P = .003). On laboratory assessment, serum prealbumin levels of the all subjects were below normal ranges, but no relation was found for serum prealbumin or albumin levels in patients who were malnourished or not at diagnosis. Nutritional intervention is necessary to promote normal development and increase functional status as a child receives intensive treatment. Protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplements are effective for preventing weight loss in malnourished children.

  12. Assessing Factors in Adolescent Adjustment as Precursors to Recidivism in Court-Referred Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Miller, Janeen; Ricard, Richard J.; Garcia, Roberto; Lancaster, Chloe

    2011-01-01

    Court-referred youth participated in an intervention program and completed the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory. Reoffending rates were tracked for 2 years. Antisocial behavior, anger control, and emotional distress were influencing characteristics for recidivism. The Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory may serve…

  13. Classroom Contexts as the Framework for Assessing Social-Emotional Adjustment: A National Study in Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcdermott, Paul A.; Watkins, Marley W.; Drogalis, Anna Rhoad; Chao, Jessica L.; Worrell, Frank C.; Hall, Tracey E.

    2016-01-01

    Contextually based assessments reveal the circumstances accompanying maladjustment (the when, where, and with whom) and supply clues to the motivations underpinning problem behaviors. The Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA) is a teacher rating scale composed of indicators describing behavior in 24 classroom situational contexts.…

  14. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). South Carolina Supplement US Army. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, C.; Gifford, L.A.

    1994-04-01

    In response to the growing number of environmental laws and regulations worldwide, the U.S. Army has adopted an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in 1985, Major Army Commands (MACOMs) were required to conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle. The installations must also conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM was developing a separate assessment system, the Army mandated, through Army Regulation 200-1, one unified Army-wide assessment mechanism. The resulting system combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations, along with good management practices and risk management information, into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and which specific items or operations to review. Each assessment protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review the checklist items as effectively as possible. The Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates existing checklists from USEPA and private industry. The South Carolina Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the U.S. ECAS manual, using existing South Carolina state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS), Environmental compliance checklists, Environmental law - South Carolina.

  15. An assessment of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) glacial isostatic adjustment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, A.; Tregoning, P.; Dehecq, A.

    2016-05-01

    The recent release of the next-generation global ice history model, ICE6G_C(VM5a), is likely to be of interest to a wide range of disciplines including oceanography (sea level studies), space gravity (mass balance studies), glaciology, and, of course, geodynamics (Earth rheology studies). In this paper we make an assessment of some aspects of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model and show that the published present-day radial uplift rates are too high along the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula (by ˜8.6 mm/yr) and beneath the Ross Ice Shelf (by ˜5 mm/yr). Furthermore, the published spherical harmonic coefficients—which are meant to represent the dimensionless present-day changes due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)—contain excessive power for degree ≥90, do not agree with physical expectations and do not represent accurately the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model. We show that the excessive power in the high-degree terms produces erroneous uplift rates when the empirical relationship of Purcell et al. (2011) is applied, but when correct Stokes coefficients are used, the empirical relationship produces excellent agreement with the fully rigorous computation of the radial velocity field, subject to the caveats first noted by Purcell et al. (2011). Using the Australian National University (ANU) groups CALSEA software package, we recompute the present-day GIA signal for the ice thickness history and Earth rheology used by Peltier et al. (2015) and provide dimensionless Stokes coefficients that can be used to correct satellite altimetry observations for GIA over oceans and by the space gravity community to separate GIA and present-day mass balance change signals. We denote the new data sets as ICE6G_ANU.

  16. Empirical Assessment of Spatial Prediction Methods for Location Cost Adjustment Factors

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Giovanni C.; Guindani, Michele; D'Incognito, Maria; Zhang, Linlin

    2014-01-01

    In the feasibility stage, the correct prediction of construction costs ensures that budget requirements are met from the start of a project's lifecycle. A very common approach for performing quick-order-of-magnitude estimates is based on using Location Cost Adjustment Factors (LCAFs) that compute historically based costs by project location. Nowadays, numerous LCAF datasets are commercially available in North America, but, obviously, they do not include all locations. Hence, LCAFs for un-sampled locations need to be inferred through spatial interpolation or prediction methods. Currently, practitioners tend to select the value for a location using only one variable, namely the nearest linear-distance between two sites. However, construction costs could be affected by socio-economic variables as suggested by macroeconomic theories. Using a commonly used set of LCAFs, the City Cost Indexes (CCI) by RSMeans, and the socio-economic variables included in the ESRI Community Sourcebook, this article provides several contributions to the body of knowledge. First, the accuracy of various spatial prediction methods in estimating LCAF values for un-sampled locations was evaluated and assessed in respect to spatial interpolation methods. Two Regression-based prediction models were selected, a Global Regression Analysis and a Geographically-weighted regression analysis (GWR). Once these models were compared against interpolation methods, the results showed that GWR is the most appropriate way to model CCI as a function of multiple covariates. The outcome of GWR, for each covariate, was studied for all the 48 states in the contiguous US. As a direct consequence of spatial non-stationarity, it was possible to discuss the influence of each single covariate differently from state to state. In addition, the article includes a first attempt to determine if the observed variability in cost index values could be, at least partially explained by independent socio-economic variables. PMID

  17. Coping resources, perceived stress and adjustment to divorce among Israeli women: assessing effects.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Liat; Heine-Cohen, Etti

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how socioeconomic resources (level of education and evaluation of economic situation), cognitive resources (sense of coherence), emotional resources (the quality of relationship with the ex-spouse and the existence of a new romantic relationship), and perceived stress contribute to explaining the adjustment of Israeli women to divorce. Adjustment to divorce was examined along four dimensions: self-acceptance of divorce, disentanglement of the love relationship, symptoms of grief, and self-evaluation. The research sample consisted of 114 divorced Jewish women, all of whom had retained custody of their children. Among the resources examined, the contribution of sense of coherence to explaining adjustment to divorce was particularly significant, followed by the existence of a new romantic relationship. Furthermore, resources were found to interact with perceived stress in explaining women's adjustment to divorce.

  18. Assessment and indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking in cohort studies using relative hazards models.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Laurier, Dominique; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Cole, Stephen R

    2014-11-01

    Workers' smoking histories are not measured in many occupational cohort studies. Here we discuss the use of negative control outcomes to detect and adjust for confounding in analyses that lack information on smoking. We clarify the assumptions necessary to detect confounding by smoking and the additional assumptions necessary to indirectly adjust for such bias. We illustrate these methods using data from 2 studies of radiation and lung cancer: the Colorado Plateau cohort study (1950-2005) of underground uranium miners (in which smoking was measured) and a French cohort study (1950-2004) of nuclear industry workers (in which smoking was unmeasured). A cause-specific relative hazards model is proposed for estimation of indirectly adjusted associations. Among the miners, the proposed method suggests no confounding by smoking of the association between radon and lung cancer--a conclusion supported by adjustment for measured smoking. Among the nuclear workers, the proposed method suggests substantial confounding by smoking of the association between radiation and lung cancer. Indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking resulted in an 18% decrease in the adjusted estimated hazard ratio, yet this cannot be verified because smoking was unmeasured. Assumptions underlying this method are described, and a cause-specific proportional hazards model that allows easy implementation using standard software is presented.

  19. Assessment and Indirect Adjustment for Confounding by Smoking in Cohort Studies Using Relative Hazards Models

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, David B.; Laurier, Dominique; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Cole, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Workers' smoking histories are not measured in many occupational cohort studies. Here we discuss the use of negative control outcomes to detect and adjust for confounding in analyses that lack information on smoking. We clarify the assumptions necessary to detect confounding by smoking and the additional assumptions necessary to indirectly adjust for such bias. We illustrate these methods using data from 2 studies of radiation and lung cancer: the Colorado Plateau cohort study (1950–2005) of underground uranium miners (in which smoking was measured) and a French cohort study (1950–2004) of nuclear industry workers (in which smoking was unmeasured). A cause-specific relative hazards model is proposed for estimation of indirectly adjusted associations. Among the miners, the proposed method suggests no confounding by smoking of the association between radon and lung cancer—a conclusion supported by adjustment for measured smoking. Among the nuclear workers, the proposed method suggests substantial confounding by smoking of the association between radiation and lung cancer. Indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking resulted in an 18% decrease in the adjusted estimated hazard ratio, yet this cannot be verified because smoking was unmeasured. Assumptions underlying this method are described, and a cause-specific proportional hazards model that allows easy implementation using standard software is presented. PMID:25245043

  20. Risk Adjustment and the Assessment of Disparities in Dialysis Mortality Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kalbfleisch, John; Wolfe, Robert; Bell, Sarah; Sun, Rena; Messana, Joseph; Shearon, Tempie; Ashby, Valarie; Padilla, Robin; Zhang, Min; Turenne, Marc; Pearson, Jeffrey; Dahlerus, Claudia; Li, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) reported by Medicare compare mortality at individual dialysis facilities with the national average, and are currently adjusted for race. However, whether the adjustment for race obscures or clarifies disparities in quality of care for minority groups is unknown. Cox model-based SMRs were computed with and without adjustment for patient race for 5920 facilities in the United States during 2010. The study population included virtually all patients treated with dialysis during this period. Without race adjustment, facilities with higher proportions of black patients had better survival outcomes; facilities with the highest percentage of black patients (top 10%) had overall mortality rates approximately 7% lower than expected. After adjusting for within-facility racial differences, facilities with higher proportions of black patients had poorer survival outcomes among black and non-black patients; facilities with the highest percentage of black patients (top 10%) had mortality rates approximately 6% worse than expected. In conclusion, accounting for within-facility racial differences in the computation of SMR helps to clarify disparities in quality of health care among patients with ESRD. The adjustment that accommodates within-facility comparisons is key, because it could also clarify relationships between patient characteristics and health care provider outcomes in other settings.

  1. 40 CFR 22.38 - Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Water Act. 22.38 Section 22.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING THE ADMINISTRATIVE ASSESSMENT OF...

  2. 40 CFR 22.38 - Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Water Act. 22.38 Section 22.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING THE ADMINISTRATIVE ASSESSMENT OF...

  3. 40 CFR 22.38 - Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Water Act. 22.38 Section 22.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING THE ADMINISTRATIVE ASSESSMENT OF...

  4. Motivating drivers to correctly adjust head restraints: assessing effectiveness of three different interventions.

    PubMed

    Fockler, S K; Vavrik, J; Kristiansen, L

    1998-11-01

    Three types of driver educational strategies were tested to determine the most effective approach for motivating drivers to adjust their head restraints to the correct vertical position: (1) a human interactive personal contact with a member of an ICBC-trained head restraint adjustment team, (2) a passive video presentation of the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment, and (3) an interactive three-dimensional kinetic model showing the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment. An experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. A different educational treatment was used in each of three lanes of a vehicle emissions testing facility, with a fourth lane with no intervention serving as a control group. Observational and self-reported data were obtained from a total of 1,974 vehicles entering and exiting the facility. The human intervention led to significantly more drivers actually adjusting their head restraints immediately after the intervention than the passive video or interactive kinetic model approaches, which were both no different from the control group. The human intervention was recommended as the most effective and was implemented successfully on a limited basis during 3 months of 1995 and again during 3 months of 1996.

  5. An assessment of the ICE6G_C (VM5A) glacial isostatic adjustment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Anthony; Tregoning, Paul; Dehecq, Amaury

    2016-04-01

    The recent release of the next-generation global ice history model, ICE6G_C(VM5a) [Peltier et al., 2015, Argus et al. 2014] is likely to be of interest to a wide range of disciplines including oceanography (sea level studies), space gravity (mass balance studies), glaciology and, of course, geodynamics (Earth rheology studies). In this presentation I will assess some aspects of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model and the accompanying published data sets. I will demonstrate that the published present-day radial uplift rates are too high along the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula (by ˜8.6 mm/yr) and beneath the Ross Ice Shelf (by ˜5 mm/yr). Further, the published spherical harmonic coefficients - which are meant to represent the dimensionless present-day changes due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) - will be shown to contain excessive power for degree ≥ 90, to be physically implausible and to not represent accurately the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model. The excessive power in the high degree terms produces erroneous uplift rates when the empirical relationship of Purcell et al. [2011] is applied but, when correct Stokes' coefficients are used, the empirical relationship will be shown to produce excellent agreement with the fully rigorous computation of the radial velocity field, subject to the caveats first noted by Purcell et al. [2011]. Finally, a global radial velocity field for the present-day GIA signal, and corresponding Stoke's coefficients will be presented for the ICE6GC ice model history using the VM5a rheology model. These results have been obtained using the ANU group's CALSEA software package and can be used to correct satellite altimetry observations for GIA over oceans and by the space gravity community to separate GIA and present-day mass balance change signals without any of the shortcomings of the previously published data-sets. We denote the new data sets ICE6G_ANU.

  6. Operational problems of an iron supplementation programme for pregnant women: an assessment of UNRWA experience.

    PubMed Central

    Pappagallo, S.; Bull, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Assessed is a large-scale iron supplementation programme for the 70 000 pregnant refugee women cared for by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). For this purpose, a retrospective survey of 1267 antenatal records was conducted in health centres located in the West Bank, Gaza, Syrian Arab Republic, Jordan, and Lebanon. The following operational problems were identified: late entry to antenatal care; high drop-out rate from antenatal care; low compliance in follow-up haemoglobin examinations; and misdirected continued testing of women who were not anaemic at registration. Routine iron supplementation of all pregnant women should be considered only in those countries where severe anaemia is prevalent and should always be coupled with additional interventions that are effective at improving iron deficiency anaemia in a given population. In most countries attention should be directed towards changing dietary habits to enhance the availability of local foodstuffs that are rich in iron. One initial haemoglobin test may help in focusing on the relatively few initially anaemic subjects who need further attention. Repeated testing during pregnancy is unwarranted. PMID:8653813

  7. 21 CFR 1315.13 - Adjustments of the assessment of annual needs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Assessment of Annual... increase or reduce the assessment of annual needs for ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or...

  8. 21 CFR 1315.13 - Adjustments of the assessment of annual needs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Assessment of Annual... increase or reduce the assessment of annual needs for ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or...

  9. 21 CFR 1315.13 - Adjustments of the assessment of annual needs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Assessment of Annual... increase or reduce the assessment of annual needs for ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or...

  10. 21 CFR 1315.13 - Adjustments of the assessment of annual needs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Assessment of Annual... increase or reduce the assessment of annual needs for ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or...

  11. 21 CFR 1315.13 - Adjustments of the assessment of annual needs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Assessment of Annual... increase or reduce the assessment of annual needs for ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or...

  12. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  13. Radiosonde Atmospheric Temperature Products for Assessing Climate (RATPAC): Towards a New Adjusted Radiosonde Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Free, M. P.; Angell, J. K.; Durre, I.; Klein, S.; Lanzante, J.; Lawrimore, J.; Peterson, T.; Seidel, D.

    2002-05-01

    The objective of NOAA's RATPAC project is to develop climate-quality global, hemispheric and zonal upper-air temperature time series from the NCDC radiosonde database. Lanzante, Klein and Seidel (LKS) have produced an 87-station adjusted radiosonde dataset using a multifactor expert decision approach. Our goal is to extend this dataset spatially and temporally and to provide a method to update it routinely at NCDC. Since the LKS adjustment method is too labor-intensive for these purposes, we are investigating a first-difference method (Peterson et al., 1998) and an automated version of the LKS method. The first difference method (FD) can be used to combine large numbers of time series into spatial means, but also introduces a random error in the resulting large-scale averages. If the portions of the time series with suspect continuity are withheld from the calculations, it has the potential to reconstruct the real variability without the effects of the discontinuities. However, tests of FD on unadjusted radiosonde data and on reanalysis temperature data suggest that it must be used with caution when the number of stations is low and the number of data gaps is high. Because of these problems with the first difference approach, we are also considering an automated version of the LKS adjustment method using statistical change points, day-night temperature difference series, relationships between changes in adjacent atmospheric levels, and station histories to identify inhomogeneities in the temperature data.

  14. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Naithani, Manisha; Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  15. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus. PMID:27064332

  16. Assessing the Promise of a Supplemental Reading Intervention for At-Risk First Grade Students in a Public School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Neel, Joanna L.; Kaiser, Forrest; Le, Hong-Hai

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory quasi-experimental case study, we assessed the promise of a yearlong supplemental reading intervention with a small pilot group of at-risk first grade readers in an elementary school setting. Using standardized measures of reading proficiency, we found that after 47 hours of one-on-one tutoring instruction, students read…

  17. 75 FR 50758 - Leader One Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Leader One Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Leader One Gas Storage Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues August 6, 2010. On July...

  18. 76 FR 12373 - Notice of Availability of Final Supplement to the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Pa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Final Supplement to the Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Pa'ina Hawaii, LLC Irradiator in Honolulu, HI AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice...

  19. 40 CFR 22.39 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under section 109...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under section 109 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended. 22.39 Section 22.39 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  20. 40 CFR 22.42 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties for violations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties for violations of compliance orders issued to owners or operators of public water systems under part B of the Safe Drinking Water Act. 22.42 Section 22.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  1. 25 CFR 171.510 - How does BIA calculate my annual operation and maintenance assessment if supplemental water is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does BIA calculate my annual operation and maintenance assessment if supplemental water is available on the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? 171.510 Section 171.510 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE...

  2. 40 CFR 22.42 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties for violations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties for violations of compliance orders issued to owners or operators of public water systems under part B of the Safe Drinking Water Act. 22.42 Section 22.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  3. 40 CFR 22.42 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties for violations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties for violations of compliance orders issued to owners or operators of public water systems under part B of the Safe Drinking Water Act. 22.42 Section 22.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  4. Assessment of health claims, content, and safety of herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Heidi P.; Pelgrom, Sylvia M.G.J.; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; de Kaste, Dries; Verhagen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Background European Regulation 1924/2006 states that all health claims made on foods need to be substantiated scientifically. Objective To apply the PASSCLAIM criteria for the scientific substantiation of health claims on foods to herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba. Evaluation of three selected claimed health effects for G. biloba (improvement of blood circulation, improvement of symptoms of old age, and improvement of memory) was achieved through review of publicly available scientific data. A total of 35 human intervention studies were evaluated. Commercially available products claimed to contain mainly G. biloba (N=29) were randomly sampled in the Netherlands and analyzed for their content on ginkgo extract. Also, a toxicological risk assessment was performed. Results The three selected health claims investigated could not be substantiated. This was mainly because of a lack of data from studies in healthy volunteers. In most studies results performed with a 24% standardized G. biloba extract were described. However, our chemical analysis showed that 25 of the 29 sampled products did not contain the required minimum 24% standardized extract. Moreover, in most preparations the content of substances typical for G. biloba did not conform to what was declared on the label. Since toxicity data for G. biloba are very limited, a safety limit could not be established. Conclusions Evidence is lacking for three health claims of herbal products with G. biloba. Neither safety nor efficacy can be guaranteed at the recommended daily dose. The multidisciplinary approach described in this paper provides good insight into issues that are relevant for the evaluation of health claims for herbal food supplements. PMID:20927202

  5. Assessing changes in socioemotional adjustment across early school transitions-new national scales for children at risk.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Paul A; Watkins, Marley W; Rovine, Michael J; Rikoon, Samuel H

    2013-02-01

    This article reports the development and evidence for validity and application of the Adjustment Scales for Early Transition in Schooling (ASETS). Based on primary analyses of data from the Head Start Impact Study, a nationally representative sample (N=3077) of randomly selected children from low-income households is configured to inform developmental-transitional stability and change in socioemotional adjustment. Longitudinal exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the ASETS revealed behavioral dimensions of Aggression, Attention Seeking, Reticence/Withdrawal, Low Energy, and higher-order dimensions of Overactivity and Underactivity. Each dimension was vertically equated through IRT, with Bayesian scoring across 2 years of prekindergarten, kindergarten, and 1st grade. Multilevel modeling provides evidence for concurrent validity, assessment of future risk, and detection of differential growth trajectories across the 4 years of early school transition. PMID:23375175

  6. A Critical Assessment of Epidemiology Studies Regarding Dietary/Supplemental Zinc and Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Leslie C.; Franklin, Renty B.; Tan, Ming T.

    2013-01-01

    understanding of these issues in assessing the validity and the conclusiveness of the outcomes from the epidemiology studies of purported associations of dietary and supplemental zinc on the risk of prostate cancer; particularly when the unsubstantiated conclusions are at odds with clinical and experimental evidence. It is in the interest of the medical, scientific and public communities that this critical review is undertaken. We hope that this review will generate an open, objective, scientific and medical discussion and assessment of this important issue. PMID:24204440

  7. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment Model: A Structural Equation Model Examination of Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Susan E.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to operationalize a comprehensive theoretical model, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment, and test it empirically with structural equation modeling. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment reflects a robust body of research and incorporates known ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain…

  8. A performance assessment and adjustment program for air quality monitoring networks in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Laijun; Xie, Yujing; Wang, Jiajia; Xu, Xiang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the performance of Shanghai's air quality monitoring network (AQMN) using principal components analysis, an assignment method, and cluster analysis. Our goal was to improve the utilization of monitoring stations and evaluate Shanghai's air quality more comprehensively and accurately. Specifically, we (i) identified similar pollution sources or behaviors in the monitoring areas; (ii) identified redundant monitoring stations and re-evaluated the AQMN's performance without them; and (iii) proposed adjustments to the AQMN. We used data on particulates less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10) in diameter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) at stations in and around Shanghai from 1 January to 22 August 2014. For each pollutant, we grouped the monitoring stations into clusters based on their different pollution behaviors, revealing redundancy and inefficiency in the current AQMN that resulted from the concentrated station distribution and similarity of the monitoring environments. The analysis results showed that there exist redundant stations in the current AQMN of Shanghai. Furthermore, we proposed adjustments to Shanghai's AQMN: transfer four redundant stations and build a new station in the directions of the Taicang Experimental Primary School, Kunshan Zhenchuan Middle School, Suzhou Industrial Park, Wujiang Industrial Zone, and Jiaxing Monitoring Station. Our analysis suggests that, in addition to industrial, transportation, construction, and population influences inside Shanghai, external pollutants significantly affect Shanghai's air quality. Therefore, it is necessary to jointly prevent and control regional air pollution both in Shanghai and in neighboring cities.

  9. ImmuneQuest: Assessment of a Video Game as a Supplement to an Undergraduate Immunology Course.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Stacey L

    2016-05-01

    The study of immunology, particularly in this day and age, is an integral aspect of the training of future biologists, especially health professionals. Unfortunately, many students lose interest in or lack true comprehension of immunology due to the jargon of the field, preventing them from gaining a true conceptual understanding that is essential to all biological learning. To that end, a new video game, ImmuneQuest, has been developed that allows undergraduate students to "be" cells in the immune system, finding and attacking pathogens, while answering questions to earn additional abilities. The ultimate goal of ImmuneQuest is to allow students to understand how the major cells in the immune system work together to fight disease, rather than focusing on them as separate entities as is more commonly done in lecture material. This work provides the first assessment of ImmuneQuest in an upper-level immunology course. Students had significant gains in learning of information presented in ImmuneQuest compared with information discussed in lecture only. Furthermore, while students found the game "frustrating" at times, they agreed that the game aided their learning and recommended it for future courses. Taken together, these results suggest that ImmuneQuest appears to be a useful tool to supplement lecture material and increase student learning and comprehension. PMID:27158304

  10. Supplemental studies for cardiovascular risk assessment in safety pharmacology: a critical overview.

    PubMed

    Picard, Sandra; Goineau, Sonia; Guillaume, Philippe; Henry, Joël; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Rouet, René

    2011-12-01

    Safety Pharmacology studies for the cardiovascular risk assessment, as described in the ICH S7A and S7B guidelines, appear as being far from sufficient. The fact that almost all medicines withdrawn from the market because of life-threatening tachyarrhythmias (torsades-de-pointes) were shown as hERG blockers and QT interval delayers led the authorities to focus mainly on these markers. However, other surrogate biomarkers, e.g., TRIaD (triangulation, reverse-use-dependence, instability and dispersion of ventricular repolarization), have been identified to more accurately estimate the drug-related torsadogenic risk. In addition, more attention should be paid to other arrhythmias, not related to long QT and nevertheless severe and/or not self-extinguishing, e.g., atrial or ventricular fibrillation, resulting from altered electrical conduction or heterogeneous shortening of cardiac repolarization. Moreover, despite numerous clinical cases of drug-induced pulmonary hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, or heart valvular failure, few safety investigations are still conducted on drug interaction with cardiac and regional hemodynamics other than changes in aortic blood pressure evaluated in conscious large animals during the core battery mandatory studies. This critical review aims at discussing the usefulness, relevance, advantages, and limitations of some preclinical in vivo, in vitro, and in silico models, with high predictive values and currently used in supplemental safety studies.

  11. ImmuneQuest: Assessment of a Video Game as a Supplement to an Undergraduate Immunology Course.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Stacey L

    2016-05-01

    The study of immunology, particularly in this day and age, is an integral aspect of the training of future biologists, especially health professionals. Unfortunately, many students lose interest in or lack true comprehension of immunology due to the jargon of the field, preventing them from gaining a true conceptual understanding that is essential to all biological learning. To that end, a new video game, ImmuneQuest, has been developed that allows undergraduate students to "be" cells in the immune system, finding and attacking pathogens, while answering questions to earn additional abilities. The ultimate goal of ImmuneQuest is to allow students to understand how the major cells in the immune system work together to fight disease, rather than focusing on them as separate entities as is more commonly done in lecture material. This work provides the first assessment of ImmuneQuest in an upper-level immunology course. Students had significant gains in learning of information presented in ImmuneQuest compared with information discussed in lecture only. Furthermore, while students found the game "frustrating" at times, they agreed that the game aided their learning and recommended it for future courses. Taken together, these results suggest that ImmuneQuest appears to be a useful tool to supplement lecture material and increase student learning and comprehension.

  12. ImmuneQuest: Assessment of a Video Game as a Supplement to an Undergraduate Immunology Course

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Stacey L.

    2016-01-01

    The study of immunology, particularly in this day and age, is an integral aspect of the training of future biologists, especially health professionals. Unfortunately, many students lose interest in or lack true comprehension of immunology due to the jargon of the field, preventing them from gaining a true conceptual understanding that is essential to all biological learning. To that end, a new video game, ImmuneQuest, has been developed that allows undergraduate students to “be” cells in the immune system, finding and attacking pathogens, while answering questions to earn additional abilities. The ultimate goal of ImmuneQuest is to allow students to understand how the major cells in the immune system work together to fight disease, rather than focusing on them as separate entities as is more commonly done in lecture material. This work provides the first assessment of ImmuneQuest in an upper-level immunology course. Students had significant gains in learning of information presented in ImmuneQuest compared with information discussed in lecture only. Furthermore, while students found the game “frustrating” at times, they agreed that the game aided their learning and recommended it for future courses. Taken together, these results suggest that ImmuneQuest appears to be a useful tool to supplement lecture material and increase student learning and comprehension. PMID:27158304

  13. Economic and environmental assessment of liquefied natural gas as a supplemental aircraft fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Mitch R.; Malina, Robert; Gilmore, Christopher K.; Gibbs, Jonathan M.; Trigg, Chris; Wolfe, Philip J.; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2014-04-01

    In 2013, natural gas is 70-80% cheaper than jet fuel on an energy basis. As an alternative aviation fuel, natural gas may reduce operating costs. In this paper, we assess the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a supplemental aircraft fuel in a military context, with detailed assessments of the Lockheed Martin C-130H and C-130J transport aircraft. We estimate the cost of retrofitting these aircraft to use LNG and the savings from reduced fuel expenses. We evaluate the societal impacts of LNG within a cost-benefit framework, taking into account resource consumption, human health impacts related to air quality, and climate damage. In order to compare alternative uses of natural gas in aviation, we include in our analysis Fischer-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas as a drop-in alternative. Uncertainty analysis is performed with Monte Carlo simulations. We find that aircraft operators can save up to 14% on fuel expenses (retrofit costs included) by employing LNG retrofits, with a 95% confidence interval of 2-23%. Society can also benefit by 12% (3-20%) from LNG use as a result of improved surface air quality, lower resource consumption, and net climate neutrality. These results are highly dependent on fuel prices, the quantity and cost of the LNG retrofits, and the frequency and length of missions. FT jet fuel is not cost-competitive with conventional fuel and results in increased fuel expenses by 17%. FT fuel provides marginal societal benefits relative to jet fuel.

  14. 25 CFR 171.565 - How will I know if BIA plans to adjust my annual operation and maintenance assessment rate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and Collections § 171.565 How will I know if BIA plans to adjust my annual operation...

  15. Assessment of an adjustment factor to model radar range dependent error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastianelli, S.; Russo, F.; Napolitano, F.; Baldini, L.

    2012-09-01

    Quantitative radar precipitation estimates are affected by errors determined by many causes such as radar miscalibration, range degradation, attenuation, ground clutter, variability of Z-R relation, variability of drop size distribution, vertical air motion, anomalous propagation and beam-blocking. Range degradation (including beam broadening and sampling of precipitation at an increasing altitude)and signal attenuation, determine a range dependent behavior of error. The aim of this work is to model the range-dependent error through an adjustment factor derived from the G/R ratio trend against the range, where G and R are the corresponding rain gauge and radar rainfall amounts computed at each rain gauge location. Since range degradation and signal attenuation effects are negligible close to the radar, resultsshowthatwithin 40 km from radar the overall range error is independent of the distance from Polar 55C and no range-correction is needed. Nevertheless, up to this distance, the G/R ratiocan showa concave trend with the range, which is due to the melting layer interception by the radar beam during stratiform events.

  16. Should inpatients be adjusted by their complexity and severity for efficiency assessment? Evidence from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Diogo Cunha; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-03-01

    Hospital efficiency analysis depends largely on the model specifications. This study discusses the importance of the case-mix index (CMI) to homogenize the sample of inpatient discharges. It proposes a new index where they are classified by service, since it is usual to have lack of data to compute the CMI and this can influence the credibility of results. Data from the Portuguese national diagnosis-related group (DRG) database was utilized. Three different approaches are developed in this paper, based on locally convex order-m method as well as on translog functions. The first one correlates the efficiency with different inpatients weighting schemes, by using the Nadaraya-Watson method. The second approach compares different frontiers that have been computed using the different weighting schemes. Finally, by using bootstrap, the paper investigates whether the inclusion of severity/ complexity-related variables in the model statistically modifies the results. It has been shown that, under the Portuguese healthcare framework, if the model is environment corrected (which should include epidemiological and main political/ structural health reforms variables), then the severity adjustment of inpatients is pointless. The employment of an inpatient-weighting scheme, such as the CMI, may introduce significant frontier shift, thus its absence is not recommended in productivity evolution analyzes. The CMI shifts the efficiency frontier, but not the relative position of units against it (the last scenario if exogenous variables are present). PMID:24888268

  17. Should inpatients be adjusted by their complexity and severity for efficiency assessment? Evidence from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Diogo Cunha; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-03-01

    Hospital efficiency analysis depends largely on the model specifications. This study discusses the importance of the case-mix index (CMI) to homogenize the sample of inpatient discharges. It proposes a new index where they are classified by service, since it is usual to have lack of data to compute the CMI and this can influence the credibility of results. Data from the Portuguese national diagnosis-related group (DRG) database was utilized. Three different approaches are developed in this paper, based on locally convex order-m method as well as on translog functions. The first one correlates the efficiency with different inpatients weighting schemes, by using the Nadaraya-Watson method. The second approach compares different frontiers that have been computed using the different weighting schemes. Finally, by using bootstrap, the paper investigates whether the inclusion of severity/ complexity-related variables in the model statistically modifies the results. It has been shown that, under the Portuguese healthcare framework, if the model is environment corrected (which should include epidemiological and main political/ structural health reforms variables), then the severity adjustment of inpatients is pointless. The employment of an inpatient-weighting scheme, such as the CMI, may introduce significant frontier shift, thus its absence is not recommended in productivity evolution analyzes. The CMI shifts the efficiency frontier, but not the relative position of units against it (the last scenario if exogenous variables are present).

  18. Assessment of the Long-Term Benefits of Life Skills Programming on Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ruby; Reddon, John R.; Hoglin, Brenda; Woodman, Mary-Ann

    2008-01-01

    The durability of the psychosocial benefits of Life Skills programming on outpatient adults with mental health/forensic issues was examined. Participants were 52 adults (28 males, 24 females) who completed 16 weeks of Life Skills at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and were re-assessed between six months and six years following treatment.…

  19. Constraint on Absolute Accuracy of Metacomprehension Assessments: The Anchoring and Adjustment Model vs. the Standards Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Heekyung

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a systematic account of three typical phenomena surrounding absolute accuracy of metacomprehension assessments: (1) the absolute accuracy of predictions is typically quite low; (2) there exist individual differences in absolute accuracy of predictions as a function of reading skill; and (3) postdictions…

  20. 76 FR 21256 - Proposed Assessment Rate Adjustment Guidelines for Large and Highly Complex Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... (76 FR 10672 (Feb. 25, 2011)), the FDIC Board amended its assessment regulations (the Amended... FR 10672 (February 25, 2011) (to be codified at 12 CFR 327.9). \\2\\ A large institution is defined as... are adopted. 76 FR 10699. The proposed guidelines describe the process the FDIC would follow...

  1. Hydrolyzed protein supplementation improves protein content and peroxidation of skeletal muscle by adjusting the plasma amino acid spectrums in rats after exhaustive swimming exercise: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the effects of hydrolyzed protein supplementation upon skeletal muscle total protein and peroxidation in rats following exhaustive swimming exercise. Methods Twenty-four rats were randomized to 4 experimental groups (n = 6 per group): control group fed standard diet without exercise (SD), exercise (EX), exercise plus standard diet for 72 hours (EX + SD), and exercise plus standard diet supplemented with hydrolyzed protein (2 g/kg/d) for 72 hours (EX + HP). Immediately following exercise, the EX group was euthanized for collecting plasma and skeletal muscle samples. The EX + SD and EX + HP groups were fed their respective diets for 72 hour still plasma and skeletal muscle collection. Skeletal muscle samples were used to measure levels of total protein (TP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PC). Plasma samples were used to analyze the amino acids spectrum. Results Compared with the EX + SD, EX + HP presented the significantly increased TP (P = 0.02) and decreased MDA and PC levels (P = 0.035). MDA was negatively correlated with the methionine levels. Moreover, EX + HP maintained higher levels of plasmaleucine, isoleucine, and methionine than EX + SD, which may be associated with the increased skeletal muscle TP levels observed (P < 0.05). Conclusions These results collectively suggest that hydrolyzed protein supplementation can improve skeletal muscle TP and ameliorate peroxidation damage in rats subjected to exhaustive exercise stress, which may be, at least in part, related with the maintenance of plasma leucine, isoleucine, and methionine levels. PMID:24565110

  2. Parent birds assess nest predation risk and adjust their reproductive strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, J.J.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Avian life history theory has long assumed that nest predation plays a minor role in shaping reproductive strategies. Yet, this assumption remains conspicuously untested by broad experiments that alter environmental risk of nest predation, despite the fact that nest predation is a major source of reproductive failure. Here, we examined whether parents can assess experimentally reduced nest predation risk and alter their reproductive strategies. We experimentally reduced nest predation risk and show that in safer environments parents increased investment in young through increased egg size, clutch mass, and the rate they fed nestlings. Parents also increased investment in female condition by increasing the rates that males fed incubating females at the nest, and decreasing the time that females spent incubating. These results demonstrate that birds can assess nest predation risk at large and that nest predation plays a key role in the expression of avian reproductive strategies. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Guidelines for application of chemical-specific adjustment factors in dose/concentration-response assessment.

    PubMed

    Meek, M E; Renwick, A; Ohanian, E; Dourson, M; Lake, B; Naumann, B D; Vu, V

    2002-12-27

    This manuscript addresses guidance in the use of kinetic and dynamic data to inform quantitatively extrapolations for interspecies differences and human variability in dose-response assessment developed in a project of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) initiative on Harmonisation of Approaches to the Assessment of Risk from Exposure to Chemicals. The guidance has been developed and refined through a series of planning and technical meetings and larger workshops of a broad range of participants from academia, government agencies and the private sector. The guidance for adequacy of data for replacement of common defaults for interspecies differences and human variability is presented in the context of several generic categories including: determination of the active chemical species, choice of the appropriate metric (kinetic components) or endpoint (dynamic components) and nature of experimental data, the latter which includes reference to the relevance of population, route and dose and the adequacy of the number of subjects/samples. The principal objective of this guidance developed primarily as a resource for risk assessors, is to foster better understanding of the components of and criteria for adequacy of chemical-specific data to quantitate interspecies differences and human variability in kinetics and dynamics. It is anticipated that this guidance will also encourage the development of appropriate data and facilitate their incorporation in a consistent fashion in dose-response assessment for regulatory purposes (IPCS, 2001). PMID:12505295

  4. Methods to assess youth engagement in a text messaging supplement to an effective teen pregnancy program.

    PubMed

    Devine, Sharon; Leeds, Caroline; Shlay, Judith C; Leytem, Amber; Beum, Robert; Bull, Sheana

    2015-08-01

    Youth are prolific users of cell phone minutes and text messaging. Numerous programs using short message service text messaging (SMS) have been employed to help improve health behaviors and health outcomes. However, we lack information on whether and what type of interaction or engagement with SMS program content is required to realize any benefit. We explored youth engagement with an automated SMS program designed to supplement a 25-session youth development program with demonstrated efficacy for reductions in teen pregnancy. Using two years of program data, we report on youth participation in design of message content and response frequency to messages among youth enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) as one indicator of engagement. There were 221 youth between the ages of 14-18 enrolled over two years in the intervention arm of the RCT. Just over half (51%) were female; 56% were Hispanic; and 27% African American. Youth were sent 40,006 messages of which 16,501 were considered bi-directional where youth were asked to text a response. Four-fifths (82%) responded at least once to a text. We found variations in response frequency by gender, age, and ethnicity. The most popular types of messages youth responded to include questions and quizzes. The first two months of the program in each year had the highest response frequency. An important next step is to assess whether higher response to SMS results in greater efficacy. This future work can facilitate greater attention to message design and content to ensure messages are engaging for the intended audience. PMID:26173038

  5. Methods to assess youth engagement in a text messaging supplement to an effective teen pregnancy program.

    PubMed

    Devine, Sharon; Leeds, Caroline; Shlay, Judith C; Leytem, Amber; Beum, Robert; Bull, Sheana

    2015-08-01

    Youth are prolific users of cell phone minutes and text messaging. Numerous programs using short message service text messaging (SMS) have been employed to help improve health behaviors and health outcomes. However, we lack information on whether and what type of interaction or engagement with SMS program content is required to realize any benefit. We explored youth engagement with an automated SMS program designed to supplement a 25-session youth development program with demonstrated efficacy for reductions in teen pregnancy. Using two years of program data, we report on youth participation in design of message content and response frequency to messages among youth enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) as one indicator of engagement. There were 221 youth between the ages of 14-18 enrolled over two years in the intervention arm of the RCT. Just over half (51%) were female; 56% were Hispanic; and 27% African American. Youth were sent 40,006 messages of which 16,501 were considered bi-directional where youth were asked to text a response. Four-fifths (82%) responded at least once to a text. We found variations in response frequency by gender, age, and ethnicity. The most popular types of messages youth responded to include questions and quizzes. The first two months of the program in each year had the highest response frequency. An important next step is to assess whether higher response to SMS results in greater efficacy. This future work can facilitate greater attention to message design and content to ensure messages are engaging for the intended audience.

  6. Predicting sex offender institutional adjustment and treatment compliance using the personality assessment inventory.

    PubMed

    Caperton, Jennifer D; Edens, John F; Johnson, Judy K

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the utility of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) to identify prison inmates in a mandatory sex offender treatment program prone to engage in institutional misconduct. Archival PAI and institutional disciplinary data were coded for 137 inmates in treatment for an average of 1.59 years. The Antisocial Features scale predicted various forms of general and major infractions (e.g., verbal aggression), with no other scales providing any incremental validity beyond this measure. The Treatment Rejection scale was uniquely but modestly correlated (r=.14) with treatment noncompliance, even though such infractions were rare in this sample.

  7. Continuous remote vital sign/environment monitoring for returning soldier adjustment assessment.

    PubMed

    Genc, S; Cleary, D J; Yardibi, T; Wood, J C; Stachura, M E; Astapova, E V

    2011-01-01

    A three-stage study to develop and test an unobtrusive room sensor unit and subject data management system to discover correlation between sensor-based time-series measurements of sleep quality and clinical assessments of combat veterans suffering from Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), is described. Experiments and results for testing sensitivity and robustness of the sensor unit and data management protocol are provided. The current sensitivity of remote vital sign monitoring system is below 20% and 10% for respiration and heart rates, respectively.

  8. Assessment of pain, acceptance of illness, adjustment to life with cancer, and coping strategies in colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Religioni, Urszula; Deptała, Andrzej; Walewska-Zielecka, Bożena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Every year more than 15,000 newly diagnosed cases of colorectal carcinoma are recorded in Poland. Aim The objective of the study was an assessment of coping strategies and pain management, acceptance of illness, and adjustment to cancer in patients diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma. The analysis was extended to include the effect of socioeconomic variables on the above-mentioned issues. Material and methods The study included 238 colorectal cancer patients treated on an outpatient basis at the Centre of Oncology, the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute in Warsaw in the year 2013. The questionnaire interview comprised demographic questions (socioeconomic variables) and the following four psychometric tests: BPCQ (Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire), CSQ (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), AIS questionnaire (Acceptance of Illness Scale), and the Mini-Mac scale (Mental Adjustment to Cancer). Results The source of pain control depends on the respondent's level of education. An increase in patient income was associated with a lower mean result in the “power of doctors” subscale. The coping self-statements and increased behavioural activity are the two most frequently selected strategies of coping with pain. The most commonly followed ways of mental adjustment to cancer in the study group were a fighting spirit (23.42) and positive re-evaluation (22.31). Conclusions Colorectal cancer patients believe that the greatest role in pain management is played by internal factors. The locus of pain control depends on the level of education. The study patients feature a constructive way of struggling with disease differentiated by the place of residence, professional status, and income. PMID:27350836

  9. An assessment of food supplementation to chronically sick patients receiving home based care in Bangwe, Malawi : a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Cameron; Kalilani, Linda; Marsh, Reg; Misiri, Humphrey; Cleary, Paul; Bowie, Claire

    2005-01-01

    Background The effect of food supplementation provided by the World Food Programme to patients and their families enrolled in a predominantly HIV/AIDS home based care programme in Bangwe Malawi is assessed. Methods The survival and nutritional status of patients and the nutritional status of their families recruited up to six months before a food supplementation programme started are compared to subsequent patients and their families over a further 12 months. Results 360 patients, of whom 199 died, were studied. Food supplementation did not improve survival but had an effect (not statistically significant) on nutritional status. Additional oil was given to some families; it may have improved survival but not nutritional status. Conclusion Food supplementation to HIV/AIDS home based care patients and their families does not work well. This may be because the intervention is too late to affect the course of disease or insufficiently targeted perhaps due to problems of distribution in an urban setting. The World Food Programme's emphasis on supplementary feeding for these families needs to be reviewed. PMID:15777483

  10. An adjustment of benthic ecological quality assessment to effects of salinity.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Dirk; Zettler, Michael L

    2009-08-01

    In the last decade a politically inspired marine protection movement arose in the European Union. This movement leads to an holistic strategy. Merging the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Directive (MSD) along the European coastline demands sophisticated ecological classification procedures. The 'Benthic Quality Index' (BQI) is one of several indices created in view of the WFD. We used the dynamic species reference system ES(50)(0.05) to test the capability of BQI to exclude primary environmental factors including the salinity gradient and depth (a proxy for the oxygen regime) from the ecological quality (EcoQ) assessment. A macrozoobenthos dataset of the southern Baltic Sea spreading over more than 20 years and over 100,000 km2 was used for the EcoQ assessment. Quality assurance rules were applied to the record set and an analytical dataset of 936 sampling events with 20,451 abundance records was used in the analysis. We show that the natural salinity gradient has a severe impact on the BQI based EcoQ. We adapted the calculation procedure to reduce the salinity effects to a minimum. According to the adaptation 503 sensitivity/tolerance values for 87 species were computed. These values were calculated within seven salinity ranges from 0 to >30 PSU and two depth zones. These values can be used as a reference for further investigation in the Baltic and other areas with similar environmental conditions. PMID:19084875

  11. Determination of (210)Po in calcium supplements and the possible related dose assessment to the consumers.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to investigate the most popular calcium supplements as a potential additional source of polonium (210)Po in human diet. The analyzed calcium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic calcium compounds; some from natural sources as mussels' shells, fish extracts, or sedimentary rocks. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring (210)Po activity concentrations in calcium supplements, find the correlations between (210)Po concentration in medicament and calcium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed calcium supplement consumption. As results showed, (210)Po concentrations in natural origin calcium supplements (especially sedimentary rocks) were higher than the other analyzed. Also the results of (210)Po analysis obtained for inorganic forms of calcium supplements were higher. The highest (210)Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks: dolomite and chalk - 3.88 ± 0.22 and 3.36 ± 0.10 mBq g(-1) respectively; while the lowest in organic calcium compounds: calcium lactate and calcium gluconate - 0.07 ± 0.02 and 0.17 ± 0.01 mBq g(-1). The annual effective radiation doses from supplements intake were estimated as well. The highest annual radiation dose from (210)Po taken with 1 tablet of calcium supplement per day was connected to sample made from chalk - 2.5 ± 0.07 μSv year(-1), while the highest annual radiation dose from (210)Po taken with 1 g of pure calcium per day was connected to dolomite - 12.7 ± 0.70 μSv year(-1).

  12. Determination of (210)Po in calcium supplements and the possible related dose assessment to the consumers.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to investigate the most popular calcium supplements as a potential additional source of polonium (210)Po in human diet. The analyzed calcium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic calcium compounds; some from natural sources as mussels' shells, fish extracts, or sedimentary rocks. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring (210)Po activity concentrations in calcium supplements, find the correlations between (210)Po concentration in medicament and calcium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed calcium supplement consumption. As results showed, (210)Po concentrations in natural origin calcium supplements (especially sedimentary rocks) were higher than the other analyzed. Also the results of (210)Po analysis obtained for inorganic forms of calcium supplements were higher. The highest (210)Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks: dolomite and chalk - 3.88 ± 0.22 and 3.36 ± 0.10 mBq g(-1) respectively; while the lowest in organic calcium compounds: calcium lactate and calcium gluconate - 0.07 ± 0.02 and 0.17 ± 0.01 mBq g(-1). The annual effective radiation doses from supplements intake were estimated as well. The highest annual radiation dose from (210)Po taken with 1 tablet of calcium supplement per day was connected to sample made from chalk - 2.5 ± 0.07 μSv year(-1), while the highest annual radiation dose from (210)Po taken with 1 g of pure calcium per day was connected to dolomite - 12.7 ± 0.70 μSv year(-1). PMID:26318774

  13. Vitamin supplementation and megadoses.

    PubMed

    Blair, K A

    1986-07-01

    Almost one-third of American adults regularly take vitamins and supplements. If taken incorrectly or in excess, these vitamins may be a potential health hazard. Vitamins are essential nutrients which, in combination with other nutrients (e.g., fats, carbohydrates and proteins), foster normal metabolism. Vitamins also interact with each other. For example, vitamin C participates in the metabolism of folic acid, and vitamin E facilitates the absorption and storage of vitamin A. Because the biological functions of vitamins are interrelated, a diet poor in vitamins, carbohydrates, fats and proteins is not necessarily enhanced by vitamin supplementation. When vitamins are taken in excess of the Recommended Dietary Allowances or the individual's needs, the vitamins no longer function as vitamins but instead act as drugs, with such pharmacological effects as clinical toxicities and the abnormal utilization of vitamins. There are six categories that require vitamin supplements and, in some cases, megadoses. These will be discussed in detail. In addition, a brief table showing the Recommended Dietary Allowances will be given which the nurse practitioner can use in assessing nutritional needs of the client so that necessary adjustments can be made. Finally, a brief review of the potential risks and benefits of megadoses in normal, healthy adults will be given. PMID:3737019

  14. Multivitamin/Mineral supplementation does not affect standardized assessment of academic performance in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Adam I; Worobey, John; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie; Touger-Decker, Riva; Hom, David L; Smith, Jeffrey K

    2010-07-01

    Limited research suggests that micronutrient supplementation may have a positive effect on the academic performance and behavior of school-aged children. To determine the effect of multivitamin/mineral supplementation on academic performance, students in grades three through six (approximate age range=8 to 12 years old) were recruited from 37 parochial schools in northern New Jersey to participate in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted during the 2004-2005 academic school year. Participants were randomized to receive either a standard children's multivitamin/mineral supplement (MVM) or a placebo. MVM or placebo was administered in school only during lunch or snack period by a teacher or study personnel who were blinded to group assignment. The main outcome measured was change in scores on Terra Nova, a standardized achievement test administered by the State of New Jersey, at the beginning of March 2005 compared to March 2004. Compared with placebo, participants receiving MVM supplements showed no statistically significant improvement for Terra Nova National Percentile total scores by treatment assignment or for any of the subject area scores using repeated measures analysis of variance. No significant improvements were observed in secondary end points: number of days absent from school, tardiness, or grade point average. In conclusion, the in-school daily consumption of an MVM supplement by third- through sixth-grade inner-city children did not lead to improved school performance based upon standardized testing, grade point average, and absenteeism.

  15. Assessment of Fecal Microflora Changes in Pigs Supplemented with Herbal Residue and Prebiotic

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Jayaram, C.; Jayapal, N.; Sondhi, N.; Kolte, A. P.; Senani, S.; Sridhar, M.; Dhali, A.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic usage in animals as a growth promoter is considered as public health issue due to its negative impact on consumer health and environment. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of herbal residue (ginger, Zingiber officinale, dried rhizome powder) and prebiotic (inulin) as an alternative to antibiotics by comparing fecal microflora composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The grower pigs were offered feed containing antibiotic (tetracycline), ginger and inulin separately and un-supplemented group served as control. The study revealed significant changes in the microbial abundance based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the groups. Presumptive identification of organisms was established based on the fragment length of OTUs generated with three restriction enzymes (MspI, Sau3AI and BsuRI). The abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Selonomonas sp., Methylobacterium sp. and Denitrobacter sp. was found significantly greater in inulin supplemented pigs. Similarly, the abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Selonomonas sp., and Phascolarcobacterium faecium was found significantly greater in ginger supplemented pigs. In contrast, the abundance of OTUs representing pathogenic microorganisms Atopostipes suicloacalis and Bartonella quintana str. Toulouse was significantly reduced in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The OTUs were found to be clustered under two major phylotypes; ginger-inulin and control-tetracycline. Additionally, the abundance of OTUs was similar in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The results suggest the potential of ginger and prebioticsto replace antibiotics in the diet of grower pig. PMID:26176779

  16. Use of the Satisfaction With Amplification in Daily Life Questionnaire to Assess Patient Satisfaction Following Remote Hearing Aid Adjustments (Telefitting)

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2014-01-01

    Background Hearing loss can affect approximately 15% of the pediatric population and up to 40% of the adult population. The gold standard of treatment for hearing loss is amplification of hearing thresholds by means of a hearing aid instrument. A hearing aid is an electronic device equipped with a topology of only three major components of aggregate cost. The gold standard of hearing aid fittings is face-to-face appointments in hearing aid centers, clinics, or hospitals. Telefitting encompasses the programming and adjustments of hearing aid settings remotely. Fitting hearing aids remotely is a relatively simple procedure, using minimal computer hardware and Internet access. Objective This project aimed to examine the feasibility and outcomes of remote hearing aid adjustments (telefitting) by assessing patient satisfaction via the Portuguese version of the Satisfaction With Amplification in Daily Life (SADL) questionnaire. Methods The Brazilian Portuguese version of the SADL was used in this experimental research design. Participants were randomly selected through the Rehabilitation Clinical (Espaco Reouvir) of the Otorhinolaryngology Department Medical School University of Sao Paulo. Of the 8 participants in the study, 5 were female and 3 were male, with a mean age of 71.5 years. The design consisted of two face-to-face sessions performed within 15 working days of each other. The remote assistance took place 15 days later. Results The average scores from this study are above the mean scores from the original SADL normative data. These indicate a high level of satisfaction in participants who were fitted remotely. Conclusions The use of an evaluation questionnaire is a simple yet effective method to objectively assess the success of a remote fitting. Questionnaire outcomes can help hearing stakeholders improve the National Policy on Hearing Health Care in Brazil. The results of this project indicated that patient satisfaction levels of those fitted remotely were

  17. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress. PMID:24799948

  18. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress. PMID:24799948

  19. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  20. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    PubMed

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  1. APPROACH FOR ASSESSING RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS PRESENT IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China, but they are becoming increasing popular in the United States. Since these products are classified as herbals, the United States Food and Drug Administration does not regulate nor monitor these suppleme...

  2. 76 FR 28020 - Sawgrass Storage LLC; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... analysis in the EA on the important environmental issues. By this supplemental NOI, the Commission requests... environmental review process to interested stakeholders. Our independent analysis of the issues will be... jurisdiction and/or special expertise with respect to environmental issues to formally cooperate with us in...

  3. Listening to Test-Takers: The Use of Supplemental Comments in Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Thomas F.

    Supplemental or peripheral responses by test takers are seldom used by examiners, but in this study a program introduced by Thomas Edison State College (New Jersey) to allow the examined student to provide feedback to the testers and graders was studied. Student comment forms were designed to enable the student to identify problems with the test…

  4. Assessing the Impact of Faculty-Led Supplemental Instruction on Attrition, GPA, and Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Karla Needham

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental, quantitative study was to investigate the effectiveness of supplemental instruction (SI) as a means to address the existing high attrition and low graduation rates evidenced at a rural southern community college. The research problem addressed the high attrition rates in barrier courses and low graduation…

  5. 76 FR 71007 - Pacific Gas & Electric Company; Notice of Availability of Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas & Electric Company; Notice of Availability of Supplemental... February 19, 2010 regarding Pacific Gas & Electric Company's (PG&E) proposal to perform Commission-required... number field to access the document. For assistance, call (202) 502-8222, or (202) 502-8659 (for...

  6. Nutritional status of elderly patients during recovery from chest infection and the role of nutritional supplementation assessed by a prospective randomized single-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Woo, J; Ho, S C; Mak, Y T; Law, L K; Cheung, A

    1994-01-01

    We examined changes in the nutritional status of elderly patients with chest infection for a period of 3 months after discharge from hospital, including the effects of nutritional supplementation on well-being and functional status as well as on nutritional indices. Eighty-one subjects admitted to an acute medical ward aged 65 years and over with chest infection were recruited consecutively, and randomized to receive supplement (500 ml of Ensure liquid daily) for 1 month, or no supplement, on discharge. Assessment at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 months included a questionnaire to determine health, mental and functional status, and anthropometric measurements. Biochemical nutritional status was assessed at baseline, 1 and 3 months, and dietary intake (24 h recall method) at 1 and 3 months. During recovery, both supplement and non-supplement groups showed improvement in various measures of well-being and biochemical status. In addition, the former group showed improvement in more anthropometric measurements, in thiamine and pyridoxine status, while the non-supplement group showed a lower level of functional ability after 3 months. Various measures of well-being and biochemical status of the water-soluble vitamins were better in the supplement groups. We conclude that nutritional supplementation may have a role in helping elderly patients to recover from chest infections.

  7. A short food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of seafood and n-3 supplements: validation with biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Seafood intake is associated with beneficial effects for human health. Seafood provides a number of nutrients beyond the traditionally known long chain marine n-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA, such as protein, vitamin D, iodine, selenium and vitamin B12. Valid assessment of dietary seafood and n-3 supplement intakes are becoming increasingly crucial when giving recommendations to populations as seafood consumption is regarded as an important part of a healthy and balanced diet. Methods The aim was to validate a short FFQ developed for assessment of dietary intake of seafood and n-3 supplements using the biomarkers marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and 25(OH)D in serum. Results Fifty-three healthy Norwegians aged 30-64 years with a mean BMI of 25 kg/m2 were compliant with the study protocol. 70% reported eating seafood for dinner one to two times per week, and 45% reported to eat seafood as spread, in salads or as snack meal three to five times or more per week. The FFQ correlated significantly with both the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (r = 0.73, p < 0.0001) and with 25(OH)D (r = 0.37, p < 0.01). Mean level of marine n-3 and of 25(OH)D were 232 ± 65 μg/g erythrocytes and 73 ± 33 nmol/L serum, respectively. Conclusion The present short FFQ predicted strongly the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes, and predicted fairly good the level of serum 25(OH)D and may therefore be a valid method for assessment of seafood and n-3 supplements intake among adults. PMID:22099052

  8. Impact of Breast Density Legislation on Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Supplemental Screening: A Survey of 110 Radiology Facilities.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Lina; Miyake, Kanae K; Leung, Jessica W T; Price, Elissa R; Liu, Yueyi I; Joe, Bonnie N; Sickles, Edward A; Thomas, William R; Lipson, Jafi A; Daniel, Bruce L; Hargreaves, Jonathan; Brenner, R James; Bassett, Lawrence W; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Lindfors, Karen K; Feig, Stephen A; Ikeda, Debra M

    2016-09-01

    Breast density notification laws, passed in 19 states as of October 2014, mandate that patients be informed of their breast density. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of this legislation on radiology practices, including performance of breast cancer risk assessment and supplemental screening studies. A 20-question anonymous web-based survey was emailed to radiologists in the Society of Breast Imaging between August 2013 and March 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. Around 121 radiologists from 110 facilities in 34 USA states and 1 Canadian site responded. About 50% (55/110) of facilities had breast density legislation, 36% of facilities (39/109) performed breast cancer risk assessment (one facility did not respond). Risk assessment was performed as a new task in response to density legislation in 40% (6/15) of facilities in states with notification laws. However, there was no significant difference in performing risk assessment between facilities in states with a law and those without (p < 0.831). In anticipation of breast density legislation, 33% (16/48), 6% (3/48), and 6% (3/48) of facilities in states with laws implemented handheld whole breast ultrasound (WBUS), automated WBUS, and tomosynthesis, respectively. The ratio of facilities offering handheld WBUS was significantly higher in states with a law than in states without (p < 0.001). In response to breast density legislation, more than 33% of facilities are offering supplemental screening with WBUS and tomosynthesis, and many are performing formal risk assessment for determining patient management.

  9. Multimedia environmental goals for environmental assessment. Volume I. Supplement a. Report for October 1978-October 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsbury, G.L.; White, J.B.; Watson, J.S.

    1980-03-01

    The report supplements Volume I (PB-276 919) of the two-volume 1977 EPA report that introduced a methodology to establish Multimedia Environmental Goals (MEGs) for chemical pollutants. It summarizes the original methodology and introduces minor improvements. Improvements include the assignment of a unique identification number to each MEG compound and modification of the original model used to derive MEG values for land or solid waste. Its appendices include: revised category descriptions, an updated master list of organic compounds, a candidate list of compounds to be considered for future MEGs, tabulated discharge MEG values, and hazard potential values. It also includes graphical summaries of MEGs for 586 organic chemicals. The Supplement is to be used in coordination with MEG Volumes III and IV (PB80-115108 and PB80-115116) which contain background information summaries and MEG charts for organic compounds in the new MEGs master list.

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment Before and After Vitamin Supplementation in a Patient With Vitamin A Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel; Sádaba, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin A is an essential fat-soluble vitamin important for the function of various body systems. In the eye, vitamin A is essential for the synthesis of visual pigments in photoreceptors. Vitamin A deficiency is a rare condition in the developed countries and might follow bariatric or intestinal bypass surgery. We present the case of a 67-year-old male that complained of visual loss and nyctalopia. Patient had bariatric surgery 15 years before for weight loss. Low serum levels of vitamin A confirmed the diagnosis and patient started vitamin A supplementation. Visual fields, macular thickness, and ganglion cell layer thickness were recorded and monitored 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year after the beginning of therapy. Visual fields were significantly altered and central macular thickness and ganglion cell layer thickness were reduced, but the first 2 showed a significant recovery with vitamin supplementation therapy. By the 1st month of treatment patient referred a complete remission of visual symptoms. Further, we observed hyperreflective material accumulating beneath a partially disrupted ellipsoid band in the high definition optical coherence tomography that also improved progressively with vitamin repletion. Newer and more sophisticated imaging systems have increased our knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for retinal diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the effect of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin supplementation on macular thickness. This case also highlights the importance of considering bariatric bypass surgery as a cause of vitamin A deficiency in developed countries. PMID:26871796

  11. Disability-adjusted life years in the assessment of health effects of traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Ł; Badyda, A J; Gayer, A; Mucha, D

    2015-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollutants have an impact on human health and have been recognized as one of the main stressors that cause mortality and morbidity in urban areas. Research confirms that citizens living in the vicinity of main roads are strongly exposed to high concentrations of numerous air pollutants. In the present study the measurements of traffic-related parameters such as density, velocity, and structure were performed for cross-sections of selected street canyons in Warsaw, the capital city of Poland. In addition, the results of the general traffic measurements were used to describe the number of cars crossing the border of the city. Vehicle emissions of PM10 were calculated for the whole city area and changes of the PM10 concentration were modeled to present the exposure to this pollutant that could be attributable to traffic. The principles of the environmental burden of disease (EBD) were used. The assessment of the impact of traffic-related air pollutants on human health was made. The results, presented in disability-adjusted life years (DALY), were based on the outcomes of the study conducted in 2008-2012 in Warsaw, one the most congested agglomerations in Europe, and included the health damage effect of the exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants. DALY calculations were performed in accordance to the methodologies used in renowned international scientific research on EBD.

  12. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  13. Evaluating spectral indices and spectral mixture analysis for assessing fire severity and adjusting burning efficiency using Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veraverbeke, S.; Hook, S.

    2012-04-01

    Fire severity data are of paramount importance to (i) organize post-fire rehabilitation plans and (ii) reduce uncertainties in wildfire emission estimates by allowing spatio-temporal variability in burning efficiency values. We have used a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image to assess fire severity of the large 2011 Wallow fire in Arizona, USA. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), differenced NBR (dNBR), Relative dNBR (RdNBR) and the char fraction estimated by Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) were evaluated. Geo Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI) and vegetation mortality data were used as ground truth. Of all remotely sensed measures tested the dNBR had the highest performance (GeoCBI-dNBR R2 = 0.84 and % black trees-dNBR R2 = 0.91), which supports the operational use of the dNBR for post-fire management. Without initial calibration with field data, however, dNBR values lack biophysical meaning. The SMA-derived char fraction also had moderate-high correlations with the field data (GeoCBI-char fraction R2 = 0.66 and % black trees-char fraction R2 = 0.82). The char fractions provide a direct mechanistic link with the fire processes that occurred on the ground. Such data have big potential to adjust burning efficiency values. This is of great importance to reduce uncertainties in wildfire emission estimates.

  14. A qualitative assessment of psychosocial impact, coping and adjustment in high-risk melanoma patients and caregivers.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jason D; Butow, Phyllis N; Boyle, Frances M; Saw, Robyn P M; O'Reilly, Amanda J

    2014-06-01

    The present study qualitatively assessed the psychosocial impacts experienced by stage III melanoma patients and caregivers throughout the course of the disease, and the coping responses they utilized in an attempt to promote psychosocial adjustment. The purpose of the study was to inform the development of a supportive care strategy for this population. Nineteen stage III melanoma patients and 14 of their caregivers were recruited from the clinical research database of the Melanoma Institute Australia. Data were collected using semistructured telephone interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Participants reported psychosocial impacts related to diagnosis (shock, panic and devastation), treatment (challenges and unsatisfactory care, pain and limitation, practical impacts, new roles and responsibilities for the caregiver, caregiver inadequacy) and survivorship (ongoing physical problems, watchful waiting, feeling abandoned). They also reported global themes relevant to multiple phases of the disease (emotional distress, disfigurement, injustice, caregiver devaluation). Coping responses were identified related to diagnosis (avoidance), treatment (confidence in the treatment team, taking action) and survivorship (finding a positive meaning, acceptance and moving on) as well as global themes pertaining to multiple disease phases (receiving support, helpful thinking, putting on a brave face, redirecting attention, religion). The current findings support routine screening for the presence of symptoms and psychological distress and appropriate referral when necessary, and for provision of psychosocial interventions to provide information and support to stage III melanoma patients and caregivers. In addition, provision of communication skills training to all health professionals treating melanoma, use of evidence-based strategies for improving patient/caregiver understanding and recall, and routine assessment of patient-reported outcomes to inform clinical

  15. The work environment disability-adjusted life year for use with life cycle assessment: a methodological approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systems-based method used to determine potential impacts to the environment associated with a product throughout its life cycle. Conclusions from LCA studies can be applied to support decisions regarding product design or public policy, therefore, all relevant inputs (e.g., raw materials, energy) and outputs (e.g., emissions, waste) to the product system should be evaluated to estimate impacts. Currently, work-related impacts are not routinely considered in LCA. The objectives of this paper are: 1) introduce the work environment disability-adjusted life year (WE-DALY), one portion of a characterization factor used to express the magnitude of impacts to human health attributable to work-related exposures to workplace hazards; 2) outline the methods for calculating the WE-DALY; 3) demonstrate the calculation; and 4) highlight strengths and weaknesses of the methodological approach. Methods The concept of the WE-DALY and the methodological approach to its calculation is grounded in the World Health Organization’s disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Like the DALY, the WE-DALY equation considers the years of life lost due to premature mortality and the years of life lived with disability outcomes to estimate the total number of years of healthy life lost in a population. The equation requires input in the form of the number of fatal and nonfatal injuries and illnesses that occur in the industries relevant to the product system evaluated in the LCA study, the age of the worker at the time of the fatal or nonfatal injury or illness, the severity of the injury or illness, and the duration of time lived with the outcomes of the injury or illness. Results The methodological approach for the WE-DALY requires data from various sources, multi-step instructions to determine each variable used in the WE-DALY equation, and assumptions based on professional opinion. Conclusions Results support the use of the WE-DALY in a

  16. A Technology-Assisted Learning Setup as Assessment Supplement for Three Persons with a Diagnosis of Post-Coma Vegetative State and Pervasive Motor Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Bosco, Andrea; Megna, Gianfranco; De Tommaso, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Post-coma persons in an apparent condition of vegetative state and pervasive motor impairment pose serious problems in terms of assessment and intervention options. A technology-based learning assessment procedure might serve for them as a diagnostic supplement with possible implications for rehabilitation intervention. The learning assessment…

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  18. [Assessment of efficiency of use of the developed supplement containing selenium on laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Bazhenova, B A; Aslaliev, A D; Danilov, M B; Badmaeva, T M; Vtorushina, I A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the effectiveness of wheat flour containing selenium in organic form. The organic form of trace element was achieved by transformation of selenium in selenium-methionine (Se-Met) at germination of wheat grains, moistened with a solution of sodium selenite. To determine the effectiveness of selenium- containing supplements experimental investigations were carried out on Long white rats with initial body weight 50 ± 2 g. The duration of the experiment was 30 days. The research model included four groups of animals: control group--animals were fed a complete vivarium diet; group 1--a model of selenium deficiency, which was achieved by feeding selenium-deficient food (grain growh in the Chita region of the Trans-Baikal Territory Zabaikalsky Krai); group 2--animals were administered selenium supplement in the form of enriched flour (0.025 µg Se per 50 g body weight of the animal) on the background of selenium-deficient diet; group 3--animals were treated with a high dose of selenium in the form of a solution of sodium selenite intragastrically through a tube (0.15 µg Se per 50 g body weight). Selenium-containing additive on the background of selenium-deficient diet had a positive impact on the appearance and behavior of animals, the body weight gain per head after 10 days in group 2 amounted to 47.9 g that was 4 fold larger than in rats of group 1. The study of selenium content showed that in the blood, liver, lungs and heart of rats treated with the additive on the background of selenium-deficient diet (group 2), selenium level did not differ from those in the control group and was within physiological norms. The experiment showed that selenium deficiency and rich in selenium rich diet has a significantly different effect on the studied parameters of oxidative-antioxidative status. The activity of blood glutathione peroxidase in animals of group 2 (did not differ from that in group 3) was almost 2 fold higher than in

  19. [Assessment of efficiency of use of the developed supplement containing selenium on laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Bazhenova, B A; Aslaliev, A D; Danilov, M B; Badmaeva, T M; Vtorushina, I A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the effectiveness of wheat flour containing selenium in organic form. The organic form of trace element was achieved by transformation of selenium in selenium-methionine (Se-Met) at germination of wheat grains, moistened with a solution of sodium selenite. To determine the effectiveness of selenium- containing supplements experimental investigations were carried out on Long white rats with initial body weight 50 ± 2 g. The duration of the experiment was 30 days. The research model included four groups of animals: control group--animals were fed a complete vivarium diet; group 1--a model of selenium deficiency, which was achieved by feeding selenium-deficient food (grain growh in the Chita region of the Trans-Baikal Territory Zabaikalsky Krai); group 2--animals were administered selenium supplement in the form of enriched flour (0.025 µg Se per 50 g body weight of the animal) on the background of selenium-deficient diet; group 3--animals were treated with a high dose of selenium in the form of a solution of sodium selenite intragastrically through a tube (0.15 µg Se per 50 g body weight). Selenium-containing additive on the background of selenium-deficient diet had a positive impact on the appearance and behavior of animals, the body weight gain per head after 10 days in group 2 amounted to 47.9 g that was 4 fold larger than in rats of group 1. The study of selenium content showed that in the blood, liver, lungs and heart of rats treated with the additive on the background of selenium-deficient diet (group 2), selenium level did not differ from those in the control group and was within physiological norms. The experiment showed that selenium deficiency and rich in selenium rich diet has a significantly different effect on the studied parameters of oxidative-antioxidative status. The activity of blood glutathione peroxidase in animals of group 2 (did not differ from that in group 3) was almost 2 fold higher than in

  20. Adjustment of the thermal component of two tourism climatological assessment tools using thermal perception and preference surveys from Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Attila; Unger, János; Gál, Csilla V.; Kántor, Noémi

    2016-07-01

    This study introduces new methodological concepts for integrating seasonal subjective thermal assessment patterns of people into the thermal components of two tourism climatological evaluation tools: the Tourism Climatic Index (TCI) and the Climate-Tourism/Transfer-Information-Scheme (CTIS). In the case of the TCI, we replaced the air temperature and relative humidity as the basis of the initial rating system with the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET)—a complex human biometeorological index. This modification improves the TCI's potential to evaluate the thermal aspects of climate. The major accomplishments of this study are (a) the development of a new, PET-based rating system and its integration into the thermal sub-indices of the TCI and (b) the regionalization of the thermal components of CTIS to reflect both the thermal sensation and preference patterns of people. A 2-year-long (2011-2012) thermal comfort survey conducted in Szeged, Hungary, from spring to autumn was utilized to demonstrate the implementation of the introduced concepts. We found considerable differences between the thermal perception and preference patterns of Hungarians, with additional variations across the evaluated seasons. This paper describes the proposed methodology for the integration of the new seasonal, perception-based, and preference-based PET rating systems into the TCI, and presents the incorporation of new PET thresholds into the CTIS. In order to demonstrate the utility of the modified evaluation tools, we performed case study climate analyses for three Hungarian tourist destinations. The additional adjustments introduced during the course of those analyses include the reduction of TCI's temporal resolution to 10-day intervals and the exclusion of nocturnal and winter periods from the investigation.

  1. [Food supplements on the domestic market in Hungary: nutritional assessment of the ingredients, risks and benefits, the role of food supplements in human nutrition].

    PubMed

    Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Éva

    2010-11-28

    Food supplements are foods that are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. Since joining to the European Union, the distribution of food supplements in Hungary has not been bound to pre-market authorisation; products can be placed to the market after a formal notification at the National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science. Distribution, ingredients, and all information on the label are determined by numerous regulations but at the same time, the lack of harmonized legislation at Community level may cause a lot of problems. In the second part of the review authors introduce the evaluation process of components from the point of view of nutritional and physiological effects and the possible role of food supplements in human nutrition.

  2. Ecotoxicological assessment of cobalt used as supplement in the diet of common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanjukta; Kaviraj, Anilava

    2011-11-01

    Experiments were performed in the laboratory to determine if excess levels of Co used as dietary supplement (0.0, 0.05, 0.10 and 1.0%) to enhance growth of the fish Cyprinus carpio was safe for aquatic organisms. Lethal concentrations of Co for tadpole of toad Bufo melanostictus (96 h LC(50), 17.2 mg/L), oligochaet worm Branchiura sowerbyi (96 h LC(50), 179 mg/L) and crustacean zooplankton Diaptomus forbesi (96 h LC(50), 1.5 mg/L) were compared with the concentration of Co in the medium leached from the unused diets and faeces. The results indicated that the Co leached from diet containing 1.0% Co was ecotoxicologically unsafe for crustacean zooplankton. PMID:21858707

  3. Strategies to Improve the Dietary Quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Beneficiaries: An Assessment of Stakeholder Opinions

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Susan J.; Hoffnagle, Elena E.; Leung, Cindy W.; Lofink, Hayley; Jensen, Helen H.; Foerster, Susan B.; Cheung, Lilian W.Y.; Nestle, Marion; Willet, Walter C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the opinions of stakeholders on strategies to improve dietary quality of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Design Participants answered a 38-item web-based survey assessing opinions and perceptions of SNAP and program policy changes. Setting U.S.A. Subjects Survey of 522 individuals with stakeholder interest in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) conducted in October through December 2011. Results The top three barriers to improving dietary quality identified were: 1) unhealthy foods marketed in low-income communities; 2) the high cost of healthy foods; and 3) lifestyle challenges faced by low-income individuals. Many respondents (70%) also disagreed that current SNAP benefit levels were adequate to maintain a healthy diet. Stakeholders believed that vouchers, coupons, or monetary incentives for purchasing healthful foods might have the greatest potential for improving the diets of SNAP participants. Many respondents (78%) agreed that sodas should not be eligible for purchases with SNAP benefits. More than half (55%) believed retailers could easily implement such restrictions. A majority of respondents (58%) agreed that stores should stock a minimum quantity of healthful foods in order to be certified as a SNAP retailer, and most respondents (83%) believed that the USDA should collect data on the foods purchased with SNAP benefits. Conclusions Results suggest that there is broad stakeholder support for policies that align SNAP purchase eligibility with national public health goals of reducing food insecurity, improving nutrition and preventing obesity. PMID:24476898

  4. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Roman-Viñas, Blanca; Ngo, Joy; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Williamson, Gary; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2011-12-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as cancer. The aim of this paper is to examine the PFS market structures in European Community (EC) Member States as well as to examine issues addressing methodologies and consumption data relating to PFS use in Europe. A revision of recent reports on market data, trends and main distribution channels, in addition an example of the consumption of PFS in Spain, is presented. An overview of the methods and administration techniques used to assess individual food consumption as a starting point, including their uses and limitations, as well as some examples of studies that collect Food Supplement (FS) information, including herbal/botanical/plant-derived products are also discussed. Additionally, the intake estimation process of food nutrients is described and used to propose the PFS ingredients intake estimation process. Nationally representative PFS consumption data is scarce in Europe. The majority of studies have been conducted in Scandinavia and the UK. However the heterogeneity of definitions, study design and objectives make it difficult to compare results and extrapolate conclusions. PMID:21879100

  5. 78 FR 110 - Supplemental Record of Decision; Final Supplementary Risk Assessment for the Boston University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... assessment, environmental justice, risk communications, biosafety, and infectious disease modeling. At... centrifuge aerosol release, an earthquake, and transportation accidents. To ensure examination...

  6. To stock or not to stock? Assessing restoration potential of a remnant American shad spawning run with hatchery supplementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Michael M.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Hatchery supplementation has been widely used as a restoration technique for American Shad Alosa sapidissima on the East Coast of the USA, but results have been equivocal. In the Penobscot River, Maine, dam removals and other improvements to fish passage will likely reestablish access to the majority of this species’ historic spawning habitat. Additional efforts being considered include the stocking of larval American Shad. The decision about whether to stock a river system undergoing restoration should be made after evaluating the probability of natural recolonization and examining the costs and benefits of potentially accelerating recovery using a stocking program. However, appropriate evaluation can be confounded by a dearth of information about the starting population size and age structure of the remnant American Shad spawning run in the river. We used the Penobscot River as a case study to assess the theoretical sensitivity of recovery time to either scenario (stocking or not) by building a deterministic model of an American Shad population. This model is based on the best available estimates of size at age, fecundity, rate of iteroparity, and recruitment. Density dependence was imposed, such that the population reached a plateau at an arbitrary recovery goal of 633,000 spawning adults. Stocking had a strong accelerating effect on the time to modeled recovery (as measured by the time to reach 50% of the recovery goal) in the base model, but stocking had diminishing effects with larger population sizes. There is a diminishing return to stocking when the starting population is modestly increased. With a low starting population (a spawning run of 1,000), supplementation with 12 million larvae annually accelerated modeled recovery by 12 years. Only a 2-year acceleration was observed if the starting population was 15,000. Such a heuristic model may aid managers in assessing the costs and benefits of stocking by incorporating a structured decision framework.

  7. A nutritional-toxicological assessment of Antarctic krill oil versus fish oil dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-08-28

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥ C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds.

  8. Johnsonville Fossil Plant (JOF): Supplement to the environmental assessment (EA) for the new ash dredge pond

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In 1989, TVA prepared an EA for development of a new ash dredge pond at JOF. On June 19, 1990, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) was released which indicated that the project was not considered to be a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the environment. Since the original EA for this project considered the environmental impacts of only the first phase of construction, the purpose of this supplement is to consider any additional impacts associated with the second phase. It was concluded in the EA that minor air quality impacts (primarily fugitive dust and vehicular emissions) would be created during construction and operation of the first phase of the disposal area. These same impacts would be temporarily created during construction of the second phase of the project. Watering open areas and haul roads and minimization of active areas will reduce fugitive dust. No additional impacts to other environmental media are anticipated from development of the second phase with the exception of potential impacts to groundwater resources. In order to evaluate groundwater impacts of the second phase, groundwater modeling studies conducted in the EA were re-run using estimates based on the conditions expected for the second phase. This information is presented in this report. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Bone Micro-CT Assessments in an Orchidectomised Rat Model Supplemented with Eurycoma longifolia

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Rosmaliza; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that Eurycoma longifolia, a herbal plant, may have the potential to treat osteoporosis in elderly male. This study aimed to determine the effects of Eurycoma longifolia supplementation on the trabecular bone microarchitecture of orchidectomised rats (androgen-deficient osteoporosis model). Forty-eight-aged (10–12 months old) Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of sham-operated (SHAM), orchidectomised control (ORX), orchidectomised + 7 mg/rat testosterone enanthate (TEN) and orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 30 mg/kg (EL30), orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 60 mg/kg (EL60), orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 90 mg/kg (EL90). Rats were euthanized following six weeks of treatment. The left femora were used to measure the trabecular bone microarchitecture using micro-CT. Orchidectomy significantly decreased connectivity density, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular number compared to the SHAM group. Testosterone replacement reversed all the orchidectomy-induced changes in the micro-CT parameters. EL at 30 and 60 mg/kg rat worsened the trabecular bone connectivity density and trabecular separation parameters of orchidectomised rats. EL at 90 mg/kg rat preserved the bone volume. High dose of EL (90 mg/kg) may have potential in preserving the bone microarchitecture of orchidectomised rats, but lower doses may further worsen the osteoporotic changes. PMID:22952556

  10. A safety assessment of Coriolus versicolor biomass as a food supplement

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Ana B.; Ferrão, Jorge; Fernandes, Tito

    2016-01-01

    Background Coriolus versicolor (CV) is a common mushroom with antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and immunomodulatory properties. The existence of these properties has been extensively proven mainly using CV extract; research on the biomass form is scarce. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of the CV biomass form, as it is commonly used as a food supplement. Design CV biomass powder was dissolved in distilled water and administered daily (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 g/kg live weight) in single doses by gavage to both female and male Charles River albino rats. Results No adverse or lethal effects were observed as a consequence of the daily administration of CV biomass. In addition, compared with the control group, no abnormal findings were observed at necropsy and histopathological examination. Conclusions A safe profile of CV biomass for human consumption can be inferred from the absence of any remarkable adverse effects in rats. PMID:26969586

  11. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M.; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  12. Matrix-derived combination effect and risk assessment for estragole from basil-containing plant food supplements (PFS).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Klaus, Verena; Alhusainy, Wasma; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2013-12-01

    Basil-containing plant food supplements (PFS) can contain estragole which can be metabolised into a genotoxic and carcinogenic 1'-sulfoxymetabolite. This study describes the inhibition of sulfotransferase (SULT)-mediated bioactivation of estragole by compounds present in basil-containing PFS. Results reveal that PFS consisting of powdered basil material contain other compounds with considerable in vitro SULT-inhibiting activity, whereas the presence of such compounds in PFS consisting of basil essential oil was limited. The inhibitor in powdered basil PFS was identified as nevadensin. Physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modeling was performed to elucidate if the observed inhibitory effects can occur in vivo. Subsequently, risk assessment was performed using the Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach. Results suggest that the consequences of the in vivo matrix-derived combination effect are significant when estragole would be tested in rodent bioassays with nevadensin at ratios detected in PFS, thereby increasing MOE values. However, matrix-derived combination effects may be limited at lower dose levels, indicating that the importance of matrix-derived combination effects for risk assessment of individual compounds should be done on a case-by-case basis considering dose-dependent effects. Furthermore, this study illustrates how PBK modeling can be used in risk assessment of PFS, contributing to further reduction in the use of experimental animals. PMID:23959103

  13. Concurrent cross-validation of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire: a tool for assessing violent and nonviolent recidivism and institutional adjustment on a sample of North Carolina offenders.

    PubMed

    Loza, Wagdy; Conley, Michael; Warren, Birchie

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ), a tool that was found to be reliable and valid for assessing violent and nonviolent recidivism and institutional adjustment for Canadian offenders, would also be valid for the same purposes with a demographically different population of North Carolina offenders. The internal consistency alphas and SAQ total and subscale scores' correlations were high. Offenders with high SAQ total scores had significantly more violent offenses, had more total number of past offenses, had higher numbers of past arrests, and had more institutional infractions than those with low SAQ scores. There were no significant differences between the responses of the African American and Caucasian offenders on the SAQ scales. These results support previous findings regarding the reliability and validity of the SAQ for assessing recidivism and institutional adjustment and suggest that the SAQ could be used with diverse populations. PMID:14969119

  14. Supplemental mathematical formulations, Atmospheric pathway: The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is an integrated software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models for health and environmental risk assessments of both radioactive and hazardous pollutants. This atmospheric component report is one of a series of formulation reports that document the MEPAS mathematical models. MEPAS is a ``multimedia`` model; pollutant transport is modeled within, through, and between multiple media (air, soil, groundwater, and surface water). The estimated concentrations in the various media are used to compute exposures and impacts to the environment, to maximum individuals, and to populations.

  15. Assessment of Kalman filter bias-adjustment technique to improve the simulation of ground-level ozone over Spain.

    PubMed

    Sicardi, V; Ortiz, J; Rincón, A; Jorba, O; Pay, M T; Gassó, S; Baldasano, J M

    2012-02-01

    The CALIOPE air quality modelling system has been used to diagnose ground level O(3) concentration for the year 2004, over the Iberian Peninsula. We investigate the improvement in the simulation of daily O(3) maximum by the use of a post-processing such as the Kalman filter bias-adjustment technique. The Kalman filter bias-adjustment technique is a recursive algorithm to optimally estimate bias-adjustment terms from previous measurements and model results. The bias-adjustment technique improved the simulation of daily O(3) maximum for the entire year and the all the stations considered over the whole domain. The corrected simulation presents improvements in statistical indicators such as correlation, root mean square error, mean bias, and gross error. After the post-processing the exceedances of O(3) concentration limits, as established by the European Directive 2008/50/CE, are better reproduced and the uncertainty of the modelling system, as established by the European Directive 2008/50/CE, is reduced from 20% to 7.5%. Such uncertainty in the model results is under the established EU limit of the 50%. Significant improvements in the O(3) timing and amplitude of the daily cycle are also observed after the post-processing. The systematic improvements in the O(3) maximum simulations suggest that the Kalman filter post-processing method is a suitable technique to reproduce accurate estimate of ground-level O(3) concentration. With this study we evince that the adjusted O(3) concentrations obtained after the post-process of the results from the CALIOPE system are a reliable means for real near time O(3) forecasts.

  16. A Guideline for Assessing CD-ROM Software as Supplemental Material to Language Arts Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Mary

    This paper is based on the premise that as computer assisted learning becomes more prevalent, teachers will be required to make decisions as to the quality of the software available for instruction. Assessment guidelines from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication Digest No. 79 and the North Carolina Department of Public…

  17. Risk Assessment supporting the decision on the initial selection of supplemental ILAW technologies

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-09-29

    A risk assessment on the long-term environmental impact of various potential waste forms was conducted at the request of the Hanford Site's Mission Acceleration Initiative Team. These potential waste forms (bulk vitrification, cast stone, and steam reformer) may treat some of the low-activity waste currently planned to be treated at the Waste Treatment Plant.

  18. Assessing the Readability of Geoscience Textbooks, Laboratory Manuals, and Supplemental Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hippensteel, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Reading materials used in undergraduate science classes have not received the same attention in the literature as those used in secondary schools. Additionally, reports critical of college textbooks and their prose are common. To assess both problems and determine the readability of assignments and texts used by geoscience faculty at the…

  19. The Efficacy of Instructor-Guided Supplemental Instruction as a Strategy for Helping Reading-Deficient College Students Improve Testing and Assessment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartley-Lukula, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    This research project examined whether the use of Instructor-guided Supplemental Instruction as a classroom scaffolding technique, might help improve testing and assessment reading outcomes for reading-deficient college students. The study was completed at Tennessee State University in Nashville, Tennessee over the 16-week Fall, 2012 semester…

  20. Assessing Program Coverage of Two Approaches to Distributing a Complementary Feeding Supplement to Infants and Young Children in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Grant J.; Strutt, Nicholas; Boateng, Nathaniel Amoh; Guevarra, Ernest; Siling, Katja; Norris, Alison; Ghosh, Shibani; Nyamikeh, Mercy; Attiogbe, Antoine; Burns, Richard; Foriwa, Esi; Toride, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Satoshi; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Sarpong, Daniel; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The work reported here assesses the coverage achieved by two sales-based approaches to distributing a complementary food supplement (KOKO Plus™) to infants and young children in Ghana. Delivery Model 1 was conducted in the Northern Region of Ghana and used a mixture of health extension workers (delivering behavior change communications and demand creation activities at primary healthcare centers and in the community) and petty traders recruited from among beneficiaries of a local microfinance initiative (responsible for the sale of the complementary food supplement at market stalls and house to house). Delivery Model 2 was conducted in the Eastern Region of Ghana and used a market-based approach, with the product being sold through micro-retail routes (i.e., small shops and roadside stalls) in three districts supported by behavior change communications and demand creation activities led by a local social marketing company. Both delivery models were implemented sub-nationally as 1-year pilot programs, with the aim of informing the design of a scaled-up program. A series of cross-sectional coverage surveys was implemented in each program area. Results from these surveys show that Delivery Model 1 was successful in achieving and sustaining high (i.e., 86%) effective coverage (i.e., the child had been given the product at least once in the previous 7 days) during implementation. Effective coverage fell to 62% within 3 months of the behavior change communications and demand creation activities stopping. Delivery Model 2 was successful in raising awareness of the product (i.e., 90% message coverage), but effective coverage was low (i.e., 9.4%). Future programming efforts should use the health extension / microfinance / petty trader approach in rural settings and consider adapting this approach for use in urban and peri-urban settings. Ongoing behavior change communications and demand creation activities is likely to be essential to the continued success of such

  1. Research and development needs for desiccant cooling technology 1992--1997. (Supplement to the NREL report, Desiccant Cooling: State-of-the-Art Assessment)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A A

    1992-12-01

    This report is a supplement to Desiccant Cooling: State-of-the-Art Assessment (NREL/TP-254-4147, DE93000013). In this supplement document we have described a detailed program assuming sufficient funding to implement the R&D activities needed. Desiccant dehumidification is a mature technology for industrial applications, and in recent years the technology has been used for air conditioning a number of institutional and commercial buildings. Our proposal is based on argumentative discussions at various national meetings with leaders of the technology. The goal is the penetration of the broad air conditioning market. This work is funded by the Buildings technology Office of the US Department of Energy.

  2. Using base rates and correlational data to supplement clinical risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jaya; Sorensen, Jon R

    2013-01-01

    The current study is a partial replication of previous studies designed to estimate the level of risk posed by capital murder defendants. The study draws on data describing the behavior of nearly 2,000 incarcerated capital murderers to forecast violence propensity among defendants sentenced to life imprisonment. Logistic regression is used to model various violence outcomes, relying on the following predictors: age, educational attainment, prior imprisonment, and gang affiliation. This exercise is designed to illustrate how actuarial data may be used to anchor individualized clinical assessments of risk in capital murder trials.

  3. Using base rates and correlational data to supplement clinical risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jaya; Sorensen, Jon R

    2013-01-01

    The current study is a partial replication of previous studies designed to estimate the level of risk posed by capital murder defendants. The study draws on data describing the behavior of nearly 2,000 incarcerated capital murderers to forecast violence propensity among defendants sentenced to life imprisonment. Logistic regression is used to model various violence outcomes, relying on the following predictors: age, educational attainment, prior imprisonment, and gang affiliation. This exercise is designed to illustrate how actuarial data may be used to anchor individualized clinical assessments of risk in capital murder trials. PMID:24051592

  4. Assessment of the ergogenic effect of caffeine supplementation on mood, anticipation timing, and muscular strength in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tallis, Jason; Duncan, Michael J; Wright, Sheila Leddington; Eyre, Emma L J; Bryant, Elizabeth; Langdon, Dominic; James, Rob S

    2013-08-01

    The effect of caffeine to promote improvements in mood, cognition, and exercise performance has been well established in young and athletic adults. However, little is known about whether such nutritional ergogenic aids are effective in enhancing psychological well-being, physiological or cognitive performance in older adults. This study assesses the ergogenic effect of caffeine on mood, perceptual-motor coupling, and muscular strength in an older human population. Following a familiarization session, 12 apparently healthy volunteers (nine females and three males; 69 ± 6 years) completed two laboratory visits. "Pre ingestion" trials of mood state Brunel Mood State Inventory (BRUMS) and coincidence anticipation performance (Bassin anticipation timer) at slow (3 mph) and fast (8 mph) stimulus speeds were completed on both visits. Using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, participants consumed either caffeine (3 mg/kg body mass) or a placebo. Sixty minutes postingestion participants repeated the trials before completing a set of 10 consecutive repetitions of maximal knee extension using isokinetic dynamometry. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed following the fifth and final repetition. Caffeine ingestion significantly improved mood state scores for vigor by 17% (P = 0.009) and reduced absolute error by 35% (P = 0.045) during coincidence anticipation assessment at 8 mph compared to placebo. There were no other significant effects. Caffeine ingestion failed to augment maximal voluntary contraction of the knee extensors and RPE did not prove to be significantly different to from placebo (P > 0.33 in each case). Acute caffeine ingestion may not be an effective ergogenic aid for improving muscular strength in older adults but could possibly be used as a nutrition supplement for enhancing mood and improving cognitive performance in daily living tasks where interceptive timing skills are required. PMID:24303144

  5. Vitamin and Supplement Use in the Old Order Amish: Gender-specific prevalence and associations with use

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Robert M.; Reed, Anna W.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Miller, Michael; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Mitchell, Braxton D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the form of vitamin and supplement use is increasingly prevalent in the United States. The interplay between CAM use and use of conventional medications is not well studied. We examined this issue in the Old Order Amish (OOA), a population lacking several factors known to influence supplement use, whose culture and barriers to conventional medications may result in high rates of supplement use. Objective We characterized the patterns of supplement use in the OOA, including the extent to which CAM use aggregates in families, and assessed whether higher use of supplements is associated with lower medication use. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study of conventional medications and supplements in 2,372 adult Amish from the Lancaster County, PA area. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. Supplements were subcategorized as herbal versus vitamin/mineral supplements. Results Seventy-seven percent of all Amish adults reported current supplement use, whereas 22% reported medication use. Women used supplements more often and used more supplements than men, and familial aggregation of supplement use was stronger in family pairs involving women. Supplement use was associated with lower medication use after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and self-reported histories of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia (adjusted OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.00, p=0.047). This association was driven primarily by use of herbal supplements (adjusted OR 0.94, 05% CI 0.89 to 0.99, p=0.025) as vitamin/mineral supplements were not associated with different use of medication (adjusted OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.09, p=0.8). In analyses limited to cardiovascular medications and cardiovascular supplements in participants with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, or diabetes, supplement use was not associated with conventional medication use. Conclusions The Old Order Amish take dietary supplements much more frequently than they

  6. Assessment of the effect of methionine supplementation and inclusion of hydrolyzed wheat protein in milk protein-based milk replacers on the performance of intensively fed Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Castro, J J; Hwang, G H; Saito, A; Vermeire, D A; Drackley, J K

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare 2 milk replacers containing only milk proteins with or without supplemental Met, and to compare a milk replacer containing hydrolyzed wheat protein at 4.5% of dry matter (DM) and supplemental Lys and Met against the 2 all-milk-protein formulas, by assessing their effect on the growth performance, efficiency, and plasma urea nitrogen of pre-weaning Holstein calves. Thus, 57 Holstein calves were allotted to the following 3 treatments: (1) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate-based milk replacer (SMWP) containing about 2.6% Lys and 0.6% Met on a DM basis; (2) SMWP + M based on skim milk and whey proteins, containing about 2.6% Lys, and supplemental Met to reach 0.9% on a DM basis; and (3) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate plus 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein based milk replacer (HWP + LM) where the wheat protein replaced 50% of the whey protein concentrate, and also contained supplemental Lys and Met to match the profile of SMWP + M (i.e., Lys 2.6 and Met 0.9% on DM basis). No difference in any of the responses was observed by supplementing the milk protein based formula with Met or when hydrolyzed wheat protein was added to the formula. Results indicate that (1) a milk replacer based on skim milk protein and whey protein with a Lys concentration of ~2.6% does not benefit from Met supplementation, and (2) milk replacer containing 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein and supplemented with Lys and Met can support the same growth performance as milk protein-based formulas. PMID:27179863

  7. Assessment of the effect of methionine supplementation and inclusion of hydrolyzed wheat protein in milk protein-based milk replacers on the performance of intensively fed Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Castro, J J; Hwang, G H; Saito, A; Vermeire, D A; Drackley, J K

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare 2 milk replacers containing only milk proteins with or without supplemental Met, and to compare a milk replacer containing hydrolyzed wheat protein at 4.5% of dry matter (DM) and supplemental Lys and Met against the 2 all-milk-protein formulas, by assessing their effect on the growth performance, efficiency, and plasma urea nitrogen of pre-weaning Holstein calves. Thus, 57 Holstein calves were allotted to the following 3 treatments: (1) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate-based milk replacer (SMWP) containing about 2.6% Lys and 0.6% Met on a DM basis; (2) SMWP + M based on skim milk and whey proteins, containing about 2.6% Lys, and supplemental Met to reach 0.9% on a DM basis; and (3) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate plus 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein based milk replacer (HWP + LM) where the wheat protein replaced 50% of the whey protein concentrate, and also contained supplemental Lys and Met to match the profile of SMWP + M (i.e., Lys 2.6 and Met 0.9% on DM basis). No difference in any of the responses was observed by supplementing the milk protein based formula with Met or when hydrolyzed wheat protein was added to the formula. Results indicate that (1) a milk replacer based on skim milk protein and whey protein with a Lys concentration of ~2.6% does not benefit from Met supplementation, and (2) milk replacer containing 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein and supplemented with Lys and Met can support the same growth performance as milk protein-based formulas.

  8. Assessing the clinical significance of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 3A activity: comparison of a milk thistle and black cohosh product to rifampin and clarithromycin.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Bill; Hubbard, Martha A; Williams, D Keith; Thaden, John; Tong, Yudong; Gentry, W Brooks; Breen, Philip; Carrier, Danielle J; Cheboyina, Shreekar

    2006-02-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) may underlie many herb-drug interactions. This study's purpose was to assess the effects of milk thistle and black cohosh supplementation on CYP3A activity and compare them to a clinically recognized inducer, rifampin, and inhibitor, clarithromycin. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized milk thistle (900 mg) or black cohosh (80 mg) supplement for 14 days. Subjects also received rifampin (600 mg) and clarithromycin (1000 mg) for 7 days as positive controls for CYP3A induction and inhibition, respectively. Midazolam was administered orally before and after each supplementation and control period. The effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, rifampin, and clarithromycin on midazolam pharmacokinetics were determined using noncompartmental techniques. Unlike those observed for rifampin and clarithromycin, midazolam pharmacokinetics was unaffected by milk thistle or black cohosh. Milk thistle and black cohosh appear to have no clinically relevant effect on CYP3A activity in vivo.

  9. Environmental ethics: an overview, assessing the place of bioscientists in society, supplemented with selected Australian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John

    2014-01-01

    Ethics deals with moral behavior in a professional context; ideally, it leads to a set of governing principles through which the appropriateness of any activity may be determined or assessed. Environmental ethics specifically deals with how humans interact with the biosphere. It is clear, however, that, as a species, we are failing in our duty of environmental stewardship. The encroachment of human activity into the natural environment is inexorable, and almost always deleterious. Any response to mitigate loss of taxa or ecosystems will have economic implications, and these are often considerable. In finding effective solutions, a process soon becomes political. In light of this we must reflect upon the leadership role that biologists have, especially our impact on policy development that pertains to natural resource management. Although our track record is no worse than any other professional group, biologists by way of training usually have a greater understanding of natural processes and must be prepared to articulate these publically. We have an ethical mandate to question decisions, policies and legislation that impact negatively upon biological systems: a mandate guided through logic, grounded in empirical science, and hopefully coupled with a deep understanding of the true value of both the living world and the physical world which sustains it. This paper uses Australian examples to demonstrate the frequent clashes between economics and biology, in anticipation that we should strive to achieve the underlying principles of sustainability, environmental stewardship and resource management in both daily decision-making and in long-term planning.

  10. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  11. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  12. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  13. Elderly poverty and Supplemental Security Income.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Joyce; Wiseman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, poverty is generally assessed on the basis of income, as reported in the Current Population Survey's (CPS's) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), using an official poverty standard established in the 1960s. The prevalence of receipt of means-tested transfers is underreported in the CPS, with uncertain consequences for the measurement of poverty rates by both the official standard and by using alternative "relative" measures linked to the contemporaneous income distribution. The article reports results estimating the prevalence of poverty in 2002. We complete this effort by using a version of the 2003 CPS/ASEC for which a substantial majority (76 percent) of respondents have individual records matching administrative data from the Social Security Administration on earnings and receipt of income from the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. Adjustment of the CPS income data with administrative data substantially improves coverage of SSI receipt. The consequence for general poverty is sensitive to the merge procedures employed, but under both sets of merge procedures considered, the estimated poverty rate among all elderly persons and among elderly SSI recipients is substantially less than rates estimated using the unadjusted CPS. The effect of the administrative adjustment is less significant for perception of relative poverty than for absolute poverty. We emphasize the effect of these adjustments on perception of poverty among the elderly in general and elderly SSI recipients in particular.

  14. Energy and air emissions embodied in China-U.S. trade: eastbound assessment using adjusted bilateral trade data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Allenby, Braden; Chen, Weiqiang

    2009-05-01

    It is critical to understand environmental impacts embodied in the bilateral trade between China and the United States, given the political, economic, and geographical importance of the two countries and the fact that few studies have investigated this before. This article studies the environmental impacts, particularly energy consumption and air emissions, embodied in the eastbound (from China to the U.S.) trade from 2002 to 2007 using an environmental input-output analysis technique and the adjusted bilateral trade data. In general,trade volume increased until the panic of 2008, and shifting trade patterns cause fluctuating embodied energy and air emissions in trade in China. Results show that embodied energy ranges from 7 to 11 exajoule (EJ) and takes about 12-17% of China's energy consumption. Embodied CO2 ranges between 400 and 800 Mt and represents about 8-12% of China's CO2 emissions. SO2 and NOx embodied in the eastbound trade generally grow over this period, from 4.2 to 6.3 Mt and from 1.4 to 2.9 Mt and account for 10-15% and 8-12% of China's total emissions, respectively.

  15. Maternal Emotional Styles and Child Social Adjustment: Assessment, Correlates, Outcomes and Goodness of Fit in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the present research were to develop a modified version of an existing self-assessment questionnaire designed to measure parents' emotional style and to examine how the aspects of child regulation may moderate the relation between the emotional styles and social outcomes in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 140 mothers and…

  16. Assessing the burden of sexual and reproductive ill-health: questions regarding the use of disability-adjusted life years.

    PubMed Central

    AbouZahr, C.; Vaughan, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    The use of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) as the unit in which to calculate the burden of disease associated with reproductive ill-health has given rise to considerable debate. Criticisms include the failure to address the problem of missing and inadequate epidemiological data, inability to deal adequately with co-morbidities, and lack of transparency in the process of ascribing disability weights to sexual and reproductive health conditions. Many of these criticisms could be addressed within the current DALY framework and a number of suggestions to do so are made. These suggestions include: (1) developing an international research strategy to determine the incidence and prevalence of reproductive ill-health and diseases, including the risk of long-term complications; (2) undertaking a research strategy using case studies, population-based surveillance data and longitudinal studies to identify, evaluate and utilize more of the existing national data sources on sexual and reproductive health; (3) comprehensively mapping the natural history of sexual and reproductive health conditions--in males and in females--and their sequelae, whether physical or psychological; (4) developing valuation instruments that are adaptable for both chronic and acute health states, that reflect a range of severity for each health state and can be modified to reflect prognosis; (5) undertaking a full review of the DALY methodology to determine what changes may be made to reduce sources of methodological and gender bias. Despite the many criticisms of the DALY as a measurement unit, it represents a major conceptual advance since it permits the combination of life expectancy and levels of dysfunction into a single measure. Measuring reproductive ill-health by counting deaths alone is inadequate for a proper understanding of the dimensions of the problem because of the young age of many of the deaths associated with reproductive ill-health and the large component of years lived with

  17. State Snapshots of Public Benefits for Immigrants: A Supplemental Report to "Patchwork Policies." Occasional Paper Number 24, Supplemental Report. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumlin, Karen C.; Zimmermann, Wendy; Ost, Jason

    As a supplement to an analysis of the devolution of policymaking for immigrants from the federal government to the states, this report provides a one-page summary of each state's immigrant eligibility rules for cash, food, and health assistance programs. It also notes state naturalization initiatives begun or expanded in the wake of welfare…

  18. Maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy affects autonomic function of Peruvian children assessed at 54 months of age.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Laura E; Zavaleta, Nelly; Chen, Ping; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; DiPietro, Janet A

    2011-02-01

    Maternal prenatal zinc supplementation improved fetal autonomic regulation in a nutrient-deficient population in Peru. To evaluate whether differences in autonomic regulation existed in early childhood, we studied 165 children from a zinc supplementation trial (80% of original sample) as part of a comprehensive evaluation at age 54 mo. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data were collected from the children at rest and while they underwent a cognitive testing battery following a standardized protocol. Of these, 79 were born to mothers receiving 25 mg/d zinc in addition to 60 mg/d iron and 250 μg/d folic acid during pregnancy, and 86 were born to mothers receiving iron and folic acid only. Derived cardiac measures included heart period (HP), range, HP variability (HPV), mean square of successive differences (MSSD), and a measure of vagal tone (V). Children in the zinc supplementation group had greater HP (i.e. slower heart rate), greater range, higher time-independent (HPV) and time-dependent (MSSD) variability in HP, and higher V (P < 0.05) during baseline. Analyses conducted across the cognitive testing period revealed similar effects of prenatal zinc supplementation on cardiac patterns. Concurrent child zinc plasma concentration was also associated with longer HP, greater variability, and marginally higher range and V (P < 0.10). Differences in cardiac patterns due to prenatal zinc supplementation were detectable in children at 54 mo of age during conditions of both rest and challenge, indicating that supplementing zinc-deficient pregnant women has beneficial long-term consequences for neural development associated with autonomic regulation. PMID:21178078

  19. Age- and education-adjusted normative data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in older adults age 70-99.

    PubMed

    Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J; Belden, Christine M; O'Connor, Kathy; Evans, Linda; Coon, David W; Nieri, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The original validation study for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) suggests a cutoff score of 26; however, this may be too stringent for older adults, particularly for those with less education. Given the rapidly increasing number of older adults and associated risk of dementia, this study aims to provide appropriate age- and education-adjusted norms for the MoCA. Data from 205 participants in an ongoing longevity study were used to derive normative data. Individuals were grouped based on age (70-79, 80-89, 90-99) and education level (≤12 Years, 13-15, ≥16 Years). There were significant differences between age and education groups with younger and more educated participants outperforming their counterparts. Forty-six percent of our sample scored below the suggested cutoff of 26. These normative data may provide a more accurate representation of MoCA performance in older adults for specific age and education stratifications.

  20. Adjustment to Technological Change: Summary and Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangum, Garth L.

    A supplement to the report on adjustment to technological change, the document reviews policies of recent years related to adjustment to technological change and the added implications of the Blair and Fechter studies ("Mechanisms for Aiding Worker Adjustment to Technological Change" by Larry M. Blair and "Forecasting the Impact of Technological…

  1. Response bias, weighting adjustments, and design effects in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    PubMed

    Kessler, Ronald C; Heeringa, Steven G; Colpe, Lisa J; Fullerton, Carol S; Gebler, Nancy; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) is a multi-component epidemiological and neurobiological study designed to generate actionable recommendations to reduce US Army suicides and increase knowledge about determinants of suicidality. Three Army STARRS component studies are large-scale surveys: one of new soldiers prior to beginning Basic Combat Training (BCT; n = 50,765 completed self-administered questionnaires); another of other soldiers exclusive of those in BCT (n = 35,372); and a third of three Brigade Combat Teams about to deploy to Afghanistan who are being followed multiple times after returning from deployment (n = 9421). Although the response rates in these surveys are quite good (72.0-90.8%), questions can be raised about sample biases in estimating prevalence of mental disorders and suicidality, the main outcomes of the surveys based on evidence that people in the general population with mental disorders are under-represented in community surveys. This paper presents the results of analyses designed to determine whether such bias exists in the Army STARRS surveys and, if so, to develop weights to correct for these biases. Data are also presented on sample inefficiencies introduced by weighting and sample clustering and on analyses of the trade-off between bias and efficiency in weight trimming.

  2. Functional assessment of zinc nutriture using changes in plasma zinc after exercise in men supplemented with folic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lukaski, H.C.; Bolonchuk, W.W.; Milne, D.B.

    1986-03-05

    Recently, the authors proposed that changes in plasma zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) content after maximal exercise could be a functional test of human trace element nutriture. To test this hypothesis, they studied the effect of folic acid (FA) supplements, previously shown to affect zinc absorption on the exercise-induced changes in plasma Zn and Cu in 7 men aged 28.6 +/- 1.2 yr (mean +/- SEM). The men were fed a constant diet with intakes of Cu (1.01 +/- 0.06 mg/d), Zn (12.7 +/- 0.3 mg/d) and FA (200 mg/d) for two 4 wk periods. This basal diet was supplemented with 400 or 800 mg/d FA and it was fed for 4 wk periods alternating with the unsupplemented diet. Pre and post-exercise hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), and plasma Zn and Cu were not affected by FA supplements. To correct for hemoconcentration during exercise, the van Beaumont quotient was calculated from pre and post-exercise Hct, Hb, and plasma Zn and Cu. When the basal diet was fed, the quotient for Zn was 3.4 +/- 1.4 and 2.3 +/- 1.4%, and it declined (p < 0.05) to -5.93 +/- 1.9% and -7.4 +/- 1.8% with 400 and 800 mg/d supplementation, resp. FA supplementation had no effect on the quotient for plasma Cu. These data suggest that Zn mobilization from stores during exercise is impaired with high intakes of FA.

  3. Are Chinese consumers at risk due to exposure to metals in crayfish? A bioaccessibility-adjusted probabilistic risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian; Nunes, Luís M; Greenfield, Ben K; Dang, Fei; Zhong, Huan

    2016-03-01

    Freshwater crayfish, the world's third largest crustacean species, has been reported to accumulate high levels of metals, while the current knowledge of potential risk associated with crayfish consumption lags behind that of finfish. We provide the first estimate of human health risk associated with crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) consumption in China, the world's largest producer and consumer of crayfish. We performed Monte Carlo Simulation on a standard risk model parameterized with local data on metal concentrations, bioaccessibility (φ), crayfish consumption rate, and consumer body mass. Bioaccessibility of metals in crayfish was found to be variable (68-95%) and metal-specific, suggesting a potential influence of metal bioaccessibility on effective metal intake. However, sensitivity analysis suggested risk of metals via crayfish consumption was predominantly explained by consumption rate (explaining >92% of total risk estimate variability), rather than metals concentration, bioaccessibility, or body mass. Mean metal concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) in surveyed crayfish samples from 12 provinces in China conformed to national safety standards. However, risk calculation of φ-modified hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) suggested that crayfish metals may pose a health risk for very high rate consumers, with a HI of over 24 for the highest rate consumers. Additionally, the φ-modified increased lifetime risk (ILTR) for carcinogenic effects due to the presence of As was above the acceptable level (10(-5)) for both the median (ILTR=2.5×10(-5)) and 90th percentile (ILTR=1.8×10(-4)), highlighting the relatively high risk of As in crayfish. Our results suggest a need to consider crayfish when assessing human dietary exposure to metals and associated health risks, especially for high crayfish-consuming populations, such as in China, USA and Sweden.

  4. Are Chinese consumers at risk due to exposure to metals in crayfish? A bioaccessibility-adjusted probabilistic risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian; Nunes, Luís M; Greenfield, Ben K; Dang, Fei; Zhong, Huan

    2016-03-01

    Freshwater crayfish, the world's third largest crustacean species, has been reported to accumulate high levels of metals, while the current knowledge of potential risk associated with crayfish consumption lags behind that of finfish. We provide the first estimate of human health risk associated with crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) consumption in China, the world's largest producer and consumer of crayfish. We performed Monte Carlo Simulation on a standard risk model parameterized with local data on metal concentrations, bioaccessibility (φ), crayfish consumption rate, and consumer body mass. Bioaccessibility of metals in crayfish was found to be variable (68-95%) and metal-specific, suggesting a potential influence of metal bioaccessibility on effective metal intake. However, sensitivity analysis suggested risk of metals via crayfish consumption was predominantly explained by consumption rate (explaining >92% of total risk estimate variability), rather than metals concentration, bioaccessibility, or body mass. Mean metal concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) in surveyed crayfish samples from 12 provinces in China conformed to national safety standards. However, risk calculation of φ-modified hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) suggested that crayfish metals may pose a health risk for very high rate consumers, with a HI of over 24 for the highest rate consumers. Additionally, the φ-modified increased lifetime risk (ILTR) for carcinogenic effects due to the presence of As was above the acceptable level (10(-5)) for both the median (ILTR=2.5×10(-5)) and 90th percentile (ILTR=1.8×10(-4)), highlighting the relatively high risk of As in crayfish. Our results suggest a need to consider crayfish when assessing human dietary exposure to metals and associated health risks, especially for high crayfish-consuming populations, such as in China, USA and Sweden. PMID:26773397

  5. Assessing the clinical significance of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 3A activity: Comparison of a milk thistle and black cohosh product to rifampin and clarithromycin

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Bill; Hubbard, Martha A.; Williams, D. Keith; Thaden, John; Tong, Yudong; Gentry, W. Brooks; Breen, Philip; Carrier, Danielle J.; Cheboyina, Shreekar

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) may underlie many herb-drug interactions. This study’s purpose was to assess the effects of milk thistle and black cohosh supplementation on CYP3A activity and compare them to a clinically recognized inducer, rifampin, and inhibitor, clarithromycin. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized milk thistle (900 mg) or black cohosh (80 mg) supplement for 14 days. Subjects also received rifampin (600 mg) and clarithromycin (1000 mg) for 7 days as positive controls for CYP3A induction and inhibition, respectively. Midazolam was administered orally before and after each supplementation and control period. The effects of milk thistle, black cohosh, rifampin, and clarithromycin on midazolam pharmacokinetics were determined using noncompartmental techniques. Unlike those observed for rifampin and clarithromycin, midazolam pharmacokinetics were unaffected by milk thistle or black cohosh. Milk thistle and black cohosh appear to have no clinically relevant effect on CYP3A activity in vivo. PMID:16432272

  6. Self-reported adjustment of teenagers at soccer training centers: the Soccer Trainee Adjustment Scale.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Raphaël; Nicolas, Michel; Labruère-Chazal, Catherine; Lacassagne, Marie-Françoise

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire to measure adjustment of teenagers at soccer training centers, particularly newcomers. The Soccer Trainee Adjustment Scale was adapted from the Institutional Integration Scale and assesses the trainee's adjustment to operating and social activities. The scale was tested on a sample of 136 trainees from four soccer centers. Exploratory analysis indicated that the 13 items formed five factors: peer adjustment, boarding supervisor adjustment, soccer adjustment, scholastic adjustment, and boarding adjustment. These factors had internal consistency reliability ranging from .76 to .94.

  7. The safety assessment of Pythium irregulare as a producer of biomass and eicosapentaenoic acid for use in dietary supplements and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Roe, Charles L; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n-6), have multiple beneficial effects on human health and can be used as an important ingredient in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. A variety of microorganisms has been used for commercial production of these fatty acids. The microorganisms in the Pythium family, particularly Pythium irregulare, are potential EPA producers. The aim of this work is to provide a safety assessment of P. irregulare so that the EPA derived from this species can be potentially used in various commercial applications. The genus Pythium has been widely recognized as a plant pathogen by infecting roots and colonizing the vascular tissues of various plants such as soybeans, corn and various vegetables. However, the majority of the Pythium species (including P. irregulare) have not been reported to infect mammals including humans. The only species among the Pythium family that infects mammals is P. insidiosum. There also have been no reports showing P. irregulare to contain mycotoxins or cause potentially allergenic responses in humans. Based on the safety assessment, we conclude that P. irregulare can be considered a safe source of biomass and EPA-containing oil for use as ingredients in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23900800

  8. The safety assessment of Pythium irregulare as a producer of biomass and eicosapentaenoic acid for use in dietary supplements and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Roe, Charles L; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n-6), have multiple beneficial effects on human health and can be used as an important ingredient in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. A variety of microorganisms has been used for commercial production of these fatty acids. The microorganisms in the Pythium family, particularly Pythium irregulare, are potential EPA producers. The aim of this work is to provide a safety assessment of P. irregulare so that the EPA derived from this species can be potentially used in various commercial applications. The genus Pythium has been widely recognized as a plant pathogen by infecting roots and colonizing the vascular tissues of various plants such as soybeans, corn and various vegetables. However, the majority of the Pythium species (including P. irregulare) have not been reported to infect mammals including humans. The only species among the Pythium family that infects mammals is P. insidiosum. There also have been no reports showing P. irregulare to contain mycotoxins or cause potentially allergenic responses in humans. Based on the safety assessment, we conclude that P. irregulare can be considered a safe source of biomass and EPA-containing oil for use as ingredients in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals.

  9. No effect of modest selenium supplementation on insulin resistance in UK pregnant women, as assessed by plasma adiponectin concentration.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jinyuan; Bath, Sarah C; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V; Redman, Christopher W G; Rayman, Margaret P

    2016-01-14

    Concern has been expressed recently that Se may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, but this has not been tested in a randomised-controlled trial (RCT) in pregnant women. We took advantage of having stored plasma samples from the Se in Pregnancy Intervention (SPRINT) RCT of Se supplementation in pregnancy to test the effect of Se supplementation on a marker of insulin resistance in UK pregnant women. Because our blood samples were not fasted, we measured plasma adiponectin concentration, a recognised marker of insulin resistance that gives valid measurements in non-fasted samples, as diurnal variability is minor and there is no noticeable effect of food intake. In SPRINT, 230 primiparous UK women were randomised to treatment with Se (60 μg/d) or placebo from 12 weeks of gestation until delivery. We hypothesised that supplementation with Se at a nutritional level would not exacerbate the fall in adiponectin concentration that occurs in normal pregnancy, indicating the lack of an adverse effect on insulin resistance. Indeed, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the change in adiponectin from 12 to 35 weeks (P=0·938), nor when the analysis was restricted to the bottom or top quartiles of baseline whole-blood Se (P=0·515 and 0·858, respectively). Cross-sectionally, adiponectin concentration was not associated with any parameter of Se status, either at 12 or 35 weeks. It is reassuring that a nutritional dose of Se had no adverse effect on the concentration of adiponectin, a biomarker of insulin resistance, in pregnant women of modest Se status.

  10. No effect of modest selenium supplementation on insulin resistance in UK pregnant women, as assessed by plasma adiponectin concentration.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jinyuan; Bath, Sarah C; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V; Redman, Christopher W G; Rayman, Margaret P

    2016-01-14

    Concern has been expressed recently that Se may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, but this has not been tested in a randomised-controlled trial (RCT) in pregnant women. We took advantage of having stored plasma samples from the Se in Pregnancy Intervention (SPRINT) RCT of Se supplementation in pregnancy to test the effect of Se supplementation on a marker of insulin resistance in UK pregnant women. Because our blood samples were not fasted, we measured plasma adiponectin concentration, a recognised marker of insulin resistance that gives valid measurements in non-fasted samples, as diurnal variability is minor and there is no noticeable effect of food intake. In SPRINT, 230 primiparous UK women were randomised to treatment with Se (60 μg/d) or placebo from 12 weeks of gestation until delivery. We hypothesised that supplementation with Se at a nutritional level would not exacerbate the fall in adiponectin concentration that occurs in normal pregnancy, indicating the lack of an adverse effect on insulin resistance. Indeed, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the change in adiponectin from 12 to 35 weeks (P=0·938), nor when the analysis was restricted to the bottom or top quartiles of baseline whole-blood Se (P=0·515 and 0·858, respectively). Cross-sectionally, adiponectin concentration was not associated with any parameter of Se status, either at 12 or 35 weeks. It is reassuring that a nutritional dose of Se had no adverse effect on the concentration of adiponectin, a biomarker of insulin resistance, in pregnant women of modest Se status. PMID:26481811

  11. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  12. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... are not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure diseases. Do not take supplements instead of your ... Partners Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy ...

  13. Nepali Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  14. Assessment of vitamin and trace element supplementation in severely burned patients undergoing long-term parenteral and enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Perro, G; Bourdarias, B; Cutillas, M; Higueret, D; Sanchez, R; Iron, A

    1995-10-01

    The efficacy of an oral supplement of vitamins and trace elements during a longterm artificial parenteral and enteral nutrition was investigated for 3 months in patients with extensive burns. Thirty severely burned patients (22 male, 8 female, age 41 +/- 18 years, range 23-59 years, 33 +/- 12% total body surface area burn, 22% +/- 8 full thickness burn surface area) were included. Every 10 days, from day 10 until day 90, we determined serum levels of: *vitamins B1, B12, A, E, *folic acid, *copper, zinc, iron, *transferrin, albumin, prealbumin, total proteins, *fibronectin, retinol binding protein (RBP), *calcium, *phosphorus, *triglycerides, *total cholesterol, *C reactive protein (CRP), *erythrocyte folic acid. The mean daily nutritional support was 60 Kcals and 0.4 g N per kg of body weight, 70% enterally and 30% parenterally administered, with enteral vitamin and trace element supplementation. On day 10, there was a decrease of the serum level of 19/20 parameters. For 8 parameters (vitamin A, total cholesterol, iron, transferrin, fibronectin, phosphorus, RBP, total proteins), the level was lower than usual. Between day 10 and day 20, a significant normalization of 6 of them was noted, the average levels of transferrin and iron remaining below normal values until day 50. There was a significant decrease in C-reactive protein levels, however above normal limits. No deficiency in vitamins or trace elements was found. Cyclic variations of serum levels occurred which may be more related to volemic, hydroelectrolytic, endocrine and inflammatory disorders than to nutritional problems.

  15. Assessment of vitamin and trace element supplementation in severely burned patients undergoing long-term parenteral and enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Perro, G; Bourdarias, B; Cutillas, M; Higueret, D; Sanchez, R; Iron, A

    1995-10-01

    The efficacy of an oral supplement of vitamins and trace elements during a longterm artificial parenteral and enteral nutrition was investigated for 3 months in patients with extensive burns. Thirty severely burned patients (22 male, 8 female, age 41 +/- 18 years, range 23-59 years, 33 +/- 12% total body surface area burn, 22% +/- 8 full thickness burn surface area) were included. Every 10 days, from day 10 until day 90, we determined serum levels of: *vitamins B1, B12, A, E, *folic acid, *copper, zinc, iron, *transferrin, albumin, prealbumin, total proteins, *fibronectin, retinol binding protein (RBP), *calcium, *phosphorus, *triglycerides, *total cholesterol, *C reactive protein (CRP), *erythrocyte folic acid. The mean daily nutritional support was 60 Kcals and 0.4 g N per kg of body weight, 70% enterally and 30% parenterally administered, with enteral vitamin and trace element supplementation. On day 10, there was a decrease of the serum level of 19/20 parameters. For 8 parameters (vitamin A, total cholesterol, iron, transferrin, fibronectin, phosphorus, RBP, total proteins), the level was lower than usual. Between day 10 and day 20, a significant normalization of 6 of them was noted, the average levels of transferrin and iron remaining below normal values until day 50. There was a significant decrease in C-reactive protein levels, however above normal limits. No deficiency in vitamins or trace elements was found. Cyclic variations of serum levels occurred which may be more related to volemic, hydroelectrolytic, endocrine and inflammatory disorders than to nutritional problems. PMID:16843945

  16. An assessment of the impact of physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics on the human kinetic adjustment factor for systemic toxicants.

    PubMed

    Valcke, M; Krishnan, K

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of the human kinetic adjustment factor (HKAF) as a function of physico- and bio-chemical characteristics impacting the systemic clearance of chemicals. This factor is intended to replace the default value of 3.16 in non-cancer risk assessments and aims at accounting for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics. A steady-state algorithm was used to compute the internal dose metrics (blood concentration (C(blood)) and rate of metabolite produced/L liver (RAM)) of hypothetical chemicals in neonates, adults, elderly, and pregnant women. After evaluating the algorithm with chemical-specific experimental data, C(blood) and RAM were calculated for hypothetical chemicals exhibiting blood:air partition coefficients (Pb) between 1 and 10,000 and hepatic extraction ratios in the average adult (E) between 0.01 and 0.99. Based on Monte Carlo simulation results, HKAF values were computed as the ratio of the 95th percentile value for each subpopulation to the 50th percentile value in adults. The highest HKAF among those obtained for each subpopulation was reported in route-, pathway-, and dose metric-specific HKAF matrices as a function of Pb and E. These matrices allowed the recognition of cases where the default HKAF could be exceeded, and these occurred in neonates based on C(blood) in two situations. First, when the average adult-to-neonate ratio of body weight-adjusted systemic clearance was at least equal to 2.2 for a given systemic exposure (i.e., for CYP1A2 substrates only). Second, when E=0.01-0.2 and Pb ≥ 300 or when E=0.3-0.7 and Pb ≥ 100 for inhalation exposures to CYP2E1 substrates, with comparable values for the other substrates (higher for CYP1A2). Overall, this study showed the dependency of the HKAF on the dose metrics, chemical characteristics, metabolic pathways, and subpopulations considered. PMID:21605617

  17. Human Serum Versus Human Serum Albumin Supplementation in Human Islet Pretransplantation Culture: In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Montserrat; Estil Les, Elisabet; Garcia, Ainhoa; Nadal, Belen; Pairó, Mar; Garcia, Cristofer; Secanella, Lluís; Novials, Anna; Montanya, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence favoring both the use of human serum (HS) and of human serum albumin (HSA) in human islet culture. We evaluated the effects of HS versus HSA supplementation on 1) in vitro β-cell viability and function and 2) in vivo islet graft revascularization, islet viability, β-cell death, and metabolic outcome after transplantation. Islets isolated from 14 cadaveric organ donors were cultured for 3 days in CMRL 1066 medium supplemented with HS or HSA. After 3 days in culture, β-cell apoptosis was lower in HS group (1.41 ± 0.27 vs. 2.38 ± 0.39%, p = 0.029), and the recovery of islets was 77 ± 11% and 54 ± 1% in HS- and HSA-cultured groups, respectively. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was higher in HS group (29.4, range 10.4-99.9, vs. 22.3, range 8.7-70.6, p = 0.031). In vivo viability and revascularization was determined in HS- and HSA-cultured islets transplanted into the anterior chamber of the eye of Balb/c mice (n = 14), and β-cell apoptosis in paraffin-embedded mouse eyes. Islet viability and β-cell apoptosis were similar in both groups. Revascularization was observed in one graft (HS group) on day 10 after transplantation. Islet function was determined in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic nude mice (n = 33) transplanted with 2,000 IEQs cultured with HS or HSA that showed similar blood glucose levels and percentage of normoglycemic animals over time. In conclusion, human islets cultured in medium supplemented with HS showed higher survival in vitro, as well as islet viability and function. The higher in vitro survival increased the number of islets available for transplantation. However, the beneficial effect on viability and function did not translate into an improved metabolic evolution when a similar number of HSA- and HS-cultured islets was transplanted. PMID:25955150

  18. Methotrexate Dosing Regimen for Plaque-type Psoriasis: A Systematic Review of the Use of Test-dose, Start-dose, Dosing Scheme, Dose Adjustments, Maximum Dose and Folic Acid Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Menting, Stef P; Dekker, Paul M; Limpens, Jacqueline; Hooft, Lotty; Spuls, Phyllis I

    2016-01-01

    There is a range of methotrexate dosing regimens for psoriasis. This review summarizes the evidence for test-dose, start-dose, dosing scheme, dose adjustments, maximum dose and use of folic acid. A literature search for randomized controlled trials and guidelines was performed. Twenty-three randomized controlled trials (29 treatment groups) and 10 guidelines were included. Two treatment groups used a test-dose, 5 guidelines recommend it. The methotrexate start-dose in randomized controlled trials varied from 5 to 25 mg/week, most commonly being either 7.5 mg or 15 mg. Guidelines vary from 5 to 15 mg/week. Methotrexate was administered as a single dose or in a Weinstein schedule in 15 and 11 treatment-groups, respectively; both recommended equally in guidelines. A fixed dose (n = 18), predefined dose (n = 3), or dose adjusted on clinical improvement (n = 8) was used, the last also being recommended in guidelines. Ten treatment groups used folic acid; in 2 it was allowed, in 14 not mentioned, and in 3 no folic acid was used. Most guidelines recommend the use of folic acid. Authors' suggestions for methotrexate dosing are given.

  19. Description of Electric Energy Use in Commercial Buildings in the Pacific Northwest: 1992 Supplement. End-use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP).

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Z. Todd

    1992-07-01

    In December, 1989 Bonneville published Description of Electric Energy Use in Commercial Buildings in the Pacific Northwest, a summary report on the data collected from commercial buildings metered under the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), for the period 1986 through 1988. Average monthly and annual electric end-use intensities (EUIs, kWh/ft{sup 2}) and average load shapes were presented for nine building types and seven or eight end uses, as well as building totals. This document is a supplement to that report. An additional two and one-half years` data (October 1988 through June 1991) have been collected since the original report, resulting in increased numbers of buildings available for analysis. Additionally, some analytical techniques used in the previous report have been improved and some minor bugs corrected. This supplement differs from the original in the following ways: increased sample sizes; improved analytical techniques; corrected aggregation techniques; eliminated building types; eliminated split plots; included Btu/square foot.

  20. The Effect of Aflatoxin-B1 on Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and Assessment of Dietary Supplementation of NovaSil for the Prevention of Aflatoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Zychowski, Katherine E.; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Ly, Hoai J.; Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Romoser, Amelia; Gatlin, Delbert M.; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen that causes growth stunting, immunosuppression and liver cancer in multiple species. The recent trend of replacing fishmeal with plant-based proteins in fish feed has amplified the AFB1 exposure risk in farm-raised fish. NovaSil (NS), a calcium montmorillonite clay, has previously been shown to reduce AFB1 bioavailability safely and efficaciously in several mammalian species. This study was designed to: (1) evaluate AFB1 impact on cultured red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, over the course of seven weeks; and (2) assess NS supplementation as a strategy to prevent aflatoxicosis. Fish were fed diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 5 ppm AFB1. Two additional treatment groups were fed either 5 ppm AFB1 + 1% NS or 5 ppm AFB1 + 2% NS. Aflatoxin B1 negatively impacted red drum weight gain, survival, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, hepatosomatic index (HSI), whole-body lipid levels, liver histopathological scoring, as well as trypsin inhibition. NovaSil inclusion in AFB1-contaminated diets improved weight gain, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, muscle somatic index, and intraperitoneal fat ratios compared to AFB1-treated fish. Although not significant, NS reduced AFB1-induced histopathological changes in the liver and decreased Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) staining. Importantly, NS supplementation improved overall health of AFB1-exposed red drum. PMID:24064717

  1. The effect of aflatoxin-B1 on red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and assessment of dietary supplementation of NovaSil for the prevention of aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Zychowski, Katherine E; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Ly, Hoai J; Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Romoser, Amelia; Gatlin, Delbert M; Phillips, Timothy D

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen that causes growth stunting, immunosuppression and liver cancer in multiple species. The recent trend of replacing fishmeal with plant-based proteins in fish feed has amplified the AFB1 exposure risk in farm-raised fish. NovaSil (NS), a calcium montmorillonite clay, has previously been shown to reduce AFB1 bioavailability safely and efficaciously in several mammalian species. This study was designed to: (1) evaluate AFB1 impact on cultured red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, over the course of seven weeks; and (2) assess NS supplementation as a strategy to prevent aflatoxicosis. Fish were fed diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 5 ppm AFB1. Two additional treatment groups were fed either 5 ppm AFB1 + 1% NS or 5 ppm AFB1 + 2% NS. Aflatoxin B1 negatively impacted red drum weight gain, survival, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, hepatosomatic index (HSI), whole-body lipid levels, liver histopathological scoring, as well as trypsin inhibition. NovaSil inclusion in AFB1-contaminated diets improved weight gain, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, muscle somatic index, and intraperitoneal fat ratios compared to AFB1-treated fish. Although not significant, NS reduced AFB1-induced histopathological changes in the liver and decreased Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) staining. Importantly, NS supplementation improved overall health of AFB1-exposed red drum. PMID:24064717

  2. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative proceedings to assess a civil penalty conducted under sections 113(d), 205(c), 211(d), and 213(d... notice. Prior to the issuance of a final order assessing a civil penalty, the person to whom the order is to be issued shall be given written notice of the proposed issuance of the order. Service of...

  3. Maternal folic acid supplement use in early pregnancy and child behavioural problems: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Roza, Sabine J; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Folate deficiency during embryogenesis is an established risk factor for neural tube defects in the fetus. An adequate folate nutritional status is also important for normal fetal growth and brain development. The aim of the present research was to study the association between folic acid use of the mother during pregnancy and child behavioural development. Within a population-based cohort, we prospectively assessed folic acid supplement use during the first trimester by questionnaire. Child behavioural and emotional problems were assessed with the Child Behaviour Checklist at the age of 18 months in 4214 toddlers. Results showed that children of mothers who did not use folic acid supplements in the first trimester had a higher risk of total problems (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.12, 1.86). Folic acid supplement use protected both from internalising (OR of no supplement use 1.65; 95 % CI 1.24, 2.19) and externalising problems (OR 1.45; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.80), even when adjusted for maternal characteristics. Birth weight and size of the fetal head did not mediate the association between folic acid use and child behaviour. In conclusion, inadequate use of folic acid supplements during early pregnancy may be associated with a higher risk of behavioural problems in the offspring. Folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy, aimed to prevent neural tube defects, may also reduce mental health problems in children. PMID:19772683

  4. Maternal folic acid supplement use in early pregnancy and child behavioural problems: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Roza, Sabine J; van Batenburg-Eddes, Tamara; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Folate deficiency during embryogenesis is an established risk factor for neural tube defects in the fetus. An adequate folate nutritional status is also important for normal fetal growth and brain development. The aim of the present research was to study the association between folic acid use of the mother during pregnancy and child behavioural development. Within a population-based cohort, we prospectively assessed folic acid supplement use during the first trimester by questionnaire. Child behavioural and emotional problems were assessed with the Child Behaviour Checklist at the age of 18 months in 4214 toddlers. Results showed that children of mothers who did not use folic acid supplements in the first trimester had a higher risk of total problems (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.12, 1.86). Folic acid supplement use protected both from internalising (OR of no supplement use 1.65; 95 % CI 1.24, 2.19) and externalising problems (OR 1.45; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.80), even when adjusted for maternal characteristics. Birth weight and size of the fetal head did not mediate the association between folic acid use and child behaviour. In conclusion, inadequate use of folic acid supplements during early pregnancy may be associated with a higher risk of behavioural problems in the offspring. Folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy, aimed to prevent neural tube defects, may also reduce mental health problems in children.

  5. In vitro assessment of the digestibility of forage based sheep diet, supplemented with raw garlic, garlic oil and monensin

    PubMed Central

    Anassori, Ehsan; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Pirmohammadi, Rasoul; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Farahmand-Azar, Safa; Besharati, Maghsoud; Tahmoozi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inclusion of garlic essential oil (EO) at 33, 66 and 100 µg mL-1, raw garlic (GAR) at 5, 10 and 15 mg mL-1 and monensin (MON) at 7.5 µg mL-1 of incubation medium on organic matter digestibility (OMD) was studied with in vitro gas production, ANKOM daisyII and conventional in vitro (IVOMD) methods. The material was incubated with sheep ruminal fluid and the experimental design was a completely randomized design. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours of incubation. Conventional in vitro OMD was determined after 48 hours incubation in acid and pepsin solutions. Samples for DaisyII OMD prepared according to the operating instructions supplied by ANKOM® Tech. Co., Fairport, USA. Compared to in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), DaisyII and gas production techniques overestimated (P < 0.05) OMD. The addition of EO and MON reduced (P < 0.05) the organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF) digestion, and gas production volume. The potential of gas production and rate of gas production for EO and MON were the lowest; however, these variables were higher for GAR supplemented groups. It was concluded that raw garlic could be of great interest for its usage as a modulator of ruminal fermentation. PMID:25653739

  6. Glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wernerman, Jan

    2011-07-18

    Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formulation of enteral nutrition contains some glutamine: 2-4 g/L. However, this dose is insufficient to normalize glutamine plasma concentration.Plasma concentration of glutamine is low in many patients with critical illness and a low level is an independent risk factor for mortality. A low plasma glutamine concentration is the best indicator of glutamine depletion. Data are emerging about how the endogenous production of glutamine is regulated. We know that skeletal muscle is the major producer of glutamine and that a part of the profound depletion of skeletal muscle seen in critical illness is a reflection of the need to produce glutamine.Glutamine is utilized in rapidly dividing cells in the splanchnic area. Quantitatively most glutamine is oxidized, but the availability of glutamine in surplus is important for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides and necessary for cell division and protein synthesis. More knowledge about the regulation of the endogenous production of glutamine is needed to outline better guidelines for glutamine supplementation in the future.

  7. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... specialist. The doc will be able to offer alternatives to supplements based on your body and sport. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: January 2015 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Sports Center Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A ...

  8. 40 CFR 22.38 - Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Water Act. 22.38 Section 22.38... of civil penalties under the Clean Water Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction... penalty under section 309(g) or section 311(b)(6) of the Clean Water Act (“CWA”)(33 U.S.C. 1319(g)...

  9. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  10. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  11. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  12. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  13. 40 CFR 22.38 - Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Water Act. 22.38 Section 22.38... of civil penalties under the Clean Water Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction... penalty under section 309(g) or section 311(b)(6) of the Clean Water Act (“CWA”)(33 U.S.C. 1319(g)...

  14. 40 CFR 22.35 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... held at the EPA office listed at 40 CFR 1.7 that is closest to either the person's primary place of... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. 22.35... of civil penalties under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. (a) Scope....

  15. 40 CFR 22.35 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... held at the EPA office listed at 40 CFR 1.7 that is closest to either the person's primary place of... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. 22.35... of civil penalties under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. (a) Scope....

  16. 40 CFR 22.35 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... held at the EPA office listed at 40 CFR 1.7 that is closest to either the person's primary place of... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. 22.35... of civil penalties under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. (a) Scope....

  17. 40 CFR 22.35 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... held at the EPA office listed at 40 CFR 1.7 that is closest to either the person's primary place of... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. 22.35... of civil penalties under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. (a) Scope....

  18. 40 CFR 22.35 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... held at the EPA office listed at 40 CFR 1.7 that is closest to either the person's primary place of... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. 22.35... of civil penalties under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. (a) Scope....

  19. 40 CFR 22.43 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties against a federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties against a federal agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 22.43... of civil penalties against a federal agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act. (a) Scope. This... civil penalty against a federal agency under section 1447(b) of the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42...

  20. 40 CFR 22.43 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties against a federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties against a federal agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 22.43... of civil penalties against a federal agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act. (a) Scope. This... civil penalty against a federal agency under section 1447(b) of the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42...

  1. Assessing Assessment: How Use of the Concept Inventory of Natural Selection Influences the Instructional Practices of an Experienced Biology Professor and Supplemental Instruction Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanmali, Binaben H.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment has garnered increased interest in recent years. It is seen as critical to enhancing student learning and understanding. Formative assessment tools such as concept inventories could be valuable in moving toward such goals. Concept inventories, a recent addition to biology education, hold much promise for helping faculty to understand…

  2. Enabling students to learn: Design, implementation and assessment of a supplemental study strategies course for an introductory undergraduate biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, Jayanthi Sanjeevi

    Attrition in the STEM disciplines is a national problem and one of the important reasons for this is student experiences in introductory courses. A myriad of factors influence students' experiences in those courses; inadequate student preparation is one of the most cited reasons. Incoming freshmen often lack the learning strategies required to meaningfully learn and succeed in college courses. Unfortunately, the instructors have limited time and/or have little experience in teaching learning strategies. In this paper, the design, implementation, and evaluation of a Supplemental Course (SC) model that emphasizes learning strategies is presented. SC was offered concurrently with the introductory biology courses for four consecutive semesters (fall 2011 to spring 2013); for 10 weeks in fall 2012 and 7 weeks in the other semesters at Miami University. 10 weeks SC began earlier in the semester than the shorter SC. This study evaluated the effects of the SC on students' (1) performance in the introductory biology course, (2) perceived changes in self-regulation and social support, and (3) experiences in the introductory biology course before, during, and after participation in the SC. A mixed methods approach was used to address these goals. A pre-post survey was administered to obtain students' use of self-regulation strategies and social-support data. Quantitative methods were utilized to analyze content exam grades and changes in self-regulation strategies and social-support. To explore the experiences of the students, semi-structured interviews were conducted, followed by analysis using grounded theory. The findings reveal that participants of the longer duration SC (with an earlier start date) significantly improved in content exam performance, perceived use of self-regulation strategies, and social support compared to the non-participants. Participants of the shorter duration SC (with a later start date) did not significantly improve in content exam performance

  3. A risk assessment-driven quantitative comparison of gene expression profiles in PBMCs and white adipose tissue of humans and rats after isoflavone supplementation.

    PubMed

    van der Velpen, Vera; van 't Veer, Pieter; Islam, M Ariful; Ter Braak, C J F; van Leeuwen, F X Rolaf; Afman, Lydia A; Hollman, Peter C; Schouten, Evert G; Geelen, Anouk

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative insight into species differences in risk assessment is expected to reduce uncertainty and variability related to extrapolation from animals to humans. This paper explores quantification and comparison of gene expression data between tissues and species from intervention studies with isoflavones. Gene expression data from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and white adipose tissue (WAT) after 8wk isoflavone interventions in postmenopausal women and ovariectomized F344 rats were used. A multivariate model was applied to quantify gene expression effects, which showed 3-5-fold larger effect sizes in rats compared to humans. For estrogen responsive genes, a 5-fold greater effect size was found in rats than in humans. For these genes, intertissue correlations (r = 0.23 in humans, r = 0.22 in rats) and interspecies correlation in WAT (r = 0.31) were statistically significant. Effect sizes, intertissue and interspecies correlations for some groups of genes within energy metabolism, inflammation and cell cycle processes were significant, but weak. Quantification of gene expression data reveals differences between rats and women in effect magnitude after isoflavone supplementation. For risk assessment, quantification of gene expression data and subsequent calculation of intertissue and interspecies correlations within biological pathways will further strengthen knowledge on comparability between tissues and species. PMID:27424125

  4. Assessment of tailor-made prevention of atherosclerosis with folic acid supplementation: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in each MTHFR C677T genotype.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Koichi; Murata, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Haruhito; Takei, Izumi; Nakayama, Takeo; Watanabe, Kiyoaki; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effect of folic acid supplementation quantitatively in each MTHFR C677T genotype and considered the efficiency of tailor-made prevention of atherosclerosis. Study design was genotype-stratified, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. The setting was a Japanese company in the chemical industry. Subjects were 203 healthy men after exclusion of those who took folic acid or drugs known to effect folic acid metabolism. Intervention was folic acid 1 mg/day p.o. for 3 months. The primary endpoint was plasma total homocysteine level (tHcy). In all three genotypes, there were significant tHcy decreases. The greatest decrease was in the TT homozygote [6.61 (3.47-9.76) micromol/l] compared with other genotypes [CC: 2.59 (1.81-3.36), CT: 2.64 (2.16-3.13)], and there was a significant trend between the mutated allele number and the decrease. The tHcy were significantly lowered in all the genotypes, but the amount of the decrease differed significantly in each genotype, which was observed at both 1 and 3 months. Using these time-series data, the largest benefit obtained by the TT homozygote was appraised as 2.4 times compared with the CC homozygote. Taking into account the high allele frequency of this SNP, this quantitative assessment should be useful when considering tailor-made prevention of atherosclerosis with folic acid. PMID:15895286

  5. Use of a Sampling Area-Adjusted Adenosine Triphosphate Bioluminescence Assay Based on Digital Image Quantification to Assess the Cleanliness of Hospital Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu-Huai; Wang, Lih-Shinn; Jiang, Hui-Li; Chang, Chih-Hui; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chang, Dan-Chi; Tu, Hsin-Yu; Chiu, Tan-Yun; Chao, Huei-Jen; Tseng, Chun-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Contaminated surfaces play an important role in the transmission of pathogens. We sought to establish a criterion that could indicate "cleanliness" using a sampling area-adjusted adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay. In the first phase of the study, target surfaces were selected for swab sampling before and after daily cleaning; then, an aerobic colony count (ACC) plate assay of bacteria and antibiotic-resistant bacteria was conducted. ATP swabs were also tested, and the ATP readings were reported as relative light units (RLUs). The results of the ACC and ATP assays were adjusted according to the sampling area. During the second phase of the study, a new cleaning process employing sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) was implemented for comparison. Using the criterion of 2.5 colony-forming units (CFU)/cm², 45% of the sampled sites were successfully cleaned during phase one of the study. During phase two, the pass rates of the surface samples (64%) were significantly improved, except under stringent (5 RLU/cm²) and lax (500 RLU) ATP criteria. Using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the best cut-off point for an area-adjusted ATP level was 7.34 RLU/cm², which corresponded to culture-assay levels of <2.5 CFU/cm². An area adjustment of the ATP assay improved the degree of correlation with the ACC-assay results from weak to moderate. PMID:27294944

  6. Use of a Sampling Area-Adjusted Adenosine Triphosphate Bioluminescence Assay Based on Digital Image Quantification to Assess the Cleanliness of Hospital Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yu-Huai; Wang, Lih-Shinn; Jiang, Hui-Li; Chang, Chih-Hui; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chang, Dan-Chi; Tu, Hsin-Yu; Chiu, Tan-Yun; Chao, Huei-Jen; Tseng, Chun-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Contaminated surfaces play an important role in the transmission of pathogens. We sought to establish a criterion that could indicate “cleanliness” using a sampling area–adjusted adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay. In the first phase of the study, target surfaces were selected for swab sampling before and after daily cleaning; then, an aerobic colony count (ACC) plate assay of bacteria and antibiotic-resistant bacteria was conducted. ATP swabs were also tested, and the ATP readings were reported as relative light units (RLUs). The results of the ACC and ATP assays were adjusted according to the sampling area. During the second phase of the study, a new cleaning process employing sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) was implemented for comparison. Using the criterion of 2.5 colony-forming units (CFU)/cm2, 45% of the sampled sites were successfully cleaned during phase one of the study. During phase two, the pass rates of the surface samples (64%) were significantly improved, except under stringent (5 RLU/cm2) and lax (500 RLU) ATP criteria. Using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the best cut-off point for an area-adjusted ATP level was 7.34 RLU/cm2, which corresponded to culture-assay levels of <2.5 CFU/cm2. An area adjustment of the ATP assay improved the degree of correlation with the ACC-assay results from weak to moderate. PMID:27294944

  7. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  8. Choosing co-substrates to supplement biogas production from animal slurry--a life cycle assessment of the environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Croxatto Vega, Giovanna Catalina; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Birkved, Morten; Sommer, Sven G; Bruun, Sander

    2014-11-01

    Biogas production from animal slurry can provide substantial contributions to reach renewable energy targets, yet due to the low methane potential of slurry, biogas plants depend on the addition of co-substrates to make operations profitable. The environmental performance of three underexploited co-substrates, straw, organic household waste and the solid fraction of separated slurry, were assessed against slurry management without biogas production, using LCA methodology. The analysis showed straw, which would have been left on arable fields, to be an environmentally superior co-substrate. Due to its low nutrient content and high methane potential, straw yields the lowest impacts for eutrophication and the highest climate change and fossil depletion savings. Co-substrates diverted from incineration to biogas production had fewer environmental benefits, due to the loss of energy production, which is then produced from conventional fossil fuels. The scenarios can often provide benefits for one impact category while causing impacts in another.

  9. Choosing co-substrates to supplement biogas production from animal slurry--a life cycle assessment of the environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Croxatto Vega, Giovanna Catalina; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Birkved, Morten; Sommer, Sven G; Bruun, Sander

    2014-11-01

    Biogas production from animal slurry can provide substantial contributions to reach renewable energy targets, yet due to the low methane potential of slurry, biogas plants depend on the addition of co-substrates to make operations profitable. The environmental performance of three underexploited co-substrates, straw, organic household waste and the solid fraction of separated slurry, were assessed against slurry management without biogas production, using LCA methodology. The analysis showed straw, which would have been left on arable fields, to be an environmentally superior co-substrate. Due to its low nutrient content and high methane potential, straw yields the lowest impacts for eutrophication and the highest climate change and fossil depletion savings. Co-substrates diverted from incineration to biogas production had fewer environmental benefits, due to the loss of energy production, which is then produced from conventional fossil fuels. The scenarios can often provide benefits for one impact category while causing impacts in another. PMID:25226057

  10. Use of a calibration gas generator for irritation threshold assessment and as supplement of dynamic dilution olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Monsé, Christian; Broding, Horst Christoph; Hoffmeyer, Frank; Jettkant, Birger; Berresheim, Hans; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen; Sucker, Kirsten

    2010-07-01

    Human odor and mucosal membrane irritation thresholds are used as criteria for assessing air quality in occupational and environmental settings. Unfortunately, reported threshold values still differ by several orders of magnitude rendering most standard compilations of little practical utility. Thus, in view of the need to repeat odor threshold measurements with a reliable methodology, a new technical approach based on original equipment manufacturer integrated solutions is presented. To test applicability, a calibration gas generator was used to continuously generate a fixed odor vapor concentration. Different dilution steps were realized by coupling to a purchasable olfactometer. Comparison with the "standard," that is, odor stimulus supply via sample bags revealed good correspondence. As a second step, the calibration gas generator was used to generate rapid changes in stimulus concentration between consecutive trials. Irritation thresholds were measured with an ascending series of ammonia concentrations generated from an aqueous solution. The obtained thresholds lay within the range previously reported. The introduced technology enables quick and reliable odor stimulus generation and provides flexibility in choosing the optimal start concentration, the step-size between dilutions, and the range of stimulus concentrations. Errors from usage of rotameters or sample bags can be avoided.

  11. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Lazaro, M.A.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered.

  12. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  13. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  14. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  15. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  16. Soldier use of dietary supplements, including protein and body building supplements, in a combat zone is different than use in garrison.

    PubMed

    Austin, Krista G; McLellan, Tom M; Farina, Emily K; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    United States Army personnel in garrison who are not deployed to combat theater report using dietary supplements (DSs) to promote health, increase physical and mental strength, and improve energy levels. Given the substantial physical and cognitive demands of combat, DS use may increase during deployment. This study compared DS use by garrison soldiers with DS use by personnel deployed to a combat theater in Afghanistan. Prevalence and patterns of DS use, demographic factors, and health behaviors were assessed by survey (deployed n = 221; garrison n = 1001). Eighty-two percent of deployed and 74% of garrison soldiers used DSs ≥ 1 time·week(-1). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for significant demographic and health predictors of DS use, showed deployed personnel were more likely than garrison soldiers to use protein, amino acids, and combination products. Deployed females were more likely to use protein supplements and deployed males were more likely to use multivitamins, combination products, protein, and body building supplements than garrison respondents. Significantly more deployed (17%) than garrison (10%) personnel spent more than $50∙month(-1) on DSs. Higher protein supplement use among deployed personnel was associated with higher frequency of strength training and lower amounts of aerobic exercise for males but similar amounts of strength training and aerobic exercise for females. Protein supplements and combination products are used more frequently by deployed than garrison soldiers with the intent of enhancing strength and energy.

  17. Soldier use of dietary supplements, including protein and body building supplements, in a combat zone is different than use in garrison.

    PubMed

    Austin, Krista G; McLellan, Tom M; Farina, Emily K; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    United States Army personnel in garrison who are not deployed to combat theater report using dietary supplements (DSs) to promote health, increase physical and mental strength, and improve energy levels. Given the substantial physical and cognitive demands of combat, DS use may increase during deployment. This study compared DS use by garrison soldiers with DS use by personnel deployed to a combat theater in Afghanistan. Prevalence and patterns of DS use, demographic factors, and health behaviors were assessed by survey (deployed n = 221; garrison n = 1001). Eighty-two percent of deployed and 74% of garrison soldiers used DSs ≥ 1 time·week(-1). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for significant demographic and health predictors of DS use, showed deployed personnel were more likely than garrison soldiers to use protein, amino acids, and combination products. Deployed females were more likely to use protein supplements and deployed males were more likely to use multivitamins, combination products, protein, and body building supplements than garrison respondents. Significantly more deployed (17%) than garrison (10%) personnel spent more than $50∙month(-1) on DSs. Higher protein supplement use among deployed personnel was associated with higher frequency of strength training and lower amounts of aerobic exercise for males but similar amounts of strength training and aerobic exercise for females. Protein supplements and combination products are used more frequently by deployed than garrison soldiers with the intent of enhancing strength and energy. PMID:26702674

  18. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing ...

  19. 25 CFR 171.565 - How will I know if BIA plans to adjust my annual operation and maintenance assessment rate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments... Register. (b) You may contact the irrigation facility servicing your farm unit....

  20. 25 CFR 171.565 - How will I know if BIA plans to adjust my annual operation and maintenance assessment rate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments... Register. (b) You may contact the irrigation facility servicing your farm unit....

  1. 25 CFR 171.565 - How will I know if BIA plans to adjust my annual operation and maintenance assessment rate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments... Register. (b) You may contact the irrigation facility servicing your farm unit....

  2. 25 CFR 171.565 - How will I know if BIA plans to adjust my annual operation and maintenance assessment rate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments... Register. (b) You may contact the irrigation facility servicing your farm unit....

  3. Increasing Use of Vitamin D Supplementation in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Laura H.; White, Matthew T.; Shults, Justine; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Feldman, Harold I.; Wolf, Myles; Reese, Peter P.; Denburg, Michelle R.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Lo, Joan C.; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlow, Dean; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Steigerwalt, Susan; Leonard, Mary B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined rates and determinants of vitamin D supplementation among Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) participants and determined the association between dose and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level. The 2010 Institute of Medicine Report noted a significant increase in vitamin D supplementation in the general population, but use in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. Methods CRIC is a multicenter prospective observational cohort study of 3,939 participants with a median baseline age of 60 and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 42.1 mL/minute per 1.73 m2. Of the cohort, 54.9% was male, 42.1% were Black, and 48.4% were diabetic. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equations were used to examine determinants of supplementation use assessed annually between 2003 and 2011. Cross-sectional linear regression models, based on a subset of 1,155 participants, assessed associations between supplement dose and 25(OH)D level, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Results The proportion of participants reporting supplement use increased (P < .0001), from 10% at baseline to 44% at 7-year follow-up visits. This was largely due to initiation of products containing only ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol. The odds of supplementation were greater in older, female, non-Black, married participants with greater education and lower body mass index. Among participants taking supplementation, dose was positively associated with 25(OH)D level, adjusted for race, season, diabetes, dietary intake, eGFR, and proteinuria. Only 3.8% of non-Black and 16.5% of Black participants taking a supplement were deficient (<20 ng/mL), whereas 22.7% of non-Black and 62.4% of Black participants not reporting supplement use were deficient. Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation rates rose significantly among CRIC participants over 7 years of follow-up and were associated with greater serum 25(OH

  4. Comparison of methods to assess adherence to small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) and dispersible tablets among young Burkinabé children participating in a community-based intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Abbeddou, Souheila; Hess, Sonja Y; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Somé, Jérôme W; Vosti, Stephen A; Guissou, Rosemonde M; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-12-01

    Adherence to supplementation provided during an intervention trial can affect interpretation of study outcomes. We compared different approaches for estimating adherence to small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) and dispersible tablets in a randomised clinical trial in Burkina Faso. A total of 2435 children (9-18 months) were randomly assigned to receive daily 20 g SQ-LNS with varying contents of zinc and a dispersible tablet containing 0 or 5 mg zinc. Adherence to SQ-LNS and tablets was assessed for all children through weekly caregiver interviews, and disappearance rate was calculated based on empty and unused packages returned during home visits. Additional adherence data were collected in different randomly selected subgroups of children: 12-h home observations were completed for children 11 and 16 months of age (n = 192) to assess consumption of SQ-LNS and dispersible tablets, and plasma zinc concentration was measured at baseline and 18 months (n = 310). Apparent adherence to SQ-LNS and dispersible tablets differed according to the assessment method used. Average daily caregiver-reported adherence to both SQ-LNS and dispersible tablets was 97 ± 6%. Disappearance rates showed similarly high average weekly adherence (98 ± 4%). In contrast, only 63% and 54% of children at 11 and 16 months, respectively, received SQ-LNS during the 12-h home observation periods, and fewer (32% and 27%) received a tablet. The lack of change in plasma zinc concentration after 9 months of supplementation suggests low adherence to the zinc tablet. Better methods are needed to assess adherence in community-based supplementation trials.

  5. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Adilson; Pegas Pereira, Elisangela Samartin; Assumpção, Elvira Cancio; Calixto dos Santos, Felipe Borba; Ota, Fernanda Sayuri; de Oliveira Pereira, Margareth; Fidelis, Maria Carolina; Fávaro, Raquel; Barros Langen, Stephanie Selma; Favaro de Arruda, Lúcia Helena; Abildgaard, Eva Nydal

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet) marine protein (105 mg), vitamin C (27 mg), grape seed extract (13.75 mg), zinc (2 mg), and tomato extract (14.38 mg) in the improvement of skin aging in men. Methods This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images. Results Forty-one subjects (87%) completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05). The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05), dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001), and reduction of skin pH (P<0.05). No statistical improvement in relation to sebum was found. The photographic assessment showed an improvement in the overall appearance. The results of the objective measurements were found to be correlated with the subjects’ satisfaction by an increase of collagen and elastic fibers. Conclusion The use of an oral supplement based on a unique biomarine complex, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract produced improvements in the signs of skin aging in men. PMID:26170708

  6. Revised dyadic adjustment scale as a reliable tool for assessment of quality of marital relationship in patients on long-term hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Tavallaii, Seyed Abbas

    2009-10-01

    Although the revised dyadic adjustment scale (RDAS) has been widely used as an indicator of the quality of marital relationship, no report is available on the reliability of this measure in patients on hemodialysis. We examined the internal consistency of the RDAS in a group of Iranian patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. A translated Persian version of the RDAS was self-administered to 135 patients. The internal consistency of the RDAS was tested using the Chronbach alpha coefficient which was 0.898, 0.683, 0.779, 0.827, and 0.836 for the RDAS total score and the dyadic consensus, affective expression, dyadic satisfaction, and dyadic cohesion subdomains, respectively. All of the Chronbach alpha scores were higher in patients with higher income and education level. Using the RDAS to examine marital relationship quality in patients on hemodialysis, the total score and almost all subscores except for dyadic consensus had adequate internal consistency.

  7. An assessment of the human health impact of seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using disability adjusted life years.

    PubMed

    Scallan, E; Hoekstra, R M; Mahon, B E; Jones, T F; Griffin, P M

    2015-10-01

    We explored the overall impact of foodborne disease caused by seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using the disability adjusted life year (DALY). We defined health states for each pathogen (acute illness and sequelae) and estimated the average annual incidence of each health state using data from public health surveillance and previously published estimates from studies in the United States, Canada and Europe. These pathogens caused about 112 000 DALYs annually due to foodborne illnesses acquired in the United States. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (32 900) and Toxoplasma (32 700) caused the most DALYs, followed by Campylobacter (22 500), norovirus (9900), Listeria monocytogenes (8800), Clostridium perfringens (4000), and Escherichia coli O157 (1200). These estimates can be used to prioritize food safety interventions. Future estimates of the burden of foodborne disease in DALYs would be improved by addressing important data gaps and by the development and validation of US-specific disability weights for foodborne diseases.

  8. Do users of dietary supplements differ from nonusers in their food consumption?

    PubMed

    Beitz, Roma; Mensink, Gert B M; Hintzpeter, Birte; Fischer, Beate; Erbersdobler, Helmut F

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse macronutrient and food intakes of regular users (310 men, 495 women) and nonusers (1136 men, 1269 women) of vitamin and mineral supplements, aged 18-79 years. These, were participants of the German Nutrition Survey, which was part of the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998. Information on dietary behaviour including supplementation habits was assessed using a validated computerised dietary history method (DISHES 98). There were no major differences in macronutrient intakes between regular users and nonusers. After adjustment for age, energy intake, smoking, sport activity, socio-economic status and East/West German residence, regular supplement use was associated with a higher consumption of drinking water. Among men, a higher consumption of vegetable fat, poultry and fruit/vegetable juice, and among women, a higher consumption of fish, milk products, fruits and tea was also associated with regular supplement use. An inverse association was observed between regular supplement use and the consumption of coffee among women. Significant differences in food consumption between regular users and nonusers were observed, indicating a tendency for a healthier food choice among regular users.

  9. Radiolead (210)Pb and (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratios in calcium supplements and the assessment of their possible dose to consumers.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2016-08-23

    This paper presents the results of pioneer study of the most popular calcium supplements as a potential additional source of radiolead (210)Pb in human diet. The analyzed calcium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic calcium compounds; some came from natural sources as mussels' shells, fish extracts, or sedimentary rocks. The idea was to investigate the naturally occurring (210)Pb activity in different calcium supplements and calculate the annual effective radiation dose from radiolead (210)Pb decay in consumed calcium supplement. The results showed (210)Pb concentrations in natural origin calcium supplements (especially sedimentary rocks) were significantly higher. The highest (210)Pb activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from dolomite - 2.97 ± 0.18 mBq g(-1), while the lowest was observed in organic calcium compounds - both calcium lactate - 0.08 ± 0.01 and 0.13 ± 0.01 mBq g(-1). The highest annual radiation dose from (210)Pb taken with 1 tablet of calcium supplement per day was calculated for soluble calcium lactate sample - 1.19 ± 0.03 µSv year(-1), while the highest annual radiation dose from (210)Pb taken daily with 1 g of pure Ca for dolomite - 5.57 ± 0.34 µSv year(-1).

  10. Radiolead (210)Pb and (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratios in calcium supplements and the assessment of their possible dose to consumers.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2016-08-23

    This paper presents the results of pioneer study of the most popular calcium supplements as a potential additional source of radiolead (210)Pb in human diet. The analyzed calcium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic calcium compounds; some came from natural sources as mussels' shells, fish extracts, or sedimentary rocks. The idea was to investigate the naturally occurring (210)Pb activity in different calcium supplements and calculate the annual effective radiation dose from radiolead (210)Pb decay in consumed calcium supplement. The results showed (210)Pb concentrations in natural origin calcium supplements (especially sedimentary rocks) were significantly higher. The highest (210)Pb activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from dolomite - 2.97 ± 0.18 mBq g(-1), while the lowest was observed in organic calcium compounds - both calcium lactate - 0.08 ± 0.01 and 0.13 ± 0.01 mBq g(-1). The highest annual radiation dose from (210)Pb taken with 1 tablet of calcium supplement per day was calculated for soluble calcium lactate sample - 1.19 ± 0.03 µSv year(-1), while the highest annual radiation dose from (210)Pb taken daily with 1 g of pure Ca for dolomite - 5.57 ± 0.34 µSv year(-1). PMID:27253716

  11. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  12. Differentiation in Data Analysis & Probability, PreK-Grade 2: A Content Companion for Ongoing Assessment, Grouping Students, Targeting Instruction, and Adjusting Levels of Cognitive Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This book applies the author's easy but effective differentiation strategies to the data analysis and probability content standard. Taking the foundational elements of differentiation in this book, it helps you: (1) assess students' math abilities quickly and efficiently; (2) group children by need; (3) target instruction to meet every student's…

  13. Adjusting skewness and maximum 0.5 hour intensity in CLIGEN to improve extreme event and sub-daily intensity generation for assessing climate change impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both measured data and GCM/RCM projections show an general increasing trend in extreme rainfall events as temperature rises in US. Proper simulation of extreme events is particularly important for assessing climate change impacts on soil erosion and hydrology. The objective of this paper is to fin...

  14. Dietary supplementation with nonconventional feeds from the Middle East: assessing the effects on physicochemical and organoleptic properties of Awassi sheep milk and yogurt.

    PubMed

    Hilali, M; Iñiguez, L; Knaus, W; Schreiner, M; Wurzinger, M; Mayer, H K

    2011-12-01

    Increased feed costs affect the livelihoods of dairy sheep farmers in the Middle East. Farmers endure high risks with large fluctuations in the price of grain used as animal feed, which is further affected by drought and declining range productivity. Using agricultural by-products and treated straw or vetch grazing for supplementing sheep diets would provide resource-poor dairy farmers with increased options to reduce feed costs, but the effects of such feeds on the quality of yogurt (the main product) need to be better understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate these effects. The first trial evaluated alternative diets using locally available feedstuffs, including agricultural by-products, compared with traditional diets used by dairy sheep farmers, and was conducted on-station at the International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA, Tel Hadya, Aleppo, Syria). Milking Awassi ewes (n=56) were used to test 6 alternative diets against a traditional control diet containing barley, wheat bran, and barley straw. The 6 alternative diets contained 4 or more of the following ingredients: barley, sugar beet pulp, molasses, cotton seed cake, wheat bran, urea-treated wheat straw, and barley straw. Ewes on one of the alternative diets grazed vetch pasture, whereas ewes on the control diet and the 5 alternative diets grazed native range pasture. The milk fat content was higher in diets containing urea-treated straw. Yogurt firmness and adhesiveness were significantly lower in energy-rich diets (e.g., the control diet) and in the diets rich in soluble sugar (molasses). The effects of diet on yogurt color and on citric and succinic acid contents were significant. A yogurt produced from the milk of the group grazing on vetch was the most yellowish in color, which is appealing to Syrian consumers. The content of citric acid tended to be higher in yogurts produced from diets containing molasses. The second trial was conducted on 3 farms in northern

  15. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  16. The thickness history of the northern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: an assessment of glacial isostatic adjustment models, sea-level measurements, and vertical land motion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Henton, J. A.; Dyke, A.

    2014-12-01

    The fit of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model predictions to 24 relative sea-level histories and an additional 18 present-day GPS-measured vertical land motion rates constrains the thickness and volume history of the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet. The predictions of the best-fit GIA model indicate respective peak ice thicknesses west and east of Hudson Bay of 3.4-3.6 km and approximately 4 km. These values represent, respectively, a large decrease, and a moderate increase, to the load thickness compared to ICE-5G. This result is generally consistent with other GIA studies focussing on space-geodetic constraints. The large reduction to the ice load west of Hudson Bay also reduces the vertical mantle response along the margins of the load centre, which improves the fit to relative sea-level data from the southern Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The fit of GIA model predictions to relative sea-level data from the Baffin Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet indicate peak ice thicknesses there of 1.2-1.3 km, a modest reduction compared to ICE-5G. On Baffin Island, the modelled elastic crustal response of the Earth to present-day ice mass changes is large. Accounting for this effect improves the agreement between GPS measurements of vertical crustal motion and the GIA model predictions. However, work is needed to incorporate more detailed observations and modelling of present-day changes to glaciers and ice caps. Overall, the fit to the data is most strongly improved in the region west of Hudson Bay (the χ2 RSL misfit is reduced by a factor of ~4) although the entire revised reconstruction for the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet provides an improved fit to both the regional RSL data (the cumulative χ2 misfit is reduced by a factor of >2) and the GPS data (the RMS misfit is reduced by a factor of 9).

  17. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  18. Use of Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Dietary Supplements among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Heather; Beerman, Kathy; Duncan, Sam; McGuire, Michelle; Hillers, Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Assessed college students' use of nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) dietary supplements. Student surveys indicated that nearly half of the respondents took NVNM supplements, most frequently echinacea, ginseng, and St. John's wort. Over 80 percent had acceptable body mass index values. Users and nonusers of NVNM supplements did not differ significantly…

  19. Vitamin D Status and Supplementation Practices in Elite Irish Athletes: An Update from 2010/2011.

    PubMed

    Todd, Joshua; Madigan, Sharon; Pourshahidi, Kirsty; McSorley, Emeir; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Magee, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern that is prevalent in Ireland. The vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes following implementation of a revised supplementation policy in 2010/2011 has not been explored to date. This study aimed to assess the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes participating in high-profile sports and establish if equatorial travel, supplementation and/or sunbed use predict vitamin D status. Across Ireland, blood samples (n = 92) were obtained from cricketers (n = 28), boxers (n = 21) and women's rugby sevens players (n = 43) between November 2013 and April 2015. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Parathyroid hormone and adjusted calcium concentrations were measured by clinical biochemistry. Athletes completed a questionnaire that queried equatorial travel, supplementation and sunbed use. Vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D >50 nmol/L) was evident in 86% of athletes. Insufficiency (31-49 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L) was present in only 12% and 2% of athletes respectively. On average, athletes from all sport disciplines were vitamin D sufficient and 25% reported vitamin D supplementation which was a significant positive predictor of vitamin D status, (OR 4.31; 95% CI 1.18-15.75; p = 0.027). Equatorial travel and sun bed use were reported in 47% and 16% of athletes respectively however these factors did not predict vitamin D status (both p > 0.05). Although different cohorts were assessed, the overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was 55% in 2010/2011 compared with only 14% in 2013/2015. Targeted supplementation is highly effective in optimising vitamin D status, negating the need for blanket-supplementation in elite cohorts. PMID:27517954

  20. Vitamin D Status and Supplementation Practices in Elite Irish Athletes: An Update from 2010/2011

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Joshua; Madigan, Sharon; Pourshahidi, Kirsty; McSorley, Emeir; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Magee, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern that is prevalent in Ireland. The vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes following implementation of a revised supplementation policy in 2010/2011 has not been explored to date. This study aimed to assess the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes participating in high-profile sports and establish if equatorial travel, supplementation and/or sunbed use predict vitamin D status. Across Ireland, blood samples (n = 92) were obtained from cricketers (n = 28), boxers (n = 21) and women’s rugby sevens players (n = 43) between November 2013 and April 2015. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Parathyroid hormone and adjusted calcium concentrations were measured by clinical biochemistry. Athletes completed a questionnaire that queried equatorial travel, supplementation and sunbed use. Vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D >50 nmol/L) was evident in 86% of athletes. Insufficiency (31–49 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L) was present in only 12% and 2% of athletes respectively. On average, athletes from all sport disciplines were vitamin D sufficient and 25% reported vitamin D supplementation which was a significant positive predictor of vitamin D status, (OR 4.31; 95% CI 1.18–15.75; p = 0.027). Equatorial travel and sun bed use were reported in 47% and 16% of athletes respectively however these factors did not predict vitamin D status (both p > 0.05). Although different cohorts were assessed, the overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was 55% in 2010/2011 compared with only 14% in 2013/2015. Targeted supplementation is highly effective in optimising vitamin D status, negating the need for blanket-supplementation in elite cohorts. PMID:27517954

  1. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P < 0.05) across the treatment as a result of increased undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P < 0.05) improvements in feed intake, weight gain, and final weight as well as the feed to gain ratio. Survivability was not affected by the treatments imposed. Dry matter digestibility were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced due to high undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P < 0.05) digestibility values than those on diets without enzyme supplementation. However ether extract digestibility was

  2. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P < 0.05) across the treatment as a result of increased undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P < 0.05) improvements in feed intake, weight gain, and final weight as well as the feed to gain ratio. Survivability was not affected by the treatments imposed. Dry matter digestibility were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced due to high undecorticated sunflower seed meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P < 0.05) as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P < 0.05) digestibility values than those on diets without enzyme supplementation. However ether extract digestibility was

  3. 8 CFR 1209.2 - Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Medical Examination of Aliens Seeking Adjustment of Status, and a vaccination supplement to determine compliance with the vaccination requirements described under section 212(a)(1)(A)(ii) of the Act must...

  4. 8 CFR 1209.2 - Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Medical Examination of Aliens Seeking Adjustment of Status, and a vaccination supplement to determine compliance with the vaccination requirements described under section 212(a)(1)(A)(ii) of the Act must...

  5. 8 CFR 1209.2 - Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Medical Examination of Aliens Seeking Adjustment of Status, and a vaccination supplement to determine compliance with the vaccination requirements described under section 212(a)(1)(A)(ii) of the Act must...

  6. 8 CFR 1209.2 - Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Medical Examination of Aliens Seeking Adjustment of Status, and a vaccination supplement to determine compliance with the vaccination requirements described under section 212(a)(1)(A)(ii) of the Act must...

  7. 8 CFR 1209.2 - Adjustment of status of alien granted asylum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Medical Examination of Aliens Seeking Adjustment of Status, and a vaccination supplement to determine compliance with the vaccination requirements described under section 212(a)(1)(A)(ii) of the Act must...

  8. 45 CFR 153.610 - Risk adjustment issuer requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CARE ACT Health Insurance Issuer Standards Related to the Risk Adjustment Program § 153.610 Risk... accurate data. (d) Assessment of charges. An issuer that offers risk adjustment covered plans that has a... on behalf of a State, an issuer of a risk adjustment covered plan (other than a student health...

  9. Social Support and Parental Adjustment to Pediatric Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Gary R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Assessed the psychosocial adjustment of (N=107) parents whose children had cancer. Different patterns of association between 11 sources of social support and adjustment were found among groups of parents. Psychosocial adjustment of parents with a child in treatment was correlated more frequently with perceived social support. (Author)

  10. 78 FR 63465 - Adjusting Civil Money Penalties for Inflation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... CORPORATION Adjusting Civil Money Penalties for Inflation AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice assesses the need for cost-of-living adjustments to the civil money.... Statutes Concerning Inflation Adjustment of Civil Money Penalties The Federal Civil Penalties...

  11. Risk-Adjusted Models for Adverse Obstetric Outcomes and Variation in Risk Adjusted Outcomes Across Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Bailit, Jennifer L.; Grobman, William A.; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Spong, Catherine Y.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Thorp, John M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Caritis, Steve N.; Shubert, Phillip J.; Tita, Alan T. N.; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J.; Blackwell, Sean C.; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Van Dorsten, J. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regulatory bodies and insurers evaluate hospital quality using obstetrical outcomes, however meaningful comparisons should take pre-existing patient characteristics into account. Furthermore, if risk-adjusted outcomes are consistent within a hospital, fewer measures and resources would be needed to assess obstetrical quality. Our objective was to establish risk-adjusted models for five obstetric outcomes and assess hospital performance across these outcomes. Study Design A cohort study of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 hospitals in the United States between March 2008 and February 2011. Hospitals were ranked according to their unadjusted and risk-adjusted frequency of venous thromboembolism, postpartum hemorrhage, peripartum infection, severe perineal laceration, and a composite neonatal adverse outcome. Correlations between hospital risk-adjusted outcome frequencies were assessed. Results Venous thromboembolism occurred too infrequently (0.03%, 95% CI 0.02% – 0.04%) for meaningful assessment. Other outcomes occurred frequently enough for assessment (postpartum hemorrhage 2.29% (95% CI 2.20–2.38), peripartum infection 5.06% (95% CI 4.93–5.19), severe perineal laceration at spontaneous vaginal delivery 2.16% (95% CI 2.06–2.27), neonatal composite 2.73% (95% CI 2.63–2.84)). Although there was high concordance between unadjusted and adjusted hospital rankings, several individual hospitals had an adjusted rank that was substantially different (as much as 12 rank tiers) than their unadjusted rank. None of the correlations between hospital adjusted outcome frequencies was significant. For example, the hospital with the lowest adjusted frequency of peripartum infection had the highest adjusted frequency of severe perineal laceration. Conclusions Evaluations based on a single risk-adjusted outcome cannot be generalized to overall hospital obstetric performance. PMID:23891630

  12. Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD): First psychometric evaluation of a new child and parenting assessment tool for children with a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Emser, Theresa S; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Christiansen, Hanna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD), a brief inventory for assessing emotional and behavioral problems of children with developmental disabilities aged 2- to 16-years, as well as caregivers' self-efficacy in managing these problems. A sample of 636 parents participated in the study. Children's ages ranged from 2 to 15. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 21-item, three-factor model of CAPES-DD child adjustment with 13 items describing behavioral (10 items) and emotional (3 items) problems and 8 items describing prosocial behavior. Three additional items were included due to their clinical usefulness and contributed to a Total Problem Score. Factor analyses also supported a 16-item, one factor model of CAPES-DD self-efficacy. Psychometric evaluation of the CAPES-DD revealed scales had satisfactory to very good internal consistency, as well as very good convergent and predictive validity. The instrument is to be in the public domain and free for practitioners and researchers to use. Potential uses of the measure and implications for future validation studies are discussed. PMID:26921524

  13. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if

  14. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if

  15. Speak Fast, Use Jargon, and Don’t Repeat Yourself: A Randomized Trial Assessing the Effectiveness of Online Videos to Supplement Emergency Department Discharge Instructions

    PubMed Central

    Atzema, Clare L.; Austin, Peter C.; Wu, Libo; Brzozowski, Michael; Feldman, Michael J.; McDonnell, Michael; Mazurik, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Background Emergency department discharge instructions are variably understood by patients, and in the setting of emergency department crowding, innovations are needed to counteract shortened interaction times with the physician. We evaluated the effect of viewing an online video of diagnosis-specific discharge instructions on patient comprehension and recall of instructions. Methods In this prospective, single-center, randomized controlled trial conducted between November 2011 and January 2012, we randomized emergency department patients who were discharged with one of 38 diagnoses to either view (after they left the emergency department) a vetted online video of diagnosis-specific discharge instructions, or to usual care. Patients were subsequently contacted by telephone and asked three standardized questions about their discharge instructions; one point was awarded for each correct answer. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, differences between groups were assessed using univariate testing, and with logistic regression that accounted for clustering on managing physician. A secondary outcome measure was patient satisfaction with the videos, on a 10-point scale. Results Among 133 patients enrolled, mean age was 46.1 (s.d.D. 21.5) and 55% were female. Patients in the video group had 19% higher mean scores (2.5, s.d. 0.7) than patients in the control group (2.1, s.d. 0.8) (p=0.002). After adjustment for patient age, sex, first language, triage acuity score, and clustering, the odds of achieving a fully correct score (3 out of 3) were 3.5 (95% CI, 1.7 to 7.2) times higher in the video group, compared to the control group. Among those who viewed the videos, median rating of the videos was 10 (IQR 8 to 10). Conclusions In this single-center trial, patients who viewed an online video of their discharge instructions scored higher on their understanding of key concepts around their diagnosis and subsequent care. Those who viewed the videos found them to be a helpful

  16. Americans’ Use of Dietary Supplements That Are Potentially Harmful in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Grubbs, Vanessa; Plantinga, Laura C.; Tuot, Delphine S.; Hedgeman, Elizabeth; Saran, Rajiv; Saydah, Sharon; Rolka, Deborah; Powe, Neil R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence in the United States of dietary supplement use that may be harmful to those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. We sought to characterize potentially harmful supplement use by individual CKD status. Study Design Cross-sectional national survey (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008) Setting & Participants Community-based survey of 21,169 non-pregnant, non-institutionalized U.S. civilian adults (≥20 years) Predictor CKD status (no CKD, at risk for CKD [presence of diabetes, hypertension and/or cardiovascular disease], stage 1/2 [albuminuria only (albumin-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g)], or stage 3/4 [estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15-59 ml/min/1.73 m2]). Outcome Self-reported use of dietary supplements containing any of 37 herbs the National Kidney Foundation identified as potentially harmful in the setting of CKD. Measurements Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate assessed from urine and blood samples; demographics and comorbid conditions assessed by standardized questionnaire. Results An estimated 8.0% of U.S. adults reported potentially harmful supplement use within the last 30 days. Lower crude estimated prevalence of potentially harmful supplement use was associated with higher CKD severity (no CKD, 8.5%; at risk, 8.0%; stage 1/2, 6.1%; and stage 3/4, 6.2%; p<0.001). However, after adjustment for confounders, those with or at risk for CKD were as likely to use a potentially harmful supplement as those without CKD: at-risk OR, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.79 -1.09); stage 1/2 OR, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.64 -1.08); stage 3/4 OR, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.63 -1.18); all vs. no CKD. Limitations Herb content was not available and the list of potentially harmful supplements examined is unlikely to be exhaustive. Conclusions The use of dietary supplements potentially harmful to people with CKD is common, regardless of CKD status. Healthcare providers should discuss the use and potential risks of supplements with

  17. Dietary supplement use among elite young German athletes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Hans; Koehler, Karsten; Geyer, Hans; Kleiner, Jens; Mester, Joachim; Schanzer, Wilhelm

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and motives of supplement use among elite young athletes who compete on national and international levels. Therefore, the current survey was performed to assess information regarding the past and present use of dietary supplements among 164 elite young athletes (16.6 +/- 3.0 years of age). A 5-page questionnaire was designed to assess their past and present (last 4 weeks) use of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrate, protein, and fat supplements; sport drinks; and other ergogenic aids. Furthermore, information about motives, sources of advice, supplement sources, and supplement contamination was assessed. Eighty percent of all athletes reported using at least 1 supplement, and the prevalence of use was significantly higher in older athletes (p < .05). Among supplement users, minerals, vitamins, sport drinks, energy drinks, and carbohydrates were most frequently consumed. Only a minority of the athletes declared that they used protein/amino acids, creatine, or other ergogenic aids. Major motives for supplement use were health related, whereas performance enhancement and recommendations by others were less frequently reported. Supplements were mainly obtained from parents or by athletes themselves and were mostly purchased in pharmacies, supermarkets, and health-food stores. Among all athletes, only 36% were aware of the problem of supplement contamination. The survey shows that supplement use is common and widespread among German elite young athletes. This stands in strong contrast to recommendations by leading sport organizations against supplement use by underage athletes. PMID:19403956

  18. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (Idaho Supplementation Studies) : Experimental Design, 1991 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.; Leitzinger, Eric J.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon in Idaho. The goals are to assess the use of hatchery chinook to restore or augment natural populations, and to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the survival and fitness of existing natural populations.

  19. Emerging Supplements in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

  20. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrient recommendations: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Online DRI tool Daily Value (DV) tables For more advice on buying dietary supplements: Office of Dietary Supplements Frequently Asked Questions: Which brand(s) ...

  1. Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment Before and After Vitamin Supplementation in a Patient With Vitamin A Deficiency: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel; Sádaba, Luis M

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin A is an essential fat-soluble vitamin important for the function of various body systems. In the eye, vitamin A is essential for the synthesis of visual pigments in photoreceptors. Vitamin A deficiency is a rare condition in the developed countries and might follow bariatric or intestinal bypass surgery.We present the case of a 67-year-old male that complained of visual loss and nyctalopia. Patient had bariatric surgery 15 years before for weight loss. Low serum levels of vitamin A confirmed the diagnosis and patient started vitamin A supplementation. Visual fields, macular thickness, and ganglion cell layer thickness were recorded and monitored 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year after the beginning of therapy. Visual fields were significantly altered and central macular thickness and ganglion cell layer thickness were reduced, but the first 2 showed a significant recovery with vitamin supplementation therapy. By the 1st month of treatment patient referred a complete remission of visual symptoms. Further, we observed hyperreflective material accumulating beneath a partially disrupted ellipsoid band in the high definition optical coherence tomography that also improved progressively with vitamin repletion.Newer and more sophisticated imaging systems have increased our knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for retinal diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the effect of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin supplementation on macular thickness. This case also highlights the importance of considering bariatric bypass surgery as a cause of vitamin A deficiency in developed countries.

  2. Simple, Internally Adjustable Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Valve containing simple in-line, adjustable, flow-control orifice made from ordinary plumbing fitting and two allen setscrews. Construction of valve requires only simple drilling, tapping, and grinding. Orifice installed in existing fitting, avoiding changes in rest of plumbing.

  3. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  4. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  5. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  6. Basic Reading Skills and the Literacy of America's Least Literate Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) Supplemental Studies. NCES 2009-481

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Justin; Kutner, Mark; Sabatini, John; White, Sheida

    2009-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy of adults in the United States for the first time since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey. The assessment was administered to more than 19,000 adults (ages 16 and older) in households and prisons. The tasks included on the assessment were designed to measure…

  7. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1993-02-02

    This is the first annual summary of results for chinook salmon supplementation studies in Idaho Rivers conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Management. The Nez Perce Tribe has coordinated chinook salmon supplementation research activities with the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, U. S. Forest Service, and the Shoshone Bannock Tribe. The project is a cooperative effort involving members of the Idaho Supplementation Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC). This project has also been extensively coordinated with the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) which identified specific research needs and integrated and coordinated supplementation research activities through development of a five year work plan. In this study we are assessing what strategies, both brood stock and release stage, are best for supplementing natural or depleted spring and summer chinook populations and what effect supplementation has on these populations. This research should identify which of the supplementation strategies employed are beneficial in terms of increasing adult returns and the ability of these returns to sustain themselves. Biological evaluation points will be parr density, survival to Lower Granite Dam, adult return to weirs, redd counts and presmolt and smolt yield from both treatment and control streams. Genetic monitoring of treatment and control populations will also occur. The supplementation research study has the following objectives: (1) Monitor and evaluate the effect of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon. (2) Monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation. (3) Determine which supplementation strategies (brood stock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural

  8. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  9. Bilateral posterior cervical cages provide biomechanical stability: assessment of stand-alone and supplemental fixation for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Leonard I; Siemionow, Krzysztof B; Havey, Robert M; Carandang, Gerard; Phillips, Frank M; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Supplemental posterior instrumentation has been widely used to enhance stability and improve fusion rates in higher risk patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). These typically involve posterior lateral mass or pedicle screw fixation with significant inherent risks and morbidities. More recently, cervical cages placed bilaterally between the facet joints (posterior cervical cages) have been used as a less disruptive alternative for posterior fixation. The purpose of this study was to compare the stability achieved by both posterior cages and ACDF at a single motion segment and determine the stability achieved with posterior cervical cages used as an adjunct to single- and multilevel ACDF. Methods Seven cadaveric cervical spine (C2–T1) specimens were tested in the following sequence: intact, C5–C6 bilateral posterior cages, C6–C7 plated ACDF with and without posterior cages, and C3–C5 plated ACDF with and without posterior cages. Range of motion in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation was measured for each condition under moment loading up to ±1.5 Nm. Results All fusion constructs significantly reduced the range of motion compared to intact in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation (P<0.05). Similar stability was achieved with bilateral posterior cages and plated ACDF at a single level. Posterior cages, when placed as an adjunct to ACDF, further reduced range of motion in both single- and multilevel constructs (P<0.05). Conclusion The biomechanical effectiveness of bilateral posterior cages in limiting cervical segmental motion is comparable to single-level plated ACDF. Furthermore, supplementation of single- and multilevel ACDF with posterior cervical cages provided a significant increase in stability and therefore may be a potential, minimally disruptive option for supplemental fixation for improving ACDF fusion rates. PMID:27471414

  10. Assessment of different levels of enset (Ensete ventricosum) corm as an energy supplement in sheep fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu; Eik, Lars Olav

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of enset corm as a supplement to sheep fed Rhodes grass hay. Thirty local yearling rams with a mean (±SD) body weight of 16.97 (±1.13) kg were used. Six sheep were allocated to each of the five treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were hay ad libitum and 129 g dry matter (DM) corm (T1), 188 g DM corm (T2), 248 g DM corm (T3), 100 g DM noug (T4) cake, and hay alone (T5). One hundred grams of noug seedcake was supplemented for all treatments except T5. Total DM and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep in T1, T2, and T3 were the highest (P < 0.05) compared with sheep in other treatments, while sheep in T5 consumed the lowest DM and OM. The total crude protein (CP) intakes of sheep in T3 and T2 were greater (P < 0.05) than the other treatments, while sheep in T5 consumed the lowest CP. The apparent DM and OM digestibility coefficients of T1, T2, and T3 diets were higher (P < 0.05) compared with T5. The lowest (P < 0.05) CP digestibility was in T5, whereas the digestibility among the supplemented groups was similar (P > 0.05). The daily body weight gain for T1, T2, and T3 diets was greater (P < 0.05) than that of T5. The feed conversion efficiency for T1 and T2 was higher (P < 0.05) than T5, while T4 had an intermediate value. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen retention was in sheep fed T3 diet, while the lowest was in those fed T5. It is concluded that farmers can supplement enset corm at 129 g DM/day as an alternative energy source to improve the productivity of sheep for small-scale farmers under enset-livestock production systems.

  11. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  12. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-14

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  13. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1980-01-15

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  14. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-07

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  15. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  16. Toxicity of cadmium and lead in Gallus gallus domesticus assessment of body weight and metal content in tissues after metal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Abduljaleel, Salwa A; Shuhaimi-Othman, M

    2013-11-15

    The influence of dietary cadmium on the accumulation and effects of dietary lead, examined in chicken. This experiment was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of dietary Cd and Pb on chick's body weight and organ, content of the tissues of these two metals was also detected. One day age chicks of Gallus gallus domesticus fed diet supplemented with 25, 50, 100 ppm of Cd, second group exposure to 300, 500, 1000 ppm of Pb in feed daily during 4 weeks. The control groups were fed without supplementation of metals. The concentrations of Cd and Pb resulted in increased of Cd and Pb content in liver, gizzard and muscle. While Cd 100 ppm and Pb 1000 ppm were increased metals content in feather. Body weight of chicks was not influenced by Cd treatment. In contrary Pb treatment was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased body weight of chicks after dietary treatment. On the other hand, Liver weigh in chicks was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased after Cd and Pb treatments.

  17. Predictors of College Adjustment among Hispanic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazedjian, Ani; Toews, Michelle L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess personal and interpersonal predictors of college adjustment among a sample of 190 first-year Hispanic students. Specifically, we examined the extent to which personal factors such as self-esteem, acculturation, and ethnic identity and interpersonal factors such as parental education and parental attachment…

  18. Social Support, Life Stress, and Psychological Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Brian L.

    The manner in which social support mediates the relationship between stressful life events and psychological distress was examined. A random sample of 320 adult community residents completed and returned a questionnaire assessing levels of life stress, social support, and psychological adjustment. As hypothesized, a social support-life stress…

  19. POSTURE ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURES FOR CHILDREN WHEN USING ADULT VDT WORKSTATIONS WITH LIMITED ADJUSTABILITY.

    PubMed

    Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Boon-anake, Doojchadang; Hongsiri, Kwanchanok; Miliang, Orawan

    2014-06-01

    Children are likely to assume very awkward seated postures when using a desktop computer at workstations with limited adjustability. This also includes the workstations that are not built for them such as adult visual display terminal (VDT) workstations. This paper proposes simple step-by-step procedures for estimating necessary adjustments so that children can sit and maintain an appropriate seated posture at VDT workstations with limited adjustability (i.e., fixed keyboard and monitor heights). From the anthropometric and VDT workstation data, the procedures compute the recommended VDT workstation settings for a concerned child, compare them with the actual workstation adjustment ranges, determine the appropriate settings, and suggest necessary accessories. The posture adjustment procedures are tested on four Thai children seated at two different types of adult VDT workstation. A rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) technique is used to evaluate the children's seated postures both before and after the posture adjustment. Applying the procedures, children need their own VDT workstation that should be fully adjustable. In using an adult workstation, adjustment accessories and the correct settings are required.

  20. Adjusting rations for climate.

    PubMed

    Ames, D R

    1988-11-01

    Cold conditions resulting from a combination of temperature, wind, and wetness result in increased energy required for maintenance. Constant levels of intake reduce energy available for production. Direct effects of cold include reduced rate and efficiency of growth and milk production. Indirect effects on measures of reproductive efficiency are well documented. Impacts on health and longevity are perhaps less obvious but are no doubt affected. Energy supplementation is an obvious need for cold-stressed animals. For maximum effectiveness, efforts should incorporate a systems approach and integrate the expertise of many disciplines into a logical decision-making process. The entire spectrum of animal response, not just short-term acute response, must be included in environmental management.

  1. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  2. Derivation of a chemical-specific adjustment factor (CSAF) for use in the assessment of risk from chronic exposure to ethylene glycol: application of International Programme for Chemical Safety guidelines.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Robert B; Brent, Jeffrey

    2005-09-01

    The International Programme for Chemical Safety (IPCS) has developed a set of guidelines ("the Guidance") for the establishment of Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAFs) for in the assessment of toxicity risk to the human population as a result of chemical exposure. The development of case studies is encouraged in the Guidance document and comments on them have been encouraged by the IPCS. One provision in the Guidance is for the determination of CSAFs based on human data. We present a case study of the use of the Guidance for the determination of the CSAF for ethylene glycol (EG) primarily utilizing clinically obtained data. The most relevant endpoint for this analysis was deemed to be acute renal injury. These data were applied based on an assessment of the known pharmaco/toxico-kinetic properties of EG. Because of the lack of both bioaccumulation of EG and reports of chronic or progressive renal injury from EG, it was concluded that the most appropriate model of chronic exposure is one of repeated acute episodes. The most relevant exposure metric was determined to be plasma glycolate concentration. Based on a prospective human study of EG-poisoned patients, the NOAEL for glycolate was found to be 10.1 mM. This value is similar to that obtained from animal data. The application of the Guidelines to this data resulted in a CSAF of 10.24, corresponding to a daily EG dose of 43.7 mg/kg/day. In 2000, Health Canada (HC) produced an animal data-based analysis of the maximum tolerated dose of EG. The results of our analysis are compared with those of HC, and the strengths and weaknesses of these two data types related to EG are discussed. PMID:15990139

  3. Derivation of a chemical-specific adjustment factor (CSAF) for use in the assessment of risk from chronic exposure to ethylene glycol: Application of international programme for chemical safety guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Robert B. . E-mail: RPalmer@Toxicologyassoc.com; Brent, Jeffrey

    2005-09-01

    The International Programme for Chemical Safety (IPCS) has developed a set of guidelines ('the Guidance') for the establishment of Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAFs) for in the assessment of toxicity risk to the human population as a result of chemical exposure. The development of case studies is encouraged in the Guidance document and comments on them have been encouraged by the IPCS. One provision in the Guidance is for the determination of CSAFs based on human data. We present a case study of the use of the Guidance for the determination of the CSAF for ethylene glycol (EG) primarily utilizing clinically obtained data. The most relevant endpoint for this analysis was deemed to be acute renal injury. These data were applied based on an assessment of the known pharmaco/toxico-kinetic properties of EG. Because of the lack of both bioaccumulation of EG and reports of chronic or progressive renal injury from EG, it was concluded that the most appropriate model of chronic exposure is one of repeated acute episodes. The most relevant exposure metric was determined to be plasma glycolate concentration. Based on a prospective human study of EG-poisoned patients, the NOAEL for glycolate was found to be 10.1 mM. This value is similar to that obtained from animal data. The application of the Guidelines to this data resulted in a CSAF of 10.24, corresponding to a daily EG dose of 43.7 mg/kg/day. In 2000, Health Canada (HC) produced an animal data-based analysis of the maximum tolerated dose of EG. The results of our analysis are compared with those of HC, and the strengths and weaknesses of these two data types related to EG are discussed.

  4. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  5. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2016-09-01

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed, their anthocyanin profiles (based on high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] separation) indicated if products' fruit origin listings were authentic. Over 30% of the Vaccinium fruit (cranberry, lingonberry, bilberry, and blueberry; 14 of 45) products available as dietary supplements did not contain the fruit listed as ingredients. Six supplements contained no anthocyanins. Five others had contents differing from labeled fruit (e.g., bilberry capsules containing Andean blueberry fruit). Of the samples that did contain the specified fruit (n = 27), anthocyanin content ranged from 0.04 to 14.37 mg per capsule, tablet, or teaspoon (5 g). Approaches to utilizing anthocyanins in assessment of sample authenticity, and a discussion of the challenges with anthocyanin profiles in quality control are both presented. PMID:27625778

  6. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  7. Periconceptional vitamin supplementation and neural tube defects; evidence from a case-control study in Western Australia and a review of recent publications.

    PubMed Central

    Bower, C; Stanley, F J

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the association of neural tube defects with periconceptional vitamin supplementation. DESIGN--This was a matched, population based case-control study. SETTING--Western Australia, 1982-1984. PARTICIPANTS--Mothers of 77 cases (93% of those eligible) with isolated neural tube defects, mothers of 77 matched control infants with defects other than neural tube defects (control group I), and mothers of 154 liveborn, matched, control infants with no birth defects (control group II) participated in the study. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Information was collected by interview and self administered questionnaire. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (and their 95% confidence intervals) showed a small but non-significant protective effect of folate supplementation in comparisons with both control groups. The adjusted ratios for the three months before pregnancy were 0.69 (0.06, 8.53) with control group I, and 0.11 (0.01, 1.33) with control group II. In the first six weeks of pregnancy, the adjusted odds ratios were 0.70 (0.32, 1.52) with control group I and 0.74 (0.29, 1.88) with control group II. The odds ratios for vitamin supplementation of any kind were all very close to or greater than one, and all confidence intervals embraced unity. CONCLUSIONS--These data do not provide evidence of an association between periconceptional vitamin supplementation and neural tube defects, although a protective effect of folate supplementation cannot be excluded with confidence, due to the low power of the study. Of three other observational studies of vitamins and neural tube defects, two have shown an association. While further studies of this kind may be of value, evidence must now be sought from randomised controlled trials. PMID:1583432

  8. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  9. Adjustment and war bereavement - some considerations.

    PubMed

    Purisman, R; Maoz, B

    1977-03-01

    Forty-seven parents from 25 families who had lost a son in the War of Attrition of 1969-1970 were interviewed in the course of this study. The interviews took place 2-3 years after the bereavement. The purpose of the study was an assessment of personal adjustment of bereaved parents, and an examination of background and behavioural characteristics which might differentiate between parents making a better and less good adjustment to the loss of a son. To this end data were collected via semistructured interviews. Non-objective variables: religiosity, social interpersonal relationships and adjustment were rated by independent judges. Reliability of interjudge agreement ranged from 0-67 to 1-00. Hypotheses were tested using correlation matrices. The hypothesis stating a positive relationship of high religiosity and good adjustment was not confirmed. The results suggest a very significant relationship between good adjustment and level of education (r = 0-668, alpha less than 0-01). Level of education was responsible for most of the variance and thus made impossible an answer regarding the relationship between religiosity and recovery after bereavement. To elucidate religiosity's function in adjustment, control of education level would be necessary. While this was not done in the present study, a further research plan was suggested. The hypothesis stating a positive correlational relationship between adjustment and interpersonal skills as reflected in social contacts and marital relations was confirmed (r = 0-735, r = 0-573, alpha less than 0-01). The findings of this study suggest that individuals who have suffered a severe stress, may gain strength, encouragement and compensation when their life style includes higher educational level and satisfying interactions with other people.

  10. Micronutrient Supplement Use and Diet Quality in University Students

    PubMed Central

    Wiltgren, Adam R.; Booth, Alison O.; Kaur, Gunveen; Cicerale, Sara; Lacy, Kathleen E.; Thorpe, Maree G.; Keast, Russell S. J.; Riddell, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    Many national and international public health organisations recommend achieving nutrient adequacy through consumption of a wide variety of nutritious foods. Despite this, dietary supplement sales continue to increase. Understanding the characteristics of micronutrient supplement users and the relationship with diet quality can help develop effective public health interventions to reduce unnecessary consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements. Participants (n = 1306) were a convenience sample of students studying first year food and nutrition. Data was collected via a Food and Diet Questionnaire (FDQ) and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Supplement users were defined as participants who indicated consuming any listed supplement as frequently as once a month or more. Diet quality was assessed using a Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) score. Prevalence of supplement use was high in this study population with 56% of participants reporting supplement use; the most popular supplements consumed were multivitamins (28%) and vitamin C (28%). A higher DGI score was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of supplement use (mean: 105 ± 18 vs. 109 ± 17, p = 0.001). Micronutrient supplement use was associated with a higher DGI score, suggesting that supplements are more likely to be used by those who are less likely to require them. PMID:25665159

  11. Micronutrient supplement use and diet quality in university students.

    PubMed

    Wiltgren, Adam R; Booth, Alison O; Kaur, Gunveen; Cicerale, Sara; Lacy, Kathleen E; Thorpe, Maree G; Keast, Russell S J; Riddell, Lynn J

    2015-02-05

    Many national and international public health organisations recommend achieving nutrient adequacy through consumption of a wide variety of nutritious foods. Despite this, dietary supplement sales continue to increase. Understanding the characteristics of micronutrient supplement users and the relationship with diet quality can help develop effective public health interventions to reduce unnecessary consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements. Participants (n=1306) were a convenience sample of students studying first year food and nutrition. Data was collected via a Food and Diet Questionnaire (FDQ) and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Supplement users were defined as participants who indicated consuming any listed supplement as frequently as once a month or more. Diet quality was assessed using a Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) score. Prevalence of supplement use was high in this study population with 56% of participants reporting supplement use; the most popular supplements consumed were multivitamins (28%) and vitamin C (28%). A higher DGI score was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of supplement use (mean: 105±18 vs. 109±17, p=0.001). Micronutrient supplement use was associated with a higher DGI score, suggesting that supplements are more likely to be used by those who are less likely to require them.

  12. DEVELOPING AND USING PRODUCTION-ADJUSTED MEASUREMENTS OF POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes research examining production-adjusted measures of pollution prevention(P2). Under this research, a methodology was developed for applying statistical and graphical tools to assess the accuracy of the factors (called units-of-product) used to adjust P2 measu...

  13. Combining Marriage and Career: The Professional Adjustment of Marital Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Afroz Haider

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the researcher attempted to assess Professional Adjustment status and level of teachers according to their marital status on a sample of 792 teachers. Teachers have been classified into two categories viz. married and unmarried. To evaluate the status of professional adjustment of teachers, a tool viz. "Manual on Teachers…

  14. Rapid assessment of the illegal presence of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in sports nutrition and dietary supplements using 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Ilse, Maren; Hengen, Julia; El-Atma, Oliver; Kuballa, Thomas; Kohl-Himmelseher, Matthias; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-09-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a stimulant that can be found in pre-workout sports nutrition and dietary supplements. This practice is illegal because DMAA is not a safe food ingredient but rather an unapproved medicinal compound due to its pharmacological action. In order to determine the DMAA content in such products, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method was developed and validated (DMAA was quantified as DMAA-HCl). For quantification, the collective integral from two of the methyl groups of the molecule in the range δ 0.92-0.84 ppm was used. The method was linear over the examined range of 1-21 g/kg (R(2) = 0.9937). The recoveries from spiked concentrations (0.1-6 g/kg) ranged between 85% and 105% (96% on average), with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1% for an authentic sample. The detection limit was 0.03 g/kg and the quantification limit was 0.08 g/kg (calculated for 75 mg sample weight). The actual DMAA-HCl content in the sample was quantified using calibration curves (external standardization) or 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid as single-point internal standard. The developed NMR methodology was applied for the analysis of 16 products, from which 9 samples were found positive (the DMAA-HCl concentration varied between 3.1 g/kg and 415 g/kg). The method can be recommended for routine use in food testing, customs or doping control laboratories.

  15. Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

  16. Rapid assessment of the illegal presence of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in sports nutrition and dietary supplements using 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Ilse, Maren; Hengen, Julia; El-Atma, Oliver; Kuballa, Thomas; Kohl-Himmelseher, Matthias; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-09-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a stimulant that can be found in pre-workout sports nutrition and dietary supplements. This practice is illegal because DMAA is not a safe food ingredient but rather an unapproved medicinal compound due to its pharmacological action. In order to determine the DMAA content in such products, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method was developed and validated (DMAA was quantified as DMAA-HCl). For quantification, the collective integral from two of the methyl groups of the molecule in the range δ 0.92-0.84 ppm was used. The method was linear over the examined range of 1-21 g/kg (R(2) = 0.9937). The recoveries from spiked concentrations (0.1-6 g/kg) ranged between 85% and 105% (96% on average), with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1% for an authentic sample. The detection limit was 0.03 g/kg and the quantification limit was 0.08 g/kg (calculated for 75 mg sample weight). The actual DMAA-HCl content in the sample was quantified using calibration curves (external standardization) or 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid as single-point internal standard. The developed NMR methodology was applied for the analysis of 16 products, from which 9 samples were found positive (the DMAA-HCl concentration varied between 3.1 g/kg and 415 g/kg). The method can be recommended for routine use in food testing, customs or doping control laboratories. PMID:24913715

  17. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  18. Psychological Adjustment of Creative Children: Perspectives from Self, Peer and Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wing Ling; Poon, Jelena C. Y.; Tong, Toby M. Y.; Lau, Sing

    2013-01-01

    Previous research in the literature on the relationships between creativity and psychological adjustment tended to use only one or two sources of creativity assessment and focus on a few aspects of adjustment. To examine creative children's psychological adjustment more thoroughly, this exploratory study assessed children's creativity…

  19. 5 CFR 9701.332 - Locality rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 9701.332 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements... Departmental regulations (6 CFR Chapter I) in the Federal Register that establish and adjust different...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.332 - Locality rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements... Departmental regulations (6 CFR Chapter I) in the Federal Register that establish and adjust different locality... Section 9701.332 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  1. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  2. Oral iron supplements for children in malaria-endemic areas

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, Ami; Okebe, Joseph; Yahav, Dafna; Paul, Mical

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron-deficiency anaemia is common during childhood. Iron administration has been claimed to increase the risk of malaria. Objectives To evaluate the effects and safety of iron supplementation, with or without folic acid, in children living in areas with hyperendemic or holoendemic malaria transmission. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (up to August 2015) and LILACS (up to February 2015). We also checked the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) up to February 2015. We contacted the primary investigators of all included trials, ongoing trials, and those awaiting assessment to ask for unpublished data and further trials. We scanned references of included trials, pertinent reviews, and previous meta-analyses for additional references. Selection criteria We included individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs conducted in hyperendemic and holoendemic malaria regions or that reported on any malaria-related outcomes that included children younger than 18 years of age. We included trials that compared orally administered iron, iron with folic acid, and iron with antimalarial treatment versus placebo or no treatment. We included trials of iron supplementation or fortification interventions if they provided at least 80% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for prevention of anaemia by age. Antihelminthics could be administered to either group, and micronutrients had to be administered equally to both groups. Data collection and analysis The primary outcomes were clinical malaria, severe malaria, and death from any cause. We assessed the risk of bias in included trials with domain-based evaluation and assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment

  3. Milk supplementation facilitates appetite control in obese women during weight loss: a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jo-Anne; Joanisse, Denis R; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Miegueu, Pierre; Cianflone, Katherine; Alméras, Natalie; Tremblay, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Dairy products provide Ca and protein which may facilitate appetite control. Conversely, weight loss is known to increase the motivation to eat. This randomised controlled trial verified the influence of milk supplementation on appetite markers during weight loss. Low Ca consumer women participated in a 6-month energy-restricted programme (-2508 kJ/d or -600 kcal/d) and received either a milk supplementation (1000 mg Ca/d) or an isoenergetic placebo (n 13 and 12, respectively). Fasting appetite sensations were assessed by visual analogue scales. Anthropometric parameters and fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin and cortisol were measured as well. Both groups showed a significant weight loss (P < 0·0001). In the milk-supplemented group, a time x treatment interaction effect showed that weight loss with milk supplementation induced a smaller increase in desire to eat and hunger (P < 0·05). Unlike the placebo group, the milk-supplemented group showed a lower than predicted decrease in fullness (-17·1 v. -8·8; -2·7 v. 3·3 mm, P < 0·05, measured v. predicted values, respectively). Even after adjustment for fat mass loss, changes in ghrelin concentration predicted those in desire to eat (r 0·56, P < 0·01), hunger (r 0·45, P < 0·05) and fullness (r -0·40, P < 0·05). However, the study did not show a between-group difference in the change in ghrelin concentration in response to the intervention. These results show that milk supplementation attenuates the orexigenic effect of body weight loss. PMID:21205360

  4. Vitamin D Supplements in the Indian Market

    PubMed Central

    Lhamo, Y.; Chugh, Preeta Kaur; Tripathi, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    It is now known that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. In our country, as food fortification is lacking, supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations is the only means of treatment of vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin D preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from annual drug compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. Vitamin D3 is available in the form of cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol and calcitriol as single ingredient products and in combination with calcium and other micronutrients. Most of the supplements contain calcitriol (46.5%) or alfacalcidiol (43%) as tablets (51.1%) and capsules (35.2%). Cholecalciferol, the preferred form for prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin D deficient states, constitutes only 10% of the available market preparations. High market sales of calcium supplements containing calcitriol indicate increasing intake of calcitriol rather than cholecalciferol; which could predispose to toxicity. There is a need for marketing and rational prescribing of the appropriate vitamin D supplement in ostensibly healthy Indian population. Implementation of population-based education and intervention programmes with enforcement of strict regulations could generate awareness and curb unsupervised intake of vitamin D containing dietary supplements. This health challenge mandates effective nutritional policies, fortification and supplementation programmes and partnership between government, healthcare and industry to safeguard the health of Indian population at large. PMID:27168680

  5. Vitamin D Supplements in the Indian Market.

    PubMed

    Lhamo, Y; Chugh, Preeta Kaur; Tripathi, C D

    2016-01-01

    It is now known that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. In our country, as food fortification is lacking, supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations is the only means of treatment of vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin D preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from annual drug compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. Vitamin D3 is available in the form of cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol and calcitriol as single ingredient products and in combination with calcium and other micronutrients. Most of the supplements contain calcitriol (46.5%) or alfacalcidiol (43%) as tablets (51.1%) and capsules (35.2%). Cholecalciferol, the preferred form for prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin D deficient states, constitutes only 10% of the available market preparations. High market sales of calcium supplements containing calcitriol indicate increasing intake of calcitriol rather than cholecalciferol; which could predispose to toxicity. There is a need for marketing and rational prescribing of the appropriate vitamin D supplement in ostensibly healthy Indian population. Implementation of population-based education and intervention programmes with enforcement of strict regulations could generate awareness and curb unsupervised intake of vitamin D containing dietary supplements. This health challenge mandates effective nutritional policies, fortification and supplementation programmes and partnership between government, healthcare and industry to safeguard the health of Indian population at large. PMID:27168680

  6. The Use of Nutritional Supplements Among Male Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Leila; Askari, Gholamreza; Hariri, Mitra; Bahreynian, Maryam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Ehsani, Simin; Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Rezai, Parva; Khorvash, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Background: The consumption of nutritional supplements is high in various sports, whereas, there are not enough documents supporting the beneficial effects of supplements in athletes. In addition, there is no information about taking supplements by Iranian students who participate in sports. Therefore, the goals of this study were to assess the type and prevalence of supplement use, the frequency of use, and relationships between consumption and age, body mass index, training load and type of sport. Methods: One hundred ninety two male students from “Isfahan University of Medical Sciences” participated in this study, voluntarily. A questionnaire that included questions about type and effects of supplements, recommendation resources, place of obtaining, and type of sports were sent to students. Descriptive data were calculated as frequencies (%). Chi-square (χ2) analysis was used to analyze the correlation between supplement use and the study variables. Results: Forty-five percent of respondents used some forms of supplements. Supplement users consumed 14 different supplements and each used as many as 1.8 ± 1.2 various supplements during the past six months. Multivitamins (64%) and vitamin C (42%) were the most popular supplements. Students, who participated in individual sports, were more likely to consume dietary supplements (P < 0.05) and ergogenic aids (P < 0.01), but team sports athletes, took more recovery nutrients (P < 0.01). Fifty seven point five percent of student bought their products from pharmacies, 40% from “sport supplements stores” and 2.5% from their friends. Conclusions: It can be concluded that less than half of these students consumed supplements and their information resources were inappropriate. PMID:23717774

  7. Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Philip J; Sperry, Morgan; Wilson, Amy Friedman

    2008-01-15

    A large number of dietary supplements are promoted to patients with osteoarthritis and as many as one third of those patients have used a supplement to treat their condition. Glucosamine-containing supplements are among the most commonly used products for osteoarthritis. Although the evidence is not entirely consistent, most research suggests that glucosamine sulfate can improve symptoms of pain related to osteoarthritis, as well as slow disease progression in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Chondroitin sulfate also appears to reduce osteoarthritis symptoms and is often combined with glucosamine, but there is no reliable evidence that the combination is more effective than either agent alone. S-adenosylmethionine may reduce pain but high costs and product quality issues limit its use. Several other supplements are promoted for treating osteoarthritis, such as methylsulfonylmethane, Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Curcuma longa (turmeric), and Zingiber officinale (ginger), but there is insufficient reliable evidence regarding long-term safety or effectiveness. PMID:18246887

  8. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    MedlinePlus

    ... about which supplements are needed and the amounts. Iron Deficiency Iron deficiency does occur among some young children and ... need to receive at least 15 milligrams of iron a day in their food, but many fail ...

  9. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... professionals. As its resources permit, FDA also reviews product labels and other product information, such as package inserts, ... the address or phone number listed on the product's label. Dietary supplement firms are required to forward reports ...

  10. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  11. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and prescription medicines just because they come from nature. Although herbal health products and supplements are advertised as “natural,” their ingredients aren’t necessarily natural to the human body. They may have strong effects on your ...

  12. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. PMID:27405305

  13. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  14. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While ... provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize additional ...

  15. Nutrition and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y

    1999-08-01

    Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally

  16. Call Number Adjustment: The Effects on Browsability if No Adjustment Is Made.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, Ruey L.

    In these times of tight budgets, libraries are seeking ways to cut costs, and one area being examined is book processing. This study assesses the impact on the organization of a library collection if the call number is not changed to fit into the shelf list sequence. The research questions examined are: "Is it necessary to adjust the book number…

  17. Genetic value of herd life adjusted for milk production.

    PubMed

    Allaire, F R; Gibson, J P

    1992-05-01

    Cow herd life adjusted for lactational milk production was investigated as a genetic trait in the breeding objective. Under a simple model, the relative economic weight of milk to adjusted herd life on a per genetic standard deviation basis was equal to CVY/dCVL where CVY and CVL are the genetic coefficients of variation of milk production and adjusted herd life, respectively, and d is the depreciation per year per cow divided by the total fixed costs per year per cow. The relative economic value of milk to adjusted herd life at the prices and parameters for North America was about 3.2. An increase of 100-kg milk was equivalent to 2.2 mo of adjusted herd life. Three to 7% lower economic gain is expected when only improved milk production is sought compared with a breeding objective that included both production and adjusted herd life for relative value changed +/- 20%. A favorable economic gain to cost ratio probably exists for herd life used as a genetic trait to supplement milk in the breeding objective. Cow survival records are inexpensive, and herd life evaluations from such records may not extend the generation interval when such an evaluation is used in bull sire selection.

  18. Supplementation in the Columbia Basin : Summary Report Series : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-12-01

    This progress report broadly defines the scope of supplementation plans and activities in the Columbia Basin. It provides the foundation for more detailed analysis of supplementation in subsequent reports in this series. Topics included in this report are: definition of supplementation, project diversity, objectives and performance standards, uncertainties and theory. Since this is a progress report, the content is subject to modification with new information. The supplementation theory will continue to evolve throughout the duration of RASP and beyond. The other topics in this report are essentially complete and are not expected to change significantly. This is the first of a series of four reports which will summarize information contained in the larger, RASP progress and completion reports. Our goal is to make the findings of RASP more accessible by grouping related topics into smaller but complete narratives on important aspects of supplementation. We are planning to publish the following reports under the general title Supplementation in the Columbia River Basin: Part 1, Background, Description, Performance Measures, Uncertainty and Theory; Part 2, Theoretical Framework and Models; Part 3, Planning Guidelines; and Part 4, Regional Coordination of Research and Monitoring. Supplementation is expected to be a major contributor to the planned increase in salmon and steelhead production in the Columbia Basin. The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) uses three approaches to protect and enhance salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin: (1) enhance fish production; (2) improve passage in the mainstem rivers; and (3) revise harvest management to support the rebuilding of fish runs (NPPC 1987). The fish production segment calls for a three-part approach focused on natural production, hatchery production, and supplementation. Supplementation is planned to provide over half of the total production increases. The Regional Assessment

  19. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  20. Psychosocial adjustment to recurrent cancer.

    PubMed

    Mahon, S M; Cella, D F; Donovan, M I

    1990-01-01

    This descriptive study of the perceptions and needs of people with recurrent malignancies asks three questions: How do patients describe the meaning of a recurrence of cancer? Do individuals perceive the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis of cancer differently? What are the key psychosocial problems associated with recurrent cancer? The theoretical framework was based on Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. Subjects completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale--Self-Report (PAIS), and a semistructured qualitative interview. The interview elicited perceptions of the event of recurrence and differences between the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis. The convenience sample included 40 patients diagnosed with recurrent cancer within the last 30 days. Many subjects (78%) reported that the recurrence was more upsetting than the initial diagnosis. Scores on both the IES and the PAIS were high when compared to normative samples of patients with cancer suggesting that this sample of patients experienced a lot of psychological distress as well as problems at home, work, and in their social lives. These concerns often were unknown to caregivers. Although more research is needed, the authors propose that, with more accurate assessment, more effective intervention could be implemented and the quality of life improved for patients with recurrent cancer.

  1. Psychological adjustment to twins after infertility.

    PubMed

    Klock, Susan C

    2004-08-01

    The birth of twins and other multiples is physically and emotionally stressful. The increase in the use of the assisted reproductive technologies has lead to an exponential increase in the rates of twins and triplets in the US. Whereas the medical complications of twins and other multiples has been well studied, the psychological and social implications of these events has not. Very little empirical research has been conducted to assess the differential impact of twins, as compared to singletons, on maternal adjustment, postpartum depression and marital functioning. In addition, assessment of infant health, disposition and behavior and its relation to maternal adjustment is lacking. The birth of twins after a period of infertility complicates the clinical picture and the impact of infertility on subsequent parental adjustment is only beginning to be understood. Although research suggests that infertile couples often desire multiples, the experience of parenting multiples after infertility has not been studied. Research on fertile couples indicate that: (i) approximately 10% of women develop postpartum depression and; (ii) marital adjustment declines after the birth of the first child. Because of the unique demands of parenting multiples, it is hypothesized that mothers of twins who have a history of infertility would be at increased risk for depression and marital decline. Descriptive studies of these families support this view, although additional studies are needed to determine the degree and extent of the problem. Additionally, variables such as, prepregnancy adjustment, equitable division of child-care tasks and perceived social support should be studied to determine if they buffer against the expected effects.

  2. Introduction to the supplement.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2015-06-01

    In July of 2014, a symposium entitled "Enhancing Vaccine Immunity and Value" was held in Siena, Italy. The focus of the symposium was on how to best meet the challenge of developing and implementing vaccines for future disease targets. Vaccination has been responsible for averting estimated 3 billion cases of disease and more than 500 million lives to date through the prevention of infectious diseases. This has largely been responsible for dramatic increases in life span in developed countries. However, with the demographics of the world's population are changing, with many adults now surviving into their 80s, we now face the challenge of protecting the aging and other underserved populations not only against infectious diseases but also against cancer and other chronic conditions that occur in older adults. To face this challenge, we must harness new technologies derived from recent advances in the fields of immunology, structural biology, synthetic biology and genomics that promise a revolution in the vaccine field. Specifically, vaccine adjuvants have the potential to harness the immune system to provide protection against new types of diseases, improve protection in young children and expand this protection to adults and the elderly. However, in order to succeed, we need to overcome the non-technical challenges that could limit the implementation of innovative vaccines, including controversies regarding the safety of adjuvants, increasing regulatory complexity, the inadequate methods used to assess the value of novel vaccines, and the resulting industry alienation from future investment. In this supplement, we have assembled manuscripts from lectures and discussions of the symposium last July that addressed two related questions: how to improve vaccine efficacy using breakthrough technologies and how to capture the full potential of novel vaccines.

  3. 8 CFR 245.20 - Adjustment of status of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... under the Act at the time of examination for adjustment. (b) Qualified family members. The spouse, child... and vaccination supplement) as specified in 8 CFR 245.5. On Form I-485, Part 2, question “h... child of a principal alien applying for adjustment of status, he or she must submit a birth...

  4. 8 CFR 245.20 - Adjustment of status of Syrian asylees under Public Law 106-378.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... under the Act at the time of examination for adjustment. (b) Qualified family members. The spouse, child... and vaccination supplement) as specified in 8 CFR 245.5. On Form I-485, Part 2, question “h... child of a principal alien applying for adjustment of status, he or she must submit a birth...

  5. Updates on clinical studies of selenium supplementation in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To establish guidelines for the selenium supplementation in radiotherapy we assessed the benefits and risks of selenium supplementation in radiotherapy. Clinical studies on the use of selenium in radiotherapy were searched in the PubMed electronic database in January 2013. Sixteen clinical studies were identified among the 167 articles selected in the initial search. Ten articles were observational studies, and the other 6 articles reported studies on the effects of selenium supplementation in patients with cancer who underwent radiotherapy. The studies were conducted worldwide including European, American and Asian countries between 1987 and 2012. Plasma, serum or whole blood selenium levels were common parameters used to assess the effects of radiotherapy and the selenium supplementation status. Selenium supplementation improved the general conditions of the patients, improved their quality of life and reduced the side effects of radiotherapy. At the dose of selenium used in these studies (200–500 μg/day), selenium supplementation did not reduce the effectiveness of radiotherapy, and no toxicities were reported. Selenium supplementation may offer specific benefits for several types of cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy. Because high-dose selenium and long-term supplementation may be unsafe due to selenium toxicity, more evidence-based information and additional research are needed to ensure the therapeutic benefits of selenium supplementation. PMID:24885670

  6. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

  7. Comparative effects of supplementing beef steers with zilpaterol hydrochloride, ractopamine hydrochloride, or no beta agonist on strip loin composition, raw and cooked color properties, shear force, and consumer assessment of steaks aged for fourteen or twenty-one days postmortem.

    PubMed

    Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Hodgen, J M; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Rathmann, R J; Miller, M F

    2014-08-01

    Beef steers (n = 1,914) were assigned to 1 of 3 β-adrenergic agonist (βAA) supplementation treatments-zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.3 mg/kg of DM for 20 d with 3-d withdrawal), ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 308 mg·head(-1)·d(-1) for 28 d), or no βAA (CON)-to determine the effects on consumer eating quality. Strip loins (n = 1,101; CON = 400, RH = 355, and ZH = 346) were obtained and fabricated into 2.5-cm-thick steaks for proximate, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), slice shear force (SSF), and consumer analyses; steaks were aged until 14 or 21 d postmortem. Fat and moisture contents were not affected by βAA supplementation (P > 0.05), but strip steaks from steers fed ZH had more protein (P < 0.01) than those from steers fed CON or RH, which were similar. An interaction between βAA and aging was observed (P < 0.01) for WBSF but not SSF. Within steaks aged 14 d, ZH steaks required the most force to shear, RH steaks were intermediate, and CON steaks had the lowest WBSF values; however, RH steaks had a stronger response to aging than CON or ZH steaks, resulting in the lowest WBSF values at 21 d. Slice shear force values were greater (P < 0.01) in steaks from steers fed ZH than in steaks from steers fed CON or RH, which did not differ. Following shear force analyses, steaks within 2 SD of each treatment mean for WBSF were selected randomly for consumer assessment of eating quality. Consumer testing (n = 400; 200/postmortem aging period) was arranged in a 3 × 3 factorial representing 3 quality grades (Select, Low Choice, and Premium Choice) and 3 treatments (ZH, RH, and CON). In steaks aged 14 d, βAA supplementation affected (P < 0.01) tenderness, flavor, and overall liking and tenderness acceptability, resulting in lower consumer scores for ZH than CON and RH; however, juiciness, flavor, and overall acceptability were similar (P > 0.05). In steaks aged 21 d, feeding βAA influenced (P < 0.01) only tenderness and juiciness scores. Despite these differences

  8. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  9. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  10. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  11. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  12. Adjusting to change: linking family structure transitions with parenting and boys' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Charles R; Forgatch, Marion S

    2002-06-01

    This study examined links between family structure transitions and children's academic, behavioral, and emotional outcomes in a sample of 238 divorcing mothers and their sons in Grades 1-3. Multiple methods and agents were used in assessing family process variables and child outcomes. Findings suggest that greater accumulations of family transitions were associated with poorer academic functioning, greater acting-out behavior, and worse emotional adjustment for boys. However, in all three cases, these relationships were mediated by parenting practices: Parental academic skill encouragement mediated the relationship between transitions and academic functioning, and a factor of more general effective parenting practices mediated the relationships between transitions and acting out and emotional adjustment.

  13. Adjustment versus no adjustment when using adjustable sutures in strabismus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liebermann, Laura; Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.; Holmes, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare long-term postoperative outcomes when performing an adjustment to achieve a desired immediate postoperative alignment versus simply tying off at the desired immediate postoperative alignment when using adjustable sutures for strabismus surgery. Methods We retrospectively identified 89 consecutive patients who underwent a reoperation for horizontal strabismus using adjustable sutures and also had a 6-week and 1-year outcome examination. In each case, the intent of the surgeon was to tie off and only to adjust if the patient was not within the intended immediate postoperative range. Postoperative success was predefined based on angle of misalignment and diplopia at distance and near. Results Of the 89 patients, 53 (60%) were adjusted and 36 (40%) were tied off. Success rates were similar between patients who were simply tied off immediately after surgery and those who were adjusted. At 6 weeks, the success rate was 64% for the nonadjusted group versus 81% for the adjusted group (P = 0.09; difference of 17%; 95% CI, −2% to 36%). At 1 year, the success rate was 67% for the nonadjusted group versus 77% for the adjusted group (P = 0.3; difference of 11%; 95% CI, −8% to 30%). Conclusions Performing an adjustment to obtain a desired immediate postoperative alignment did not yield inferior long-term outcomes to those obtained by tying off to obtain that initial alignment. If patients were who were outside the desired immediate postoperative range had not been not adjusted, it is possible that their long-term outcomes would have been worse, therefore, overall, an adjustable approach may be superior to a nonadjustable approach. PMID:23415035

  14. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M; Chun, Ock K

    2016-01-04

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG) (-1.39% change; 95% CI = -2.56 to -0.21), TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (-2.03% change; 95% CI = -3.45 to -0.60), HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23), insulin (-1.37% change; 95% CI = -2.64 to -0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-1.57% change; 95% CI = -3.02 to -0.09) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (-0.83% change; 95% CI = -1.29 to -0.38) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk.

  15. Evaluating Term Coverage of Herbal and Dietary Supplements in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Manohar, Nivedha; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Wang, Yan; Adam, Terrence J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement consumption has rapidly expanded in recent years. Due to pharmacological and metabolic characteristics of some supplements, they can interact with prescription medications, potentially leading to clinically important and potentially preventable adverse reactions. Electronic health record (EHR) system provides a valuable source from which drug-supplement interactions can be mined and assessed for their clinical effects. A fundamental prerequisite is a functional understanding of supplement documentation in EHR and associated supplement coverage in major online databases. To address this, clinical notes and corresponding medication lists from an integrated healthcare system were extracted and compared with online databases. Overall, about 40% of listed medications are supplements, most of which are included in medication lists as nutritional or miscellaneous products. Gaps were found between supplement and standard medication terminologies, creating documentation difficulties in fully achieving robust supplement documentation in EHR systems. In addition, in the clinical notes we identified supplements which were not mentioned in the medication lists. PMID:26958277

  16. Development and Assessment of CFD Models Including a Supplemental Program Code for Analyzing Buoyancy-Driven Flows Through BWR Fuel Assemblies in SFP Complete LOCA Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artnak, Edward Joseph, III

    This work seeks to illustrate the potential benefits afforded by implementing aspects of fluid dynamics, especially the latest computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach, through numerical experimentation and the traditional discipline of physical experimentation to improve the calibration of the severe reactor accident analysis code, MELCOR, in one of several spent fuel pool (SFP) complete loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. While the scope of experimental work performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) extends well beyond that which is reasonably addressed by our allotted resources and computational time in accordance with initial project allocations to complete the report, these simulated case trials produced a significant array of supplementary high-fidelity solutions and hydraulic flow-field data in support of SNL research objectives. Results contained herein show FLUENT CFD model representations of a 9x9 BWR fuel assembly in conditions corresponding to a complete loss-of-coolant accident scenario. In addition to the CFD model developments, a MATLAB based controlvolume model was constructed to independently assess the 9x9 BWR fuel assembly under similar accident scenarios. The data produced from this work show that FLUENT CFD models are capable of resolving complex flow fields within a BWR fuel assembly in the realm of buoyancy-induced mass flow rates and that characteristic hydraulic parameters from such CFD simulations (or physical experiments) are reasonably employed in corresponding constitutive correlations for developing simplified numerical models of comparable solution accuracy.

  17. Supplements and sports.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

    2008-11-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality.

  18. β-Alanine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Emerson, Nadia S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    β-Alanine is rapidly developing as one of the most popular sport supplements used by strength/power athletes worldwide. The popularity of β-alanine stems from its unique ability to enhance intramuscular buffering capacity and thereby attenuating fatigue. This review will provide an overview of the physiology that underlies the mechanisms of action behind β-alanine, examine dosing schemes, and examine the studies that have been conducted on the efficacy of this supplement. In addition, the effect that β-alanine has on body mass changes or whether it can stimulate changes in aerobic capacity also will be discussed. The review also will begin to explore the potential health benefits that β-alanine may have on older adult populations. Discussion will examine the potential adverse effects associated with this supplement as well as the added benefits of combining β-alanine with creatine.

  19. Supplements and sports.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

    2008-11-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality. PMID:19007050

  20. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants.

  1. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. PMID:27348226

  2. L-Carnitine supplementation improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Malek Mahdavi, Aida; Mahdavi, Reza; Kolahi, Sousan; Zemestani, Maryam; Vatankhah, Amir-Mansour

    2015-08-01

    Considering the pathologic importance of oxidative stress and altered lipid metabolism in osteoarthritis (OA), this study aimed to investigate the effect of l-carnitine supplementation on oxidative stress, lipid profile, and clinical status in women with knee OA. We hypothesized that l-carnitine would improve clinical status by modulating serum oxidative stress and lipid profile. In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 72 overweight or obese women with mild to moderate knee OA were randomly allocated into 2 groups to receive 750 mg/d l-carnitine or placebo for 8 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using 24-hour recall for 3 days. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid profile, visual analog scale for pain intensity, and patient global assessment of severity of disease were assessed before and after supplementation. Only 69 patients (33 in the l-carnitine group and 36 in the placebo group) completed the study. l-Carnitine supplementation resulted in significant reductions in serum MDA (2.46 ± 1.13 vs 2.16 ± 0.94 nmol/mL), total cholesterol (216.09 ± 34.54 vs 206.12 ± 39.74 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (129.45 ± 28.69 vs 122.05 ± 32.76 mg/dL) levels compared with baseline (P < .05), whereas these parameters increased in the placebo group. Serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TAC levels did not change significantly in both groups (P > .05). No significant differences were observed in dietary intake, serum lipid profile, MDA, and TAC levels between groups after adjusting for baseline values and covariates (P > .05). There were significant intragroup and intergroup differences in pain intensity and patient global assessment of disease status after supplementation (P < .05). Collectively, l-carnitine improved clinical status without changing oxidative stress and lipid profile significantly in women with knee OA.

  3. Disposition and adjustment to chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Esteve, Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Several empirical studies have shown that personal characteristics act as differential variables, which determine how pain is experienced and how the chronic pain patient adjusts to pain. The main aim of the present research is to review the relationships between some dispositional characteristics and pain adjustment. Taking into account the empirical literature, 6 personality traits that are relevant to the pain experience have been selected: neuroticism, anxiety sensitivity, and experiential avoidance as risk factors that increase the probability of patients experiencing a disability; and extraversion, optimism, and resilience as personal resources that increase their capacity to manage pain effectively. The results suggest that it would be useful to include an assessment of normal personality structure during the multi-dimensional evaluation of a person with chronic pain. Understanding these individual personality characteristics will aid in designing pain intervention programs and help predict possible treatment outcomes. PMID:23338768

  4. Clinical applications of creatine supplementation on paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Athanasios; Vasilaki, Konstantina; Karagianni, Paraskevi; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos

    2009-11-01

    Creatine plays a central role in energy metabolism and is synthesized in the liver, kidney and pancreas. In healthy patients, it is transported via the blood stream to the muscles, heart and brain with high and fluctuating energy demands by the molecule creatine transporter. Creatine, although naturally synthesized in the human body, can be ingested in the form of supplements and is commonly used by athletes. The purpose of this review was to assess the clinical applications of creatine supplementation on paediatrics. Creatine metabolism disorders have so far been described at the level of two synthetic steps, guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) and arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), and at the level of the creatine transporter 1(CrT1). GAMT and AGAT deficiency respond positively to substitutive treatment with creatine monohydrate whereas in CrT1 defect, it is not able to replenish creatine in the brain with oral creatine supplementation. There are also data concerning the short and long-term therapeutic benefit of creatine supplementation in children and adults with gyrate atrophy (a result of the inborn error of metabolism with ornithine delta- aminotransferase activity), muscular dystrophy (facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, Becker dystrophy, Duchenne dystrophy and sarcoglycan deficient limb girdle muscular dystrophy), McArdle's disease, Huntington's disease and mitochondria-related diseases. Hypoxia and energy related brain pathologies (brain trauma, cerebral ischemia, prematurity) might benefit from Cr supplementation. This review covers also the basics of creatine metabolism and proposed mechanisms of action. PMID:19751179

  5. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  6. Time-adjusted variable resistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Timing mechanism was developed effecting extremely precisioned highly resistant fixed resistor. Switches shunt all or portion of resistor; effective resistance is varied over time interval by adjusting switch closure rate.

  7. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances...,'' is ``premised on the recent recession as an exigent event.'' Id. at 1, 2. In Order No. 1059,...

  8. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products. PMID:19826971

  9. Effects of a New Metabolic Conditioning Supplement on Perioperative Metabolic Stress and Clinical Outcomes: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Shafa, Masih; Alipour, Shohreh; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance is a measure of metabolic stress in the perioperative period. Before now, no clinical trial has determined the summative effects of glutamine, L-carnitine, and antioxidants as metabolic conditioning supplements in the perioperative period. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a new conditioning supplement on perioperative metabolic stress and clinical outcomes in non-diabetic patients. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 89 non-diabetic patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting, with ejection fractions above 30%, were selected. Using the balanced block randomization method, the patients were allocated to one of four study arms: 1) SP (supplement/placebo): supplement seven days before and placebo 30 days after the surgery; 2) PS: placebo before and supplement after the surgery; 3) SS: supplement before and after the surgery; and 4) PP: placebo before and after the surgery. The supplement was composed of glutamine, L-carnitine, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium, which was manufactured for the first time by this research team. Five blood samples were drawn: seven days preoperatively, at the entrance to the operating room, while leaving the operating room, seven days postoperatively, and 30 days postoperatively. Levels of glucose, insulin, and HbA1c were measured in blood samples. Insulin resistance and sensitivity were calculated using a formula. Surgical complications were assessed 30 days postoperatively. Data analysis was done using one-way ANOVA, the Chi-square test, and a general linear model repeated-measures analysis with Bonferroni adjustment. Results: Blood glucose levels were increased postoperatively in the four groups (< 0.001), but a significantly higher increase occurred in the PP group compared to the SP (0.027), PS (0.026), and SS (0.004) groups. The superficial wound infection rate was significantly different between the four groups (0.021): 26.08% in

  10. Supplement use by Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jill Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices. Key pointsSupplement use among the child and adolescent athlete population is widespread with the most frequently used supplement being a form of vitamin/mineral supplement.The effects of supplement use on the growth and development of children and adolescents remain unclear and thus use of supplements by this population should be discouraged.It is likely that there is a misunderstanding as to the role of vitamins and minerals in the diet, their function in maintaining overall health, their role

  11. Vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Chuang, Shu-chun; Neto, Jose Eluf; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Koifman, Sergio; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Daudt, Alexander W.; Curado, Maria Paula; Winn, Deborah M.; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Castellsague, Xavier; Morgenstern, Hal; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Lazarus, Philip; Muscat, Joshua; McClean, Michael; Kelsey, Karl T.; Hayes, Richard B.; Purdue, Mark P.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Chen, Chu; Benhamou, Simone; Olshan, Andrew F.; Yu, Guopei; Schantz, Stimson; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the potential role of vitamin or mineral supplementation on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), we analyzed individual-level pooled data from 12 case-control studies (7,002 HNC cases and 8,383 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. There were a total of 2,028 oral cavity cancer, 2,465 pharyngeal cancer, and 874 unspecified oral/pharynx cancer, 1,329 laryngeal cancer and 306 overlapping HNC cases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self reported ever use of any vitamins, multivitamins, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and calcium, beta-carotene, iron, selenium, and zinc supplements were assessed. We further examined frequency, duration and cumulative exposure of each vitamin or mineral when possible and stratified by smoking and drinking status. All ORs were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, study center, education level, and pack-years of smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking and fruit/vegetable intake. A decreased risk of HNC was observed with ever use of vitamin C (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.59-0.96) and with ever use of calcium supplement (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.42-0.97). The inverse association with HNC risk was also observed for 10 or more years of vitamin C use (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.97) and more than 365 tablets of cumulative calcium intake (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.16-0.83), but linear trends were not observed for the frequency or duration of any supplement intake. We did not observe any strong associations between vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer. PMID:22173631

  12. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  13. Are those in need taking dietary supplements? A survey of 21 923 adults.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R A; Holt, D; Pattison, D J; Elton, P J

    2004-04-01

    Many people take dietary supplements, but information on characteristics associated with their use is lacking. The relationship between lifestyle behaviours, morbidity and use of dietary supplements has not been examined and earlier studies have limited applicability to a general population. These issues were addressed in the current study. Information was obtained by postal questionnaire sent to a sample of the general population. The questionnaire was completed by 70.5 % of the sample (15 465 from a total sample of 21 923), with at least one-third (35.5 %) taking dietary supplements. In adjusted analyses, supplement users were more likely to be women, white, home-owners, non-smokers and physically active. Use of vitamin, mineral and/or antioxidant supplements was associated with eating more fruits and vegetables, and taking fish-oil supplements was associated with eating oil-rich fish. A history of CVD or risk factors for CVD reduced the risk of taking vitamins, minerals and/or antioxidants or fish-oil supplements. Those reporting musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis were more likely to take fish-oil supplements For the first time, we have shown that dietary supplement use is related to different types of morbidity. In particular, people at risk of primary or secondary CVD seem less likely to use dietary supplements, despite possible benefits shown in clinical trials. Public health organisations need to develop guidelines for the public and health professionals regarding the uncontrolled use of dietary supplements in the community.

  14. Predicting School Adjustment from Motor Abilities in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Orit; Hajami, Dov; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2007-01-01

    The present study assessed the relations between basic motor abilities in kindergarten and scholastic, social, and emotional adaptation in the transition to formal schooling. Seventy-one five-year-old kindergarten children were administered a battery of standard assessments of basic motor functions. A year later, children's adjustment to school…

  15. Sex Differences in Initiation of and Adjustment to Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiss, Antonette M.; Zeiss, Robert A.

    Men and women were randomly chosen from courthouse divorce files. After initial contact by mail and by phone, those who agreed were mailed questionnaires developed to assess adjustment to divorce and to obtain information about the nature of divorce. Of those sent questionnaires, 44% completed and returned the assessment; the total sample…

  16. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk of bruising and bleeding. Supplement: Goldenseal Root Possible drug-supplement interaction with: Cyclosporine. Can decrease ... using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Goldenseal root may decrease how quickly the liver breaks down ...

  17. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers.

  18. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  19. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  20. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  1. 20 CFR 416.552 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-without fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fault. 416.552 Section 416.552 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Waiver of adjustment or recovery—without fault. Without fault relates only to the situation of the... relieved of liability and is not without fault solely because the Social Security Administration may...

  2. 20 CFR 416.552 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-without fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fault. 416.552 Section 416.552 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Waiver of adjustment or recovery—without fault. Without fault relates only to the situation of the... relieved of liability and is not without fault solely because the Social Security Administration may...

  3. 20 CFR 416.552 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-without fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fault. 416.552 Section 416.552 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Waiver of adjustment or recovery—without fault. Without fault relates only to the situation of the... relieved of liability and is not without fault solely because the Social Security Administration may...

  4. 20 CFR 416.552 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-without fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fault. 416.552 Section 416.552 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Waiver of adjustment or recovery—without fault. Without fault relates only to the situation of the... relieved of liability and is not without fault solely because the Social Security Administration may...

  5. 20 CFR 416.552 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-without fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fault. 416.552 Section 416.552 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Waiver of adjustment or recovery—without fault. Without fault relates only to the situation of the... relieved of liability and is not without fault solely because the Social Security Administration may...

  6. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  7. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  8. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  9. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  10. Impact of lipid-based nutrient supplementation (LNS) on children's diet adequacy in Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ickes, Scott B; Adair, Linda S; Brahe, Catherine A; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Charles, Baguma; Myhre, Jennifer A; Bentley, Margaret E; Ammerman, Alice S

    2015-12-01

    Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) can help treat undernutrition; however, the dietary adequacy of children supplemented with LNS, and household utilisation patterns are not well understood. We assessed diet adequacy and the quality of complementary foods by conducting a diet assessment of 128 Ugandan children, ages 6-59 months, who participated in a 10-week programme for children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM, defined as weight-for-age z-score < -2). Caregivers were given a weekly ration of 650 kcal day(-1) (126 g day(-1) ) of a peanut/soy LNS. Two 24-h dietary recalls were administered per child. LNS was offered to 86% of targeted children at least once. Among non-breastfed children, over 90% met their estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-points for all examined nutrients. Over 90% of breastfed children met EAR cut-points for nutrient density for most nutrients, except for zinc where 11.7% met cut-points. A lower proportion of both breastfed and non-breastfed children met adjusted EARs for the specific nutritional needs of MAM. Fewer than 20% of breastfed children met EAR nutrient-density guidelines for MAM for zinc, vitamin C, vitamin A and folate. Underweight status, the presence of a father in the child's home, and higher programme attendance were all associated with greater odds of feeding LNS to targeted children. Children in this community-based supplemental feeding programme who received a locally produced LNS exhibited substantial micronutrient deficiencies given the special dietary needs of this population. These results can help inform programme strategies to improve LNS targeting, and highlight potential nutrient inadequacies for consumers of LNS in community-based settings.

  11. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... not been able to prove that dietary or herbal supplements (including omega-3 supplements, cinnamon, and other herbs) ... of people with diabetes used some type of herbal therapy , while another study found that 31 percent used dietary supplements . Certain ethnic groups, such as Hispanics, Native Americans, ...

  12. Resonance Parameter Adjustment Based on Integral Experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Sobes, Vladimir; Leal, Luiz; Arbanas, Goran; Forget, Benoit

    2016-06-02

    Our project seeks to allow coupling of differential and integral data evaluation in a continuous-energy framework and to use the generalized linear least-squares (GLLS) methodology in the TSURFER module of the SCALE code package to update the parameters of a resolved resonance region evaluation. We recognize that the GLLS methodology in TSURFER is identical to the mathematical description of a Bayesian update in SAMMY, the SAMINT code was created to use the mathematical machinery of SAMMY to update resolved resonance parameters based on integral data. Traditionally, SAMMY used differential experimental data to adjust nuclear data parameters. Integral experimental data, suchmore » as in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments Project, remain a tool for validation of completed nuclear data evaluations. SAMINT extracts information from integral benchmarks to aid the nuclear data evaluation process. Later, integral data can be used to resolve any remaining ambiguity between differential data sets, highlight troublesome energy regions, determine key nuclear data parameters for integral benchmark calculations, and improve the nuclear data covariance matrix evaluation. Moreover, SAMINT is not intended to bias nuclear data toward specific integral experiments but should be used to supplement the evaluation of differential experimental data. Using GLLS ensures proper weight is given to the differential data.« less

  13. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse gestational outcomes. Objectives To examine whether supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2011), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 October 2011) and also contacted relevant organisations (8 April 2011). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results The search strategy identified 34 potentially eligible references. We included six trials assessing a total of 1023 women, excluded eight studies, and 10 studies are still ongoing. Five trials involving 623 women compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation/placebo and one trial with 400 women compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium versus no supplementation. Only one trial with 400 women reported on pre-eclampsia: women who received 1200 IU vitamin D along with 375 mg of elemental calcium per day were as likely to develop pre-eclampsia as women who received no supplementation (average risk ratio (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 1.35). Data from four trials

  14. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tables Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  15. Response of laying hens to supplemental niacin.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Caston, L J; Summers, J D

    1991-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of supplemental niacin on laying hen performance and liver fat and egg cholesterol content. In Experiment 1, 16 replicate groups of four adjacently caged birds were fed corn and soybean meal diets calculated to contain 22, 44, 66, or 132 mg supplemental niacin/kg (23.2, 38.7, 57.0, and 143 mg/kg niacin by analysis). Egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and eggshell quality were assessed each 28 days through a 364-day trial period. After 280 days, cholesterol content on three eggs per replicate was measured. At the end of the study, one bird per replicate was killed for subjective scoring of liver fat content. In Experiment 2, 24 birds from the control treatment (22 mg/kg supplemental niacin) of Experiment 1 were retained and fed for a subsequent 28-day period. Over this time, eight birds were each fed diets containing 22, 522, or 1,022 mg/kg supplemental niacin. Egg cholesterol content was measured in eggs collected on the last 3 days of the study. In Experiment 1, birds fed 66 or 132 mg/kg supplemental niacin/kg produced more eggs (P less than .05) than birds fed 22mg/kg. Niacin supplementation affected shell quality (P less than .05). Dietary niacin level had no effect on egg cholesterol content of liver lipid evaluation. In Experiment 2, supplementary niacin levels up to 1,022 mg/kg, which more closely stimulates therapeutic levels used for humans, again failed to affect egg cholesterol content. PMID:1852695

  16. The effect of testosterone and a nutritional supplement on hospital admissions in under-nourished, older people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss and under-nutrition are relatively common in older people, and are associated with poor outcomes including increased rates of hospital admissions and death. In a pilot study of 49 undernourished older, community dwelling people we found that daily treatment for one year with a combination of testosterone tablets and a nutritional supplement produced a significant reduction in hospitalizations. We propose a larger, multicentre study to explore and hopefully confirm this exciting, potentially important finding (NHMRC project grant number 627178). Methods/Design One year randomized control trial where subjects are allocated to either oral testosterone undecanoate and high calorie oral nutritional supplement or placebo medication and low calorie oral nutritional supplementation. 200 older community-dwelling, undernourished people [Mini Nutritional Assessment score <24 and either: a) low body weight (body mass index, in kg/m2: <22) or b) recent weight loss (>7.5% over 3 months)]. Hospital admissions, quality-adjusted life years, functional status, nutritional health, muscle strength, body composition and other variables will be assessed. Discussion The pilot study showed that combined treatment with an oral testosterone and a supplement drink was well tolerated and safe, and reduced the number of people hospitalised and duration of hospital admissions in undernourished, community dwelling older people. This is an exciting finding, as it identifies a treatment which may be of substantial benefit to many older people in our community. We now propose to conduct a multi-centre study to test these findings in a substantially larger subject group, and to determine the cost effectiveness of this treatment. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN 12610000356066 PMID:22023735

  17. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  18. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  19. Medication and Dietary Supplement Interactions among a Low-Income, Hospitalized Patient Population Who Take Cardiac Medications

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Jack, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify characteristics associated with the use of potentially harmful combinations of dietary supplements (DS) and cardiac prescription medications in an urban, underserved, inpatient population. Methods. Cardiac prescription medication users were identified to assess the prevalence and risk factors of potentially harmful dietary supplement-prescription medication interactions (PHDS-PMI). We examined sociodemographic and clinical characteristics for crude (χ2 or t-tests) and adjusted multivariable logistic regression associations with the outcome. Results. Among 558 patients, there were 121 who also used a DS. Of the 110 participants having a PHDS-PMI, 25% were asked about their DS use at admission, 75% had documentation of DS in their chart, and 21% reported the intention to continue DS use after discharge. A multivariable logistic regression model noted that for every additional medication or DS taken the odds of having a PHDS-PMI increase and that those with a high school education are significantly less likely to have a PHDS-PMI than those with a college education. Conclusion. Inpatients at an urban safety net hospital taking a combination of cardiac prescription medications and DS are at a high risk of harmful supplement-drug interactions. Providers must ask about DS use and should consider the potential for interactions when having patient discussions about cardiac medications and DS. PMID:25949262

  20. Vitamin B supplementation for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. PMID:26892473

  1. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  2. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality. PMID:27544991

  3. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Thifault, Elisabeth; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA). Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03) was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2) had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008). For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456). For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively). Conclusion: Results suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation. PMID:24705214

  4. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  5. Idaho Supplementation Studies : Five Year Report : 1992-1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    1999-08-01

    In 1991, the Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) project was implemented to address critical uncertainties associated with hatchery supplementation of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha populations in Idaho. The project was designed to address questions identified in the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) Five-Year-Workplan (STWG 1988). Two goals of the project were identified: (1) assess the use of hatchery chinook salmon to increase natural populations in the Salmon and Clearwater river drainages, and (2) evaluate the genetic and ecological impacts of hatchery chinook salmon on naturally reproducing chinook salmon populations. Four objectives to achieve these goals were developed: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced fish; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; (3) determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity; and (4) develop supplementation recommendations. This document reports on the first five years of the long-term portion of the ISS project. Small-scale studies addressing specific hypotheses of the mechanisms of supplementation effects (e.g., competition, dispersal, and behavior) have been completed. Baseline genetic data have also been collected. Because supplementation broodstock development was to occur during the first five years, little evaluation of supplementation is currently possible. Most supplementation adults did not start to return to study streams until 1997. The objectives of this report are to: (1) present baseline data on production and productivity indicators such as adult escapement, redd counts, parr densities, juvenile emigrant estimates, and juvenile survival to Lower Granite Dam (lower Snake

  6. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  7. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation in ultraendurance triathletes.

    PubMed

    Knez, Wade L; Peake, Jonathan M

    2010-12-01

    Ultraendurance exercise training places large energy demands on athletes and causes a high turnover of vitamins through sweat losses, metabolism, and the musculoskeletal repair process. Ultraendurance athletes may not consume sufficient quantities or quality of food in their diet to meet these needs. Consequently, they may use oral vitamin and mineral supplements to maintain their health and performance. We assessed the vitamin and mineral intake of ultraendurance athletes in their regular diet, in addition to oral vitamin and mineral supplements. Thirty-seven ultraendurance triathletes (24 men and 13 women) completed a 7-day nutrition diary including a questionnaire to determine nutrition adequacy and supplement intake. Compared with dietary reference intakes for the general population, both male and female triathletes met or exceeded all except for vitamin D. In addition, female athletes consumed slightly less than the recommended daily intake for folate and potassium; however, the difference was trivial. Over 60% of the athletes reported using vitamin supplements, of which vitamin C (97.5%), vitamin E (78.3%), and multivitamins (52.2%) were the most commonly used supplements. Almost half (47.8%) the athletes who used supplements did so to prevent or reduce cold symptoms. Only 1 athlete used supplements on formal medical advice. Vitamin C and E supplementation was common in ultraendurance triathletes, despite no evidence of dietary deficiency in these 2 vitamins. PMID:21116023

  8. Defense mechanisms and psychological adjustment in childhood.

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, Marlene J; Cramer, Phebe

    2003-08-01

    The association between maturity of defense use and psychological functioning was assessed in a group of 95 elementary school children. Defense mechanisms were measured using a valid and reliable storytelling task, and psychological adjustment was assessed through a combination of parent and self-report questionnaires. Correlational analyses indicated that children who relied on the developmentally immature defense of denial reported higher levels of self-rated social anxiety and depression and received higher ratings of parent-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. However, children who made use of the developmentally mature defense of identification exhibited higher scores on perceived competence in social, academic, conduct, athletic, and global domains. Significantly, there was no relationship between children's use of denial and their level of perceived competence or between children's use of identification and their degree of maladjustment.

  9. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  10. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  11. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it may also improve other maternal and birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of daily oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (2 July 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 July 2012) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with daily iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results We included 60 trials. Forty-three trials, involving more than 27,402 women, contributed data and compared the effects of daily oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo. Overall, women taking iron supplements were less likely to have low birthweight newborns (below 2500 g) compared with controls (8.4% versus 10.2%, average risk ratio (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.97, 11 trials, 8480 women) and mean birthweight was 30.81 g greater for those infants whose mothers received iron during pregnancy (average mean difference (MD) 30.81; 95% CI 5.94 to 55.68, 14 trials, 9385 women). Preventive iron supplementation reduced the risk of maternal anaemia at term by 70% (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women) and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women

  12. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood sugar and different indices of insulin resistance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi, Mehdi; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to decrease insulin resistance through which it might cause fatty liver. Fatty liver increasingly results in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin resistance and fatty liver are particularly closely related. The aim of present study is to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood sugar and different indices of insulin resistance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Materials and Methods: This randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with NAFLD, who were divided equally into intervention and control groups. Patients in the intervention group received vitamin D3 (50,000 IU) and patients in the control group received placebo capsules every week for 10 weeks. Blood sugar, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and homeostatic model assessment-beta cell (HOMA-B) were checked at baseline and after 10 weeks of the intervention. Adjustment for variables was performed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: Vitamin D supplementation resulted in increased serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) D] concentration in the intervention group compared to the control group [+68 (12) vs. −1.9 (2.44); P = 0.001]. Intake of vitamin D supplements led to a marginally significant decrease in fasting blood glucose [FBS: −12 (4) in the intervention group compared to − 3 (2) in the control group; P = 0.055]. Also, HOMA-IR decreased in the intervention group compared to the control group [−1.75 (0.23) vs. 0.12 (0.41); P = 0.066]. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation resulted in decreased HOMA-IR and FBS concentration in patients with NAFLD; however, it did not affect the insulin level and HOMA-B significantly. PMID:26985230

  13. [Potential interactions between drugs and dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Farghali, Hassan; Kameníková, Ludmila; Hodis, Jiří; Kutinová Canová, Nikolina

    2014-01-01

    Purified active plant constituents were isolated and assessed for their pharmacological activities that constitute a basis of modern drug development. The situation with herbal supplements is different because the extract or dried herb or mixture of herbs contains several substances beside the beneficial one(s) that might produce drug interaction with the conventional medicine(s). Most patients are misinformed and believe that anything "natural" must be safe. This article is focusing on plant-based substances referred as dietary supplements (DS). Examples of reported drug interactions and contraindications associated with DS with two case studies are presented. As supplements are typically not prescribed, many doctors seem to have no interest in drug-DS interactions since a typical medical history of the patients does not include any questions about self-prescribed remedies of this nature. Rather, patients are left alone when they are tempted to try this or that DS and tend to rely on advice from friends, or on material they read on internet. A better quality control, compliance, public awareness and healthcare professionals vigilance for potential interactions are needed. It is of utmost importance to appreciate the impact of supplements on different stages of pharmacokinetics, especially on drug absorption and metabolism.

  14. Nutrition awareness, health practices and dietary supplementation.

    PubMed

    Worsley, A; Crawford, D

    1987-04-01

    A detailed questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of 1000 Melbourne residents in June 1984 in order to assess their understanding of the Australian dietary guidelines. Seven hundred and thirty people returned questionnaires. The respondents were categorized as regular dietary supplementers (RS, n = 245); irregular dietary supplementers (IS, n = 84), or non-supplementers (NS, n = 370). Comparisons of the responses of these groups showed that more RS and IS women reported that they drank alcohol and experienced occupational stress; more RS and IS practised meditation-relaxation, and fewer RS were smokers. More of the RS expressed satisfaction with their nutrient status, whereas more of the IS and NS were dissatisfied about their intakes of fibre, starch, salt, sugar and calories. More of the RS practised a range of specific activities related to both orthodox and non-orthodox dietary recommendations, and they attached greater importance to them for their health. They had also referred to more sources of nutrition information in the year preceding the study. The results suggest that regular dietary supplementers are more oriented toward both orthodox and 'alternative' nutrition information than other people. However, they are likely to be a more receptive audience for nutritional or dietary recommendations, such as the dietary guidelines, than other sections of the general population.

  15. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women from developing countries who have insufficient iron intake to meet increased iron needs of both the mother and the fetus. Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with the provision of daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. one, two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals has recently been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (23 March 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for ongoing studies and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (23 March 2012). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results This review includes 21 trials from 13 different countries, but only 18 trials (with 4072 women) reported on our outcomes of interest and contributed data to the review. All of these studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation. Three studies provided iron alone, 12 iron+folic acid and three more iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals. Their methodological quality was mixed

  16. Dietary supplements and health: the research agenda.

    PubMed

    Coates, Paul M

    2007-01-01

    Research needs to evaluate the role of dietary supplements in human health abound, yet funds to support all of the possible opportunities do not. Government agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the USA, remain the chief sponsors of research in this area. They face the challenge of competing priorities, such as critical disease-oriented research, basic biomedical and technological development, and prevention-related research. Dietary supplements are widely used for health promotion and disease prevention, sometimes with minimal science to support their use. There is a need for focused research efforts to better address issues of efficacy, safety and quality of dietary supplements. At the same time, fundamental studies of their mechanisms of action are needed. In addition, resources to support research in this area are required: on the one hand, basic tools (analytical methods, characterization of ingredients) need to be developed and validated, and on the other, tools to understand patterns of supplement use in populations and study designs to assess their efficacy and safety need refining. These efforts benefit greatly from partnerships among government agencies and with the academic and private sectors.

  17. Dietary supplement use within a multiethnic population as measured by a unique inventory method.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Steffen, Alana D; Yonemori, Kim M; Morimoto, Yukiko; Albright, Cheryl L

    2011-07-01

    Use of dietary supplements is widespread, yet intakes from supplements are difficult to quantify. The Supplement Reporting study utilized a unique inventory method to quantify dietary supplement use across 1 year in a sample of 397 supplement users. Interviewers visited participants' homes in 2005-2006 to record supplement purchases and the number of pills in each supplement bottle every 3 months. Total use for the year was calculated from these inventories. Participants in this observational study were older adults (average age 68 years) from the Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles, CA, with approximately equal representation of men and women and six ethnic groups (white, Japanese American, Hawaiian, African American, Latinos born in the United States, and Latinos born elsewhere). The most commonly used supplement type was one-a-day multivitamins/minerals, which were taken at least once during the year by 83% of men and 73% of women. Other common supplements were vitamin C, fish oil, vitamin E, and bone or joint supplements. Participants used a median of seven (women) and five and a half (men) different supplements during the year. There were few differences in supplement use across ethnic groups for men, but use tended to be highest for white and Japanese-American women. Use of nonvitamin/nonmineral supplements was common among these older adults, sometimes at high doses. When assessing intakes, supplement use should be correctly quantified because users tend to take many different supplements and nutrient intakes from supplements can be substantial. The inventory method may help improve the measurement of supplement use. PMID:21703385

  18. Perceived social support, self-efficacy, and adjustment to abortion.

    PubMed

    Major, B; Cozzarelli, C; Sciacchitano, A M; Cooper, M L; Testa, M; Mueller, P M

    1990-09-01

    Prior to their having a 1st trimester abortion, women's perceptions of social support from their partner, family, and friends and self-efficacy for coping were assessed. Depression, mood, physical complaints, and anticipation of negative consequences were measured after the 30-min recovery period. As predicted, perceived social support enhanced adjustment indirectly through its effects on self-efficacy. Women who perceived high support from their family, friends, and partners had higher self-efficacy for coping. Higher self-efficacy, in turn, predicted better adjustment on the psychological measures but not on the physical complaint measure. No direct path between social support and adjustment was observed. In addition, women who told close others of their abortion but perceived them as less than completely supportive had poorer postabortion psychological adjustment than either women who did not tell or women who told and perceived complete support.

  19. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in infants with CP.

    PubMed

    Hadders-Algra, M; van der Fits, I B; Stremmelaar, E F; Touwen, B C

    1999-11-01

    The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment consisted of a simultaneous recording of video data and surface EMGs of arm, neck, trunk, and leg muscles during reaching in various lying and sitting positions. The basic organization of postural adjustments of the children developing spastic CP was intact. Their main problem was a deficient capacity to modulate the postural adjustments to task-specific constraints - a deficit which was attributed to a combination of an impaired motor coordination and deficits in sensory integration. The child with spastic-dyskinetic CP showed distinct abnormalities in the basic organization of postural adjustments. PMID:10576641

  20. Rural Elderly: Impact of Social, Psychological Health and Demographic Experiences on Adjustment in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, R.; And Others

    An amended form of the Older American's Status and Needs Assessment Questionnaire assessed the prevalence of adjustment, as measured by the Bradburn Affect Scale, in a random stratified sample of 301 female and 140 male elderly rural residents in Allegany County, New York. The relationship between adjustment and biosocial, demographic, social, and…

  1. Vitamin D supplementation in athletes.

    PubMed

    Larson-Meyer, Enette

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that vitamin D is necessary for optimal bone health. Emerging evidence is finding that vitamin D deficiency can have a profound effect on immunity, inflammation and muscle function. Studies in athletes have found that vitamin D status varies among different populations and is dependent on skin color, early- or late-day training, indoor training and geographic location. Although dietary assessment studies have found that athletes worldwide do not meet the dietary intake recommendations for vitamin D, the most probable reason for poor status is inadequate synthesis due to lack of sun exposure. Studies in athletic populations suggest that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may reduce stress fractures, total body inflammation, common infectious illnesses, and impaired muscle function, and may also aid in recovery from injury. Given that compromised vitamin D status can potentially impact an athlete's overall health and training efficiency, vitamin D status should be routinely assessed so that athletes can be coached to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≥30 and preferably ≥40 ng/ml. Recommendations will be dependent on the athlete's current 25(OH)D concentration, but can include regular safe sun exposure and/or dietary supplementation combined with increased vitamin D intake. PMID:23765355

  2. 20 CFR 345.118 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... calendar year because of an error that does not constitute a compensation adjustment as defined in... compensation adjustment as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, the employer shall adjust the error by... compensation, proper adjustments with respect to the contributions shall be made, without interest,...

  3. 20 CFR 345.118 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... calendar year because of an error that does not constitute a compensation adjustment as defined in... compensation adjustment as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, the employer shall adjust the error by... compensation, proper adjustments with respect to the contributions shall be made, without interest,...

  4. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  5. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  6. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  7. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  8. Assessment of chromium content of feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effects of dietary chromium supplementation on nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in summer-exposed buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Muneendra; Kaur, Harjit; Tyagi, Amrish; Mani, Veena; Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Chandra, Gulab; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the chromium content of different feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effect of dietary Cr supplementation on nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in buffalo calves during summer season. Levels of Cr was higher in cultivated fodder, moderate in cakes and cereal grains, while straw, grasses, and non-conventional feeds were poor in Cr content. To test the effect of Cr supplementation in buffalo calves, 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm of inorganic Cr were fed to 24 buffalo calves. Buffalo calves were randomly assigned to four treatments (n = 6) and raised for 120 days. A metabolic trial for a period of 7 days was conducted after 3 months of dietary treatments. Blood samples were collected at fortnight interval for plasma mineral estimation. The results suggested that dietary Cr supplementation in summer did not have any affects (P > 0.05) on feed consumption, growth performance, nitrogen balance, and physiological variables. However, dietary Cr supplementation had significant effect (P < 0.05) on balance and plasma Cr (ppb) levels without affecting (P > 0.05) balance and plasma levels of other trace minerals. The estimated Cr requirement of buffalo calves during summer season was calculated to be 0.044 mg/kg body mass and 10.37 ppm per day. In conclusion, dietary Cr supplementation has regardless effect on feed consumption, mass gain, and nutrient utilization in buffalo calves reared under heat stress conditions. However, supplementation of Cr had positive effect on its balance and plasma concentration without interacting with other trace minerals. PMID:23963742

  9. Performance-enhancing supplements.

    PubMed

    Pecci, M A; Lombardo, J A

    2000-11-01

    Supplements that are marketed as ergogenic aids have achieved widespread use in the United States. In image-conscious society, these agents are not only being consumed by athletes, but also by those looking for a quick fix to enhance their appearance. Many assume that the performance claims made by the manufacturers are based on actual data, and that these agents must be safe because they are sold to the general public. Unfortunately, in most cases these assumptions are false. Creatine has become very popular, particularly among college and high school athletes. Studies within the last 5 years have shown that creatine does seem to have certain ergogenic benefits in a laboratory setting. It is not currently known whether these benefits actually can be transferred to the playing field. Although creatine has not consistently been shown to cause any major side effects, there is some question regarding creatine's effect on the kidneys, particularly with long-term use. Also, the safety of supplementation in children and adolescents has not been examined at all; its use in this population should be discouraged until there are more data. Androstenedione is an agent that has received a large amount of popular press in the last year, and this has led to an surge in its usage. It is believed to exert its ergogenic effects through conversion to testosterone. But what limited data are available suggest that at the recommended dosage, it does not cause any measurable change in testosterone levels, or provide any ergogenic benefit in inexperienced weight lifters. Also, it has yet to be determined whether androstenedione causes any of the side effects often attributed to use of the illegal anabolic steroids. Its mechanism of action suggests it has the potential to cause many of these negative effects. Studies are just beginning to appear in the literature, and certainly more data need to be gathered before androstenedione supplementation can be recommended for use as an ergogenic

  10. [Interpersonal motivation in a First Year Experience class influences freshmen's university adjustment].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Rumiko; Nakanishi, Yoshifumi; Nagahama, Fumiyo; Nakajima, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined the influence of interpersonal motivation on university adjustment in freshman students enrolled in a First Year Experience (FYE) class. An interpersonal motivation scale and a university adjustment (interpersonal adjustment and academic adjustment) scale were administered twice to 116 FYE students; data from the 88 students who completed both surveys were analyzed. Results from structural equation modeling indicated a causal relationship between interpersonal, motivation and university adjustment: interpersonal adjustment served as a mediator between academic adjustment and interpersonal motivation, the latter of which was assessed using the internalized motivation subscale of the Interpersonal Motivation Scale as well as the Relative Autonomy Index, which measures the autonomy in students' interpersonal attitudes. Thus, revising the FYE class curriculum to include approaches to lowering students' feelings of obligation and/or anxiety in their interpersonal interactions might improve their adjustment to university.

  11. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products. PMID:26642690

  12. Relationship of cognitive function and adjustment difficulties among children and adolescents with dissociative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Mehta, Manju; Sagar, Rajesh; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Although it has been suggested that children and adolescents with dissociative disorder have some cognitive deficits, the association of these cognitive impairments with adjustment difficulties has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive functioning and adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents with dissociative disorder. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive assessment was carried out in the outpatient setting of child and adolescent psychiatric service in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty newly diagnosed children and adolescents with dissociative disorder were included. The cognitive functions were assessed by varied neuropsychological tests, and Bell's adjustment inventory was used for assessing various domains of adjustment. Results: The mean age of the sample which comprised 40% males was 13.0 (±2.4) years. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of the sample was 90.6. Impairment in cognitive test was maximum for verbal working memory followed by sustained attention, visual learning and memory, and verbal retention and recall. Adjustment difficulties were greatest in the domains of self, followed by domains of health, school, and family. Significant association was found between the IQ and adjustment in school; visual learning and memory and adjustments in school and overall adjustment; and sustained attention and adjustment of health. Conclusions: Dissociative children have poor cognitive ability which may be related to poor adjustment scores. PMID:27114655

  13. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  14. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  15. Supplemental fuel vapor system

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, P.M.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes a supplemental fuel system utilizing fuel vapor. It comprises: an internal combustion engine including a carburetor and an intake manifold; a fuel tank provided with air vents; a fuel conduit having a first end connected to the fuel tank and in communication with liquid fuel in the tank and a second end connected to the carburetor; the fuel conduit delivering the liquid fuel to the carburetor from the fuel tank; a fuel vapor conduit having a first end connected to the fuel tank at a location displaced from contact with the liquid fuel and a second end connected to a carbon canister; a PCV conduit having a first end connected to a pollution control valve and a second end connected to the intake manifold; and, an intermediate fuel vapor conduit having a first end connected to the fuel vapor conduit and a second end connected to the PCV conduit; wherein the air vents continuously provide air to the tank to mix with the liquid fuel and form fuel vapor. The fuel vapor drawn from the fuel tank by vacuum developed in the intake manifold and flows through the fuel vapor conduit. The intermediate fuel vapor conduit and the intake manifold to combustion chambers of the internal combustion engine so as to supplement fuel delivered to the engine by the fuel conduit. The liquid fuel and the fuel vapor constantly delivered to the engine during normal operation.

  16. Stable isotope aided evaluation of community nutrition program: effect of food supplementation schemes on maternal and infant nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Cissé, Aïta Sarr; Dossou, Nicole; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Guèye, Amadou Lamine; Diop, El Hadji Issakha; Diaham, Babou; Guiro, Amadou Tidiane; Cissé, Djibril; Sarr, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Wade, Salimata

    2002-09-01

    The supplementation program of the community nutrition project (PNC) launched by the Senegalese Government in order to protect the most vulnerable groups (children and women) was evaluated. Using a stable isotope (deuterium), we assessed the effect of the PNC on breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and baby's growth at three months of lactation. Breastmilk triglycerides, lactose, protein, and zinc were also determined. Mothers who were supplemented more than 60 days during pregnancy showed a significant increase in fat-free mass as compared to those who were supplemented for less than 30 days (p = .03). Breastmilk output was not influenced by the supplementation, but breastmilk lactose, total protein, and zinc contents increased significantly (p < .01) in the supplemented mothers. Growth of the babies of the supplemented mothers was better than that of those whose mothers were not supplemented. It was concluded that the food supplementation had beneficial effects on both mothers' and babies' nutritional status depending on the onset of the supplementation.

  17. Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982): Assessment of New Findings on Sulfur Dioxide and Acute Exposure Health Effects in Asthmatic Individuals (1994)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to the document Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982) focuses on evaluation of newly available controlled human exposure studies of acute (a\\1h) sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure effects on pulmonary ...

  18. Masters Swimmers Use More Dietary Supplements Than a Large National Comparison Population in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Sally K; Erickson, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    The use of dietary supplements was compared between a cohort of committed exercisers, U.S. Masters Swimming (USMS) members (n = 1,042), and the general U.S. population, exemplified by respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2009 to 2010 (n = 6,209). USMS swimmers were significantly more likely to take dietary supplements (62%) than the general U.S. adult population, as represented by the NHANES population (37%). Those taking dietary supplements were older, more likely to be female and Caucasian, and more highly educated and affluent than those not taking supplements (p < .001 for all). When adjusted for age, race, gender, annual income, and education, masters swimmers were still more likely (p < .001) to use dietary supplements than the NHANES cohort. In addition, masters swimmers were significantly more likely (p < .001) to use either creatine or dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone than those in the NHANES cohort.

  19. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.24 Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions...

  20. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.24 Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions...