Science.gov

Sample records for adjusting supplemental assessment

  1. 78 FR 39632 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports (2013 Amendment)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... the Federal Register (77 FR 51867) for the purpose of calculating assessments on imported cotton is $0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1205 Cotton Board Rules and Regulations... Register), amending the Cotton Board Rules and Regulations by decreasing the value assigned to...

  2. 24 CFR 700.170 - Reserve for supplemental adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reserve for supplemental adjustment. 700.170 Section 700.170 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  3. 27 CFR 70.73 - Supplemental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Supplemental assessments... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Assessment § 70.73 Supplemental assessments. If any assessment is... period of limitation, may make a supplemental assessment for the purpose of correcting or completing...

  4. 27 CFR 70.73 - Supplemental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplemental assessments... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Assessment § 70.73 Supplemental assessments. If any assessment is... period of limitation, may make a supplemental assessment for the purpose of correcting or completing...

  5. 5 CFR 9901.333 - Setting and adjusting local market supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and adjusting local market... DEFENSE NATIONAL SECURITY PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Local Market Supplements § 9901.333 Setting and adjusting local market supplements. (a) Standard local market supplements are...

  6. 5 CFR 9901.334 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a supplement adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) When a local market supplement is adjusted under § 9901.333, employees to whom the supplement applies...” will not receive a pay increase under this section (i.e., the employee's local market supplement... employee is entitled to the full amount of any applicable local market supplement effective on the date...

  7. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year`s objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  8. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project : Status Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown author

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  9. 75 FR 3187 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Inflation Adjustment of Acquisition-Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... case 2004-D022. The final rule was published in the Federal Register on December 19, 2006 (71 FR 75891..., 232, 237, 246, 250, 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Inflation Adjustment of...-related thresholds for inflation using the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for all-urban consumers....

  10. 77 FR 52252 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Inflation Adjustment of Threshold for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... published an interim rule in the Federal Register at 77 FR 19127 on March 30, 2012, to implement section 814... Change 0 Accordingly, the interim rule amending 48 CFR parts 201 and 212, which was published at 77 FR... Regulation Supplement: Inflation Adjustment of Threshold for Acquisition of Right-Hand Drive Passenger...

  11. 77 FR 19127 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Inflation Adjustment of Threshold for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Regulation Supplement; Inflation Adjustment of Threshold for Acquisition of Right-Hand Drive Passenger Sedans... Year 2012 that requires that the statutory limitation on the acquisition of right-hand drive passenger... limitation established in 10 U.S.C. 2253(a)(2) for the acquisition of right-hand drive passenger sedans...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.335 - Eligibility for pay increase associated with a supplement adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... with a supplement adjustment. 9701.335 Section 9701.335 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality...

  13. Supplemental Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment - Hydrotreater

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-04-01

    A supplemental hazard analysis was conducted and quantitative risk assessment performed in response to an independent review comment received by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from the U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest Field Office (PNSO) against the Hydrotreater/Distillation Column Hazard Analysis Report issued in April 2013. The supplemental analysis used the hazardous conditions documented by the previous April 2013 report as a basis. The conditions were screened and grouped for the purpose of identifying whether additional prudent, practical hazard controls could be identified, using a quantitative risk evaluation to assess the adequacy of the controls and establish a lower level of concern for the likelihood of potential serious accidents. Calculations were performed to support conclusions where necessary.

  14. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Faurot, Keturah R.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gardiner, Paula; Rivera, José O.; Young, Laura A.; Poole, Charles; Whitsel, Eric A.; González, Hector M.; Chirinos-Medina, Diana A.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Barnhart, Janice; Giacinto, Rebeca E.; Van Horn, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Although dietary supplement use is common, its assessment is challenging, especially among ethnic minority populations such as Hispanics/Latinos. Using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (n = 16,415), this report compares two strategies for capturing dietary supplement use over a 30-day period: a medication-based inventory and a nutrition-based dietary supplement interview. Age-standardized prevalence was calculated across multiple dietary supplement definitions, adjusted with survey/nonresponse weights. The prevalence of dietary supplement use was substantially higher as measured in the dietary supplement interview, compared to the medication inventory: for total dietary supplements (39% vs 26%, respectively), for nonvitamin, nonmineral supplements (24% vs 12%), and for botanicals (9.2% vs 4.5%). Concordance between the two assessments was fair to moderate (Cohen’s kappa: 0.31–0.52). Among women, inclusion of botanical teas increased the prevalence of botanical supplement use from 7% to 15%. Supplement assessment that includes queries about botanical teas yields more information about patient supplement use. PMID:26917949

  15. 26 CFR 301.6204-1 - Supplemental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supplemental assessments. 301.6204-1 Section... AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6204-1 Supplemental assessments. If any assessment is incomplete or incorrect in any material respect, the district director...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6204-1 - Supplemental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplemental assessments. 301.6204-1 Section... AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6204-1 Supplemental assessments. If any assessment is incomplete or incorrect in any material respect, the district director...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6204-1 - Supplemental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplemental assessments. 301.6204-1 Section... AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301.6204-1 Supplemental assessments. If any assessment is incomplete or incorrect in any material respect, the district director...

  18. Assessing Vitamin D Levels in Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D is a nutrient of public health concern, particularly in the elderly, and is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is essential for bone growth and bone remodeling and recent research indicates it has other roles in human health, includi...

  19. Assessing geomorphic sensitivity in relation to river capacity for adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, H. E.; Brierley, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    River sensitivity describes the nature and rate of channel adjustments. An approach to analysis of geomorphic river sensitivity outlined in this paper relates potential sensitivity based on the expected capacity of adjustment for a river type to the recent history of channel adjustment. This approach was trialled to assess low, moderate and high geomorphic sensitivity for four different types of river (10 reaches in total) along the Lower Tongariro River, North Island, New Zealand. Building upon the River Styles framework, river types were differentiated based upon valley setting (width and confinement), channel planform, geomorphic unit assemblages and bed material size. From this, the behavioural regime and potential for adjustment (type and extent) were determined. Historical maps and aerial photographs were geo-rectified and the channel planform digitised to assess channel adjustments for each reach from 1928 to 2007. Floodplain width controlled by terraces, exerted a strong influence upon reach scale sensitivity for the partly-confined, wandering, cobble-bed river. Although forced boundaries occur infrequently, the width of the active channel zone is constrained. An unconfined braided river reach directly downstream of the terrace-confined section was the most geomorphically sensitive reach. The channel in this reach adjusted recurrently to sediment inputs that were flushed through more confined, better connected upstream reaches. A meandering, sand-bed river in downstream reaches has exhibited negligible rates of channel migration. However, channel narrowing in this reach and the associated delta indicate that the system is approaching a threshold condition, beyond which channel avulsion is likely to occur. As this would trigger more rapid migration, this reach is considered to be more geomorphically sensitive than analysis of its low migration rate alone would indicate. This demonstrates how sensitivity is fashioned both by the behavioural regime of a reach

  20. Assessing adult adjustment to relationship separation: the Psychological Adjustment to Separation Test (PAST).

    PubMed

    Sweeper, Susie; Halford, Kim

    2006-12-01

    Relationship separation is associated with substantial adult adjustment problems. The Psychological Adjustment to Separation Test (PAST) was developed as a self-report measure of 3 key dimensions of separation adjustment problems: lonely negativity, ex-partner attachment and coparenting conflict. Two independent samples (n = 219 and n = 169, respectively) of recently separated adults, 60% of whom had children, completed the PAST and other measures of general adjustment. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a replicable 3-factor structure, with each factor showing satisfactory test-retest and internal reliability and good convergent and discriminant validity. The PAST meets initial criteria for a potentially useful new measure of adult separation adjustment. PMID:17176198

  1. Assessing infant cognitive development after prenatal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Martha Ann; Ross, Alleyne P; Goodman, Gay

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available on infant behavioral development outcomes of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Studies performed to date, all of which relied on global developmental assessments, have yielded inconsistent findings with regard to psychomotor development, negative findings with regard to mental development, and no information as to the development of specific cognitive functions. Our review of these studies leads us to suspect that the use of global developmental assessments might partially explain the negative and inconsistent findings. To identify cognitive processes that might be sensitive to prenatal iodine supplementation, we examined the timing of thyroid hormone action on specific brain systems. The development of infant visual attention is sensitive to thyroid hormone during the early prenatal period, when the fetus is entirely dependent on maternal thyroid hormone. For this reason, infant visual attention has the potential to be a sensitive measure of infant outcomes in prenatal iodine supplementation studies. We suggest the assessment of infant visual attention, with follow-up examination of childhood executive functions, as a means of capturing the effects of maternal iodine deficiency and prenatal iodine supplementation on specific cognitive processes. In particular, we propose comparison of infant performance on global developmental tests and specialized tests of visual attention in pilot trials of prenatal iodine supplementation in regions of mild to moderate iodine deficiency. Only by comparing the 2 types of tests side by side will it be possible to establish whether the use of a sensitive measure of infant visual attention will increase the reliability of such supplementation studies. Recognizing that exposure misclassification may also provide a partial explanation for the inconsistent neurodevelopmental outcomes in previous studies, we suggest that urinary iodine concentration or

  2. Quantification of chromatographic effects of vitamin B supplementation in urine and implications for hydration assessment.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Heavens, K R; Dennis, W E; Caruso, E M; Guerriere, K I; Charkoudian, N; Cheuvront, S N

    2015-07-15

    Changes in body water elicit reflex adjustments at the kidney, thus maintaining fluid volume homeostasis. These renal adjustments change the concentration and color of urine, variables that can, in turn, be used as biomarkers of hydration status. It has been suggested that vitamin supplementation alters urine color; it is unclear whether any such alteration would confound hydration assessment via colorimetric evaluation. We tested the hypothesis that overnight vitamin B2 and/or B12 supplementation alters urine color as a marker of hydration status. Thirty healthy volunteers were monitored during a 3-day euhydrated baseline, confirmed via first morning nude body mass, urine specific gravity, and urine osmolality. Volunteers then randomly received B2 (n = 10), B12 (n = 10), or B2 + B12 (n = 10) at ∼200 × recommended dietary allowance. Euhydration was verified on trial days (two of the following: body mass ± 1.0% of the mean of visits 1-3, urine specific gravity < 1.02, urine osmolality < 700 mmol/kg). Vitamin purity and urinary B2 concentration ([B2]) and [B12] were quantified via ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Two independent observers assessed urine color using an eight-point standardized color chart. Following supplementation, urinary [B2] was elevated; however, urine color was not different between nonsupplemented and supplemented trials. For example, in the B2 trial, urinary [B2] increased from 8.6 × 10(4) ± 7.7 × 10(4) to 5.7 × 10(6) ± 5.3 × 10(6) nmol/l (P < 0.05), and urine color went from 4 ± 1 to 5 ± 1 (P > 0.05). Both conditions met the euhydrated color classification. We conclude that a large overnight dose of vitamins B2 and B12 does not confound assessment of euhydrated status via urine color. PMID:25977447

  3. SIDS Family Adjustment Scale: A Method of Assessing Family Adjustment to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Harold J.; Breme, Frederick J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and the family's resultant grief process. Explores SIDS as a family crisis, and by identifying the psychological factors or tasks pertinent to family adjustment, proposes a SIDS Family Adjustment Scale which assists in recognizing adaptive and maladaptive grief responses. (Author)

  4. An Assessment of Vitamin Supplements in the Indian Market

    PubMed Central

    Chugh, Preeta K.; Lhamo, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from an annual Drug Compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. A large number of vitamin supplements are available in the Indian market. It includes single-ingredient products and various combinations of vitamins, minerals, and other constituents. Among single products, the maximum number was that of vitamin D3 (n=150). Most of the supplements are available as combinations (76.49%), with vitamin-minerals combinations constituting the maximum number. In a large number of products, amount of the vitamins was not specified. The most common formulation for oral administration was capsules (34.1%). In our research, majority of the supplements contained nutrient amounts higher than the recommended intakes recommended dietary allowance. Unsupervised intake of vitamins can pose a serious health risk in the susceptible population. The composition and amount of each constituent in the dietary supplement should be detailed and properly labelled for each preparation. Availability of a large number of preparations with unknown composition as ‘over the counter’ agents requires a serious review of the legal provisions in India for drug manufacturing and marketing. There is a need for proper guidelines and regulations for the manufacturing, labelling and marketing of dietary supplements in India. Strict enforcement of such provisions is essential to safeguard the health of the population at large. PMID:23716879

  5. 5 CFR 9701.334 - Setting and adjusting locality and special rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... special rate supplements. 9701.334 Section 9701.334 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality...

  6. 75 FR 45072 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Inflation Adjustment of Acquisition-Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... (71 FR 75891). This is the second review of DFARS acquisition-related thresholds. DoD published a proposed rule on January 20, 2010 (75 FR 3187). The preamble to the proposed rule contained a detailed...; Inflation Adjustment of Acquisition-Related Thresholds (DFARS Case 2009-D003) AGENCY: Defense...

  7. Development and Preliminary Validation of Diabetes Adjustment Assessment Scale (DAAS): a New Measure of Adjustment with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Namdar Areshtanab, Hossein; Jouybari, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several adjustment scales are available for Diabetes, but, unfortunately most of them focused on the limited dimensions of diabetes and are not specific for type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to develop a multidimensional scale for Diabetes type 2 Adjustment Assessment and to test preliminary validity, reliability and clinical utility of the scale for this population. Methods: In this methodological design study, the Diabetes Adjustment Assessment Scale was developed and the psychometric properties of this scale was assessed in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This study included internal consistency, content validity and exploratory factor analysis. Results: 1000 patients with type 2 diabetes completed the 45-item Diabetes Adjustment Scale. After eliminating two item, the 43-item measure demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α= 0.75). Factor analysis identified eight factors including; reshape (11 questions), seek to acceptance of illness (7 questions), normal life with the disease (6 questions), initial self-management (2 questions), comparing (4 questions), initial imaging of illness (4 questions), return to resources(3 questions), and advanced self- management (6 questions). Conclusion: Considering that validity and reliability indexes of the scale are reported in an appropriate level, it can be used as a valid and reliable tool in measuring level of adjustment with type2 diabetes. PMID:27354978

  8. Uncertainty Assessment for Fast Reactors Based on Nuclear Data Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, T.; Ivanov, E.; Ecrabet, F.

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents IRSN's results of the OECD/NEA WPEC Subgroup 33 benchmark exercise which is focused upon combined use of differential and integral data using adjustment technique. The results are generated by BERING code using different sets of input data: integral parameters and sensitivity coefficients for fast benchmark experiments and applications computed by deterministic ERANOS code and Monte Carlo SCALE sequences, COMMARA-2.0 and JENDL-4.0 cross-section-covariance data and integral correlations provided by JAEA. The paper demonstrates results of the adjustment when using different input data and two adjustment algorithms implemented in BERING.

  9. Self-adjustable supplemental support system for a cylindrical container in a housing

    DOEpatents

    Blaushild, Ronald M.

    1987-01-01

    A self-adjustable supplementary support system for a cylindrical container coaxially disposed in a cylindrical housing by upper flanged supports has a plurality of outwardly extending bracket units on the external surface of the container which coact with inwardly extending resiliently outwardly extending bracket units on the inner wall of the cylindrical housing. The bracket units have flanges which form a concave surface that seats on support bars, attached by links to torsion bars that are secured to ring segments annularly spaced about the inner wall of the cylindrical housing and the bracket units and support bars coact with each other to radially position and support the container in the housing during movement of the two components from a vertical to a horizontal position, and during transportation of the same.

  10. Self-adjustable supplemental support system for a cylindrical container in a housing

    DOEpatents

    Blaushild, R.M.

    1987-01-30

    A self-adjustable supplementary support system for a cylindrical container coaxially disposed in a cylindrical housing by upper flanged supports has a plurality of outwardly extending bracket units on the external surface of the container which coact with inwardly extending resiliently outwardly extending bracket units on the inner wall of the cylindrical housing. The bracket units have flanges which form a concave surface that seats on support bars, attached by links to torsion bars that are secured to ring segments annularly spaced about the inner wall of the cylindrical housing and the bracket units and support bars coact with each other to radially position and support the container in the housing during movement of the two components from a vertical to a horizontal position, and during transportation of the same. 14 figs.

  11. Environmental assessment and management (TEAM) guide. Louisiana supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rouke, C.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, Defense Logistics Agency, and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Since 1984, the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL), in cooperation with numerous Department of Defense (DoD) components, have developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DoD Components. Currently there are five participating DoD Components: the Air Force, Air National Guard, Army, Civil Works, and Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this Guide. The Guide combines Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and management practices (MPs) into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. TEAM Guide is supplemented by DoD component-specific manuals detailing DoD component regulations and policies. The Louisiana Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the TEAM Guide, using existing Louisiana state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  12. Environment assessment and management (team) guide - Mississippi supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rourke, C.; Twait, S.

    1995-03-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, Defense Logistics Agency, and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since 1984, the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL), in cooperation with numerous Department of Defense (DOD) components, has developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DOD Components. Currently there are five participating DOD Components: the Air Force, Air National Guard, Army, Civil Works, and Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this Guide. The Guide combines Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and management practices (MPs) into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. TEAM Guide is supplemented by DOD component-specific manuals detailing DOD component regulations and policies. The Mississippi Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the TEAM Guide, using existing Mississippi state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  13. The environmental assessment and management (TEAM) guide, Idaho supplement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rouke, C.

    1998-04-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The US Air Force, US Army, Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Since 1984, the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories, in cooperation with numerous Department of Defense (DOD) components, has developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DOD components. Currently there are five participating DOD components: the Air Force, Air National Guard, Army, Civil Works, and DLA. These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this Guide. The Guide combines Code of Federal Regulations and management practices into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. TEAM Guide is supplemented by DOD component-specific manuals detailing DOD component regulations and policies. The Idaho Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the TEAM Guide, using existing Idaho state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  14. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). Hawaii supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, C.; Gifford, L.A.

    1994-07-01

    In response to the growing number of environmental laws and regulations worldwide, the U.S. Army has adopted an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in 1985, Major Army Commands (MACOMs) were required to conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle. The installations must also conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM was developing a separate assessment system, the Army mandated, through Army Regulation 200-1, one unified Army-wide assessment mechanism. The resulting system combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations, along with good management practices and risk management information, into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and which specific items or operations to review. Each assessment protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review the checklist items as effectively as possible. The Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates existing checklists from USEPA and private industry. The Hawaii Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the U.S. ECAS manual, using existing Hawaii state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS), Environmental law--Hawaii, Environmental checklists.

  15. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) - Wisconsin supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, C.; Gifford, L.A.

    1994-02-01

    In response to the growing number of environmental laws and regulations worldwide, the U.S. Army has adopted an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in 1985, Major Army Commands (MACOMs) were required to conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle. The installations must also conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM was developing a separate assessment system, the Army mandated, through Army Regulation 200-1, one unified Army-wide assessment mechanism. The resulting system combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations, along with good management practices and risk management information, into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and which specific items or operations to review. Each assessment protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review the checklist items as effectively as possible. The Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates existing checklists from USEPA and private industry. The Wisconsin Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the U.S. ECAS manual, using existing Wisconsin state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS), Environmental compliance checklists, Environmental Law - Wisconsin.

  16. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): New Tool for Assessing Nutrient Intake from Dietary Supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate information on the nutrient composition of dietary supplements is essential for determining their contribution to dietary intake. This year, the preliminary release of dietary supplement composition information is now available for researchers' use in evaluating diet and health interrelatio...

  17. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) - Oregon supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, C.; Gifford, L.A.

    1994-04-01

    In response to the growing number of environmental laws and regulations worldwide, the U.S. Army has adopted an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in 1985, Major Army Commands (MACOMs) were required to conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle. The installations must also conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM was developing a separate assessment system, the Army mandated, through Army Regulation 200-1, one unified Army-wide assessment mechanism. The resulting system combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations, along with good management practices and risk management information, into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and specific items or operations to review. Each assessment protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review the checklist items as effectively as possible. The Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates existing checklists from USEPA and private industry. The Oregon Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the U.S. ECAS manual, using existing Oregon state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  18. 26 CFR 301.6501(m)-1 - Tentative carryback adjustment assessment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... period. 301.6501(m)-1 Section 301.6501(m)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Assessment and Collection § 301.6501(m)-1 Tentative carryback adjustment assessment period. (a) Period of limitation after tentative carryback adjustment. (1) Under section 6501(m), in a case where an amount...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6501(m)-1 - Tentative carryback adjustment assessment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... period. 301.6501(m)-1 Section 301.6501(m)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Assessment and Collection § 301.6501(m)-1 Tentative carryback adjustment assessment period. (a) Period of limitation after tentative carryback adjustment. (1) Under section 6501(m), in a case where an amount...

  20. Supplemental mathematical formulations: The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Strenge, D.L.; Hoopes, B.L.; Walter, M.B.; Knight, R.L.; Brown, S.M.

    1989-12-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is a methodology for assessing relative health impacts from the release of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials. MEPAS is an enhanced version of the Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS). This document, a supplement to the RAPS documentation, contains an overview of MEPAS followed by detailed discussions of enhancements. MEPAS provides outputs of health impact parameters for use in ranking and screening applications. Environmental contaminant concentrations are used to estimate potential health impacts based on major exposure pathways. Enhancements to the groundwater, surface water, overland, atmospheric, and exposure components are documented. These enhancements include a revision in the integration method for the waterborne pathway, a wetland component, a gaseous emission (volatilization) component, an atmospheric complex terrain component, mass budget formulations, and environmental decay of chemical constituents. Several new exposure components are described along with enhancements to the exposure pathways computations. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Adjusting an Available Online Peer Support Platform in a Program to Supplement the Treatment of Perinatal Depression and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Schueller, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    Background Perinatal depression and anxiety are common and debilitating conditions. Novel, cost effective services could improve the uptake and the impact of mental health resources among women who suffer from these conditions. E-mental health products are one example of such services. Many publically available e-mental health products exist, but these products lack validation and are not designed to be integrated into existing health care settings. Objective The objective of the study was to present a program to use 7 Cups of Tea (7Cups), an available technological platform that provides online peer (ie, listener) based emotional support, to supplement treatment for women experiencing perinatal depression or anxiety and to summarize patient’s feedback on the resultant program. Methods This study consisted of two stages. First, five clinicians specializing in the treatment of perinatal mood disorders received an overview of 7Cups. They provided feedback on the 7Cups platform and ways it could complement the existing treatment efforts to inform further adjustments. In the second stage, nine women with perinatal depression or anxiety used the platform for a single session and provided feedback. Results In response to clinicians’ feedback, guidelines for referring patients to use 7Cups as a supplement for treatment were created, and a training program for listeners was developed. Patients found the platform usable and useful and their attitudes toward the trained listeners were positive. Overall, patients noted a need for support outside the scheduled therapy time and believed that freely available online emotional support could help meet this need. Most patients were interested in receiving support from first time mothers and those who suffered in the past from perinatal mood disorders. Conclusions The study results highlight the use of 7Cups as a tool to introduce accessible and available support into existing treatment for women who suffer from perinatal mood

  2. 76 FR 74806 - Adjustment of the Amount of an Administrative Costs Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Adjustment of the Amount of an Administrative Costs Assessment AGENCY: Bureau of... decreasing the amount of the administrative costs assessment set forth in the Acreage Limitation Rules and... administrative costs assessment is being decreased to $230. DATES: The decrease in the amount of...

  3. 76 FR 77019 - Final Adjusted Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals: Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 56807). That notice proposed to adjust the 2011 assessment of... calculation methodology previously described in the 2010 and 2011 assessment of annual needs (74 FR 60294 and 75 FR 79407 respectively). DEA considered changes in demand, changes in the national rate of...

  4. What Counts as a Reasonable Adjustment? Dyslexic Students and the Concept of Fair Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the construction of dyslexia in higher education and explores the nature of negotiations between students, lecturers and academic institutions over diagnosis, support and assessment. Disabled students are now entitled, under the terms of the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA), to reasonable adjustments in assessment.…

  5. MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT. VOLUME I. SUPPLEMENT A

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report supplements Volume I (PB-276 919) of the two-volume 1977 EPA report that introduced a methodology to establish Multimedia Environmental Goals (MEGs) for chemical pollutants. It summarizes the original methodology and introduces minor improvements. Improvements include ...

  6. Assessment of nutrient supplement to reduce gentamicin-induced ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Le Prell, C G; Ojano-Dirain, C; Rudnick, E W; Nelson, M A; DeRemer, S J; Prieskorn, D M; Miller, J M

    2014-06-01

    Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat gram-negative bacterial infections. Treatment with this antibiotic carries the potential for adverse side effects, including ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Ototoxic effects are at least in part a consequence of oxidative stress, and various antioxidants have been used to attenuate gentamicin-induced hair cell death and hearing loss. Here, a combination of nutrients previously shown to reduce oxidative stress in the hair cells and attenuate hearing loss after other insults was evaluated for potential protection against gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. Guinea pigs were maintained on a nutritionally complete standard laboratory animal diet or a diet supplemented with β-carotene, vitamins C and E, and magnesium. Three diets with iterative increases in nutrient levels were screened; the final diet selected for study use was one that produced statistically reliable increases in plasma levels of vitamins C and E and magnesium. In two separate studies, significant decreases in gentamicin-induced hearing loss at frequencies including 12 kHz and below were observed, with less benefit at the higher frequencies. Consistent with the functional protection, robust protection of both the inner and outer hair cell populations was observed, with protection largely in the upper half of the cochlea. Protection was independently assessed in two different laboratories, using two different strains of guinea pigs. Additional in vitro tests did not reveal any decrease in antimicrobial activity with nutrient additives. Currently, there are no FDA-approved treatments for the prevention of gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. The current data provide a rationale for continued investigations regarding translation to human patients. PMID:24590390

  7. Dietary supplement use and smoking are important correlates of biomarkers of water-soluble vitamin status after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Rybak, Michael E

    2013-06-01

    Biochemical indicators of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) status were measured in a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population in NHANES 2003-2006. To examine whether demographic differentials in nutritional status were related to and confounded by certain variables, we assessed the association of sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, income) and lifestyle (dietary supplement use, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity) variables with biomarkers of WSV status in adults (aged ≥ 20 y): serum and RBC folate, serum pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), serum 4-pyridoxic acid, serum total cobalamin (vitamin B-12), plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA), and serum ascorbic acid. Age (except for PLP) and smoking (except for MMA) were generally the strongest significant correlates of these biomarkers (|r| ≤ 0.43) and together with supplement use explained more of the variability compared with the other covariates in bivariate analysis. In multiple regression models, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables together explained from 7 (vitamin B-12) to 29% (tHcy) of the biomarker variability. We observed significant associations for most biomarkers (≥ 6 of 8) with age, sex, race-ethnicity, supplement use, smoking, and BMI and for some biomarkers with PIR (5 of 8), education (1 of 8), alcohol consumption (4 of 8), and physical activity (5 of 8). We noted large estimated percentage changes in biomarker concentrations between race-ethnic groups (from -24 to 20%), between supplement users and nonusers (from -12 to 104%), and between smokers and nonsmokers (from -28 to 8%). In summary, age, sex, and race-ethnic differentials in biomarker concentrations remained significant after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. Supplement use and smoking were important correlates of biomarkers of WSV status. PMID:23576641

  8. Assessing burden of disease as disability adjusted life years in life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yumi; Peters, Greg M; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Shiels, Sean; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-10-15

    Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) have been used to quantify endpoint indicators of the human burden of disease in life cycle assessment (LCA). The purpose of this paper was to examine the current use of DALYs in LCA, and also to consider whether DALYs as used in LCA have the potential to be compatible with DALYs as used in quantitative risk assessment (QRA) to facilitate direct comparison of the results of the two approaches. A literature review of current usage of DALYs in LCA was undertaken. Two prominent methods were identified: ReCiPe 2008 and LIME2. The methods and assumptions used in their calculations were then critically reviewed. The assumptions used for the derivation of characterization factors in DALYs were found to be considerably different between LCA methods. In many cases, transparency of these calculations and assumptions is lacking. Furthermore, global average DALY values are often used in these calculations, but may not be applicable for impact categories where the local factors play a significant role. The concept of DALYs seems beneficial since it enables direct comparison and aggregation of different health impacts. However, given the different assumptions used in each LCA method, it is important that LCA practitioners are aware of the differences and select the appropriate method for the focus of their study. When applying DALYs as a common metric between LCA and QRA, understanding the background information on how DALYs were derived is crucial to ensure the consistency of DALYs used in LCA and QRA for resulting DALYs to be comparable and to minimize any double counting of effects. PMID:26042893

  9. Environment. Events, Assessment, Response. [Student Textbook and] Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Herbert G.; Fairbanks, Eugene B.

    This student textbook and accompanying teacher supplement strive to provide objective instruction in global environmental issues. Twenty-six study units present facts, opinions, and consequences of environmental issues, as well as responses which have been, and could be, made to the environmental issues. Each unit is introduced by a newspaper…

  10. Assessment of Vitamin D in multivitamin/mineral dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D is a nutrient of public health concern and is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available in dietary supplements. It is essential for bone growth and may have other roles in human health. To estimate current levels of intake, analytical data for vitamin D in foods and...

  11. 12 CFR 607.10 - Adjustments for overpayment or underpayment of assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments for overpayment or underpayment of... based on FCA administrative operating expenses incurred in the applicable fiscal year and on funds... the next applicable assessment payment due during the current or subsequent fiscal year. Where...

  12. 12 CFR 607.10 - Adjustments for overpayment or underpayment of assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustments for overpayment or underpayment of... based on FCA administrative operating expenses incurred in the applicable fiscal year and on funds... the next applicable assessment payment due during the current or subsequent fiscal year. Where...

  13. CRISP-Psychometric Assessment of Postdivorce Stress/Adjustment in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, David M.; Baum, Steven K.

    A new psychometric instrument for measuring the impact of divorce on elementary school age children was developed: the Child's Report of the Impact of Separation by Parents (CRISP). This structured projective test was specifically designed to assess children's postdivorce stress/adjustment. An initial version of the CRISP was administered to 99…

  14. 77 FR 55503 - Final Adjusted Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Phenylpropanolamine for 2012'' was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 42333). That notice proposed to adjust the... annual needs (74 FR 60294 and 75 FR 79407 respectively). DEA considered changes in demand, changes in the... determining the proposed 2012 assessment of annual needs, as published on September 14, 2011, at 76 FR...

  15. 20 CFR 416.553 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-defeat the purpose of the supplemental security income program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... supplemental security income (SSI) program if the individual's income and resources are needed for ordinary and... criteria for individuals currently eligible for SSI benefits. We consider an individual or couple currently eligible for SSI benefits to have met the test in paragraph (a) of this section if the individual's...

  16. The Potential of Supplemental Instruction in Engineering Education--Helping New Students to Adjust to and Succeed in University Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a programme that is attached to difficult courses with the objective of increasing student performance and retention. However, an SI programme also has the potential to increase overall student performance and retention during the first critical year if applied to introductory courses. In this study the latter…

  17. CONTAIN assessment of the NUPEC mixing experiments. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stamps, D.W.; Murata, K.K.

    1998-02-01

    In the original report (Reference 1), to which this report is a supplement, the results of CONTAIN code calculations were presented for five thermal-hydraulic experiments performed in the NUPEC 1/4-scale model containment, including the International Standard Problem ISP-35. In the original report, calculated helium concentrations were presented per NUPEC`s specifications for ISP-35. In contrast, this supplemental report presents the helium concentrations on a conventional dry basis, which is physically consistent with the gas chromatography data. These conventionally defined dry helium concentrations are compared with the previously reported results and are found to exhibit trends that are more consistent with measured data. While agreement between the predicted results and data is substantially improved in general for the M-8-1 experiment using these helium concentrations as opposed to the ISP-35 specifications, general improvement in agreement is not observed in all cases.

  18. Risk adjusting community rated health plan premiums: a survey of risk assessment literature and policy applications.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, M; Luft, H S; Robinson, J C

    1995-01-01

    This paper surveys recent health care reform debates and empirical evidence regarding the potential role for risk adjusters in addressing the problem of competitive risk segmentation under capitated financing. We discuss features of health plan markets affecting risk selection, methodological considerations in measuring it, and alternative approaches to financial correction for risk differentials. The appropriate approach to assessing risk differences between health plans depends upon the nature of market risk selection allowed under a given reform scenario. Because per capita costs depend on a health plan's population risk, efficiency, and quality of service, risk adjustment will most strongly promote efficiency in environments with commensurately strong incentives for quality care. PMID:7639879

  19. Supplemental Assessment of the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Using Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System Software

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC; GSI Environmental LLC

    2009-01-01

    A supplemental quantitative assessment of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, TN was performed using the Monitoring and Remediation Optimization System (MAROS) software. This application was previously used as part of a similar quantitative assessment of the GWPP completed in December 2005, hereafter referenced as the 'baseline' MAROS assessment (BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. [BWXT] 2005). The MAROS software contains modules that apply statistical analysis techniques to an existing GWPP analytical database in conjunction with hydrogeologic factors, regulatory framework, and the location of potential receptors, to recommend an improved groundwater monitoring network and optimum sampling frequency for individual monitoring locations. The goal of this supplemental MAROS assessment of the Y-12 GWPP is to review and update monitoring network optimization recommendations resulting from the 2005 baseline report using data collected through December 2007. The supplemental MAROS assessment is based on the findings of the baseline MAROS assessment and includes only the groundwater sampling locations (wells and natural springs) currently granted 'Active' status in accordance with the Y-12 GWPP Monitoring Optimization Plan (MOP). The results of the baseline MAROS assessment provided technical rationale regarding the 'Active' status designations defined in the MOP (BWXT 2006). One objective of the current report is to provide a quantitative review of data collected from Active but infrequently sampled wells to confirm concentrations at these locations. This supplemental MAROS assessment does not include the extensive qualitative evaluations similar to those presented in the baseline report.

  20. 76 FR 69083 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Shethir.Riva@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The final rule (76 FR 54078) amended the Cotton..., respectively. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 1205 Advertising, Agricultural research, Cotton,...

  1. 77 FR 51867 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Register on December 10, 1991, (56 FR 64470). A proposed rule implementing the amended Order was published in the Federal Register on December 17, 1991, (56 FR 65450). Implementing rules were published on July 1 and 2, 1992, (57 FR 29181) and (57 FR 29431), respectively. This rule increases the...

  2. 76 FR 32088 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... the Federal Register on December 10, 1991 (56 FR 64470). A proposed rule implementing the amended Order was published in the Federal Register on December 17, 1991 (56 FR 65450). Implementing rules were published on July 1 and 2, 1992 (57 FR 29181), and (57 FR 29431), respectively. This proposed rule...

  3. 76 FR 54078 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Register on December 10, 1991, (56 FR 64470). A proposed rule implementing the amended Order was published in the Federal Register on December 17, 1991, (56 FR 65450). Implementing rules were published on July 1 and 2, 1992, (57 FR 29181) and (57 FR 29431), respectively. This rule increases the...

  4. 78 FR 39551 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports (2013 Amendment)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Register on December 10, 1991, (56 FR 64470). A proposed rule implementing the amended Order was published in the Federal Register on December 17, 1991, (56 FR 65450). Implementing rules were published on July 1 and 2, 1992, (57 FR 29181) and (57 FR 29431), respectively. This direct final rule would...

  5. 77 FR 34855 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports (2011 Amendments)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... 17-26, 1991, and the amended Order was published in the Federal Register on December 10, 1991, (56 FR... 17, 1991, (56 FR 65450). Implementing rules were published on July 1 and 2, 1992, (57 FR 29181) and (57 FR 29431), respectively. This proposed rule would increase the value assigned to imported...

  6. Bristol Bay AssessmentSupplemental Peer Review Reports (May 2012)

    EPA Science Inventory

    These reports represent the results of independent peer reviews of several technical reports submitted to the public docket for the May 2012 draft of the Bristol Bay Assessment, An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska.

    ...

  7. Bristol Bay AssessmentSupplemental Peer Review Reports

    EPA Science Inventory

    These reports represent the results of independent peer reviews of several technical reports submitted to the public docket for the May 2012 draft of the Bristol Bay Assessment, An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska.

    ...

  8. The potential of Supplemental Instruction in engineering education - helping new students to adjust to and succeed in University studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Mörner, Lise-Lotte

    2015-07-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a programme that is attached to difficult courses with the objective of increasing student performance and retention. However, an SI programme also has the potential to increase overall student performance and retention during the first critical year if applied to introductory courses. In this study the latter objective is investigated in an engineering educational environment. The study shows that an SI programme attached to difficult first semester courses for new engineering students has substantial positive effects on both first-year student performance and retention. Both male and female students appear to benefit from attending SI to the same extent. Some potential reasons for these improved first-year student performances are that attendance at SI sessions appears to lead to improved self-confidence, a broader network of study partners, improved study strategies and problem-solving skills and an increased ability to critically review material and work with others.

  9. Strategic Target Systems (STARS) environmental assessment. Supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Strategic Target System program (STARS) uses a three-stage solid propellant guided missile. The missile integrates selected parts of the Navy retired Polaris A3 fleet ballistic missile with a substantial number of newly developed subsystems. STARS will be used for testing various developmental elements of the Strategic Defense Initiative System. STARS will fly a payload of either single or multiple reentry vehicles to the Broad Ocean Area or will be targeted for impact or for reentry. As part of the STARS development process, an EA was prepared. It concluded with a finding of no significant impact (FNSI). The Army determined that the STARS program would have no significant environmental impacts and that any potential impacts could be mitigated. However, as a result of lawsuits the court ordered that a supplemental study be conducted of the potential effects on the Kauai environment from hydrogen chloride released during STARS launches and that a determination be made as to whether the release of freon from the second stage of the STARS would violate the Hawaii Ozone Layer Protection Statute.

  10. Evolving Adjustments to External (Gamma) Slope Factors for CERCLA Risk and Dose Assessments - 12290

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Stuart

    2012-07-01

    To model the external exposure pathway in risk and dose assessments of radioactive contamination at Superfund sites, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses slope factors (SFs), also known as risk coefficients, and dose conversion factors (DCFs). Without any adjustment these external radiation exposure pathways effectively assumes that an individual is exposed to a source geometry that is effectively an infinite slab. The concept of an 'infinite slab' means that the thickness of the contaminated zone and its aerial extent are so large that it behaves as if it were infinite in its physical dimensions. EPA has been making increasingly complex adjustments to account for the extent of the contamination and its corresponding radiation field to provide more accurate risk and dose assessment modeling when using its calculators. In most instances, the more accurate modeling results derived from these gamma adjustments are less conservative. The notable exception are for some radionuclides in rooms with contaminated walls, ceiling, and floors, and the receptor is in location of the room with the highest amount of radiation exposure, usually the corner of small rooms and the center of large conference rooms. (authors)

  11. Effect of time-activity adjustment on exposure assessment for traffic-related ultrafine particles

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Kevin J; Levy, Jonathan I; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Patton, Allison P; Durant, John L; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Zamore, Wig; Brugge, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Exposures to ultrafine particles (<100 nm, estimated as particle number concentration, PNC) differ from ambient concentrations because of the spatial and temporal variability of both PNC and people. Our goal was to evaluate the influence of time-activity adjustment on exposure assignment and associations with blood biomarkers for a near-highway population. A regression model based on mobile monitoring and spatial and temporal variables was used to generate hourly ambient residential PNC for a full year for a subset of participants (n=140) in the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health study. We modified the ambient estimates for each hour using personal estimates of hourly time spent in five micro-environments (inside home, outside home, at work, commuting, other) as well as particle infiltration. Time-activity adjusted (TAA)-PNC values differed from residential ambient annual average (RAA)-PNC, with lower exposures predicted for participants who spent more time away from home. Employment status and distance to highway had a differential effect on TAA-PNC. We found associations of RAA-PNC with high sensitivity C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6, although exposure-response functions were non-monotonic. TAA-PNC associations had larger effect estimates and linear exposure-response functions. Our findings suggest that time-activity adjustment improves exposure assessment for air pollutants that vary greatly in space and time. PMID:25827314

  12. Assessing the utility of statistical adjustments for imperfect detection in tropical conservation science

    PubMed Central

    Banks-Leite, Cristina; Pardini, Renata; Boscolo, Danilo; Cassano, Camila Righetto; Püttker, Thomas; Barros, Camila Santos; Barlow, Jos

    2014-01-01

    1. In recent years, there has been a fast development of models that adjust for imperfect detection. These models have revolutionized the analysis of field data, and their use has repeatedly demonstrated the importance of sampling design and data quality. There are, however, several practical limitations associated with the use of detectability models which restrict their relevance to tropical conservation science. 2. We outline the main advantages of detectability models, before examining their limitations associated with their applicability to the analysis of tropical communities, rare species and large-scale data sets. Finally, we discuss whether detection probability needs to be controlled before and/or after data collection. 3. Models that adjust for imperfect detection allow ecologists to assess data quality by estimating uncertainty and to obtain adjusted ecological estimates of populations and communities. Importantly, these models have allowed informed decisions to be made about the conservation and management of target species. 4. Data requirements for obtaining unadjusted estimates are substantially lower than for detectability-adjusted estimates, which require relatively high detection/recapture probabilities and a number of repeated surveys at each location. These requirements can be difficult to meet in large-scale environmental studies where high levels of spatial replication are needed, or in the tropics where communities are composed of many naturally rare species. However, while imperfect detection can only be adjusted statistically, covariates of detection probability can also be controlled through study design. Using three study cases where we controlled for covariates of detection probability through sampling design, we show that the variation in unadjusted ecological estimates from nearly 100 species was qualitatively the same as that obtained from adjusted estimates. Finally, we discuss that the decision as to whether one should control for

  13. Assessing the Impact of Supplemental Instruction on the Retention of Undergraduate Students after Controlling for Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrion, Jenepher Lennox; Daoust, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    The University of Ottawa (UofO) in Ottawa, Canada offers a formal supplemental instruction program, called the residence study group program (RSGP), to residence students registered in first year courses that are associated with a high degree of failure or attrition. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of this program by comparing…

  14. 7 CFR 1205.513 - Collecting handlers and time of collection of the supplemental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... indicating payment of the supplemental assessment. (k) In the event of a producer's death, bankruptcy... paragraph (b) of this section, any person who purchases a bale of cotton from the producer of the cotton... at the time the handler first makes any payment or any credit to the producer's account for...

  15. Writing Instructional Intervention Supplement (Benchmarks, Informal Assessments, Strategies), Grades 4-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

    This Writing Instructional Intervention Supplement from the Mississippi Department of Education contains benchmarks, informal assessments, and suggested teaching strategies for the fourth through eighth grades. Benchmarks outline what students should know and be able to do to meet mandated competencies. Informal and observational assessments…

  16. Benefit-risk assessment of vitamin D supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current intake recommendations of 200 to 600 IU vitamin D/d may be insufficient for important disease outcomes reduced by vitamin D. The purpose of this study was to assess the benefit of higher dose and higher achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) versus any associated risk. Based on d...

  17. 25 CFR 171.510 - How does BIA calculate my annual operation and maintenance assessment if supplemental water is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... maintenance assessment if supplemental water is available on the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit... IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and Collections § 171.510 How... the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? (a) For projects where supplemental water is...

  18. 25 CFR 171.510 - How does BIA calculate my annual operation and maintenance assessment if supplemental water is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... maintenance assessment if supplemental water is available on the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit... IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and Collections § 171.510 How... the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? (a) For projects where supplemental water is...

  19. 25 CFR 171.510 - How does BIA calculate my annual operation and maintenance assessment if supplemental water is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... maintenance assessment if supplemental water is available on the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit... IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and Collections § 171.510 How... the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? (a) For projects where supplemental water is...

  20. Improving adjustments for older age in pre-hospital assessment and care.

    PubMed

    Rehn, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Population estimates projects a significant increase in the geriatric population making elderly trauma patients more common. The geriatric trauma patients experience higher incidence of pre-existing medical conditions, impaired age-dependent physiologic reserve, use potent drugs and suffer from trauma system related shortcomings that influence outcomes. To improve adjustments for older age in pre-hospital assessment and care, several initiatives should be implemented. Decision-makers should make system revisions and introduce advanced point-of-care initiatives to improve outcome after trauma for the elderly. PMID:23343340

  1. Nature and assessments of torque ripples of permanent-magnet adjustable-speed motors

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Scoggins, B.P.; Scudiere, M.B.; Marlino, L.D.; Adams, D.J.; Pillay, P.

    1995-12-31

    Torque ripple of permanent-magnet motors can be classified into four types depending on the nature of their origin. The four types are pulsating torque, fluctuating torque, reluctance cogging torque, and inertia and mechanical system torque. Pulsating torques are inherently produced by the trapezoidal back-emf`s and trapezoidal currents used in certain permanent-magnet adjustable-speed motors. The torque ripples caused by pulsating torques may be reduced by purposely produced fluctuating counter torques. Air-gap torque assessments are conducted on a sample motor. Experimental results agree with theoretical expectations.

  2. Assessing the Efficacy of Adjustable Moving Averages Using ASEAN-5 Currencies.

    PubMed

    Chan Phooi M'ng, Jacinta; Zainudin, Rozaimah

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the trends in the exchange rate markets of the ASEAN-5 countries (Indonesia (IDR), Malaysia (MYR), the Philippines (PHP), Singapore (SGD), and Thailand (THB)) through the application of dynamic moving average trading systems. This research offers evidence of the usefulness of the time-varying volatility technical analysis indicator, Adjustable Moving Average (AMA') in deciphering trends in these ASEAN-5 exchange rate markets. This time-varying volatility factor, referred to as the Efficacy Ratio in this paper, is embedded in AMA'. The Efficacy Ratio adjusts the AMA' to the prevailing market conditions by avoiding whipsaws (losses due, in part, to acting on wrong trading signals, which generally occur when there is no general direction in the market) in range trading and by entering early into new trends in trend trading. The efficacy of AMA' is assessed against other popular moving-average rules. Based on the January 2005 to December 2014 dataset, our findings show that the moving averages and AMA' are superior to the passive buy-and-hold strategy. Specifically, AMA' outperforms the other models for the United States Dollar against PHP (USD/PHP) and USD/THB currency pairs. The results show that different length moving averages perform better in different periods for the five currencies. This is consistent with our hypothesis that a dynamic adjustable technical indicator is needed to cater for different periods in different markets. PMID:27574972

  3. Assessing the Efficacy of Adjustable Moving Averages Using ASEAN-5 Currencies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the trends in the exchange rate markets of the ASEAN-5 countries (Indonesia (IDR), Malaysia (MYR), the Philippines (PHP), Singapore (SGD), and Thailand (THB)) through the application of dynamic moving average trading systems. This research offers evidence of the usefulness of the time-varying volatility technical analysis indicator, Adjustable Moving Average (AMA′) in deciphering trends in these ASEAN-5 exchange rate markets. This time-varying volatility factor, referred to as the Efficacy Ratio in this paper, is embedded in AMA′. The Efficacy Ratio adjusts the AMA′ to the prevailing market conditions by avoiding whipsaws (losses due, in part, to acting on wrong trading signals, which generally occur when there is no general direction in the market) in range trading and by entering early into new trends in trend trading. The efficacy of AMA′ is assessed against other popular moving-average rules. Based on the January 2005 to December 2014 dataset, our findings show that the moving averages and AMA′ are superior to the passive buy-and-hold strategy. Specifically, AMA′ outperforms the other models for the United States Dollar against PHP (USD/PHP) and USD/THB currency pairs. The results show that different length moving averages perform better in different periods for the five currencies. This is consistent with our hypothesis that a dynamic adjustable technical indicator is needed to cater for different periods in different markets. PMID:27574972

  4. Research needs for assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements of the NIH convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in Rockville, Maryland, in 2014. The purpose of the current article is to summarize and briefly discuss a list of research and resource needs developed with the input of workshop participants. This list is composed of the basic, clinical, translational, and population studies required for characterizing the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation, along with related data, analyses, evaluations, methods development, and supporting activities. Ancillary studies designed to use the participant, biological sample, and data resources of ongoing and completed studies (including those not originally concerned with iodine) may provide an efficient, cost-effective means to address some of these research and resource needs. In the United States, the foremost question is whether neurobehavioral development in the offspring of mildly to moderately iodine-deficient women is improved by maternal iodine supplementation during pregnancy. It is important to identify the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation in all population subgroups so that supplementation can be targeted, if necessary, to avoid increasing the risk of thyroid dysfunction and related adverse health effects in those with high iodine intakes. Ultimately, there will be a need for well-designed trials and other studies to assess the impact of maternal supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring. However, 2 basic information gaps loom ahead of such a study: the development of robust, valid, and convenient biomarkers of individual iodine status and the identification of infant and toddler neurobehavioral development endpoints that are sensitive to mild maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy and its reversal by supplementation. PMID:27534640

  5. Dietary fiber and total enteral nutrition: fermentative assessment of five fiber supplements.

    PubMed

    McBurney, M I; Thompson, L U

    1991-01-01

    Total enteral nutrition (TEN) formulas supplemented with dietary fiber, typically soy polysaccharide, are in widespread clinical use. Five commercially available dietary fiber supplements obtained from fruits (apple, grapefruit, orange, prune, tomato) were examined for potential use in TEN formulas. In vitro fermentations of 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours' duration with human fecal microbiota from three different donors were conducted to assess colonic fermentative effects. Short-chain fatty acid and hydrogen productions differed significantly with fiber source. The most rapid fermentation rate was with tomato followed by orange, grapefruit, apple, and finally prune fiber. Such differences in fermentability should be considered when fiber sources are selected to supplement TEN formulas. PMID:1650853

  6. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-3 - Existence of relationship in case of adjustment by way of deficiency assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... by way of deficiency assessment. 1.1311(b)-3 Section 1.1311(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... adjustment by way of deficiency assessment. (a) Except for cases described in paragraph (b) of § 1.1312-3, no... by way of a deficiency assessment under the circumstance described in paragraph (b) of §...

  7. A Prospective, Multicentered Study to Assess Social Adjustment in Patients With an Intestinal Stoma in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karadağ, Ayişe; Karabulut, Hatice; Baykara, Zehra G; Harputlu, Deniz; Toyluk, Eylem; Ulusoy, Birgül; Karadağ, Sercan; Kahraman, Aysel; Hin, Aysel Ören; Altinsoy, Meral; Akıl, Yasemin; Leventoğlu, Sezai

    2015-10-01

    Patients with a stoma undergo physiological, psychological, and social adjustment to their new life situation. A descriptive, prospective study was conducted to assess adaptation among patients >18 years of age with a new temporary or permanent colostomy or ileostomy living in Turkey and receiving care at a participating stomatherapy unit. The study took place between September 1, 2011, and September 1, 2012. During hospitalization and following discharge, patients with a stoma received training and counseling according to their individual characteristics and their physiological, psychological, and social needs. Each participant completed the 19-item "Identification Form for Patients with a Stoma" at the beginning of the study to document sociodemographic and stoma characteristics. To assess adjustment to the stoma, The Ostomy Assessment Inventory (OAI-23) was administered 2 times - the first within 1 month and the second within 6 months after surgery or when a temporary stoma was closed (whichever came first). This instrument comprised 23 items regarding adaptation to the stoma using Likert-type response options (0-4 range). Total scores ranged from 10 to 92, with higher scores indicating better adjustment. The instruments were completed by stoma and wound care nurses during face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests. Of the 135 participants, the majority (77, 57.0%) were male; 73 (54.1%) had a colostomy, and 106 (78.5%) had a temporary stoma. The primary reason for stoma creation was cancer (89, 65.9%). Mean total OAI-23 scores were 48.63 ± 13.75 at the first administration and 50.59 ± 13.89 for the second. In terms of sociodemographic factors, significant increases in mean scores from the first to the second survey time were noted among patients in the 50-69 age group, women, married persons, and unemployed persons (P less than 0.05). With regard to stoma characteristics, the OAI-23 scores of patients

  8. 77 FR 76406 - Criteria and Procedures for Proposed Assessment of Civil Penalties; Inflation Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... such adjustments. MSHA last adjusted its civil penalties for inflation in 2008 (73 FR 7206). Section 5... updated civil penalties according to the Inflation Adjustment Act on February 7, 2008 (73 FR 7206, Feb. 7... published on March 22, 2007 (72 FR 13592). In accordance with section 5(b) of the Inflation Adjustment...

  9. Characterization of the human kinetic adjustment factor for the health risk assessment of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Valcke, Mathieu; Krishnan, Kannan

    2014-03-01

    A default uncertainty factor of 3.16 (√10) is applied to account for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics when performing non-cancer risk assessments. Using relevant human data for specific chemicals, as WHO/IPCS suggests, it is possible to evaluate, and replace when appropriate, this default factor by quantifying chemical-specific adjustment factors for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics (also referred to as the human kinetic adjustment factor, HKAF). The HKAF has been determined based on the distributions of pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g., half-life, area under the curve, maximum blood concentration) in relevant populations. This article focuses on the current state of knowledge of the use of physiologically based algorithms and models in characterizing the HKAF for environmental contaminants. The recent modeling efforts on the computation of HKAF as a function of the characteristics of the population, chemical and its mode of action (dose metrics), as well as exposure scenario of relevance to the assessment are reviewed here. The results of these studies, taken together, suggest the HKAF varies as a function of the sensitive subpopulation and dose metrics of interest, exposure conditions considered (route, duration, and intensity), metabolic pathways involved and theoretical model underlying its computation. The HKAF seldom exceeded the default value of 3.16, except in very young children (i.e., <≈ 3 months) and when the parent compound is the toxic moiety. Overall, from a public health perspective, the current state of knowledge generally suggest that the default uncertainty factor is sufficient to account for human variability in non-cancer risk assessments of environmental contaminants. PMID:24038072

  10. 25 CFR 171.510 - How does BIA calculate my annual operation and maintenance assessment if supplemental water is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... assessment if supplemental water is available on the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? 171.510 Section 171.510 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION... irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? (a) For projects where supplemental water is available, and...

  11. Effect of high-protein supplemental therapy on subjective global assessment of CKD-5D patients.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraj, Anand; Vijayan, Madhusudan; Alex, Marina; Abraham, Georgi; Nair, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Adequate nutrition in patients on hemodialysis is an important step for improving the quality of life. This prospective study was undertaken to monitor the nutritional status of patients who were given high-protein supplements on malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) and to correlate with biochemical parameters in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This prospective study was conducted on 55 chronic kidney disease patients on MHD (37 women, 18 men), aged between 21 and 67 years. Of the 55 patients, 26 patients received high-protein commercial nutritional supplements, whereas 29 patients received high-protein kitchen feeding. Every patient had their MIS, 24-hour dietary recall, hand grip, mid arm circumference, triceps skin-fold thickness at 0, 3, and 6 months. Each of the above parameters was compared between the high-protein commercial nutritional supplement cohort and high-protein kitchen feeding cohort, and the data were analyzed. Of the 55 patients, 82.61% of patients on high-protein kitchen feeding group and 66.67% in high-protein commercial nutritional supplement group were nonvegetarian (P = 0.021). According to the MIS, improvement was observed in malnutrition status from 3- to 6-month period in 38.1% of patients in high-protein commercial supplement group, whereas only in 8.7% in high-protein kitchen feeding group (P = 0.04). Assessment showed improvement in malnutrition status with high-protein commercial nutritional supplement, which was marked in patients with age group >65 years (P = 0.03) and in those in whom serum albumin is <35 g/L (P = 0.02). Both high-protein kitchen feeding and high-protein commercial nutritional supplement cohorts were observed to have improvement in overall nutritional status. Older patients >65 years with lower serum albumin levels (<3.5 g/dL) were observed to have significant improvement in nutritional status with high-protein commercial nutritional supplements. PMID:26105085

  12. Geometric Quality Assessment of Bundle Block Adjusted Mulit- Sensor Satellite Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Bhawani Kumar, P. S.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Srinivas, V.; Saibaba, J.; Varadan, G.

    2014-11-01

    The integration of multi-sensor earth observation data belonging to same area has become one of the most important input for resource mapping and management. Geometric error and fidelity between adjacent scenes affects large-area digital mosaic if the images/ scenes are processed independently. A block triangulation approach "Bundle Block Adjustment (BBA)" system has been developed at ADRIN for combined processing of multi-sensor, multi-resolution satellite imagery to achieve better geometric continuity. In this paper we present the evaluation results of BBA software along with performance assessment and operational use of products thus generated. The application evaluation deals with functional aspects of block-adjustment of satellite imagery consisting of data from multiple sources, i.e. AWiFs, LISS-3, LISS-4 and Cartosat-1 in various combinations as single block. It has provision for automatic generation of GCPs and tie-points using image metafile/ Rational Polynomial Coefficient's (RPC's) and ortho/ merged/ mosaicked products generation. The study is carried out with datasets covering different terrain types (ranging from high mountainous area, moderately undulating terrain, coastal plain, agriculture fields, urban area and water-body) across Indian subcontinent with varying block sizes and spatial reference systems. Geometric accuracy assessment is carried out to figure out error propagation at scene based ortho/ merged products as well as block level. The experimental results confirm that pixel tagging, geometric fidelity and feature continuity across adjacent scenes as well as for multiple sensors reduced to a great extent, due to the high redundancy. The results demonstrate that it is one of the most affective geometric corrections for generating large area digital mosaic over High mountainous terrain using high resolution good swath satellite imagery, like Cartosat-1, with minimum human intervention.

  13. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  14. 77 FR 42333 - Proposed Adjustment of the Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    .... 826(a) and 21 CFR 1315.11 (76 FR 77252). That Notice indicated that DEA would adjust the assessment of... previously in the 2010 and 2011 assessment of annual needs (74 FR 60294 and 75 FR 79407, respectively). As of... veterinary product and is not approved for human consumption. IMS Health's NSP Data does not capture sales...

  15. Assessment of isoflavone aglycones variability in soy food supplements using a validated HPLC-UV method

    PubMed Central

    UIFĂLEAN, ALINA; FARCAŞ, ANCA; ILIEŞ, MARIA; HEGHEŞ, SIMONA CODRUŢA; IONESCU, CORINA; IUGA, CRISTINA ADELA

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Soy supplements are often recommended in the management of menopause symptoms. The declared content of soy supplements is commonly expressed as total isoflavones per dosage form. Given that soy isoflavones have different estrogenic potencies, pharmacokinetics and metabolism, the aim of this study was to evaluate the total isoflavone content and the aglycone profile of seven soy supplements and one soy seed extract. Label accuracy was assessed, in relation to the precise content and the recommended posology for estimating whether the optimal dose is achieved for alleviating menopause symptoms. Methods A high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for evaluating the aglycone content (genistein, daidzein, glycitein). After extraction and acidic hydrolysis, the aglycones were separated on a C18 column, using 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The flow rate was 1.5mL min−1 and the UV detector wavelength was set at 260nm. A linear relationship was found in the range 5–80μg mL−1. The method was validated using the accuracy profile methodology. Results The total isoflavone content ranged from 6.07 to 41.68mg dosage form−1. Various aglycone profiles were obtained for each supplement which can result in a different estrogenic activity, bioavailability and finally, in a different efficiency in alleviating menopause symptoms. In most clinical trials where soy isoflavones were evaluated, little attention was paid to determining the exact aglycone profile of the employed soy extracts. Conclusions As clinical outcomes continue to be controversial, this study highlights the need of standardization in genistein, rather than total isoflavones and labeling accuracy for soy supplements. PMID:26609272

  16. The PROMIS® Smoking Assessment Toolkit—Background and Introduction to Supplement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The PROMIS® Smoking Initiative has developed an assessment toolkit for measuring 6 domains of interest to cigarette smoking research: nicotine dependence, coping expectancies, emotional and sensory expectancies, health expectancies, psychosocial expectancies, and social motivations for smoking. The papers in this supplement describe the methods used to develop these item banks, their psychometric properties, and the preliminary evidence for their validity. This commentary is meant to provide background information for the material in this supplement. Methods: After discussing the use of item response theory in behavioral measurement, I will briefly review the initial developmental steps for the smoking assessment toolkit. Finally, I will describe the contents of this supplement and provide some closing remarks. Results: Psychometric evidence strongly supports the utility of the toolkit of item banks, short forms (SFs), and computer adaptive tests (CATs). The item banks for daily smokers produce scores with reliability estimates above 0.90 for a wide range of each cigarette smoking domain continuum, and SF and CAT administrations also achieve high reliability (generally greater than 0.85) using very few items (4–7 items for most banks). Performance of the banks for nondaily smokers is similar. Preliminary evidence supports the concurrent and the discriminant validity of the bank domains. Conclusions: The new smoking assessment toolkit has attractive measurement features that are likely to benefit smoking research as researchers begin to utilize this resource. Information about the toolkit and access to the assessments is available at the project Web site (http://www.rand.org/health/projects/promis-smoking-initiative.html) and can also be accessed via the PROMIS Assessment Center (www.assessmentcenter.net). PMID:25118225

  17. Supplemental risk-assessment guidance for the Superfund program. Part 1. Guidance for Public-Health Risk Assessments. Part 2. Guidance for ecological Risk Assessments. Draft report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This guidance manual was developed to address the practical aspects and issues pertaining to the Superfund risk-assessment process for both public health and environment concerns. Part 1, Guidance for Public Health Risk Assessments, supplements the Superfund Public Health Evaluation Manual and Superfund Exposure Assessment Manual and the Endangerment Assessment Handbook. Explicit guidance on technical matters which should be followed in developing public health risk assessments for EPA Region 1. The guidance addresses hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, risk characterization, and uncertainty/limitations. Part 2 of the manual, Guidance for Ecological Risk Assessments, addresses the collection of site-specific data needed to support an ecological risk assessment, describes a framework for conducting the assessments, and provides several specific approaches for assessing risks to systems exposed to chemical contamination in different media.

  18. Assessment of net lost revenue adjustment mechanisms for utility DSM programs

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    Utility shareholders can lose money on demand-side management (DSM) investments between rate cases. Several industry analysts argue that the revenues lost from utility DSM programs are an important financial disincentive to utility DSM investment. A key utility regulatory reform undertaken since 1989 allows utilities to recover the lost revenues incurred through successful operation of DSM programs. Explicitly defined net lost revenue adjustment (NLRA) mechanisms are states` preferred approach to lost revenue recovery from DSM programs. This report examines the experiences states and utilities are having with the NLRA approach. The report has three objectives. First, we determine whether NLRA is a feasible and successful approach to removing the lost-revenue disincentive to utility operation of DSM programs. Second, we identify the conditions linked to successful implementation of NLRA mechanisms in different states and assess whether NLRA has changed utility investment behavior. Third, we suggest improvements to NLRA mechanisms. We first identify states with NLRA mechanisms where utilities are recovering lost revenues from DSM programs. We interview staff at regulatory agencies in all these states and utility staff in four states. These interviews focus on the status of NLRA, implementation issues, DSM measurement issues, and NLRA results. We also analyze regulatory agency orders on NLRA, as well as associated testimony, reports, and utility lost revenue recovery filings. Finally, we use qualitative and quantitative indicators to assess NLRA`s effectiveness. Contrary to the concerns raised by some industry analysts, our results indicate NLRA is a feasible approach to the lost-revenue disincentive.

  19. Disability adjusted life year (DALY): a useful tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Wang, Xiaochang C; Chen, Rong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-04-01

    Disability adjusted life year (DALY) has been widely used since 1990s for evaluating global and/or regional burden of diseases. As many environmental pollutants are hazardous to human health, DALY is also recognized as an indicator to quantify the health impact of environmental pollution related to disease burden. Based on literature reviews, this article aims to give an overview of the applicable methodologies and research directions for using DALY as a tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution. With an introduction of the methodological framework of DALY, the requirements on data collection and manipulation for quantifying disease burdens are summarized. Regarding environmental pollutants hazardous to human beings, health effect/risk evaluation is indispensable for transforming pollution data into disease data through exposure and dose-response analyses which need careful selection of models and determination of parameters. Following the methodological discussions, real cases are analyzed with attention paid to chemical pollutants and pathogens usually encountered in environmental pollution. It can be seen from existing studies that DALY is advantageous over conventional environmental impact assessment for quantification and comparison of the risks resulted from environmental pollution. However, further studies are still required to standardize the methods of health effect evaluation regarding varied pollutants under varied circumstances before DALY calculation. PMID:25549348

  20. Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Measures of Psychosocial Adjustment and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Thill, Azure Welborn; Bachanas, Pamela; Garber, Judy; Miller, Karen Bearman; Abad, Mona; Bruno, Elizabeth Franks; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Jandasek, Barbara; Mennuti-Washburn, Jean E.; O’Mahar, Kerry; Zukerman, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide an evidence-based review of measures of psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology, with a specific focus on their use in the field of pediatric psychology. Methods As part of a larger survey of pediatric psychologists from the Society of Pediatric Psychology e-mail listserv (American Psychological Association, APA, Division 54), 37 measures were selected for this psychometric review. Measures that qualified for the review fell into one of the following three categories: (a) internalizing or externalizing rating scales, (b) broad-band rating scales, and (c) self-related rating scales. Results Psychometric characteristics (i.e., three types of reliability, two types of validity) were strong for the majority of measures reviewed, with 34 of the 37 measures meeting “well-established” evidence-based assessment (EBA) criteria. Strengths and weaknesses of existing measures were noted. Conclusions Recommendations for future work in this area of assessment are presented, including suggestions that more fine-grained EBA criteria be developed and that evidence-based “profiles” be devised for each measure. PMID:17728305

  1. Market Assessment and Product Evaluation of Probiotic Containing Dietary Supplements Available in Bangladesh Market

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Anjuman Ara; Jakaria, D. M.; Anisuzzaman, Sharif Md; Islam, Mahfuzul; Mahmud, Siraje Arif

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics containing food supplements available in Bangladesh market were identified and collected for assessment. To assess their label claim, they were resuspended into sterile distilled water. Then, series dilutions of each sample solution were prepared and immediately plated out, in duplicate, into De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar. These plates were then incubated at 37°C for 48 hours and colonies were counted. Viable cell numbers stated on the labels were compared with actual viable cell numbers. To assess the viability of the probiotics included in the products, probiotic strains were isolated from each of the four products and screened for inhibitory activity against six indicator strains. It was surprisingly found that although the viable cell numbers of all supplements were three to four log cycles lower than label claim of the products, however, this problem did not affect the inhibitory activity of the probiotic strains against indicator strains according to in vitro assessment. Legislation and regulation regarding prebiotic-probiotic containing products should be built up in Bangladesh to ensure quality products supply to the consumers. Moreover, manufacturers of probiotic containing products should take the responsibility for providing the consumer with scientifically and legally correct information. PMID:26649229

  2. Market Assessment and Product Evaluation of Probiotic Containing Dietary Supplements Available in Bangladesh Market.

    PubMed

    Begum, Anjuman Ara; Jakaria, D M; Anisuzzaman, Sharif Md; Islam, Mahfuzul; Mahmud, Siraje Arif

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics containing food supplements available in Bangladesh market were identified and collected for assessment. To assess their label claim, they were resuspended into sterile distilled water. Then, series dilutions of each sample solution were prepared and immediately plated out, in duplicate, into De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar. These plates were then incubated at 37°C for 48 hours and colonies were counted. Viable cell numbers stated on the labels were compared with actual viable cell numbers. To assess the viability of the probiotics included in the products, probiotic strains were isolated from each of the four products and screened for inhibitory activity against six indicator strains. It was surprisingly found that although the viable cell numbers of all supplements were three to four log cycles lower than label claim of the products, however, this problem did not affect the inhibitory activity of the probiotic strains against indicator strains according to in vitro assessment. Legislation and regulation regarding prebiotic-probiotic containing products should be built up in Bangladesh to ensure quality products supply to the consumers. Moreover, manufacturers of probiotic containing products should take the responsibility for providing the consumer with scientifically and legally correct information. PMID:26649229

  3. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas; de Brito, Naira Josele Neves; de Medeiros Rocha, Érika Dantas; França, Mardone Cavalcante; de Almeida, Maria das Graças; Brandão-Neto, José

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31) and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31) for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results Our study showed (1) an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2) a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3) increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4) increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5) an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001). Conclusions Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations. PMID:26507491

  4. Assessment of Burden of Malaria in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe, Using the Disability Adjusted Life Years

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Resign; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the burden of malaria in Gwanda District with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the impact of disease on affected communities. Data was collected from health facility malaria registers and the District Health Information System (DHIS) to estimate DALYs at household and district levels respectively. The household DALYs included 130 malaria cases from 2013 to 2015 while the DALYs for the district included 719 confirmed malaria cases from 2011 to 2015. Households lost a total of 153.89 DALYs with the majority of the disease burden (65.55%) occurring in the most economically productive age group (15–45 years) with a mean loss of 1.18 DALYs per malaria case. At district level, 251.09 DALYs were lost due to malaria and the calculated average district DALY rate for 2011–2015 was 36.29 DALYs/100,000 persons per year. It is important to estimate malaria burden to assist policy makers in making informed decisions when channelling resources for control and prevention of the disease. PMID:26907320

  5. Assessment of Burden of Malaria in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe, Using the Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Resign; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the burden of malaria in Gwanda District with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the impact of disease on affected communities. Data was collected from health facility malaria registers and the District Health Information System (DHIS) to estimate DALYs at household and district levels respectively. The household DALYs included 130 malaria cases from 2013 to 2015 while the DALYs for the district included 719 confirmed malaria cases from 2011 to 2015. Households lost a total of 153.89 DALYs with the majority of the disease burden (65.55%) occurring in the most economically productive age group (15-45 years) with a mean loss of 1.18 DALYs per malaria case. At district level, 251.09 DALYs were lost due to malaria and the calculated average district DALY rate for 2011-2015 was 36.29 DALYs/100,000 persons per year. It is important to estimate malaria burden to assist policy makers in making informed decisions when channelling resources for control and prevention of the disease. PMID:26907320

  6. Differences in homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) values and insulin levels after vitamin D supplementation in healthy men: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tepper, S; Shahar, D R; Geva, D; Ish-Shalom, S

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D is thought to play a role in glucose metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on markers of insulin sensitivity and inflammation in men without diabetes with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. In this 1-year double-blind randomized controlled trial, 130 men aged 20-65 years (mean age 47.52 ± 11.84 years) with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <50 nmol/l (mean 38.89 ± 8.64 nmol/l) were randomized to treatment (100 000 IU vitamin D bimonthly) or placebo. Anthropometric measurements, demographic questionnaires, and blood indices (fasting glucose, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipids) were collected and repeated after 6 and 12 months. The compliance rate was 98.5%. Multivariate models, adjusted for baseline levels, age, body mass index, sun exposure, physical activity and LDL, showed significant differences in insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values between groups. Levels of insulin and HOMA-IR values remained steady during the study period in the treatment group but increased by 16% in the control group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.048, respectively). Vitamin D supplementation administered for 12 months in healthy men maintained insulin levels and HOMA-IR values relative to the increase in the control group. Further studies are needed to establish the long-term effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of diabetes. PMID:26890031

  7. Assessing Factors in Adolescent Adjustment as Precursors to Recidivism in Court-Referred Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Miller, Janeen; Ricard, Richard J.; Garcia, Roberto; Lancaster, Chloe

    2011-01-01

    Court-referred youth participated in an intervention program and completed the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory. Reoffending rates were tracked for 2 years. Antisocial behavior, anger control, and emotional distress were influencing characteristics for recidivism. The Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory may serve…

  8. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). South Carolina Supplement US Army. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, C.; Gifford, L.A.

    1994-04-01

    In response to the growing number of environmental laws and regulations worldwide, the U.S. Army has adopted an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in 1985, Major Army Commands (MACOMs) were required to conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle. The installations must also conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM was developing a separate assessment system, the Army mandated, through Army Regulation 200-1, one unified Army-wide assessment mechanism. The resulting system combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations, along with good management practices and risk management information, into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and which specific items or operations to review. Each assessment protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review the checklist items as effectively as possible. The Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates existing checklists from USEPA and private industry. The South Carolina Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the U.S. ECAS manual, using existing South Carolina state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS), Environmental compliance checklists, Environmental law - South Carolina.

  9. Classroom Contexts as the Framework for Assessing Social-Emotional Adjustment: A National Study in Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcdermott, Paul A.; Watkins, Marley W.; Drogalis, Anna Rhoad; Chao, Jessica L.; Worrell, Frank C.; Hall, Tracey E.

    2016-01-01

    Contextually based assessments reveal the circumstances accompanying maladjustment (the when, where, and with whom) and supply clues to the motivations underpinning problem behaviors. The Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA) is a teacher rating scale composed of indicators describing behavior in 24 classroom situational contexts.…

  10. Assessing the Transition and Adjustment of Preschoolers with Special Needs to an Integrated Program. KECRI Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymes, Linda K.; And Others

    Classroom observations were conducted with five children, identified as at risk for developmental delay, throughout their first year of preschool, to identify their patterns of adjustment to an integrated preschool program. A video assessment of each child was conducted prior to program entry to help teachers plan a successful transition.…

  11. An assessment of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) glacial isostatic adjustment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, A.; Tregoning, P.; Dehecq, A.

    2016-05-01

    The recent release of the next-generation global ice history model, ICE6G_C(VM5a), is likely to be of interest to a wide range of disciplines including oceanography (sea level studies), space gravity (mass balance studies), glaciology, and, of course, geodynamics (Earth rheology studies). In this paper we make an assessment of some aspects of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model and show that the published present-day radial uplift rates are too high along the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula (by ˜8.6 mm/yr) and beneath the Ross Ice Shelf (by ˜5 mm/yr). Furthermore, the published spherical harmonic coefficients—which are meant to represent the dimensionless present-day changes due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)—contain excessive power for degree ≥90, do not agree with physical expectations and do not represent accurately the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model. We show that the excessive power in the high-degree terms produces erroneous uplift rates when the empirical relationship of Purcell et al. (2011) is applied, but when correct Stokes coefficients are used, the empirical relationship produces excellent agreement with the fully rigorous computation of the radial velocity field, subject to the caveats first noted by Purcell et al. (2011). Using the Australian National University (ANU) groups CALSEA software package, we recompute the present-day GIA signal for the ice thickness history and Earth rheology used by Peltier et al. (2015) and provide dimensionless Stokes coefficients that can be used to correct satellite altimetry observations for GIA over oceans and by the space gravity community to separate GIA and present-day mass balance change signals. We denote the new data sets as ICE6G_ANU.

  12. 40 CFR 22.38 - Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Water Act. 22.38 Section 22.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING THE ADMINISTRATIVE ASSESSMENT OF...

  13. 40 CFR 22.38 - Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Water Act. 22.38 Section 22.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING THE ADMINISTRATIVE ASSESSMENT OF...

  14. 40 CFR 22.38 - Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Water Act. 22.38 Section 22.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING THE ADMINISTRATIVE ASSESSMENT OF...

  15. Coping resources, perceived stress and adjustment to divorce among Israeli women: assessing effects.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Liat; Heine-Cohen, Etti

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how socioeconomic resources (level of education and evaluation of economic situation), cognitive resources (sense of coherence), emotional resources (the quality of relationship with the ex-spouse and the existence of a new romantic relationship), and perceived stress contribute to explaining the adjustment of Israeli women to divorce. Adjustment to divorce was examined along four dimensions: self-acceptance of divorce, disentanglement of the love relationship, symptoms of grief, and self-evaluation. The research sample consisted of 114 divorced Jewish women, all of whom had retained custody of their children. Among the resources examined, the contribution of sense of coherence to explaining adjustment to divorce was particularly significant, followed by the existence of a new romantic relationship. Furthermore, resources were found to interact with perceived stress in explaining women's adjustment to divorce. PMID:21375123

  16. Assessment and Indirect Adjustment for Confounding by Smoking in Cohort Studies Using Relative Hazards Models

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, David B.; Laurier, Dominique; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Cole, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Workers' smoking histories are not measured in many occupational cohort studies. Here we discuss the use of negative control outcomes to detect and adjust for confounding in analyses that lack information on smoking. We clarify the assumptions necessary to detect confounding by smoking and the additional assumptions necessary to indirectly adjust for such bias. We illustrate these methods using data from 2 studies of radiation and lung cancer: the Colorado Plateau cohort study (1950–2005) of underground uranium miners (in which smoking was measured) and a French cohort study (1950–2004) of nuclear industry workers (in which smoking was unmeasured). A cause-specific relative hazards model is proposed for estimation of indirectly adjusted associations. Among the miners, the proposed method suggests no confounding by smoking of the association between radon and lung cancer—a conclusion supported by adjustment for measured smoking. Among the nuclear workers, the proposed method suggests substantial confounding by smoking of the association between radiation and lung cancer. Indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking resulted in an 18% decrease in the adjusted estimated hazard ratio, yet this cannot be verified because smoking was unmeasured. Assumptions underlying this method are described, and a cause-specific proportional hazards model that allows easy implementation using standard software is presented. PMID:25245043

  17. An assessment of the ICE6G_C (VM5A) glacial isostatic adjustment model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Anthony; Tregoning, Paul; Dehecq, Amaury

    2016-04-01

    The recent release of the next-generation global ice history model, ICE6G_C(VM5a) [Peltier et al., 2015, Argus et al. 2014] is likely to be of interest to a wide range of disciplines including oceanography (sea level studies), space gravity (mass balance studies), glaciology and, of course, geodynamics (Earth rheology studies). In this presentation I will assess some aspects of the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model and the accompanying published data sets. I will demonstrate that the published present-day radial uplift rates are too high along the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula (by ˜8.6 mm/yr) and beneath the Ross Ice Shelf (by ˜5 mm/yr). Further, the published spherical harmonic coefficients - which are meant to represent the dimensionless present-day changes due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) - will be shown to contain excessive power for degree ≥ 90, to be physically implausible and to not represent accurately the ICE6G_C(VM5a) model. The excessive power in the high degree terms produces erroneous uplift rates when the empirical relationship of Purcell et al. [2011] is applied but, when correct Stokes' coefficients are used, the empirical relationship will be shown to produce excellent agreement with the fully rigorous computation of the radial velocity field, subject to the caveats first noted by Purcell et al. [2011]. Finally, a global radial velocity field for the present-day GIA signal, and corresponding Stoke's coefficients will be presented for the ICE6GC ice model history using the VM5a rheology model. These results have been obtained using the ANU group's CALSEA software package and can be used to correct satellite altimetry observations for GIA over oceans and by the space gravity community to separate GIA and present-day mass balance change signals without any of the shortcomings of the previously published data-sets. We denote the new data sets ICE6G_ANU.

  18. Dietary assessment of adolescents undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: macro- and micronutrient, fiber and supplement intake

    PubMed Central

    Jeffreys, Renee M.; Hrovat, Kathleen; Woo, Jessica G.; Schmidt, Marcia; Inge, Thomas H.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Extremely obese adolescents are increasingly undergoing bariatric procedures, which restrict dietary intake. However, there are as yet no data available which describe the change in caloric density or composition of the adolescent bariatric patient’s diet pre- and post-operatively. Objective Assess the 1-year change in dietary composition of adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery. Setting Tertiary care children’s hospital Methods Twenty-seven subjects [67% female, 77% white, age 16.7 ± 1.4 years, baseline body mass index (BMI) 60.1 ± 14.1 kg/m2] were prospectively enrolled into an observational cohort study one month prior to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) between August 2005 and March 2008. Three-day dietary intake was recorded at baseline (n=24), at 2 weeks (n=16), 3 months (n=11), and 1 year (n=9) post-operatively. Dietary record data were verified by structured interview and compared with Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values for ages 14–18. Results By 1 year post-surgery, mean caloric intake adjusted for BMI was 1015 ± 182 kcal/day, a 35% reduction from baseline. The proportion of fat, protein and carbohydrate intake did not differ from baseline. However, protein intake was lower than recommended postoperatively. Calcium and fiber intake was also persistently lower than recommended. Calcium and vitamin B12 supplementation increased the likelihood of meeting daily minimal recommendations (p≤0.02). Conclusions One year after RYGB, adolescents’ caloric intake remained restricted with satisfactory macronutrient composition, but with lower than desirable intake of calcium, fiber and protein. PMID:22260884

  19. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS: EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDANCE FROM ASSESSING SUSCEPTIBILITY FROM EARLY-LIFE EXPOSURE TO CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    March 29, 2005
    EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment
    And Supplemental Guidance from Assessing Susceptibility from Early-life
    Exposure to Carcinogens

    Questions and Answers

    The following questions ...

  20. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  1. 76 FR 57992 - Assessment Rate Adjustment Guidelines for Large and Highly Complex Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... scoring range Core ROA 0 0 2 2.08 4 Tier 1 Capital Ratio 0 6 13 17 57 Before initiating an adjustment... 100. Table 4 shows that Bank B's Criticized and Classified Items to Tier 1 Capital and Reserves ratio... and quality of capital protection may not be correctly reflected in the Tier 1 leverage ratio...

  2. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vartika; Mirza, Anissa Atif; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Sharma, Kapil; Bharadwaj, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p = 0.790). Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus. PMID:27064332

  3. 75 FR 50758 - Leader One Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Leader One Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Leader One Gas Storage Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues August 6, 2010. On July 30, 2010, Leader One Energy, LLC (Leader One) filed its intent...

  4. Assessing the Promise of a Supplemental Reading Intervention for At-Risk First Grade Students in a Public School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Neel, Joanna L.; Kaiser, Forrest; Le, Hong-Hai

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory quasi-experimental case study, we assessed the promise of a yearlong supplemental reading intervention with a small pilot group of at-risk first grade readers in an elementary school setting. Using standardized measures of reading proficiency, we found that after 47 hours of one-on-one tutoring instruction, students read…

  5. 40 CFR 22.42 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties for violations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties for violations of compliance orders issued to owners or operators of public water systems under part B of the Safe Drinking Water Act. 22.42 Section 22.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  6. 40 CFR 22.42 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties for violations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties for violations of compliance orders issued to owners or operators of public water systems under part B of the Safe Drinking Water Act. 22.42 Section 22.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  7. 25 CFR 171.510 - How does BIA calculate my annual operation and maintenance assessment if supplemental water is...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How does BIA calculate my annual operation and maintenance assessment if supplemental water is available on the irrigation facility servicing my farm unit? 171.510 Section 171.510 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE...

  8. 40 CFR 22.42 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties for violations of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties for violations of compliance orders issued to owners or operators of public water systems under part B of the Safe Drinking Water Act. 22.42 Section 22.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  9. 40 CFR 22.43 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties against a federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties against a federal agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 22.43 Section 22.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING THE...

  10. Assessment of health claims, content, and safety of herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Heidi P.; Pelgrom, Sylvia M.G.J.; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; de Kaste, Dries; Verhagen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Background European Regulation 1924/2006 states that all health claims made on foods need to be substantiated scientifically. Objective To apply the PASSCLAIM criteria for the scientific substantiation of health claims on foods to herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba. Evaluation of three selected claimed health effects for G. biloba (improvement of blood circulation, improvement of symptoms of old age, and improvement of memory) was achieved through review of publicly available scientific data. A total of 35 human intervention studies were evaluated. Commercially available products claimed to contain mainly G. biloba (N=29) were randomly sampled in the Netherlands and analyzed for their content on ginkgo extract. Also, a toxicological risk assessment was performed. Results The three selected health claims investigated could not be substantiated. This was mainly because of a lack of data from studies in healthy volunteers. In most studies results performed with a 24% standardized G. biloba extract were described. However, our chemical analysis showed that 25 of the 29 sampled products did not contain the required minimum 24% standardized extract. Moreover, in most preparations the content of substances typical for G. biloba did not conform to what was declared on the label. Since toxicity data for G. biloba are very limited, a safety limit could not be established. Conclusions Evidence is lacking for three health claims of herbal products with G. biloba. Neither safety nor efficacy can be guaranteed at the recommended daily dose. The multidisciplinary approach described in this paper provides good insight into issues that are relevant for the evaluation of health claims for herbal food supplements. PMID:20927202

  11. The Relationship between Early Assessment and Adjusted Instructional Strategies in Reading for High Risk Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Margaret A.

    This review of the literature on kindergarten assessment and its relationship to primary reading achievement is divided into the the following sections: (1) studies which support early assessment; (2) studies which suggest the use of a battery over a single readiness test; (3) studies which utilize assessment data for treatment purposes; (4)…

  12. Assessing changes in socioemotional adjustment across early school transitions-new national scales for children at risk.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Paul A; Watkins, Marley W; Rovine, Michael J; Rikoon, Samuel H

    2013-02-01

    This article reports the development and evidence for validity and application of the Adjustment Scales for Early Transition in Schooling (ASETS). Based on primary analyses of data from the Head Start Impact Study, a nationally representative sample (N=3077) of randomly selected children from low-income households is configured to inform developmental-transitional stability and change in socioemotional adjustment. Longitudinal exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the ASETS revealed behavioral dimensions of Aggression, Attention Seeking, Reticence/Withdrawal, Low Energy, and higher-order dimensions of Overactivity and Underactivity. Each dimension was vertically equated through IRT, with Bayesian scoring across 2 years of prekindergarten, kindergarten, and 1st grade. Multilevel modeling provides evidence for concurrent validity, assessment of future risk, and detection of differential growth trajectories across the 4 years of early school transition. PMID:23375175

  13. Compensatory postural adjustments in Parkinson's disease assessed via a virtual reality environment.

    PubMed

    Yelshyna, Darya; Gago, Miguel F; Bicho, Estela; Fernandes, Vítor; Gago, Nuno F; Costa, Luís; Silva, Hélder; Rodrigues, Maria Lurdes; Rocha, Luís; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Postural control is a complex dynamic mechanism, which integrates information from visual, vestibular and somatosensory systems. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients are unable to produce appropriate reflexive responses to changing environmental conditions. Still, it is controversial what is due to voluntary or involuntary postural control, even less what is the effect of levodopa. We aimed to evaluate compensatory postural adjustments (CPA), with kinematic and time-frequency analyzes, and further understand the role of dopaminergic medication on these processes. 19 healthy subjects (Controls) and 15 idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients in the OFF and ON medication states, wearing IMUs, were submitted to a virtual reality scenario with visual downward displacements on a staircase. We also hypothesized if CPA would involve mechanisms occurring in distinct time scales. We subsequently analyzed postural adjustments on two frequency bands: low components between 0.3 and 1.5 Hz (LB), and high components between 1.5 and 3.5 Hz (HB). Vertical acceleration demonstrated a greater power for discriminating IPD patients from healthy subjects. Visual perturbation significantly increased the power of the HB in all groups, being particularly more evident in the OFF state. Levodopa significantly increased their basal power taking place on the LB. However, controls and IPD patients in the ON state revealed a similar trend of the control mechanism. Results indicate an improvement in muscular stiffness provided by levodopa. They also suggest the role of different compensatory postural adjustment patterns, with LB being related to inertial properties of the oscillating mass and HB representing reactions to the ongoing visual input-changing scenario. PMID:26304718

  14. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment Model: A Structural Equation Model Examination of Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Susan E.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to operationalize a comprehensive theoretical model, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment, and test it empirically with structural equation modeling. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment reflects a robust body of research and incorporates known ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain…

  15. 76 FR 28020 - Sawgrass Storage LLC; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... analysis in the EA on the important environmental issues. By this supplemental NOI, the Commission requests... jurisdiction and/or special expertise with respect to environmental issues to formally cooperate with us in the... Issues As previously noticed on August 6, 2010, and supplemented herein, the staff of the Federal...

  16. ImmuneQuest: Assessment of a Video Game as a Supplement to an Undergraduate Immunology Course.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Stacey L

    2016-05-01

    The study of immunology, particularly in this day and age, is an integral aspect of the training of future biologists, especially health professionals. Unfortunately, many students lose interest in or lack true comprehension of immunology due to the jargon of the field, preventing them from gaining a true conceptual understanding that is essential to all biological learning. To that end, a new video game, ImmuneQuest, has been developed that allows undergraduate students to "be" cells in the immune system, finding and attacking pathogens, while answering questions to earn additional abilities. The ultimate goal of ImmuneQuest is to allow students to understand how the major cells in the immune system work together to fight disease, rather than focusing on them as separate entities as is more commonly done in lecture material. This work provides the first assessment of ImmuneQuest in an upper-level immunology course. Students had significant gains in learning of information presented in ImmuneQuest compared with information discussed in lecture only. Furthermore, while students found the game "frustrating" at times, they agreed that the game aided their learning and recommended it for future courses. Taken together, these results suggest that ImmuneQuest appears to be a useful tool to supplement lecture material and increase student learning and comprehension. PMID:27158304

  17. ImmuneQuest: Assessment of a Video Game as a Supplement to an Undergraduate Immunology Course

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Stacey L.

    2016-01-01

    The study of immunology, particularly in this day and age, is an integral aspect of the training of future biologists, especially health professionals. Unfortunately, many students lose interest in or lack true comprehension of immunology due to the jargon of the field, preventing them from gaining a true conceptual understanding that is essential to all biological learning. To that end, a new video game, ImmuneQuest, has been developed that allows undergraduate students to “be” cells in the immune system, finding and attacking pathogens, while answering questions to earn additional abilities. The ultimate goal of ImmuneQuest is to allow students to understand how the major cells in the immune system work together to fight disease, rather than focusing on them as separate entities as is more commonly done in lecture material. This work provides the first assessment of ImmuneQuest in an upper-level immunology course. Students had significant gains in learning of information presented in ImmuneQuest compared with information discussed in lecture only. Furthermore, while students found the game “frustrating” at times, they agreed that the game aided their learning and recommended it for future courses. Taken together, these results suggest that ImmuneQuest appears to be a useful tool to supplement lecture material and increase student learning and comprehension. PMID:27158304

  18. A performance assessment and adjustment program for air quality monitoring networks in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Laijun; Xie, Yujing; Wang, Jiajia; Xu, Xiang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the performance of Shanghai's air quality monitoring network (AQMN) using principal components analysis, an assignment method, and cluster analysis. Our goal was to improve the utilization of monitoring stations and evaluate Shanghai's air quality more comprehensively and accurately. Specifically, we (i) identified similar pollution sources or behaviors in the monitoring areas; (ii) identified redundant monitoring stations and re-evaluated the AQMN's performance without them; and (iii) proposed adjustments to the AQMN. We used data on particulates less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10) in diameter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) at stations in and around Shanghai from 1 January to 22 August 2014. For each pollutant, we grouped the monitoring stations into clusters based on their different pollution behaviors, revealing redundancy and inefficiency in the current AQMN that resulted from the concentrated station distribution and similarity of the monitoring environments. The analysis results showed that there exist redundant stations in the current AQMN of Shanghai. Furthermore, we proposed adjustments to Shanghai's AQMN: transfer four redundant stations and build a new station in the directions of the Taicang Experimental Primary School, Kunshan Zhenchuan Middle School, Suzhou Industrial Park, Wujiang Industrial Zone, and Jiaxing Monitoring Station. Our analysis suggests that, in addition to industrial, transportation, construction, and population influences inside Shanghai, external pollutants significantly affect Shanghai's air quality. Therefore, it is necessary to jointly prevent and control regional air pollution both in Shanghai and in neighboring cities.

  19. Economic and environmental assessment of liquefied natural gas as a supplemental aircraft fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withers, Mitch R.; Malina, Robert; Gilmore, Christopher K.; Gibbs, Jonathan M.; Trigg, Chris; Wolfe, Philip J.; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2014-04-01

    In 2013, natural gas is 70-80% cheaper than jet fuel on an energy basis. As an alternative aviation fuel, natural gas may reduce operating costs. In this paper, we assess the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a supplemental aircraft fuel in a military context, with detailed assessments of the Lockheed Martin C-130H and C-130J transport aircraft. We estimate the cost of retrofitting these aircraft to use LNG and the savings from reduced fuel expenses. We evaluate the societal impacts of LNG within a cost-benefit framework, taking into account resource consumption, human health impacts related to air quality, and climate damage. In order to compare alternative uses of natural gas in aviation, we include in our analysis Fischer-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas as a drop-in alternative. Uncertainty analysis is performed with Monte Carlo simulations. We find that aircraft operators can save up to 14% on fuel expenses (retrofit costs included) by employing LNG retrofits, with a 95% confidence interval of 2-23%. Society can also benefit by 12% (3-20%) from LNG use as a result of improved surface air quality, lower resource consumption, and net climate neutrality. These results are highly dependent on fuel prices, the quantity and cost of the LNG retrofits, and the frequency and length of missions. FT jet fuel is not cost-competitive with conventional fuel and results in increased fuel expenses by 17%. FT fuel provides marginal societal benefits relative to jet fuel.

  20. A Macintosh and Windows program for assessing body-image disturbance using adjustable image distortion.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Seiji

    2002-02-01

    Body image is one of the most important concepts in the study of eating disorders. The assessment and treatment of body-image issues are considered to be integral aspects of assessment and clinical management of eating disorders (Thompson, 1996b). The program, BodyImage, is software for the assessment of body-image disturbance. It uses an image-distorting technique to estimate body size. The image of the whole body or parts of the body can be captured as a digital image by a digital camera. Response data from participants are recorded as ASCII files so that other computer programs such as spreadsheets or word processing programs can handle the data. BodyImage works on personal computers, both Macintosh and Windows. It is available at no cost, and it can be obtained from the following URL: http://homepage2.nifty.com/s_shibata/softwares/bodyimage.html. PMID:12060995

  1. Should inpatients be adjusted by their complexity and severity for efficiency assessment? Evidence from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Diogo Cunha; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2016-03-01

    Hospital efficiency analysis depends largely on the model specifications. This study discusses the importance of the case-mix index (CMI) to homogenize the sample of inpatient discharges. It proposes a new index where they are classified by service, since it is usual to have lack of data to compute the CMI and this can influence the credibility of results. Data from the Portuguese national diagnosis-related group (DRG) database was utilized. Three different approaches are developed in this paper, based on locally convex order-m method as well as on translog functions. The first one correlates the efficiency with different inpatients weighting schemes, by using the Nadaraya-Watson method. The second approach compares different frontiers that have been computed using the different weighting schemes. Finally, by using bootstrap, the paper investigates whether the inclusion of severity/ complexity-related variables in the model statistically modifies the results. It has been shown that, under the Portuguese healthcare framework, if the model is environment corrected (which should include epidemiological and main political/ structural health reforms variables), then the severity adjustment of inpatients is pointless. The employment of an inpatient-weighting scheme, such as the CMI, may introduce significant frontier shift, thus its absence is not recommended in productivity evolution analyzes. The CMI shifts the efficiency frontier, but not the relative position of units against it (the last scenario if exogenous variables are present). PMID:24888268

  2. Assessment of an adjustment factor to model radar range dependent error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastianelli, S.; Russo, F.; Napolitano, F.; Baldini, L.

    2012-09-01

    Quantitative radar precipitation estimates are affected by errors determined by many causes such as radar miscalibration, range degradation, attenuation, ground clutter, variability of Z-R relation, variability of drop size distribution, vertical air motion, anomalous propagation and beam-blocking. Range degradation (including beam broadening and sampling of precipitation at an increasing altitude)and signal attenuation, determine a range dependent behavior of error. The aim of this work is to model the range-dependent error through an adjustment factor derived from the G/R ratio trend against the range, where G and R are the corresponding rain gauge and radar rainfall amounts computed at each rain gauge location. Since range degradation and signal attenuation effects are negligible close to the radar, resultsshowthatwithin 40 km from radar the overall range error is independent of the distance from Polar 55C and no range-correction is needed. Nevertheless, up to this distance, the G/R ratiocan showa concave trend with the range, which is due to the melting layer interception by the radar beam during stratiform events.

  3. 76 FR 21256 - Proposed Assessment Rate Adjustment Guidelines for Large and Highly Complex Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... posted at http://www.fdic.gov/regulations/laws/federal/propose.html , including any personal information... (76 FR 10672 (Feb. 25, 2011)), the FDIC Board amended its assessment regulations (the Amended... FR 10672 (February 25, 2011) (to be codified at 12 CFR 327.9). \\2\\ A large institution is defined...

  4. Constraint on Absolute Accuracy of Metacomprehension Assessments: The Anchoring and Adjustment Model vs. the Standards Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Heekyung

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a systematic account of three typical phenomena surrounding absolute accuracy of metacomprehension assessments: (1) the absolute accuracy of predictions is typically quite low; (2) there exist individual differences in absolute accuracy of predictions as a function of reading skill; and (3) postdictions…

  5. Adjustments Made to the Results of the NWEA RIT Scale Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment Alignment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, John

    2004-01-01

    Recently the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) completed a project to connect the scale of the MCA and BST with NWEA's RIT scale. Six Minnesota systems participated in the study, using test information from a group of over 13,000 students enrolled in third, fifth, and eighth grades who took these Minnesota Assessments and NWEA tests in the…

  6. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  7. Methods to assess youth engagement in a text messaging supplement to an effective teen pregnancy program.

    PubMed

    Devine, Sharon; Leeds, Caroline; Shlay, Judith C; Leytem, Amber; Beum, Robert; Bull, Sheana

    2015-08-01

    Youth are prolific users of cell phone minutes and text messaging. Numerous programs using short message service text messaging (SMS) have been employed to help improve health behaviors and health outcomes. However, we lack information on whether and what type of interaction or engagement with SMS program content is required to realize any benefit. We explored youth engagement with an automated SMS program designed to supplement a 25-session youth development program with demonstrated efficacy for reductions in teen pregnancy. Using two years of program data, we report on youth participation in design of message content and response frequency to messages among youth enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) as one indicator of engagement. There were 221 youth between the ages of 14-18 enrolled over two years in the intervention arm of the RCT. Just over half (51%) were female; 56% were Hispanic; and 27% African American. Youth were sent 40,006 messages of which 16,501 were considered bi-directional where youth were asked to text a response. Four-fifths (82%) responded at least once to a text. We found variations in response frequency by gender, age, and ethnicity. The most popular types of messages youth responded to include questions and quizzes. The first two months of the program in each year had the highest response frequency. An important next step is to assess whether higher response to SMS results in greater efficacy. This future work can facilitate greater attention to message design and content to ensure messages are engaging for the intended audience. PMID:26173038

  8. Parent birds assess nest predation risk and adjust their reproductive strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, J.J.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Avian life history theory has long assumed that nest predation plays a minor role in shaping reproductive strategies. Yet, this assumption remains conspicuously untested by broad experiments that alter environmental risk of nest predation, despite the fact that nest predation is a major source of reproductive failure. Here, we examined whether parents can assess experimentally reduced nest predation risk and alter their reproductive strategies. We experimentally reduced nest predation risk and show that in safer environments parents increased investment in young through increased egg size, clutch mass, and the rate they fed nestlings. Parents also increased investment in female condition by increasing the rates that males fed incubating females at the nest, and decreasing the time that females spent incubating. These results demonstrate that birds can assess nest predation risk at large and that nest predation plays a key role in the expression of avian reproductive strategies. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Vitamin supplementation and megadoses.

    PubMed

    Blair, K A

    1986-07-01

    Almost one-third of American adults regularly take vitamins and supplements. If taken incorrectly or in excess, these vitamins may be a potential health hazard. Vitamins are essential nutrients which, in combination with other nutrients (e.g., fats, carbohydrates and proteins), foster normal metabolism. Vitamins also interact with each other. For example, vitamin C participates in the metabolism of folic acid, and vitamin E facilitates the absorption and storage of vitamin A. Because the biological functions of vitamins are interrelated, a diet poor in vitamins, carbohydrates, fats and proteins is not necessarily enhanced by vitamin supplementation. When vitamins are taken in excess of the Recommended Dietary Allowances or the individual's needs, the vitamins no longer function as vitamins but instead act as drugs, with such pharmacological effects as clinical toxicities and the abnormal utilization of vitamins. There are six categories that require vitamin supplements and, in some cases, megadoses. These will be discussed in detail. In addition, a brief table showing the Recommended Dietary Allowances will be given which the nurse practitioner can use in assessing nutritional needs of the client so that necessary adjustments can be made. Finally, a brief review of the potential risks and benefits of megadoses in normal, healthy adults will be given. PMID:3737019

  10. Guidelines for application of chemical-specific adjustment factors in dose/concentration-response assessment.

    PubMed

    Meek, M E; Renwick, A; Ohanian, E; Dourson, M; Lake, B; Naumann, B D; Vu, V

    2002-12-27

    This manuscript addresses guidance in the use of kinetic and dynamic data to inform quantitatively extrapolations for interspecies differences and human variability in dose-response assessment developed in a project of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) initiative on Harmonisation of Approaches to the Assessment of Risk from Exposure to Chemicals. The guidance has been developed and refined through a series of planning and technical meetings and larger workshops of a broad range of participants from academia, government agencies and the private sector. The guidance for adequacy of data for replacement of common defaults for interspecies differences and human variability is presented in the context of several generic categories including: determination of the active chemical species, choice of the appropriate metric (kinetic components) or endpoint (dynamic components) and nature of experimental data, the latter which includes reference to the relevance of population, route and dose and the adequacy of the number of subjects/samples. The principal objective of this guidance developed primarily as a resource for risk assessors, is to foster better understanding of the components of and criteria for adequacy of chemical-specific data to quantitate interspecies differences and human variability in kinetics and dynamics. It is anticipated that this guidance will also encourage the development of appropriate data and facilitate their incorporation in a consistent fashion in dose-response assessment for regulatory purposes (IPCS, 2001). PMID:12505295

  11. Determination of (210)Po in calcium supplements and the possible related dose assessment to the consumers.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to investigate the most popular calcium supplements as a potential additional source of polonium (210)Po in human diet. The analyzed calcium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic calcium compounds; some from natural sources as mussels' shells, fish extracts, or sedimentary rocks. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring (210)Po activity concentrations in calcium supplements, find the correlations between (210)Po concentration in medicament and calcium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed calcium supplement consumption. As results showed, (210)Po concentrations in natural origin calcium supplements (especially sedimentary rocks) were higher than the other analyzed. Also the results of (210)Po analysis obtained for inorganic forms of calcium supplements were higher. The highest (210)Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks: dolomite and chalk - 3.88 ± 0.22 and 3.36 ± 0.10 mBq g(-1) respectively; while the lowest in organic calcium compounds: calcium lactate and calcium gluconate - 0.07 ± 0.02 and 0.17 ± 0.01 mBq g(-1). The annual effective radiation doses from supplements intake were estimated as well. The highest annual radiation dose from (210)Po taken with 1 tablet of calcium supplement per day was connected to sample made from chalk - 2.5 ± 0.07 μSv year(-1), while the highest annual radiation dose from (210)Po taken with 1 g of pure calcium per day was connected to dolomite - 12.7 ± 0.70 μSv year(-1). PMID:26318774

  12. Assessment of Fecal Microflora Changes in Pigs Supplemented with Herbal Residue and Prebiotic

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Jayaram, C.; Jayapal, N.; Sondhi, N.; Kolte, A. P.; Senani, S.; Sridhar, M.; Dhali, A.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic usage in animals as a growth promoter is considered as public health issue due to its negative impact on consumer health and environment. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of herbal residue (ginger, Zingiber officinale, dried rhizome powder) and prebiotic (inulin) as an alternative to antibiotics by comparing fecal microflora composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The grower pigs were offered feed containing antibiotic (tetracycline), ginger and inulin separately and un-supplemented group served as control. The study revealed significant changes in the microbial abundance based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the groups. Presumptive identification of organisms was established based on the fragment length of OTUs generated with three restriction enzymes (MspI, Sau3AI and BsuRI). The abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Selonomonas sp., Methylobacterium sp. and Denitrobacter sp. was found significantly greater in inulin supplemented pigs. Similarly, the abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Selonomonas sp., and Phascolarcobacterium faecium was found significantly greater in ginger supplemented pigs. In contrast, the abundance of OTUs representing pathogenic microorganisms Atopostipes suicloacalis and Bartonella quintana str. Toulouse was significantly reduced in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The OTUs were found to be clustered under two major phylotypes; ginger-inulin and control-tetracycline. Additionally, the abundance of OTUs was similar in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The results suggest the potential of ginger and prebioticsto replace antibiotics in the diet of grower pig. PMID:26176779

  13. Assessment of Fecal Microflora Changes in Pigs Supplemented with Herbal Residue and Prebiotic.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Jayaram, C; Jayapal, N; Sondhi, N; Kolte, A P; Senani, S; Sridhar, M; Dhali, A

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic usage in animals as a growth promoter is considered as public health issue due to its negative impact on consumer health and environment. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of herbal residue (ginger, Zingiber officinale, dried rhizome powder) and prebiotic (inulin) as an alternative to antibiotics by comparing fecal microflora composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The grower pigs were offered feed containing antibiotic (tetracycline), ginger and inulin separately and un-supplemented group served as control. The study revealed significant changes in the microbial abundance based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the groups. Presumptive identification of organisms was established based on the fragment length of OTUs generated with three restriction enzymes (MspI, Sau3AI and BsuRI). The abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Selonomonas sp., Methylobacterium sp. and Denitrobacter sp. was found significantly greater in inulin supplemented pigs. Similarly, the abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Selonomonas sp., and Phascolarcobacterium faecium was found significantly greater in ginger supplemented pigs. In contrast, the abundance of OTUs representing pathogenic microorganisms Atopostipes suicloacalis and Bartonella quintana str. Toulouse was significantly reduced in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The OTUs were found to be clustered under two major phylotypes; ginger-inulin and control-tetracycline. Additionally, the abundance of OTUs was similar in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The results suggest the potential of ginger and prebioticsto replace antibiotics in the diet of grower pig. PMID:26176779

  14. Associations between Vitamin D Status, Supplementation, Outdoor Work and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis Assessment.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to quantitatively assess the associations between vitamin D and Parkinson's Disease (PD) risks, which include: (i) risk of PD in subjects with deficient and insufficient vitamin D levels; (ii) association between vitamin D supplementation and risk of PD; and (iii) association between outdoor work and PD risk, through meta-analyzing available data. An electronic literature search supplemented by hand searching up to March 2015 identified seven eligible studies comprising 5690 PD patients and 21251 matched controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of PD risk were assessed through pooling the collected data from eligible studies using Stata software. Pooled data showed that subjects with deficient and insufficient vitamin D levels had increased PD risks compared with matched-controls according to the corresponding OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.63 to 2.65, and 1.29, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.51. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with significantly reduced risk of PD (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.90). Outdoor work was also related to reduced risk of PD (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.81). The findings may stimulate larger, well-designed studies to further verify the associations between vitamin D and PD risk. PMID:26083115

  15. Use of the Satisfaction With Amplification in Daily Life Questionnaire to Assess Patient Satisfaction Following Remote Hearing Aid Adjustments (Telefitting)

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo

    2014-01-01

    Background Hearing loss can affect approximately 15% of the pediatric population and up to 40% of the adult population. The gold standard of treatment for hearing loss is amplification of hearing thresholds by means of a hearing aid instrument. A hearing aid is an electronic device equipped with a topology of only three major components of aggregate cost. The gold standard of hearing aid fittings is face-to-face appointments in hearing aid centers, clinics, or hospitals. Telefitting encompasses the programming and adjustments of hearing aid settings remotely. Fitting hearing aids remotely is a relatively simple procedure, using minimal computer hardware and Internet access. Objective This project aimed to examine the feasibility and outcomes of remote hearing aid adjustments (telefitting) by assessing patient satisfaction via the Portuguese version of the Satisfaction With Amplification in Daily Life (SADL) questionnaire. Methods The Brazilian Portuguese version of the SADL was used in this experimental research design. Participants were randomly selected through the Rehabilitation Clinical (Espaco Reouvir) of the Otorhinolaryngology Department Medical School University of Sao Paulo. Of the 8 participants in the study, 5 were female and 3 were male, with a mean age of 71.5 years. The design consisted of two face-to-face sessions performed within 15 working days of each other. The remote assistance took place 15 days later. Results The average scores from this study are above the mean scores from the original SADL normative data. These indicate a high level of satisfaction in participants who were fitted remotely. Conclusions The use of an evaluation questionnaire is a simple yet effective method to objectively assess the success of a remote fitting. Questionnaire outcomes can help hearing stakeholders improve the National Policy on Hearing Health Care in Brazil. The results of this project indicated that patient satisfaction levels of those fitted remotely were

  16. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress. PMID:24799948

  17. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress. PMID:24799948

  18. Nitrogen supplementation of corn silages. 2. Assessing rumen function using fatty acid profiles of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Cabrita, A R J; Fonseca, A J M; Dewhurst, R J; Gomes, E

    2003-12-01

    The effects of N supplementation strategies on milk fatty acid profiles of dairy cows and their use as a noninvasive technique to diagnose rumen function, and to guide protein feeding decisions on-farm were evaluated in three experiments. Each experiment was designed according to three 3 x 3 Latin squares with 9 Holstein cows receiving total mixed rations based on corn silage. Experiment 1 was designed to study effects of diets with different ratios of effective rumen-degradable protein (ERDP; g) to fermentable metabolizable energy (FME; j) providing, respectively, a large deficiency, a slight deficiency, and a slight excess in relation to the target level of 11 g of ERDP/MJ FME for lactating cows. Experiment 2 evaluated effects of different proportions of quickly and slowly rumen-degradable protein achieved by replacing soybean meal with urea in the concentrates (0, 0.5, and 1% urea for U0, U5, and U10, respectively). Experiment 3 investigated effects of synchronizing the availability of FME and ERDP in rumen by offering the protein-rich concentrate once or twice per day before the meal (corn silage, ryegrass hay, and energy-rich concentrate), or included in the total mixed ration. Milk fatty acid profiles were significantly affected by dietary N and carbohydrate supply. Principal component factor analysis provided a reasonable description of the data, clearly discriminating between fatty acids that are synthesized by different metabolic pathways. Several sources/pathways were distinguished: de novo synthesis in the mammary gland (short- and medium-chain fatty acids), delta9-desaturase activity (monoenoic fatty acids), direct absorption from the blood stream (long-chain fatty acids), and de novo synthesis by the rumen microbial populations (odd-chain fatty acids). Discriminant canonical analysis showed that milk odd-chain fatty acids had a higher ability to discriminate between diets than even-chain fatty acids. The anteiso C15:0 increased in line with increasing

  19. Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation: A Critical Review of In Vitro and Clinical Approaches for Benefit Assessment of Plant Food Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as the clustering in an individual of several metabolic abnormalities associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and obesity, in which low-grade chronic inflammatory activity is commonly observed. Part of the European Project PlantLIBRA is concerned with methods to assess the benefits of plant food supplements (PFSs) in countering inflammatory activity and metabolic syndrome. This paper summarizes the current methods used for benefit assessment of PFS, taking into consideration only in vitro, in silico, and clinical methodologies used to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of plants. No in silico studies (using computer simulation) related to metabolic syndrome were found; these methods appear to be used exclusively for identifying or testing potentially effective compounds in drug development. Most in vitro methods for the assessment of beneficial effects of botanicals or plant food supplements in diabetes were based on a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas the preferred kind of clinical study was the double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Only two parameters were observed to change after treatment with botanicals in both in vitro and in vivo studies: interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α, and these biomarkers should be carefully considered in future studies for PFS benefit assessment. PMID:23533519

  20. 76 FR 71007 - Pacific Gas & Electric Company; Notice of Availability of Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas & Electric Company; Notice of Availability of Supplemental... February 19, 2010 regarding Pacific Gas & Electric Company's (PG&E) proposal to perform Commission-required... number field to access the document. For assistance, call (202) 502-8222, or (202) 502-8659 (for...

  1. Multivitamin/mineral Calculator for Assessing Nutrient Intake Using the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The analytically-based Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database-Release One (DSID-1) was recently released to the scientific community and made publicly available through a web site hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Complete information on nutrient intake from both foods and dietary supplem...

  2. APPROACH FOR ASSESSING RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS PRESENT IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China, but they are becoming increasing popular in the United States. Since these products are classified as herbals, the United States Food and Drug Administration does not regulate nor monitor these suppleme...

  3. Assessing the Impact of Faculty-Led Supplemental Instruction on Attrition, GPA, and Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Karla Needham

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental, quantitative study was to investigate the effectiveness of supplemental instruction (SI) as a means to address the existing high attrition and low graduation rates evidenced at a rural southern community college. The research problem addressed the high attrition rates in barrier courses and low graduation…

  4. A short food frequency questionnaire to assess intake of seafood and n-3 supplements: validation with biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Seafood intake is associated with beneficial effects for human health. Seafood provides a number of nutrients beyond the traditionally known long chain marine n-3 fatty acids EPA, DPA and DHA, such as protein, vitamin D, iodine, selenium and vitamin B12. Valid assessment of dietary seafood and n-3 supplement intakes are becoming increasingly crucial when giving recommendations to populations as seafood consumption is regarded as an important part of a healthy and balanced diet. Methods The aim was to validate a short FFQ developed for assessment of dietary intake of seafood and n-3 supplements using the biomarkers marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and 25(OH)D in serum. Results Fifty-three healthy Norwegians aged 30-64 years with a mean BMI of 25 kg/m2 were compliant with the study protocol. 70% reported eating seafood for dinner one to two times per week, and 45% reported to eat seafood as spread, in salads or as snack meal three to five times or more per week. The FFQ correlated significantly with both the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids (r = 0.73, p < 0.0001) and with 25(OH)D (r = 0.37, p < 0.01). Mean level of marine n-3 and of 25(OH)D were 232 ± 65 μg/g erythrocytes and 73 ± 33 nmol/L serum, respectively. Conclusion The present short FFQ predicted strongly the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes, and predicted fairly good the level of serum 25(OH)D and may therefore be a valid method for assessment of seafood and n-3 supplements intake among adults. PMID:22099052

  5. Phase II study assessing the feasibility of using elemental supplements to reduce acute enteritis in patients receiving radical pelvic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Craighead, P S; Young, S

    1998-12-01

    From June 1994 through September 1995, 17 patients with gynecologic cancer were entered into a feasibility study using elemental supplements (ES) during the course of pelvic radiotherapy. The level of compliance with the ES regimen was evaluated by assessing sachet counts and patients' weekly diaries. Diaries were also used to assess compliance with a modified diet program. Bowel function in 45 patients receiving radiotherapy outside this study was assessed concurrently. All patients were reviewed weekly to record bowel function, which was also recorded 1 year after radiotherapy. After treatment of all patients the grade, duration of enteritis, need for antidiarrheal agents, and the likelihood of resolution at 1 year after radiotherapy were analyzed. The study used compliance with the ES regimen as its primary endpoint. Compliance with the ES regimen was achieved in 76.5% of patients, and compliance with the modified diet was achieved regardless of whether the ES was tolerated. Patients not complying with the ES, or who did not receive ES, had higher grade diarrhea, which was longer in duration and was less likely to have resolved than patients in the compliant group. Elemental supplements are well tolerated when taken during a course of pelvic radiotherapy and cause a mild diarrhea, which resolves after treatment has been discontinued. The lack of enteritis 1 year later in patients who complied with ES suggests that reducing the grade of acute enteritis might influence the appearance of later bowel effects. PMID:9856658

  6. Impact of Breast Density Legislation on Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Supplemental Screening: A Survey of 110 Radiology Facilities.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Lina; Miyake, Kanae K; Leung, Jessica W T; Price, Elissa R; Liu, Yueyi I; Joe, Bonnie N; Sickles, Edward A; Thomas, William R; Lipson, Jafi A; Daniel, Bruce L; Hargreaves, Jonathan; Brenner, R James; Bassett, Lawrence W; Ojeda-Fournier, Haydee; Lindfors, Karen K; Feig, Stephen A; Ikeda, Debra M

    2016-09-01

    Breast density notification laws, passed in 19 states as of October 2014, mandate that patients be informed of their breast density. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of this legislation on radiology practices, including performance of breast cancer risk assessment and supplemental screening studies. A 20-question anonymous web-based survey was emailed to radiologists in the Society of Breast Imaging between August 2013 and March 2014. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. Around 121 radiologists from 110 facilities in 34 USA states and 1 Canadian site responded. About 50% (55/110) of facilities had breast density legislation, 36% of facilities (39/109) performed breast cancer risk assessment (one facility did not respond). Risk assessment was performed as a new task in response to density legislation in 40% (6/15) of facilities in states with notification laws. However, there was no significant difference in performing risk assessment between facilities in states with a law and those without (p < 0.831). In anticipation of breast density legislation, 33% (16/48), 6% (3/48), and 6% (3/48) of facilities in states with laws implemented handheld whole breast ultrasound (WBUS), automated WBUS, and tomosynthesis, respectively. The ratio of facilities offering handheld WBUS was significantly higher in states with a law than in states without (p < 0.001). In response to breast density legislation, more than 33% of facilities are offering supplemental screening with WBUS and tomosynthesis, and many are performing formal risk assessment for determining patient management. PMID:27296462

  7. Multimedia environmental goals for environmental assessment. Volume I. Supplement a. Report for October 1978-October 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsbury, G.L.; White, J.B.; Watson, J.S.

    1980-03-01

    The report supplements Volume I (PB-276 919) of the two-volume 1977 EPA report that introduced a methodology to establish Multimedia Environmental Goals (MEGs) for chemical pollutants. It summarizes the original methodology and introduces minor improvements. Improvements include the assignment of a unique identification number to each MEG compound and modification of the original model used to derive MEG values for land or solid waste. Its appendices include: revised category descriptions, an updated master list of organic compounds, a candidate list of compounds to be considered for future MEGs, tabulated discharge MEG values, and hazard potential values. It also includes graphical summaries of MEGs for 586 organic chemicals. The Supplement is to be used in coordination with MEG Volumes III and IV (PB80-115108 and PB80-115116) which contain background information summaries and MEG charts for organic compounds in the new MEGs master list.

  8. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  9. Evaluating spectral indices and spectral mixture analysis for assessing fire severity and adjusting burning efficiency using Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veraverbeke, S.; Hook, S.

    2012-04-01

    Fire severity data are of paramount importance to (i) organize post-fire rehabilitation plans and (ii) reduce uncertainties in wildfire emission estimates by allowing spatio-temporal variability in burning efficiency values. We have used a Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image to assess fire severity of the large 2011 Wallow fire in Arizona, USA. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), differenced NBR (dNBR), Relative dNBR (RdNBR) and the char fraction estimated by Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) were evaluated. Geo Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI) and vegetation mortality data were used as ground truth. Of all remotely sensed measures tested the dNBR had the highest performance (GeoCBI-dNBR R2 = 0.84 and % black trees-dNBR R2 = 0.91), which supports the operational use of the dNBR for post-fire management. Without initial calibration with field data, however, dNBR values lack biophysical meaning. The SMA-derived char fraction also had moderate-high correlations with the field data (GeoCBI-char fraction R2 = 0.66 and % black trees-char fraction R2 = 0.82). The char fractions provide a direct mechanistic link with the fire processes that occurred on the ground. Such data have big potential to adjust burning efficiency values. This is of great importance to reduce uncertainties in wildfire emission estimates.

  10. Disability-adjusted life years in the assessment of health effects of traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Ł; Badyda, A J; Gayer, A; Mucha, D

    2015-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollutants have an impact on human health and have been recognized as one of the main stressors that cause mortality and morbidity in urban areas. Research confirms that citizens living in the vicinity of main roads are strongly exposed to high concentrations of numerous air pollutants. In the present study the measurements of traffic-related parameters such as density, velocity, and structure were performed for cross-sections of selected street canyons in Warsaw, the capital city of Poland. In addition, the results of the general traffic measurements were used to describe the number of cars crossing the border of the city. Vehicle emissions of PM10 were calculated for the whole city area and changes of the PM10 concentration were modeled to present the exposure to this pollutant that could be attributable to traffic. The principles of the environmental burden of disease (EBD) were used. The assessment of the impact of traffic-related air pollutants on human health was made. The results, presented in disability-adjusted life years (DALY), were based on the outcomes of the study conducted in 2008-2012 in Warsaw, one the most congested agglomerations in Europe, and included the health damage effect of the exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants. DALY calculations were performed in accordance to the methodologies used in renowned international scientific research on EBD. PMID:25310938

  11. The work environment disability-adjusted life year for use with life cycle assessment: a methodological approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systems-based method used to determine potential impacts to the environment associated with a product throughout its life cycle. Conclusions from LCA studies can be applied to support decisions regarding product design or public policy, therefore, all relevant inputs (e.g., raw materials, energy) and outputs (e.g., emissions, waste) to the product system should be evaluated to estimate impacts. Currently, work-related impacts are not routinely considered in LCA. The objectives of this paper are: 1) introduce the work environment disability-adjusted life year (WE-DALY), one portion of a characterization factor used to express the magnitude of impacts to human health attributable to work-related exposures to workplace hazards; 2) outline the methods for calculating the WE-DALY; 3) demonstrate the calculation; and 4) highlight strengths and weaknesses of the methodological approach. Methods The concept of the WE-DALY and the methodological approach to its calculation is grounded in the World Health Organization’s disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Like the DALY, the WE-DALY equation considers the years of life lost due to premature mortality and the years of life lived with disability outcomes to estimate the total number of years of healthy life lost in a population. The equation requires input in the form of the number of fatal and nonfatal injuries and illnesses that occur in the industries relevant to the product system evaluated in the LCA study, the age of the worker at the time of the fatal or nonfatal injury or illness, the severity of the injury or illness, and the duration of time lived with the outcomes of the injury or illness. Results The methodological approach for the WE-DALY requires data from various sources, multi-step instructions to determine each variable used in the WE-DALY equation, and assumptions based on professional opinion. Conclusions Results support the use of the WE-DALY in a

  12. A Technology-Assisted Learning Setup as Assessment Supplement for Three Persons with a Diagnosis of Post-Coma Vegetative State and Pervasive Motor Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Bosco, Andrea; Megna, Gianfranco; De Tommaso, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Post-coma persons in an apparent condition of vegetative state and pervasive motor impairment pose serious problems in terms of assessment and intervention options. A technology-based learning assessment procedure might serve for them as a diagnostic supplement with possible implications for rehabilitation intervention. The learning assessment…

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  14. [Assessment of efficiency of use of the developed supplement containing selenium on laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Bazhenova, B A; Aslaliev, A D; Danilov, M B; Badmaeva, T M; Vtorushina, I A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the effectiveness of wheat flour containing selenium in organic form. The organic form of trace element was achieved by transformation of selenium in selenium-methionine (Se-Met) at germination of wheat grains, moistened with a solution of sodium selenite. To determine the effectiveness of selenium- containing supplements experimental investigations were carried out on Long white rats with initial body weight 50 ± 2 g. The duration of the experiment was 30 days. The research model included four groups of animals: control group--animals were fed a complete vivarium diet; group 1--a model of selenium deficiency, which was achieved by feeding selenium-deficient food (grain growh in the Chita region of the Trans-Baikal Territory Zabaikalsky Krai); group 2--animals were administered selenium supplement in the form of enriched flour (0.025 µg Se per 50 g body weight of the animal) on the background of selenium-deficient diet; group 3--animals were treated with a high dose of selenium in the form of a solution of sodium selenite intragastrically through a tube (0.15 µg Se per 50 g body weight). Selenium-containing additive on the background of selenium-deficient diet had a positive impact on the appearance and behavior of animals, the body weight gain per head after 10 days in group 2 amounted to 47.9 g that was 4 fold larger than in rats of group 1. The study of selenium content showed that in the blood, liver, lungs and heart of rats treated with the additive on the background of selenium-deficient diet (group 2), selenium level did not differ from those in the control group and was within physiological norms. The experiment showed that selenium deficiency and rich in selenium rich diet has a significantly different effect on the studied parameters of oxidative-antioxidative status. The activity of blood glutathione peroxidase in animals of group 2 (did not differ from that in group 3) was almost 2 fold higher than in

  15. Adjustment of the thermal component of two tourism climatological assessment tools using thermal perception and preference surveys from Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Attila; Unger, János; Gál, Csilla V.; Kántor, Noémi

    2016-07-01

    This study introduces new methodological concepts for integrating seasonal subjective thermal assessment patterns of people into the thermal components of two tourism climatological evaluation tools: the Tourism Climatic Index (TCI) and the Climate-Tourism/Transfer-Information-Scheme (CTIS). In the case of the TCI, we replaced the air temperature and relative humidity as the basis of the initial rating system with the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET)—a complex human biometeorological index. This modification improves the TCI's potential to evaluate the thermal aspects of climate. The major accomplishments of this study are (a) the development of a new, PET-based rating system and its integration into the thermal sub-indices of the TCI and (b) the regionalization of the thermal components of CTIS to reflect both the thermal sensation and preference patterns of people. A 2-year-long (2011-2012) thermal comfort survey conducted in Szeged, Hungary, from spring to autumn was utilized to demonstrate the implementation of the introduced concepts. We found considerable differences between the thermal perception and preference patterns of Hungarians, with additional variations across the evaluated seasons. This paper describes the proposed methodology for the integration of the new seasonal, perception-based, and preference-based PET rating systems into the TCI, and presents the incorporation of new PET thresholds into the CTIS. In order to demonstrate the utility of the modified evaluation tools, we performed case study climate analyses for three Hungarian tourist destinations. The additional adjustments introduced during the course of those analyses include the reduction of TCI's temporal resolution to 10-day intervals and the exclusion of nocturnal and winter periods from the investigation.

  16. Adjustment of the thermal component of two tourism climatological assessment tools using thermal perception and preference surveys from Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Attila; Unger, János; Gál, Csilla V.; Kántor, Noémi

    2015-05-01

    This study introduces new methodological concepts for integrating seasonal subjective thermal assessment patterns of people into the thermal components of two tourism climatological evaluation tools: the Tourism Climatic Index (TCI) and the Climate-Tourism/Transfer-Information-Scheme (CTIS). In the case of the TCI, we replaced the air temperature and relative humidity as the basis of the initial rating system with the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET)—a complex human biometeorological index. This modification improves the TCI's potential to evaluate the thermal aspects of climate. The major accomplishments of this study are (a) the development of a new, PET-based rating system and its integration into the thermal sub-indices of the TCI and (b) the regionalization of the thermal components of CTIS to reflect both the thermal sensation and preference patterns of people. A 2-year-long (2011-2012) thermal comfort survey conducted in Szeged, Hungary, from spring to autumn was utilized to demonstrate the implementation of the introduced concepts. We found considerable differences between the thermal perception and preference patterns of Hungarians, with additional variations across the evaluated seasons. This paper describes the proposed methodology for the integration of the new seasonal, perception-based, and preference-based PET rating systems into the TCI, and presents the incorporation of new PET thresholds into the CTIS. In order to demonstrate the utility of the modified evaluation tools, we performed case study climate analyses for three Hungarian tourist destinations. The additional adjustments introduced during the course of those analyses include the reduction of TCI's temporal resolution to 10-day intervals and the exclusion of nocturnal and winter periods from the investigation.

  17. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Roman-Viñas, Blanca; Ngo, Joy; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Williamson, Gary; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2011-12-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as cancer. The aim of this paper is to examine the PFS market structures in European Community (EC) Member States as well as to examine issues addressing methodologies and consumption data relating to PFS use in Europe. A revision of recent reports on market data, trends and main distribution channels, in addition an example of the consumption of PFS in Spain, is presented. An overview of the methods and administration techniques used to assess individual food consumption as a starting point, including their uses and limitations, as well as some examples of studies that collect Food Supplement (FS) information, including herbal/botanical/plant-derived products are also discussed. Additionally, the intake estimation process of food nutrients is described and used to propose the PFS ingredients intake estimation process. Nationally representative PFS consumption data is scarce in Europe. The majority of studies have been conducted in Scandinavia and the UK. However the heterogeneity of definitions, study design and objectives make it difficult to compare results and extrapolate conclusions. PMID:21879100

  18. Commuting-Adjusted Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of Airborne Fine Particles with Uncertainty Quantification via Monte Carlo Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Grisotto, Laura; Catelan, Dolores; Consonni, Dario; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Biggeri, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to air pollution is associated with a short-term increase in mortality, and this field has begun to focus on health impact assessment. Objectives: Our aim was to estimate the impact of PM10 on mortality within 2 days from the exposure in the Italian region of Lombardy for the year 2007, at the municipality level, examining exposure entailed by daily intermunicipality commuting and accounting for uncertainty propagation. Methods: We combined data from different sources to derive probabilistic distributions for all input quantities used to calculate attributable deaths (mortality rates, PM10 concentrations, estimated PM10 effects, and commuting flows) and applied a Monte Carlo procedure to propagate uncertainty and sample the distribution of attributable deaths for each municipality. Results: We estimated that annual average PM10 concentrations above the World Health Organization-recommended threshold of 20 μg/m3 were responsible for 865 short-term deaths (80% credibility interval: 475, 1,401), 26% of which were attributable to PM10 above the European Union limit of 40 μg/m3. Reducing annual average PM10 concentrations > 20 μg/m3 by 20% would have reduced the number of attributable deaths by 36%. The largest estimated impacts were along the basin of the Po River and in the largest cities. Commuting contributed to the spatial distribution of the estimated impact. Conclusions: Our estimates, which incorporated uncertainty quantification, indicate that the short-term impact of PM10 on mortality in Lombardy in 2007 was notable, and that reduction in air pollution would have had a substantial beneficial effect on population health. Using commuting data helped to identify critical areas for prioritizing intervention. Citation: Baccini M, Grisotto L, Catelan D, Consonni D, Bertazzi PA, Biggeri A. 2015. Commuting-adjusted short-term health impact assessment of airborne fine particles with uncertainty quantification via Monte Carlo simulation. Environ

  19. A Pilot Randomized Crossover Trial Assessing the Safety and Short-Term Effects of Pomegranate Supplementation in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rivara, Matthew B.; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Linke, Lori; Ruzinski, John; Ikizler, T. Alp; Himmelfarb, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are highly prevalent in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and are linked to excess cardiovascular risk. This study examined whether short-term supplementation with pomegranate juice and extract is safe and well tolerated by MHD patients. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of pomegranate supplementation on oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, monocyte function, and blood pressure. Design Prospective, randomized, crossover, pilot clinical trial (NCT01562340). Setting The study was conducted from March to October 2012 in outpatient dialysis facilities in the Seattle metropolitan area. Subjects Twenty-four patients undergoing MHD (men, 64%; mean age, 61 ± 14 years) were randomly assigned to receive pomegranate juice or extract during a 4-week intervention period. After a washout period, all patients received the alternative treatment during a second 4-week intervention period. Intervention Patients assigned to receive pomegranate juice received 100 mL of juice before each dialysis session. Patients assigned to receive pomegranate extract were given 1,050 mg of extract daily. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were safety and tolerability of pomegranate juice and extract. Additional secondary outcomes assessed included serum lipids, laboratory biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6) and oxidative stress (plasma F2 isoprostanes and isofurans), monocyte cytokine production, and predialysis blood pressure. Results Both pomegranate juice and extract were safe and well tolerated by study participants. Over the study period, neither treatment had a significant effect on lipid profiles, plasma C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, F2-isoprostane or isofuran concentrations, pre-dialysis systolic or diastolic blood pressure nor changed the levels of monocyte cytokine production. Conclusions Both pomegranate juice and extract are safe and well tolerated by

  20. A nutritional-toxicological assessment of Antarctic krill oil versus fish oil dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-09-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥ C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  1. A safety assessment of Coriolus versicolor biomass as a food supplement

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Ana B.; Ferrão, Jorge; Fernandes, Tito

    2016-01-01

    Background Coriolus versicolor (CV) is a common mushroom with antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and immunomodulatory properties. The existence of these properties has been extensively proven mainly using CV extract; research on the biomass form is scarce. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the safety of the CV biomass form, as it is commonly used as a food supplement. Design CV biomass powder was dissolved in distilled water and administered daily (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 g/kg live weight) in single doses by gavage to both female and male Charles River albino rats. Results No adverse or lethal effects were observed as a consequence of the daily administration of CV biomass. In addition, compared with the control group, no abnormal findings were observed at necropsy and histopathological examination. Conclusions A safe profile of CV biomass for human consumption can be inferred from the absence of any remarkable adverse effects in rats. PMID:26969586

  2. Morbidly Adherent Placenta: Ultrasound Assessment and Supplemental Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Mahesh K; Dryden, Damla K

    2015-08-01

    Morbidly adherent placenta or placenta accreta is being increasingly encountered in obstetrical practice mainly owing to the increasing rates of cesarean delivery. This condition is associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality resulting from postpartum hemorrhage. When unsuspected, outcomes can be catastrophic to the pregnant woman. Timely diagnosis during the antenatal period, on the contrary, allows for optimal planning of a multidisciplinary management approach and delivery at a tertiary care institution. A higher index of suspicion in those at greatest risk such as in women with placenta previa and with history of some prior cesarean deliveries should lead to diligent antenatal evaluation for possible placenta accreta. Management of invasive placenta implantation often involves cesarean delivery hysterectomies; uterus-sparing alternatives to manage this condition can be an option in selected cases. Ultrasound imaging remains the modality of choice for the diagnosis. This review article discusses the ultrasound image findings in placenta accreta, its limitations and pitfalls, and the supplemental role of magnetic resonance imaging in the imaging evaluation of placenta accreta. PMID:26296483

  3. A Nutritional-Toxicological Assessment of Antarctic Krill Oil versus Fish Oil Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson Nash, Susan M.; Schlabach, Martin; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Fish oil dietary supplements and complementary medicines are pitched to play a role of increasing strategic importance in meeting daily requirements of essential nutrients, such as long-chain (≥C20, LC) omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D. Recently a new product category, derived from Antarctic krill, has been launched on the omega-3 nutriceutical market. Antarctic krill oil is marketed as demonstrating a greater ease of absorption due to higher phospholipid content, as being sourced through sustainable fisheries and being free of toxins and pollutants; however, limited data is available on the latter component. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) encompass a range of toxic, man-made contaminants that accumulate preferentially in marine ecosystems and in the lipid reserves of organisms. Extraction and concentration of fish oils therefore represents an inherent nutritional-toxicological conflict. This study aimed to provide the first quantitative comparison of the nutritional (EPA and DHA) versus the toxicological profiles of Antarctic krill oil products, relative to various fish oil categories available on the Australian market. Krill oil products were found to adhere closely to EPA and DHA manufacturer specifications and overall were ranked as containing intermediate levels of POP contaminants when compared to the other products analysed. Monitoring of the pollutant content of fish and krill oil products will become increasingly important with expanding regulatory specifications for chemical thresholds. PMID:25170991

  4. Johnsonville Fossil Plant (JOF): Supplement to the environmental assessment (EA) for the new ash dredge pond

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In 1989, TVA prepared an EA for development of a new ash dredge pond at JOF. On June 19, 1990, a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) was released which indicated that the project was not considered to be a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the environment. Since the original EA for this project considered the environmental impacts of only the first phase of construction, the purpose of this supplement is to consider any additional impacts associated with the second phase. It was concluded in the EA that minor air quality impacts (primarily fugitive dust and vehicular emissions) would be created during construction and operation of the first phase of the disposal area. These same impacts would be temporarily created during construction of the second phase of the project. Watering open areas and haul roads and minimization of active areas will reduce fugitive dust. No additional impacts to other environmental media are anticipated from development of the second phase with the exception of potential impacts to groundwater resources. In order to evaluate groundwater impacts of the second phase, groundwater modeling studies conducted in the EA were re-run using estimates based on the conditions expected for the second phase. This information is presented in this report. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. An assessment of H1N1 influenza-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome severity after adjustment for treatment characteristics.

    PubMed

    Riscili, Brent P; Anderson, Tyler B; Prescott, Hallie C; Exline, Matthew C; Sopirala, Madhuri M; Phillips, Gary S; Ali, Naeem A

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic influenza caused significant increases in healthcare utilization across several continents including the use of high-intensity rescue therapies like extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). The severity of illness observed with pandemic influenza in 2009 strained healthcare resources. Because lung injury in ARDS can be influenced by daily management and multiple organ failure, we performed a retrospective cohort study to understand the severity of H1N1 associated ARDS after adjustment for treatment. Sixty subjects were identified in our hospital with ARDS from "direct injury" within 24 hours of ICU admission over a three month period. Twenty-three subjects (38.3%) were positive for H1N1 within 72 hours of hospitalization. These cases of H1N1-associated ARDS were compared to non-H1N1 associated ARDS patients. Subjects with H1N1-associated ARDS were younger and more likely to have a higher body mass index (BMI), present more rapidly and have worse oxygenation. Severity of illness (SOFA score) was directly related to worse oxygenation. Management was similar between the two groups on the day of admission and subsequent five days with respect to tidal volumes used, fluid balance and transfusion practices. There was, however, more frequent use of "rescue" therapy like prone ventilation, HFOV or ECMO in H1N1 patients. First morning set tidal volumes and BMI were significantly associated with increased severity of lung injury (Lung injury score, LIS) at presentation and over time while prior prescription of statins was protective. After assessment of the effect of these co-interventions LIS was significantly higher in H1N1 patients. Patients with pandemic influenza-associated ARDS had higher LIS both at presentation and over the course of the first six days of treatment when compared to non-H1N1 associated ARDS controls. The difference in LIS persisted over the duration of observation in patients with H1N1

  6. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  7. Supplemental mathematical formulations, Atmospheric pathway: The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is an integrated software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models for health and environmental risk assessments of both radioactive and hazardous pollutants. This atmospheric component report is one of a series of formulation reports that document the MEPAS mathematical models. MEPAS is a ``multimedia`` model; pollutant transport is modeled within, through, and between multiple media (air, soil, groundwater, and surface water). The estimated concentrations in the various media are used to compute exposures and impacts to the environment, to maximum individuals, and to populations.

  8. The Efficacy of Instructor-Guided Supplemental Instruction as a Strategy for Helping Reading-Deficient College Students Improve Testing and Assessment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartley-Lukula, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    This research project examined whether the use of Instructor-guided Supplemental Instruction as a classroom scaffolding technique, might help improve testing and assessment reading outcomes for reading-deficient college students. The study was completed at Tennessee State University in Nashville, Tennessee over the 16-week Fall, 2012 semester…

  9. Rural Worker Adjustment to Urban Life: An Assessment of the Research. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Varden

    This document is a compilation resulting from studies of how well the rural labor force has adjusted to the urban setting. Topics presented include: (1) Concepts, Definitions, and Magnitude, (2) The Basic Expellant: Agricultural Technological Advance, (3) Opportunities and Uncertainties in the Economic Environment for Off-Farm Migrants, (4)…

  10. Assessing Changes in Socioemotional Adjustment across Early School Transitions--New National Scales for Children at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Paul A.; Watkins, Marley W.; Rovine, Michael J.; Rikoon, Samuel H.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the development and evidence for validity and application of the Adjustment Scales for Early Transition in Schooling (ASETS). Based on primary analyses of data from the Head Start Impact Study, a nationally representative sample (N = 3077) of randomly selected children from low-income households is configured to inform…

  11. A Guideline for Assessing CD-ROM Software as Supplemental Material to Language Arts Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Mary

    This paper is based on the premise that as computer assisted learning becomes more prevalent, teachers will be required to make decisions as to the quality of the software available for instruction. Assessment guidelines from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication Digest No. 79 and the North Carolina Department of Public…

  12. Risk Assessment supporting the decision on the initial selection of supplemental ILAW technologies

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-09-29

    A risk assessment on the long-term environmental impact of various potential waste forms was conducted at the request of the Hanford Site's Mission Acceleration Initiative Team. These potential waste forms (bulk vitrification, cast stone, and steam reformer) may treat some of the low-activity waste currently planned to be treated at the Waste Treatment Plant.

  13. 78 FR 110 - Supplemental Record of Decision; Final Supplementary Risk Assessment for the Boston University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... assessment, environmental justice, risk communications, biosafety, and infectious disease modeling. At... public to disease-causing microbes that will be studied in the NEIDL. While there is no such thing as... including, but not limited to, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and ] Prevention, the NIH, and...

  14. Assessment of drainage water quality in pre- and post-irrigation seasons for supplemental irrigation use.

    PubMed

    Alexakis, Dimitris; Gotsis, Dimitris; Giakoumakis, Spyros

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on hydrochemistry is very important to assess the quality of water for effective management of water resources or drainage water reuse. On this basis, an assessment of water quality was conducted in the Agoulinitsa district in Peloponnese (western Greece). Both drainage and irrigation channel water samples have been collected, treated, and subjected to chemical analysis. A characterization has been carried out using the Piper-trilinear diagram. Assessment of the water samples from the point of view of sodium adsorption ratio, Na(+)%, and residual sodium carbonate indicated that 60.0% and 83.3% of the drainage water samples during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples, are chemically suitable for irrigation use. Moreover, assessment of the water samples by comparing quality parameters with the Food and Agriculture Organization guidelines indicated that 20.0% and 44.4% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples could cause slight to moderate problems to the plants. On the other hand, 80.0% and 55.6% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, could cause immediate development of severe problems to the plants growth. PMID:21915601

  15. Assessing the Readability of Geoscience Textbooks, Laboratory Manuals, and Supplemental Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hippensteel, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Reading materials used in undergraduate science classes have not received the same attention in the literature as those used in secondary schools. Additionally, reports critical of college textbooks and their prose are common. To assess both problems and determine the readability of assignments and texts used by geoscience faculty at the…

  16. Research and development needs for desiccant cooling technology 1992--1997. (Supplement to the NREL report, Desiccant Cooling: State-of-the-Art Assessment)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A A

    1992-12-01

    This report is a supplement to Desiccant Cooling: State-of-the-Art Assessment (NREL/TP-254-4147, DE93000013). In this supplement document we have described a detailed program assuming sufficient funding to implement the R&D activities needed. Desiccant dehumidification is a mature technology for industrial applications, and in recent years the technology has been used for air conditioning a number of institutional and commercial buildings. Our proposal is based on argumentative discussions at various national meetings with leaders of the technology. The goal is the penetration of the broad air conditioning market. This work is funded by the Buildings technology Office of the US Department of Energy.

  17. Vitamin and Supplement Use in the Old Order Amish: Gender-specific prevalence and associations with use

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Robert M.; Reed, Anna W.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Miller, Michael; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Mitchell, Braxton D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the form of vitamin and supplement use is increasingly prevalent in the United States. The interplay between CAM use and use of conventional medications is not well studied. We examined this issue in the Old Order Amish (OOA), a population lacking several factors known to influence supplement use, whose culture and barriers to conventional medications may result in high rates of supplement use. Objective We characterized the patterns of supplement use in the OOA, including the extent to which CAM use aggregates in families, and assessed whether higher use of supplements is associated with lower medication use. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study of conventional medications and supplements in 2,372 adult Amish from the Lancaster County, PA area. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. Supplements were subcategorized as herbal versus vitamin/mineral supplements. Results Seventy-seven percent of all Amish adults reported current supplement use, whereas 22% reported medication use. Women used supplements more often and used more supplements than men, and familial aggregation of supplement use was stronger in family pairs involving women. Supplement use was associated with lower medication use after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and self-reported histories of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia (adjusted OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.00, p=0.047). This association was driven primarily by use of herbal supplements (adjusted OR 0.94, 05% CI 0.89 to 0.99, p=0.025) as vitamin/mineral supplements were not associated with different use of medication (adjusted OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.09, p=0.8). In analyses limited to cardiovascular medications and cardiovascular supplements in participants with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, or diabetes, supplement use was not associated with conventional medication use. Conclusions The Old Order Amish take dietary supplements much more frequently than they

  18. Physical injury assessment of male versus female chiropractic students when learning and performing various adjustive techniques: a preliminary investigative study

    PubMed Central

    Bisiacchi, Debra W; Huber, Laura L

    2006-01-01

    Background Reports of musculoskeletal injuries that some chiropractic students experienced while in the role of adjustor became increasingly evident and developed into the basis of this study. The main objective of this study was to survey a select student population and identify, by gender, the specific types of musculoskeletal injuries they experienced when learning adjustive techniques in the classroom, and performing them in the clinical setting. Methods A survey was developed to record musculoskeletal injuries that students reported to have sustained while practicing chiropractic adjustment set-ups and while delivering adjustments. The survey was modeled from similar instruments used in the university's clinic as well as those used in professional practice. Stratified sampling was used to obtain participants for the study. Data reported the anatomical areas of injury, adjustive technique utilized, the type of injury received, and the recovery time from sustained injuries. The survey also inquired as to the type and area of any past physical injuries as well as the mechanism(s) of injury. Results Data obtained from the study identified injuries of the shoulder, wrist, elbow, neck, low back, and mid-back. The low back was the most common injury site reported by females, and the neck was the most common site reported by males. The reported wrist injuries in both genders were 1% male complaints and 17% female complaints. A total of 13% of female respondents reported shoulder injuries, whereas less than 1% of male respondents indicated similar complaints. Conclusion The data collected from the project indicated that obtaining further information on the subject would be worthwhile, and could provide an integral step toward developing methods of behavior modification in an attempt to reduce and/or prevent the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:16930481

  19. Using base rates and correlational data to supplement clinical risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jaya; Sorensen, Jon R

    2013-01-01

    The current study is a partial replication of previous studies designed to estimate the level of risk posed by capital murder defendants. The study draws on data describing the behavior of nearly 2,000 incarcerated capital murderers to forecast violence propensity among defendants sentenced to life imprisonment. Logistic regression is used to model various violence outcomes, relying on the following predictors: age, educational attainment, prior imprisonment, and gang affiliation. This exercise is designed to illustrate how actuarial data may be used to anchor individualized clinical assessments of risk in capital murder trials. PMID:24051592

  20. Assessment of the effect of methionine supplementation and inclusion of hydrolyzed wheat protein in milk protein-based milk replacers on the performance of intensively fed Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Castro, J J; Hwang, G H; Saito, A; Vermeire, D A; Drackley, J K

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare 2 milk replacers containing only milk proteins with or without supplemental Met, and to compare a milk replacer containing hydrolyzed wheat protein at 4.5% of dry matter (DM) and supplemental Lys and Met against the 2 all-milk-protein formulas, by assessing their effect on the growth performance, efficiency, and plasma urea nitrogen of pre-weaning Holstein calves. Thus, 57 Holstein calves were allotted to the following 3 treatments: (1) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate-based milk replacer (SMWP) containing about 2.6% Lys and 0.6% Met on a DM basis; (2) SMWP + M based on skim milk and whey proteins, containing about 2.6% Lys, and supplemental Met to reach 0.9% on a DM basis; and (3) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate plus 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein based milk replacer (HWP + LM) where the wheat protein replaced 50% of the whey protein concentrate, and also contained supplemental Lys and Met to match the profile of SMWP + M (i.e., Lys 2.6 and Met 0.9% on DM basis). No difference in any of the responses was observed by supplementing the milk protein based formula with Met or when hydrolyzed wheat protein was added to the formula. Results indicate that (1) a milk replacer based on skim milk protein and whey protein with a Lys concentration of ~2.6% does not benefit from Met supplementation, and (2) milk replacer containing 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein and supplemented with Lys and Met can support the same growth performance as milk protein-based formulas. PMID:27179863

  1. Feasibility of a clinical trial to assess the effect of dietary calcium v. supplemental calcium on vascular and bone markers in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ong, Angel M; Weiler, Hope A; Wall, Michelle; Haddad, Rouba; Gorgui, Jessica; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Goltzman, David; Morin, Suzanne N

    2016-07-01

    Whether supplemental Ca has similar effects to dietary Ca on vascular and bone markers is unknown. The present trial investigated the feasibility of applying dietary and supplemental interventions in a randomised-controlled trial (RCT) aiming to estimate the effect of supplemental Ca as compared with dietary Ca on vascular and bone markers in postmenopausal women. In total, thirteen participants were randomised to a Ca supplement group (CaSuppl) (750 mg Ca from CaCO3+450 mg Ca from food+20 µg vitamin D supplement) or a Ca diet group (CaDiet) (1200 mg Ca from food+10 µg vitamin D supplement). Participants were instructed on Ca consumption targets at baseline. Monthly telephone follow-ups were conducted to assess adherence to interventions (±20 % of target total Ca) using the multiple-pass 24-h recall method and reported pill count. Measurements of arterial stiffness, peripheral blood pressure and body composition were performed at baseline and after 6 and 12 months in all participants who completed the trial (n 9). Blood and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline and at 12 months. Both groups were compliant to trial interventions (±20 % of target total Ca intake; pill count ≥80 %). CaSuppl participants maintained a significantly lower average dietary Ca intake compared with CaDiet participants throughout the trial (453 (sd 187) mg/d v. 1241 (sd 319) mg/d; P<0·001). There were no significant differences in selected vascular outcomes between intervention groups over time. Our pilot trial demonstrated the feasibility of conducting a large-scale RCT to estimate the differential effects of supplemental and dietary Ca on vascular and bone health markers in healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:27181505

  2. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  3. 26 CFR 1.1311(b)-3 - Existence of relationship in case of adjustment by way of deficiency assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by way of deficiency assessment. 1.1311(b)-3 Section 1.1311(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... of deficiency assessment. (a) Except for cases described in paragraph (b) of § 1.1312-3, no... by way of a deficiency assessment under the circumstance described in paragraph (b) of §...

  4. Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol® and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hiromitsu; Nagao, Junji; Ueda, Taro; Strong, Jeffry M; Schonlau, Frank; Yu-Jing, Song; Lu, Yan; Horie, Shigeo

    2012-02-01

    A double-blind parallel group comparison design clinical study was conducted in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction to investigate the efficacy of a supplement containing Pycnogenol® and L-arginine. Subjects were instructed to take a supplement (Pycnogenol® 60 mg/day, L-arginine 690 mg/day and aspartic acid 552 mg/day) or an identical placebo for 8 weeks, and the results were assessed using the five-item erectile domain (IIEF-5) of the International Index of Erectile Function. Additionally, blood biochemistry, urinalysis and salivary testosterone were measured. Eight weeks of supplement intake improved the total score of the IIEF-5. In particular, a marked improvement was observed in 'hardness of erection' and 'satisfaction with sexual intercourse'. A decrease in blood pressure, aspartate transaminase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP), and a slight increase in salivary testosterone were observed in the supplement group. No adverse reactions were observed during the study period. In conclusion, Pycnogenol® in combination with L-arginine as a dietary supplement is effective and safe in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction. PMID:21618639

  5. Environmental ethics: an overview, assessing the place of bioscientists in society, supplemented with selected Australian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John

    2014-01-01

    Ethics deals with moral behavior in a professional context; ideally, it leads to a set of governing principles through which the appropriateness of any activity may be determined or assessed. Environmental ethics specifically deals with how humans interact with the biosphere. It is clear, however, that, as a species, we are failing in our duty of environmental stewardship. The encroachment of human activity into the natural environment is inexorable, and almost always deleterious. Any response to mitigate loss of taxa or ecosystems will have economic implications, and these are often considerable. In finding effective solutions, a process soon becomes political. In light of this we must reflect upon the leadership role that biologists have, especially our impact on policy development that pertains to natural resource management. Although our track record is no worse than any other professional group, biologists by way of training usually have a greater understanding of natural processes and must be prepared to articulate these publically. We have an ethical mandate to question decisions, policies and legislation that impact negatively upon biological systems: a mandate guided through logic, grounded in empirical science, and hopefully coupled with a deep understanding of the true value of both the living world and the physical world which sustains it. This paper uses Australian examples to demonstrate the frequent clashes between economics and biology, in anticipation that we should strive to achieve the underlying principles of sustainability, environmental stewardship and resource management in both daily decision-making and in long-term planning. PMID:24447658

  6. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  7. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some ...

  8. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  9. Dose-to-dose variations with single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements as a potential source of false negatives and inaccurate health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Venhuis, B J; Zwaagstra, M E; Keizers, P H J; de Kaste, D

    2014-02-01

    In this report, we show three examples of how the variability in dose units in single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements may contribute to a false negative screening result and inaccurate health risk assessments. We describe a counterfeit Viagra 100mg blister pack and a box of an instant coffee both containing dose units with and without an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). We also describe a purportedly herbal slimming product with capsules that mutually differed in API and impurities. The adulterated dietary supplements contained sibutramine, benzyl-sibutramine, N-desmethyl-sibutramine (DMS), N,N-didesmethyl-sibutramine (DDMS) and several other related impurities. Counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements are a health risk because their quality is unreliable. Health risks are even greater when such unreliability extends to fundamental differences between dose units in one package. Because dose-to-dose variability for these products is unpredictable, the confidence interval of a sample size is unknown. Consequently, the analyses of a selection of dose units may not be representative for the package. In the worst case, counterfeit or unauthorised medicines are not recognised as such or a health risk is not identified. In order to reduce erroneous results particular care should be taken when analysing a composite of dose units, when finding no API in a dietary supplement and when finding conformity in a suspect counterfeit medicine. PMID:24291553

  10. Retrospective adjustment of self-assessed medical competencies – noteworthy in the evaluation of postgraduate practical training courses

    PubMed Central

    Nagler, Michael; Feller, S.; Beyeler, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The efficacy of postgraduate practical training courses is frequently evaluated by self-assessment instruments. The present study analyses the effect of a basic course in laparoscopic surgery on self-assessed medical competencies. Methods: The 3-day course included teaching of knowledge and training of practical skills. In relation to course evaluation, a questionnaire for self-assessment was applied at the beginning of the course ('pre-course'), at the end of the course ('post-course') and at the end of the course to reassess pre-course competencies ('retrospective pre-course'). Results: 89 out of 110 participants (81%) attending 10 courses completed all the questionnaires; 83% were postgraduate trainees in surgery and 82% were inexperienced as an independent surgeon. At the beginning of the course most trainees rated themselves as 'moderately competent' or 'fully competent' with respect to the various task levels as well as to specific areas of medical competencies. At the end of the course however pronounced retrospective revisions of self-assessment to lower ratings became apparent. Statistically significant differences were seen for the task 'performing surgical procedures under supervision' and for most of the practical skills trained during the course (p <0.01). In contrast, no significant differences were observed for knowledge taught during the course as well as for 'ability to work in a team' and 'ability to concentrate', which were not foci of the course. Conclusions: Surgeons with little experience change their self-assessment of pre-course competencies to a lower level after participation in a practical postgraduate training course. Evaluations comparing 'pre-course' and 'post-course' ratings only – without 'retrospective pre-course' ratings – may underestimate the training effects. This phenomenon needs to be taken into account when evaluations are dependent exclusively on self-assessment instruments. PMID:22737200

  11. Adjustment of QT dispersion assessed from 12 lead electrocardiograms for different numbers of analysed electrocardiographic leads: comparison of stability of different methods.

    PubMed Central

    Hnatkova, K; Malik, M; Kautzner, J; Gang, Y; Camm, A J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--Normal electrocardiographic recordings were analysed to establish the influence of measurement of different numbers of electrocardiographic leads on the results of different formulas expressing QT dispersion and the effects of adjustment of QT dispersion obtained from a subset of an electrocardiogram to approximate to the true QT dispersion obtained from a complete electrocardiogram. SUBJECTS AND METHODS--Resting 12 lead electrocardiograms of 27 healthy people were investigated. In each lead, the QT interval was measured with a digitising board and QT dispersion was evaluated by three formulas: (A) the difference between the longest and the shortest QT interval among all leads; (B) the difference between the second longest and the second shortest QT interval; (C) SD of QT intervals in different leads. For each formula, the "true" dispersion was assessed from all measurable leads and then different combinations of leads were omitted. The mean relative differences between the QT dispersion with a given number of omitted leads and the "true" QT dispersion (mean relative errors) and the coefficients of variance of the results of QT dispersion obtained when omitting combinations of leads were compared for the different formulas. The procedure was repeated with an adjustment of each formula dividing its results by the square root of the number of measured leads. The same approach was used for the measurement of QT dispersion from the chest leads including a fourth formula (D) the SD of interlead differences weighted according to the distances between leads. For different formulas, the mean relative errors caused by omitting individual electrocardiographic leads were also assessed and the importance of individual leads for correct measurement of QT dispersion was investigated. RESULTS--The study found important differences between different formulas for assessment of QT dispersion with respect to compensation for missing measurements of QT interval. The

  12. An Empirical System for Assessing the Impact of Aptitude Requirement Adjustments on Air Force Initial Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Michael D.; And Others

    A multivariate modeling approach was developed to assess the impact of changes in aptitude requirement minimums on U.S. Air Force technical training outcomes. Initially, interviews were conducted with technical training personnel to identify significant student inputs, course content, and training outcome variables. Measures of these variables…

  13. Assessing the burden of sexual and reproductive ill-health: questions regarding the use of disability-adjusted life years.

    PubMed Central

    AbouZahr, C.; Vaughan, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    The use of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) as the unit in which to calculate the burden of disease associated with reproductive ill-health has given rise to considerable debate. Criticisms include the failure to address the problem of missing and inadequate epidemiological data, inability to deal adequately with co-morbidities, and lack of transparency in the process of ascribing disability weights to sexual and reproductive health conditions. Many of these criticisms could be addressed within the current DALY framework and a number of suggestions to do so are made. These suggestions include: (1) developing an international research strategy to determine the incidence and prevalence of reproductive ill-health and diseases, including the risk of long-term complications; (2) undertaking a research strategy using case studies, population-based surveillance data and longitudinal studies to identify, evaluate and utilize more of the existing national data sources on sexual and reproductive health; (3) comprehensively mapping the natural history of sexual and reproductive health conditions--in males and in females--and their sequelae, whether physical or psychological; (4) developing valuation instruments that are adaptable for both chronic and acute health states, that reflect a range of severity for each health state and can be modified to reflect prognosis; (5) undertaking a full review of the DALY methodology to determine what changes may be made to reduce sources of methodological and gender bias. Despite the many criticisms of the DALY as a measurement unit, it represents a major conceptual advance since it permits the combination of life expectancy and levels of dysfunction into a single measure. Measuring reproductive ill-health by counting deaths alone is inadequate for a proper understanding of the dimensions of the problem because of the young age of many of the deaths associated with reproductive ill-health and the large component of years lived with

  14. Assessment of Envi-Carb™ as a passive sampler binding phase for acid herbicides without pH adjustment.

    PubMed

    Seen, Andrew; Bizeau, Oceane; Sadler, Lachlan; Jordan, Timothy; Nichols, David

    2014-05-01

    The graphitised carbon solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent Envi-Carb has been used to fabricate glass fibre filter- Envi-Carb "sandwich" disks for use as a passive sampler for acid herbicides. Passive sampler uptake of a suite of herbicides, including the phenoxyacetic acid herbicides 4-chloro-o-tolyloxyacetic acid (MCPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (Dicamba), was achieved without pH adjustment, demonstrating for the first time a suitable binding phase for passive sampling of acid herbicides at neutral pH. Passive sampling experiments with Duck River (Tasmania, Australia) water spiked at 0.5 μg L(-1) herbicide concentration over a 7 d deployment period showed that sampling rates in Duck River water decreased for seven out of eight herbicides, and in the cases of 3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (Clopyralid) and Dicamba no accumulation of the herbicides occurred in the Envi-Carb over the deployment period. Sampling rates for 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (Picloram), 2,4-D and MCPA decreased to approximately 30% of the sampling rates in ultrapure water, whilst sampling rates for 2-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-ylcarbamoylsulfamoyl) benzoic acid, methyl ester (Sulfometuron-methyl) and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid (Triclopyr) were approximately 60% of the ultrapure water sampling rate. For methyl N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-D-alaninate (Metalaxyl-M) there was little variation in sampling rate between passive sampling experiments in ultrapure water and Duck River water. SPE experiments undertaken with Envi-Carb disks using ultrapure water and filtered and unfiltered Duck River water showed that not only is adsorption onto particulate matter in Duck River water responsible for a reduction in herbicide sampling rate, but interactions of herbicides with dissolved or colloidal matter (matter able to pass through a 0.2 μm membrane filter) also reduces the herbicide sampling

  15. Comprehensive Assessment of Quality of Life and Psychosocial Adjustment in Patients with Renal Tumors Undergoing Open, Laparoscopic, and Nephron-Sparing Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Patricia A.; Swartz, Richard; Fellman, Bryan; Urbauer, Diana; Li, Yisheng; Pisters, Louis L.; Rosser, Charles J.; Wood, Christopher G.; Matin, Surena F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We prospectively evaluated the general and cancer-specific quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial adjustment of patients with a renal mass who underwent radical versus partial nephrectomy performed by laparoscopic or open approaches. Materials and Methods 172 patients with renal tumors completed questionnaires before surgery and again at 3 weeks, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months post-surgery. We assessed general QOL (SF-36), cancer-specific-QOL (CARES-SF), intrusive thoughts and avoidance behaviors, and fear of recurrence. We used mixed model regression analyses to compare these measures across surgery types over the course of the study and adjusted for tumor size, histology, stage and renal function. Results The physical component score of the SF-36 different significantly by surgery type over time (p = 0.04). Patients who had laparoscopy improved by month 2 whereas those who had open surgery had poorer QOL until month 3. Better cancer-specific QOL was reported in patients undergoing radical versus partial nephrectomy. Age also had significant effects on outcomes. Conclusions We report on one of the most comprehensive patient-reported prospective QOL studies in RCC patients. There were significant differences in QOL and psychosocial adjustment outcomes over the course of one year among patients who had one of four commonly accepted surgical renal procedures, and we show that these outcomes must be evaluated in the context of tumor characteristics, cancer-specific outcomes and renal function. These QOL issues may be important to consider when choosing surgical procedures for patients with renal tumors. PMID:22245327

  16. Assessment of Alternative Student Aid Delivery Systems: Specification of the Current System. Supplement II to the Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Specifications of the current student financial aid system, with attention to the Pell Grant, Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL), and campus-based programs, are provided. The methodology used to develop the specifications is also described. The campus-based programs include the Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program, the College Work Study…

  17. 40 CFR 22.43 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties against a federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 22.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Supplemental rules governing the... review shall provide copies of any appeal to the persons described in 40 CFR 135.11(a)....

  18. Functional assessment of zinc nutriture using changes in plasma zinc after exercise in men supplemented with folic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lukaski, H.C.; Bolonchuk, W.W.; Milne, D.B.

    1986-03-05

    Recently, the authors proposed that changes in plasma zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) content after maximal exercise could be a functional test of human trace element nutriture. To test this hypothesis, they studied the effect of folic acid (FA) supplements, previously shown to affect zinc absorption on the exercise-induced changes in plasma Zn and Cu in 7 men aged 28.6 +/- 1.2 yr (mean +/- SEM). The men were fed a constant diet with intakes of Cu (1.01 +/- 0.06 mg/d), Zn (12.7 +/- 0.3 mg/d) and FA (200 mg/d) for two 4 wk periods. This basal diet was supplemented with 400 or 800 mg/d FA and it was fed for 4 wk periods alternating with the unsupplemented diet. Pre and post-exercise hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), and plasma Zn and Cu were not affected by FA supplements. To correct for hemoconcentration during exercise, the van Beaumont quotient was calculated from pre and post-exercise Hct, Hb, and plasma Zn and Cu. When the basal diet was fed, the quotient for Zn was 3.4 +/- 1.4 and 2.3 +/- 1.4%, and it declined (p < 0.05) to -5.93 +/- 1.9% and -7.4 +/- 1.8% with 400 and 800 mg/d supplementation, resp. FA supplementation had no effect on the quotient for plasma Cu. These data suggest that Zn mobilization from stores during exercise is impaired with high intakes of FA.

  19. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread. PMID:14971436

  20. Response bias, weighting adjustments, and design effects in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS)

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Gebler, Nancy; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Stein, Murray B.; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) is a multi-component epidemiological and neurobiological study designed to generate actionable recommendations to reduce U.S. Army suicides and increase knowledge about determinants of suicidality. Three Army STARRS component studies are large-scale surveys: one of new soldiers prior to beginning Basic Combat Training (BCT; n=50,765 completed self-administered questionnaires); another of other soldiers exclusive of those in BCT (n=35,372); and a third of three Brigade Combat Teams about to deploy to Afghanistan who are being followed multiple times after returning from deployment (n= 9,421). Although the response rates in these surveys are quite good (72.0-90.8%), questions can be raised about sample biases in estimating prevalence of mental disorders and suicidality, the main outcomes of the surveys based on evidence that people in the general population with mental disorders are under-represented in community surveys. This paper presents the results of analyses designed to determine whether such bias exists in the Army STARRS surveys and, if so, to develop weights to correct for these biases. Data are also presented on sample inefficiencies introduced by weighting and sample clustering and on analyses of the trade-off between bias and efficiency in weight trimming. PMID:24318218

  1. Are Chinese consumers at risk due to exposure to metals in crayfish? A bioaccessibility-adjusted probabilistic risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian; Nunes, Luís M; Greenfield, Ben K; Dang, Fei; Zhong, Huan

    2016-03-01

    Freshwater crayfish, the world's third largest crustacean species, has been reported to accumulate high levels of metals, while the current knowledge of potential risk associated with crayfish consumption lags behind that of finfish. We provide the first estimate of human health risk associated with crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) consumption in China, the world's largest producer and consumer of crayfish. We performed Monte Carlo Simulation on a standard risk model parameterized with local data on metal concentrations, bioaccessibility (φ), crayfish consumption rate, and consumer body mass. Bioaccessibility of metals in crayfish was found to be variable (68-95%) and metal-specific, suggesting a potential influence of metal bioaccessibility on effective metal intake. However, sensitivity analysis suggested risk of metals via crayfish consumption was predominantly explained by consumption rate (explaining >92% of total risk estimate variability), rather than metals concentration, bioaccessibility, or body mass. Mean metal concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) in surveyed crayfish samples from 12 provinces in China conformed to national safety standards. However, risk calculation of φ-modified hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) suggested that crayfish metals may pose a health risk for very high rate consumers, with a HI of over 24 for the highest rate consumers. Additionally, the φ-modified increased lifetime risk (ILTR) for carcinogenic effects due to the presence of As was above the acceptable level (10(-5)) for both the median (ILTR=2.5×10(-5)) and 90th percentile (ILTR=1.8×10(-4)), highlighting the relatively high risk of As in crayfish. Our results suggest a need to consider crayfish when assessing human dietary exposure to metals and associated health risks, especially for high crayfish-consuming populations, such as in China, USA and Sweden. PMID:26773397

  2. Statistical analysis plan for the Stroke Oxygen Study (SO2S): a multi-center randomized controlled trial to assess whether routine oxygen supplementation in the first 72 hours after a stroke improves long-term outcome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Stroke Oxygen Study (SO2S) is a multi-center randomized controlled trial of oxygen supplementation in patients with acute stroke. The main hypothesis for the trial is that fixed-dose oxygen treatment during the first 3 days after an acute stroke improves outcome. The secondary hypothesis is that restricting oxygen supplementation to night time only is more effective than continuous supplementation. This paper describes the statistical analysis plan for the study. Methods and design Patients (n = 8000) are randomized to three groups: (1) continuous oxygen supplementation for 72 hours; (2) nocturnal oxygen supplementation for three nights; and (3) no routine oxygen supplementation. Outcomes are recorded at 7 days, 90 days, 6 months, and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is the modified Rankin scale at 90 days. Data will be analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Methods of statistical analysis are described, including the handling of missing data, the covariates used in adjusted analyses, planned subgroups analyses, and planned sensitivity analyses. Trial registration This trial is registered with the ISRCTN register, number ISRCTN52416964 (30 September 2005). PMID:24939648

  3. The effects of multivitamin supplementation on mood and general well-being in healthy young adults. A laboratory and at-home mobile phone assessment.

    PubMed

    Pipingas, A; Camfield, D A; Stough, C; Cox, K H M; Fogg, E; Tiplady, B; Sarris, J; White, D J; Sali, A; Wetherell, M A; Scholey, A B

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has suggested that multivitamin (MV) supplementation may be associated with beneficial effects for mood and general well-being, although treatment durations have typically been less than 90 days, samples have often been restricted to males only and acute effects have not been adequately differentiated from chronic effects. In the current study a MV supplement containing high levels of B-vitamins was administered daily to 138 healthy young adult participants between the ages of 20 and 50 years over a 16-week period. Chronic mood measures (GHQ-28, POMS, Chalder fatigue, PILL, Bond-Lader and custom visual analogue scales) were administered pre-dose at baseline, 8- and 16-weeks. Changes in Bond-Lader and VAS in response to a multi-tasking framework (MTF) were also assessed at 8- and 16-weeks. For a subset of participants, at-home mobile-phone assessments of mood were assessed on a weekly basis using Bond-Lader and VAS. No significant treatment effects were found for any chronic laboratory mood measures. In response to the MTF, a significant treatment x time interaction was found for STAI-S, with a trend towards a greater increase in stress ratings for male participants in the MV group at 16 weeks. However, this finding may have been attributable to a larger proportion of students in the male MV group. In contrast, at-home mobile-phone assessments, where assessments were conducted post-dose, revealed significantly reduced stress, physical fatigue and anxiety in the MV group in comparison to placebo across a number of time points. Further research using both acute and chronic dosing regimens are required in order to properly differentiate these effects. PMID:23727255

  4. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  5. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... are not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure diseases. Do not take supplements instead of your ... Partners Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy ...

  6. Nepali Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  7. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... take these supplements off the market. The Federal Trade Commission looks into reports of ads that might ... 504-5414 http://fnic.nal.usda.gov Federal Trade Commission 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20580 ...

  8. The safety assessment of Pythium irregulare as a producer of biomass and eicosapentaenoic acid for use in dietary supplements and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Roe, Charles L; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n-6), have multiple beneficial effects on human health and can be used as an important ingredient in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. A variety of microorganisms has been used for commercial production of these fatty acids. The microorganisms in the Pythium family, particularly Pythium irregulare, are potential EPA producers. The aim of this work is to provide a safety assessment of P. irregulare so that the EPA derived from this species can be potentially used in various commercial applications. The genus Pythium has been widely recognized as a plant pathogen by infecting roots and colonizing the vascular tissues of various plants such as soybeans, corn and various vegetables. However, the majority of the Pythium species (including P. irregulare) have not been reported to infect mammals including humans. The only species among the Pythium family that infects mammals is P. insidiosum. There also have been no reports showing P. irregulare to contain mycotoxins or cause potentially allergenic responses in humans. Based on the safety assessment, we conclude that P. irregulare can be considered a safe source of biomass and EPA-containing oil for use as ingredients in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23900800

  9. No effect of modest selenium supplementation on insulin resistance in UK pregnant women, as assessed by plasma adiponectin concentration.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jinyuan; Bath, Sarah C; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V; Redman, Christopher W G; Rayman, Margaret P

    2016-01-14

    Concern has been expressed recently that Se may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, but this has not been tested in a randomised-controlled trial (RCT) in pregnant women. We took advantage of having stored plasma samples from the Se in Pregnancy Intervention (SPRINT) RCT of Se supplementation in pregnancy to test the effect of Se supplementation on a marker of insulin resistance in UK pregnant women. Because our blood samples were not fasted, we measured plasma adiponectin concentration, a recognised marker of insulin resistance that gives valid measurements in non-fasted samples, as diurnal variability is minor and there is no noticeable effect of food intake. In SPRINT, 230 primiparous UK women were randomised to treatment with Se (60 μg/d) or placebo from 12 weeks of gestation until delivery. We hypothesised that supplementation with Se at a nutritional level would not exacerbate the fall in adiponectin concentration that occurs in normal pregnancy, indicating the lack of an adverse effect on insulin resistance. Indeed, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the change in adiponectin from 12 to 35 weeks (P=0·938), nor when the analysis was restricted to the bottom or top quartiles of baseline whole-blood Se (P=0·515 and 0·858, respectively). Cross-sectionally, adiponectin concentration was not associated with any parameter of Se status, either at 12 or 35 weeks. It is reassuring that a nutritional dose of Se had no adverse effect on the concentration of adiponectin, a biomarker of insulin resistance, in pregnant women of modest Se status. PMID:26481811

  10. Assessment of chromium tripicolinate supplementation and dietary energy level and source on growth, carcass, and blood criteria in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    van de Ligt, C P A; Lindemann, M D; Cromwell, G L

    2002-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate potential interactive effects of supplemental Cr and dietary energy supply in growing pigs. Experiment 1 used 36 individually penned barrows, 25 to 65 kg, in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of supplemental Cr (0 or 200 ppb) and energy level (70, 80, or 90% of ME requirement). A corn-soybean meal basal diet was designed to supply all protein, mineral, and vitamin needs and 70% of the estimated ME need at 70% of ad libitum feed intake. Additional energy to 80% or 90% of the ME requirement was provided by a cornstarch/corn oil blend. In Exp. 2, 30 individually penned barrows, 23 to 68 kg, were used in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement of supplemental Cr (0 or 200 ppb) and added energy source (none, cornstarch, corn oil, or choice white grease) with basal diets identical to Exp. 1. The various energy sources were added to 90% of the ME requirement. In both experiments, growth data were collected over a 50-d period and pigs were killed at 70.1 kg. Increasing energy levels increased (linear, P < 0.01) ADG, average backfat thickness, 10th rib backfat thickness, and cooler shrink and decreased (linear, P < 0.01) longissimus muscle area in Exp. 1. Carcass composition increased (linear, P < 0.01) in lipid and decreased in protein, water, and protein:lipid ratio in response to increasing ME levels. Similar results were observed in Exp. 2 in response to added energy, regardless of the energy source used. In response to ME, linear increases (P < 0.05) in plasma insulin concentration before feeding and after feeding were observed in Exp. 1. In Exp. 2, plasma insulin concentration was lower for the basal diet before feeding (P < 0.05) and higher for the starch diet after feeding (P < 0.01); insulin:glucose ratio increased (P < 0.01) after feeding for starch compared to oil and fat. No consistent effect of Cr or Cr x ME level on performance or carcass was observed (P > 0.10) in these experiments. Similarly, no Cr effect or Cr x ME interaction

  11. Assessment of vitamin and trace element supplementation in severely burned patients undergoing long-term parenteral and enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Perro, G; Bourdarias, B; Cutillas, M; Higueret, D; Sanchez, R; Iron, A

    1995-10-01

    The efficacy of an oral supplement of vitamins and trace elements during a longterm artificial parenteral and enteral nutrition was investigated for 3 months in patients with extensive burns. Thirty severely burned patients (22 male, 8 female, age 41 +/- 18 years, range 23-59 years, 33 +/- 12% total body surface area burn, 22% +/- 8 full thickness burn surface area) were included. Every 10 days, from day 10 until day 90, we determined serum levels of: *vitamins B1, B12, A, E, *folic acid, *copper, zinc, iron, *transferrin, albumin, prealbumin, total proteins, *fibronectin, retinol binding protein (RBP), *calcium, *phosphorus, *triglycerides, *total cholesterol, *C reactive protein (CRP), *erythrocyte folic acid. The mean daily nutritional support was 60 Kcals and 0.4 g N per kg of body weight, 70% enterally and 30% parenterally administered, with enteral vitamin and trace element supplementation. On day 10, there was a decrease of the serum level of 19/20 parameters. For 8 parameters (vitamin A, total cholesterol, iron, transferrin, fibronectin, phosphorus, RBP, total proteins), the level was lower than usual. Between day 10 and day 20, a significant normalization of 6 of them was noted, the average levels of transferrin and iron remaining below normal values until day 50. There was a significant decrease in C-reactive protein levels, however above normal limits. No deficiency in vitamins or trace elements was found. Cyclic variations of serum levels occurred which may be more related to volemic, hydroelectrolytic, endocrine and inflammatory disorders than to nutritional problems. PMID:16843945

  12. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) in combination with silymarin as food supplements: in vivo safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Valentová, Katerina; Stejskal, David; Bartek, Josef; Dvorácková, Svatava; Kren, Vladimír; Ulrichová, Jitka; Simánek, Vilím

    2008-03-01

    Yacon and maca are native Andean crops with growing popularity as food supplements often in combination with other components, e.g. silymarin. There are however no published data on their toxicity and safety in humans. The aim of our randomized placebo-controlled 90-day study was to evaluate the effects of yacon and maca in combination with silymarin on plasma and lipoprotein lipids, serum glucose and safety parameters in patients suffering from the metabolic syndrome. No adverse effects were found in volunteers using silymarin (0.8 g/day), silymarin+yacon (0.8+2.4 g/day) and silymarin+maca (0.6+0.2 g/day). A moderate AST level and diastolic blood pressure increase was found in volunteers using maca (0.6 g/day). In conclusion, the combination silymarin+yacon appears to be promising as a nutraceutical in the prevention of diseases with a proatherogenic lipoprotein profile and liver steatosis. The effect of maca on AST level and blood pressure must be considered when using high doses of maca powder. This effect could be reversed by supplementation with silymarin. PMID:18054420

  13. 40 CFR 22.39 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under section 109...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended. (a) Scope. This... assessment of any civil penalty under section 109 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation... administrative assessment of civil penalties under section 109 of the Comprehensive Environmental...

  14. Human Serum Versus Human Serum Albumin Supplementation in Human Islet Pretransplantation Culture: In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Montserrat; Estil Les, Elisabet; Garcia, Ainhoa; Nadal, Belen; Pairó, Mar; Garcia, Cristofer; Secanella, Lluís; Novials, Anna; Montanya, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence favoring both the use of human serum (HS) and of human serum albumin (HSA) in human islet culture. We evaluated the effects of HS versus HSA supplementation on 1) in vitro β-cell viability and function and 2) in vivo islet graft revascularization, islet viability, β-cell death, and metabolic outcome after transplantation. Islets isolated from 14 cadaveric organ donors were cultured for 3 days in CMRL 1066 medium supplemented with HS or HSA. After 3 days in culture, β-cell apoptosis was lower in HS group (1.41 ± 0.27 vs. 2.38 ± 0.39%, p = 0.029), and the recovery of islets was 77 ± 11% and 54 ± 1% in HS- and HSA-cultured groups, respectively. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was higher in HS group (29.4, range 10.4-99.9, vs. 22.3, range 8.7-70.6, p = 0.031). In vivo viability and revascularization was determined in HS- and HSA-cultured islets transplanted into the anterior chamber of the eye of Balb/c mice (n = 14), and β-cell apoptosis in paraffin-embedded mouse eyes. Islet viability and β-cell apoptosis were similar in both groups. Revascularization was observed in one graft (HS group) on day 10 after transplantation. Islet function was determined in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic nude mice (n = 33) transplanted with 2,000 IEQs cultured with HS or HSA that showed similar blood glucose levels and percentage of normoglycemic animals over time. In conclusion, human islets cultured in medium supplemented with HS showed higher survival in vitro, as well as islet viability and function. The higher in vitro survival increased the number of islets available for transplantation. However, the beneficial effect on viability and function did not translate into an improved metabolic evolution when a similar number of HSA- and HS-cultured islets was transplanted. PMID:25955150

  15. An assessment of the impact of physico-chemical and biochemical characteristics on the human kinetic adjustment factor for systemic toxicants.

    PubMed

    Valcke, M; Krishnan, K

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of the human kinetic adjustment factor (HKAF) as a function of physico- and bio-chemical characteristics impacting the systemic clearance of chemicals. This factor is intended to replace the default value of 3.16 in non-cancer risk assessments and aims at accounting for interindividual variability in toxicokinetics. A steady-state algorithm was used to compute the internal dose metrics (blood concentration (C(blood)) and rate of metabolite produced/L liver (RAM)) of hypothetical chemicals in neonates, adults, elderly, and pregnant women. After evaluating the algorithm with chemical-specific experimental data, C(blood) and RAM were calculated for hypothetical chemicals exhibiting blood:air partition coefficients (Pb) between 1 and 10,000 and hepatic extraction ratios in the average adult (E) between 0.01 and 0.99. Based on Monte Carlo simulation results, HKAF values were computed as the ratio of the 95th percentile value for each subpopulation to the 50th percentile value in adults. The highest HKAF among those obtained for each subpopulation was reported in route-, pathway-, and dose metric-specific HKAF matrices as a function of Pb and E. These matrices allowed the recognition of cases where the default HKAF could be exceeded, and these occurred in neonates based on C(blood) in two situations. First, when the average adult-to-neonate ratio of body weight-adjusted systemic clearance was at least equal to 2.2 for a given systemic exposure (i.e., for CYP1A2 substrates only). Second, when E=0.01-0.2 and Pb ≥ 300 or when E=0.3-0.7 and Pb ≥ 100 for inhalation exposures to CYP2E1 substrates, with comparable values for the other substrates (higher for CYP1A2). Overall, this study showed the dependency of the HKAF on the dose metrics, chemical characteristics, metabolic pathways, and subpopulations considered. PMID:21605617

  16. Description of Electric Energy Use in Commercial Buildings in the Pacific Northwest: 1992 Supplement. End-use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP).

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Z. Todd

    1992-07-01

    In December, 1989 Bonneville published Description of Electric Energy Use in Commercial Buildings in the Pacific Northwest, a summary report on the data collected from commercial buildings metered under the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), for the period 1986 through 1988. Average monthly and annual electric end-use intensities (EUIs, kWh/ft{sup 2}) and average load shapes were presented for nine building types and seven or eight end uses, as well as building totals. This document is a supplement to that report. An additional two and one-half years` data (October 1988 through June 1991) have been collected since the original report, resulting in increased numbers of buildings available for analysis. Additionally, some analytical techniques used in the previous report have been improved and some minor bugs corrected. This supplement differs from the original in the following ways: increased sample sizes; improved analytical techniques; corrected aggregation techniques; eliminated building types; eliminated split plots; included Btu/square foot.

  17. The effect of aflatoxin-B1 on red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and assessment of dietary supplementation of NovaSil for the prevention of aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Zychowski, Katherine E; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Ly, Hoai J; Pohlenz, Camilo; Buentello, Alejandro; Romoser, Amelia; Gatlin, Delbert M; Phillips, Timothy D

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen that causes growth stunting, immunosuppression and liver cancer in multiple species. The recent trend of replacing fishmeal with plant-based proteins in fish feed has amplified the AFB1 exposure risk in farm-raised fish. NovaSil (NS), a calcium montmorillonite clay, has previously been shown to reduce AFB1 bioavailability safely and efficaciously in several mammalian species. This study was designed to: (1) evaluate AFB1 impact on cultured red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, over the course of seven weeks; and (2) assess NS supplementation as a strategy to prevent aflatoxicosis. Fish were fed diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 5 ppm AFB1. Two additional treatment groups were fed either 5 ppm AFB1 + 1% NS or 5 ppm AFB1 + 2% NS. Aflatoxin B1 negatively impacted red drum weight gain, survival, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, hepatosomatic index (HSI), whole-body lipid levels, liver histopathological scoring, as well as trypsin inhibition. NovaSil inclusion in AFB1-contaminated diets improved weight gain, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, muscle somatic index, and intraperitoneal fat ratios compared to AFB1-treated fish. Although not significant, NS reduced AFB1-induced histopathological changes in the liver and decreased Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) staining. Importantly, NS supplementation improved overall health of AFB1-exposed red drum. PMID:24064717

  18. The consumer cost of calcium from food and supplements.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer L; Lanou, Amy; Barnard, Neal D

    2002-11-01

    Nutritional authorities encourage consumers to include calcium-rich foods in their daily diets. However, consumer purchases are driven not only by health considerations and dietary preferences, but also by cost. This study assessed the cost of calcium from a wide variety of food sources, as well as supplements, based on retail prices in Seattle, San Francisco, Raleigh, NewYork City, and Washington, D.C., while controlling for seasonal variation. Costs were adjusted based on calcium absorption fractions. Calcium carbonate supplements emerged as the least expensive source of calcium, at roughly one-third the cost of the least expensive food source of calcium. The least expensive food sources of calcium were Total cereal, skim milk, and calcium-fortified orange juice from frozen concentrate. This information is useful for dietitians, health professionals, and consumers in meeting calcium requirements on a budget. PMID:12449293

  19. Glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wernerman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formulation of enteral nutrition contains some glutamine: 2-4 g/L. However, this dose is insufficient to normalize glutamine plasma concentration.Plasma concentration of glutamine is low in many patients with critical illness and a low level is an independent risk factor for mortality. A low plasma glutamine concentration is the best indicator of glutamine depletion. Data are emerging about how the endogenous production of glutamine is regulated. We know that skeletal muscle is the major producer of glutamine and that a part of the profound depletion of skeletal muscle seen in critical illness is a reflection of the need to produce glutamine.Glutamine is utilized in rapidly dividing cells in the splanchnic area. Quantitatively most glutamine is oxidized, but the availability of glutamine in surplus is important for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides and necessary for cell division and protein synthesis. More knowledge about the regulation of the endogenous production of glutamine is needed to outline better guidelines for glutamine supplementation in the future. PMID:21906372

  20. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... specialist. The doc will be able to offer alternatives to supplements based on your body and sport. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: January 2015 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Sports Center Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A ...

  1. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the human body. It helps build and protect your teeth ... absorb calcium. You can get vitamin D from sunlight exposure to your skin and from your diet. Ask your provider whether ...

  2. In vitro assessment of the digestibility of forage based sheep diet, supplemented with raw garlic, garlic oil and monensin

    PubMed Central

    Anassori, Ehsan; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Pirmohammadi, Rasoul; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Farahmand-Azar, Safa; Besharati, Maghsoud; Tahmoozi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inclusion of garlic essential oil (EO) at 33, 66 and 100 µg mL-1, raw garlic (GAR) at 5, 10 and 15 mg mL-1 and monensin (MON) at 7.5 µg mL-1 of incubation medium on organic matter digestibility (OMD) was studied with in vitro gas production, ANKOM daisyII and conventional in vitro (IVOMD) methods. The material was incubated with sheep ruminal fluid and the experimental design was a completely randomized design. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours of incubation. Conventional in vitro OMD was determined after 48 hours incubation in acid and pepsin solutions. Samples for DaisyII OMD prepared according to the operating instructions supplied by ANKOM® Tech. Co., Fairport, USA. Compared to in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), DaisyII and gas production techniques overestimated (P < 0.05) OMD. The addition of EO and MON reduced (P < 0.05) the organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF) digestion, and gas production volume. The potential of gas production and rate of gas production for EO and MON were the lowest; however, these variables were higher for GAR supplemented groups. It was concluded that raw garlic could be of great interest for its usage as a modulator of ruminal fermentation. PMID:25653739

  3. 40 CFR 22.43 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties against a federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... review shall provide copies of any appeal to the persons described in 40 CFR 135.11(a). ... administrative assessment of civil penalties against a federal agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 22.43... of civil penalties against a federal agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act. (a) Scope....

  4. 40 CFR 22.43 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties against a federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... review shall provide copies of any appeal to the persons described in 40 CFR 135.11(a). ... administrative assessment of civil penalties against a federal agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 22.43... of civil penalties against a federal agency under the Safe Drinking Water Act. (a) Scope....

  5. 40 CFR 22.35 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... held at the EPA office listed at 40 CFR 1.7 that is closest to either the person's primary place of... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. 22.35 Section 22.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES...

  6. 40 CFR 22.38 - Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Water Act. 22.38 Section 22.38... of civil penalties under the Clean Water Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction... penalty under section 309(g) or section 311(b)(6) of the Clean Water Act (“CWA”)(33 U.S.C. 1319(g)...

  7. 40 CFR 22.38 - Supplemental rules of practice governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Water Act. 22.38 Section 22.38... of civil penalties under the Clean Water Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction... penalty under section 309(g) or section 311(b)(6) of the Clean Water Act (“CWA”)(33 U.S.C. 1319(g)...

  8. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  9. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  10. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  11. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  12. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  13. 77 FR 26539 - El Paso Natural Gas Company; Supplemental Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Willcox Lateral 2013 Expansion Project and Request for Comments on...) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Willcox Lateral 2013 Expansion Project (Project... operation of certain meter, compressor, and lateral facilities in Cochise County, Arizona to accommodate...

  14. Vitamin D supplementation for patients with multiple sclerosis treated with interferon-beta: a randomized controlled trial assessing the effect on flu-like symptoms and immunomodulatory properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flu-like symptoms (FLS) are common side effects of interferon beta (IFN-β) treatment in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) and are associated with post-injection cytokine surge. We hypothesized that vitamin D3 supplementation would ameliorate FLS by decreasing related serum cytokines’ levels. Methods In a randomized, double blind study of 45 IFNβ-treated PwMS, 21 patients were assigned to 800 IU of vitamin D3 per day (low dose), while 24 patients received 4,370 IU per day (high dose) for one year. FLS were assessed monthly by telephonic interviews. Serum levels of 25-hydroxy-D (25-OH-D), calcium, PTH, IL-17, IL-10 and IFN-γ were measured periodically. EDSS, relapses, adverse events and quality of life (QoL) were documented. Results 25-OH-D levels increased to a significantly higher levels and PTH levels decreased in the high dose group. There was no significant change in FLS. IL-17 levels were significantly increased in the low dose group, while patients receiving high dose vitamin D had a heterogeneous IL-17 response. No significant differences in relapse rate, EDSS, QoL, serum IL-10 and IFNγ were found. Hypercalcemia or other potential major adverse events were not observed. Conclusion Vitamin D supplementation to IFN−β treated PwMS, at the doses used, seems safe and associated with dose-dependent changes in IL-17 serum levels, while not affecting IFN−β related FLS. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01005095 PMID:23767916

  15. Enabling students to learn: Design, implementation and assessment of a supplemental study strategies course for an introductory undergraduate biology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, Jayanthi Sanjeevi

    Attrition in the STEM disciplines is a national problem and one of the important reasons for this is student experiences in introductory courses. A myriad of factors influence students' experiences in those courses; inadequate student preparation is one of the most cited reasons. Incoming freshmen often lack the learning strategies required to meaningfully learn and succeed in college courses. Unfortunately, the instructors have limited time and/or have little experience in teaching learning strategies. In this paper, the design, implementation, and evaluation of a Supplemental Course (SC) model that emphasizes learning strategies is presented. SC was offered concurrently with the introductory biology courses for four consecutive semesters (fall 2011 to spring 2013); for 10 weeks in fall 2012 and 7 weeks in the other semesters at Miami University. 10 weeks SC began earlier in the semester than the shorter SC. This study evaluated the effects of the SC on students' (1) performance in the introductory biology course, (2) perceived changes in self-regulation and social support, and (3) experiences in the introductory biology course before, during, and after participation in the SC. A mixed methods approach was used to address these goals. A pre-post survey was administered to obtain students' use of self-regulation strategies and social-support data. Quantitative methods were utilized to analyze content exam grades and changes in self-regulation strategies and social-support. To explore the experiences of the students, semi-structured interviews were conducted, followed by analysis using grounded theory. The findings reveal that participants of the longer duration SC (with an earlier start date) significantly improved in content exam performance, perceived use of self-regulation strategies, and social support compared to the non-participants. Participants of the shorter duration SC (with a later start date) did not significantly improve in content exam performance

  16. A risk assessment-driven quantitative comparison of gene expression profiles in PBMCs and white adipose tissue of humans and rats after isoflavone supplementation.

    PubMed

    van der Velpen, Vera; van 't Veer, Pieter; Islam, M Ariful; Ter Braak, C J F; van Leeuwen, F X Rolaf; Afman, Lydia A; Hollman, Peter C; Schouten, Evert G; Geelen, Anouk

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative insight into species differences in risk assessment is expected to reduce uncertainty and variability related to extrapolation from animals to humans. This paper explores quantification and comparison of gene expression data between tissues and species from intervention studies with isoflavones. Gene expression data from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and white adipose tissue (WAT) after 8wk isoflavone interventions in postmenopausal women and ovariectomized F344 rats were used. A multivariate model was applied to quantify gene expression effects, which showed 3-5-fold larger effect sizes in rats compared to humans. For estrogen responsive genes, a 5-fold greater effect size was found in rats than in humans. For these genes, intertissue correlations (r = 0.23 in humans, r = 0.22 in rats) and interspecies correlation in WAT (r = 0.31) were statistically significant. Effect sizes, intertissue and interspecies correlations for some groups of genes within energy metabolism, inflammation and cell cycle processes were significant, but weak. Quantification of gene expression data reveals differences between rats and women in effect magnitude after isoflavone supplementation. For risk assessment, quantification of gene expression data and subsequent calculation of intertissue and interspecies correlations within biological pathways will further strengthen knowledge on comparability between tissues and species. PMID:27424125

  17. Assessment of tailor-made prevention of atherosclerosis with folic acid supplementation: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in each MTHFR C677T genotype.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Koichi; Murata, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Haruhito; Takei, Izumi; Nakayama, Takeo; Watanabe, Kiyoaki; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effect of folic acid supplementation quantitatively in each MTHFR C677T genotype and considered the efficiency of tailor-made prevention of atherosclerosis. Study design was genotype-stratified, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. The setting was a Japanese company in the chemical industry. Subjects were 203 healthy men after exclusion of those who took folic acid or drugs known to effect folic acid metabolism. Intervention was folic acid 1 mg/day p.o. for 3 months. The primary endpoint was plasma total homocysteine level (tHcy). In all three genotypes, there were significant tHcy decreases. The greatest decrease was in the TT homozygote [6.61 (3.47-9.76) micromol/l] compared with other genotypes [CC: 2.59 (1.81-3.36), CT: 2.64 (2.16-3.13)], and there was a significant trend between the mutated allele number and the decrease. The tHcy were significantly lowered in all the genotypes, but the amount of the decrease differed significantly in each genotype, which was observed at both 1 and 3 months. Using these time-series data, the largest benefit obtained by the TT homozygote was appraised as 2.4 times compared with the CC homozygote. Taking into account the high allele frequency of this SNP, this quantitative assessment should be useful when considering tailor-made prevention of atherosclerosis with folic acid. PMID:15895286

  18. Assessing Assessment: How Use of the Concept Inventory of Natural Selection Influences the Instructional Practices of an Experienced Biology Professor and Supplemental Instruction Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanmali, Binaben H.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment has garnered increased interest in recent years. It is seen as critical to enhancing student learning and understanding. Formative assessment tools such as concept inventories could be valuable in moving toward such goals. Concept inventories, a recent addition to biology education, hold much promise for helping faculty to understand…

  19. Maternal zinc supplementation and growth in Peruvian infants1234

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Lora L; Zavaleta, Nelly; León, Zulema; Shankar, Anuraj H; Caulfield, Laura E

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about how maternal zinc intake influences growth in utero and in postnatal life in humans. Objective We aimed to assess the effect of maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy on infant growth through age 1 y. Design A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of prenatal zinc supplementation was conducted from 1995 to 1997 in Lima, Peru. Women (n = 1295) were enrolled at 15.6 ± 4.6 wk gestation and assigned to receive daily supplements with zinc (15 mg Zn + 60 mg Fe + 250 µg folic acid) or without zinc (60 Fe + 250 µg folic acid) through pregnancy to 1 mo after delivery. At birth, 546 infants were followed for 12 mo to assess growth. Anthropometric measures of body size and composition were collected monthly, and morbidity and dietary intake surveillance was carried out weekly. Results No differences in maternal socioeconomic characteristics by treatment group or follow-up period were found. Infants born to mothers prenatally supplemented with zinc had significantly (P < 0.05) larger average growth measures beginning in month 4 and continuing through month 12. In longitudinal regression modeling, prenatal zinc was associated with greater weight (by 0.58 ± 0.12 kg; P < 0.001), calf circumference (by 1.01 ± 0.21 cm; P < 0.001), chest circumference (by 0.60 ± 0.20 cm;P = 0.002), and calf muscle area (by 35.78 ± 14.75 mm2; P = 0.01) after adjustment for a range of covariates. No effect was observed for linear growth. Conclusion Maternal zinc supplementation in this population was associated with offspring growth, which is suggestive of lean tissue mass accretion. PMID:18614736

  20. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  1. Use of a Sampling Area-Adjusted Adenosine Triphosphate Bioluminescence Assay Based on Digital Image Quantification to Assess the Cleanliness of Hospital Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu-Huai; Wang, Lih-Shinn; Jiang, Hui-Li; Chang, Chih-Hui; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chang, Dan-Chi; Tu, Hsin-Yu; Chiu, Tan-Yun; Chao, Huei-Jen; Tseng, Chun-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Contaminated surfaces play an important role in the transmission of pathogens. We sought to establish a criterion that could indicate "cleanliness" using a sampling area-adjusted adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay. In the first phase of the study, target surfaces were selected for swab sampling before and after daily cleaning; then, an aerobic colony count (ACC) plate assay of bacteria and antibiotic-resistant bacteria was conducted. ATP swabs were also tested, and the ATP readings were reported as relative light units (RLUs). The results of the ACC and ATP assays were adjusted according to the sampling area. During the second phase of the study, a new cleaning process employing sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) was implemented for comparison. Using the criterion of 2.5 colony-forming units (CFU)/cm², 45% of the sampled sites were successfully cleaned during phase one of the study. During phase two, the pass rates of the surface samples (64%) were significantly improved, except under stringent (5 RLU/cm²) and lax (500 RLU) ATP criteria. Using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the best cut-off point for an area-adjusted ATP level was 7.34 RLU/cm², which corresponded to culture-assay levels of <2.5 CFU/cm². An area adjustment of the ATP assay improved the degree of correlation with the ACC-assay results from weak to moderate. PMID:27294944

  2. Use of a Sampling Area-Adjusted Adenosine Triphosphate Bioluminescence Assay Based on Digital Image Quantification to Assess the Cleanliness of Hospital Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yu-Huai; Wang, Lih-Shinn; Jiang, Hui-Li; Chang, Chih-Hui; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chang, Dan-Chi; Tu, Hsin-Yu; Chiu, Tan-Yun; Chao, Huei-Jen; Tseng, Chun-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Contaminated surfaces play an important role in the transmission of pathogens. We sought to establish a criterion that could indicate “cleanliness” using a sampling area–adjusted adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay. In the first phase of the study, target surfaces were selected for swab sampling before and after daily cleaning; then, an aerobic colony count (ACC) plate assay of bacteria and antibiotic-resistant bacteria was conducted. ATP swabs were also tested, and the ATP readings were reported as relative light units (RLUs). The results of the ACC and ATP assays were adjusted according to the sampling area. During the second phase of the study, a new cleaning process employing sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) was implemented for comparison. Using the criterion of 2.5 colony-forming units (CFU)/cm2, 45% of the sampled sites were successfully cleaned during phase one of the study. During phase two, the pass rates of the surface samples (64%) were significantly improved, except under stringent (5 RLU/cm2) and lax (500 RLU) ATP criteria. Using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the best cut-off point for an area-adjusted ATP level was 7.34 RLU/cm2, which corresponded to culture-assay levels of <2.5 CFU/cm2. An area adjustment of the ATP assay improved the degree of correlation with the ACC-assay results from weak to moderate. PMID:27294944

  3. Asian immigrant settlement and adjustment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Khoo, S; Kee, P; Dang, T; Shu, J

    1994-01-01

    "This article provides a broad assessment of the settlement and adjustment of people born in the many countries of Asia who are resident in Australia, based on recently available data from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing. It examines some indicators of economic adjustment such as performance in the labor market, and some indicators of social adjustment, such as acquisition of English language proficiency." PMID:12289777

  4. Choosing co-substrates to supplement biogas production from animal slurry--a life cycle assessment of the environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Croxatto Vega, Giovanna Catalina; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Birkved, Morten; Sommer, Sven G; Bruun, Sander

    2014-11-01

    Biogas production from animal slurry can provide substantial contributions to reach renewable energy targets, yet due to the low methane potential of slurry, biogas plants depend on the addition of co-substrates to make operations profitable. The environmental performance of three underexploited co-substrates, straw, organic household waste and the solid fraction of separated slurry, were assessed against slurry management without biogas production, using LCA methodology. The analysis showed straw, which would have been left on arable fields, to be an environmentally superior co-substrate. Due to its low nutrient content and high methane potential, straw yields the lowest impacts for eutrophication and the highest climate change and fossil depletion savings. Co-substrates diverted from incineration to biogas production had fewer environmental benefits, due to the loss of energy production, which is then produced from conventional fossil fuels. The scenarios can often provide benefits for one impact category while causing impacts in another. PMID:25226057

  5. Soldier use of dietary supplements, including protein and body building supplements, in a combat zone is different than use in garrison.

    PubMed

    Austin, Krista G; McLellan, Tom M; Farina, Emily K; McGraw, Susan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2016-01-01

    United States Army personnel in garrison who are not deployed to combat theater report using dietary supplements (DSs) to promote health, increase physical and mental strength, and improve energy levels. Given the substantial physical and cognitive demands of combat, DS use may increase during deployment. This study compared DS use by garrison soldiers with DS use by personnel deployed to a combat theater in Afghanistan. Prevalence and patterns of DS use, demographic factors, and health behaviors were assessed by survey (deployed n = 221; garrison n = 1001). Eighty-two percent of deployed and 74% of garrison soldiers used DSs ≥ 1 time·week(-1). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for significant demographic and health predictors of DS use, showed deployed personnel were more likely than garrison soldiers to use protein, amino acids, and combination products. Deployed females were more likely to use protein supplements and deployed males were more likely to use multivitamins, combination products, protein, and body building supplements than garrison respondents. Significantly more deployed (17%) than garrison (10%) personnel spent more than $50∙month(-1) on DSs. Higher protein supplement use among deployed personnel was associated with higher frequency of strength training and lower amounts of aerobic exercise for males but similar amounts of strength training and aerobic exercise for females. Protein supplements and combination products are used more frequently by deployed than garrison soldiers with the intent of enhancing strength and energy. PMID:26702674

  6. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  7. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  8. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  9. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  10. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level mixed waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Lazaro, M.A.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Hartmann, H.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The assessment considers both the radioactive and chemical hazards associated with LLMW transportation. Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment methods and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS. This report presents additional information that is not included in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLMW. Included are definitions of the LLMW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS; data related to the inventory and to the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of WM LLMW; an overview of the risk assessment methods; and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLMW case considered.

  11. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  12. A structured vocabulary for indexing dietary supplements in databases in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food composition databases are critical to assess and plan dietary intakes. Dietary supplement databases are also needed because dietary supplements make significant contributions to total nutrient intakes. However, no uniform system exists for classifying dietary supplement products and indexing ...

  13. 77 FR 13013 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... published in the Federal Register as a final rule on January 30, 2012 (77 FR 4630). The final rule... Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to incorporate adjusted thresholds for application of trade agreements....

  14. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of low-level waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of low-level waste (LLW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but that was needed to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) LLW. Included are definition of the LLW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of WM LLW, an overview of the risk assessment method, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM LLW alternative considered.

  15. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Adilson; Pegas Pereira, Elisangela Samartin; Assumpção, Elvira Cancio; Calixto dos Santos, Felipe Borba; Ota, Fernanda Sayuri; de Oliveira Pereira, Margareth; Fidelis, Maria Carolina; Fávaro, Raquel; Barros Langen, Stephanie Selma; Favaro de Arruda, Lúcia Helena; Abildgaard, Eva Nydal

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet) marine protein (105 mg), vitamin C (27 mg), grape seed extract (13.75 mg), zinc (2 mg), and tomato extract (14.38 mg) in the improvement of skin aging in men. Methods This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images. Results Forty-one subjects (87%) completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05). The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05), dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001), and reduction of skin pH (P<0.05). No statistical improvement in relation to sebum was found. The photographic assessment showed an improvement in the overall appearance. The results of the objective measurements were found to be correlated with the subjects’ satisfaction by an increase of collagen and elastic fibers. Conclusion The use of an oral supplement based on a unique biomarine complex, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract produced improvements in the signs of skin aging in men. PMID:26170708

  16. 25 CFR 171.565 - How will I know if BIA plans to adjust my annual operation and maintenance assessment rate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments... Register. (b) You may contact the irrigation facility servicing your farm unit....

  17. 25 CFR 171.565 - How will I know if BIA plans to adjust my annual operation and maintenance assessment rate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments... Register. (b) You may contact the irrigation facility servicing your farm unit....

  18. 25 CFR 171.565 - How will I know if BIA plans to adjust my annual operation and maintenance assessment rate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments... Register. (b) You may contact the irrigation facility servicing your farm unit....

  19. Bone mineralisation of weaned piglets fed a diet free of inorganic phosphorus and supplemented with phytase, as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Grzegorz; Weremko, Dagmara; Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen female piglets (58 d of age, 16.8 ± 0.8 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to two groups (n = 8) and received until day 100 of age (50.3 ± 1.2 kg BW) ad libitum either a diet with a standard (diet C) or low (diet L) total phosphorus (P) content (5.38 and 4.23 g/kg, respectively). Diet C was supplemented with mineral P (1.15 g/kg) and did not contain microbial phytase. Diet L did not contain any inorganic P but 750 FTU/kg of microbial phytase. Despite these treatments, both diets were composed with the same ingredients. Body mineralisation of each gilt was assessed by determining the bone mineral content (BMC), area bone mineral density (BMD) by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at days 58, 72, 86 and 100 of age. Feeding diet L caused a higher P digestibility (p = 0.008) measured from days 72 to 86 of age and at 100 days of age a higher BMC and BMD (p ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, the gilts of group L deposited more minerals in the body than control pigs (by 2.4 g/d, p = 0.008). It was found that BMD and BMC were positively correlated with body lean mass and digestible P intake. The results indicated that, even for very young pigs, the addition of microbial phytase instead of inorganic P increases the amount of digestible P covering the requirements of piglets for proper bone mineralisation. Furthermore, it was proved that the DXA method can be successfully applied to measure body fat and lean mass contents as well as bone mineralisation of growing pigs using the same animals. PMID:26062598

  20. Initiation of food supplements and stopping of breast-feeding as determinants of weanling shigellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, F.; Clemens, J. D.; Rao, M. R.; Khan, M. R.; Haque, E.

    1993-01-01

    The association between the period elapsed since weaning and the risk of shigellosis was assessed between 1 November 1987 and 30 November 1989 for a cohort of 1085 Bangladeshi children aged < 3 years. The children were followed for 1 month after exposure to Shigella spp. in their residential neighbourhoods, and the 268 who developed microbiologically confirmed (n = 118) or clinically presumptive (n = 150) shigellosis were compared with the 817 control children who did not develop either syndrome. No increase in risk was noted among breast-fed infants who received food supplements within the previous 3 months compared with those who had received supplements for longer (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.4-3.0). However, compared with breast-fed children, non-breast-fed children had an increased risk (adjusted OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.3-2.9; P < 0.001), which was largely attributable to a substantially increased risk in the 3 months after stopping breast-feeding (adjusted OR = 6.6; 95% CI = 2.9-14.6; P < 0.001). The early post-cessation risk was equivalent for confirmed and presumptive shigellosis, but was particularly pronounced among the severely malnourished (adjusted OR = 10.2; 95% CI = 3.1-33.3; P < 0.001). This complex temporal pattern of risk highlights the need for precise definitions of weaning to facilitate identification of children at high risk for invasive diarrhoeal syndromes. PMID:8261560

  1. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  2. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  3. An assessment of the human health impact of seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using disability adjusted life years.

    PubMed

    Scallan, E; Hoekstra, R M; Mahon, B E; Jones, T F; Griffin, P M

    2015-10-01

    We explored the overall impact of foodborne disease caused by seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using the disability adjusted life year (DALY). We defined health states for each pathogen (acute illness and sequelae) and estimated the average annual incidence of each health state using data from public health surveillance and previously published estimates from studies in the United States, Canada and Europe. These pathogens caused about 112 000 DALYs annually due to foodborne illnesses acquired in the United States. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (32 900) and Toxoplasma (32 700) caused the most DALYs, followed by Campylobacter (22 500), norovirus (9900), Listeria monocytogenes (8800), Clostridium perfringens (4000), and Escherichia coli O157 (1200). These estimates can be used to prioritize food safety interventions. Future estimates of the burden of foodborne disease in DALYs would be improved by addressing important data gaps and by the development and validation of US-specific disability weights for foodborne diseases. PMID:25633631

  4. Supplemental information related to risk assessment for the off-site transportation of transuranic waste for the U.S. Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents supplemental information to support the human health risk assessment conducted for the transportation of transuranic waste (TRUW) in support of the US Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). Detailed descriptions of the transportation health risk assessment method and results of the assessment are presented in Appendix E of the WM PEIS and are not repeated in this report. This report presents additional information that is not presented in Appendix E but is necessary to conduct the transportation risk assessment for Waste Management (WM) contact- and remote-handed (CH and RH) TRUW. Included are definitions of the TRUW alternatives considered in the WM PEIS, data related to the inventory and to the physical and radiological characteristics of CH and RH TRUW, and detailed results of the assessment for each WM TRUW case considered.

  5. Radiolead (210)Pb and (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratios in calcium supplements and the assessment of their possible dose to consumers.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2016-08-23

    This paper presents the results of pioneer study of the most popular calcium supplements as a potential additional source of radiolead (210)Pb in human diet. The analyzed calcium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic calcium compounds; some came from natural sources as mussels' shells, fish extracts, or sedimentary rocks. The idea was to investigate the naturally occurring (210)Pb activity in different calcium supplements and calculate the annual effective radiation dose from radiolead (210)Pb decay in consumed calcium supplement. The results showed (210)Pb concentrations in natural origin calcium supplements (especially sedimentary rocks) were significantly higher. The highest (210)Pb activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from dolomite - 2.97 ± 0.18 mBq g(-1), while the lowest was observed in organic calcium compounds - both calcium lactate - 0.08 ± 0.01 and 0.13 ± 0.01 mBq g(-1). The highest annual radiation dose from (210)Pb taken with 1 tablet of calcium supplement per day was calculated for soluble calcium lactate sample - 1.19 ± 0.03 µSv year(-1), while the highest annual radiation dose from (210)Pb taken daily with 1 g of pure Ca for dolomite - 5.57 ± 0.34 µSv year(-1). PMID:27253716

  6. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  7. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  8. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  9. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  10. Use of Nonvitamin, Nonmineral Dietary Supplements among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Heather; Beerman, Kathy; Duncan, Sam; McGuire, Michelle; Hillers, Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Assessed college students' use of nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) dietary supplements. Student surveys indicated that nearly half of the respondents took NVNM supplements, most frequently echinacea, ginseng, and St. John's wort. Over 80 percent had acceptable body mass index values. Users and nonusers of NVNM supplements did not differ significantly…

  11. Differentiation in Data Analysis & Probability, PreK-Grade 2: A Content Companion for Ongoing Assessment, Grouping Students, Targeting Instruction, and Adjusting Levels of Cognitive Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Cox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This book applies the author's easy but effective differentiation strategies to the data analysis and probability content standard. Taking the foundational elements of differentiation in this book, it helps you: (1) assess students' math abilities quickly and efficiently; (2) group children by need; (3) target instruction to meet every student's…

  12. Adjusting skewness and maximum 0.5 hour intensity in CLIGEN to improve extreme event and sub-daily intensity generation for assessing climate change impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both measured data and GCM/RCM projections show an general increasing trend in extreme rainfall events as temperature rises in US. Proper simulation of extreme events is particularly important for assessing climate change impacts on soil erosion and hydrology. The objective of this paper is to fin...

  13. Vitamin D Status and Supplementation Practices in Elite Irish Athletes: An Update from 2010/2011.

    PubMed

    Todd, Joshua; Madigan, Sharon; Pourshahidi, Kirsty; McSorley, Emeir; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Magee, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern that is prevalent in Ireland. The vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes following implementation of a revised supplementation policy in 2010/2011 has not been explored to date. This study aimed to assess the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes participating in high-profile sports and establish if equatorial travel, supplementation and/or sunbed use predict vitamin D status. Across Ireland, blood samples (n = 92) were obtained from cricketers (n = 28), boxers (n = 21) and women's rugby sevens players (n = 43) between November 2013 and April 2015. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Parathyroid hormone and adjusted calcium concentrations were measured by clinical biochemistry. Athletes completed a questionnaire that queried equatorial travel, supplementation and sunbed use. Vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D >50 nmol/L) was evident in 86% of athletes. Insufficiency (31-49 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L) was present in only 12% and 2% of athletes respectively. On average, athletes from all sport disciplines were vitamin D sufficient and 25% reported vitamin D supplementation which was a significant positive predictor of vitamin D status, (OR 4.31; 95% CI 1.18-15.75; p = 0.027). Equatorial travel and sun bed use were reported in 47% and 16% of athletes respectively however these factors did not predict vitamin D status (both p > 0.05). Although different cohorts were assessed, the overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was 55% in 2010/2011 compared with only 14% in 2013/2015. Targeted supplementation is highly effective in optimising vitamin D status, negating the need for blanket-supplementation in elite cohorts. PMID:27517954

  14. Vitamin D Status and Supplementation Practices in Elite Irish Athletes: An Update from 2010/2011

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Joshua; Madigan, Sharon; Pourshahidi, Kirsty; McSorley, Emeir; Laird, Eamon; Healy, Martin; Magee, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a global health concern that is prevalent in Ireland. The vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes following implementation of a revised supplementation policy in 2010/2011 has not been explored to date. This study aimed to assess the vitamin D status of elite Irish athletes participating in high-profile sports and establish if equatorial travel, supplementation and/or sunbed use predict vitamin D status. Across Ireland, blood samples (n = 92) were obtained from cricketers (n = 28), boxers (n = 21) and women’s rugby sevens players (n = 43) between November 2013 and April 2015. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were quantified using LC-MS/MS. Parathyroid hormone and adjusted calcium concentrations were measured by clinical biochemistry. Athletes completed a questionnaire that queried equatorial travel, supplementation and sunbed use. Vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D >50 nmol/L) was evident in 86% of athletes. Insufficiency (31–49 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L) was present in only 12% and 2% of athletes respectively. On average, athletes from all sport disciplines were vitamin D sufficient and 25% reported vitamin D supplementation which was a significant positive predictor of vitamin D status, (OR 4.31; 95% CI 1.18–15.75; p = 0.027). Equatorial travel and sun bed use were reported in 47% and 16% of athletes respectively however these factors did not predict vitamin D status (both p > 0.05). Although different cohorts were assessed, the overall prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was 55% in 2010/2011 compared with only 14% in 2013/2015. Targeted supplementation is highly effective in optimising vitamin D status, negating the need for blanket-supplementation in elite cohorts. PMID:27517954

  15. The thickness history of the northern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: an assessment of glacial isostatic adjustment models, sea-level measurements, and vertical land motion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Henton, J. A.; Dyke, A.

    2014-12-01

    The fit of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model predictions to 24 relative sea-level histories and an additional 18 present-day GPS-measured vertical land motion rates constrains the thickness and volume history of the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet. The predictions of the best-fit GIA model indicate respective peak ice thicknesses west and east of Hudson Bay of 3.4-3.6 km and approximately 4 km. These values represent, respectively, a large decrease, and a moderate increase, to the load thickness compared to ICE-5G. This result is generally consistent with other GIA studies focussing on space-geodetic constraints. The large reduction to the ice load west of Hudson Bay also reduces the vertical mantle response along the margins of the load centre, which improves the fit to relative sea-level data from the southern Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The fit of GIA model predictions to relative sea-level data from the Baffin Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet indicate peak ice thicknesses there of 1.2-1.3 km, a modest reduction compared to ICE-5G. On Baffin Island, the modelled elastic crustal response of the Earth to present-day ice mass changes is large. Accounting for this effect improves the agreement between GPS measurements of vertical crustal motion and the GIA model predictions. However, work is needed to incorporate more detailed observations and modelling of present-day changes to glaciers and ice caps. Overall, the fit to the data is most strongly improved in the region west of Hudson Bay (the χ2 RSL misfit is reduced by a factor of ~4) although the entire revised reconstruction for the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet provides an improved fit to both the regional RSL data (the cumulative χ2 misfit is reduced by a factor of >2) and the GPS data (the RMS misfit is reduced by a factor of 9).

  16. Supplemental Security Income: SSA Needs a Uniform Standard for Assessing Childhood Disability. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    This report presents the Government Accounting Office's recommendations regarding standards for determining eligibility for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) based on a childhood disability. The report is based on the Social Security Administration's (SSA) monitoring of 288,000 children whose eligibility was subject to review and of 370,000 new…

  17. Risk-Adjusted Models for Adverse Obstetric Outcomes and Variation in Risk Adjusted Outcomes Across Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Bailit, Jennifer L.; Grobman, William A.; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Spong, Catherine Y.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Thorp, John M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Caritis, Steve N.; Shubert, Phillip J.; Tita, Alan T. N.; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J.; Blackwell, Sean C.; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Van Dorsten, J. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regulatory bodies and insurers evaluate hospital quality using obstetrical outcomes, however meaningful comparisons should take pre-existing patient characteristics into account. Furthermore, if risk-adjusted outcomes are consistent within a hospital, fewer measures and resources would be needed to assess obstetrical quality. Our objective was to establish risk-adjusted models for five obstetric outcomes and assess hospital performance across these outcomes. Study Design A cohort study of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 hospitals in the United States between March 2008 and February 2011. Hospitals were ranked according to their unadjusted and risk-adjusted frequency of venous thromboembolism, postpartum hemorrhage, peripartum infection, severe perineal laceration, and a composite neonatal adverse outcome. Correlations between hospital risk-adjusted outcome frequencies were assessed. Results Venous thromboembolism occurred too infrequently (0.03%, 95% CI 0.02% – 0.04%) for meaningful assessment. Other outcomes occurred frequently enough for assessment (postpartum hemorrhage 2.29% (95% CI 2.20–2.38), peripartum infection 5.06% (95% CI 4.93–5.19), severe perineal laceration at spontaneous vaginal delivery 2.16% (95% CI 2.06–2.27), neonatal composite 2.73% (95% CI 2.63–2.84)). Although there was high concordance between unadjusted and adjusted hospital rankings, several individual hospitals had an adjusted rank that was substantially different (as much as 12 rank tiers) than their unadjusted rank. None of the correlations between hospital adjusted outcome frequencies was significant. For example, the hospital with the lowest adjusted frequency of peripartum infection had the highest adjusted frequency of severe perineal laceration. Conclusions Evaluations based on a single risk-adjusted outcome cannot be generalized to overall hospital obstetric performance. PMID:23891630

  18. Ratios as a size adjustment in morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, G H; Gelvin, B R; Hartman, S E

    1993-08-01

    Simple ratios in which a measurement variable is divided by a size variable are commonly used but known to be inadequate for eliminating size correlations from morphometric data. Deficiencies in the simple ratio can be alleviated by incorporating regression coefficients describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables. Recommendations have included: 1) subtracting the regression intercept to force the bivariate relationship through the origin (intercept-adjusted ratios); 2) exponentiating either the measurement or the size variable using an allometry coefficient to achieve linearity (allometrically adjusted ratios); or 3) both subtracting the intercept and exponentiating (fully adjusted ratios). These three strategies for deriving size-adjusted ratios imply different data models for describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables (i.e., the linear, simple allometric, and full allometric models, respectively). Algebraic rearrangement of the equation associated with each data model leads to a correctly formulated adjusted ratio whose expected value is constant (i.e., size correlation is eliminated). Alternatively, simple algebra can be used to derive an expected value function for assessing whether any proposed ratio formula is effective in eliminating size correlations. Some published ratio adjustments were incorrectly formulated as indicated by expected values that remain a function of size after ratio transformation. Regression coefficients incorporated into adjusted ratios must be estimated using least-squares regression of the measurement variable on the size variable. Use of parameters estimated by any other regression technique (e.g., major axis or reduced major axis) results in residual correlations between size and the adjusted measurement variable. Correctly formulated adjusted ratios, whose parameters are estimated by least-squares methods, do control for size correlations. The size-adjusted

  19. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  20. Psychological Adjustment in Young Korean American Adolescents and Parental Warmth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung

    2008-01-01

    Problem: The relation between parental warmth and psychological adjustment is not known for young Korean American adolescents. Methods: 103 adolescents' perceived parental warmth and psychological adjustment were assessed using, respectively, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire and the Child Personality Assessment Questionnaire. Findings: Low perceived maternal and paternal warmth were positively related to adolescents' overall poor psychological adjustment and almost all of its attributes. When maternal and paternal warmth were entered simultaneously into the regression equation, only low maternal warmth was related to adolescents' poor psychological adjustment. Conclusion: Perceived parental warmth is important in predicting young adolescents' psychological adjustment as suggested in the parental acceptance-rejection theory. PMID:19885379

  1. Americans’ Use of Dietary Supplements That Are Potentially Harmful in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Grubbs, Vanessa; Plantinga, Laura C.; Tuot, Delphine S.; Hedgeman, Elizabeth; Saran, Rajiv; Saydah, Sharon; Rolka, Deborah; Powe, Neil R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence in the United States of dietary supplement use that may be harmful to those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. We sought to characterize potentially harmful supplement use by individual CKD status. Study Design Cross-sectional national survey (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008) Setting & Participants Community-based survey of 21,169 non-pregnant, non-institutionalized U.S. civilian adults (≥20 years) Predictor CKD status (no CKD, at risk for CKD [presence of diabetes, hypertension and/or cardiovascular disease], stage 1/2 [albuminuria only (albumin-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g)], or stage 3/4 [estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15-59 ml/min/1.73 m2]). Outcome Self-reported use of dietary supplements containing any of 37 herbs the National Kidney Foundation identified as potentially harmful in the setting of CKD. Measurements Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate assessed from urine and blood samples; demographics and comorbid conditions assessed by standardized questionnaire. Results An estimated 8.0% of U.S. adults reported potentially harmful supplement use within the last 30 days. Lower crude estimated prevalence of potentially harmful supplement use was associated with higher CKD severity (no CKD, 8.5%; at risk, 8.0%; stage 1/2, 6.1%; and stage 3/4, 6.2%; p<0.001). However, after adjustment for confounders, those with or at risk for CKD were as likely to use a potentially harmful supplement as those without CKD: at-risk OR, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.79 -1.09); stage 1/2 OR, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.64 -1.08); stage 3/4 OR, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.63 -1.18); all vs. no CKD. Limitations Herb content was not available and the list of potentially harmful supplements examined is unlikely to be exhaustive. Conclusions The use of dietary supplements potentially harmful to people with CKD is common, regardless of CKD status. Healthcare providers should discuss the use and potential risks of supplements with

  2. Dietary supplement use among elite young German athletes.

    PubMed

    Braun, Hans; Koehler, Karsten; Geyer, Hans; Kleiner, Jens; Mester, Joachim; Schanzer, Wilhelm

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and motives of supplement use among elite young athletes who compete on national and international levels. Therefore, the current survey was performed to assess information regarding the past and present use of dietary supplements among 164 elite young athletes (16.6 +/- 3.0 years of age). A 5-page questionnaire was designed to assess their past and present (last 4 weeks) use of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrate, protein, and fat supplements; sport drinks; and other ergogenic aids. Furthermore, information about motives, sources of advice, supplement sources, and supplement contamination was assessed. Eighty percent of all athletes reported using at least 1 supplement, and the prevalence of use was significantly higher in older athletes (p < .05). Among supplement users, minerals, vitamins, sport drinks, energy drinks, and carbohydrates were most frequently consumed. Only a minority of the athletes declared that they used protein/amino acids, creatine, or other ergogenic aids. Major motives for supplement use were health related, whereas performance enhancement and recommendations by others were less frequently reported. Supplements were mainly obtained from parents or by athletes themselves and were mostly purchased in pharmacies, supermarkets, and health-food stores. Among all athletes, only 36% were aware of the problem of supplement contamination. The survey shows that supplement use is common and widespread among German elite young athletes. This stands in strong contrast to recommendations by leading sport organizations against supplement use by underage athletes. PMID:19403956

  3. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential. PMID:20190347

  4. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrient recommendations: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Online DRI tool Daily Value (DV) tables For more advice on buying dietary supplements: Office of Dietary Supplements Frequently Asked Questions: Which brand(s) ...

  5. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  6. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (Idaho Supplementation Studies) : Experimental Design, 1991 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.; Leitzinger, Eric J.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon in Idaho. The goals are to assess the use of hatchery chinook to restore or augment natural populations, and to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the survival and fitness of existing natural populations.

  7. Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD): First psychometric evaluation of a new child and parenting assessment tool for children with a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Emser, Theresa S; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Christiansen, Hanna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD), a brief inventory for assessing emotional and behavioral problems of children with developmental disabilities aged 2- to 16-years, as well as caregivers' self-efficacy in managing these problems. A sample of 636 parents participated in the study. Children's ages ranged from 2 to 15. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 21-item, three-factor model of CAPES-DD child adjustment with 13 items describing behavioral (10 items) and emotional (3 items) problems and 8 items describing prosocial behavior. Three additional items were included due to their clinical usefulness and contributed to a Total Problem Score. Factor analyses also supported a 16-item, one factor model of CAPES-DD self-efficacy. Psychometric evaluation of the CAPES-DD revealed scales had satisfactory to very good internal consistency, as well as very good convergent and predictive validity. The instrument is to be in the public domain and free for practitioners and researchers to use. Potential uses of the measure and implications for future validation studies are discussed. PMID:26921524

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography Assessment Before and After Vitamin Supplementation in a Patient With Vitamin A Deficiency: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel; Sádaba, Luis M

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin A is an essential fat-soluble vitamin important for the function of various body systems. In the eye, vitamin A is essential for the synthesis of visual pigments in photoreceptors. Vitamin A deficiency is a rare condition in the developed countries and might follow bariatric or intestinal bypass surgery.We present the case of a 67-year-old male that complained of visual loss and nyctalopia. Patient had bariatric surgery 15 years before for weight loss. Low serum levels of vitamin A confirmed the diagnosis and patient started vitamin A supplementation. Visual fields, macular thickness, and ganglion cell layer thickness were recorded and monitored 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year after the beginning of therapy. Visual fields were significantly altered and central macular thickness and ganglion cell layer thickness were reduced, but the first 2 showed a significant recovery with vitamin supplementation therapy. By the 1st month of treatment patient referred a complete remission of visual symptoms. Further, we observed hyperreflective material accumulating beneath a partially disrupted ellipsoid band in the high definition optical coherence tomography that also improved progressively with vitamin repletion.Newer and more sophisticated imaging systems have increased our knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for retinal diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the effect of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin supplementation on macular thickness. This case also highlights the importance of considering bariatric bypass surgery as a cause of vitamin A deficiency in developed countries. PMID:26871796

  9. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  10. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  11. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  12. Assessing Planning Ability Across the Adult Life Span: Population-Representative and Age-Adjusted Reliability Estimates for the Tower of London (TOL-F).

    PubMed

    Kaller, Christoph P; Debelak, Rudolf; Köstering, Lena; Egle, Johanna; Rahm, Benjamin; Wild, Philipp S; Blettner, Maria; Beutel, Manfred E; Unterrainer, Josef M

    2016-03-01

    Planning ahead the consequences of future actions is a prototypical executive function. In clinical and experimental neuropsychology, disc-transfer tasks like the Tower of London (TOL) are commonly used for the assessment of planning ability. Previous psychometric evaluations have, however, yielded a poor reliability of measuring planning performance with the TOL. Based on theory-grounded task analyses and a systematic problem selection, the computerized TOL-Freiburg version (TOL-F) was developed to improve the task's psychometric properties for diagnostic applications. Here, we report reliability estimates for the TOL-F from two large samples collected in Mainz, Germany (n = 3,770; 40-80 years) and in Vienna, Austria (n = 830; 16-84 years). Results show that planning accuracy on the TOL-F possesses an adequate internal consistency and split-half reliability (>0.7) that are stable across the adult life span while the TOL-F covers a broad range of graded difficulty even in healthy adults, making it suitable for both research and clinical application. PMID:26715472

  13. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1993-02-02

    This is the first annual summary of results for chinook salmon supplementation studies in Idaho Rivers conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Management. The Nez Perce Tribe has coordinated chinook salmon supplementation research activities with the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, U. S. Forest Service, and the Shoshone Bannock Tribe. The project is a cooperative effort involving members of the Idaho Supplementation Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC). This project has also been extensively coordinated with the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) which identified specific research needs and integrated and coordinated supplementation research activities through development of a five year work plan. In this study we are assessing what strategies, both brood stock and release stage, are best for supplementing natural or depleted spring and summer chinook populations and what effect supplementation has on these populations. This research should identify which of the supplementation strategies employed are beneficial in terms of increasing adult returns and the ability of these returns to sustain themselves. Biological evaluation points will be parr density, survival to Lower Granite Dam, adult return to weirs, redd counts and presmolt and smolt yield from both treatment and control streams. Genetic monitoring of treatment and control populations will also occur. The supplementation research study has the following objectives: (1) Monitor and evaluate the effect of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon. (2) Monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation. (3) Determine which supplementation strategies (brood stock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural

  14. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  15. 20 CFR 416.405 - Cost-of-living adjustments in benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments in benefits. 416.405 Section 416.405 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.405 Cost-of-living adjustments in...

  16. 20 CFR 416.405 - Cost-of-living adjustments in benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments in benefits. 416.405 Section 416.405 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.405 Cost-of-living adjustments in...

  17. 20 CFR 416.405 - Cost-of-living adjustments in benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments in benefits. 416.405 Section 416.405 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.405 Cost-of-living adjustments in...

  18. 20 CFR 416.405 - Cost-of-living adjustments in benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cost-of-living adjustments in benefits. 416.405 Section 416.405 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.405 Cost-of-living adjustments in...

  19. 75 FR 8353 - Price Index Adjustments for Expenditure Limitations and Lobbyist Bundling Disclosure Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Price Index Adjustments for Expenditure Limitations and Lobbyist Bundling Disclosure Threshold AGENCY... forth in the Act, to index the amounts for inflation. Additional details appear in the supplemental...)(A)) are adjusted periodically to reflect changes in the consumer price index. See 2 U.S.C....

  20. Basic Reading Skills and the Literacy of America's Least Literate Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) Supplemental Studies. NCES 2009-481

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Justin; Kutner, Mark; Sabatini, John; White, Sheida

    2009-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy of adults in the United States for the first time since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey. The assessment was administered to more than 19,000 adults (ages 16 and older) in households and prisons. The tasks included on the assessment were designed to measure…

  1. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  2. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  3. Bilateral posterior cervical cages provide biomechanical stability: assessment of stand-alone and supplemental fixation for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Leonard I; Siemionow, Krzysztof B; Havey, Robert M; Carandang, Gerard; Phillips, Frank M; Patwardhan, Avinash G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Supplemental posterior instrumentation has been widely used to enhance stability and improve fusion rates in higher risk patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). These typically involve posterior lateral mass or pedicle screw fixation with significant inherent risks and morbidities. More recently, cervical cages placed bilaterally between the facet joints (posterior cervical cages) have been used as a less disruptive alternative for posterior fixation. The purpose of this study was to compare the stability achieved by both posterior cages and ACDF at a single motion segment and determine the stability achieved with posterior cervical cages used as an adjunct to single- and multilevel ACDF. Methods Seven cadaveric cervical spine (C2–T1) specimens were tested in the following sequence: intact, C5–C6 bilateral posterior cages, C6–C7 plated ACDF with and without posterior cages, and C3–C5 plated ACDF with and without posterior cages. Range of motion in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation was measured for each condition under moment loading up to ±1.5 Nm. Results All fusion constructs significantly reduced the range of motion compared to intact in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation (P<0.05). Similar stability was achieved with bilateral posterior cages and plated ACDF at a single level. Posterior cages, when placed as an adjunct to ACDF, further reduced range of motion in both single- and multilevel constructs (P<0.05). Conclusion The biomechanical effectiveness of bilateral posterior cages in limiting cervical segmental motion is comparable to single-level plated ACDF. Furthermore, supplementation of single- and multilevel ACDF with posterior cervical cages provided a significant increase in stability and therefore may be a potential, minimally disruptive option for supplemental fixation for improving ACDF fusion rates. PMID:27471414

  4. An explanatory randomised placebo controlled trial of levothyroxine supplementation for babies born <28 weeks’ gestation: results of the TIPIT trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Babies born before 28 weeks’ gestation have lower plasma thyroid hormone concentrations than more mature infants. This may contribute to their risk of poor developmental outcome. Previous studies have suggested that thyroxine supplementation for extremely preterm neonates may be beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of administration of supplemental thyroxine to very premature babies on brain size and somatic growth at 36 weeks’ corrected gestational age (CGA). Methods In this explanatory multicentre double blind randomised placebo controlled trial, 153 infants born below 28 weeks’ gestation were randomised to levothyroxine (LT4) supplementation or placebo until 32 weeks’ CGA. The primary outcome was brain size assessed by the width of the subarachnoid space measured by cranial ultrasound at 36 weeks’ CGA. Lower leg length was measured by knemometry. Results Babies in the LT4-supplemented and placebo groups had similar baseline characteristics. There were no significant differences between infants given LT4 (n=78) or placebo (n=75) for width of the subarachnoid space, head circumference at 36 weeks’ CGA, body weight at 36 weeks’ CGA or mortality. Infants who received LT4 had significantly shorter leg lengths at 36 weeks’ CGA although adjusted analysis for baseline length did not find a statistical difference. There was a significant correlation between low FT4 and wider subarachnoid space. No unexpected serious adverse events were noted and incidence of adverse events did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion This is the only randomised controlled trial of thyroxine supplementation targeting extremely premature infants. Supplementing all babies below 28 weeks’ gestation with LT4 had no apparent effect on brain size. These results do not support routine supplementation with LT4 for all babies born below 28 weeks’ gestation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89493983 EUDRACT number

  5. Predicting Prison Adjustment with MMPI Correctional Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megargee, Edwin I.; Carbonell, Joyce L.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the degree to which eight Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scales, specifically derived to assess correctional criteria, related to six criteria of subsequent adjustment in prison. Although some statistically significant correlations with the criteria were obtained, their magnitude was quite low, indicating the scales had…

  6. Domestic Violence, Emotional Competence, and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hessler, Danielle M.; Annest, Amalia

    2007-01-01

    This article examined emotion competence in children exposed to domestic violence (DV). It also examined the hypothesis that children's emotional competence mediates relations between DV and children's later difficulties with peers and behavioral adjustment. DV was assessed when children were at the age of five, emotional competence was assessed…

  7. Calcium/Vitamin D Supplementation and Coronary Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Manson, JoAnn E.; Allison, Matthew A.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Langer, Robert D.; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Hendrix, Susan L.; Hsia, Judith; Hunt, Julie R.; Lewis, Cora E.; Margolis, Karen L.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Rodabough, Rebecca J.; Thomas, Asha M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Coronary artery calcified plaque is a marker for atheromatous plaque burden and predicts future risk of cardiovascular events. The relationship between calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and coronary artery calcium (CAC) has not been previously assessed in a randomized trial setting. We compared coronary artery calcium scores among women randomized to calcium/vitamin D supplementation versus placebo following trial completion. Methods In an ancillary substudy of women randomized to calcium carbonate (1000 mg of elemental calcium daily) plus vitamin D3 (400 IU daily) versus placebo, nested within the Women’s Health Initiative trial of estrogen among women with hysterectomy, we measured CAC with cardiac computed tomography in 754 women aged 50–59 years at randomization. Imaging for CAC was performed at 28 of 40 centers following a mean of 7 years of treatment and scans were read centrally. Coronary artery calcium scores were measured by a central reading center with masking to randomization assignments. Results Post-trial CAC measurements were similar in women randomized to calcium/vitamin D supplementation (calcium/D) and those receiving placebo. The mean CAC score was 91.6 for calcium/D and 100.5 for placebo (rank test p-value=0.74). After adjustment for coronary risk factors, multivariate odds ratios for increasing CAC score cutpoints (CAC >0, ≥10, and ≥100) for calcium/D vs placebo were 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.64–1.34), 1.29 (0.88–1.87), and 0.90 (0.56–1.44), respectively. Corresponding odds ratios among women with >50% adherence to study pills and for higher levels of CAC (>300), were similar. Conclusions Treatment with moderate doses of calcium plus vitamin D3 did not appear to alter coronary artery calcified plaque burden among postmenopausal women. PMID:20551849

  8. Risk adjustment for pediatric quality indicators.

    PubMed

    Kuhlthau, Karen; Ferris, Timothy G G; Iezzoni, Lisa I

    2004-01-01

    The movement to measure medical care quality has been accelerating, spurred on by evidence of poor quality of care and trials of interventions to improve care. Appropriate measurement of quality of care is an essential aspect of improving the quality of care, yet some quality measures may be influenced by patients' attributes unrelated to quality of care. Risk adjustment is the term commonly applied to those methods that account for patient-related attributes, making measurement of health care quality as comparable as possible across providers or organizations seeing different mixes of patients. The measurement of quality of care for children poses specific challenges. In addition to these measurement challenges, analysts must ensure that quality comparisons among doctors, groups of doctors, hospitals, or health plans are not adversely affected by the likelihood that different types of patients seek care in different places. Although some techniques designed to adjust performance measures for case mix were developed for both adults and children, other systems are specific to childhood circumstances. The theoretical issues involved in risk-adjusting childhood outcomes measures for newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit were reviewed recently. Here, we go beyond the neonatal intensive care unit setting to consider risk adjustment for pediatric quality measures more broadly. In particular, we 1) review the conceptual background for risk-adjusting quality measures, 2) present policy issues related to adjusting pediatric quality measures, and 3) catalog existing risk-adjustment methodologies for pediatric quality measures. We conclude with an overall assessment of the status of risk adjustment for pediatric quality measures and recommendations for additional research and application. PMID:14702503

  9. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  10. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  11. Long-term garlic or micronutrient supplementation, but not anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy, increases serum folate or glutathione without affecting serum vitamin B-12 or homocysteine in a rural Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujue; Zhang, Lian; Moslehi, Roxana; Ma, Junling; Pan, Kaifeng; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Weidong; Brown, Linda Morris; Hu, Yuangreng; Pee, David; Gail, Mitchell H; You, Weicheng

    2009-01-01

    The effects of a 7.3-y supplementation with garlic and micronutrients and of anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment with amoxicillin (1 g twice daily) and omeprazole (20 mg twice daily) on serum folate, vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and glutathione concentrations were assessed in a rural Chinese population. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial was conducted to compare the ability of 3 treatments to retard the development of precancerous gastric lesions in 3411 subjects. The treatments were: 1) anti-H. pylori treatment with amoxicillin and omeprazole; 2) 7.3-y supplementation with aged garlic and steam-distilled garlic oil; and 3) 7.3-y supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium. All 3 treatments were given in a 2(3) factorial design to subjects seropositive for H. pylori infection; only the garlic supplement and vitamin and selenium supplement were given in a 2(2) factorial design to the other subjects. Thirty-four subjects were randomly selected from each of the 12 treatment strata. Sera were analyzed after 7.3 y to measure effects on folate, vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and glutathione concentrations. Regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, and smoking indicated an increase of 10.2% (95%CI: 2.9-18.1%) in serum folate after garlic supplementation and an increase of 13.4% (95%CI: 5.3-22.2%) in serum glutathione after vitamin and selenium supplementation. The vitamin and selenium supplement did not affect other analytes and the amoxicillin and omeprazole therapy did not affect any of the variables tested. In this rural Chinese population, 7.3 y of garlic supplementation increased the serum folate concentration and the vitamin and selenium supplement increased that of glutathione, but neither affected serum concentrations of vitamin B-12 or homocysteine. PMID:19056661

  12. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  13. 77 FR 40387 - Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to adjust prices for several market dominant products... announcing its intent to adjust prices for several market dominant products within First-Class Mail...

  14. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin

    2016-09-01

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed, their anthocyanin profiles (based on high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] separation) indicated if products' fruit origin listings were authentic. Over 30% of the Vaccinium fruit (cranberry, lingonberry, bilberry, and blueberry; 14 of 45) products available as dietary supplements did not contain the fruit listed as ingredients. Six supplements contained no anthocyanins. Five others had contents differing from labeled fruit (e.g., bilberry capsules containing Andean blueberry fruit). Of the samples that did contain the specified fruit (n = 27), anthocyanin content ranged from 0.04 to 14.37 mg per capsule, tablet, or teaspoon (5 g). Approaches to utilizing anthocyanins in assessment of sample authenticity, and a discussion of the challenges with anthocyanin profiles in quality control are both presented. PMID:27625778

  15. Derivation of a chemical-specific adjustment factor (CSAF) for use in the assessment of risk from chronic exposure to ethylene glycol: application of International Programme for Chemical Safety guidelines.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Robert B; Brent, Jeffrey

    2005-09-01

    The International Programme for Chemical Safety (IPCS) has developed a set of guidelines ("the Guidance") for the establishment of Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAFs) for in the assessment of toxicity risk to the human population as a result of chemical exposure. The development of case studies is encouraged in the Guidance document and comments on them have been encouraged by the IPCS. One provision in the Guidance is for the determination of CSAFs based on human data. We present a case study of the use of the Guidance for the determination of the CSAF for ethylene glycol (EG) primarily utilizing clinically obtained data. The most relevant endpoint for this analysis was deemed to be acute renal injury. These data were applied based on an assessment of the known pharmaco/toxico-kinetic properties of EG. Because of the lack of both bioaccumulation of EG and reports of chronic or progressive renal injury from EG, it was concluded that the most appropriate model of chronic exposure is one of repeated acute episodes. The most relevant exposure metric was determined to be plasma glycolate concentration. Based on a prospective human study of EG-poisoned patients, the NOAEL for glycolate was found to be 10.1 mM. This value is similar to that obtained from animal data. The application of the Guidelines to this data resulted in a CSAF of 10.24, corresponding to a daily EG dose of 43.7 mg/kg/day. In 2000, Health Canada (HC) produced an animal data-based analysis of the maximum tolerated dose of EG. The results of our analysis are compared with those of HC, and the strengths and weaknesses of these two data types related to EG are discussed. PMID:15990139

  16. Derivation of a chemical-specific adjustment factor (CSAF) for use in the assessment of risk from chronic exposure to ethylene glycol: Application of international programme for chemical safety guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Robert B. . E-mail: RPalmer@Toxicologyassoc.com; Brent, Jeffrey

    2005-09-01

    The International Programme for Chemical Safety (IPCS) has developed a set of guidelines ('the Guidance') for the establishment of Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAFs) for in the assessment of toxicity risk to the human population as a result of chemical exposure. The development of case studies is encouraged in the Guidance document and comments on them have been encouraged by the IPCS. One provision in the Guidance is for the determination of CSAFs based on human data. We present a case study of the use of the Guidance for the determination of the CSAF for ethylene glycol (EG) primarily utilizing clinically obtained data. The most relevant endpoint for this analysis was deemed to be acute renal injury. These data were applied based on an assessment of the known pharmaco/toxico-kinetic properties of EG. Because of the lack of both bioaccumulation of EG and reports of chronic or progressive renal injury from EG, it was concluded that the most appropriate model of chronic exposure is one of repeated acute episodes. The most relevant exposure metric was determined to be plasma glycolate concentration. Based on a prospective human study of EG-poisoned patients, the NOAEL for glycolate was found to be 10.1 mM. This value is similar to that obtained from animal data. The application of the Guidelines to this data resulted in a CSAF of 10.24, corresponding to a daily EG dose of 43.7 mg/kg/day. In 2000, Health Canada (HC) produced an animal data-based analysis of the maximum tolerated dose of EG. The results of our analysis are compared with those of HC, and the strengths and weaknesses of these two data types related to EG are discussed.

  17. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  18. Why Take a Prenatal Supplement?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Why take a prenatal supplement? You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms-to-Be / Dietary Supplements Why take a prenatal supplement? Print Share During pregnancy, your needs increase ...

  19. Assessment and treatment of hydrocarbon inundated soils using inorganic nutrient (N-P-K) supplements: II. A case study of eneka oil spillage in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Egbuson, Ebitimi J; Ojinnaka, Chukwunnoye M

    2006-04-01

    Polluted soils from Eneka oil field in the Niger delta region of Nigeria were collected two months after recorded incidence of oil spillage as part of a two-site reclamation programme. The soils were taken on the second day of reconnaissance from three replicate quadrats, at surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-30 cm) depths, using the grid sampling technique. Total extractable hydrocarbon content (THC) of the polluted soils ranged from 1.006 x 10(3)-5.540 x 10(4) mg/kg at surface and subsurface depths (no overlap in Standard Errors at 95% Confidence Level). Greenhouse trials for possible reclamation were later carried out using (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KH(2)PO(4) and KCl (N-P-K) fertilizer as nutrient supplements. Nitrogen as NO(3)-N and potassium were optimally enhanced at 2% (w/w) and 3% (w/w) of the N-P-K supplementation respectively. Phosphorus, which was inherently more enhanced in the soils than the other nutrients, maintained same level impact after 20 g treatment with the N-P-K fertilizer. Total organic carbon (%TOC), total organic matter (%TOM), pH and % moisture content all provided evidence of enhanced mineralization in the fertilizer treated soils. If reclamation of the crude oil inundated soils is construed as the return to normal levels of metabolic activities of the soils, then the application of the inorganic fertilizers at such prescribed levels would duly accelerate the remediation process. This would be, however, limited to levels of pollution empirically defined by such THC values obtained in this study. The data on the molecular compositional changes of the total petroleum hydrocarbon content (TPH) of the spilled-oil showed the depletion of the fingerprints of the n-paraffins, nC(8)-nC(10), and complete disappearance of C(12)-C(17) as well as the acyclic isoprenoid, pristane, all of which provided substantial evidence of degradation. PMID:16649138

  20. Micronutrient Supplement Use and Diet Quality in University Students

    PubMed Central

    Wiltgren, Adam R.; Booth, Alison O.; Kaur, Gunveen; Cicerale, Sara; Lacy, Kathleen E.; Thorpe, Maree G.; Keast, Russell S. J.; Riddell, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    Many national and international public health organisations recommend achieving nutrient adequacy through consumption of a wide variety of nutritious foods. Despite this, dietary supplement sales continue to increase. Understanding the characteristics of micronutrient supplement users and the relationship with diet quality can help develop effective public health interventions to reduce unnecessary consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements. Participants (n = 1306) were a convenience sample of students studying first year food and nutrition. Data was collected via a Food and Diet Questionnaire (FDQ) and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Supplement users were defined as participants who indicated consuming any listed supplement as frequently as once a month or more. Diet quality was assessed using a Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) score. Prevalence of supplement use was high in this study population with 56% of participants reporting supplement use; the most popular supplements consumed were multivitamins (28%) and vitamin C (28%). A higher DGI score was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of supplement use (mean: 105 ± 18 vs. 109 ± 17, p = 0.001). Micronutrient supplement use was associated with a higher DGI score, suggesting that supplements are more likely to be used by those who are less likely to require them. PMID:25665159

  1. Combining Marriage and Career: The Professional Adjustment of Marital Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Afroz Haider

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the researcher attempted to assess Professional Adjustment status and level of teachers according to their marital status on a sample of 792 teachers. Teachers have been classified into two categories viz. married and unmarried. To evaluate the status of professional adjustment of teachers, a tool viz. "Manual on Teachers…

  2. 76 FR 74625 - Civil Monetary Penalties Inflation Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ...This rule amends the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) regulations to adjust for inflation certain civil monetary penalties assessed under the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). The adjusted penalties are calculated according to a statutory formula, and will be effective for violations occurring on or after the effective date. This rule also amends the Department of Justice (DOJ)......

  3. 26 CFR 1.6655-3 - Adjusted seasonal installment method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted seasonal installment method. 1.6655-3 Section 1.6655-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6655-3 Adjusted seasonal installment...

  4. 77 FR 10767 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Federal Register on September 20, 2011 (76 FR 58293) to propose adjustments to the irrigation assessment... (76 FR 26759). In addition, a Construction Water Rate Schedule for the San Carlos Irrigation Project... Bureau of Indian Affairs Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...

  5. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  6. 5 CFR 9701.332 - Locality rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 9701.332 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements... Departmental regulations (6 CFR Chapter I) in the Federal Register that establish and adjust different...

  7. 5 CFR 837.701 - Offset from supplemental annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offset from supplemental annuity. 837.701... exceeding 40 years; and (B) The denominator of which is 40. (d) Cost-of-living adjustments under 5 U.S.C...) or section 215(d)(5)(ii) of the Social Security Act (relating to part of the computation of...

  8. 5 CFR 9701.332 - Locality rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements... Departmental regulations (6 CFR Chapter I) in the Federal Register that establish and adjust different locality... Section 9701.332 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.332 - Locality rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements... Departmental regulations (6 CFR Chapter I) in the Federal Register that establish and adjust different locality... Section 9701.332 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.332 - Locality rate supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Locality and Special Rate Supplements... Departmental regulations (6 CFR Chapter I) in the Federal Register that establish and adjust different locality... Section 9701.332 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  11. The Risks and Benefits of Calcium Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Min

    2015-01-01

    The association between calcium supplementation and adverse cardiovascular events has recently become a topic of debate due to the publication of two epidemiological studies and one meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. The reports indicate that there is a significant increase in adverse cardiovascular events following supplementation with calcium; however, a number of experts have raised several issues with these reports such as inconsistencies in attempts to reproduce the findings in other populations and questions concerning the validity of the data due to low compliance, biases in case ascertainment, and/or a lack of adjustment. Additionally, the Auckland Calcium Study, the Women's Health Initiative, and many other studies included in the meta-analysis obtained data from calcium-replete subjects and it is not clear whether the same risk profile would be observed in populations with low calcium intakes. Dietary calcium intake varies widely throughout the world and it is especially low in East Asia, although the risk of cardiovascular events is less prominent in this region. Therefore, clarification is necessary regarding the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events following calcium supplementation and whether this relationship can be generalized to populations with low calcium intakes. Additionally, the skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are greater in subjects with low calcium intakes and, therefore, the risk-benefit ratio of calcium supplementation is likely to differ based on the dietary calcium intake and risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases of various populations. Further studies investigating the risk-benefit profiles of calcium supplementation in various populations are required to develop population-specific guidelines for individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities, and risk profiles around the world. PMID:25827454

  12. Oral iron supplements for children in malaria-endemic areas

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, Ami; Okebe, Joseph; Yahav, Dafna; Paul, Mical

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron-deficiency anaemia is common during childhood. Iron administration has been claimed to increase the risk of malaria. Objectives To evaluate the effects and safety of iron supplementation, with or without folic acid, in children living in areas with hyperendemic or holoendemic malaria transmission. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (up to August 2015) and LILACS (up to February 2015). We also checked the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) up to February 2015. We contacted the primary investigators of all included trials, ongoing trials, and those awaiting assessment to ask for unpublished data and further trials. We scanned references of included trials, pertinent reviews, and previous meta-analyses for additional references. Selection criteria We included individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs conducted in hyperendemic and holoendemic malaria regions or that reported on any malaria-related outcomes that included children younger than 18 years of age. We included trials that compared orally administered iron, iron with folic acid, and iron with antimalarial treatment versus placebo or no treatment. We included trials of iron supplementation or fortification interventions if they provided at least 80% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for prevention of anaemia by age. Antihelminthics could be administered to either group, and micronutrients had to be administered equally to both groups. Data collection and analysis The primary outcomes were clinical malaria, severe malaria, and death from any cause. We assessed the risk of bias in included trials with domain-based evaluation and assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment

  13. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  14. Rapid assessment of the illegal presence of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in sports nutrition and dietary supplements using 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Ilse, Maren; Hengen, Julia; El-Atma, Oliver; Kuballa, Thomas; Kohl-Himmelseher, Matthias; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-09-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a stimulant that can be found in pre-workout sports nutrition and dietary supplements. This practice is illegal because DMAA is not a safe food ingredient but rather an unapproved medicinal compound due to its pharmacological action. In order to determine the DMAA content in such products, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method was developed and validated (DMAA was quantified as DMAA-HCl). For quantification, the collective integral from two of the methyl groups of the molecule in the range δ 0.92-0.84 ppm was used. The method was linear over the examined range of 1-21 g/kg (R(2) = 0.9937). The recoveries from spiked concentrations (0.1-6 g/kg) ranged between 85% and 105% (96% on average), with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1% for an authentic sample. The detection limit was 0.03 g/kg and the quantification limit was 0.08 g/kg (calculated for 75 mg sample weight). The actual DMAA-HCl content in the sample was quantified using calibration curves (external standardization) or 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid as single-point internal standard. The developed NMR methodology was applied for the analysis of 16 products, from which 9 samples were found positive (the DMAA-HCl concentration varied between 3.1 g/kg and 415 g/kg). The method can be recommended for routine use in food testing, customs or doping control laboratories. PMID:24913715

  15. Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

  16. Psychological Adjustment of Creative Children: Perspectives from Self, Peer and Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wing Ling; Poon, Jelena C. Y.; Tong, Toby M. Y.; Lau, Sing

    2013-01-01

    Previous research in the literature on the relationships between creativity and psychological adjustment tended to use only one or two sources of creativity assessment and focus on a few aspects of adjustment. To examine creative children's psychological adjustment more thoroughly, this exploratory study assessed children's creativity…

  17. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions may... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  18. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions may... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  19. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions may... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  20. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions may... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  1. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. As detailed in § 651.5(g) and in 40 CFR 1502.9(c), proposed actions may... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY...

  2. Vitamin D Supplements in the Indian Market.

    PubMed

    Lhamo, Y; Chugh, Preeta Kaur; Tripathi, C D

    2016-01-01

    It is now known that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. In our country, as food fortification is lacking, supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations is the only means of treatment of vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin D preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from annual drug compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. Vitamin D3 is available in the form of cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol and calcitriol as single ingredient products and in combination with calcium and other micronutrients. Most of the supplements contain calcitriol (46.5%) or alfacalcidiol (43%) as tablets (51.1%) and capsules (35.2%). Cholecalciferol, the preferred form for prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin D deficient states, constitutes only 10% of the available market preparations. High market sales of calcium supplements containing calcitriol indicate increasing intake of calcitriol rather than cholecalciferol; which could predispose to toxicity. There is a need for marketing and rational prescribing of the appropriate vitamin D supplement in ostensibly healthy Indian population. Implementation of population-based education and intervention programmes with enforcement of strict regulations could generate awareness and curb unsupervised intake of vitamin D containing dietary supplements. This health challenge mandates effective nutritional policies, fortification and supplementation programmes and partnership between government, healthcare and industry to safeguard the health of Indian population at large. PMID:27168680

  3. Vitamin D Supplements in the Indian Market

    PubMed Central

    Lhamo, Y.; Chugh, Preeta Kaur; Tripathi, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    It is now known that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. In our country, as food fortification is lacking, supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations is the only means of treatment of vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin D preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from annual drug compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. Vitamin D3 is available in the form of cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol and calcitriol as single ingredient products and in combination with calcium and other micronutrients. Most of the supplements contain calcitriol (46.5%) or alfacalcidiol (43%) as tablets (51.1%) and capsules (35.2%). Cholecalciferol, the preferred form for prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin D deficient states, constitutes only 10% of the available market preparations. High market sales of calcium supplements containing calcitriol indicate increasing intake of calcitriol rather than cholecalciferol; which could predispose to toxicity. There is a need for marketing and rational prescribing of the appropriate vitamin D supplement in ostensibly healthy Indian population. Implementation of population-based education and intervention programmes with enforcement of strict regulations could generate awareness and curb unsupervised intake of vitamin D containing dietary supplements. This health challenge mandates effective nutritional policies, fortification and supplementation programmes and partnership between government, healthcare and industry to safeguard the health of Indian population at large. PMID:27168680

  4. The Use of Nutritional Supplements Among Male Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Leila; Askari, Gholamreza; Hariri, Mitra; Bahreynian, Maryam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Ehsani, Simin; Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Rezai, Parva; Khorvash, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Background: The consumption of nutritional supplements is high in various sports, whereas, there are not enough documents supporting the beneficial effects of supplements in athletes. In addition, there is no information about taking supplements by Iranian students who participate in sports. Therefore, the goals of this study were to assess the type and prevalence of supplement use, the frequency of use, and relationships between consumption and age, body mass index, training load and type of sport. Methods: One hundred ninety two male students from “Isfahan University of Medical Sciences” participated in this study, voluntarily. A questionnaire that included questions about type and effects of supplements, recommendation resources, place of obtaining, and type of sports were sent to students. Descriptive data were calculated as frequencies (%). Chi-square (χ2) analysis was used to analyze the correlation between supplement use and the study variables. Results: Forty-five percent of respondents used some forms of supplements. Supplement users consumed 14 different supplements and each used as many as 1.8 ± 1.2 various supplements during the past six months. Multivitamins (64%) and vitamin C (42%) were the most popular supplements. Students, who participated in individual sports, were more likely to consume dietary supplements (P < 0.05) and ergogenic aids (P < 0.01), but team sports athletes, took more recovery nutrients (P < 0.01). Fifty seven point five percent of student bought their products from pharmacies, 40% from “sport supplements stores” and 2.5% from their friends. Conclusions: It can be concluded that less than half of these students consumed supplements and their information resources were inappropriate. PMID:23717774

  5. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and prescription medicines just because they come from nature. Although herbal health products and supplements are advertised as “natural,” their ingredients aren’t necessarily natural to the human body. They may have strong effects on your ...

  6. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  7. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... professionals. As its resources permit, FDA also reviews product labels and other product information, such as package inserts, ... the address or phone number listed on the product's label. Dietary supplement firms are required to forward reports ...

  8. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    MedlinePlus

    ... as diabetes, cancer, or cardiovascular disease. Sources of Science-Based Information It’s important to look for reliable ... e-mail Email Address Related Topics Know the Science: How Medications and Supplements Can Interact Safe Use ...

  9. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. PMID:27405305

  10. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While ... provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize additional ...

  11. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    MedlinePlus

    ... about which supplements are needed and the amounts. Iron Deficiency Iron deficiency does occur among some young children and ... need to receive at least 15 milligrams of iron a day in their food, but many fail ...

  12. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  13. 40 CFR 66.91 - Applicability of supplemental rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of supplemental rules. 66.91 Section 66.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Supplemental Rules for Formal Adjudicatory Hearings § 66.91 Applicability...

  14. 12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environmental review or for which an environmental assessment or EIS has not been approved by the Fund. The... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106... TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

  15. 12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environmental review or for which an environmental assessment or EIS has not been approved by the Fund. The... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106... TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

  16. 12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... environmental review or for which an environmental assessment or EIS has not been approved by the Fund. The... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106... TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

  17. 12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... environmental review or for which an environmental assessment or EIS has not been approved by the Fund. The... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106... TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

  18. 12 CFR 1815.106 - Supplemental environmental review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... environmental review or for which an environmental assessment or EIS has not been approved by the Fund. The... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental environmental review. 1815.106... TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.106 Supplemental environmental review. (a) The designated...

  19. The Relation of Age to Personality Adjustment among DWI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meck, Donald S.; Baither, Rick

    1980-01-01

    Involved the assessment of perceived adjustment among individuals court assigned to DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) classes. Individuals 25 years and younger reported significantly higher levels of perceived maladjustment and emotional upset. Sex was related to interpersonal behavior. (Author)

  20. Supplementation in the Columbia Basin : Summary Report Series : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-12-01

    This progress report broadly defines the scope of supplementation plans and activities in the Columbia Basin. It provides the foundation for more detailed analysis of supplementation in subsequent reports in this series. Topics included in this report are: definition of supplementation, project diversity, objectives and performance standards, uncertainties and theory. Since this is a progress report, the content is subject to modification with new information. The supplementation theory will continue to evolve throughout the duration of RASP and beyond. The other topics in this report are essentially complete and are not expected to change significantly. This is the first of a series of four reports which will summarize information contained in the larger, RASP progress and completion reports. Our goal is to make the findings of RASP more accessible by grouping related topics into smaller but complete narratives on important aspects of supplementation. We are planning to publish the following reports under the general title Supplementation in the Columbia River Basin: Part 1, Background, Description, Performance Measures, Uncertainty and Theory; Part 2, Theoretical Framework and Models; Part 3, Planning Guidelines; and Part 4, Regional Coordination of Research and Monitoring. Supplementation is expected to be a major contributor to the planned increase in salmon and steelhead production in the Columbia Basin. The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) uses three approaches to protect and enhance salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin: (1) enhance fish production; (2) improve passage in the mainstem rivers; and (3) revise harvest management to support the rebuilding of fish runs (NPPC 1987). The fish production segment calls for a three-part approach focused on natural production, hatchery production, and supplementation. Supplementation is planned to provide over half of the total production increases. The Regional Assessment

  1. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  2. Associations Between Glucosamine and Chondroitin Supplement Use and Biomarkers of Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Johanna W.; Navarro, Sandi L.; Song, Xiaoling; Milne, Ginger L.; White, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Glucosamine and chondroitin supplements have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in both in vitro studies and animal models; however, little is known about these relationships in humans. The VITamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) biomarker study evaluated the associations between use of these supplements and a panel of circulating inflammatory biomarkers. Design: Study participants included 217 men and women age 50–75 years living in the Seattle metropolitan area. Use of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements was ascertained by home interview/supplement inventory. Inflammation was assessed by using blood and urine collected at the time of home interview. Measures of systemic inflammation included plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble TNF receptors I and II, and urinary prostaglandin E2-metabolite (PGE-M). Multivariate-adjusted linear regression was used to evaluate the associations between supplement use and biomarkers of inflammation. Results: High users (14 or more pills/week) of chondroitin had 36% lower hsCRP (ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–1.04; p for trend=.03) and 27% lower PGE-M (ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.5–0.98; p for trend=.07) than nonusers. Compared with nonusers, high users of glucosamine had 28% lower hsCRP (ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.47–1.08; p for trend=.09) and 24% lower PGE-M (ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59–0.97; p for trend=0.10). Use of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements was not associated with the other markers of inflammation. Conclusions: These results support prior research suggesting that use of glucosamine and chondroitin is associated with reduced hsCRP and PGE2, but further work is needed to more definitively evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of these supplements. PMID:24738579

  3. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

  4. Updates on clinical studies of selenium supplementation in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To establish guidelines for the selenium supplementation in radiotherapy we assessed the benefits and risks of selenium supplementation in radiotherapy. Clinical studies on the use of selenium in radiotherapy were searched in the PubMed electronic database in January 2013. Sixteen clinical studies were identified among the 167 articles selected in the initial search. Ten articles were observational studies, and the other 6 articles reported studies on the effects of selenium supplementation in patients with cancer who underwent radiotherapy. The studies were conducted worldwide including European, American and Asian countries between 1987 and 2012. Plasma, serum or whole blood selenium levels were common parameters used to assess the effects of radiotherapy and the selenium supplementation status. Selenium supplementation improved the general conditions of the patients, improved their quality of life and reduced the side effects of radiotherapy. At the dose of selenium used in these studies (200–500 μg/day), selenium supplementation did not reduce the effectiveness of radiotherapy, and no toxicities were reported. Selenium supplementation may offer specific benefits for several types of cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy. Because high-dose selenium and long-term supplementation may be unsafe due to selenium toxicity, more evidence-based information and additional research are needed to ensure the therapeutic benefits of selenium supplementation. PMID:24885670

  5. Adjusting Population Risk for Functional Health Status.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard L; Hughes, John S; Goldfield, Norbert I

    2016-04-01

    Risk adjustment accounts for differences in population mix by reducing the likelihood of enrollee selection by managed care plans and providing a correction to otherwise biased reporting of provider or plan performance. Functional health status is not routinely included within risk-adjustment methods, but is believed by many to be a significant enhancement to risk adjustment for complex enrollees and patients. In this analysis a standardized measure of functional health was created using 3 different source functional assessment instruments submitted to the Medicare program on condition of payment. The authors use a 5% development sample of Medicare claims from 2006 and 2007, including functional health assessments, and develop a model of functional health classification comprising 9 groups defined by the interaction of self-care, mobility, incontinence, and cognitive impairment. The 9 functional groups were used to augment Clinical Risk Groups, a diagnosis-based patient classification system, and when using a validation set of 100% of Medicare data for 2010 and 2011, this study found the use of the functional health module to improve the fit of observed enrollee cost, measured by the R(2) statistic, by 5% across all Medicare enrollees. The authors observed complex nonlinear interactions across functional health domains when constructing the model and caution that functional health status needs careful handling when used for risk adjustment. The addition of functional health status within existing risk-adjustment models has the potential to improve equitable resource allocation in the financing of care costs for more complex enrollees if handled appropriately. (Population Health Management 2016;19:136-144). PMID:26348621

  6. Dietary supplement use by varsity athletes at a Canadian university.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Martin; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Barr, Susan; Flint, Anne

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess reasons for and prevalence of supplement use among varsity athletes and nonvarsity athlete students (controls) at a Canadian university. A questionnaire, distributed to 247 varsity athletes and 204 controls, included variables regarding sports participation, supplements used, reasons for usage, perceived effects, and areas of interest about supplements. Response rates were 85.5% among varsity athletes and 44.6% among controls. Supplements were used by 98.6% of varsity athletes and 94.3% of controls. Varsity men most often reported using sports drinks, and used these (and carbohydrate gels, protein powder, and creatine) more than varsity women. Caffeine products were most often reported by other groups. Health professionals and the Internet were the most reported information sources, while friends most often recommended supplements. Many subjects indicated knowing little about supplements and wanting to learn more. Results indicate a need for nutrition education among both varsity athletes and university students. PMID:16089277

  7. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Rate Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances... On September 26, 2013, the Postal Service filed an exigent rate request with the Commission...

  8. Adjustable holder for transducer mounting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deotsch, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Positioning of acoustic sensor, strain gage, or similar transducer is facilitated by adjustable holder. Developed for installation on Space Shuttle, it includes springs for maintaining uniform load on transducer with adjustable threaded cap for precisely controlling position of sensor with respect to surrounding structure.

  9. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  10. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  11. Comparative effects of supplementing beef steers with zilpaterol hydrochloride, ractopamine hydrochloride, or no beta agonist on strip loin composition, raw and cooked color properties, shear force, and consumer assessment of steaks aged for fourteen or twenty-one days postmortem.

    PubMed

    Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Hodgen, J M; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Rathmann, R J; Miller, M F

    2014-08-01

    Beef steers (n = 1,914) were assigned to 1 of 3 β-adrenergic agonist (βAA) supplementation treatments-zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.3 mg/kg of DM for 20 d with 3-d withdrawal), ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 308 mg·head(-1)·d(-1) for 28 d), or no βAA (CON)-to determine the effects on consumer eating quality. Strip loins (n = 1,101; CON = 400, RH = 355, and ZH = 346) were obtained and fabricated into 2.5-cm-thick steaks for proximate, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), slice shear force (SSF), and consumer analyses; steaks were aged until 14 or 21 d postmortem. Fat and moisture contents were not affected by βAA supplementation (P > 0.05), but strip steaks from steers fed ZH had more protein (P < 0.01) than those from steers fed CON or RH, which were similar. An interaction between βAA and aging was observed (P < 0.01) for WBSF but not SSF. Within steaks aged 14 d, ZH steaks required the most force to shear, RH steaks were intermediate, and CON steaks had the lowest WBSF values; however, RH steaks had a stronger response to aging than CON or ZH steaks, resulting in the lowest WBSF values at 21 d. Slice shear force values were greater (P < 0.01) in steaks from steers fed ZH than in steaks from steers fed CON or RH, which did not differ. Following shear force analyses, steaks within 2 SD of each treatment mean for WBSF were selected randomly for consumer assessment of eating quality. Consumer testing (n = 400; 200/postmortem aging period) was arranged in a 3 × 3 factorial representing 3 quality grades (Select, Low Choice, and Premium Choice) and 3 treatments (ZH, RH, and CON). In steaks aged 14 d, βAA supplementation affected (P < 0.01) tenderness, flavor, and overall liking and tenderness acceptability, resulting in lower consumer scores for ZH than CON and RH; however, juiciness, flavor, and overall acceptability were similar (P > 0.05). In steaks aged 21 d, feeding βAA influenced (P < 0.01) only tenderness and juiciness scores. Despite these differences

  12. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M; Chun, Ock K

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG) (-1.39% change; 95% CI = -2.56 to -0.21), TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (-2.03% change; 95% CI = -3.45 to -0.60), HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23), insulin (-1.37% change; 95% CI = -2.64 to -0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-1.57% change; 95% CI = -3.02 to -0.09) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (-0.83% change; 95% CI = -1.29 to -0.38) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk. PMID:26742057

  13. Zinc supplementation improves bone density in patients with thalassemia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial123

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Huang, James N; Gildengorin, Ginny; King, Janet C; Vichinsky, Elliott P

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with thalassemia major (Thal) frequently have low plasma zinc, which has been associated with low bone mass. Objective: The objective was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on bone mass in patients with Thal. Design: Forty-two subjects (21 females aged 10–30 y) with Thal and low bone mass were randomly assigned to receive 25 mg Zn/d or placebo. Bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were assessed by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting blood was collected for the measurement of plasma zinc at 0, 12, and 18 mo. Results: Thirty-two subjects, 81% of whom were transfusion dependent, completed the study (mean ± SD: 17.1 ± 5.2 y). Plasma zinc was ≤70 μg/dL in 11 subjects at baseline and increased significantly with zinc supplementation (P = 0.014). Use of intention-to-treat analysis and linear models for longitudinal data, adjusted for baseline and pubertal stage, showed that the zinc group had significantly greater increases in whole-body BMC (adjusted mean ± SE: 63 ± 15 g; P = 0.02), and aBMD (0.023 ± 0.006 g/cm2; P = 0.04) than did the placebo group after 18 mo. Furthermore, adjusted spine and hip aBMD z scores each decreased by 0.3 SDs (both P = 0.04) in the placebo compared with the zinc group over the 18-mo study. Conclusions: In young patients with Thal, zinc supplementation resulted in greater gains in total-body bone mass than did placebo. Zinc was well tolerated and is worthy of investigation in larger trials in Thal patients across a range of ages and disease severity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00459732. PMID:23945720

  14. Trajectories of adjustment to couple relationship separation.

    PubMed

    Halford, W Kim; Sweeper, Susie

    2013-06-01

    To test a stress-diathesis model of adjustment to separation, the current study describes the trajectories of different aspects of separation adjustment in people formerly married or cohabiting, and moderators of those trajectories. A convenience sample of 303 recently separated individuals (169 women; 134 men) completed assessments of their emotional attachment to the former partner, loneliness, psychological distress, and coparenting conflict at two time points 6 months apart. Multilevel modeling of the overlapping multicohort design was used to estimate the trajectories of these different aspects of adjustment as a function of time since separation, marital status, gender, presence of children from the relationship, who initiated separation, social support, and anxious attachment. Attachment to the former partner, loneliness, and psychological distress were initially high but improved markedly across the 2 years after separation, but coparenting conflict was high and stable. Adjustment problems were similar in men and women, and in those formerly married or cohabiting, except that reported coparenting conflict was higher in men than women. Low social support and high anxious attachment predicted persistent attachment to the former partner, loneliness, and psychological distress. Coparenting conflict is a common, chronic problem for many separated individuals, and individuals with certain psychological vulnerabilities also experience chronic personal distress. PMID:23763683

  15. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  16. Evaluating Term Coverage of Herbal and Dietary Supplements in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Manohar, Nivedha; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Wang, Yan; Adam, Terrence J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement consumption has rapidly expanded in recent years. Due to pharmacological and metabolic characteristics of some supplements, they can interact with prescription medications, potentially leading to clinically important and potentially preventable adverse reactions. Electronic health record (EHR) system provides a valuable source from which drug-supplement interactions can be mined and assessed for their clinical effects. A fundamental prerequisite is a functional understanding of supplement documentation in EHR and associated supplement coverage in major online databases. To address this, clinical notes and corresponding medication lists from an integrated healthcare system were extracted and compared with online databases. Overall, about 40% of listed medications are supplements, most of which are included in medication lists as nutritional or miscellaneous products. Gaps were found between supplement and standard medication terminologies, creating documentation difficulties in fully achieving robust supplement documentation in EHR systems. In addition, in the clinical notes we identified supplements which were not mentioned in the medication lists. PMID:26958277

  17. Supplements and sports.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, David M; Harbert, Allison J

    2008-11-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from professional athletes to junior high school students. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have serious adverse effects. Anabolic steroids and ephedrine have life-threatening adverse effects and are prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association for use in competition. Blood transfusions, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone are also prohibited in competition. Caffeine, creatine, and sodium bicarbonate have been shown to enhance performance in certain contexts and have few adverse effects. No performance benefit has been shown with amino acids, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, chromium, human growth hormone, and iron. Carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages have no serious adverse effects and can aid performance when used for fluid replacement. Given the widespread use of performance-enhancing supplements, physicians should be prepared to counsel athletes of all ages about their effectiveness, safety, and legality. PMID:19007050

  18. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. PMID:27348226

  19. Race-ethnicity is related to biomarkers of iron and iodine status after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables in NHANES 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Pan, Yi

    2013-06-01

    The NHANES 2003-2006 has assessed iron and iodine status, 2 trace element nutrients of continued public health interest, in the U.S. population. We investigated associations of sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, income) and lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, dietary supplement use) variables with the iron status indicators serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron in women aged 20-49 y (n = 2539, 2513, and 2509, respectively) and with urine iodine, a biomarker of iodine intake, in adults aged ≥ 20 y (n = 3066). Significant correlations between the study variables and biomarkers were weak (|r| ≤ 0.24). Urine creatinine (uCr) was moderately significantly correlated with urine iodine (r = 0.52). The individual variables explained ≤ 5% of the variability in biomarker concentrations in bivariate analysis. In multiple regression models, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables together explained 4-13% of the variability in iron indicators and 41% of the variability in urine iodine (uCr in the model). The adjusted estimated body iron was ≈ 1 unit (mg/kg) lower in non-Hispanic black vs. non-Hispanic white women and ≈ 1 unit higher in women who smoked vs. those who did not and in women consuming 1 vs. 0 alcoholic drinks/d. The adjusted estimated urine iodine concentration (uCr in the model) was 34% lower in non-Hispanic blacks vs. non-Hispanic whites, 22% higher in supplement users vs. nonusers, and 11% higher with every 10-y increase in age. In summary, after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables (and uCr in the iodine model), race-ethnicity retained a strong association with sTfR, body iron, and urine iodine; smoking and alcohol consumption with iron biomarkers; and supplement use and age with urine iodine. PMID:23596169

  20. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. Objectives To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group’s Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Most recent search: 08 October 2014. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Main results Two trials (total of 32 participants) each lasting one month were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial in children (aged 8 to 18 years); and the other (with an older cohort) had a crossover design comparing supplements to no treatment, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration

  1. Disposition and adjustment to chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Esteve, Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Several empirical studies have shown that personal characteristics act as differential variables, which determine how pain is experienced and how the chronic pain patient adjusts to pain. The main aim of the present research is to review the relationships between some dispositional characteristics and pain adjustment. Taking into account the empirical literature, 6 personality traits that are relevant to the pain experience have been selected: neuroticism, anxiety sensitivity, and experiential avoidance as risk factors that increase the probability of patients experiencing a disability; and extraversion, optimism, and resilience as personal resources that increase their capacity to manage pain effectively. The results suggest that it would be useful to include an assessment of normal personality structure during the multi-dimensional evaluation of a person with chronic pain. Understanding these individual personality characteristics will aid in designing pain intervention programs and help predict possible treatment outcomes. PMID:23338768

  2. Environmental assessment of a firetube boiler firing coal/oil/water mixtures. Volume 2. Data supplement. Final report, February 1981-November 1983

    SciTech Connect

    DeRosier, R.

    1984-09-01

    This volume is a compendium of detailed emission and test data from field tests of a firetube industrial boiler burning a coal/oil/water (COW) mixture. The boiler was tested while burning COW fuel, and COW with soda ash added (COW+SA) to serve as an SO/sub 2/ sorbent. The test data include: preliminary equipment calibration data, boiler operating data for both tests, fuel analysis results, and complete flue gas emission measurement and laboratory analysis results. Flue gas emission measurements included: continuous monitoring for criteria gas pollutants; gas chromatography (GC) of gas grab samples for volatile organics (C1-C6); EPA Method 5 for particulate; controlled condensation system for SO2 emissions; and source assessment sampling system (SASS) for total organics in two boiling point ranges (100 to 300 C and > 300 C), organic compound category information using infrared spectrometry (IR) and low resolution mass spectrometry (LRMS), specific quantitation of the semivolatile organic priority pollutants using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography (LC) separation of organic extracts into seven polarity fractions with total organic and IR analyses of eluted fractions, flue gas concentrations of trace elements by spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and biological assays of organic extracts.

  3. Folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy and asthma in children aged six

    PubMed Central

    MARTINUSSEN, Marit P.; RISNES, Kari R.; JACOBSEN, Geir W.; BRACKEN, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess whether folic acid intake during the first trimester of pregnancy is related to asthma in the offspring by the age of 6 years. Study design Prospective cohort study of 1,499 women who were followed from first trimester of pregnancy. Their children were followed until they were 6 years old. Results 51% of the women used folic acid in the month before conception and 88% in the third month of pregnancy. The adjusted OR per 100 microgram increase in average daily intake of folic acid was 0.98 (95% CI:0.93-1.04). For categories of daily folate intake, there was no evidence of associations with childhood asthma nor evidence of any dose response relation for any time period (all ptrend>0.05) Conclusion Our results do not support any association of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy and asthma risk in offspring by age 6 years. PMID:21982024

  4. Supplement use by Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jill Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices. Key pointsSupplement use among the child and adolescent athlete population is widespread with the most frequently used supplement being a form of vitamin/mineral supplement.The effects of supplement use on the growth and development of children and adolescents remain unclear and thus use of supplements by this population should be discouraged.It is likely that there is a misunderstanding as to the role of vitamins and minerals in the diet, their function in maintaining overall health, their role

  5. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  6. Effects of a New Metabolic Conditioning Supplement on Perioperative Metabolic Stress and Clinical Outcomes: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Shafa, Masih; Alipour, Shohreh; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance is a measure of metabolic stress in the perioperative period. Before now, no clinical trial has determined the summative effects of glutamine, L-carnitine, and antioxidants as metabolic conditioning supplements in the perioperative period. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a new conditioning supplement on perioperative metabolic stress and clinical outcomes in non-diabetic patients. Patients and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 89 non-diabetic patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting, with ejection fractions above 30%, were selected. Using the balanced block randomization method, the patients were allocated to one of four study arms: 1) SP (supplement/placebo): supplement seven days before and placebo 30 days after the surgery; 2) PS: placebo before and supplement after the surgery; 3) SS: supplement before and after the surgery; and 4) PP: placebo before and after the surgery. The supplement was composed of glutamine, L-carnitine, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium, which was manufactured for the first time by this research team. Five blood samples were drawn: seven days preoperatively, at the entrance to the operating room, while leaving the operating room, seven days postoperatively, and 30 days postoperatively. Levels of glucose, insulin, and HbA1c were measured in blood samples. Insulin resistance and sensitivity were calculated using a formula. Surgical complications were assessed 30 days postoperatively. Data analysis was done using one-way ANOVA, the Chi-square test, and a general linear model repeated-measures analysis with Bonferroni adjustment. Results: Blood glucose levels were increased postoperatively in the four groups (< 0.001), but a significantly higher increase occurred in the PP group compared to the SP (0.027), PS (0.026), and SS (0.004) groups. The superficial wound infection rate was significantly different between the four groups (0.021): 26.08% in

  7. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  8. Speechreading with Tactile Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Geoff

    1988-01-01

    Reviewed is the historical development of tactile aids to supplement speechreading by hearing-impaired individuals, from early use of bone conduction vibrators driven by hearing aids, to multichannel tactile aids representing the full speech spectrum and tactile speechreading aids complementing visual cues. Adequate training in use of tactile…

  9. Supplemental TV Taped Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Robert G.; Frank, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Videotapes were developed as supplemental material for a course in chemical engineering thermodynamics. Describes the course, videotapes produced (includes list by topics as related to course content), and effectiveness of the tapes. Although no significant improvement in test performance was noted, students indicated they learned material faster…

  10. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-04-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). PMID:10753088

  11. Lead in calcium supplements.

    PubMed Central

    Scelfo, G M; Flegal, A R

    2000-01-01

    Intercalibrated measurements of lead in calcium supplements indicate the importance of rigorous analytical techniques to accurately quantify contaminant exposures in complex matrices. Without such techniques, measurements of lead concentrations in calcium supplements may be either erroneously low, by as much as 50%, or below the detection limit needed for new public health criteria. In this study, we determined the lead content of 136 brands of supplements that were purchased in 1996. The calcium in the products was derived from natural sources (bonemeal, dolomite, or oyster shell) or was synthesized and/or refined (chelated and nonchelated calcium). The dried products were acid digested and analyzed for lead by high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The method's limit of quantitation averaged 0.06 microg/g, with a coefficient of variation of 1.7% and a 90-100% lead recovery of a bonemeal standard reference material. Two-thirds of those calcium supplements failed to meet the 1999 California criteria for acceptable lead levels (1.5 microg/daily dose of calcium) in consumer products. The nonchelated synthesized and/or refined calcium products, specifically antacids and infant formulas, had the lowest lead concentrations, ranging from nondetectable to 2.9 microg Pb/g calcium, and had the largest proportion of brands meeting the new criteria (85% of the antacids and 100% of the infant formulas). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753088

  12. Are those in need taking dietary supplements? A survey of 21 923 adults.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R A; Holt, D; Pattison, D J; Elton, P J

    2004-04-01

    Many people take dietary supplements, but information on characteristics associated with their use is lacking. The relationship between lifestyle behaviours, morbidity and use of dietary supplements has not been examined and earlier studies have limited applicability to a general population. These issues were addressed in the current study. Information was obtained by postal questionnaire sent to a sample of the general population. The questionnaire was completed by 70.5 % of the sample (15 465 from a total sample of 21 923), with at least one-third (35.5 %) taking dietary supplements. In adjusted analyses, supplement users were more likely to be women, white, home-owners, non-smokers and physically active. Use of vitamin, mineral and/or antioxidant supplements was associated with eating more fruits and vegetables, and taking fish-oil supplements was associated with eating oil-rich fish. A history of CVD or risk factors for CVD reduced the risk of taking vitamins, minerals and/or antioxidants or fish-oil supplements. Those reporting musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis were more likely to take fish-oil supplements For the first time, we have shown that dietary supplement use is related to different types of morbidity. In particular, people at risk of primary or secondary CVD seem less likely to use dietary supplements, despite possible benefits shown in clinical trials. Public health organisations need to develop guidelines for the public and health professionals regarding the uncontrolled use of dietary supplements in the community. PMID:15035689

  13. Vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Chuang, Shu-chun; Neto, Jose Eluf; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Koifman, Sergio; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Daudt, Alexander W.; Curado, Maria Paula; Winn, Deborah M.; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Castellsague, Xavier; Morgenstern, Hal; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Lazarus, Philip; Muscat, Joshua; McClean, Michael; Kelsey, Karl T.; Hayes, Richard B.; Purdue, Mark P.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Chen, Chu; Benhamou, Simone; Olshan, Andrew F.; Yu, Guopei; Schantz, Stimson; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the potential role of vitamin or mineral supplementation on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), we analyzed individual-level pooled data from 12 case-control studies (7,002 HNC cases and 8,383 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. There were a total of 2,028 oral cavity cancer, 2,465 pharyngeal cancer, and 874 unspecified oral/pharynx cancer, 1,329 laryngeal cancer and 306 overlapping HNC cases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self reported ever use of any vitamins, multivitamins, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and calcium, beta-carotene, iron, selenium, and zinc supplements were assessed. We further examined frequency, duration and cumulative exposure of each vitamin or mineral when possible and stratified by smoking and drinking status. All ORs were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, study center, education level, and pack-years of smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking and fruit/vegetable intake. A decreased risk of HNC was observed with ever use of vitamin C (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.59-0.96) and with ever use of calcium supplement (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.42-0.97). The inverse association with HNC risk was also observed for 10 or more years of vitamin C use (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.97) and more than 365 tablets of cumulative calcium intake (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.16-0.83), but linear trends were not observed for the frequency or duration of any supplement intake. We did not observe any strong associations between vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer. PMID:22173631

  14. Oral selenium supplementation has no effect on PSA velocity in men undergoing active surveillance for localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, M. S.; Algotar, A. M.; Ranger-Moore, J.; Stratton, S. P.; Slate, E.; Hsu, C.H; Thompson, P.A.; Clark, L. C.; Ahmann, F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial demonstrated a 52% lower incidence of prostate cancer in men supplemented with selenium. As a result, our study was designed to assess whether selenium supplementation attenuates the progression of prostate cancer. Methods A Phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in men with localized non-metastatic prostate cancer who had elected to forgo active treatment and be followed by active surveillance. A total of 140 men were randomized to placebo (n=46), 200 μg/day (n=47) or 800 μg/day (n=47) selenium p.o. (as selenized yeast) and followed every 3 months for up to 5 years. PSA velocity was used as a marker of prostate cancer progression and was estimated using mixed effects regression. Results Adjusting for age, body mass index, baseline selenium, smoking, baseline PSA, race, PSA method, and Gleason score; PSA velocities for 200 μg/day and 800 μg/day treatment groups were not statistically significantly different from placebo (p = 0.32 and p = 0.61 respectively). In the highest quartile of baseline selenium, men supplemented with 800 μg selenium demonstrated PSA velocity statistically significantly higher as compared to placebo (p = 0.018). Conclusions Selenium supplementation did not show a protective effect on PSA velocity in subjects with localized prostate cancer. On the contrary, supplementation with high dose selenium was observed to be a risk factor for increased PSA velocity in men with high baseline plasma selenium concentrations. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00752739) PMID:20647337

  15. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk of bruising and bleeding. Supplement: Goldenseal Root Possible drug-supplement interaction with: Cyclosporine. Can decrease ... using the liver's cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Goldenseal root may decrease how quickly the liver breaks down ...

  16. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  17. Predicting School Adjustment from Motor Abilities in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bart, Orit; Hajami, Dov; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2007-01-01

    The present study assessed the relations between basic motor abilities in kindergarten and scholastic, social, and emotional adaptation in the transition to formal schooling. Seventy-one five-year-old kindergarten children were administered a battery of standard assessments of basic motor functions. A year later, children's adjustment to school…

  18. [ESC-20 Community-Based Services Work Adjustment Program; Community-Based Work Training Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dildy, Dennis R.

    The Community-Based Services Work Adjustment Program provides vocational assessment, work adjustment training, social adjustment training, extended sheltered employment, transitional/supported employment, and competitive job training and placement through on-the-job training at natural community work sites. The program serves mentally retarded,…

  19. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  20. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a... ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee....

  1. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a... ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee....

  2. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  3. 12 CFR 502.60 - When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate... TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Fees § 502.60 When will OTS adjust, add, waive, or eliminate a fee? Under unusual circumstances, the Director may deem it necessary or appropriate to adjust, add, waive,...

  4. 20 CFR 416.552 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-without fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fault. 416.552 Section 416.552 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Waiver of adjustment or recovery—without fault. Without fault relates only to the situation of the... relieved of liability and is not without fault solely because the Social Security Administration may...

  5. 20 CFR 416.552 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-without fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fault. 416.552 Section 416.552 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Waiver of adjustment or recovery—without fault. Without fault relates only to the situation of the... relieved of liability and is not without fault solely because the Social Security Administration may...

  6. 20 CFR 416.552 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-without fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fault. 416.552 Section 416.552 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Waiver of adjustment or recovery—without fault. Without fault relates only to the situation of the... relieved of liability and is not without fault solely because the Social Security Administration may...

  7. 20 CFR 416.552 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-without fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fault. 416.552 Section 416.552 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Waiver of adjustment or recovery—without fault. Without fault relates only to the situation of the... relieved of liability and is not without fault solely because the Social Security Administration may...

  8. 20 CFR 416.552 - Waiver of adjustment or recovery-without fault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fault. 416.552 Section 416.552 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY... Waiver of adjustment or recovery—without fault. Without fault relates only to the situation of the... relieved of liability and is not without fault solely because the Social Security Administration may...

  9. 38 CFR 10.2 - Evidence required of loss, destruction or mutilation of adjusted service certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... an adjusted service certificate issued pursuant to the provisions of section 501 of the World War... their knowledge and belief. These statements should be supplemented by affidavits of any persons having personal knowledge of additional facts and circumstances concerning the matter, and the Secretary...

  10. 38 CFR 10.2 - Evidence required of loss, destruction or mutilation of adjusted service certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... an adjusted service certificate issued pursuant to the provisions of section 501 of the World War... their knowledge and belief. These statements should be supplemented by affidavits of any persons having personal knowledge of additional facts and circumstances concerning the matter, and the Secretary...

  11. 38 CFR 10.2 - Evidence required of loss, destruction or mutilation of adjusted service certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... an adjusted service certificate issued pursuant to the provisions of section 501 of the World War... their knowledge and belief. These statements should be supplemented by affidavits of any persons having personal knowledge of additional facts and circumstances concerning the matter, and the Secretary...

  12. 77 FR 9925 - Price Index Adjustments for Expenditure Limitations and Lobbyist Bundling Disclosure Threshold

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Price Index Adjustments for Expenditure Limitations and Lobbyist Bundling Disclosure Threshold AGENCY... forth in the Act, to index the amounts for inflation. Additional details appear in the supplemental... reflect changes in the consumer price index. See 2 U.S.C. 434(i)(3)(B) and 441a(c)(1), 11 CFR...

  13. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... not been able to prove that dietary or herbal supplements (including omega-3 supplements, cinnamon, and other herbs) ... of people with diabetes used some type of herbal therapy , while another study found that 31 percent used dietary supplements . Certain ethnic groups, such as Hispanics, Native Americans, ...

  14. Supplemental tooth in primary dentition

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Verma, Sankalp; Singh, Udita; Agarwal, Neha

    2014-01-01

    An extra tooth causing numerical excess in dentition is described as supernumerary tooth, and the resultant condition is termed as hyperdontia. Hyperdontia is more commonly seen in the permanent dentition than primary one. Supernumerary tooth which resembles tooth shape and supplements for occlusion is called as supplemental tooth. We present a case with supplemental tooth in primary dentition. PMID:24913075

  15. Impact of lipid-based nutrient supplementation (LNS) on children's diet adequacy in Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ickes, Scott B; Adair, Linda S; Brahe, Catherine A; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Charles, Baguma; Myhre, Jennifer A; Bentley, Margaret E; Ammerman, Alice S

    2015-12-01

    Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) can help treat undernutrition; however, the dietary adequacy of children supplemented with LNS, and household utilisation patterns are not well understood. We assessed diet adequacy and the quality of complementary foods by conducting a diet assessment of 128 Ugandan children, ages 6-59 months, who participated in a 10-week programme for children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM, defined as weight-for-age z-score < -2). Caregivers were given a weekly ration of 650 kcal day(-1) (126 g day(-1) ) of a peanut/soy LNS. Two 24-h dietary recalls were administered per child. LNS was offered to 86% of targeted children at least once. Among non-breastfed children, over 90% met their estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-points for all examined nutrients. Over 90% of breastfed children met EAR cut-points for nutrient density for most nutrients, except for zinc where 11.7% met cut-points. A lower proportion of both breastfed and non-breastfed children met adjusted EARs for the specific nutritional needs of MAM. Fewer than 20% of breastfed children met EAR nutrient-density guidelines for MAM for zinc, vitamin C, vitamin A and folate. Underweight status, the presence of a father in the child's home, and higher programme attendance were all associated with greater odds of feeding LNS to targeted children. Children in this community-based supplemental feeding programme who received a locally produced LNS exhibited substantial micronutrient deficiencies given the special dietary needs of this population. These results can help inform programme strategies to improve LNS targeting, and highlight potential nutrient inadequacies for consumers of LNS in community-based settings. PMID:25597415

  16. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  17. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  18. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  19. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  20. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tables Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  1. Dynamics of conjunctival impression cytologic changes after vitamin A supplementation.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S; Kumar, R; Ganguly, N K; Kumar, L; Verma, M; Walia, B N

    1997-06-01

    To investigate the chronological changes in conjunctival epithelium after supplementation with a massive oral dose of vitamin A, conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) with transfer was carried out repeatedly among 200 children aged 6-120 months in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Chandigarh (India). Significant conversion to normal CIC started 71-80 d after vitamin A supplementation and by 101-110 d conversion had taken place in all children. Compared with the placebo group, plasma retinol concentration at 100 d post-supplement was found to be significantly higher in the vitamin A-supplemented group P = 0.04. This study demonstrates that CIC responds to a massive oral dose of vitamin A 3-4 months after supplementation. These findings should guide future studies and evaluations in which CIC is used to assess response to vitamin A interventions. PMID:9227184

  2. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers. PMID:26027850

  3. Response of laying hens to supplemental niacin.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Caston, L J; Summers, J D

    1991-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of supplemental niacin on laying hen performance and liver fat and egg cholesterol content. In Experiment 1, 16 replicate groups of four adjacently caged birds were fed corn and soybean meal diets calculated to contain 22, 44, 66, or 132 mg supplemental niacin/kg (23.2, 38.7, 57.0, and 143 mg/kg niacin by analysis). Egg production, egg weight, feed intake, and eggshell quality were assessed each 28 days through a 364-day trial period. After 280 days, cholesterol content on three eggs per replicate was measured. At the end of the study, one bird per replicate was killed for subjective scoring of liver fat content. In Experiment 2, 24 birds from the control treatment (22 mg/kg supplemental niacin) of Experiment 1 were retained and fed for a subsequent 28-day period. Over this time, eight birds were each fed diets containing 22, 522, or 1,022 mg/kg supplemental niacin. Egg cholesterol content was measured in eggs collected on the last 3 days of the study. In Experiment 1, birds fed 66 or 132 mg/kg supplemental niacin/kg produced more eggs (P less than .05) than birds fed 22mg/kg. Niacin supplementation affected shell quality (P less than .05). Dietary niacin level had no effect on egg cholesterol content of liver lipid evaluation. In Experiment 2, supplementary niacin levels up to 1,022 mg/kg, which more closely stimulates therapeutic levels used for humans, again failed to affect egg cholesterol content. PMID:1852695

  4. Resonance Parameter Adjustment Based on Integral Experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sobes, Vladimir; Leal, Luiz; Arbanas, Goran; Forget, Benoit

    2016-06-02

    Our project seeks to allow coupling of differential and integral data evaluation in a continuous-energy framework and to use the generalized linear least-squares (GLLS) methodology in the TSURFER module of the SCALE code package to update the parameters of a resolved resonance region evaluation. We recognize that the GLLS methodology in TSURFER is identical to the mathematical description of a Bayesian update in SAMMY, the SAMINT code was created to use the mathematical machinery of SAMMY to update resolved resonance parameters based on integral data. Traditionally, SAMMY used differential experimental data to adjust nuclear data parameters. Integral experimental data, suchmore » as in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments Project, remain a tool for validation of completed nuclear data evaluations. SAMINT extracts information from integral benchmarks to aid the nuclear data evaluation process. Later, integral data can be used to resolve any remaining ambiguity between differential data sets, highlight troublesome energy regions, determine key nuclear data parameters for integral benchmark calculations, and improve the nuclear data covariance matrix evaluation. Moreover, SAMINT is not intended to bias nuclear data toward specific integral experiments but should be used to supplement the evaluation of differential experimental data. Using GLLS ensures proper weight is given to the differential data.« less

  5. Repeated Melatonin Supplementation Improves Sleep in Hypertensive Patients Treated with Beta-Blockers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Morris, Christopher J.; Garcia, Joanna I.; Smales, Carolina; Kelly, Erin E.; Marks, Jenny; Malhotra, Atul; Shea, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: In the United States alone, approximately 22 million people take beta-blockers chronically. These medications suppress endogenous nighttime melatonin secretion, which may explain a reported side effect of insomnia. Therefore, we tested whether nightly melatonin supplementation improves sleep in hypertensive patients treated with beta-blockers. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Setting: Clinical and Translational Research Center at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston. Patients: Sixteen hypertensive patients (age 45-64 yr; 9 women) treated with the beta-blockers atenolol or metoprolol. Interventions: Two 4-day in-laboratory admissions including polysomnographically recorded sleep. After the baseline assessment during the first admission, patients were randomized to 2.5 mg melatonin or placebo (nightly for 3 weeks), after which sleep was assessed again during the second 4-day admission. Baseline-adjusted values are reported. One patient was removed from analysis because of an unstable dose of prescription medication. Measurements and Results: In comparison with placebo, 3 weeks of melatonin supplementation significantly increased total sleep time (+36 min; P = 0.046), increased sleep efficiency (+7.6%; P = 0.046), and decreased sleep onset latency to Stage 2 (-14 min; P = 0.001) as assessed by polysomnography. Compared with placebo, melatonin significantly increased Stage 2 sleep (+41 min; P = 0.037) but did not significantly change the durations of other sleep stages. The sleep onset latency remained significantly shortened on the night after discontinuation of melatonin administration (-25 min; P = 0.001), suggesting a carryover effect. Conclusion: n hypertensive patients treated with beta-blockers, 3 weeks of nightly melatonin supplementation significantly improved sleep quality, without apparent tolerance and without rebound sleep disturbance during withdrawal of melatonin supplementation (in fact, a

  6. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  7. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality. PMID:27544991

  8. Smoking, Antioxidant Supplementation and Dietary Intakes among Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M.; Kifley, Annette; Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to compare the micronutrient usage and other lifestyle behaviors over 10 years among those with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 1612 participants aged 49+ years at baseline were re-examined over 10 years, west of Sydney, Australia. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Smoking status was self-reported. 56 participants had any AMD at baseline, of these 25% quit smoking at 5 years and were still not smoking at 10-year follow-up. Among participants who had below the recommended intake of vitamins A, C or E supplements at baseline, those who did compared to those who did not develop late AMD over 10 years were more likely to report vitamins A (total), C or E supplement intake above the recommended intake at 10-year follow-up: multivariable-adjusted OR 4.21 (95% CI 1.65-10.73); OR 6.52 (95% CI 2.76-15.41); and OR 5.71 (95% CI 2.42-13.51), respectively. Participants with compared to without AMD did not appreciably increase fish, fruit and vegetable consumption and overall diet quality. Adherence to smoking and dietary recommendations was poor among older adults with AMD. However, uptake of antioxidant supplements increased significantly among those with late AMD. PMID:25822372

  9. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  10. Nutrition and nutritional supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Manissier, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

  11. Vitamin B supplementation for diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. PMID:26892473

  12. Idaho Supplementation Studies : Five Year Report : 1992-1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    1999-08-01

    In 1991, the Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) project was implemented to address critical uncertainties associated with hatchery supplementation of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha populations in Idaho. The project was designed to address questions identified in the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) Five-Year-Workplan (STWG 1988). Two goals of the project were identified: (1) assess the use of hatchery chinook salmon to increase natural populations in the Salmon and Clearwater river drainages, and (2) evaluate the genetic and ecological impacts of hatchery chinook salmon on naturally reproducing chinook salmon populations. Four objectives to achieve these goals were developed: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced fish; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; (3) determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity; and (4) develop supplementation recommendations. This document reports on the first five years of the long-term portion of the ISS project. Small-scale studies addressing specific hypotheses of the mechanisms of supplementation effects (e.g., competition, dispersal, and behavior) have been completed. Baseline genetic data have also been collected. Because supplementation broodstock development was to occur during the first five years, little evaluation of supplementation is currently possible. Most supplementation adults did not start to return to study streams until 1997. The objectives of this report are to: (1) present baseline data on production and productivity indicators such as adult escapement, redd counts, parr densities, juvenile emigrant estimates, and juvenile survival to Lower Granite Dam (lower Snake

  13. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Thifault, Elisabeth; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA). Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03) was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2) had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008). For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456). For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively). Conclusion: Results suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation. PMID:24705214

  14. Systematic Bundle Adjustment of HRSC Image Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostelmann, J.; Schmidt, R.; Heipke, C.

    2012-07-01

    The European Mars Express mission was launched in June 2003 and sent into orbit around Mars. On board the orbiter is the German High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). This multi-line sensor images the Martian surface with a resolution of up to 12m per pixel in three dimensions and provides RGB and infra-red color information. The usage of the stereoscopic image information for the improvement of the observed position and attitude information via bundle adjustment is important to derive high quality 3D surface models, color orthoimages and other data products. In many cases overlapping image strips of different orbits can be used to form photogrammetric blocks, thus allowing the simultaneous adjustment of the exterior orientation data. This reduces not only local, but also regional inconsistencies in the data. With the growing number of HRSC image strips in this ongoing mission, the size and complexity of potential blocks is increasing. Therefore, a workflow has been built up for the systematic improvement of the exterior orientation using single orbit strips and regional blocks. For a successful bundle adjustment of blocks using multiple image strips a sufficient number of tie points in the overlapping area is needed. The number of tie points depends mainly on the geometric and radiometric quality of the images. This is considered by detailed analysis of the tie point accuracy and distribution. The combination of methods for image pre-processing, tie point matching, bundle adjustment and evaluation of the results in an automated workflow allows for all HRSC images a global assessment of the quality and a systematic selection of data for larger blocks.

  15. Final RQ adjustments rule issued

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    On June 12, 1995, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its long awaited final rule adjusting certain reportable quantities (RQs) for hazardous substances under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The rule: revises the table of hazardous substances to add 47 individual Clean Air Act (CAA) hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); adjustments their statutory one-pound RQs; adds five other CAA HAPs that are categories of substances and assigns no RQ to the categories; and adjusts RQs for 11 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed hazardous wastes. EPA made conforming changes to the Clean Water Act table of hazardous substances and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) table of extremely hazardous substances. The rule became effective July 12, 1995.

  16. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  17. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation in ultraendurance triathletes.

    PubMed

    Knez, Wade L; Peake, Jonathan M

    2010-12-01

    Ultraendurance exercise training places large energy demands on athletes and causes a high turnover of vitamins through sweat losses, metabolism, and the musculoskeletal repair process. Ultraendurance athletes may not consume sufficient quantities or quality of food in their diet to meet these needs. Consequently, they may use oral vitamin and mineral supplements to maintain their health and performance. We assessed the vitamin and mineral intake of ultraendurance athletes in their regular diet, in addition to oral vitamin and mineral supplements. Thirty-seven ultraendurance triathletes (24 men and 13 women) completed a 7-day nutrition diary including a questionnaire to determine nutrition adequacy and supplement intake. Compared with dietary reference intakes for the general population, both male and female triathletes met or exceeded all except for vitamin D. In addition, female athletes consumed slightly less than the recommended daily intake for folate and potassium; however, the difference was trivial. Over 60% of the athletes reported using vitamin supplements, of which vitamin C (97.5%), vitamin E (78.3%), and multivitamins (52.2%) were the most commonly used supplements. Almost half (47.8%) the athletes who used supplements did so to prevent or reduce cold symptoms. Only 1 athlete used supplements on formal medical advice. Vitamin C and E supplementation was common in ultraendurance triathletes, despite no evidence of dietary deficiency in these 2 vitamins. PMID:21116023

  18. Adjustable spacer with rotational lock

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, M.L.

    1984-02-28

    A spacing apparatus for tubing conduit in a subterranean well, normally for use with an electric component with a longitudinally extending external electrical cable, permits irrotational adjustment of the length of the tubing conduit. The spacing apparatus comprises telescoping members which are keyed to prevent rotation therebetween. A threaded member, longitudinally fixed relative to one longitudinal member, normally engages threads extending substantially along the entire length of the other telescoping member. Movement of a retaining sleeve permits disengagement of the threaded segments which ratchet along the threads during telescoping movement. The length of the conduit can thus be irrotationally adjusted to remove slack from the electrical cable.

  19. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  20. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  1. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it may also improve other maternal and birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of daily oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (2 July 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 July 2012) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with daily iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results We included 60 trials. Forty-three trials, involving more than 27,402 women, contributed data and compared the effects of daily oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo. Overall, women taking iron supplements were less likely to have low birthweight newborns (below 2500 g) compared with controls (8.4% versus 10.2%, average risk ratio (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.97, 11 trials, 8480 women) and mean birthweight was 30.81 g greater for those infants whose mothers received iron during pregnancy (average mean difference (MD) 30.81; 95% CI 5.94 to 55.68, 14 trials, 9385 women). Preventive iron supplementation reduced the risk of maternal anaemia at term by 70% (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women) and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women

  2. Supplementing iron bioavailability enhanced mung bean.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Vijayalakshmi; M, Amirthaveni; Tsou, Samson C S; S, Shanmugasundaram

    2008-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a major public health problem. The high incidence is either due to insufficient intake of iron or poor bio availability. Enhancing the bio availability is as important as increasing the intake. The absorption could be enhanced by including ascorbic acid and beta carotene containing fruits and vegetables into recipes of iron containing food preparations. The effect of supplementation of iron bio-availability enhanced mung bean preparations was studied on 75 women who were compared against 75 who served as controls and another 75 who consumed regular traditional recipes. The methodology included identification of suitable mung bean variety, assessing iron in vitro bio availability, mapping the anaemic women, estimating their iron levels, supplementation for one year and studying the effect of supplementation. Mung bean supplementation had increased serum protein levels from 5.36 to 6.73 g/dl, serum iron levels had increased from 16.6 to 46.7 microg/dl. The TIBC levels decreased from 555 to 508 microg/dl while serum ferritin levels increased from 3.56 to 5.94 microg/dl and Hb levels from 7.54 to 8.29 g/dl. Thus, improving the bioavailability of iron of food preparations, will improve the iron status of women. PMID:18296312

  3. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women from developing countries who have insufficient iron intake to meet increased iron needs of both the mother and the fetus. Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with the provision of daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. one, two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals has recently been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (23 March 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for ongoing studies and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (23 March 2012). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results This review includes 21 trials from 13 different countries, but only 18 trials (with 4072 women) reported on our outcomes of interest and contributed data to the review. All of these studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation. Three studies provided iron alone, 12 iron+folic acid and three more iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals. Their methodological quality was mixed

  4. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood sugar and different indices of insulin resistance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi, Mehdi; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to decrease insulin resistance through which it might cause fatty liver. Fatty liver increasingly results in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin resistance and fatty liver are particularly closely related. The aim of present study is to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood sugar and different indices of insulin resistance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Materials and Methods: This randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with NAFLD, who were divided equally into intervention and control groups. Patients in the intervention group received vitamin D3 (50,000 IU) and patients in the control group received placebo capsules every week for 10 weeks. Blood sugar, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and homeostatic model assessment-beta cell (HOMA-B) were checked at baseline and after 10 weeks of the intervention. Adjustment for variables was performed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: Vitamin D supplementation resulted in increased serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) D] concentration in the intervention group compared to the control group [+68 (12) vs. −1.9 (2.44); P = 0.001]. Intake of vitamin D supplements led to a marginally significant decrease in fasting blood glucose [FBS: −12 (4) in the intervention group compared to − 3 (2) in the control group; P = 0.055]. Also, HOMA-IR decreased in the intervention group compared to the control group [−1.75 (0.23) vs. 0.12 (0.41); P = 0.066]. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation resulted in decreased HOMA-IR and FBS concentration in patients with NAFLD; however, it did not affect the insulin level and HOMA-B significantly. PMID:26985230

  5. Visual adjustments to temporal blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilson, Aaron C.; Mizokami, Yoko; Webster, Michael A.

    2005-10-01

    After observers have adapted to an edge that is spatially blurred or sharpened, a focused edge appears too sharp or blurred, respectively. These adjustments to blur may play an important role in calibrating spatial sensitivity. We examined whether similar adjustments influence the perception of temporal edges, by measuring the appearance of a step change in the luminance of a uniform field after adapting to blurred or sharpened transitions. Stimuli were square-wave alternations (at 1 to 8 Hz) filtered by changing the slope of the amplitude spectrum. A two-alternative-forced-choice task was used to adjust the slope until it appeared as a step change, or until it matched the perceived transitions in a reference stimulus. Observers could accurately set the waveform to a square wave, but only at the slower alternation rates. However, these settings were strongly biased by prior adaptation to filtered stimuli, or when the stimuli were viewed within temporally filtered surrounds. Control experiments suggest that the latter induction effects result directly from the temporal blur and are not simply a consequence of brightness induction in the fields. These results suggest that adaptation and induction adjust visual coding so that images are focused not only in space but also in time.

  6. Self-Adjusting Fluency Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Presents a rationale and methodology for a self-adjusting "fluency sensitive" approach to working with children who exhibit overt speech-fluency interruptions and a minimal amount of avoidance behavior. The approach emphasizes repeated experiences of volitional increases and decreases in loudness and pauses. Case examples demonstrate how several…

  7. Adjustable Walker for the Handicapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Front legs adjust at touch of lever for use on stairs or ramps. Spring loaded legs extend when lever is depressed by user. Legs lock in position when lever is released. Lever mounted on either side of walker or on both sides, so legs operated independently.

  8. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  9. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  10. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  11. Dietary supplement use within a multiethnic population as measured by a unique inventory method.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Steffen, Alana D; Yonemori, Kim M; Morimoto, Yukiko; Albright, Cheryl L

    2011-07-01

    Use of dietary supplements is widespread, yet intakes from supplements are difficult to quantify. The Supplement Reporting study utilized a unique inventory method to quantify dietary supplement use across 1 year in a sample of 397 supplement users. Interviewers visited participants' homes in 2005-2006 to record supplement purchases and the number of pills in each supplement bottle every 3 months. Total use for the year was calculated from these inventories. Participants in this observational study were older adults (average age 68 years) from the Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles, CA, with approximately equal representation of men and women and six ethnic groups (white, Japanese American, Hawaiian, African American, Latinos born in the United States, and Latinos born elsewhere). The most commonly used supplement type was one-a-day multivitamins/minerals, which were taken at least once during the year by 83% of men and 73% of women. Other common supplements were vitamin C, fish oil, vitamin E, and bone or joint supplements. Participants used a median of seven (women) and five and a half (men) different supplements during the year. There were few differences in supplement use across ethnic groups for men, but use tended to be highest for white and Japanese-American women. Use of nonvitamin/nonmineral supplements was common among these older adults, sometimes at high doses. When assessing intakes, supplement use should be correctly quantified because users tend to take many different supplements and nutrient intakes from supplements can be substantial. The inventory method may help improve the measurement of supplement use. PMID:21703385

  12. Vitamin D supplementation in athletes.

    PubMed

    Larson-Meyer, Enette

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that vitamin D is necessary for optimal bone health. Emerging evidence is finding that vitamin D deficiency can have a profound effect on immunity, inflammation and muscle function. Studies in athletes have found that vitamin D status varies among different populations and is dependent on skin color, early- or late-day training, indoor training and geographic location. Although dietary assessment studies have found that athletes worldwide do not meet the dietary intake recommendations for vitamin D, the most probable reason for poor status is inadequate synthesis due to lack of sun exposure. Studies in athletic populations suggest that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may reduce stress fractures, total body inflammation, common infectious illnesses, and impaired muscle function, and may also aid in recovery from injury. Given that compromised vitamin D status can potentially impact an athlete's overall health and training efficiency, vitamin D status should be routinely assessed so that athletes can be coached to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≥30 and preferably ≥40 ng/ml. Recommendations will be dependent on the athlete's current 25(OH)D concentration, but can include regular safe sun exposure and/or dietary supplementation combined with increased vitamin D intake. PMID:23765355

  13. Supplementing National Menu Labeling

    PubMed Central

    White, Lexi C.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration’s forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants’ menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., “heart-healthy” graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

  14. Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

  15. Supplementing national menu labeling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C

    2012-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence. PMID:23078494

  16. Determinants of adjustment for children of divorcing parents.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, K; Prinz, R J; Bella, B S

    1990-01-01

    Family physicians frequently see children and parents when they are adjusting to marital separation. This study examined how well child adjustment at school could be determined from an assessment of interspousal relations, maternal functioning, and child perception variables. Teachers evaluated adaptive functioning, social withdrawal, and aggressive behavior at school for a carefully selected sample of 22 boys and 24 girls (ages 7-12) whose parents had been separated for two to 18 months. Regression analyses indicated that boys' overall school adjustment was associated with better maternal parenting skills, lower child fear of abandonment, less blaming of father for the separation, and positive parental verbal attributions toward the other parent. Girls with better overall school adjustment reported less blaming of their mothers and a higher rate of positive attributions by mother about father. These findings suggest concepts family physicians can use in working with families to minimize the effect of divorce on children. PMID:2323490

  17. Longitudinal Relationships between Sibling Behavioral Adjustment and Behavior Problems of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    Siblings of children with developmental disabilities were assessed twice, 2 years apart (N = 75 at Time 1, N = 56 at Time 2). Behavioral adjustment of the siblings and their brother or sister with developmental disability was assessed. Comparisons of adjustment for siblings of children with autism, Down syndrome, and mixed etiology mental…

  18. Rural Elderly: Impact of Social, Psychological Health and Demographic Experiences on Adjustment in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, R.; And Others

    An amended form of the Older American's Status and Needs Assessment Questionnaire assessed the prevalence of adjustment, as measured by the Bradburn Affect Scale, in a random stratified sample of 301 female and 140 male elderly rural residents in Allegany County, New York. The relationship between adjustment and biosocial, demographic, social, and…

  19. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  20. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  1. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  2. Cultural Adjustment and the Puerto Rican.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    This review of the literature on cultural adjustment is divided into four sections: the nature of cultural adjustment; acculturation as a model of cultural adjustment; psychological responses to acculturation; and a model of cultural adjustment developed by the author as a result of his immigration from Puerto Rico to the United States mainland.…

  3. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  4. Assessment of chromium content of feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effects of dietary chromium supplementation on nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in summer-exposed buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Muneendra; Kaur, Harjit; Tyagi, Amrish; Mani, Veena; Deka, Rijusmita Sarma; Chandra, Gulab; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the chromium content of different feedstuffs, their estimated requirement, and effect of dietary Cr supplementation on nutrient intake, nutrient utilization, growth performance, and mineral balance in buffalo calves during summer season. Levels of Cr was higher in cultivated fodder, moderate in cakes and cereal grains, while straw, grasses, and non-conventional feeds were poor in Cr content. To test the effect of Cr supplementation in buffalo calves, 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ppm of inorganic Cr were fed to 24 buffalo calves. Buffalo calves were randomly assigned to four treatments (n = 6) and raised for 120 days. A metabolic trial for a period of 7 days was conducted after 3 months of dietary treatments. Blood samples were collected at fortnight interval for plasma mineral estimation. The results suggested that dietary Cr supplementation in summer did not have any affects (P > 0.05) on feed consumption, growth performance, nitrogen balance, and physiological variables. However, dietary Cr supplementation had significant effect (P < 0.05) on balance and plasma Cr (ppb) levels without affecting (P > 0.05) balance and plasma levels of other trace minerals. The estimated Cr requirement of buffalo calves during summer season was calculated to be 0.044 mg/kg body mass and 10.37 ppm per day. In conclusion, dietary Cr supplementation has regardless effect on feed consumption, mass gain, and nutrient utilization in buffalo calves reared under heat stress conditions. However, supplementation of Cr had positive effect on its balance and plasma concentration without interacting with other trace minerals. PMID:23963742

  5. [Interpersonal motivation in a First Year Experience class influences freshmen's university adjustment].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Rumiko; Nakanishi, Yoshifumi; Nagahama, Fumiyo; Nakajima, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined the influence of interpersonal motivation on university adjustment in freshman students enrolled in a First Year Experience (FYE) class. An interpersonal motivation scale and a university adjustment (interpersonal adjustment and academic adjustment) scale were administered twice to 116 FYE students; data from the 88 students who completed both surveys were analyzed. Results from structural equation modeling indicated a causal relationship between interpersonal, motivation and university adjustment: interpersonal adjustment served as a mediator between academic adjustment and interpersonal motivation, the latter of which was assessed using the internalized motivation subscale of the Interpersonal Motivation Scale as well as the Relative Autonomy Index, which measures the autonomy in students' interpersonal attitudes. Thus, revising the FYE class curriculum to include approaches to lowering students' feelings of obligation and/or anxiety in their interpersonal interactions might improve their adjustment to university. PMID:26182493

  6. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries. PMID:26159983

  7. Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Jim

    For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have positive training- and performance-enhancing effects. Carbohydrates are commonly supplemented to improve energy availability and to replace valuable muscle and liver glycogen stores. Protein supplementation usually is associated with building muscle tissue.

  8. Mining machine with adjustable jib

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, D.

    1987-05-26

    A mining machine is described having a pair of crawler tracks, a means for individually driving each of the crawler tracks, a frame mounted on the crawler tracks, an elongated jib carrying a sprocket at each end, an endless cutting chain supported on the sprockets, cutters and loading flights mounted on the endless cutting chain, and means on the frame supporting the elongated jib. The means support the elongated jib consisting of a bridge on the frame, at least one scissors linkage pivotally mounted on the bridge, and arm having a first end attached to the scissors linkage, a front plate mounted on the second end of the arm and means adjustably mounting the elongated jib on the front plate. The means adjustably mount the elongated jib on the front plate including a first means for rotating the elongated jib between a vertical position and a horizontal position.

  9. Supplemental fuel vapor system

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, P.M.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes a supplemental fuel system utilizing fuel vapor. It comprises: an internal combustion engine including a carburetor and an intake manifold; a fuel tank provided with air vents; a fuel conduit having a first end connected to the fuel tank and in communication with liquid fuel in the tank and a second end connected to the carburetor; the fuel conduit delivering the liquid fuel to the carburetor from the fuel tank; a fuel vapor conduit having a first end connected to the fuel tank at a location displaced from contact with the liquid fuel and a second end connected to a carbon canister; a PCV conduit having a first end connected to a pollution control valve and a second end connected to the intake manifold; and, an intermediate fuel vapor conduit having a first end connected to the fuel vapor conduit and a second end connected to the PCV conduit; wherein the air vents continuously provide air to the tank to mix with the liquid fuel and form fuel vapor. The fuel vapor drawn from the fuel tank by vacuum developed in the intake manifold and flows through the fuel vapor conduit. The intermediate fuel vapor conduit and the intake manifold to combustion chambers of the internal combustion engine so as to supplement fuel delivered to the engine by the fuel conduit. The liquid fuel and the fuel vapor constantly delivered to the engine during normal operation.

  10. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite. PMID:17567838

  11. Relationship of cognitive function and adjustment difficulties among children and adolescents with dissociative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Mehta, Manju; Sagar, Rajesh; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Although it has been suggested that children and adolescents with dissociative disorder have some cognitive deficits, the association of these cognitive impairments with adjustment difficulties has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive functioning and adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents with dissociative disorder. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive assessment was carried out in the outpatient setting of child and adolescent psychiatric service in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty newly diagnosed children and adolescents with dissociative disorder were included. The cognitive functions were assessed by varied neuropsychological tests, and Bell's adjustment inventory was used for assessing various domains of adjustment. Results: The mean age of the sample which comprised 40% males was 13.0 (±2.4) years. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of the sample was 90.6. Impairment in cognitive test was maximum for verbal working memory followed by sustained attention, visual learning and memory, and verbal retention and recall. Adjustment difficulties were greatest in the domains of self, followed by domains of health, school, and family. Significant association was found between the IQ and adjustment in school; visual learning and memory and adjustments in school and overall adjustment; and sustained attention and adjustment of health. Conclusions: Dissociative children have poor cognitive ability which may be related to poor adjustment scores. PMID:27114655

  12. Masters Swimmers Use More Dietary Supplements Than a Large National Comparison Population in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Sally K; Erickson, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    The use of dietary supplements was compared between a cohort of committed exercisers, U.S. Masters Swimming (USMS) members (n = 1,042), and the general U.S. population, exemplified by respondents to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2009 to 2010 (n = 6,209). USMS swimmers were significantly more likely to take dietary supplements (62%) than the general U.S. adult population, as represented by the NHANES population (37%). Those taking dietary supplements were older, more likely to be female and Caucasian, and more highly educated and affluent than those not taking supplements (p < .001 for all). When adjusted for age, race, gender, annual income, and education, masters swimmers were still more likely (p < .001) to use dietary supplements than the NHANES cohort. In addition, masters swimmers were significantly more likely (p < .001) to use either creatine or dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone than those in the NHANES cohort. PMID:26322803

  13. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, Doug; Plaster, Kurtis; Apperson, Kimberly A.

    1996-11-01

    This work was the result of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. Adult and jack chinook salmon escapement were indexed by redd counts and weir returns. Escapement in 1994 was low and in some cases approached the lowest on record. Although stream flow conditions and parr abundance were conducive to precise parr population estimates, some streams continued to exhibit wide confidence intervals. Different methods used to calculate the estimates yielded inconsistent results with regard to increasing or decreasing the population estimate and improving the precision of the estimates. No single method appeared definitively better for all streams. Emigrant traps captured 78,138 chinook salmon fry, parr, and smolts in 1994. Application of a weekly trap efficiency adjusted for stream flow produced emigration estimates that were up to 30% larger than when a seasonal trap efficiency was used. Detection rates for smolts tagged in some streams were similar to detection rates for parr tagged during the fall of the previous year. This was unexpected because overwinter mortality usually results in a lower detection rate for fall-tagged fish. Low escapement in 1994 severely hampered Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) broodstock development. The inability to develop local broodstocks for supplementation is the most important factor threatening the implementation of the ISS.

  14. Supplemental air valve for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Pankow, C.W.

    1987-12-29

    A valve for attachment in the PCV system of an internal combustion engine for regulating the admission of supplemental air to the crank case blow-by return, comprising: (a) a valve body defining a bore, the body having an inlet and an outlet connection defining a passageway through the valve for the blow-by return, the body further defining a port for air; (b) a valve member reciprocal within the bore having a piston member dividing at least a portion of the bore into two pressure chambers, the pressure chambers having means for connection of each to a source of engine vacuum; (c) the valve member being shiftable from and open position permitting air to enter through the port to the passageway and having a closed position blocking admission of air through the port to the passageway; and (d) resilient means normally urging the valve body to the closed position, the resilient means being selectively adjustable to provide a predetermined biasing force whereby the piston is shiftable to the open position in response to changes in engine vacuum to admit supplemental air to the engine.

  15. Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982): Assessment of New Findings on Sulfur Dioxide and Acute Exposure Health Effects in Asthmatic Individuals (1994)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present Supplement to the Second Addendum (1986) to the document Air Quality Criteria for Particulate Matter and Sulfur Oxides (1982) focuses on evaluation of newly available controlled human exposure studies of acute (a\\1h) sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure effects on pulmonary ...

  16. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  17. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.

  18. Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements, they won’t be listed on the product label and they could harm you. Weight-loss supplements can be sold without being tested or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug ... can recall that product. Visit this website to view the FDA’s public ...

  19. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    MedlinePlus

    ... study. These include glucosamine (for joint pain) and herbal supplements such as echinacea (immune health) and flaxseed oil ( ... be fine,” Coates says. “According to the FDA, supplement products most likely ... ingredients are herbal remedies promoted for weight loss and for sexual ...

  20. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe? Download Printable Version [PDF] » Dietary supplements include things like vitamins, minerals, herbs, or products made from plants, animal parts, algae, seafood, or yeasts. The information here can ...