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Sample records for adjustment actual method

  1. 77 FR 13328 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual Method) AGENCY: Department of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Davis-Bacon Act price adjustment... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0154, Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual...

  2. Outcomes for newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia dosed on actual or adjusted body weight

    PubMed Central

    Bivona, Cory; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, Dave; Grauer, Dennis; Abhyankar, Sunil; Aljitawi, Omar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; McGuirk, Joseph; Singh, Anurag; Lin, Tara L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data from solid tumor malignancies suggest that actual body weight (ABW) dosing improves overall outcomes. There is the potential to compromise efficacy when chemotherapy dosages are reduced, but the impact of dose adjustment on clinical response and toxicity in hematologic malignancies is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of utilizing a percent of ABW for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induction chemotherapy dosing. Methods This retrospective, single-center study included 146 patients who received 7 + 3 induction (cytarabine and anthracycline) for treatment of AML. Study design evaluated the relationship between percentage of ABW dosing and complete response (CR) rates in patients newly diagnosed with AML. Results Percentage of ABW dosing did not influence CR rates in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for AML (p = 0.83); nor did it influence rate of death at 30 days or relapse at 6 months (p = 0.94). When comparing patients dosed at 90–100 % of ABW compared to <90 % ABW, CR rates were not significantly different in patients classified as poor risk (p = 0.907). All favorable risk category patients obtained CR. Conclusions Preemptive dose reductions for obesity did not influence CR rates for patients with AML undergoing induction chemotherapy and did not influence the composite endpoint of death at 30 days or disease relapse at 6 months. PMID:26231954

  3. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  4. Tomato fruit carotenoid biosynthesis is adjusted to actual ripening progression by a light-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Briardo; D'Andrea, Lucio; Ruiz-Sola, M Aguila; Botterweg, Esther; Pulido, Pablo; Andilla, Jordi; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid compounds that are essential for plants to protect the photosynthetic apparatus against excess light. They also function as health-promoting natural pigments that provide colors to ripe fruit, promoting seed dispersal by animals. Work in Arabidopsis thaliana unveiled that transcription factors of the phytochrome-interacting factor (PIF) family regulate carotenoid gene expression in response to environmental signals (i.e. light and temperature), including those created when sunlight reflects from or passes though nearby vegetation or canopy (referred to as shade). Here we show that PIFs use a virtually identical mechanism to modulate carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, instead of integrating environmental information, PIF-mediated signaling pathways appear to fulfill a completely new function in the fruit. As tomatoes ripen, they turn from green to red due to chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation. When sunlight passes through the flesh of green fruit, a self-shading effect within the tissue maintains high levels of PIFs that directly repress the master gene of the fruit carotenoid pathway, preventing undue production of carotenoids. This effect is attenuated as chlorophyll degrades, causing degradation of PIF proteins and boosting carotenoid biosynthesis as ripening progresses. Thus, shade signaling components may have been co-opted in tomato fruit to provide information on the actual stage of ripening (based on the pigment profile of the fruit at each moment) and thus finely coordinate fruit color change. We show how this mechanism may be manipulated to obtain carotenoid-enriched fruits.

  5. Energy adjustment methods applied to alcohol analyses.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Ditte; Andersen, Per K; Overvad, Kim; Jensen, Gorm; Schnohr, Peter; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbaek, Morten

    2003-01-01

    When alcohol consumption is related to outcome, associations between alcohol type and health outcomes may occur simply because of the ethanol in the beverage type. When one analyzes the consequences of consumption of beer, wine, and spirits, the total alcohol intake must therefore be taken into account. However, owing to the linear dependency between total alcohol intake and the alcohol content of each beverage type, the effects cannot be separated from each other or from the effect of ethanol. In nutritional epidemiology, similar problems regarding intake of macronutrients and total energy intake have been addressed, and four methods have been proposed to solve the problem: energy partition, standard, density, and residual. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the energy adjustment methods in alcohol analyses by using coronary heart disease as an example. Data obtained from the Copenhagen City Heart Study were used. The standard and energy partition methods yielded similar results for continuous, and almost similar results for categorical, alcohol variables. The results from the density method differed, but nevertheless were concordant with these. Beer and wine drinkers, in comparison with findings for nondrinkers, had lower risk of coronary heart disease. Except for the case of men drinking beer, the effect seemed to be associated with drinking one drink per week. The standard method derives influence of substituting alcohol types at constant total alcohol intake and complements the estimates of adding consumption of a particular alcohol type to the total intake. For most diseases, the effect of ethanol predominates over that of substances in the beverage type, which makes the density method less relevant in alcohol analyses.

  6. A new method for adjusting the lateral transfer hollow retroreflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, Alexandr G.

    2013-05-01

    A new method for adjusting the lateral transfer hollow retroreflector is presented. It allows in a simple way to adjust the hollow retroreflectors with a lateral shifting. It enables to make the manufacturing process of adjustable lateral hollow retroreflectors easier and cheaper. The testing optical bed of this method is displayed. The evaluation of uncertainties and a limit value for this method are given.

  7. High-Dose 131I-Tositumomab (Anti-CD20) Radioimmunotherapy for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Adjusting Radiation Absorbed Dose to Actual Organ Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gopal, A K.; Durack, L. D.; Press, O. W.; Eary, Janet F.

    2004-06-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 131I-tositumomab has been used successfully to treat relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgin's lymphoma (NHL). Our approach to treatment planning has been to determine limits on radiation absorbed close to critical nonhematopoietic organs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using CT to adjust for actual organ volumes in calculating organ-specific absorbed dose estimates. Methods: Records of 84 patients who underwent biodistribution studies after a trace-labeled infusion of 131I-tositumomab for RIT (January 1990 and April 2003) were reviewed. Serial planar -camera images and whole-body Nal probe counts were obtained to estimate 131I-antibody source-organ residence times as recommended by the MIRD Committee. The source-organ residence times for standard man or woman were adjusted by the ratio of the MIRD phantom organ mass to the CT-derived organ mass. Results: The mean radiation absorbed doses (in mGy/MBq) for our data using the MIRD model were lungs= 1.67; liver= 1.03; kidneys= 1.08; spleen= 2.67; and whole body= 0.3; and for CT volume-adjusted organ volumes (in mGy/MBq) were lungs= 1.30; liver= 0.92; kidneys= 0.76; spleen= 1.40; and whole body= 0.22. We determined the following correlation coefficients between the 2 methods for the various organs; lungs, 0.49; (P= 0.0001); liver, 0.64 (P= 0.004); kidneys, 0.45 (P= 0.0001), for the residence times. For therapy, patients received mean 131I administered activities of 19.2 GBq (520 mCi) after adjustment for CT-derived organ mass compared with 16.0 GBq (433 mCi) that would otherwise have been given had therapy been based only using standard MIRD organ volumes--a statistically significant difference (P= 0.0001). Conclusion: We observed large variations in organ masses among our patients. Our treatments were planned to deliver the maximally tolerated radiation dose to the dose-limiting normal organ. This work provides a simplified method for calculating patient-specific radiation

  8. Method for Implementing Optical Phase Adjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovde, David C.; Corsini, Eric

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed to mechanically implement the optical phase shift by adjusting the polarization of the pump and probe beams in an NMOR (nonlinear magneto-optical rotation) magnetometer as the proper phase shift is necessary to induce self-oscillation. This innovation consists of mounting the pump beam on a ring that surrounds the atomic vapor sample. The propagation of the probe beam is perpendicular to that of the pump beam. The probe beam can be considered as defining the axis of a cylinder, while the pump beam is directed radially. The magnetic field to be measured defines a third vector, but it is also taken to lie along the cylinder axis. Both the pump and probe beams are polarized such that their electric field vectors are substantially perpendicular to the magnet field. By rotation of the ring supporting the pump beam, its direction can be varied relative to the plane defined by the probe electric field and the magnetic field to be measured.

  9. An Unbalance Adjustment Method for Development Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabusi, Enrico Casadio; Guarini, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes some aggregation aspects of the procedure for constructing a composite index on a multidimensional socio-economic phenomenon such as development, the main focus being on the unbalance among individual dimensions. First a theoretical framework is set up for the unbalance adjustment of the index. Then an aggregation function is…

  10. A review on in situ stiffness adjustment methods in MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, M. L. C.; Pérez Garza, H. H.; Herder, J. L.; Ghatkesar, M. K.

    2016-06-01

    In situ stiffness adjustment in microelectromechanical systems is used in a variety of applications such as radio-frequency mechanical filters, energy harvesters, atomic force microscopy, vibration detection sensors. In this review we provide designers with an overview of existing stiffness adjustment methods, their working principle, and possible adjustment range. The concepts are categorized according to their physical working principle. It is concluded that the electrostatic adjustment principle is the most applied method, and narrow to wide ranges in stiffness can be achieved. But in order to obtain a wide range in stiffness change, large, complex devices were designed. Mechanical stiffness adjustment is found to be a space-effective way of obtaining wide changes in stiffness, but these methods are often discrete and require large tuning voltages. Stiffness adjustment through stressing effects or change in Young’s modulus was used only for narrow ranges. The change in second moment of inertia was used for stiffness adjustment in the intermediate range.

  11. Medicare's risk-adjusted capitation method.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Paul L

    2002-01-01

    Since 1997, the method to establish capitation rates for Medicare beneficiaries who are members of risk-bearing managed care plans has undergone several important developments. This includes the factoring of beneficiary health status into the rate-setting calculations. These changes were expected to increase the number of participating health plans, accelerate Medicare enrollment growth, and slice Medicare spending.

  12. Adolescent psychological and academic adjustment as a function of discrepancies between actual and ideal self-perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Gail M; Hafen, Christopher A; Laursen, Brett

    2010-12-01

    Actual-ideal discrepancies are associated with adolescent emotional distress and there is evidence that the size of discrepancies matters. However, the direction of discrepancies has not been examined, perhaps due to limitations of widely used self-discrepancy measures. Two hundred and twelve 7th, 9th and 11th grade students (59% female) in a public school in Jamaica described their actual and ideal selves in several different domains--friendship, dating, schoolwork, family, sports, and religion/spirituality--using a Pie measure. Students also completed measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and academic achievement. Discrepancies favoring the ideal self and those favoring the actual self were linked to depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, and poor school grades in the domains of friendship, dating, and schoolwork. Effects were stronger among older adolescents than among younger adolescents. Theories of actual/ideal self-discrepancies have focused on problems arising when the ideal self overshadows the actual self; however, the present study finds that self-discrepancies, regardless of their direction, are a liability. Implications for self-discrepancy measurement, adolescent development, and clinical practice are discussed.

  13. Adolescent Psychological and Academic Adjustment as a Function of Discrepancies between Actual and Ideal Self-Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Laursen, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Actual-ideal discrepancies are associated with adolescent emotional distress and there is evidence that the size of discrepancies matters. However, the direction of discrepancies has not been examined, perhaps due to limitations of widely used self-discrepancy measures. Two hundred and twelve 7th, 9th and 11th grade students (59% female) in a…

  14. Sex-Role Self-Concepts, Marital Adjustment, and Self-Actualization in Long-Term Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaupp, Diane S.; And Others

    Shostrom (1971) has identified a type of marriage in which self-actualizing couples do not simply accept their socially defined roles, but instead develop personality traits and values that are consistent with their own psychological health and that of the couple relationship. Antill (1983) found evidence for the importance of high scores in…

  15. Method for preparing membranes with adjustable separation performance

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, E.S.; Orme, C.J.; Stone, M.L.

    1995-01-31

    Methods for adjustable separation of solutes and solvents involve the combination of the use of a maximally swollen membrane and subsequent vacuum depressurization exerted on the permeate side of that membrane. By adjusting the extent of depressurization it is possible to separate solvent from solutes and solutes from each other. Improved control of separation parameters as well as improved flux rates characterize the present invention. 2 figs.

  16. Method for preparing membranes with adjustable separation performance

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.; Stone, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for adjustable separation of solutes and solvents involve the combination of the use of a maximally swollen membrane and subsequent vacuum depressurization exerted on the permeate side of that membrane. By adjusting the extent of depressurization it is possible to separate solvent from solutes and solutes from each other. Improved control of separation parameters as well as improved flux rates characterize the present invention.

  17. Relative contribution of effects included in contemporary groups for adjusted and actual 120-day and 210-day weights in Nelore cattle in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pascoa, Lillian; de los Reyes, Arcadio; Elzo, Mauricio A.; Ferreira, Jorge L.; Bezerra, Luiz A.F.; Lôbo, Raysildo B.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate the relative magnitude of effects included in contemporary groups (CG) and their interactions with adjusted and actual 120 d and 210 d weights in 72,731 male and female Nelore calves born from 1985 to 2005 in 40 herds from PMGRN (Genetic Improvement Program of Nelore). Ten models with different CG structures were compared. The analyses were done using the general linear models (GLM) procedure run in SAS software. All of the effects included in the CG for each model were significant (p < 0.001) for the four traits analyzed. Inclusion of semester or trimester of birth as part of a CG was more appropriate than its use as an independent effect in the model because it accounted for interactions with the other effects in the CG. Calf sex (CS) and dam age at calving (DAC) had similar effects across the models, which suggested independence from other effects in these models. The corresponding age deviation effect had a larger impact on actual weight at 120 d than any other effect in all of the models tested. The use of actual weights in models with no CS effect in CG provides an alternative that would allow better genetic connectedness among CGs and greater accuracy in genetic evaluations. PMID:22215959

  18. An assessment of precipitation adjustment and feedback computation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, T. B.; Samset, B. H.; Andrews, T.; Myhre, G.; Forster, P. M.

    2016-10-01

    The precipitation adjustment and feedback framework is a useful tool for understanding global and regional precipitation changes. However, there is no definitive method for making the decomposition. In this study we highlight important differences which arise in results due to methodological choices. The responses to five different forcing agents (CO2, CH4, SO4, black carbon, and solar insolation) are analyzed using global climate model simulations. Three decomposition methods are compared: using fixed sea surface temperature experiments (fSST), regressing transient climate change after an abrupt forcing (regression), and separating based on timescale using the first year of coupled simulations (YR1). The YR1 method is found to incorporate significant SST-driven feedbacks into the adjustment and is therefore not suitable for making the decomposition. Globally, the regression and fSST methods produce generally consistent results; however, the regression values are dependent on the number of years analyzed and have considerably larger uncertainties. Regionally, there are substantial differences between methods. The pattern of change calculated using regression reverses sign in many regions as the number of years analyzed increases. This makes it difficult to establish what effects are included in the decomposition. The fSST method provides a more clear-cut separation in terms of what physical drivers are included in each component. The fSST results are less affected by methodological choices and exhibit much less variability. We find that the precipitation adjustment is weakly affected by the choice of SST climatology.

  19. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... will not otherwise include any amount for general and administrative costs, overhead, or profit. (e.... yrd. = $.10 Truck Driver $19.00 − $18.25 = $.75 × 525 hrs./ 3,000 sq. yrd. = $.13 Laborer $11.50 −...

  20. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... will not otherwise include any amount for general and administrative costs, overhead, or profit. (e.... yrd. = $.10 Truck Driver $19.00 − $18.25 = $.75 × 525 hrs./ 3,000 sq. yrd. = $.13 Laborer $11.50 −...

  1. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... costs, overhead, or profit. (e) The Contractor shall notify the Contracting Officer of any increase.... Opr. $18.50 − $18.00 = $.50 × 600 hrs./ 3,000 sq. yrd. = $.10 Truck Driver $19.00 − $18.25 =...

  2. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... will not otherwise include any amount for general and administrative costs, overhead, or profit. (e.... yrd. = $.10 Truck Driver $19.00 − $18.25 = $.75 × 525 hrs./ 3,000 sq. yrd. = $.13 Laborer $11.50 −...

  3. 48 CFR 52.222-32 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... will not otherwise include any amount for general and administrative costs, overhead, or profit. (e.... yrd. = $.10 Truck Driver $19.00 − $18.25 = $.75 × 525 hrs./ 3,000 sq. yrd. = $.13 Laborer $11.50 −...

  4. Magnetic field adjustment structure and method for a tapered wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Halbach, Klaus

    1988-03-01

    An improved method and structure is disclosed for adjusting the magnetic field generated by a group of electromagnet poles spaced along the path of a charged particle beam to compensate for energy losses in the charged particles which comprises providing more than one winding on at least some of the electromagnet poles; connecting one respective winding on each of several consecutive adjacent electromagnet poles to a first power supply, and the other respective winding on the electromagnet pole to a different power supply in staggered order; and independently adjusting one power supply to independently vary the current in one winding on each electromagnet pole in a group whereby the magnetic field strength of each of a group of electromagnet poles may be changed in smaller increments.

  5. Magnetic field adjustment structure and method for a tapered wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, Klaus

    1988-01-01

    An improved method and structure is disclosed for adjusting the magnetic field generated by a group of electromagnet poles spaced along the path of a charged particle beam to compensate for energy losses in the charged particles which comprises providing more than one winding on at least some of the electromagnet poles; connecting one respective winding on each of several consecutive adjacent electromagnet poles to a first power supply, and the other respective winding on the electromagnet pole to a different power supply in staggered order; and independently adjusting one power supply to independently vary the current in one winding on each electromagnet pole in a group whereby the magnetic field strength of each of a group of electromagnet poles may be changed in smaller increments.

  6. Adjustment of Tsunami Source Parameters By Adjoint Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, C.; Miranda, P.

    Tsunami waveforms recorded at tide gauges can be used to adjust tsunami source pa- rameters and, indirectly, seismic focal parameters. Simple inversion methods, based on ray-tracing techniques, only used a small fraction of available information. More elab- orate techniques, based on the Green's functions methods, also have some limitations in their scope. A new methodology, using a variational approach, allows for a much more general inversion, which can directly optimize focal parameters of tsunamigenic earthquakes. Idealized synthetic data and an application to the 1969 Gorringe Earth- quake are used to validate the methodology.

  7. Normalized modularity optimization method for community identification with degree adjustment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuqin; Zhao, Hongyu

    2013-11-01

    As a fundamental problem in network study, community identification has attracted much attention from different fields. Representing a seminal work in this area, the modularity optimization method has been widely applied and studied. However, this method has issues in resolution limit and extreme degeneracy and may not perform well for networks with unbalanced structures. Although several methods have been proposed to overcome these limitations, they are all based on the original idea of defining modularity through comparing the total number of edges within the putative communities in the observed network with that in an equivalent randomly generated network. In this paper, we show that this modularity definition is not suitable to analyze some networks such as those with unbalanced structures. Instead, we propose to define modularity through the average degree within the communities and formulate modularity as comparing the sum of average degree within communities of the observed network to that of an equivalent randomly generated network. In addition, we also propose a degree-adjusted approach for further improvement when there are unbalanced structures. We analyze the theoretical properties of our degree adjusted method. Numerical experiments for both artificial networks and real networks demonstrate that average degree plays an important role in network community identification, and our proposed methods have better performance than existing ones.

  8. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z. Zhou, Z. B. Li, Z. X.; Luo, J.

    2014-05-15

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.

  9. Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, M.; Bai, Y. Z.; Zhou, Z. B.; Li, Z. X.; Luo, J.

    2014-05-01

    The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.

  10. Method and apparatus for distinguishing actual sparse events from sparse event false alarms

    DOEpatents

    Spalding, Richard E.; Grotbeck, Carter L.

    2000-01-01

    Remote sensing method and apparatus wherein sparse optical events are distinguished from false events. "Ghost" images of actual optical phenomena are generated using an optical beam splitter and optics configured to direct split beams to a single sensor or segmented sensor. True optical signals are distinguished from false signals or noise based on whether the ghost image is presence or absent. The invention obviates the need for dual sensor systems to effect a false target detection capability, thus significantly reducing system complexity and cost.

  11. Development of actual EUV mask observation method for micro coherent EUV scatterometry microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, T.; Hashimoto, H.; Watanabe, T.

    2016-10-01

    To review phase and amplitude defect on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask with EUV intensity and phase contrast, we have developed the micro coherent EUV scatterometry microscope (micro-CSM). A coherent EUV beam was focused on a defect using a Fresnel zoneplate, where the illumination size was 140 nm diameter. Diffraction from the defect was captured by an EUV CCD camera directly. The diffraction signal was depended on the zoneplate focus, where the defect signal was efficiently detected at a best focus position. To review an actual EUV mask that has no focus-alignment pattern on surface, we developed a focusing method using a speckle signal.

  12. A dynamically adjusted mixed emphasis method for building boosting ensembles.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Verdejo, Vanessa; Arenas-Garcia, Jerónimo; Figueiras-Vidal, Aníbal R

    2008-01-01

    Progressively emphasizing samples that are difficult to classify correctly is the base for the recognized high performance of real Adaboost (RA) ensembles. The corresponding emphasis function can be written as a product of a factor that measures the quadratic error and a factor related to the proximity to the classification border; this fact opens the door to explore the potential advantages provided by using adjustable combined forms of these factors. In this paper, we introduce a principled procedure to select the combination parameter each time a new learner is added to the ensemble, just by maximizing the associated edge parameter, calling the resulting method the dynamically adapted weighted emphasis RA (DW-RA). A number of application examples illustrates the performance improvements obtained by DW-RA.

  13. Information bias in health research: definition, pitfalls, and adjustment methods

    PubMed Central

    Althubaiti, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    As with other fields, medical sciences are subject to different sources of bias. While understanding sources of bias is a key element for drawing valid conclusions, bias in health research continues to be a very sensitive issue that can affect the focus and outcome of investigations. Information bias, otherwise known as misclassification, is one of the most common sources of bias that affects the validity of health research. It originates from the approach that is utilized to obtain or confirm study measurements. This paper seeks to raise awareness of information bias in observational and experimental research study designs as well as to enrich discussions concerning bias problems. Specifying the types of bias can be essential to limit its effects and, the use of adjustment methods might serve to improve clinical evaluation and health care practice. PMID:27217764

  14. 41 CFR 302-7.404 - Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E... certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method and PBP&E are shipped as an... the actual expense method and PBP&E are shipped as an administrative expense in the same lot?...

  15. 41 CFR 302-7.404 - Are separate weight certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS, PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT, (PBP&E) AND... certificates required when HHG are shipped under the actual expense method and PBP&E are shipped as an... are shipped under the actual expense method and PBP&E are shipped as an administrative expense in...

  16. A Conventional Method for Valid "Actual Soil pH" Measurement.

    PubMed

    Oman, Srečko F

    2012-12-01

    After recognition of the Suspension Effect problem in potentiometric measurements in aqueous suspensions, no scientific consensus about its cause and nature was obtained. Numerous conventional methods of soil pH measurement were therefore introduced for practical soil pH determination. Most of the results of these methods are not valid with regard to the international pH scale. The method proposed in the present work rejects improper procedures and introduces correct soil sampling and a suitable pH measuring technique, as follows: the indicator glass electrode, substituting for roots in the soil, is inserted in a partly diluted sample suspension of the original soil and the modified reference electrode contacts the sample in a manner that eliminates the abnormal liquid junction potential. "Actual soil pH values" measured in this way are valid but the method used is a conventional one. Namely, the irreversible potential of the glass electrode includes the suspension effect of the first kind (SE1) and is a mixed steady-state potential. It is considered by convention as a substitute for and equivalent to the equilibrium potential which as a rule does not exist in a suspension. The soil pH values measured by the proposed conventional method are reproducible and valid with regard to the international hpH scale. They could be considered as the pH values, with uncertainty of +/- 0.1 pH unit, to which the roots are exposed.

  17. Reviving the Bowen Ratio method for Actual Evaporation with Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luxemburg, W. M. J.; Euser, T.; Everson, C. S.; Mengistu, M. G.; Clulow, A. D.

    2012-04-01

    We have used the technique of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) with a fiber optic cable to determine actual evaporation over land. The results were compared with measurements using a surface layer scintilometer, surface renewal and eddy covariance techniques. Dry and wetted sections of a fiber optic cable were suspended from a six meter high tower in a sugar beet trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. From the principle of a psychrometer, a near continuous observation of vapor pressure and temperature at 0.20 m intervals of a vertical column of air above the field could be derived. Subsequently it allowed accurate determination of the ratio of sensible and latent heat, i.e. the Bowen ratio over time and in the vertical. Using measurements of the net radiation, soil heat flux and the Bowen ratio sensible heat flux, the actual evaporation could be determined as the residual of the shortened energy balance equation. The advantage of the DTS method over the traditional Bowen ratio method is that one and the same sensor (the fiber optic cable) is used, with sufficient accuracy to discriminate small differences in temperature and vapor pressure respectively, hence giving numerous gradient measurements over the vertical. The traditional Bowen ratio method relies on only a few sensors that require careful calibration to detect the real differences of temperature and vapor pressure. Comparing the improved method with the traditional Bowen Ratio method, shows that the improved method gives more stable and constant results than the standard method. The DTS data were reliable, provided that water blown by strong wind from the wetted cable does not affect the temperature of air at the location of the dry cable. Under these conditions the vertical air temperature was not representative for the air temperature over the fetch of the crop. The experiments were carried out in South Africa, in November 2011 (summer) under varying radiation conditions. In this way it was

  18. Automatic methods for the adjustment of faceted solar-energy concentrators and heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhidov, R. A.; Khakimov, R. A.; Abdurakhmanov, A. A.; Sizov, Iu. M.; Baranov, V. K.

    An automatic adjustment technique is described which makes possible a considerable simplification of the operation of solar-energy installations. Diagrams of devices for the automatic adjustment of the facets of a composite concentrator and of a plane heliostat are presented. An error analysis shows that the accuracy of the adjustment method is 4-5 arcmin.

  19. Magnetic field adjustment structure and method for a tapered wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K.

    1988-03-01

    An improved wiggler having means for adjusting the magnetic field generated by electromagnet poles spaced along the path of a charged particle beam to compensate for energy losses in the charge particles is described which comprises; (a) windings on at least some of the electromagnet poles in the wiggler; (b) one of the windings on each of a group of adjacent electromagnet poles connected to a first power supply, and another winding on the electromagnet poles having more than one winding connected to a second power supply; and (c) means for independently adjusting one power supply to independently vary the current in one of the windings on a group of adjacent electromagnet poles; whereby the magnetic field strength of a group of adjacent electromagnet poles in the wiggler may be changed in smaller increments.

  20. The feasibility and application of gray scale adjustment method in high temperature digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shen; Yao, Xue Feng; Su, Yun Quan; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the basic principle and application of linear gray scale adjustment method are investigated in high temperature digital image correlation (DIC) technology. First, the simple linear gray scale adjustment method is proposed, which can adjust the gray scale value of the saturated pixels and diminish the correlation error caused by the saturated pixels. Then, both the simulated high temperature images and DIC correlation results before and after the gray scale adjustment are provided and analyzed to verify its effectiveness, in which the displacement error decreased from 0.1 pixels to 0.04 pixels after the linear gray scale adjustment for high temperature images. Finally, the linear gray scale adjustment method is used to extract the displacement with high accuracy in high temperature experiment of SiC specimen, and the displacement error decreased from 0.5 pixels to 0.1 pixels after the linear gray scale adjustment.

  1. Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement - Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. B. R.

    2012-09-01

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measurements have been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the post-industrial period. Today most measurements come from ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and in engine cooling water intakes. Engine intake temperatures are generally thought to average a few tenths of a °C warmer than simultaneous bucket temperatures. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies comparing shipboard methods by field experiment and adjustments applied to SST datasets to account for variable methods. In opposition to contemporary thinking, I find average bucket-intake temperature differences reported from field studies inconclusive. Non-zero average differences often have associated standard deviations that are several times larger than the averages themselves. Further, average differences have been found to vary widely between ships and between cruises on the same ship. The cause of non-zero average differences is typically unclear given the general absence of additional temperature observations to those from buckets and engine intakes. Shipboard measurements appear of variable quality, highly dependent upon the accuracy and precision of the thermometer used and the care of the observer where manually read. Methods are generally poorly documented, with written instructions not necessarily reflecting actual practices of merchant mariners. Measurements cannot be expected to be of high quality where obtained by untrained sailors using thermometers of low accuracy and precision.

  2. Modern Methods of Bundle Adjustment on the Gpu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, R.; Drude, I.; Hellwich, O.

    2016-06-01

    The task to compute 3D reconstructions from large amounts of data has become an active field of research within the last years. Based on an initial estimate provided by structure from motion, bundle adjustment seeks to find a solution that is optimal for all cameras and 3D points. The corresponding nonlinear optimization problem is usually solved by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm combined with conjugate gradient descent. While many adaptations and extensions to the classical bundle adjustment approach have been proposed, only few works consider the acceleration potentials of GPU systems. This paper elaborates the possibilities of time and space savings when fitting the implementation strategy to the terms and requirements of realizing a bundler on heterogeneous CPUGPU systems. Instead of focusing on the standard approach of Levenberg-Marquardt optimization alone, nonlinear conjugate gradient descent and alternating resection-intersection are studied as two alternatives. The experiments show that in particular alternating resection-intersection reaches low error rates very fast, but converges to larger error rates than Levenberg-Marquardt. PBA, as one of the current state-of-the-art bundlers, converges slower in 50 % of the test cases and needs 1.5-2 times more memory than the Levenberg- Marquardt implementation.

  3. NVG adjustment methods, eyepiece focus settings, and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Arsdel, Richard; Baldwin, J. Bruce; Hausmann, Martha A.; Harrington, Lawrence K.; Craig, Jeffrey L.; Koepke, Corbin G.

    2006-05-01

    Several studies and many anecdotal reports indicate that aircrew members focus night vision goggle (NVG) eyepiece lenses to more negative powers than would be expected based on refractive error, presumably due to instrument myopia, "dark focus" myopia, and other factors. Excessive negative power stimulates accommodation, introducing risks from discomfort, fatigue, and blurred vision. Aircrew members are trained to employ specific adjustment techniques to minimize "over-minusing" of eyepiece lens powers, but those techniques are prone to error. The currently fielded AN/AVS-9 NVG (F4949) has a focus range of (+2.0) to (-6.0) diopters, and meets the needs of most aircrew. However, the new AN/AVS-10 NVG panoramic night vision goggle (PNVG) has a fixed focus of (-1.0) diopters due to engineering design constraints. Accessory snap-on lenses are available, but data are needed to optimize the distribution of lens powers to be acquired and maintained. This study involved the characterization of vision (visual acuity, perceived quality, and comfort) as a function of: 1) eyepiece focus setting using trial lenses; 2) F4949 eyepiece focus adjustments using a point source vs. a Hoffman 20/20 box; and 3) PNVG eyepiece lens selections using a lens bar vs. snap-on lens selections. Eight subjects with normal (20/20 corrected) vision ranging in age from 23 years to 49 participated in this study. The experiments were conducted in the Aerospace Vision Experimental Laboratory and the Dynamic Vision Assessment Facility at Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio using F4949 and PNVG devices with a custom-designed NVG-compatible computer-based visual acuity acquisition system.

  4. An Illustration to Assist in Comparing and Remembering Several Multiplicity Adjustment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasler, Mario

    2017-01-01

    There are many well-known or new methods to adjust statistical tests for multiplicity. This article provides an illustration helping lecturers or consultants to remember the differences of three important multiplicity adjustment methods and to explain them to non-statisticians.

  5. 48 CFR 52.222-31 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Percentage Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act-Price... Provisions and Clauses 52.222-31 Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method). As prescribed in 22.407(f), insert the following clause: Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method) (DEC...

  6. 48 CFR 52.222-31 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Percentage Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act-Price... Provisions and Clauses 52.222-31 Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method). As prescribed in 22.407(f), insert the following clause: Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method) (DEC...

  7. 48 CFR 52.222-31 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Percentage Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act-Price... Provisions and Clauses 52.222-31 Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method). As prescribed in 22.407(f), insert the following clause: Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method) (DEC...

  8. A REVIEW OF STATISTICAL METHODS FOR THE METEOROLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of statistical methods for meteorological adjustment of ozone have been proposed in the literature over the last decade for purposes of forecasting, estimating ozone time trends, or investigating underlying mechanisms from an empirical perspective. The methods can be...

  9. A comparison of confounding adjustment methods with an application to early life determinants of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Kleinman, K; Gillman, M W

    2014-12-01

    We implemented six confounding adjustment methods: (1) covariate-adjusted regression, (2) propensity score (PS) regression, (3) PS stratification, (4) PS matching with two calipers, (5) inverse probability weighting and (6) doubly robust estimation to examine the associations between the body mass index (BMI) z-score at 3 years and two separate dichotomous exposure measures: exclusive breastfeeding v. formula only (n=437) and cesarean section v. vaginal delivery (n=1236). Data were drawn from a prospective pre-birth cohort study, Project Viva. The goal is to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness, and approaches for multiple confounding adjustment methods to analyze observational data. Unadjusted (univariate) and covariate-adjusted linear regression associations of breastfeeding with BMI z-score were -0.33 (95% CI -0.53, -0.13) and -0.24 (-0.46, -0.02), respectively. The other approaches resulted in smaller n (204-276) because of poor overlap of covariates, but CIs were of similar width except for inverse probability weighting (75% wider) and PS matching with a wider caliper (76% wider). Point estimates ranged widely, however, from -0.01 to -0.38. For cesarean section, because of better covariate overlap, the covariate-adjusted regression estimate (0.20) was remarkably robust to all adjustment methods, and the widths of the 95% CIs differed less than in the breastfeeding example. Choice of covariate adjustment method can matter. Lack of overlap in covariate structure between exposed and unexposed participants in observational studies can lead to erroneous covariate-adjusted estimates and confidence intervals. We recommend inspecting covariate overlap and using multiple confounding adjustment methods. Similar results bring reassurance. Contradictory results suggest issues with either the data or the analytic method.

  10. A comparison of confounding adjustment methods with an application to early life determinants of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    We implemented 6 confounding adjustment methods: 1) covariate-adjusted regression, 2) propensity score (PS) regression, 3) PS stratification, 4) PS matching with two calipers, 5) inverse-probability-weighting, and 6) doubly-robust estimation to examine the associations between the BMI z-score at 3 years and two separate dichotomous exposure measures: exclusive breastfeeding versus formula only (N = 437) and cesarean section versus vaginal delivery (N = 1236). Data were drawn from a prospective pre-birth cohort study, Project Viva. The goal is to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness, and approaches for multiple confounding adjustment methods to analyze observational data. Unadjusted (univariate) and covariate-adjusted linear regression associations of breastfeeding with BMI z-score were −0.33 (95% CI −0.53, −0.13) and −0.24 (−0.46, −0.02), respectively. The other approaches resulted in smaller N (204 to 276) because of poor overlap of covariates, but CIs were of similar width except for inverse-probability-weighting (75% wider) and PS matching with a wider caliper (76% wider). Point estimates ranged widely, however, from −0.01 to −0.38. For cesarean section, because of better covariate overlap, the covariate-adjusted regression estimate (0.20) was remarkably robust to all adjustment methods, and the widths of the 95% CIs differed less than in the breastfeeding example. Choice of covariate adjustment method can matter. Lack of overlap in covariate structure between exposed and unexposed participants in observational studies can lead to erroneous covariate-adjusted estimates and confidence intervals. We recommend inspecting covariate overlap and using multiple confounding adjustment methods. Similar results bring reassurance. Contradictory results suggest issues with either the data or the analytic method. PMID:25171142

  11. A New Method for Evaluating Actual Drug Release Kinetics of Nanoparticles inside Dialysis Devices via Numerical Deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yousheng; He, Chunsheng; Chen, Kuan; Ni, Jieren; Cai, Yu; Guo, Xiaodi; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2016-12-10

    Nanoparticle formulations have found increasing applications in modern therapies. To achieve desired treatment efficacy and safety profiles, drug release kinetics of nanoparticles must be controlled tightly. However, actual drug release kinetics of nanoparticles cannot be readily measured due to technique difficulties, although various methods have been attempted. Among existing experimental approaches, dialysis method is the most widely applied one due to its simplicity and avoidance of separating released drug from the nanoparticles. Yet this method only measures the released drug in the medium outside a dialysis device (the receiver), instead of actual drug release from the nanoparticles inside the dialysis device (the donor). Thus we proposed a new method using numerical deconvolution to evaluate actual drug release kinetics of nanoparticles inside the donor based on experimental release profiles of nanoparticles and free drug solution in the receptor determined by existing dialysis tests. Two computer programs were developed based on two different numerical methods, namely least square criteria with prescribed Weibull function or orthogonal polynomials as input function. The former was used for all analyses in this work while the latter for verifying the reliability of the predictions. Experimental data of drug release from various nanoparticle formulations obtained from different dialysis settings and membrane pore sizes were used to substantiate this approach. The results demonstrated that this method is applicable to a broad range of nanoparticle and microparticle formulations requiring no additional experiments. It is independent of particle formulations, drug release mechanisms, and testing conditions. This new method may also be used, in combination with existing dialysis devices, to develop a standardized method for quality control, in vitro-in vivo correlation, and for development of nanoparticles and other types of dispersion formulations.

  12. A Review on Methods of Risk Adjustment and their Use in Integrated Healthcare Systems

    PubMed Central

    Juhnke, Christin; Bethge, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Effective risk adjustment is an aspect that is more and more given weight on the background of competitive health insurance systems and vital healthcare systems. The objective of this review was to obtain an overview of existing models of risk adjustment as well as on crucial weights in risk adjustment. Moreover, the predictive performance of selected methods in international healthcare systems should be analysed. Theory and methods: A comprehensive, systematic literature review on methods of risk adjustment was conducted in terms of an encompassing, interdisciplinary examination of the related disciplines. Results: In general, several distinctions can be made: in terms of risk horizons, in terms of risk factors or in terms of the combination of indicators included. Within these, another differentiation by three levels seems reasonable: methods based on mortality risks, methods based on morbidity risks as well as those based on information on (self-reported) health status. Conclusions and discussion: After the final examination of different methods of risk adjustment it was shown that the methodology used to adjust risks varies. The models differ greatly in terms of their included morbidity indicators. The findings of this review can be used in the evaluation of integrated healthcare delivery systems and can be integrated into quality- and patient-oriented reimbursement of care providers in the design of healthcare contracts. PMID:28316544

  13. 77 FR 29982 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method) AGENCY: Department of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Davis-Bacon Act price adjustment... Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method), by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  14. 41 CFR 301-74.12 - May we use both the conference lodging allowance method and the actual expense method of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conference lodging allowance method and the actual expense method of reimbursement concurrently? 301-74.12 Section 301-74.12 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities §...

  15. 41 CFR 301-74.12 - May we use both the conference lodging allowance method and the actual expense method of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conference lodging allowance method and the actual expense method of reimbursement concurrently? 301-74.12 Section 301-74.12 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities §...

  16. 41 CFR 301-74.12 - May we use both the conference lodging allowance method and the actual expense method of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conference lodging allowance method and the actual expense method of reimbursement concurrently? 301-74.12 Section 301-74.12 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities §...

  17. 41 CFR 301-74.12 - May we use both the conference lodging allowance method and the actual expense method of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conference lodging allowance method and the actual expense method of reimbursement concurrently? 301-74.12 Section 301-74.12 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES 74-CONFERENCE PLANNING Agency Responsibilities §...

  18. Would Socrates Have Actually Used the "Socratic Method" for Clinical Teaching?

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Hugh A; O'Dell, David V

    2016-09-01

    Medical students and residents are familiar with clinical teaching methods in which a faculty member poses a series of questions to them. This technique is often called the "Socratic method," but it is frequently perceived by learners as an attempt to demean them, a practice that is colloquially known as "pimping." The distinction between Socratic teaching and pimping lies in the perception of "psychological safety." Psychological safety allows learners to answer questions or ask for help without threats to their dignity or worthiness. In a psychologically safe clinical teaching context, learners recognize that questions posed by attending physicians probe their current understanding and guide them to expand their knowledge. In pimping, questions are posed to embarrass the learner and to reinforce the teacher's position of power over them. Absent a threat of disparagement or condemnation, learners are able to focus on building schema for knowledge, skills, and attitudes, rather than worrying about shielding their self-worth. This article presents the proper Socratic method, as intended by Socrates, and contrasts it with pimping. This perspective defines psychological safety as the pivotal factor distinguishing Socratic teaching from pimping, and establishes the foundation for empirical studies of these common practices in medical education.

  19. Adjustment of a tower solar telescope and spectrograph: A method manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanian, N. N.; Sunitsa, G. A.; Malashchuk, V. M.

    2014-06-01

    Questions of the mounting and adjustment of a tower solar telescope are considered through the example of the TST-2 telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory Scientific Research Institute. The authors describe the optical circuits of the telescope and spectrograph and list the basic requirements for the mutual arrangement of individual components of the telescope. Simple methods for adjusting elements of the telescope and spectrograph are described.

  20. An assessment of a proposed method for adjusting and focusing ANVIS night vision goggles.

    PubMed

    Manton, A G

    1996-02-01

    Night vision goggles are becoming an increasingly important tool in military aviation. They provide superior visual capability over unaided night vision, but any reduction in goggle performance can have a serious effect on flight safety and operational effectiveness. This study shows that the use of a standard adjustment procedure in a night vision goggle (NVG) test lane, with a resolution chart, provides an effective method for aircrew to obtain better visual capability than is currently obtained by focusing on distant features of the landscape. Visual acuity (VA) was measured for 20 aircrew representing all crew positions, after using both the current adjustment method and the proposed method for adjusting ANVIS NVGs. The average visual acuity showed an improvement from 6/19 (s.d. = 3.9) with the current method to 6/13 (s.d. = 2.8) with the proposed method. However, NVG test lanes cannot be used with goggles which have fixed infinity objective lenses eg Nite.

  1. ESR dating of quartz extracted from quaternary and neogene sediments: method, potential and actual limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, M.; Falguères, C.; Bahain, J. J.; Rousseau, L.; Van Vliet Lanoé, B.

    ESR dating of fluvial, fluvio-marine and beach sediment has been tested using the Al centre in quartz grains from a basin and fossil beaches located around the Manche Channel. Dating was performed in conjunction with sedimentological, stratigraphical and neotectonical studies. The technical basis of the method is presented in the light of the study made on recent and fossil sediment in order to establish a procedure for the determination of the palaeodose. The application on a Neogene Basin samples allows to push back the dating ESR limits. Results show that ESR dating of sediment can provide chronozons which are necessary to the uderstanding of the history of a basin where classical chronological markers do not exist.

  2. Comparison of Propensity Score Methods and Covariate Adjustment: Evaluation in 4 Cardiovascular Studies.

    PubMed

    Elze, Markus C; Gregson, John; Baber, Usman; Williamson, Elizabeth; Sartori, Samantha; Mehran, Roxana; Nichols, Melissa; Stone, Gregg W; Pocock, Stuart J

    2017-01-24

    Propensity scores (PS) are an increasingly popular method to adjust for confounding in observational studies. Propensity score methods have theoretical advantages over conventional covariate adjustment, but their relative performance in real-word scenarios is poorly characterized. We used datasets from 4 large-scale cardiovascular observational studies (PROMETHEUS, ADAPT-DES [the Assessment of Dual AntiPlatelet Therapy with Drug-Eluting Stents], THIN [The Health Improvement Network], and CHARM [Candesartan in Heart Failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity]) to compare the performance of conventional covariate adjustment with 4 common PS methods: matching, stratification, inverse probability weighting, and use of PS as a covariate. We found that stratification performed poorly with few outcome events, and inverse probability weighting gave imprecise estimates of treatment effect and undue influence to a small number of observations when substantial confounding was present. Covariate adjustment and matching performed well in all of our examples, although matching tended to give less precise estimates in some cases. PS methods are not necessarily superior to conventional covariate adjustment, and care should be taken to select the most suitable method.

  3. Self-adjusting grid methods for one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.; Hyman, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The automatic adjustment of a grid which follows the dynamics of the numerical solution of hyperbolic conservation laws is given. The grid motion is determined by averaging the local characteristic velocities of the equations with respect to the amplitudes of the signals. The resulting algorithm is a simple extension of many currently popular Godunov-type methods. Computer codes using one of these methods can be easily modified to add the moving mesh as an option. Numerical examples are given that illustrate the improved accuracy of Godunov's and Roe's methods on a self-adjusting mesh. Previously announced in STAR as N83-15008

  4. 41 CFR 302-7.304 - When HHG are shipped under the actual expense method, and PBP&E as an administrative expense, in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) Agency Responsibilities § 302-7.304 When HHG are shipped under the actual expense method, and PBP&E as an... under the actual expense method, and PBP&E as an administrative expense, in the same lot, are...

  5. Validating the plate mapping method: Comparing drawn foods and actual foods of university students in a cafeteria.

    PubMed

    Sharp, David E

    2016-05-01

    To examine effects of plate size on meals, I developed a method I label plate mapping. To validate plate mapping, a quasi-experimental between participants study was conducted that asked university students to accurately draw their lunch meal. Participants were randomized into groups where they were asked either pre-consumption or post-consumption to draw their lunch on either a 9″ or 11″ paper plate. Coding plate drawings for total meal size revealed that students drew bigger meals on larger plates and participant meal size drawings were more accurate when the plate provided was the same size as the meal plate used. Gender moderated meal size drawings, with women generally drawing meals that were more highly correlated and similarly sized to actual meals when compared to the drawings of men. Overall, the size of plate drawings was highly correlated with the size of actual foods, which provides support for the validity of the method of plate mapping. These findings suggest that plate mapping can be applied to estimate meal size and assess sensitivity to plate size. Gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms and processes that influence food consumption habits can help increase awareness of these cues for both academics as well as for consumers of food and benefit short- and long-term health goals.

  6. Estimating the actual ET from a pecan farm using the OPEC energy-balance and Penman- Monteith methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debele, B.; Bawazir, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    Accurate estimation of ET from field crops/orchards is the basis for better irrigation water management. In areas like Mesilla Valley, NM, where water is scarce, it is even more important to precisely determine the crop ET. An OPEC energy balance system was run for 117 days (June 22 October 14, 2001) in a matured pecan farm at Mesilla Valley, NM. The actual evapotranspiration (ET) from pecan orchards was determined from the surface energy balance as a residual, having measured the net radiation, soil heat flux, and sensible heat components using the OPEC method. Since pecans are large trees, we have also examined the effect of including thermal energies stored in the air (Ga) and plant canopy (Gc), on top of the commonly used thermal energy stored in the soil (Gs), on surface energy balance, and hence ET. The results indicate that incorporating thermal energies stored in the air and canopy has a significant effect on total energy storage for shorter temporal resolutions, such as 30-minutes and an hour. Conversely, for longer temporal resolutions (e.g., diurnal and monthly averages), the effect of including thermal energies stored in the air and vegetation on total thermal energy storage is negligible. Our results also showed that the bulk of the total thermal energy storage (G = Gs + Ga + Gc) in the surface energy balance was stored in the soil (Gs). In addition, we have also determined the crop coefficient (Kc) of pecan by combining the actual ET obtained from the OPEC method and potential ET (ET0) calculated using weather data in the surrounding area. Our average pecan Kc values were comparable with the ones reported by other researchers using different methods. We conclude that the OPEC energy balance method can be used to calculate Kc values for pecan whereby farmers and extension agents use the calculated Kc values in combination with ET0 to determine the consumptive use of pecan trees.

  7. Adjustment method for embedded metrology engine in an EM773 series microcontroller.

    PubMed

    Blazinšek, Iztok; Kotnik, Bojan; Chowdhury, Amor; Kačič, Zdravko

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the problems of implementation and adjustment (calibration) of a metrology engine embedded in NXP's EM773 series microcontroller. The metrology engine is used in a smart metering application to collect data about energy utilization and is controlled with the use of metrology engine adjustment (calibration) parameters. The aim of this research is to develop a method which would enable the operators to find and verify the optimum parameters which would ensure the best possible accuracy. Properly adjusted (calibrated) metrology engines can then be used as a base for variety of products used in smart and intelligent environments. This paper focuses on the problems encountered in the development, partial automatisation, implementation and verification of this method.

  8. 48 CFR 52.222-31 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements-Price Adjustment (Percentage Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction Wage Rate... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-31 Construction Wage Rate Requirements—Price Adjustment (Percentage Method). As prescribed in 22.407(f), insert the following clause: Construction Wage...

  9. A REVIEW OF STATISTICAL METHODS FOR THE METEOROLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE. (R825173)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A variety of statistical methods for meteorological adjustment of ozone have been proposed in the literature over the last decade for purposes of forecasting, estimating ozone time trends, or investigating underlying mechanisms from an empirical perspective. T...

  10. Methods for adjusting for bias due to crossover in oncology trials.

    PubMed

    Ishak, K Jack; Proskorovsky, Irina; Korytowsky, Beata; Sandin, Rickard; Faivre, Sandrine; Valle, Juan

    2014-06-01

    Trials of new oncology treatments often involve a crossover element in their design that allows patients receiving the control treatment to crossover to receive the experimental treatment at disease progression or when sufficient evidence about the efficacy of the new treatment is achieved. Crossover leads to contamination of the initial randomized groups due to a mixing of the effects of the control and experimental treatments in the reference group. This is further complicated by the fact that crossover is often a very selective process whereby patients who switch treatment have a different prognosis than those who do not. Standard statistical techniques, including those that attempt to account for the treatment switch, cannot fully adjust for the bias introduced by crossover. Specialized methods such as rank-preserving structural failure time (RPSFT) models and inverse probability of censoring weighted (IPCW) analyses are designed to deal with selective treatment switching and have been increasingly applied to adjust for crossover. We provide an overview of the crossover problem and highlight circumstances under which it is likely to cause bias. We then describe the RPSFT and IPCW methods and explain how these methods adjust for the bias, highlighting the assumptions invoked in the process. Our aim is to facilitate understanding of these complex methods using a case study to support explanations. We also discuss the implications of crossover adjustment on cost-effectiveness results.

  11. Thriving, Managing, and Struggling: A Mixed Methods Study of Adolescent African Refugees’ Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen; Levin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this mixed method study was to characterize the patterns of psychosocial adjustment among adolescent African refugees in U.S. resettlement. Methods A purposive sample of 73 recently resettled refugee adolescents from Burundi and Liberia were followed for two years and qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed using a mixed methods exploratory design. Results Protective resources identified were the family and community capacities that can promote youth psychosocial adjustment through: 1) Finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) Social support networks; 4) Engaged parenting; 5) Family cohesion; 6) Cultural adherence and guidance; 7) Educational support; and, 8) Faith and religious involvement. The researchers first inductively identified 19 thriving, 29 managing, and 25 struggling youths based on review of cases. Univariate analyses then indicated significant associations with country of origin, parental education, and parental employment. Multiple regressions indicated that better psychosocial adjustment was associated with Liberians and living with both parents. Logistic regressions showed that thriving was associated with Liberians and higher parental education, managing with more parental education, and struggling with Burundians and living parents. Qualitative analysis identified how these factors were proxy indicators for protective resources in families and communities. Conclusion These three trajectories of psychosocial adjustment and six domains of protective resources could assist in developing targeted prevention programs and policies for refugee youth. Further rigorous longitudinal mixed-methods study of adolescent refugees in U.S. resettlement are needed. PMID:24205467

  12. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work. PMID:26672809

  13. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-08-01

    Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work.

  14. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    King, William D.; Hay, Michael S.

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  15. A regional method for craniofacial reconstruction based on coordinate adjustments and a new fusion strategy.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qingqiong; Zhou, Mingquan; Wu, Zhongke; Shui, Wuyang; Ji, Yuan; Wang, Xingce; Liu, Ching Yiu Jessica; Huang, Youliang; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-02-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction recreates a facial outlook from the cranium based on the relationship between the face and the skull to assist identification. But craniofacial structures are very complex, and this relationship is not the same in different craniofacial regions. Several regional methods have recently been proposed, these methods segmented the face and skull into regions, and the relationship of each region is then learned independently, after that, facial regions for a given skull are estimated and finally glued together to generate a face. Most of these regional methods use vertex coordinates to represent the regions, and they define a uniform coordinate system for all of the regions. Consequently, the inconsistence in the positions of regions between different individuals is not eliminated before learning the relationships between the face and skull regions, and this reduces the accuracy of the craniofacial reconstruction. In order to solve this problem, an improved regional method is proposed in this paper involving two types of coordinate adjustments. One is the global coordinate adjustment performed on the skulls and faces with the purpose to eliminate the inconsistence of position and pose of the heads; the other is the local coordinate adjustment performed on the skull and face regions with the purpose to eliminate the inconsistence of position of these regions. After these two coordinate adjustments, partial least squares regression (PLSR) is used to estimate the relationship between the face region and the skull region. In order to obtain a more accurate reconstruction, a new fusion strategy is also proposed in the paper to maintain the reconstructed feature regions when gluing the facial regions together. This is based on the observation that the feature regions usually have less reconstruction errors compared to rest of the face. The results demonstrate that the coordinate adjustments and the new fusion strategy can significantly improve the

  16. Uranium associations with kidney outcomes vary by urine concentration adjustment method.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Rebecca; Kim, Nam-Soo; Parsons, Patrick J; Lee, Byung-Kook; Agnew, Jacqueline; Jaar, Bernard G; Steuerwald, Amy J; Matanoski, Genevieve; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Brian S; Todd, Andrew C; Simon, David; Weaver, Virginia M

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is a ubiquitous metal that is nephrotoxic at high doses. Few epidemiologic studies have examined the kidney filtration impact of chronic environmental exposure. In 684 lead workers environmentally exposed to uranium, multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of uranium measured in a 4-h urine collection with measured creatinine clearance, serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated glomerular filtration rates, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). Three methods were utilized, in separate models, to adjust uranium levels for urine concentration--μg uranium/g creatinine; μg uranium/l and urine creatinine as separate covariates; and μg uranium/4 h. Median urine uranium levels were 0.07 μg/g creatinine and 0.02 μg/4 h and were highly correlated (rs=0.95). After adjustment, higher ln-urine uranium was associated with lower measured creatinine clearance and higher NAG in models that used urine creatinine to adjust for urine concentration but not in models that used total uranium excreted (μg/4 h). These results suggest that, in some instances, associations between urine toxicants and kidney outcomes may be statistical, due to the use of urine creatinine in both exposure and outcome metrics, rather than nephrotoxic. These findings support consideration of non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration in nephrotoxicant research.

  17. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    PubMed Central

    Mhaidat, Fatin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades) enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure) and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. PMID:27175098

  18. Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment for irregularly shaped food product volume measurement.

    PubMed

    Siswantoro, Joko; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Abdullah, Azizi; Idrus, Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method.

  19. Percutaneous adjustment method for transversely migrated spinal cord stimulation leads: a technical report.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sang Yoon; Ji, Jae Young; Yoo, Sie Hyeon; Chon, Jin Young; Jung, Sung Hoon; Moon, Ho Sik

    2015-12-01

    Lead migration is the most common complication of spinal cord stimulation (SCS). However, the only corrective method for lead migration is revision surgery, which may cause additional complications. Here, we describe a new technique for adjusting a transversely migrated SCS lead. The medical records of four patients diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (n = 3) or failed back surgery syndrome (n = 1) who underwent implantation of percutaneous leads for SCS were retrospectively reviewed. Transverse lead migration was diagnosed radiographically after patients reported recurrence of pain or numbness in treated sites. The guide wire from the SCS implant kit was bent and inserted into the target epidural space using a 14-gauge Tuohy needle. When the guide wire contacted the migrated SCS lead, they were advanced to the correct location under C-arm guidance. After re-adjustment of the SCS lead, good coverage of the electrical stimulation was confirmed. Patients were followed for 9-19 months and they reported satisfactory pain relief and good electrical coverage after adjusting the SCS lead. Here, we describe a new technique for adjusting a transversely migrated SCS lead using a percutaneous epidural approach as a simple, safe, and cost-effective alternative to revision surgery.

  20. Contrast discrimination by the methods of adjustment and two-alternative forced choice.

    PubMed

    Laming, Donald

    2013-11-01

    Fifty years after the advent of signal-detection theory, some visual scientists still adhere to the notion of a high, fixed threshold. Indeed, experienced observers are able to deliver consistent settings of thresholds using the method of adjustment, but those settings are different from the thresholds obtained with two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) procedures. This article illustrates the difference by reference to four existing studies of contrast discrimination. All four sets of data show clear subthreshold facilitation, but the method of adjustment produces a rectilinear characteristic that corresponds to the use of different criteria over different ranges of contrast, whereas 2AFC procedures produce a curvilinear characteristic with generally lower thresholds. This article proposes a theoretical explanation for the difference.

  1. A Bayesian adaptive blinded sample size adjustment method for risk differences.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Andrew Montgomery

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive sample size adjustment (SSA) for clinical trials consists of examining early subsets of on trial data to adjust estimates of sample size requirements. Blinded SSA is often preferred over unblinded SSA because it obviates many logistical complications of the latter and generally introduces less bias. On the other hand, current blinded SSA methods for binary data offer little to no new information about the treatment effect, ignore uncertainties associated with the population treatment proportions, and/or depend on enhanced randomization schemes that risk partial unblinding. I propose an innovative blinded SSA method for use when the primary analysis is a non-inferiority or superiority test regarding a risk difference. The method incorporates evidence about the treatment effect via the likelihood function of a mixture distribution. I compare the new method with an established one and with the fixed sample size study design, in terms of maximization of an expected utility function. The new method maximizes the expected utility better than do the comparators, under a range of assumptions. I illustrate the use of the proposed method with an example that incorporates a Bayesian hierarchical model. Lastly, I suggest topics for future study regarding the proposed methods.

  2. A comparison of confounding adjustment methods for assessment of asthma controller medication effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingling; Vollmer, William M; Butler, Melissa G; Wu, Pingsheng; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Wu, Ann Chen

    2014-03-01

    We compared the impact of 3 confounding adjustment procedures-covariate-adjusted regression, propensity score regression, and high-dimensional propensity score regression-to assess the effects of selected asthma controller medication use (leukotriene antagonists and inhaled corticosteroids) on the following 4 asthma-related adverse outcomes: emergency department visits, hospitalizations, oral corticosteroid use, and the composite outcome of these. We examined a cohort of 24,680 new users who were 4-17 years of age at the incident dispensing from the Population-Based Effectiveness in Asthma and Lung Diseases (PEAL) Network of 5 commercial health plans and TennCare, the Tennessee Medicaid program, during the period January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2010. The 3 methods yielded similar results, indicating that pediatric patients treated with leukotriene antagonists were no more likely than those treated with inhaled corticosteroids to experience adverse outcomes. Children in the TennCare population who had a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and who then initiated the use of leukotriene antagonists were less likely to experience an asthma-related emergency department visit. A plausible explanation is that our data set is large enough that the 2 advanced propensity score-based analyses do not have advantages over the traditional covariate-adjusted regression approach. We provide important observations on how to correctly apply the methods in observational data analysis and suggest statistical research areas that need more work to guide implementation.

  3. Convenient synthesis of silver nanowires with adjustable diameters via a solvothermal method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dapeng; Qiao, Xueliang; Qiu, Xiaolin; Chen, Jianguo; Jiang, Renzhi

    2010-04-15

    Silver nanowires have been successfully synthesized via a simple solvothermal method by adding sodium sulfide (Na(2)S) into the solution. The Ag(2)S colloids produced in the initial stage help reduce the concentration of free Ag(+) ions in the initial formation of silver seeds and subsequently release Ag(+) ions to the solution. Otherwise, there is no oxidative etching owing to the absence of oxygen. In these cases, silver nanowires are grown preferentially. Furthermore, silver nanowires with adjustable diameters can be obtained by adjusting the concentration of Na(2)S. Electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and absorption spectra have been used to investigate the products, and a mechanism is proposed to interpret the controlled synthesis of silver nanowires. Finally, our results indicate that this approach provides a versatile route to prepare silver nanowires with controllable diameters.

  4. An automatic step adjustment method for average power analysis technique used in fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Ming

    2006-04-01

    An automatic step adjustment (ASA) method for average power analysis (APA) technique used in fiber amplifiers is proposed in this paper for the first time. In comparison with the traditional APA technique, the proposed method has suggested two unique merits such as a higher order accuracy and an ASA mechanism, so that it can significantly shorten the computing time and improve the solution accuracy. A test example demonstrates that, by comparing to the APA technique, the proposed method increases the computing speed by more than a hundredfold under the same errors. By computing the model equations of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, the numerical results show that our method can improve the solution accuracy by over two orders of magnitude at the same amplifying section number. The proposed method has the capacity to rapidly and effectively compute the model equations of fiber Raman amplifiers and semiconductor lasers.

  5. Early Parental Positive Behavior Support and Childhood Adjustment: Addressing Enduring Questions with New Methods

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Winter, Charlotte E.; Wilson, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children’s adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design. Observational and parent-reported data from mother–child dyads (N = 731; 49 percent female) were collected from a high-risk sample at age 2. Follow-up data were collected via teacher report and child assessment at age 7.5. The results supported combining three different observational methods to assess positive behavior support at age 2 within a latent factor. Further, parents’ observed positive behavior support at age 2 predicted multiple types of teacher-reported and child-assessed problem behavior and competencies at 7.5 years old. Results supported the validity and predictive capability of a multi-method observational measure of parenting and the importance of a continued focus on the early years within preventive interventions. PMID:26997757

  6. Adjusted Levenberg-Marquardt method application to methene retrieval from IASI/METOP spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamatnurova, Marina; Gribanov, Konstantin

    2016-04-01

    Levenberg-Marquardt method [1] with iteratively adjusted parameter and simultaneous evaluation of averaging kernels together with technique of parameters selection are developed and applied to the retrieval of methane vertical profiles in the atmosphere from IASI/METOP spectra. Retrieved methane vertical profiles are then used for calculation of total atmospheric column amount. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data provided by ESRL (NOAA, Boulder,USA) [2] are taken as initial guess for retrieval algorithm. Surface temperature, temperature and humidity vertical profiles are retrieved before methane vertical profile retrieval for each selected spectrum. Modified software package FIRE-ARMS [3] were used for numerical experiments. To adjust parameters and validate the method we used ECMWF MACC reanalysis data [4]. Methane columnar values retrieved from cloudless IASI spectra demonstrate good agreement with MACC columnar values. Comparison is performed for IASI spectra measured in May of 2012 over Western Siberia. Application of the method for current IASI/METOP measurements are discussed. 1.Ma C., Jiang L. Some Research on Levenberg-Marquardt Method for the Nonlinear Equations // Applied Mathematics and Computation. 2007. V.184. P. 1032-1040 2.http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psdhttp://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd 3.Gribanov K.G., Zakharov V.I., Tashkun S.A., Tyuterev Vl.G.. A New Software Tool for Radiative Transfer Calculations and its application to IMG/ADEOS data // JQSRT.2001.V.68.№ 4. P. 435-451. 4.http://www.ecmwf.int/http://www.ecmwf.int

  7. Early Parental Positive Behavior Support and Childhood Adjustment: Addressing Enduring Questions with New Methods.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Winter, Charlotte E; Wilson, Melvin

    2015-05-01

    A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children's adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design. Observational and parent-reported data from mother-child dyads (N = 731; 49 percent female) were collected from a high-risk sample at age 2. Follow-up data were collected via teacher report and child assessment at age 7.5. The results supported combining three different observational methods to assess positive behavior support at age 2 within a latent factor. Further, parents' observed positive behavior support at age 2 predicted multiple types of teacher-reported and child-assessed problem behavior and competencies at 7.5 years old. Results supported the validity and predictive capability of a multi-method observational measure of parenting and the importance of a continued focus on the early years within preventive interventions.

  8. Measurement of thin film adhesion by single cantilever beam method equipped with adjustable jig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong-Kil; Lee, Jung-Ju; Hawong, Jai-Sug

    2015-03-01

    A new method to measure the tensile adhesion of thin film was proposed. A single cantilever beam method was used and an efficient adjustable jig was designed to minimize errors induced by misalignment of specimen. Applied load and displacement were recorded by data acquisition system. The dimensions of the specimen and conditions of test were preexamined by finite element analysis. Developed method was applied to measure the adhesion of thin film adhesive. Test results were independent of initial deviation of specimen alignment and showed consistent value with respect to crack length. Compared with shear test method, it was shown that the shear adhesion included the effect of thickness of adhesive, however, tensile adhesion was independent of the thickness of adhesive.

  9. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOEpatents

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  10. A Newton-Raphson Method Approach to Adjusting Multi-Source Solar Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, David B.; Wolford, David S.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been using an in house designed X25 based multi-source solar simulator since 2003. The simulator is set up for triple junction solar cells prior to measurements b y adjusting the three sources to produce the correct short circuit current, lsc, in each of three AM0 calibrated sub-cells. The past practice has been to adjust one source on one sub-cell at a time, iterating until all the sub-cells have the calibrated Isc. The new approach is to create a matrix of measured lsc for small source changes on each sub-cell. A matrix, A, is produced. This is normalized to unit changes in the sources so that Ax(delta)s = (delta)isc. This matrix can now be inverted and used with the known Isc differences from the AM0 calibrated values to indicate changes in the source settings, (delta)s = A ·'x.(delta)isc This approach is still an iterative one, but all sources are changed during each iteration step. It typically takes four to six steps to converge on the calibrated lsc values. Even though the source lamps may degrade over time, the initial matrix evaluation i s not performed each time, since measurement matrix needs to be only approximate. Because an iterative approach is used the method will still continue to be valid. This method may become more important as state-of-the-art solar cell junction responses overlap the sources of the simulator. Also, as the number of cell junctions and sources increase, this method should remain applicable.

  11. Methods, systems and apparatus for adjusting duty cycle of pulse width modulated (PWM) waveforms

    DOEpatents

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Kinoshita, Michael H; Ransom, Ray M; Perisic, Milun

    2013-05-21

    Embodiments of the present invention relate to methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of a multi-phase machine in a vector controlled motor drive system when the multi-phase machine operates in an overmodulation region. The disclosed embodiments provide a mechanism for adjusting a duty cycle of PWM waveforms so that the correct phase voltage command signals are applied at the angle transitions. This can reduce variations/errors in the phase voltage command signals applied to the multi-phase machine so that phase current may be properly regulated thus reducing current/torque oscillation, which can in turn improve machine efficiency and performance, as well as utilization of the DC voltage source.

  12. Mass transport analysis: inhalation rfc methods framework for interspecies dosimetric adjustment.

    PubMed

    Hanna, L M; Lou, S R; Su, S; Jarabek, A M

    2001-05-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency introduced dosimetry modeling into the methods used to derive an inhalation reference concentration (RfC). The type of dosimetric adjustment factor (DAF) applied had to span the range of physicochemical characteristics of the gases listed on the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1991 as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and accommodate differences in available data with respect to their toxicokinetic properties. A framework was proposed that allowed for a hierarchy of dosimetry model structures, from optimal to rudimentary, and a category scheme that provided for limiting model structures based on physicochemical and toxicokinetic properties. These limiting cases were developed from restricting consideration to specific properties relying on an understanding of the generalized system based on mass transport theory. Physiochemical characteristics included the solubility and reactivity (e.g., propensity to dissociate, oxidize, or serve as a metabolic substrate) of the gas and were used as major determinants of absorption. Dosimetric adjustments were developed to evaluate portal of entry (POE) effects as well as remote (systemic) effects relevant to the toxicokinetic properties of the gas of interest. The gas categorization scheme consisted of defining three gas categories: (1) gases that are highly soluble and/or reactive, absorbing primarily in the extrathoracic airways; (2) gases that are moderately soluble and/or reactive, absorbing throughout the airways, as well as accumulating in the bloodstream; and (3) gases that have a low water solubility and are lipid soluble such that they are primarily absorbed in the pulmonary region and likely to act systemically. This article presents the framework and the mass transport theory behind the RfC method. Comparison to compartmental approaches and considerations for future development are also discussed.

  13. The Non-linear Logarithm Method (NLLM) to adjust the color deviation of fluorescent images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Ju; Chang, Han-Chao; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Chang, Chung-Hsing

    2013-06-01

    Fluorescence objects can be excited by ultraviolet (UV) light and emit a specific light of longer wavelength in biomedical experiments. However, UV light causes a deviation in the blue violet color of fluorescent images. Therefore, this study presents a color deviation adjustment method to recover the color of fluorescent image to the hue observed under normal white light, while retaining the UV light-excited fluorescent area in the reconstructed image. Based on the Gray World Method, we proposed a non-linear logarithm method (NLLM) to restore the color deviation of fluorescent images by using a yellow filter attached to the front of a digital camera lens in the experiment. Subsequently, the luminance datum of objects can be divided into the red, green, and blue (R/G/B) components which can determine the appropriate intensity of chromatic colors. In general, the datum of fluorescent images transformed into the CIE 1931 color space can be used to evaluate the quality of reconstructed images by the distribution of x-y coordinates. From the experiment, the proposed method NLLM can recover more than 90% color deviation and the reconstructed images can approach to the real color of fluorescent object illuminated by white light.

  14. Simulation on how to customize glucose adjustment method for non-invasive blood glucose sensing by NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Xiaolin; Jiang, Jingying; Zou, Da; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the limitations of taking OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) as the glucose adjustment protocol for non-invasive blood glucose sensing. Previous studies built a mathematical model of glucose metabolism system-IMM (the Integrated Minimal Model) to probe other available adjustment methods. In this talk, a further study would be focused on more detailed combination options of different glucose input types for glucose adjustment projects in non-invasive blood glucose sensing. And predictive models of blood glucose concentration have been established by means of partial least squares (PLS) method, which could be used to evaluate the quality of different glucose adjustment options. Results of PLS modeling suggested that predictive models under combined glucose input types, compared with OGTT, show a great enhancement in the stability. This would finally improve the precision of non-invasive blood glucose sensing.

  15. Calculations for Adjusting Endogenous Biomarker Levels During Analytical Recovery Assessments for Ligand-Binding Assay Bioanalytical Method Validation.

    PubMed

    Marcelletti, John F; Evans, Cindy L; Saxena, Manju; Lopez, Adriana E

    2015-07-01

    It is often necessary to adjust for detectable endogenous biomarker levels in spiked validation samples (VS) and in selectivity determinations during bioanalytical method validation for ligand-binding assays (LBA) with a matrix like normal human serum (NHS). Described herein are case studies of biomarker analyses using multiplex LBA which highlight the challenges associated with such adjustments when calculating percent analytical recovery (%AR). The LBA test methods were the Meso Scale Discovery V-PLEX® proinflammatory and cytokine panels with NHS as test matrix. The NHS matrix blank exhibited varied endogenous content of the 20 individual cytokines before spiking, ranging from undetectable to readily quantifiable. Addition and subtraction methods for adjusting endogenous cytokine levels in %AR calculations are both used in the bioanalytical field. The two methods were compared in %AR calculations following spiking and analysis of VS for cytokines having detectable endogenous levels in NHS. Calculations for %AR obtained by subtracting quantifiable endogenous biomarker concentrations from the respective total analytical VS values yielded reproducible and credible conclusions. The addition method, in contrast, yielded %AR conclusions that were frequently unreliable and discordant with values obtained with the subtraction adjustment method. It is shown that subtraction of assay signal attributable to matrix is a feasible alternative when endogenous biomarkers levels are below the limit of quantitation, but above the limit of detection. These analyses confirm that the subtraction method is preferable over that using addition to adjust for detectable endogenous biomarker levels when calculating %AR for biomarker LBA.

  16. 48 CFR 52.222-31 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Percentage Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Davis-Bacon Act to provide for an increase in wages and fringe benefits at the exercise of each... price adjustment at the exercise of each option to extend the term of the contract. This adjustment is... benefits as a result of— (1) Incorporation of the Department of Labor's wage determination applicable...

  17. Design of cross-coupled planar microstrip band-pass filters using a novel adjustment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkafaji, Muhammed S. S.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper the design of a cross-coupled planar microwave band-pass filter using open-loop square microstrip resonators, with two symmetrically placed attenuation poles, is presented. The design starts from the following specifications: central frequency 3GHz, 150MHz bandwidth, 1dB ripple in the pass-band corresponding to return loss of 6.8dB.The adjustment method using additional ports placed on each resonator of the filter is used, allowing the interconnection of the filter structure with external lumped elements. Connecting a reactive element (capacitor) from such an additional port to ground allows a fine tuning of the resonator. Connecting a reactive element between two such additional ports allows a fine change in the coupling coefficient between these resonators. After adding four extra ports and connecting the external elements (capacitors), it is possible to use fast circuit simulation software to optimize the filter's response. Then all these capacitors have to be gradually eliminated, by compensating their effects through fine changes back in the layouts. If some specific issues are properly handled, this procedure improves considerably the quality of the final design of the filter. After a thorough optimization of the layout, the filter was fabricated and measured. The results of measurements are in good agreement with the specifications of the filter, showing this way the efficiency of the applied optimization method.

  18. Empirical Assessment of Spatial Prediction Methods for Location Cost Adjustment Factors.

    PubMed

    Migliaccio, Giovanni C; Guindani, Michele; D'Incognito, Maria; Zhang, Linlin

    2013-07-01

    In the feasibility stage, the correct prediction of construction costs ensures that budget requirements are met from the start of a project's lifecycle. A very common approach for performing quick-order-of-magnitude estimates is based on using Location Cost Adjustment Factors (LCAFs) that compute historically based costs by project location. Nowadays, numerous LCAF datasets are commercially available in North America, but, obviously, they do not include all locations. Hence, LCAFs for un-sampled locations need to be inferred through spatial interpolation or prediction methods. Currently, practitioners tend to select the value for a location using only one variable, namely the nearest linear-distance between two sites. However, construction costs could be affected by socio-economic variables as suggested by macroeconomic theories. Using a commonly used set of LCAFs, the City Cost Indexes (CCI) by RSMeans, and the socio-economic variables included in the ESRI Community Sourcebook, this article provides several contributions to the body of knowledge. First, the accuracy of various spatial prediction methods in estimating LCAF values for un-sampled locations was evaluated and assessed in respect to spatial interpolation methods. Two Regression-based prediction models were selected, a Global Regression Analysis and a Geographically-weighted regression analysis (GWR). Once these models were compared against interpolation methods, the results showed that GWR is the most appropriate way to model CCI as a function of multiple covariates. The outcome of GWR, for each covariate, was studied for all the 48 states in the contiguous US. As a direct consequence of spatial non-stationarity, it was possible to discuss the influence of each single covariate differently from state to state. In addition, the article includes a first attempt to determine if the observed variability in cost index values could be, at least partially explained by independent socio-economic variables.

  19. Empirical Assessment of Spatial Prediction Methods for Location Cost Adjustment Factors

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Giovanni C.; Guindani, Michele; D'Incognito, Maria; Zhang, Linlin

    2014-01-01

    In the feasibility stage, the correct prediction of construction costs ensures that budget requirements are met from the start of a project's lifecycle. A very common approach for performing quick-order-of-magnitude estimates is based on using Location Cost Adjustment Factors (LCAFs) that compute historically based costs by project location. Nowadays, numerous LCAF datasets are commercially available in North America, but, obviously, they do not include all locations. Hence, LCAFs for un-sampled locations need to be inferred through spatial interpolation or prediction methods. Currently, practitioners tend to select the value for a location using only one variable, namely the nearest linear-distance between two sites. However, construction costs could be affected by socio-economic variables as suggested by macroeconomic theories. Using a commonly used set of LCAFs, the City Cost Indexes (CCI) by RSMeans, and the socio-economic variables included in the ESRI Community Sourcebook, this article provides several contributions to the body of knowledge. First, the accuracy of various spatial prediction methods in estimating LCAF values for un-sampled locations was evaluated and assessed in respect to spatial interpolation methods. Two Regression-based prediction models were selected, a Global Regression Analysis and a Geographically-weighted regression analysis (GWR). Once these models were compared against interpolation methods, the results showed that GWR is the most appropriate way to model CCI as a function of multiple covariates. The outcome of GWR, for each covariate, was studied for all the 48 states in the contiguous US. As a direct consequence of spatial non-stationarity, it was possible to discuss the influence of each single covariate differently from state to state. In addition, the article includes a first attempt to determine if the observed variability in cost index values could be, at least partially explained by independent socio-economic variables. PMID

  20. Method of Adjusting Acoustic Impedances for Impedance-Tunable Acoustic Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H (Inventor); Nark, Douglas M. (Inventor); Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Parrott, Tony L. (Inventor); Lodding, Kenneth N. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method is provided for making localized decisions and taking localized actions to achieve a global solution. In an embodiment of the present invention, acoustic impedances for impedance-tunable acoustic segments are adjusted. A first acoustic segment through an N-th acoustic segment are defined. To start the process, the first acoustic segment is designated as a leader and a noise-reducing impedance is determined therefor. This is accomplished using (i) one or more metrics associated with the acoustic wave at the leader, and (ii) the metric(s) associated with the acoustic wave at the N-th acoustic segment. The leader, the N-th acoustic segment, and each of the acoustic segments exclusive of the leader and the N-th acoustic segment, are tuned to the noise-reducing impedance. The current leader is then excluded from subsequent processing steps. The designation of leader is then given one of the remaining acoustic segments, and the process is repeated for each of the acoustic segments through an (N-1)-th one of the acoustic segments.

  1. Method of Individual Adjustment for 3D CT Analysis: Linear Measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Kyu; Choi, Dong Hun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Yang, Jung Dug; Chung, Ho Yun; Cho, Byung Chae; Choi, Kang Young

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We aim to regularize measurement values in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) reconstructed images for higher-precision 3D analysis, focusing on length-based 3D cephalometric examinations. Methods. We measure the linear distances between points on different skull models using Vernier calipers (real values). We use 10 differently tilted CT scans for 3D CT reconstruction of the models and measure the same linear distances from the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). In both cases, each measurement is performed three times by three doctors, yielding nine measurements. The real values are compared with the PACS values. Each PACS measurement is revised based on the display field of view (DFOV) values and compared with the real values. Results. The real values and the PACS measurement changes according to tilt value have no significant correlations (p > 0.05). However, significant correlations appear between the real values and DFOV-adjusted PACS measurements (p < 0.001). Hence, we obtain a correlation expression that can yield real physical values from PACS measurements. The DFOV value intervals for various age groups are also verified. Conclusion. Precise confirmation of individual preoperative length and precise analysis of postoperative improvements through 3D analysis is possible, which is helpful for facial-bone-surgery symmetry correction.

  2. A python module to normalize microarray data by the quantile adjustment method.

    PubMed

    Baber, Ibrahima; Tamby, Jean Philippe; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Sangaré, Djibril; Doumbia, Seydou; Traoré, Sekou F; Maiga, Mohamed S; Dembélé, Doulaye

    2011-06-01

    Microarray technology is widely used for gene expression research targeting the development of new drug treatments. In the case of a two-color microarray, the process starts with labeling DNA samples with fluorescent markers (cyanine 635 or Cy5 and cyanine 532 or Cy3), then mixing and hybridizing them on a chemically treated glass printed with probes, or fragments of genes. The level of hybridization between a strand of labeled DNA and a probe present on the array is measured by scanning the fluorescence of spots in order to quantify the expression based on the quality and number of pixels for each spot. The intensity data generated from these scans are subject to errors due to differences in fluorescence efficiency between Cy5 and Cy3, as well as variation in human handling and quality of the sample. Consequently, data have to be normalized to correct for variations which are not related to the biological phenomena under investigation. Among many existing normalization procedures, we have implemented the quantile adjustment method using the python computer language, and produced a module which can be run via an HTML dynamic form. This module is composed of different functions for data files reading, intensity and ratio computations and visualization. The current version of the HTML form allows the user to visualize the data before and after normalization. It also gives the option to subtract background noise before normalizing the data. The output results of this module are in agreement with the results of other normalization tools.

  3. Method of Individual Adjustment for 3D CT Analysis: Linear Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong Hun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Yang, Jung Dug; Chung, Ho Yun; Cho, Byung Chae

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We aim to regularize measurement values in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) reconstructed images for higher-precision 3D analysis, focusing on length-based 3D cephalometric examinations. Methods. We measure the linear distances between points on different skull models using Vernier calipers (real values). We use 10 differently tilted CT scans for 3D CT reconstruction of the models and measure the same linear distances from the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). In both cases, each measurement is performed three times by three doctors, yielding nine measurements. The real values are compared with the PACS values. Each PACS measurement is revised based on the display field of view (DFOV) values and compared with the real values. Results. The real values and the PACS measurement changes according to tilt value have no significant correlations (p > 0.05). However, significant correlations appear between the real values and DFOV-adjusted PACS measurements (p < 0.001). Hence, we obtain a correlation expression that can yield real physical values from PACS measurements. The DFOV value intervals for various age groups are also verified. Conclusion. Precise confirmation of individual preoperative length and precise analysis of postoperative improvements through 3D analysis is possible, which is helpful for facial-bone-surgery symmetry correction. PMID:28070517

  4. A Self-Driven and Adaptive Adjusting Teaching Learning Method for Optimizing Optical Multicast Network Throughput

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huanlin; Xu, Yifan; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Mingjia

    2016-09-01

    With the development of one point to multiple point applications, network resources become scarcer and wavelength channels become more crowded in optical networks. To improve the bandwidth utilization, the multicast routing algorithm based on network coding can greatly increase the resource utilization, but it is most difficult to maximize the network throughput owing to ignoring the differences between the multicast receiving nodes. For making full use of the destination nodes' receives ability to maximize optical multicast's network throughput, a new optical multicast routing algorithm based on teaching-learning-based optimization (MR-iTLBO) is proposed in the paper. In order to increase the diversity of learning, a self-driven learning method is adopted in MR-iTLBO algorithm, and the mutation operator of genetic algorithm is introduced to prevent the algorithm into a local optimum. For increasing learner's learning efficiency, an adaptive learning factor is designed to adjust the learning process. Moreover, the reconfiguration scheme based on probability vector is devised to expand its global search capability in MR-iTLBO algorithm. The simulation results show that performance in terms of network throughput and convergence rate has been improved significantly with respect to the TLBO and the variant TLBO.

  5. The forward sensitivity and adjoint-state methods of glacial isostatic adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinec, Zdeněk; Sasgen, Ingo; Velímský, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new method for computing the sensitivity of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) forward solution with respect to the Earth's mantle viscosity, the so-called the forward sensitivity method (FSM), and a method for computing the gradient of data misfit with respect to viscosity parameters, the so-called adjoint-state method (ASM), are presented. These advanced formal methods complement each other in the inverse modelling of GIA-related observations. When solving this inverse problem, the first step is to calculate the forward sensitivities by the FSM and use them to fix the model parameters that do not affect the forward model solution, as well as identifying and removing redundant parts of the inferred viscosity structure. Once the viscosity model is optimized in view of the forward sensitivities, the minimization of the data misfit with respect to the viscosity parameters can be carried out by a gradient technique which makes use of the ASM. The aim is this paper is to derive the FSM and ASM in the forms that are closely associated with the forward solver of GIA developed by Martinec. Since this method is based on a continuous form of the forward model equations, which are then discretized by spectral and finite elements, we first derive the continuous forms of the FSM and ASM and then discretize them by the spectral and finite elements used in the discretization of the forward model equations. The advantage of this approach is that all three methods (forward, FSM and ASM) have the same matrix of equations and use the same methodology for the implementation of the time evolution of stresses. The only difference between the forward method and the FSM and ASM is that the different numerical differencing schemes for the time evolution of the Maxwell and generalized Maxwell viscous stresses are applied in the respective methods. However, it requires only a little extra computational time for carrying out the FSM and ASM numerically. An

  6. Synthesizing US Colonial Climate: Available Data and a "Proxy Adjustment" Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalzal, K. S.; Munoz-Hernandez, A.; Arrigo, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    Climate and its variability is a primary driver of hydrologic systems. A paucity of instrumental data makes reconstructing seventeenth- and eighteenth-century climatic conditions along the Northeast corridor difficult, yet this information is necessary if we are to understand the conditions, changes and interactions society had with hydrosystems during this first period of permanent European settlement. For this period (approx. 1600- 1800) there are instrumental records for some regions such as annual temperature and precipitation data for Philadelphia beginning in 1738; Cambridge, Mass., from 1747-1776; and temperature for New Haven, Conn., from 1780 to 1800. There are also paleorecords, including tree-rings analyses and sediment core examinations of pollen and overwash deposits, and historical accounts of extreme weather events. Our analyses of these data show that correlating even the available data is less than straightforward. To produce a "best track" climate record, we introduce a new method of "paleoadjustment" as a means to characterize climate statistical properties as opposed to a strict reconstruction. Combining the instrumented record with the paleorecord, we estimated two sets of climate forcings to use in colonial hydrology study. The first utilized a recent instrumented record (1817-1917) from Baltimore, Md, statistically adjusted in 20-year windows to match trends in the paleorecords and anecdotal evidence from the Middle Colonies and Chesapeake Bay region. The second was a regression reconstruction for New England using climate indices developed from journal records and the Cambridge, Mass., instrumental record. The two climate reconstructions were used to compute the annual potential water yield over the 200-year period of interest. A comparison of these results allowed us to make preliminary conclusions regarding the effect of climate on hydrology during the colonial period. We contend that an understanding of historical hydrology will improve

  7. Numerical method for the estimation of column radial heterogeneity and of the actual column efficiency from tailing peak profiles.

    PubMed

    Miyabe, Kanji; Guiochon, Georges

    2011-01-01

    It is probably impossible to prepare high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns that have a completely homogeneous packing structure. Many reports in the literature show that the radial distributions of the mobile phase flow velocity and the local column efficiency are not flat, even in columns considered as good. A degree of radial heterogeneity seems to be a common property of all HPLC columns and an important source of peak tailing, which prevents the derivation of accurate information on chromatographic behavior from a straightforward analysis of elution peak profiles. This work reports on a numerical method developed to derive from recorded peak profiles the column efficiency at the column center, the degree of column radial heterogeneity, and the polynomial function that best represents the radial distributions of the flow velocity and the column efficiency. This numerical method was applied to two concrete examples of tailing peak profiles previously described. It was demonstrated that this numerical method is effective to estimate important parameters characterizing the radial heterogeneity of chromatographic columns.

  8. 48 CFR 52.222-30 - Construction Wage Rate Requirements-Price Adjustment (None or Separately Specified Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction Wage Rate... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-30 Construction Wage Rate Requirements... clause: Construction Wage Rate Requirements—Price Adjustment (None or Separately Specified Method)...

  9. An evaluation and adjustment method for natural proximal contacts of crowns using diamond dental strips: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel S; Rothchild, John A; Suh, Kyu-Won

    2013-08-01

    The best way to adjust proximal contacts of newly fabricated indirect restorations has been a long-standing unresolved issue in dentistry. Excessively tight contacts cause incomplete seating of indirect restorations and intrusion of adjacent teeth, which leads to patient discomfort, hypersensitivity, and recurrent dental caries at the crown margins. When seating indirect restorations, interproximal relief should be restored as it exists in natural dentition. This article presents an innovative method of crown seating using diamond strips. This simple, consistent, method makes it easier for clinicians to provide comfortable and long-lasting restorations with minimal time and effort. Laboratory technicians utilize diamond strips to provide properly fitting indirect restorations that require minimal adjustment upon clinical delivery. Diamond strips also allow for accurate determination of heavier proximal contacts, allowing dentists to adjust the proximal contact properly in the patients' mouths. Clinically, restoring natural proximal contacts is a critical factor to the success of indirect restorations. Using this method standardizes proper proximal contact adjustments of laboratory-fabricated indirect restorations between dental labs and dental offices. The method also helps to limit or eliminate the lingering proximal contact issue between clinicians and laboratory technicians.

  10. Applications of the propensity score weighting method in psychogeriatric research: correcting selection bias and adjusting for confounders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Chou H

    2017-05-01

    The propensity score (PS) weighting method is an analytic technique that has been applied in multiple fields for a number of purposes. Here, we discuss two common applications, which are (1) to correct for selection bias and (2) to adjust for confounding variables when estimating the effect of an exposure variable on the outcome of interest.

  11. 48 CFR 52.222-30 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (None or Separately Specified Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act-Price... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-30 Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (None or Separately Specified Method). As prescribed in 22.407(e), insert the following clause: Davis-Bacon Act—Price...

  12. 48 CFR 52.222-30 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (None or Separately Specified Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act-Price... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-30 Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (None or Separately Specified Method). As prescribed in 22.407(e), insert the following clause: Davis-Bacon Act—Price...

  13. 48 CFR 52.222-30 - Davis-Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (None or Separately Specified Method).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act-Price... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-30 Davis-Bacon Act—Price Adjustment (None or Separately Specified Method). As prescribed in 22.407(e), insert the following clause: Davis-Bacon Act—Price...

  14. System and method for tuning adjusting the central frequency of a laser while maintaining frequency stabilization to an external reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey (Inventor); Thorpe, James I. (Inventor); Numata, Kenji (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and system for stabilizing a laser to a frequency reference with an adjustable offset. The method locks a sideband signal generated by passing an incoming laser beam through the phase modulator to a frequency reference, and adjusts a carrier frequency relative to the locked sideband signal by changing a phase modulation frequency input to the phase modulator. The sideband signal can be a single sideband (SSB), dual sideband (DSB), or an electronic sideband (ESB) signal. Two separate electro-optic modulators can produce the DSB signal. The two electro-optic modulators can be a broadband modulator and a resonant modulator. With a DSB signal, the method can introduce two sinusoidal phase modulations at the phase modulator. With ESB signals, the method can further drive the optical phase modulator with an electrical signal with nominal frequency OMEGA(sub 1) that is phase modulated at a frequency OMEGA(sub 2)

  15. Adjusting and positioning method with high displacement resolution for large-load worktable based on the invariable restoring force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingzhi; Sun, Tao; Gu, Wei; Wen, Zhongpu; Guo, Tenghui

    2015-02-01

    With the fast development of the advanced equipment manufacturing toward precision and ultra-precision trend, especially with the continuously improving of the aviation engine's performance, the problem of high displacement resolution for the large-load two-dimension adjusting and positioning worktable used for the aeroengine assembling become evident. A method was proposed which is based on the invariable restoring force, and the adjusting and positioning physical model was established. The experiment results indicate that under the occasion of a load with 508 kilogram, the worktable has got a displacement resolution of 0.3μm after using the improved method compared to 1.4μm of the traditional method. The improved method could meet the requirements of aviation engine assembling worktable.

  16. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  17. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  18. Preference adjustable multi-objective NMPC: An unreachable prioritized point tracking method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huirong; Shen, Jiong; Li, Yiguo; Bentsman, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new preference adjustable multi-objective model predictive control (PA-MOMPC) law for constrained nonlinear systems. With this control law, a reasonable prioritized optimal solution can be directly derived without constructing the Pareto front by solving a minimal optimization problem, which is a novel development of recently proposed utopia tracking approaches by additionally considering objective preferences with more flexible terminal and stability constraints. The tracking point of the proposed PA-MOMPC law is represented by a parametric vector with the parameters adjustable on the basis of objective preferences. The main result of this paper is that the solution obtained through the proposed PA-MOMPC law is demonstrated to have two important properties. One is the inherent Pareto optimality, and the other is the priority consistency between the solution and the tuning parametric vector. This combination makes the objective priorities tuning process transparent and efficient. The proposed PA-MOMPC law is supported by feasibility analyses, proof of nominal stability, and a numerical case study.

  19. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting

    PubMed Central

    Białek, Michał; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship). However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries—conjoint analysis—which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 and 2), and they are more stable over time (Study 2) compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods. PMID:25674069

  20. Adjusting for treatment switching in randomised controlled trials - A simulation study and a simplified two-stage method.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Nicholas R; Abrams, K R; Lambert, P C; Crowther, M J; Wailoo, A J; Morden, J P; Akehurst, R L; Campbell, M J

    2017-04-01

    Estimates of the overall survival benefit of new cancer treatments are often confounded by treatment switching in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) - whereby patients randomised to the control group are permitted to switch onto the experimental treatment upon disease progression. In health technology assessment, estimates of the unconfounded overall survival benefit associated with the new treatment are needed. Several switching adjustment methods have been advocated in the literature, some of which have been used in health technology assessment. However, it is unclear which methods are likely to produce least bias in realistic RCT-based scenarios. We simulated RCTs in which switching, associated with patient prognosis, was permitted. Treatment effect size and time dependency, switching proportions and disease severity were varied across scenarios. We assessed the performance of alternative adjustment methods based upon bias, coverage and mean squared error, related to the estimation of true restricted mean survival in the absence of switching in the control group. We found that when the treatment effect was not time-dependent, rank preserving structural failure time models (RPSFTM) and iterative parameter estimation methods produced low levels of bias. However, in the presence of a time-dependent treatment effect, these methods produced higher levels of bias, similar to those produced by an inverse probability of censoring weights method. The inverse probability of censoring weights and structural nested models produced high levels of bias when switching proportions exceeded 85%. A simplified two-stage Weibull method produced low bias across all scenarios and provided the treatment switching mechanism is suitable, represents an appropriate adjustment method.

  1. System and method of adjusting the equilibrium temperature of an inductively-heated susceptor

    DOEpatents

    Matsen, Marc R; Negley, Mark A; Geren, William Preston

    2015-02-24

    A system for inductively heating a workpiece may include an induction coil, at least one susceptor face sheet, and a current controller coupled. The induction coil may be configured to conduct an alternating current and generate a magnetic field in response to the alternating current. The susceptor face sheet may be configured to have a workpiece positioned therewith. The susceptor face sheet may be formed of a ferromagnetic alloy having a Curie temperature and being inductively heatable to an equilibrium temperature approaching the Curie temperature in response to the magnetic field. The current controller may be coupled to the induction coil and may be configured to adjust the alternating current in a manner causing a change in at least one heating parameter of the susceptor face sheet.

  2. Development and testing of a decision making based method to adjust automatically the harrowing intensity.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Ayala, Victor; Weis, Martin; Keller, Martina; Andújar, Dionisio; Gerhards, Roland

    2013-05-13

    Harrowing is often used to reduce weed competition, generally using a constant intensity across a whole field. The efficacy of weed harrowing in wheat and barley can be optimized, if site-specific conditions of soil, weed infestation and crop growth stage are taken into account. This study aimed to develop and test an algorithm to automatically adjust the harrowing intensity by varying the tine angle and number of passes. The field variability of crop leaf cover, weed density and soil density was acquired with geo-referenced sensors to investigate the harrowing selectivity and crop recovery. Crop leaf cover and weed density were assessed using bispectral cameras through differential images analysis. The draught force of the soil opposite to the direction of travel was measured with electronic load cell sensor connected to a rigid tine mounted in front of the harrow. Optimal harrowing intensity levels were derived in previously implemented experiments, based on the weed control efficacy and yield gain. The assessments of crop leaf cover, weed density and soil density were combined via rules with the aforementioned optimal intensities, in a linguistic fuzzy inference system (LFIS). The system was evaluated in two field experiments that compared constant intensities with variable intensities inferred by the system. A higher weed density reduction could be achieved when the harrowing intensity was not kept constant along the cultivated plot. Varying the intensity tended to reduce the crop leaf cover, though slightly improving crop yield. A real-time intensity adjustment with this system is achievable, if the cameras are attached in the front and at the rear or sides of the harrow.

  3. Simultaneous Variable Flip Angle – Actual Flip Angle Imaging (VAFI) Method for Improved Accuracy and Precision of Three-dimensional T1 and B1 Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Samuel A.; Yarnykh, Vasily L.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Field, Aaron S.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Samsonov, Alexey A.

    2011-01-01

    A new time-efficient and accurate technique for simultaneous mapping of T1 and B1 is proposed based on a combination of the Actual Flip angle Imaging (AFI) and Variable Flip Angle (VFA) methods: VAFI. VAFI utilizes a single AFI and one or more spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) acquisitions with a simultaneous non-linear fitting procedure to yield accurate T1/B1 maps. The advantage of VAFI is high accuracy at either short T1 times or long TR in the AFI sequence. Simulations show this method is accurate to 0.03% in FA and 0.07% in T1 for TR/T1 times over the range of 0.01 to 0.45. We show for the case of brain imaging that it is sufficient to use only one small flip angle SPGR acquisition, which results in reduced spoiling requirements and a significant scan time reduction compared to the original VFA. In-vivo validation yielded high-quality 3D T1 maps and T1 measurements within 10% of previously published values, and within a clinically acceptable scan time. The VAFI method will increase the accuracy and clinical feasibility of many quantitative MRI methods requiring T1/B1 mapping such as DCE perfusion and quantitative MTI. PMID:22139819

  4. A Novel Adjustment Method for Shearer Traction Speed through Integration of T-S Cloud Inference Network and Improved PSO

    PubMed Central

    Si, Lei; Wang, Zhongbin; Yang, Yinwei

    2014-01-01

    In order to efficiently and accurately adjust the shearer traction speed, a novel approach based on Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) cloud inference network (CIN) and improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) is proposed. The T-S CIN is built through the combination of cloud model and T-S fuzzy neural network. Moreover, the IPSO algorithm employs parameter automation adjustment strategy and velocity resetting to significantly improve the performance of basic PSO algorithm in global search and fine-tuning of the solutions, and the flowchart of proposed approach is designed. Furthermore, some simulation examples are carried out and comparison results indicate that the proposed method is feasible, efficient, and is outperforming others. Finally, an industrial application example of coal mining face is demonstrated to specify the effect of proposed system. PMID:25506358

  5. A novel adjustment method for shearer traction speed through integration of T-S cloud inference network and improved PSO.

    PubMed

    Si, Lei; Wang, Zhongbin; Liu, Xinhua; Yang, Yinwei; Zhang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to efficiently and accurately adjust the shearer traction speed, a novel approach based on Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) cloud inference network (CIN) and improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) is proposed. The T-S CIN is built through the combination of cloud model and T-S fuzzy neural network. Moreover, the IPSO algorithm employs parameter automation adjustment strategy and velocity resetting to significantly improve the performance of basic PSO algorithm in global search and fine-tuning of the solutions, and the flowchart of proposed approach is designed. Furthermore, some simulation examples are carried out and comparison results indicate that the proposed method is feasible, efficient, and is outperforming others. Finally, an industrial application example of coal mining face is demonstrated to specify the effect of proposed system.

  6. Adjustment of a rapid method for quantification of Fusarium spp. spore suspensions in plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Caligiore-Gei, Pablo F; Valdez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The use of a Neubauer chamber is a broadly employed method when cell suspensions need to be quantified. However, this technique may take a long time and needs trained personnel. Spectrophotometry has proved to be a rapid, simple and accurate method to estimate the concentration of spore suspensions of isolates of the genus Fusarium. In this work we present a linear formula to relate absorbance measurements at 530nm with the number of microconidia/ml in a suspension.

  7. Adjoint methods for adjusting three-dimensional atmosphere and surface properties to fit multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, William; Cairns, Brian; Bal, Guillaume

    2014-09-01

    This paper derives an efficient procedure for using the three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) to adjust atmosphere and surface properties and improve their fit with multi-angle/multi-pixel radiometric and polarimetric measurements of scattered sunlight. The proposed adjoint method uses the 3D VRTE to compute the measurement misfit function and the adjoint 3D VRTE to compute its gradient with respect to all unknown parameters. In the remote sensing problems of interest, the scalar-valued misfit function quantifies agreement with data as a function of atmosphere and surface properties, and its gradient guides the search through this parameter space. Remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface in a three-dimensional region may require thousands of unknown parameters and millions of data points. Many approaches would require calls to the 3D VRTE solver in proportion to the number of unknown parameters or measurements. To avoid this issue of scale, we focus on computing the gradient of the misfit function as an alternative to the Jacobian of the measurement operator. The resulting adjoint method provides a way to adjust 3D atmosphere and surface properties with only two calls to the 3D VRTE solver for each spectral channel, regardless of the number of retrieval parameters, measurement view angles or pixels. This gives a procedure for adjusting atmosphere and surface parameters that will scale to the large problems of 3D remote sensing. For certain types of multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements, this encourages the development of a new class of three-dimensional retrieval algorithms with more flexible parametrizations of spatial heterogeneity, less reliance on data screening procedures, and improved coverage in terms of the resolved physical processes in the Earth's atmosphere.

  8. Reduction of Deterministic Thinking Among Cancer Patients as a New Method to Increase Psychosocial Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Younesi, Seyyed Jalal; Mirafzal, Akramsadat; Tooyserkani, Mahdieh

    2012-01-01

    Background Deterministic thinking is one of the major cognitive distortions. This type of thinking ignores any possibility in making a conclusion about events. Any consequence of an event may be thought as: 2×2= 4. Equality is a dominant factor among all conclusions of this kind of distortion. Distortion emerges in cognitive rigidity in the mind and could be the source of all distortions. Cognitive rigidity is a main reason for depression and other psychosocial maladjustments. Methods Challenging distortion was discussed as a new method for improving psychological conditions of cancer patients. Adapting the cultural base of the method, distortion is explained as a destructive factor which ruins the balance of fear and hope, the two important signs of faith in Islamic perspective. Results The consequence of challenging distortion to reduce depression and anxiety has been explained based on the Islamic Culture. Conclusion For the first time, in this study, it was proposed that how this method can be used in the treatment of psychological disorders of cancer patients. PMID:25628825

  9. Stepper motor control that adjusts to motor loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method are provided for controlling a stepper motor having a rotor and a multi-phase stator. Sinusoidal command signals define a commanded position of the motor's rotor. An actual position of the rotor is sensed as a function of an electrical angle between the actual position and the commanded position. The actual position is defined by sinusoidal position signals. An adjustment signal is generated using the sinusoidal command signals and sinusoidal position signals. The adjustment signal is defined as a function of the cosine of the electrical angle. The adjustment signal is multiplied by each sinusoidal command signal to generate a corresponding set of excitation signals, each of which is applied to a corresponding phase of the multi-phase stator.

  10. MANGO – Modal Analysis for Grid Operation: A Method for Damping Improvement through Operating Point Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chen, Yousu; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Diao, Ruisheng; Fuller, Jason C.; Mittelstadt, William A.; Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2010-10-18

    Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability in the U.S. power grid. An undamped mode can cause large-amplitude oscillations and may result in system breakups and large-scale blackouts. There have been several incidents of system-wide oscillations. Of those incidents, the most notable is the August 10, 1996 western system breakup, a result of undamped system-wide oscillations. Significant efforts have been devoted to monitoring system oscillatory behaviors from measurements in the past 20 years. The deployment of phasor measurement units (PMU) provides high-precision, time-synchronized data needed for detecting oscillation modes. Measurement-based modal analysis, also known as ModeMeter, uses real-time phasor measurements to identify system oscillation modes and their damping. Low damping indicates potential system stability issues. Modal analysis has been demonstrated with phasor measurements to have the capability of estimating system modes from both oscillation signals and ambient data. With more and more phasor measurements available and ModeMeter techniques maturing, there is yet a need for methods to bring modal analysis from monitoring to actions. The methods should be able to associate low damping with grid operating conditions, so operators or automated operation schemes can respond when low damping is observed. The work presented in this report aims to develop such a method and establish a Modal Analysis for Grid Operation (MANGO) procedure to aid grid operation decision making to increase inter-area modal damping. The procedure can provide operation suggestions (such as increasing generation or decreasing load) for mitigating inter-area oscillations.

  11. Ascertainment-adjusted parameter estimation approach to improve robustness against misspecification of health monitoring methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juesas, P.; Ramasso, E.

    2016-12-01

    Condition monitoring aims at ensuring system safety which is a fundamental requirement for industrial applications and that has become an inescapable social demand. This objective is attained by instrumenting the system and developing data analytics methods such as statistical models able to turn data into relevant knowledge. One difficulty is to be able to correctly estimate the parameters of those methods based on time-series data. This paper suggests the use of the Weighted Distribution Theory together with the Expectation-Maximization algorithm to improve parameter estimation in statistical models with latent variables with an application to health monotonic under uncertainty. The improvement of estimates is made possible by incorporating uncertain and possibly noisy prior knowledge on latent variables in a sound manner. The latent variables are exploited to build a degradation model of dynamical system represented as a sequence of discrete states. Examples on Gaussian Mixture Models, Hidden Markov Models (HMM) with discrete and continuous outputs are presented on both simulated data and benchmarks using the turbofan engine datasets. A focus on the application of a discrete HMM to health monitoring under uncertainty allows to emphasize the interest of the proposed approach in presence of different operating conditions and fault modes. It is shown that the proposed model depicts high robustness in presence of noisy and uncertain prior.

  12. Chi-Squared Test of Fit and Sample Size-A Comparison between a Random Sample Approach and a Chi-Square Value Adjustment Method.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Chi-square statistics are commonly used for tests of fit of measurement models. Chi-square is also sensitive to sample size, which is why several approaches to handle large samples in test of fit analysis have been developed. One strategy to handle the sample size problem may be to adjust the sample size in the analysis of fit. An alternative is to adopt a random sample approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare these two strategies using simulated data. Given an original sample size of 21,000, for reductions of sample sizes down to the order of 5,000 the adjusted sample size function works as good as the random sample approach. In contrast, when applying adjustments to sample sizes of lower order the adjustment function is less effective at approximating the chi-square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, the fit is exaggerated and misfit under-estimated using the adjusted sample size function. Although there are big differences in chi-square values between the two approaches at lower sample sizes, the inferences based on the p-values may be the same.

  13. Characterization of the CALIBAN Critical Assembly Neutron Spectra using Several Adjustment Methods Based on Activation Foils Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casoli, Pierre; Grégoire, Gilles; Rousseau, Guillaume; Jacquet, Xavier; Authier, Nicolas

    2016-02-01

    CALIBAN is a metallic critical assembly managed by the Criticality, Neutron Science and Measurement Department located on the French CEA Center of Valduc. The reactor is extensively used for benchmark experiments dedicated to the evaluation of nuclear data, for electronic hardening or to study the effect of the neutrons on various materials. Therefore CALIBAN irradiation characteristics and especially its central cavity neutron spectrum have to be very accurately evaluated. In order to strengthen our knowledge of this spectrum, several adjustment methods based on activation foils measurements are being studied for a few years in the laboratory. Firstly two codes included in the UMG package have been tested and compared: MAXED and GRAVEL. More recently, the CALIBAN cavity spectrum has been studied using CALMAR, a new adjustment tool currently under development at the CEA Center of Cadarache. The article will discuss and compare the results and the quality of spectrum rebuilding obtained with the UMG codes and with the CALMAR software, from a set of activation measurements carried out in the CALIBAN irradiation cavity.

  14. Normalized impact factor (NIF): an adjusted method for calculating the citation rate of biomedical journals.

    PubMed

    Owlia, P; Vasei, M; Goliaei, B; Nassiri, I

    2011-04-01

    The interests in journal impact factor (JIF) in scientific communities have grown over the last decades. The JIFs are used to evaluate journals quality and the papers published therein. JIF is a discipline specific measure and the comparison between the JIF dedicated to different disciplines is inadequate, unless a normalization process is performed. In this study, normalized impact factor (NIF) was introduced as a relatively simple method enabling the JIFs to be used when evaluating the quality of journals and research works in different disciplines. The NIF index was established based on the multiplication of JIF by a constant factor. The constants were calculated for all 54 disciplines of biomedical field during 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 years. Also, ranking of 393 journals in different biomedical disciplines according to the NIF and JIF were compared to illustrate how the NIF index can be used for the evaluation of publications in different disciplines. The findings prove that the use of the NIF enhances the equality in assessing the quality of research works produced by researchers who work in different disciplines.

  15. The Course of Actualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Actualization is traditionally seen as the process following syntactic reanalysis whereby an item's new syntactic status manifests itself in new syntactic behavior. The process is gradual in that some new uses of the reanalyzed item appear earlier or more readily than others. This article accounts for the order in which new uses appear during…

  16. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  17. Estimation of lactose interference in vaccines and a proposal of methodological adjustment of total protein determination by the lowry method.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Hideki; Okuma, Kazu; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2012-01-01

    For national regulatory testing in Japan, the Lowry method is used for the determination of total protein content in vaccines. However, many substances are known to interfere with the Lowry method, rendering accurate estimation of protein content difficult. To accurately determine the total protein content in vaccines, it is necessary to identify the major interfering substances and improve the methodology for removing such substances. This study examined the effects of high levels of lactose with low levels of protein in freeze-dried, cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine (inactivated). Lactose was selected because it is a reducing sugar that is expected to interfere with the Lowry method. Our results revealed that concentrations of ≥ 0.1 mg/mL lactose interfered with the Lowry assays and resulted in overestimation of the protein content in a lactose concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, our results demonstrated that it is important for the residual volume to be ≤ 0.05 mL after trichloroacetic acid precipitation in order to avoid the effects of lactose. Thus, the method presented here is useful for accurate protein determination by the Lowry method, even when it is used for determining low levels of protein in vaccines containing interfering substances. In this study, we have reported a methodological adjustment that allows accurate estimation of protein content for national regulatory testing, when the vaccine contains interfering substances.

  18. The barriers to and enablers of providing reasonably adjusted health services to people with intellectual disabilities in acute hospitals: evidence from a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Goulding, Lucy; Giatras, Nikoletta; Abraham, Elisabeth; Gillard, Steve; White, Sarah; Edwards, Christine; Hollins, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the factors that promote and compromise the implementation of reasonably adjusted healthcare services for patients with intellectual disabilities in acute National Health Service (NHS) hospitals. Design A mixed-methods study involving interviews, questionnaires and participant observation (July 2011–March 2013). Setting Six acute NHS hospital trusts in England. Methods Reasonable adjustments for people with intellectual disabilities were identified through the literature. Data were collected on implementation and staff understanding of these adjustments. Results Data collected included staff questionnaires (n=990), staff interviews (n=68), interviews with adults with intellectual disabilities (n=33), questionnaires (n=88) and interviews (n=37) with carers of patients with intellectual disabilities, and expert panel discussions (n=42). Hospital strategies that supported implementation of reasonable adjustments did not reliably translate into consistent provision of such adjustments. Good practice often depended on the knowledge, understanding and flexibility of individual staff and teams, leading to the delivery of reasonable adjustments being haphazard throughout the organisation. Major barriers included: lack of effective systems for identifying and flagging patients with intellectual disabilities, lack of staff understanding of the reasonable adjustments that may be needed, lack of clear lines of responsibility and accountability for implementing reasonable adjustments, and lack of allocation of additional funding and resources. Key enablers were the Intellectual Disability Liaison Nurse and the ward manager. Conclusions The evidence suggests that ward culture, staff attitudes and staff knowledge are crucial in ensuring that hospital services are accessible to vulnerable patients. The authors suggest that flagging the need for specific reasonable adjustments, rather than the vulnerable condition itself, may address some of the barriers

  19. Comparison of cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with Iso-Sensitest broth for the NCCLS broth microdilution method.

    PubMed

    Koeth, L M; King, A; Knight, H; May, J; Miller, L A; Phillips, I; Poupard, J A

    2000-09-01

    Comparison of MIC results obtained in different parts of the world is currently difficult because of variations in methods. In this study, cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth, the NCCLS-recommended medium, was compared with Iso-Sensitest broth, which is widely used in Europe. Microbroth dilution testing, using the NCCLS procedure, was performed on 124 Gram-positive (staphylococci and enterococci) and Gram-negative (Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) isolates from the CDC reference set, with the only variable being the medium used. Twelve antimicrobial agents were tested: amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, imipenem, levofloxacin, oxacillin, gemifloxacin, trimethoprim- sulphamethoxazole, tetracycline and vancomycin. Vancomycin, erythromycin and oxacillin were only evaluated for the Gram-positive organisms. Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was only evaluated for a subset of Gram-negative organisms because of off-scale results. The 124 isolates were tested in one American and one UK laboratory with two batches of cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth and two of Iso-Sensitest broth. A statistical evaluation of the data used a 24 fully specified factorial analysis to determine if there were significant differences in results owing to Gram reaction, site of testing and type and/or batch of broth. In addition, the cumulative results for each antimicrobial agent in each broth were plotted against the range of MIC dilutions tested. MICs of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gemifloxacin, gentamicin and tetracycline were slightly higher (half a doubling dilution) with Iso-Sensitest broth than with Mueller-Hinton broth. MIC results for the other antimicrobial agents were equivalent. Essential and category agreement rates were comparable for all agents (88.4-100% and 88.2-99.0%, respectively).

  20. The forward and adjoint sensitivity methods of glacial isostatic adjustment: Existence, uniqueness and time-differencing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinec, Zdenek; Sasgen, Ingo; Velimsky, Jakub

    2014-05-01

    In this study, two new methods for computing the sensitivity of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) forward solution with respect to the Earth's mantle viscosity are presented: the forward sensitivity method (FSM) and the adjoint sensitivity method (ASM). These advanced formal methods are based on the time-domain,spectral-finite element method for modelling the GIA response of laterally heterogeneous earth models developed by Martinec (2000). There are many similarities between the forward method and the FSM and ASM for a general physical system. However, in the case of GIA, there are also important differences between the forward and sensitivity methods. The analysis carried out in this study results in the following findings. First, the forward method of GIA is unconditionally solvable, regardless of whether or not a combined ice and ocean-water load contains the first-degree spherical harmonics. This is also the case for the FSM, however, the ASM must in addition be supplemented by nine conditions on the misfit between the given GIA-related data and the forward model predictions to guarantee the existence of a solution. This constrains the definition of data least-squares misfit. Second, the forward method of GIA implements an ocean load as a free boundary-value function over an ocean area with a free geometry. That is, an ocean load and the shape of ocean, the so-called ocean function, are being sought, in addition to deformation and gravity-increment fields, by solving the forward method. The FSM and ASM also apply the adjoint ocean load as a free boundary-value function, but instead over an ocean area with the fixed geometry given by the ocean function determined by the forward method. In other words, a boundary-value problem for the forward method of GIA is free with respect to determining (i) the boundary-value data over an ocean area and (ii) the ocean function itself, while the boundary-value problems for the FSM and ASM are free only with respect to

  1. Chiropractic Adjustment

    MedlinePlus

    ... structural alignment and improve your body's physical function. Low back pain, neck pain and headache are the most common ... treated. Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only ...

  2. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from other people Skipped heartbeats and other physical complaints Trembling or twitching To have adjustment disorder, you ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  3. Child mortality estimation: methods used to adjust for bias due to AIDS in estimating trends in under-five mortality.

    PubMed

    Walker, Neff; Hill, Kenneth; Zhao, Fengmin

    2012-01-01

    In most low- and middle-income countries, child mortality is estimated from data provided by mothers concerning the survival of their children using methods that assume no correlation between the mortality risks of the mothers and those of their children. This assumption is not valid for populations with generalized HIV epidemics, however, and in this review, we show how the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) uses a cohort component projection model to correct for AIDS-related biases in the data used to estimate trends in under-five mortality. In this model, births in a given year are identified as occurring to HIV-positive or HIV-negative mothers, the lives of the infants and mothers are projected forward using survivorship probabilities to estimate survivors at the time of a given survey, and the extent to which excess mortality of children goes unreported because of the deaths of HIV-infected mothers prior to the survey is calculated. Estimates from the survey for past periods can then be adjusted for the estimated bias. The extent of the AIDS-related bias depends crucially on the dynamics of the HIV epidemic, on the length of time before the survey that the estimates are made for, and on the underlying non-AIDS child mortality. This simple methodology (which does not take into account the use of effective antiretroviral interventions) gives results qualitatively similar to those of other studies.

  4. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents☆

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  5. The performance of automated case-mix adjustment regression model building methods in a health outcome prediction setting.

    PubMed

    Jen, Min-Hua; Bottle, Alex; Kirkwood, Graham; Johnston, Ron; Aylin, Paul

    2011-09-01

    We have previously described a system for monitoring a number of healthcare outcomes using case-mix adjustment models. It is desirable to automate the model fitting process in such a system if monitoring covers a large number of outcome measures or subgroup analyses. Our aim was to compare the performance of three different variable selection strategies: "manual", "automated" backward elimination and re-categorisation, and including all variables at once, irrespective of their apparent importance, with automated re-categorisation. Logistic regression models for predicting in-hospital mortality and emergency readmission within 28 days were fitted to an administrative database for 78 diagnosis groups and 126 procedures from 1996 to 2006 for National Health Services hospital trusts in England. The performance of models was assessed with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) c statistics, (measuring discrimination) and Brier score (assessing the average of the predictive accuracy). Overall, discrimination was similar for diagnoses and procedures and consistently better for mortality than for emergency readmission. Brier scores were generally low overall (showing higher accuracy) and were lower for procedures than diagnoses, with a few exceptions for emergency readmission within 28 days. Among the three variable selection strategies, the automated procedure had similar performance to the manual method in almost all cases except low-risk groups with few outcome events. For the rapid generation of multiple case-mix models we suggest applying automated modelling to reduce the time required, in particular when examining different outcomes of large numbers of procedures and diseases in routinely collected administrative health data.

  6. Principal-component-based population structure adjustment in the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium data: impact of single-nucleotide polymorphism set and analysis method

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Population structure occurs when a sample is composed of individuals with different ancestries and can result in excess type I error in genome-wide association studies. Genome-wide principal-component analysis (PCA) has become a popular method for identifying and adjusting for subtle population structure in association studies. Using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 (GAW16) NARAC data, we explore two unresolved issues concerning the use of genome-wide PCA to account for population structure in genetic associations studies: the choice of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) subset and the choice of adjustment model. We computed PCs for subsets of genome-wide SNPs with varying levels of LD. The first two PCs were similar for all subsets and the first three PCs were associated with case status for all subsets. When the PCs associated with case status were included as covariates in an association model, the reduction in genomic inflation factor was similar for all SNP sets. Several models have been proposed to account for structure using PCs, but it is not yet clear whether the different methods will result in substantively different results for association studies with individuals of European descent. We compared genome-wide association p-values and results for two positive-control SNPs previously associated with rheumatoid arthritis using four PC adjustment methods as well as no adjustment and genomic control. We found that in this sample, adjusting for the continuous PCs or adjusting for discrete clusters identified using the PCs adequately accounts for the case-control population structure, but that a recently proposed randomization test performs poorly. PMID:20017972

  7. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(21)-1 - Pre-1954 adjustments resulting from change in method of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the rate of $2,000 each year. On November 1, 1963, all the assets of X Corporation are acquired by Y Corporation in a transaction to which section 381(a) applies. Y Corporation reports its income on a fiscal year ending June 30. X and Y Corporations must take into account the $20,000 adjustment at the rate...

  8. Apparatus and methods for installing, removing and adjusting an inner turbine shell section relative to an outer turbine shell section

    DOEpatents

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen; Waldo, Stuart Forrest; Smith, Robert Leroy; Phelps, Robert Kim

    2001-01-01

    A turbine includes upper and lower inner shell sections mounting the nozzles and shrouds and which inner shell is supported by pins secured to a surrounding outer shell. To disassemble the turbine for access to the inner shell sections and rotor, an alignment fixture is secured to the lower outer shell section and has pins engaging the inner shell section. To disassemble the turbine, the inner shell weight is transferred to the lower outer shell section via the alignment fixture and cradle pins. Roller assemblies are inserted through access openings vacated by support pins to permit rotation of the lower inner shell section out of and into the lower outer shell section during disassembly and assembly. The alignment fixture includes adjusting rods for adjusting the inner shell axially, vertically, laterally and about a lateral axis. A roller over-cage is provided to rotate the inner shell and a dummy shell to facilitate assembly and disassembly in the field.

  9. Actual and actuarial probabilities of competing risks: apples and lemons.

    PubMed

    Grunkemeier, Gary L; Jin, Ruyun; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Takkenberg, Johanna J M

    2007-05-01

    The probability of a type of failure that is not inevitable, but can be precluded by other events such as death, is given by the cumulative incidence function. In cardiac research articles, it has become known as the actual probability, in contrast to the actuarial methods of estimation, usually implemented by the Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimate. Unlike cumulative incidence, KM attempts to predict what the latent failure probability would be if death were eliminated. To do this, the KM method assumes that the risk of dying and the risk of failure are independent. But this assumption is not true for many cardiac applications in which the risks of failure and death are negatively correlated (ie, patients with a higher risk of dying have a lower risk of failure, and patients with a lower risk of death have a higher risk of failure, which is a condition called informative censoring). Recent editorials in two cardiac journals have promoted the use of the KM method (actuarial estimate) for competing risk events (specifically for heart valve performance) and criticized the use of the cumulative incidence (actual) estimates. This report has two aims: to explain the difference between these two estimates and to show why the KM is generally not appropriate. In the process we will rely on alternative representations of the KM estimator (using redistribution to the right and inverse probability weighting) to explain the difference between the two estimates and to show how it may be possible to adjust KM to overcome the informative censoring.

  10. Is DNA Barcoding Actually Cheaper and Faster than Traditional Morphological Methods: Results from a Survey of Freshwater Bioassessment Efforts in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Eric D.; Martinez, Maria C.; Stiles, Sara; Miller, Peter E.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomic identification accounts for a substantial portion of cost associated with bioassessment programs across the United States. New analytical approaches, such as DNA barcoding have been promoted as a way to reduce monitoring costs and improve efficiency, yet this assumption has not been thoroughly evaluated. We address this question by comparing costs for traditional morphology-based bioassessment, the standard Sanger sequencing-based DNA barcoding approach, and emerging next-generation (NGS) molecular methods. Market demand for molecular approaches is also assessed through a survey of the level of freshwater bioassessment effort in the United States across multiple habitat types (lakes, streams, wetlands) and indicators (benthic invertebrates, fish, algae). All state and regional level programs administered by public agencies and reported via agency web sites were included in the survey. Costs were based on surveys of labs and programs willing to provide such information. More than 19,500 sites are sampled annually across the United States, with the majority of effort occurring in streams. Benthic invertebrates are the most commonly used indicator, but algae and fish comprise between 35% and 21% of total sampling effort, respectively. We estimate that between $104 and $193 million is spent annually on routine freshwater bioassessment in the United States. Approximately 30% of the bioassessment costs are comprised of the cost to conduct traditional morphology-based taxonomy. Current barcoding costs using Sanger sequencing are between 1.7 and 3.4 times as expensive as traditional taxonomic approaches, excluding the cost of field sampling (which is common to both approaches). However, the cost of NGS methods are comparable (or slightly less expensive) than traditional methods depending on the indicator. The promise of barcoding as a cheaper alternative to current practices is not yet realized, although molecular methods may provide other benefits, such as a

  11. A method for determining the actual rate of orientation switching of DNA self-assembled monolayers using optical and electrochemical frequency response analysis.

    PubMed

    Casanova-Moreno, J; Bizzotto, D

    2015-02-17

    Electrostatic control of the orientation of fluorophore-labeled DNA strands immobilized on an electrode surface has been shown to be an effective bioanalytical tool. Modulation techniques and later time-resolved measurements were used to evaluate the kinetics of the switching between lying and standing DNA conformations. These measurements, however, are the result of a convolution between the DNA "switching" response time and the other frequency limited responses in the measurement. In this work, a method for analyzing the response of a potential driven DNA sensor is presented by calculating the potential effectively dropped across the electrode interface (using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) as opposed to the potential applied to the electrochemical cell. This effectively deconvolutes the effect of the charging time on the observed frequency response. The corrected response shows that DNA is able to switch conformation faster than previously reported using modulation techniques. This approach will ensure accurate measurements independent of the electrochemical system, removing the uncertainty in the analysis of the switching response, enabling comparison between samples and measurement systems.

  12. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  13. Adjoint Methods for Adjusting Three-Dimensional Atmosphere and Surface Properties to Fit Multi-Angle Multi-Pixel Polarimetric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, William G.; Cairns, Brian; Bal, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    This paper derives an efficient procedure for using the three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) to adjust atmosphere and surface properties and improve their fit with multi-angle/multi-pixel radiometric and polarimetric measurements of scattered sunlight. The proposed adjoint method uses the 3D VRTE to compute the measurement misfit function and the adjoint 3D VRTE to compute its gradient with respect to all unknown parameters. In the remote sensing problems of interest, the scalar-valued misfit function quantifies agreement with data as a function of atmosphere and surface properties, and its gradient guides the search through this parameter space. Remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface in a three-dimensional region may require thousands of unknown parameters and millions of data points. Many approaches would require calls to the 3D VRTE solver in proportion to the number of unknown parameters or measurements. To avoid this issue of scale, we focus on computing the gradient of the misfit function as an alternative to the Jacobian of the measurement operator. The resulting adjoint method provides a way to adjust 3D atmosphere and surface properties with only two calls to the 3D VRTE solver for each spectral channel, regardless of the number of retrieval parameters, measurement view angles or pixels. This gives a procedure for adjusting atmosphere and surface parameters that will scale to the large problems of 3D remote sensing. For certain types of multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements, this encourages the development of a new class of three-dimensional retrieval algorithms with more flexible parametrizations of spatial heterogeneity, less reliance on data screening procedures, and improved coverage in terms of the resolved physical processes in the Earth?s atmosphere.

  14. Method to determine and adjust the alignment of the transmitter and receiver fields of view of a LIDAR system

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Randal L.; Henson, Tammy D.; Krumel, Leslie J.; Hargis, Jr., Philip J.

    2006-06-20

    A method to determine the alignment of the transmitter and receiver fields of view of a light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. This method can be employed to determine the far-field intensity distribution of the transmitter beam, as well as the variations in transmitted laser beam pointing as a function of time, temperature, or other environmental variables that may affect the co-alignment of the LIDAR system components. In order to achieve proper alignment of the transmitter and receiver optical systems when a LIDAR system is being used in the field, this method employs a laser-beam-position-sensing detector as an integral part of the receiver optics of the LIDAR system.

  15. Statistical methods to adjust for date and age misreporting to improve estimates of vital rates in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Pullum, T W

    1991-02-01

    Misreporting of dates and ages poses serious difficulties for the estimation of the age distribution and birth and death rates in many developing countries. The pervasiveness of these problems is illustrated with data from a well-designed on-going survey in Pakistan, the Pakistan Demographic Survey. Methods for reconciling discrepancies, based on the assumptions of constant misreporting and survivorship patterns, are presented. The reasoning behind these methods could be applied much more generally. Research into the cultural interpretations of age and dates, and the nature of possible biases, is called for.

  16. Using Case-Mix Adjustment Methods To Measure the Effectiveness of Substance Abuse Treatment: Three Examples Using Client Employment Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Lane; Fields, Errol L.; Dall, Timothy M.; Ameen, Ansari Z.; Harwood, Henrick J.

    This report demonstrates three applications of case-mix methods using regression analysis. The results are used to assess the relative effectiveness of substance abuse treatment providers. The report also examines the ability of providers to improve client employment outcomes, an outcome domain relatively unexamined in the assessment of provider…

  17. A Method and a Model for Describing Competence and Adjustment: A Preschool Version of the Classroom Behavior Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Earl S.; Edgerton, Marianna D.

    A preschool version of the Classroom Behavior Inventory which provides a method for collecting valid data on a child's classroom behavior from day care and preschool teachers, was developed to complement the earlier form which was developed and validated for elementary school populations. The new version was tested with a pilot group of twenty-two…

  18. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  19. Comment on 'Shang S. 2012. Calculating actual crop evapotranspiration under soil water stress conditions with appropriate numerical methods and time step. Hydrological Processes 26: 3338-3343. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.8405'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yatheendradas, Soni; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Funk, Christopher; Verdin, James

    2014-01-01

    A previous study analyzed errors in the numerical calculation of actual crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub a)) under soil water stress. Assuming no irrigation or precipitation, it constructed equations for ET(sub a) over limited soil-water ranges in a root zone drying out due to evapotranspiration. It then used a single crop-soil composite to provide recommendations about the appropriate usage of numerical methods under different values of the time step and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ET(sub c)). This comment reformulates those ET(sub a) equations for applicability over the full range of soil water values, revealing a dependence of the relative error in numerical ET(sub a) on the initial soil water that was not seen in the previous study. It is shown that the recommendations based on a single crop-soil composite can be invalid for other crop-soil composites. Finally, a consideration of the numerical error in the time-cumulative value of ET(sub a) is discussed besides the existing consideration of that error over individual time steps as done in the previous study. This cumulative ET(sub a) is more relevant to the final crop yield.

  20. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  1. Identification of Outliers in Grace Data for Indo-Gangetic Plain Using Various Methods (Z-Score, Modified Z-score and Adjusted Boxplot) and Its Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, S.

    2015-12-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data are widely used for the hydrological studies for large scale basins (≥100,000 sq km). GRACE data (Stokes Coefficients or Equivalent Water Height) used for hydrological studies are not direct observations but result from high level processing of raw data from the GRACE mission. Different partner agencies like CSR, GFZ and JPL implement their own methodology and their processing methods are independent from each other. The primary source of errors in GRACE data are due to measurement and modeling errors and the processing strategy of these agencies. Because of different processing methods, the final data from all the partner agencies are inconsistent with each other at some epoch. GRACE data provide spatio-temporal variations in Earth's gravity which is mainly attributed to the seasonal fluctuations in water level on Earth surfaces and subsurface. During the quantification of error/uncertainties, several high positive and negative peaks were observed which do not correspond to any hydrological processes but may emanate from a combination of primary error sources, or some other geophysical processes (e.g. Earthquakes, landslide, etc.) resulting in redistribution of earth's mass. Such peaks can be considered as outliers for hydrological studies. In this work, an algorithm has been designed to extract outliers from the GRACE data for Indo-Gangetic plain, which considers the seasonal variations and the trend in data. Different outlier detection methods have been used such as Z-score, modified Z-score and adjusted boxplot. For verification, assimilated hydrological (GLDAS) and hydro-meteorological data are used as the reference. The results have shown that the consistency amongst all data sets improved significantly after the removal of outliers.

  2. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by dynamically adjusting local routing strategies

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-03-16

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. Each node implements a respective routing strategy for routing data through the network, the routing strategies not necessarily being the same in every node. The routing strategies implemented in the nodes are dynamically adjusted during application execution to shift network workload as required. Preferably, adjustment of routing policies in selective nodes is performed at synchronization points. The network may be dynamically monitored, and routing strategies adjusted according to detected network conditions.

  3. [Evaluation of chemotherapy for stage IV non-small cell lung cancer employing a regression tree type method for quality-adjusted survival analysis to determine prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Fujita, A; Takabatake, H; Tagaki, S; Sohda, T; Sekine, K

    1996-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of chemotherapy on QOL, the survival period was categorized by 3 intervals: one in the hospital for chemotherapy (TOX), on an outpatient basis (TWiST Time without Symptom and Toxicity), and in the hospital for conservative therapy (REL). Coefficients showing the QOL level were expressed as ut, uw and ur. If uw was 1 and ut and ur were plotted at less than 1, ut TOX+uwTWiST+urREL could be a quality-adjusted value relative to TWiST (Q-TWiST). One hundred five patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer were included. Sixty-five were given chemotherapy, and the other 40 were not. The observation period was 2 years. Q-TWiST values for age, sex, PS, histology and chemotherapy were calculated. Their quantification was performed employing a regression tree type method. Chemotherapy contributed to Q-TWiST when ut approached 1 i.e., no side effect was supposed). When ut was less than 0.5, PS and sex had an appreciable role.

  4. Method for selecting minimum width of leaf in multileaf adjustable collimator while inhibiting passage of particle beams of radiation through sawtooth joints between collimator leaves

    DOEpatents

    Ludewigt, Bernhard; Bercovitz, John; Nyman, Mark; Chu, William

    1995-01-01

    A method is disclosed for selecting the minimum width of individual leaves of a multileaf adjustable collimator having sawtooth top and bottom surfaces between adjacent leaves of a first stack of leaves and sawtooth end edges which are capable of intermeshing with the corresponding sawtooth end edges of leaves in a second stack of leaves of the collimator. The minimum width of individual leaves in the collimator, each having a sawtooth configuration in the surface facing another leaf in the same stack and a sawtooth end edge, is selected to comprise the sum of the penetration depth or range of the particular type of radiation comprising the beam in the particular material used for forming the leaf; plus the total path length across all the air gaps in the area of the joint at the edges between two leaves defined between lines drawn across the peaks of adjacent sawtooth edges; plus at least one half of the length or period of a single sawtooth. To accomplish this, in accordance with the method of the invention, the penetration depth of the particular type of radiation in the particular material to be used for the collimator leaf is first measured. Then the distance or gap between adjoining or abutting leaves is selected, and the ratio of this distance to the height of the sawteeth is selected. Finally the number of air gaps through which the radiation will pass between sawteeth is determined by selecting the number of sawteeth to be formed in the joint. The measurement and/or selection of these parameters will permit one to determine the minimum width of the leaf which is required to prevent passage of the beam through the sawtooth joint.

  5. The actual goals of geoethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  6. Actuarial and actual analysis of surgical results: empirical validation.

    PubMed

    Grunkemeier, G L; Anderson, R P; Starr, A

    2001-06-01

    This report validates the use of the Kaplan-Meier (actuarial) method of computing survival curves by comparing 12-year estimates published in 1978 with current assessments. It also contrasts cumulative incidence curves, referred to as "actual" analysis in the cardiac-related literature with Kaplan-Meier curves for thromboembolism and demonstrates that with the former estimate the percentage of events that will actually occur.

  7. Standardization of age-adjusted mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-02-01

    Because age is a significant variable in the occurrence and frequency of human disease, any comparison of disease or mortality rates, to be useful, must be age-specific or age-adjusted. Age-specific comparisons are not always appropriate or possible, however. A common method of eliminating the influence of age in comparing mortality rates from one community to another is to employ statistical methods of age-adjustment. While a variety of methods will accomplish this task, most are weighted averages of the age-specific rates. Two widely used adjustment procedures are direct and indirect age-adjustment.

  8. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  9. Actual 10-Year Survivors Following Resection of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thuy B.; Postlewait, Lauren M.; Maithel, Shishir K.; Prescott, Jason D.; Wang, Tracy S.; Glenn, Jason; Phay, John E.; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C.; Jin, Linda X.; Weber, Sharon M.; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K.; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C.; Mansour, John C.; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C.; Kiernan, Colleen M.; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Levine, Edward A.; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Poultsides, George A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with limited therapeutic options beyond surgical resection. The characteristics of actual long-term survivors following surgical resection for ACC have not been previously reported. Method Patients who underwent resection for ACC at one of 13 academic institutions participating in the US Adrenocortical Carcinoma Group from 1993 to 2014 were analyzed. Patients were stratified into four groups: early mortality (died within 2 years), late mortality (died within 2–5 years), actual 5-year survivor (survived at least 5 years), and actual 10-year survivor (survived at least 10 years). Patients with less than 5 years of follow-up were excluded. Results Among the 180 patients available for analysis, there were 49 actual 5-year survivors (27%) and 12 actual 10-year survivors (7%). Patients who experienced early mortality had higher rates of cortisol-secreting tumors, nodal metastasis, synchronous distant metastasis, and R1 or R2 resections (all P < 0.05). The need for multi-visceral resection, perioperative blood transfusion, and adjuvant therapy correlated with early mortality. However, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, and R1 resection did not preclude patients from becoming actual 10-year survivors. Ten of twelve actual 10-year survivors were women, and of the seven 10-year survivors who experienced disease recurrence, five had undergone repeat surgery to resect the recurrence. Conclusion Surgery for ACC can offer a 1 in 4 chance of actual 5-year survival and a 1 in 15 chance of actual 10-year survival. Long-term survival was often achieved with repeat resection for local or distant recurrence, further underscoring the important role of surgery in managing patients with ACC. PMID:27633419

  10. Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Chinese Students in Japan: School Adjustment and Educational Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan Xiang; Sano, Hideki; Ahn, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates Chinese immigrant students' cross-cultural and school adjustment issues in Japanese schools. Using a quantitative method, a survey which collected students' demographic information, cross-cultural adjustment, and school adjustment questions was administered to 143 Chinese junior high and high school students in Tokyo and…

  11. An impossibility theorem for price-adjustment mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Papadimitriou, Christos H.; Yannakakis, Mihalis

    2010-01-01

    We show that there is no discrete-time price-adjustment mechanism (any process that at each period looks at the history of prices and excess demands and updates the prices) such that for any market (a set of goods and consumers with endowments and strictly concave utilities) the price-adjustment mechanism will achieve excess demands that are at most an ϵ fraction of the total supply within a number of periods that is polynomial in the number of goods and . This holds even if one restricts markets so that excess demand functions are differentiable with derivatives bounded by a small constant. For the convergence time to the actual price equilibrium, we show by a different method a stronger result: Even in the case of three goods with a unique price equilibrium, there is no function of ϵ that bounds the number of periods needed by a price-adjustment mechanism to arrive at a set of prices that is ϵ-close to the equilibrium. PMID:20133833

  12. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  13. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  14. Does Fall History Influence Residential Adjustments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Natalie; Porell, Frank; Murphy, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To determine whether reported falls at baseline are associated with an older adult's decision to make a residential adjustment (RA) and the type of adjustment made in the subsequent 2 years. Design and Methods: Observations (n = 25,036) were from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of…

  15. 7 CFR 760.641 - Adjustments made to NAMP to reflect loss of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the FSA State committee. The adjustment factor will be based on the average actual market price... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments made to NAMP to reflect loss of quality... Assistance Payments Program § 760.641 Adjustments made to NAMP to reflect loss of quality. (a) The...

  16. Predictive wall adjustment strategy for two-dimensional flexible walled adaptive wind tunnel: A detailed description of the first one-step method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Goodyer, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Following the realization that a simple iterative strategy for bringing the flexible walls of two-dimensional test sections to streamline contours was too slow for practical use, Judd proposed, developed, and placed into service what was the first Predictive Strategy. The Predictive Strategy reduced by 75 percent or more the number of iterations of wall shapes, and therefore the tunnel run-time overhead attributable to the streamlining process, required to reach satisfactory streamlines. The procedures of the Strategy are embodied in the FORTRAN subroutine WAS (standing for Wall Adjustment Strategy) which is written in general form. The essentials of the test section hardware, followed by the underlying aerodynamic theory which forms the basis of the Strategy, are briefly described. The subroutine is then presented as the Appendix, broken down into segments with descriptions of the numerical operations underway in each, with definitions of variables.

  17. Computer/PERT technique monitors actual versus allocated costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houry, E.; Walker, J. D.

    1967-01-01

    A computer method measures the users performance in cost-type contracts utilizing the existing nasa program evaluation review technique without imposing any additional reporting requirements. progress is measured by comparing actual costs with a value of work performed in a specific period.

  18. Recirculating valve lash adjuster

    SciTech Connect

    Stoody, R.R.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine with a valve assembly of the type including overhead valves supported by a cylinder head for opening and closing movements in a substantially vertical direction and a rotatable overhead camshaft thereabove lubricated by engine oil pumped by an engine oil pump. A hydraulic lash adjuster with an internal reservoir therein is solely supplied with run-off lubricating oil from the camshaft which oil is pumped into the internal reservoir of the lash adjuster by self-pumping operation of the lash adjuster produced by lateral forces thereon by the rotative operation of the camshaft comprising: a housing of the lash adjuster including an axially extending bore therethrough with a lower wall means of the housing closing the lower end thereof; a first plunger member being closely slidably received in the bore of the housing and having wall means defining a fluid filled power chamber with the lower wall means of the housing; and a second plunger member of the lash adjuster having a portion being loosely slidably received and extending into the bore of the housing for reciprocation therein. Another portion extends upwardly from the housing to operatively receive alternating side-to-side force inputs from operation of the camshaft.

  19. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite.

  20. Capping risk adjustment?

    PubMed

    Eugster, Patrick; Sennhauser, Michèle; Zweifel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    When premiums are community-rated, risk adjustment (RA) serves to mitigate competitive insurers' incentive to select favorable risks. However, unless fully prospective, it also undermines their incentives for efficiency. By capping its volume, one may try to counteract this tendency, exposing insurers to some financial risk. This in term runs counter the quest to refine the RA formula, which would increase RA volume. Specifically, the adjuster, "Hospitalization or living in a nursing home during the previous year" will be added in Switzerland starting 2012. This paper investigates how to minimize the opportunity cost of capping RA in terms of increased incentives for risk selection.

  1. Realizing actual feedback control of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengyi; Cheng, Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of feedbackability and how to identify the Minimum Feedbackability Set of an arbitrary complex directed network. Furthermore, we design an estimator and a feedback controller accessing one MFS to realize actual feedback control, i.e. control the system to our desired state according to the estimated system internal state from the output of estimator. Last but not least, we perform numerical simulations of a small linear time-invariant dynamics network and a real simple food network to verify the theoretical results. The framework presented here could make an arbitrary complex directed network realize actual feedback control and deepen our understanding of complex systems.

  2. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  3. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  4. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  5. Comparison of Actual Surgical Outcomes and 3D Surgical Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Scott; Cevidanes, Lucia; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The advent of imaging software programs have proved to be useful for diagnosis, treatment planning, and outcome measurement, but precision of 3D surgical simulation still needs to be tested. This study was conducted to determine if the virtual surgery performed on 3D models constructed from Cone-beam CT (CBCT) can correctly simulate the actual surgical outcome and to validate the ability of this emerging technology to recreate the orthognathic surgery hard tissue movements in 3 translational and 3 rotational planes of space. Methods Construction of pre- and post-surgery 3D models from CBCTs of 14 patients who had combined maxillary advancement and mandibular setback surgery and 6 patients who had one-piece maxillary advancement surgery was performed. The post-surgery and virtually simulated surgery 3D models were registered at the cranial base to quantify differences between simulated and actual surgery models. Hotelling T-test were used to assess the differences between simulated and actual surgical outcomes. Results For all anatomic regions of interest, there was no statistically significant difference between the simulated and the actual surgical models. The right lateral ramus was the only region that showed a statistically significant, but small difference when comparing two- and one-jaw surgeries. Conclusions Virtual surgical methods were reliably reproduced, oral surgery residents could benefit from virtual surgical training, and computer simulation has the potential to increase predictability in the operating room. PMID:20591553

  6. Children's Rights and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1982-01-01

    Educators need to seriously reflect upon the concept of children's rights. Though the idea of children's rights has been debated numerous times, the idea remains vague and shapeless; however, Maslow's theory of self-actualization can provide the children's rights idea with a needed theoretical framework. (Author)

  7. Group Counseling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streich, William H.; Keeler, Douglas J.

    Self-concept, creativity, growth orientation, an integrated value system, and receptiveness to new experiences are considered to be crucial variables to the self-actualization process. A regular, year-long group counseling program was conducted with 85 randomly selected gifted secondary students in the Farmington, Connecticut Public Schools. A…

  8. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  9. Humanistic Education and Self-Actualization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rod

    1984-01-01

    Stresses the need for theoretical justification for the development of humanistic education programs in today's schools. Explores Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and theory of self-actualization. Argues that Maslow's theory may be the best available for educators concerned with educating the whole child. (JHZ)

  10. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  11. 50 CFR 253.16 - Actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actual cost. 253.16 Section 253.16 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program §...

  12. Whiteheadian Actual Entitities and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, Joseph A.

    2012-06-01

    In the philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, the ultimate units of reality are actual entities, momentary self-constituting subjects of experience which are too small to be sensibly perceived. Their combination into "societies" with a "common element of form" produces the organisms and inanimate things of ordinary sense experience. According to the proponents of string theory, tiny vibrating strings are the ultimate constituents of physical reality which in harmonious combination yield perceptible entities at the macroscopic level of physical reality. Given that the number of Whiteheadian actual entities and of individual strings within string theory are beyond reckoning at any given moment, could they be two ways to describe the same non-verifiable foundational reality? For example, if one could establish that the "superject" or objective pattern of self- constitution of an actual entity vibrates at a specific frequency, its affinity with the individual strings of string theory would be striking. Likewise, if one were to claim that the size and complexity of Whiteheadian 'societies" require different space-time parameters for the dynamic interrelationship of constituent actual entities, would that at least partially account for the assumption of 10 or even 26 instead of just 3 dimensions within string theory? The overall conclusion of this article is that, if a suitably revised understanding of Whiteheadian metaphysics were seen as compatible with the philosophical implications of string theory, their combination into a single world view would strengthen the plausibility of both schemes taken separately. Key words: actual entities, subject/superjects, vibrating strings, structured fields of activity, multi-dimensional physical reality.

  13. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  14. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  15. Appraisals of Negative Divorce Events and Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Elizabeth; And Others

    Adding to prior literature on adults' and children's appraisals of stressors, this study examined relationships among children's negative cognitive errors regarding hypothetical negative divorce events, positive illusions about those same events, the actual divorce events, and children's post-divorce psychological adjustment. Subjects were 38…

  16. Many-Group Cross-Section Adjustment Techniques for Boiling Water Reactor Adaptive Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multigroup neutron cross sections, including self-shielding correction factors, to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) core modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multigroup neutron cross-section uncertainties through various BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k{sub eff}, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multigroup cross sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR core modeling predictions and observed (i.e., measured) plant data. For this paper, observed plant data are virtually simulated in the form of perturbed three-dimensional nodal power distributions with the perturbations sized to represent actual discrepancies between predictions and real plant data. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multigroup neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics and core simulator calculations. The data adjustment equations are developed using a subspace approach that exploits the ill-conditioning of the multigroup cross-section covariance matrix to minimize computation and storage burden. Tikhonov regularization is also employed to improve the conditioning of the data adjustment equations. Expressions are also provided for posterior covariance matrices of both the multigroup cross-section and core attributes uncertainties.

  17. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  18. Error adjustments for file linking methods using encrypted unique client identifier (eUCI) with application to recently released prisoners who are HIV+.

    PubMed

    Gutman, R; Sammartino, C J; Green, T C; Montague, B T

    2016-01-15

    Incarceration provides an opportunity to test for HIV, provide treatment such as highly active anti-retroviral therapy, as well as link infected persons to comprehensive HIV care upon their release. A key factor in assessing the success of a program that links released individuals to care is the time from release to receiving care in the community (linkage time). To estimate the linkage time, records from correction systems are linked to Ryan White Clinic data using encrypted Unique Client Identifier (eUCI). Most of the records that were linked using eUCI belong to the same individual; however, in some cases, it may link records incorrectly, or not identify records that should have been linked. We propose a Bayesian procedure that relies on the relationships between variables that appear in either of the data sources, as well as variables that exists in both to identify correctly linked records among all linked records. The procedure generates K datasets in which each pair of linked records is identified as a true link or a false link. The K datasets are analyzed independently, and the results are combined using Rubin's multiple imputation rules. A small validation dataset is used to examine different statistical models and to inform the prior distributions of the parameters. In comparison with previously proposed methods, the proposed method utilizes all of the available data and is both flexible and computationally efficient. In addition, this approach can be applied in other file linking applications.

  19. Error Adjustments for File Linking Methods Using Encrypted Unique Client Identifier (eUCI) with Application to Recently Released HIV+ Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Gutman, R.; Sammartino, C.J.; Green, T.C.; Montague, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Incarceration provides an opportunity to test for HIV, provide treatment such as highly active anti-retroviral therapy, as well as link infected persons to comprehensive HIV care upon their release. A key factor in assessing the success of a program that links released individuals to care is the time from release to receiving care in the community (linkage time). To estimate the linkage time, records from correction systems are linked to Ryan White Clinic data using encrypted Unique Client Identifier (eUCI). Most of the records linked using eUCI belong to the same individual; however, in some cases it may link records incorrectly, or not identify records that should have been linked. We propose a Bayesian procedure that relies on the relationships between variables that appear in either of the data sources, as well as variables that exists in both to identify correctly linked records among all linked records. The procedure generates K datasets in which each pair of linked records is identified as a true link or a false link. The K datasets are analyzed independently and the results are combined using Rubin’s multiple imputation rules. A small validation dataset is used to examine different statistical models, and to inform the prior distributions of the parameters. In comparison to previously proposed methods, the proposed method utilizes all of the available data and is both flexible and computationally efficient. In addition, this approach can be applied in other file linking applications. PMID:26202853

  20. 48 CFR 14.408-4 - Economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic price adjustment... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.408-4 Economic price adjustment. (a) Bidder proposes economic price adjustment. (1) When a solicitation does...

  1. 48 CFR 14.408-4 - Economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Economic price adjustment... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.408-4 Economic price adjustment. (a) Bidder proposes economic price adjustment. (1) When a solicitation does...

  2. 48 CFR 14.408-4 - Economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economic price adjustment... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.408-4 Economic price adjustment. (a) Bidder proposes economic price adjustment. (1) When a solicitation does...

  3. 48 CFR 14.408-4 - Economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economic price adjustment... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.408-4 Economic price adjustment. (a) Bidder proposes economic price adjustment. (1) When a solicitation does...

  4. 48 CFR 14.408-4 - Economic price adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Economic price adjustment... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.408-4 Economic price adjustment. (a) Bidder proposes economic price adjustment. (1) When a solicitation does...

  5. Wicket gate trailing-edge blowing: A method for improving off-design hydroturbine performance by adjusting the runner inlet swirl angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. J.; Cimbala, J. M.; Wouden, A. M.

    2014-03-01

    At their best efficiency point (BEP), hydroturbines operate at very high efficiency. However, with the ever-increasing penetration of alternative electricity generation, it has become common to operate hydroturbines at off-design conditions in order to maintain stability in the electric power grid. This paper demonstrates a method for improving hydroturbine performance during off-design operation by injecting water through slots at the trailing edges of the wicket gates. The injected water causes a change in bulk flow direction at the inlet of the runner. This change in flow angle from the wicket gate trailing-edge jets provides the capability of independently varying the flow rate and swirl angle through the runner, which in current designs are both determined by the wicket gate opening angle. When properly tuned, altering the flow angle results in a significant improvement in turbine efficiency during off-design operation.

  6. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  7. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  8. Explosive Percolation Transition is Actually Continuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. A.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recently a discontinuous percolation transition was reported in a new “explosive percolation” problem for irreversible systems [D. Achlioptas, R. M. D’Souza, and J. Spencer, Science 323, 1453 (2009)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1167782] in striking contrast to ordinary percolation. We consider a representative model which shows that the explosive percolation transition is actually a continuous, second order phase transition though with a uniquely small critical exponent of the percolation cluster size. We describe the unusual scaling properties of this transition and find its critical exponents and dimensions.

  9. Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer: Actual Status

    PubMed Central

    Garajová, Ingrid; Di Girolamo, Stefania; de Rosa, Francesco; Corbelli, Jody; Agostini, Valentina; Biasco, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant (preoperative) concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a standard treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical stages II (cT3-4, N0, M0) and III (cT1-4, N+, M0) according to International Union Against Cancer (IUCC) are concerned. It can reduce tumor volume and subsequently lead to an increase in complete resections (R0 resections), shows less toxicity, and improves local control rate. The aim of this review is to summarize actual approaches, main problems, and discrepancies in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. PMID:22295206

  10. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  11. Does equilibrium passive sampling reflect actual in situ bioaccumulation of PAHs and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in aquatic worms?

    PubMed

    Muijs, Barry; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2012-01-17

    Over the past couple of years, several analytical methods have been developed for assessing the bioavailability of environmental contaminants in sediments and soils. Comparison studies suggest that equilibrium passive sampling methods generally provide the better estimates of internal concentrations in organisms and thus of subsequent risks. However, field studies to validate the potential of passive sampling to predict actual in situ bioaccumulation are scarce and limited information only exists on selected, individual compounds. The present study investigated whether bioaccumulation of PAH and complex petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in field-exposed aquatic worms could be predicted properly with passive samplers. To this end, in situ bioaccumulation in aquatic worms at 6 PAH-contaminated locations and 8 petroleum hydrocarbon (oil)-contaminated locations was compared with the results of in situ solid phase micro extraction (SPME) applications. For the oil-contaminated sediments, bioaccumulation was also assessed in the lab with polyoxymethylene solid phase extraction (POM-SPE). Actual PAH bioaccumulation was generally predicted within a factor of 4 with in situ SPME, using temperature-adjusted SPME fiber-water partition coefficients and lab-derived bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for the worm species used, demonstrating the method's potential under field conditions. In situ SPME appeared to be less suitable for predicting bioaccumulation of oil however, in contrast to POM-SPE in the lab, which assessed in situ oil bioaccumulation within a factor of 3, while also closely reflecting the actual distribution of oil boiling point fractions (the hydrocarbon block profile) as accumulated by the worms. All in all, the results indicated that (specific) equilibrium passive samplers, either applied in the field or the lab, have great potential for assessing bioaccumulation of environmental contaminant mixtures from field-contaminated sediments.

  12. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  13. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  14. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  15. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  16. 7 CFR 1437.101 - Actual production history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Actual production history. 1437.101 Section 1437.101... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.101 Actual production history. Actual production history (APH) is the unit's record of crop yield by crop year for the APH base period. The...

  17. The actual status of Astronomy in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, A.

    The astronomical research in the Republic of Moldova after Nicolae Donitch (Donici)(1874-1956(?)) were renewed in 1957, when a satellites observations station was open in Chisinau. Fotometric observations and rotations of first Soviet artificial satellites were investigated under a program SPIN put in action by the Academy of Sciences of former Socialist Countries. The works were conducted by Assoc. prof. Dr. V. Grigorevskij, which conducted also research in variable stars. Later, at the beginning of 60-th, an astronomical Observatory at the Chisinau State University named after Lenin (actually: the State University of Moldova), placed in Lozovo-Ciuciuleni villages was open, which were coordinated by Odessa State University (Prof. V.P. Tsesevich) and the Astrosovet of the USSR. Two main groups worked in this area: first conducted by V. Grigorevskij (till 1971) and second conducted by L.I. Shakun (till 1988), both graduated from Odessa State University. Besides this research areas another astronomical observations were made: Comets observations, astroclimate and atmospheric optics in collaboration with the Institute of the Atmospheric optics of the Siberian branch of the USSR (V. Chernobai, I. Nacu, C. Usov and A.F. Poiata). Comets observations were also made since 1988 by D. I. Gorodetskij which came to Chisinau from Alma-Ata and collaborated with Ukrainean astronomers conducted by K.I. Churyumov. Another part of space research was made at the State University of Tiraspol since the beggining of 70-th by a group of teaching staff of the Tiraspol State Pedagogical University: M.D. Polanuer, V.S. Sholokhov. No a collaboration between Moldovan astronomers and Transdniestrian ones actually exist due to War in Transdniestria in 1992. An important area of research concerned the Radiophysics of the Ionosphere, which was conducted in Beltsy at the Beltsy State Pedagogical Institute by a group of teaching staff of the University since the beginning of 70-th: N. D. Filip, E

  18. Delay Adjusted Incidence

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  19. Nonlinear Hydrostatic Adjustment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannon, Peter R.

    1996-12-01

    The final equilibrium state of Lamb's hydrostatic adjustment problem is found for finite amplitude heating. Lamb's problem consists of the response of a compressible atmosphere to an instantaneous, horizontally homogeneous heating. Results are presented for both isothermal and nonisothermal atmospheres.As in the linear problem, the fluid displacements are confined to the heated layer and to the region aloft with no displacement of the fluid below the heating. The region above the heating is displaced uniformly upward for heating and downward for cooling. The amplitudes of the displacements are larger for cooling than for warming.Examination of the energetics reveals that the fraction of the heat deposited into the acoustic modes increases linearly with the amplitude of the heating. This fraction is typically small (e.g., 0.06% for a uniform warming of 1 K) and is essentially independent of the lapse rate of the base-state atmosphere. In contrast a fixed fraction of the available energy generated by the heating goes into the acoustic modes. This fraction (e.g., 12% for a standard tropospheric lapse rate) agrees with the linear result and increases with increasing stability of the base-state atmosphere.The compressible results are compared to solutions using various forms of the soundproof equations. None of the soundproof equations predict the finite amplitude solutions accurately. However, in the small amplitude limit, only the equations for deep convection advanced by Dutton and Fichtl predict the thermodynamic state variables accurately for a nonisothermal base-state atmosphere.

  20. Micro Ring Grating Spectrometer with Adjustable Aperture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spectrometer includes a micro-ring grating device having coaxially-aligned ring gratings for diffracting incident light onto a target focal point, a detection device for detecting light intensity, one or more actuators, and an adjustable aperture device defining a circular aperture. The aperture circumscribes a target focal point, and directs a light to the detection device. The aperture device is selectively adjustable using the actuators to select a portion of a frequency band for transmission to the detection device. A method of detecting intensity of a selected band of incident light includes directing incident light onto coaxially-aligned ring gratings of a micro-ring grating device, and diffracting the selected band onto a target focal point using the ring gratings. The method includes using an actuator to adjust an aperture device and pass a selected portion of the frequency band to a detection device for measuring the intensity of the selected portion.

  1. Propensity-matched analysis of the gap between capacity and actual performance of dressing in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Otsuki, Koji; Iokawa, Kazuaki; Sone, Toshimasa; Midorikawa, Manabu; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Bumsuk, Lee; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Dressing is an activity of daily living for which stroke patients often show discrepancies between capacity and actual performance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the physical function and unilateral spatial neglect in stroke patients that reduce their level of actual performance despite having the capacity for dressing independently. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 60 first-time stroke patients judged by occupational therapists as able to dress independently. The patients were divided into two groups according to their FIM(®) instrument scores for dressing the upper and lower body: an independent group with both scores ≥6 and an assistance group with one or both scores ≤5. After adjusting for confounding factors through propensity score matching, the groups were compared by using Stroke Impairment Assessment Set items, the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function of both upper limbs, and the Berg balance scale. [Results] The assistance group had a significantly lower score for the Berg balance scale than the independent dressing group (31.0 ± 12.3 vs. 47.8 ± 7.4). [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggested that the balance function has an effect on the discrepancy between dressing capacity and performance.

  2. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  3. Role of Experiment Covariance in Cross Section Adjustments

    SciTech Connect

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; M. Salvatores

    2014-06-01

    This paper is dedicated to the memory of R. D. McKnight, which gave a seminal contribution in establishing methodology and rigorous approach in the evaluation of the covariance of reactor physics integral experiments. His original assessment of the ZPPR experiment uncertainties and correlations has made nuclear data adjustments, based on these experiments, much more robust and reliable. In the present paper it has been shown with some numerical examples the actual impact on an adjustment of accounting for or neglecting such correlations.

  4. Environmental interventions to enhance student adjustment: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Berryhill, Joseph C; Prinz, Ronald J

    2003-06-01

    School settings, often the sites for the prevention of adverse outcomes or the promotion of adjustment, are usually not the actual targets of such interventions. However, some interventions focus on modifying the school or classroom environments themselves. This review examines such approaches, and considers how school regularities that might undermine student adjustment are addressed. The environmental interventions are clustered in terms of focus: on student-student interactions, on teacher and peer influences, and on organizational function and structure. Reasons for the paucity of environmental change efforts and the inherent difficulties are discussed, and recommendations for creating ways to undertake future environmental interventions in schools are offered.

  5. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  6. Response to actual and simulated recordings of conventional takeoff and landing jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabry, J. E.; Sullivan, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    Comparability between noise characteristics of synthesized recordings of aircraft in flight and actual recordings were investigated. Although the synthesized recordings were more smoothly time-varying than the actual recordings and the synthesizer could not produce a comb-filter effect that was present in the actual recordings, results supported the conclusion that annoyance response is comparable to the synthesized and actual recordings. A correction for duration markedly improved the validity of engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. Results led to the conclusion that the magnitude estimation psychophysical method was a highly reliable approach for evaluating engineering calculation procedures designed to measure noise annoyance. For repeated presentations of pairs of actual recordings, differences between judgment results for identical signals ranged from 0.0 to 0.5 db.

  7. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  8. Kinematic synthesis of adjustable robotic mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuenchom, Thatchai

    1993-01-01

    Conventional hard automation, such as a linkage-based or a cam-driven system, provides high speed capability and repeatability but not the flexibility required in many industrial applications. The conventional mechanisms, that are typically single-degree-of-freedom systems, are being increasingly replaced by multi-degree-of-freedom multi-actuators driven by logic controllers. Although this new trend in sophistication provides greatly enhanced flexibility, there are many instances where the flexibility needs are exaggerated and the associated complexity is unnecessary. Traditional mechanism-based hard automation, on the other hand, neither can fulfill multi-task requirements nor are cost-effective mainly due to lack of methods and tools to design-in flexibility. This dissertation attempts to bridge this technological gap by developing Adjustable Robotic Mechanisms (ARM's) or 'programmable mechanisms' as a middle ground between high speed hard automation and expensive serial jointed-arm robots. This research introduces the concept of adjustable robotic mechanisms towards cost-effective manufacturing automation. A generalized analytical synthesis technique has been developed to support the computational design of ARM's that lays the theoretical foundation for synthesis of adjustable mechanisms. The synthesis method developed in this dissertation, called generalized adjustable dyad and triad synthesis, advances the well-known Burmester theory in kinematics to a new level. While this method provides planar solutions, a novel patented scheme is utilized for converting prescribed three-dimensional motion specifications into sets of planar projections. This provides an analytical and a computational tool for designing adjustable mechanisms that satisfy multiple sets of three-dimensional motion specifications. Several design issues were addressed, including adjustable parameter identification, branching defect, and mechanical errors. An efficient mathematical scheme for

  9. An evaluation of contractor projected and actual costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, K. A.; Buffalano, C.

    1974-01-01

    GSFC contractors with cost-plus contracts provide cost estimates for each of the next four quarters on a quarterly basis. Actual expenditures over a two-year period were compared to the estimates, and the data were sorted in different ways to answer several questions and give quantification to observations, such as how much does the accuracy of estimates degrade as they are made further into the future? Are estimates made for small dollar amounts more accurate than for large dollar estimates? Other government agencies and private companies with cost-plus contracts may be interested in this analysis as potential methods of contract management for their organizations. It provides them with the different methods one organization is beginning to use to control costs.

  10. Heat index and adjusted temperature as surrogates for wet bulb globe temperature to screen for occupational heat stress.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Thomas E; Iheanacho, Ivory

    2015-01-01

    Ambient temperature and relative humidity are readily ava-ilable and thus tempting metrics for heat stress assessment. Two methods of using air temperature and relative humidity to create an index are Heat Index and Adjusted Temperature. The purposes of this article are: (1) to examine how well Heat Index and Adjusted Temperature estimated the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, and (2) to suggest how Heat Index and Adjusted Temperature can be used to screen for heat stress level. Psychrometric relationships were used to estimate values of actual WBGT for conditions of air temperature, relative humidity, and radiant heat at an air speed of 0.5 m/s. A relationship between Heat Index [°F] and WBGT [°C] was described by WBGT = -0.0034 HI(2) + 0.96 HI - 34. At lower Heat Index values, the equation estimated WBGTs that were ± 2 °C-WBGT around the actual value, and to about ± 0.5 °C-WBGT for Heat Index values > 100 °F. A relationship between Adjusted Temperature [°F] and WBGT [°C] was described by WBGT = 0.45 Tadj - 16. The actual WBGT was between 1 °C-WBGT below the estimated value and 1.4 °C-WBGT above. That is, there was a slight bias toward overestimating WBGT from Adjusted Temperature. Heat stress screening tables were constructed for metabolic rates of 180, 300, and 450 W. The screening decisions were divided into four categories: (1) < alert limit, (2) < exposure limit, (3) hourly time-weighted averages (TWAs) of work and recovery, and (4) a caution zone for an exposure > exposure limit at rest. The authors do not recommend using Heat Index or Adjusted Temperature instead of WBGT, but they may be used to screen for circumstances when a more detailed analysis using WBGT is appropriate. A particular weakness is accounting for radiant heat; and neither air speed nor clothing was considered.

  11. External Validity of Contingent Valuation: Comparing Hypothetical and Actual Payments.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Jareinpituk, Suthi; Cairns, John

    2016-10-09

    Whilst contingent valuation is increasingly used in economics to value benefits, questions remain concerning its external validity that is do hypothetical responses match actual responses? We present results from the first within sample field test. Whilst Hypothetical No is always an Actual No, Hypothetical Yes exceed Actual Yes responses. A constant rate of response reversals across bids/prices could suggest theoretically consistent option value responses. Certainty calibrations (verbal and numerical response scales) minimise hypothetical-actual discrepancies offering a useful solution. Helping respondents resolve uncertainty may reduce the discrepancy between hypothetical and actual payments and thus lead to more accurate policy recommendations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. On regression adjustment for the propensity score.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, S; Daniel, R M

    2014-10-15

    Propensity scores are widely adopted in observational research because they enable adjustment for high-dimensional confounders without requiring models for their association with the outcome of interest. The results of statistical analyses based on stratification, matching or inverse weighting by the propensity score are therefore less susceptible to model extrapolation than those based solely on outcome regression models. This is attractive because extrapolation in outcome regression models may be alarming, yet difficult to diagnose, when the exposed and unexposed individuals have very different covariate distributions. Standard regression adjustment for the propensity score forms an alternative to the aforementioned propensity score methods, but the benefits of this are less clear because it still involves modelling the outcome in addition to the propensity score. In this article, we develop novel insights into the properties of this adjustment method. We demonstrate that standard tests of the null hypothesis of no exposure effect (based on robust variance estimators), as well as particular standardised effects obtained from such adjusted regression models, are robust against misspecification of the outcome model when a propensity score model is correctly specified; they are thus not vulnerable to the aforementioned problem of extrapolation. We moreover propose efficient estimators for these standardised effects, which retain a useful causal interpretation even when the propensity score model is misspecified, provided the outcome regression model is correctly specified.

  13. Method and system for fault accommodation of machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai Frank (Inventor); Subbu, Rajesh Venkat (Inventor); Rausch, Randal Thomas (Inventor); Frederick, Dean Kimball (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for multi-objective fault accommodation using predictive modeling is disclosed. The method includes using a simulated machine that simulates a faulted actual machine, and using a simulated controller that simulates an actual controller. A multi-objective optimization process is performed, based on specified control settings for the simulated controller and specified operational scenarios for the simulated machine controlled by the simulated controller, to generate a Pareto frontier-based solution space relating performance of the simulated machine to settings of the simulated controller, including adjustment to the operational scenarios to represent a fault condition of the simulated machine. Control settings of the actual controller are adjusted, represented by the simulated controller, for controlling the actual machine, represented by the simulated machine, in response to a fault condition of the actual machine, based on the Pareto frontier-based solution space, to maximize desirable operational conditions and minimize undesirable operational conditions while operating the actual machine in a region of the solution space defined by the Pareto frontier.

  14. Tracking Actual Usage: The Attention Metadata Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolpers, Martin; Najjar, Jehad; Verbert, Katrien; Duval, Erik

    2007-01-01

    The information overload in learning and teaching scenarios is a main hindering factor for efficient and effective learning. New methods are needed to help teachers and students in dealing with the vast amount of available information and learning material. Our approach aims to utilize contextualized attention metadata to capture behavioural…

  15. Internet Radicalization: Actual Threat or Phantom Menace?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    interaction set by the communicated message.26 The unique global social network functionality of the Internet may facilitate group formation analogous to...correlations and interactions . Future research can apply the same method to evaluate and synthesize the different disciplinary approaches employed by the social ...functionalities. A framework is used to evaluate vulnerabilities identified by the psychological, sociological and social -psychological elements of

  16. What Writing Represents What Scientists Actually Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Often the writing that students in elementary school do in connection with science is their final report of a science fair project. They diligently file a report in the form of the scientific method--introduction, hypothesis, materials, procedure, results, and conclusion. This form of science writing persists through college courses in science,…

  17. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  18. Rectus muscle plication using an adjustable technique

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Federico G.; Demer, Joseph L.; Pihlblad, Matthew S.; Pineles, Stacy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rectus muscle plication is an alternative muscle-strengthening procedure to rectus muscle resection. Possible advantages of rectus muscle plication include a lower risk of “lost” muscles and anterior segment ischemia. Methods This was a retrospective case series describing a surgical procedure for rectus muscle plication using an adjustable suture technique that can be employed on any of the four rectus muscles. Results A total of 5 adult patients underwent adjustable suture plication procedures. Of these, 2 patients required suture adjustment postoperatively. At the final follow-up visit, all of the patients maintained satisfactory ocular alignment within 6Δ of orthotropia for horizontal deviations and 2Δ of orthotropia for vertical deviations. Diplopia was eliminated in all cases with preoperative diplopia. There were no postoperative complications or unexpected shifts in ocular alignment. Conclusions Rectus muscle plication using this adjustable suture technique may serve as an alternative to rectus muscle resection and may be particularly useful in patients who are at risk for anterior segment ischemia or those in whom a shorter anesthesia time is recommended. PMID:24160967

  19. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podder, P.; Constantinou, P.; Amann, A.; Roy, S.

    2016-10-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators.

  20. From deep sequencing to actual clones.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Sara; Kumar, Sandeep; Naranjo, Leslie; Ferrara, Fortunato; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2014-10-01

    The application of deep sequencing to in vitro display technologies has been invaluable for the straightforward analysis of enriched clones. After sequencing in vitro selected populations, clones are binned into identical or similar groups and ordered by abundance, allowing identification of those that are most enriched. However, the greatest strength of deep sequencing is also its greatest weakness: clones are easily identified by their DNA sequences, but are not physically available for testing without a laborious multistep process involving several rounds of polymerization chain reaction (PCR), assembly and cloning. Here, using the isolation of antibody genes from a phage and yeast display selection as an example, we show the power of a rapid and simple inverse PCR-based method to easily isolate clones identified by deep sequencing. Once primers have been received, clone isolation can be carried out in a single day, rather than two days. Furthermore the reduced number of PCRs required will reduce PCR mutations correspondingly. We have observed a 100% success rate in amplifying clones with an abundance as low as 0.5% in a polyclonal population. This approach allows us to obtain full-length clones even when an incomplete sequence is available, and greatly simplifies the subcloning process. Moreover, rarer, but functional clones missed by traditional screening can be easily isolated using this method, and the approach can be extended to any selected library (scFv, cDNA, libraries based on scaffold proteins) where a unique sequence signature for the desired clones of interest is available.

  1. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa

    2017-01-03

    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  2. Correlation of parents' religious behavior with family's emotional relations and students' self-actualization.

    PubMed

    Poorsheikhali, Fatemah; Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2015-02-01

    The main goal of this research is to study the relationship between parents' religious behavior, emotional relations inside family, and self-actualization of male and female high school students of district 2 in Kerman city. Research method is descriptive and of correlative type. Questionnaires of parent's religious behavior, emotional relations inside family, and students' self-actualization were used in the research. After collecting questionnaires, data were analyzed by SPSS, MINITAB, and EXCEL software. The sample volume in the research has been 309 students and their parents, and the sampling method was in the form of classification and then in the form of cluster in two stages. 1.29 % of students had a low self-actualization, 17.15 % had average, and 81.55 % of them had high self-actualization. Also the results showed that 9.4 % of emotional relations in families were undesirable, 55.3 % were relatively desirable, and 35.3 % were desirable. Moreover, 2.27 % of parents' religious behavior was inappropriate, 29.13 % was relatively appropriate, and 68.61 % was appropriate. The main results of the research are as follows: (1) There is a significant positive correlation between parents' religious behavior and emotional relations inside students' family. (2) There is not any significant correlational between parents' religious behavior and students' self-actualization. (3) There is a significant positive correlation between emotional relations inside family and students' self-actualization.

  3. Combining biomarkers for classification with covariate adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Huang, Ying

    2017-03-09

    Combining multiple markers can improve classification accuracy compared with using a single marker. In practice, covariates associated with markers or disease outcome can affect the performance of a biomarker or biomarker combination in the population. The covariate-adjusted receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve has been proposed as a tool to tease out the covariate effect in the evaluation of a single marker; this curve characterizes the classification accuracy solely because of the marker of interest. However, research on the effect of covariates on the performance of marker combinations and on how to adjust for the covariate effect when combining markers is still lacking. In this article, we examine the effect of covariates on classification performance of linear marker combinations and propose to adjust for covariates in combining markers by maximizing the nonparametric estimate of the area under the covariate-adjusted ROC curve. The proposed method provides a way to estimate the best linear biomarker combination that is robust to risk model assumptions underlying alternative regression-model-based methods. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. We conduct simulations to evaluate the performance of our estimator in cohort and case/control designs and compare several different weighting strategies during estimation with respect to efficiency. Our estimator is also compared with alternative regression-model-based estimators or estimators that maximize the empirical area under the ROC curve, with respect to bias and efficiency. We apply the proposed method to a biomarker study from an human immunodeficiency virus vaccine trial. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Adjusting to change: linking family structure transitions with parenting and boys' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Charles R; Forgatch, Marion S

    2002-06-01

    This study examined links between family structure transitions and children's academic, behavioral, and emotional outcomes in a sample of 238 divorcing mothers and their sons in Grades 1-3. Multiple methods and agents were used in assessing family process variables and child outcomes. Findings suggest that greater accumulations of family transitions were associated with poorer academic functioning, greater acting-out behavior, and worse emotional adjustment for boys. However, in all three cases, these relationships were mediated by parenting practices: Parental academic skill encouragement mediated the relationship between transitions and academic functioning, and a factor of more general effective parenting practices mediated the relationships between transitions and acting out and emotional adjustment.

  5. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  6. Comparable-Worth Adjustments: Yes--Comparable-Worth Adjustments: No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Sue; O'Neill, June

    1985-01-01

    Two essays address the issue of pay equity and present opinions favoring and opposing comparable-worth adjustments. Movement of women out of traditionally female jobs, the limits of "equal pay," fairness of comparable worth and market-based wages, implementation and efficiency of comparable worth system, and alternatives to comparable…

  7. On the downscaling of actual evapotranspiration maps based on combination of MODIS and landsat-based actual evapotranspiration estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Bohms, Stefanie; Verdin, James P.

    2014-01-01

     Downscaling is one of the important ways of utilizing the combined benefits of the high temporal resolution of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images and fine spatial resolution of Landsat images. We have evaluated the output regression with intercept method and developed the Linear with Zero Intercept (LinZI) method for downscaling MODIS-based monthly actual evapotranspiration (AET) maps to the Landsat-scale monthly AET maps for the Colorado River Basin for 2010. We used the 8-day MODIS land surface temperature product (MOD11A2) and 328 cloud-free Landsat images for computing AET maps and downscaling. The regression with intercept method does have limitations in downscaling if the slope and intercept are computed over a large area. A good agreement was obtained between downscaled monthly AET using the LinZI method and the eddy covariance measurements from seven flux sites within the Colorado River Basin. The mean bias ranged from −16 mm (underestimation) to 22 mm (overestimation) per month, and the coefficient of determination varied from 0.52 to 0.88. Some discrepancies between measured and downscaled monthly AET at two flux sites were found to be due to the prevailing flux footprint. A reasonable comparison was also obtained between downscaled monthly AET using LinZI method and the gridded FLUXNET dataset. The downscaled monthly AET nicely captured the temporal variation in sampled land cover classes. The proposed LinZI method can be used at finer temporal resolution (such as 8 days) with further evaluation. The proposed downscaling method will be very useful in advancing the application of remotely sensed images in water resources planning and management.

  8. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... statements and shall monitor compliance with these statements on a regular basis. (b) Change of assignment is... under 18 U.S.C. 208(b) is an appropriate method for resolving apparent or actual conflicts of interest... adequately resolved by any of the methods set forth in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (d) of this section....

  9. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... statements and shall monitor compliance with these statements on a regular basis. (b) Change of assignment is... under 18 U.S.C. 208(b) is an appropriate method for resolving apparent or actual conflicts of interest... adequately resolved by any of the methods set forth in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (d) of this section....

  10. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... statements and shall monitor compliance with these statements on a regular basis. (b) Change of assignment is... under 18 U.S.C. 208(b) is an appropriate method for resolving apparent or actual conflicts of interest... adequately resolved by any of the methods set forth in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (d) of this section....

  11. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... statements and shall monitor compliance with these statements on a regular basis. (b) Change of assignment is... under 18 U.S.C. 208(b) is an appropriate method for resolving apparent or actual conflicts of interest... adequately resolved by any of the methods set forth in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (d) of this section....

  12. Self-Actualization and the Effective Social Studies Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney B.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken to investigate the relationship between social studies teachers' degrees of self-actualization and their teacher effectiveness. Investigates validity of using Maslow's theory of self-actualization as a way of identifying the effective social studies teacher personality. (Author/DB)

  13. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  14. Self-actualization: Its Use and Misuse in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    1982-01-01

    The writings of Abraham Maslow are analyzed to determine the meaning of the psychological term "self-actualization." After pointing out that self-actualization is a rare quality and that it has little to do with formal education, the author concludes that the concept has little practical relevance for teacher education. (PP)

  15. The Self-Actualization of Polk Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall, Howard E.; Thompson, Paul V., Jr.

    This article investigates the concept of self-actualization introduced by Abraham Maslow (1954). A summary of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy, along with a description of the characteristics of the self-actualized person, is presented. An analysis of humanistic education reveals it has much to offer as a means of promoting the principles of…

  16. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described...

  17. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  18. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  19. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  20. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means...

  1. Facebook as a Library Tool: Perceived vs. Actual Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Terra B.

    2011-01-01

    As Facebook has come to dominate the social networking site arena, more libraries have created their own library pages on Facebook to create library awareness and to function as a marketing tool. This paper examines reported versus actual use of Facebook in libraries to identify discrepancies between intended goals and actual use. The results of a…

  2. School Guidance Counselors' Perceptions of Actual and Preferred Job Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John Dexter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide process data for school counselors, administrators, and the public, regarding school counselors' actual roles within the guidance counselor preferred job duties and actual job duties. In addition, factors including National Certification or no National Certification, years of counseling experience, and…

  3. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  4. Multiplicity adjustments in testing for bioequivalence.

    PubMed

    Hua, Steven Y; Xu, Siyan; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2015-01-30

    Bioequivalence of two drugs is usually demonstrated by rejecting two one-sided null hypotheses using the two one-sided tests for pharmacokinetic parameters: area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax). By virtue of the intersection-union test, there is no need for multiplicity adjustment in testing the two one-sided null hypotheses within each parameter. However, the decision rule for bioequivalence often requires equivalence to be achieved simultaneously on both parameters that contain four one-sided null hypotheses together; without adjusting for multiplicity, the family wise error rate (FWER) could fail to be controlled at the nominal type-I error rate α. The multiplicity issue for bioequivalence in this regard is scarcely discussed in the literature. To address this issue, we propose two approaches including a closed test procedure that controls FWER for the simultaneous AUC and Cmax bioequivalence and requires no adjustment of the type-I error, and an alpha-adaptive sequential testing (AAST) that controls FWER by pre-specifying the significance level on AUC (α1) and obtaining it for Cmax (α2) adaptively after testing of AUC. While both methods control FWER, the closed test requires testing of eight intersection null hypotheses each at α, and AAST is at times accomplished through a slight deduction in α1 and no deduction in α2 relative to α. The latter considers equivalence reached in AUC a higher importance than that in Cmax. Illustrated with published data, the two approaches, although operate differently, can lead to the same substantive conclusion and are better than a traditional method like Bonferroni adjustment.

  5. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  6. Dyadic Adjustment: An Ecosystemic Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephan M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; McCulloch, B. Jan; Stone, Katherine L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of background, individual, and family influences on dyadic adjustment, using an ecological perspective. Data from 102 married couples were used. Age at marriage for husbands, emotional health for wives, and number of marriage and family problems as well as family life satisfaction for both were related to dyadic…

  7. Problems of Adjustment to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolini, Leandro A.

    This paper, one of several written for a comprehensive policy study of early childhood education in Illinois, examines and summarizes the literature on the problems of young children in adjusting to starting school full-time and describes the nature and extent of their difficulties in relation to statewide educational policy. The review of studies…

  8. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  9. Shape adjustment of cable mesh reflector antennas considering modeling uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jingli; Bao, Hong; Cui, Chuanzhen

    2014-04-01

    Cable mesh antennas are the most important implement to construct large space antennas nowadays. Reflector surface of cable mesh antennas has to be carefully adjusted to achieve required accuracy, which is an effective way to compensate manufacturing and assembly errors or other imperfections. In this paper shape adjustment of cable mesh antennas is addressed. The required displacement of the reflector surface is determined with respect to a modified paraboloid whose axial vertex offset is also considered as a variable. Then the adjustment problem is solved by minimizing the RMS error with respect to the desired paraboloid using minimal norm least squares method. To deal with the modeling uncertainties, the adjustment is achieved by solving a simple worst-case optimization problem instead of directly using the least squares method. A numerical example demonstrates the worst-case method is of good convergence and accuracy, and is robust to perturbations.

  10. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within the OCC's jurisdiction is adjusted in accordance with the...

  11. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  12. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  13. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  14. Dose-Weighted Adjusted Mantel-Haenszel Tests for Numeric Scaled Strata in a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gansky, Stuart A.; Cheng, Nancy F.; Koch, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    A recent three-arm parallel groups randomized clinical prevention trial had a protocol deviation causing participants to have fewer active doses of an in-office treatment than planned. The original statistical analysis plan stipulated a minimal assumption randomization-based extended Mantel-Haenszel (EMH) trend test of the high frequency, low frequency, and zero frequency treatment groups and a binary outcome. Thus a dose-weighted adjusted EMH (DWAEMH) test was developed with an extra set of weights corresponding to the number of active doses actually available, in the spirit of a pattern mixture model. The method can easily be implemented using standard statistical software. A set of Monte Carlo simulations using a logistic model was undertaken with (and without) actual dose-response effects through 1000 replicates for empirical power estimates (and 2100 for empirical size). Results showed size was maintained and power was improved for DWAEMH versus EMH and logistic regression Wald tests in the presence of a dose effect and treatment by dose interaction. PMID:21709814

  15. Remotely sensed actual evapotranspiration: implications for groundwater management in Botswana.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, W. J.; Meijerink, A. M. J.

    In order to determine evapotranspiration losses from the groundwater of an aquifer in Botswana during the dry season, the multi-step Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was applied using sequential Landsat TM and NOAA-AVHRR data. During satellite overpasses, continuous data on surface temperatures and soil moisture were available from a meteorological tower and field observations for calibration and partial validation of the results. The SEBAL method yielded high actual evapotranspiration (E a) rates (1.5 - 3 mm/d), if relatively dense savannah vegetation was present, even when the water-table was over 30 m deep, as is the case in the upper part of the aquifer. No relationship between Ea and depth to water-table was found, except in the valleys, where riverine forests are fed by a system of discharging groundwater flow. The patterns on a vegetation map, based on a supervised classification using TM data, including thermal bands, showed similarity with the E a patterns. The spatial distributions of vegetation types and of E a have been interpreted as important uptake of water by deep roots; this is supported by increasing evidence from other parts of the world. Sap flow was measured in tall bushes near the tower site. The upper part (2 m) of the soil was dry. The results have implications for the groundwater recharge mechanism and the management of groundwater. Further validation studies have been initiated.

  16. Predictors of sociocultural adjustment among sojourning Malaysian students in Britain.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren

    2009-08-01

    The process of cross-cultural migration may be particularly difficult for students travelling overseas for further or higher education, especially where qualitative differences exist between the home and host nations. The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning Malaysian students in Britain. Eighty-one Malay and 110 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment. A series of one-way analyses of variance showed that Malay participants experienced poorer sociocultural adjustment in comparison with their Chinese counterparts. They were also less likely than Chinese students to have contact with co-nationals and host nationals, more likely to perceive their actual experience in Britain as worse than they had expected, and more likely to perceive greater cultural distance and greater discrimination. The results of regression analyses showed that, for Malay participants, perceived discrimination accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in sociocultural adjustment (73%), followed by English language proficiency (10%) and contact with host nationals (4%). For Chinese participants, English language proficiency was the strongest predictor of sociocultural adjustment (54%), followed by expectations of life in Britain (18%) and contact with host nationals (3%). By contrast, participants' sex, age, and length of residence failed to emerge as significant predictors for either ethnic group. Possible explanations for this pattern of findings are discussed, including the effects of Islamophobia on Malay-Muslims in Britain, possible socioeconomic differences between Malay and Chinese students, and personality differences between the two ethnic groups. The results are further discussed in relation to practical steps that can be taken to improve the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning students in Britain.

  17. A statistical test for the equality of differently adjusted incidence rate ratios.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Kurt; Pischon, Tobias; Schulz, Mandy; Schulze, Matthias B; Ray, Jennifer; Boeing, Heiner

    2008-03-01

    An incidence rate ratio (IRR) is a meaningful effect measure in epidemiology if it is adjusted for all important confounders. For evaluation of the impact of adjustment, adjusted IRRs should be compared with crude IRRs. The aim of this methodological study was to present a statistical approach for testing the equality of adjusted and crude IRRs and to derive a confidence interval for the ratio of the two IRRs. The method can be extended to compare two differently adjusted IRRs and, thus, to evaluate the effect of additional adjustment. The method runs immediately on existing software. To illustrate the application of this approach, the authors studied adjusted IRRs for two risk factors of type 2 diabetes using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study from 2005. The statistical method described may be helpful as an additional tool for analyzing epidemiologic cohort data and for interpreting results obtained from Cox regression models with adjustment for different covariates.

  18. Electrodermal responses to implied versus actual violence on television.

    PubMed

    Kalamas, A D; Gruber, M L

    1998-01-01

    The electrodermal response (EDR) of children watching a violent show was measured. Particular attention was paid to the type of violence (actual or implied) that prompted an EDR. In addition, the impact of the auditory component (sounds associated with violence) of the show was evaluated. Implied violent stimuli, such as the villain's face, elicited the strongest EDR. The elements that elicited the weakest responses were the actual violent stimuli, such as stabbing. The background noise and voices of the sound track enhanced the total number of EDRs. The results suggest that implied violence may elicit more fear (as measured by EDRs) than actual violence does and that sounds alone contribute significantly to the emotional response to television violence. One should not, therefore, categorically assume that a show with mostly actual violence evokes less fear than one with mostly implied violence.

  19. 40. Photocopy of plan of the Castillo c. 1779 (Actual ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photocopy of plan of the Castillo c. 1779 (Actual Negative 4'x5') STAR PLAN, COURTYARD FACADE PROFILE AND DEFENSIVE LINKS - Castillo de San Marcos, 1 Castillo Drive, Saint Augustine, St. Johns County, FL

  20. Concordance between actual and pharmacogenetic predicted desvenlafaxine dose needed to achieve remission in major depressive disorder: a 10-week open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Daniel J.; Ng, Chee H.; Byron, Keith; Berk, Michael; Singh, Ajeet B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic-based dosing support tools have been developed to personalize antidepressant-prescribing practice. However, the clinical validity of these tools has not been adequately tested, particularly for specific antidepressants. Objective To examine the concordance between the actual dose and a polygene pharmacogenetic predicted dose of desvenlafaxine needed to achieve symptom remission. Materials and methods A 10-week, open-label, prospective trial of desvenlafaxine among Caucasian adults with major depressive disorder (n=119) was conducted. Dose was clinically adjusted and at the completion of the trial, the clinical dose needed to achieve remission was compared with the predicted dose needed to achieve remission. Results Among remitters (n=95), there was a strong concordance (Kendall’s τ-b=0.84, P=0.0001; Cohen’s κ=0.82, P=0.0001) between the actual and the predicted dose need to achieve symptom remission, showing high sensitivity (≥85%), specificity (≥86%), and accuracy (≥89%) of the tool. Conclusion Findings provide initial evidence for the clinical validity of a polygene pharmacogenetic-based tool for desvenlafaxine dosing. PMID:27779571

  1. Capitation pricing: Adjusting for prior utilization and physician discretion

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gerard F.; Cantor, Joel C.; Steinberg, Earl P.; Holloway, James

    1986-01-01

    As the number of Medicare beneficiaries receiving care under at-risk capitation arrangements increases, the method for setting payment rates will come under increasing scrutiny. A number of modifications to the current adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC) methodology have been proposed, including an adjustment for prior utilization. In this article, we propose use of a utilization adjustment that includes only hospitalizations involving low or moderate physician discretion in the decision to hospitalize. This modification avoids discrimination against capitated systems that prevent certain discretionary admissions. The model also explains more of the variance in per capita expenditures than does the current AAPCC. PMID:10312010

  2. Adjustable reed for weaving net-shaped tailored fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for forming woven fabrics through the use of an adjustable reed. The adjustable reed has multiple groups of reed wires that guide the warp yarns. The groups of reed wires move on reed rails parallel to the warp direction. In addition, rail expanders permit the space between the reed wires to be modified and telescoping rods attached to the rail sliders can be turned to permit the reed wires to be skewed to alter the fill yarn angle. These adjustments to the reed permit simultaneous variation of fill yarn angles and fabric widths and allow these variations to be made during fabrication, without the need to halt production.

  3. A new adaptation of linear reservoir models in parallel sets to assess actual hydrological events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo Lázaro, Jesús; Sánchez Navarro, José Ángel; García Gil, Alejandro; Edo Romero, Vanesa

    2015-05-01

    A methodology based on Parallel Linear Reservoir (PLR) models is presented. To carry it out has been implemented within the software SHEE (Simulation of Hydrological Extreme Events), which is a tool for the analysis of hydrological processes in catchments with the management and display of DEM and datasets. The algorithms of the models pass throughout the cells and drainage network, by means of the Watershed Traversal Algorithm (WTA) that runs the entire drainage network of a basin in both directions, upwards and downwards, which is ideal for incorporating the models of the hydrological processes of the basins into its structure. The WTA methodology is combined with another one based on models of Parallel Linear Reservoirs (PLR) whose main qualities include: (1) the models are defined by observing the recession curves of actual hydrographs, i.e., the watershed actual responses; (2) the models serve as a way to simulate the routing through the watershed and its different reservoirs; and (3) the models allow calculating the water balance, which is essential to the study of actual events in the watershed. A complete hydrometeorological event needs the combination of several models, each one of which represents a hydrological process. The PLR model is a routing model, but it also contributes to the adjustment of other models (e.g., the rainfall-runoff model) and allows establishing a distributed model of effective rainfall for an actual event occurred in a basin. On the other hand, the proposed formulation solves the rainfall distribution problem for each deposit in the reservoir combination models.

  4. Establishing seasonal chronicles of actual evapotranspiration under sloping conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitouna Chebbi, R.; Prévot, L.; Jacob, F.; Voltz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Estimation of daily and seasonal actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is strongly needed for hydrological and agricultural purposes. Although the eddy covariance method is well suited for such estimation of land surface fluxes, this method suffers from limitations when establishing long time series. Missing data are often encountered, resulting from bad meteorological conditions, rejection by quality control tests, power failures… Numerous gap fill techniques have been proposed in the literature but there applicability in sloping conditions is not well known. In order to estimate ETa over long periods (agricultural cycle) on crops cultivated in sloping areas, a pluri-annual experiment was conducted in the Kamech catchment, located in North-eastern Tunisia. This Mediterranean site is characterized by a large heterogeneity in topography, soils and crops. Land surface fluxes were measured using eddy covariance systems. Measurements were collected on the two opposite sides of the Kamech V-shaped catchment, within small fields having slopes steeper than 5%. During three different years, four crops were studied: durum wheat, oat, fava bean and pasture. The topography of the catchment and the wind regime induced upslope and downslope flows over the study fields. In this study, we showed that gap filling of the turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent heat) can be obtained through linear regressions against net radiation. To account for the effect of the topography, linear regressions were calibrated by distinguishing upslope and downslope flows. This significantly improved the quality of the reconstructed data over 30 minute intervals. This gap filling technique also improved the energy balance closure at the daily time scale. As a result, seasonal chronicles of daily ETa throughout the growth cycle of the study crops in the Kamech watershed were established, thus providing useful information about the water use of annual crops in a semi-arid rainfed and hilly area.

  5. An Analysis of P-3 Aircraft Service Period Adjustment Criteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    A. ASPA(AIRCRAFT SERVICE PERIOD ADJUSTMENT) ....... 29 B. A REVIEW OF ANALYSIS METHODS ................... 310 1. Delphi ...uncertainty. A brief review of their procedures, advantages, and disadvantages is helpful to justify selecting the most appropriate method. 1. Delphi ...Technique The+ Delphi Technique is a method of statistically refining tie opinions of a group of experts or especially knowledgeable personnel. The

  6. End-point parameter adjustment on a small desk-top programmable calculator for logit-log analysis of radioimmunoassay data.

    PubMed

    Hatch, K F; Coles, E; Busey, H; Goldman, S C

    1976-08-01

    We describe an improved method of logit-log curve fitting, by adjusting end-point parameters in radioimmunoassay studies, for use with a small desk-top programmable calculator. Straight logit-log analyses are often deficient because of their high sensitivity to small errors in the end-point parametes B0 and NSB (the actual measured activity in the tubes). The literature suggests techniques for adjusting these end-point parameters, but they require too much computing time and programming space to be used with a desk-top programmable calculator. The extension to the logit-log model presented here is easily handled by the programmable calculator and provides a good estimate of the change required in B0 and NSB to obtain a better fit. The program requires 1.5 min to run on our desk-top programmable calculator, and has resulted in improved data analysis for all of the 11 types of radioimmunoassay studied.

  7. A Comparison of Actual and Preferred Classroom Environments as Perceived by Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsiang-Ru; Chou, Wei-Lun; Miao, Nae-Fang; Wu, Yu-Ping; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Jwo, Jiunn-Chern

    2015-01-01

    Background: A good classroom environment can promote students' learning motivation and affect their academic efficacy and adaptation. This study compares the perceptions of Taiwanese middle school students regarding actual and preferred classroom environments and explores the association with sex and grade level. Methods: Data were collected using…

  8. Measuring the Disparities between Biology Undergraduates' Perceptions and Their Actual Knowledge of Scientific Literature with Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Aditi

    2013-01-01

    This article demonstrates an innovative method used to determine the need for information literacy among science undergraduate students at Adelphi University. Using clickers technology, this study measured the disconnect between biology undergraduates' perceived and actual knowledge of scientific literature. The quantitative data collected in the…

  9. 45 CFR 73.735-904 - Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Reporting Financial Interests § 73.735-904 Resolution of apparent or actual... appropriate method of resolving such conflicts when: (1) The trust is qualified under section 202(f) of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-521), as amended, and subject to the regulations of...

  10. Observation results of actual phase defects using micro coherent EUV scatterometry microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hiraku; Harada, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Takeo

    2016-10-01

    One of the critical issue of EUV lithography is fabrication of defect-free mask. The origin of the defect is a particle inside the multilayer and bump or pit on glass substrate. This type of defect is called a phase defect. If there is a phase defect, the reflection phase is disordered. As a result, the phase structure is printed as a defect on a wafer. Thus, we have developed micro coherent EUV scatterometry microscope (we called micro-CSM) for phase defect characterization. Micro-CSM records scattering signal from a defect directly exposed by focused coherent EUV having a spot size of φ140-nm in diameter. An off-axis-type Fresnel zone plate was employed as a focusing optics. Phase distribution of the defect is reconstructed with the scattering image by the coherent-diffraction-imaging method. We observed actual phase defects in this work. Actual phase defects were on a mask blanks which was the same grade of the pre-production mask of the semiconductor devices. The positions of actual phase defects have been already inspected by the actinic blank inspection tool. And, the actual phase defects have been already observed using an atomic force microscope. A purpose of this work is observation of these actual defects using micro-CSM and comparison of the results.

  11. Parameter-free determination of actual temperature at chemical freeze-out in nuclear interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, A. D.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Tzoulis, J.

    1995-07-01

    We propose a method to determine the actual temperature at chemical freeze-out in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions, using the experimental μq/T and μs/T values, obtained from strange particle ratios. We employ the Hadron Gas formalism, assuming only local thermal equilibration, to relate the quarkchemical potential and temperature. This relation constrains the allowed values of μq/T, μs/T and T, enabling the determination of the actual temperature. Comparison of the inverse slope parameter of the mT-distributions with the actual temperature determines the transverse flow velocity of the fireball matter. Knowledge of these quantities is essential in determining the EoS of nuclear matter and in evaluating interactions with regard to a possible phase transition to QGP.

  12. Remote Sensing of Actual Evapotranspiration at Basin Scale in the Northern Tibetan Plateau Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lei; Zou, Mijun; Ma, Yaoming; Su, Zhongbo; Ma, Weiqiang; Hu, Yuanyuan; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin

    2016-08-01

    Evapotranspiration(ET), as one of the most uncertain components of the water cycle, was derived in the Nagqu river basin of the northern Tibetan Plateau based on multi-sensor remote sensing data and field observations under clear-sky condition. Improved land surface albedo, improved downward shortwave radiation flux and reconstructed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were coupled into the topographical enhanced surface energy balance system (TESEBS) model to estimate actual ET. The model-estimated results were compared with those determined by the combinatory method which were treated as actual ET. The results indicated that the model-estimated ET agreed well with actual ET with correlation coefficient, mean bias error and root mean square error of 0.836, 0.087 and 0.140 respectively.

  13. Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Harmon Daniel B. Levine Stanley A. Horowitz, Project Leader INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES 4850 Mark Center Drive Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1882 Approved...T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-5112 Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition Bruce R. Harmon Daniel B. Levine...might do a better job? The focus of the study is on aircraft procurement. By way of terminology , “cost index,” “price index,” and “deflator” are used

  14. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  15. Beaked Whales Respond to Simulated and Actual Navy Sonar

    PubMed Central

    Tyack, Peter L.; Zimmer, Walter M. X.; Moretti, David; Southall, Brandon L.; Claridge, Diane E.; Durban, John W.; Clark, Christopher W.; D'Amico, Angela; DiMarzio, Nancy; Jarvis, Susan; McCarthy, Elena; Morrissey, Ronald; Ward, Jessica; Boyd, Ian L.

    2011-01-01

    Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2–3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2–3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define

  16. Beaked whales respond to simulated and actual navy sonar.

    PubMed

    Tyack, Peter L; Zimmer, Walter M X; Moretti, David; Southall, Brandon L; Claridge, Diane E; Durban, John W; Clark, Christopher W; D'Amico, Angela; DiMarzio, Nancy; Jarvis, Susan; McCarthy, Elena; Morrissey, Ronald; Ward, Jessica; Boyd, Ian L

    2011-03-14

    Beaked whales have mass stranded during some naval sonar exercises, but the cause is unknown. They are difficult to sight but can reliably be detected by listening for echolocation clicks produced during deep foraging dives. Listening for these clicks, we documented Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, in a naval underwater range where sonars are in regular use near Andros Island, Bahamas. An array of bottom-mounted hydrophones can detect beaked whales when they click anywhere within the range. We used two complementary methods to investigate behavioral responses of beaked whales to sonar: an opportunistic approach that monitored whale responses to multi-day naval exercises involving tactical mid-frequency sonars, and an experimental approach using playbacks of simulated sonar and control sounds to whales tagged with a device that records sound, movement, and orientation. Here we show that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away. During actual sonar exercises, beaked whales were primarily detected near the periphery of the range, on average 16 km away from the sonar transmissions. Once the exercise stopped, beaked whales gradually filled in the center of the range over 2-3 days. A satellite tagged whale moved outside the range during an exercise, returning over 2-3 days post-exercise. The experimental approach used tags to measure acoustic exposure and behavioral reactions of beaked whales to one controlled exposure each of simulated military sonar, killer whale calls, and band-limited noise. The beaked whales reacted to these three sound playbacks at sound pressure levels below 142 dB re 1 µPa by stopping echolocation followed by unusually long and slow ascents from their foraging dives. The combined results indicate similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whales in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define

  17. [Disease management programs between aspiration and reality. Actually, everything was meant to become much better].

    PubMed

    Bullmann, Catharina; Straub, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    By initiating disease management programmes (DMP) the German legislator aimed to optimize the provision of healthcare to chronically ill patients through increasing the competition between sickness funds and healthcare providers and to stimulate quality competition in the healthcare system by simultaneously connecting DMPs to compensatory (wraparound) payments within the risk-adjustment scheme. The intended quality measures have hardly been reflected in the DMP contracts. The present paper presents a preliminary analysis of the population registered for the "Type 2 Diabetes mellitius" DMP: As the sickness funds aim to recruit as many participants as possible, they did not only enrol the high-risk population but relatively young and healthy diabetics as well. Whether DMPs will actually lead to quality improvement and increasing cost-effectiveness cannot be assessed, since the evaluation criteria for DMPs no longer require that sound scientific cost-effectiveness analyses be performed.

  18. Adjusting the Contour of Reflector Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Giebler, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Postfabrication adjustment of contour of panels for reflector, such as parabolic reflector for radio antennas, possible with simple mechanism consisting of threaded stud, two nuts, and flexure. Contours adjusted manually.

  19. 48 CFR 1450.103 - Contract adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract adjustments. 1450.103 Section 1450.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT... Contract adjustments....

  20. First Year Adjustment in the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosemore, Jean Ann

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between adjustment to secondary school and 17 cognitive and noncognitive variables, including intelligence (verbal and nonverbal reasoning), academic achievement, extraversion-introversion, stable/unstable, social adjustment, endeavor, age, sex, and school form. (CP)

  1. Generalized adjustment by least squares ( GALS).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elassal, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The least-squares principle is universally accepted as the basis for adjustment procedures in the allied fields of geodesy, photogrammetry and surveying. A prototype software package for Generalized Adjustment by Least Squares (GALS) is described. The package is designed to perform all least-squares-related functions in a typical adjustment program. GALS is capable of supporting development of adjustment programs of any size or degree of complexity. -Author

  2. 49 CFR 393.53 - Automatic brake adjusters and brake adjustment indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... brake adjustment indicators. (a) Automatic brake adjusters (hydraulic brake systems). Each commercial motor vehicle manufactured on or after October 20, 1993, and equipped with a hydraulic brake...

  3. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  4. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  5. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  6. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  7. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  8. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  9. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  10. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  11. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  12. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  13. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  14. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  15. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  16. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  17. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  18. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  19. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  20. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  1. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  2. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  3. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  4. Image enhancement by adjusting the contrast of spatial frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ching-Chung

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate a brand-new method for image enhancement by adjusting the contrast of different spatial frequencies. Fine characteristics of an image are well enhanced with negligible side effects. This method is easy to implement owing to its simple optical basis.

  5. Validity of the Premorbid Adjustment Scale

    PubMed Central

    Brill, N.; Reichenberg, A.; Weiser, M.; Rabinowitz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of the current study was to test the predictive and concurrent validity of the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) by comparing it with another similar but more elaborate retrospective measure and with data collected during late adolescence. Methods: We compared PAS late adolescence scores (age 16–18 years) of 91 males with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with data on behavior collected in adolescence, before the first psychotic episode as part of standardized Draft Board screening, and with the same measure readministered during adulthood and modified to collect the same data again retrospectively. Results: The correlation of the PAS social withdrawal and social relations items with the social behavior scale of the Draft Board were .76 and .80, respectively, for the concurrent ratings and .52 and .53, respectively, for the data collected at age 17 years. The correlation of the PAS school achievements and school adjustment items with the functioning in structured environments scale of the Draft Board were .71 and .72, respectively, for the concurrent ratings and .43 and .47, respectively, for the data collected at age 17 years. Conclusions: Our results support the predictive and concurrent validity of the PAS and the validity of self-reported data on premorbid functioning in persons with schizophrenia. PMID:18032397

  6. A longitudinal examination of career preparation and adjustment during the transition from high school.

    PubMed

    Stringer, Kate; Kerpelman, Jennifer; Skorikov, Vladimir

    2012-09-01

    Preparing for an adult career and incorporating a career into one's identity is a key task during the transition to adulthood (Erikson, 1968), and completing developmental tasks is considered a major factor in adjustment (Havinghurst, 1972). Previous research has established associations between overall career preparation in high school and adjustment soon after high school graduation. Differences in the developmental patterns of career preparation dimensions (indecision, planning, and confidence) following high school graduation also have been found. The current study builds on that prior work by examining associations between changes in the dimensions of career preparation and changes in 3 aspects of adjustment (emotional stability, social adaptation, and self-actualization) from 12th grade in high school to 4.5 years after high school graduation in a sample of 454 youths, using latent growth curve analysis. Results showed that career preparation both predicts and is predicted by adjustment. Career confidence was a particularly important predictor of adjustment. Both 12th grade career confidence and changes in confidence over time predicted changes in adjustment and adjustment 4.5 years post-high school. In an alternative model, an increase in emotional stability was predictive of higher career confidence and lower indecision. Results are discussed in the context of developmental theories and the notion that adjustment and career are interrelated processes.

  7. Progressive Digressions: Home Schooling for Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Maslow's (1971) theory of primary creativeness is used as the basis for a self-actualization model of education. Examples of how to use the model in creative homeschooling are provided. Key elements include digressive and immersion learning, self-directed learning, and the integration of work and play. Teaching suggestions are provided. (Contains…

  8. A Taxometric Analysis of Actual Internet Sports Gambling Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A.; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a…

  9. William Brennan and the Failed "Theory" of Actual Malice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmor, Donald M.

    This paper contains an analysis of Justice William Brennan's Supreme Court opinions concerning cases on freedom of expression and his interpretations of Alexander Meiklejohn's theory of actual malice in cases of libel. Particular attention is paid to Brennan's landmark contribution to the law of libel, his opinion in "New York Times v.…

  10. MLCMS Actual Use, Perceived Use, and Experiences of Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiimwe, Edgar Napoleon; Grönlund, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning involves use of mobile devices to participate in learning activities. Most e-learning activities are available to participants through learning systems such as learning content management systems (LCMS). Due to certain challenges, LCMS are not equally accessible on all mobile devices. This study investigates actual use, perceived…

  11. Venture actualization in nursing. An analysis of innovation.

    PubMed

    Neidlinger, S H; Bartleson, B J; Drews, N; Hukari, D

    1992-01-01

    From innovations shared by nurse executives and nurse intrapreneurs in acute care hospitals, The Venture Actualization in Nursing Model emerged. Derived from a nursing perspective, this model captures the steps of the nurse innovation process, linking the nurse executive and nurse intrapreneur role components to the process that leads to venture success.

  12. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and... Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... before final endorsement, except that in the case of an existing project that does not...

  13. 24 CFR 200.96 - Certificates of actual cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and... Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Cost Certification § 200.96 Certificates of actual... before final endorsement, except that in the case of an existing project that does not...

  14. Student Exposure to Actual Patients in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Marie A.; McCall, Charles Y.; Francisco, George E., Jr.; Poirier, Sylvie

    1997-01-01

    Two clinical courses for first-year dental students were designed to develop students' interaction skills through actual patient case presentations and discussions and an interdisciplinary teaching approach. Results indicate students preferred the case presentations, with or without lecture, to the lecture-only approach and felt they learned more…

  15. Fair Equality of Opportunity in Our Actual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachs, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Fair equality of opportunity, a principle that governs the competition for desirable jobs, can seem irrelevant in our actual world, for two reasons. First, parents have broad liberty to raise their children as they see fit, which seems to undermine the fair equality of opportunity-based commitment to eliminating the effects of social circumstances…

  16. Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Proceedings of a National Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    The booklet prints the following papers delivered at a national conference: Actualizing Concepts in Home Management: Decision Making, Dorothy Z. Price; Innovations in Teaching: Ergonomics, Fern E. Hunt; Relevant Concepts of Home Management: Innovations in Teaching, Kay P. Edwards; Standards in a Managerial Context, Florence S. Walker; Organizing:…

  17. Corps of Engineers considers adjustable-speed generation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers and the Bonneville Power Administration recently commissioned a study to assess the various aspects of adjustable-speed generation (also called variable-speed generation). Electronic Power Conditioning Inc., of Corvallis, Oregon, studied the cost, efficiency, and other operating implications of installing the necessary hardware to enable adjustable-speed generation at four Corps hydroelectric plants on the lower Snake River (Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental, Little Goose, and Lower Granite). Results of the study indicate that, while costly, five adjustable-speed options could be installed and operated on a practical basis. The Corps initiated the study to determine the cost for adding adjustable-speed generation at the four projects to improve fish survival. The Northwest Power Planning Council currently is considering proposals to modify operating procedures for hydroelectric projects on the Columbia River and its tributaries, including seasonal adjustments of pool levels behind dams to flush fish through the river system more rapidly. However, dropping pool levels significantly below normal levels may cause a loss in generating efficiency and a corresponding increase in fish mortality. Adjustable-speed generation is seen as a method for solving both problems

  18. Self-discrepancies in work-related upper extremity pain: relation to emotions and flexible-goal adjustment.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Mariëlle E; Kindermans, Hanne P; Morley, Stephen J; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Verbunt, Jeanine; Vlaeyen, Johan W

    2010-08-01

    Recurrent pain not only has an impact on disability, but on the long term it may become a threat to one's sense of self. This paper presents a cross-sectional study of patients with work-related upper extremity pain and focuses on: (1) the role of self-discrepancies in this group, (2) the associations between self-discrepancies, pain, emotions and (3) the interaction between self-discrepancies and flexible-goal adjustment. Eighty-nine participants completed standardized self-report measures of pain intensity, pain duration, anxiety, depression and flexible-goal adjustment. A Selves Questionnaire was used to generate self-discrepancies. A series of hierarchical regression analyses showed relationships between actual-ought other, actual-ought self, actual-feared self-discrepancies and depression as well as a significant association between actual-ought other self-discrepancy and anxiety. Furthermore, significant interactions were found between actual-ought other self-discrepancies and flexibility, indicating that less flexible participants with large self-discrepancies score higher on depression. This study showed that self-discrepancies are related to negative emotions and that flexible-goal adjustment served as a moderator in this relationship. The view of self in pain and flexible-goal adjustment should be considered as important variables in the process of chronic pain.

  19. Adjustable shear stress erosion and transport flume

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jepsen, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the total erosion rate and downstream transport of suspended and bedload sediments using an adjustable shear stress erosion and transport (ASSET) flume with a variable-depth sediment core sample. Water is forced past a variable-depth sediment core sample in a closed channel, eroding sediments, and introducing suspended and bedload sediments into the flow stream. The core sample is continuously pushed into the flow stream, while keeping the surface level with the bottom of the channel. Eroded bedload sediments are transported downstream and then gravitationally separated from the flow stream into one or more quiescent traps. The captured bedload sediments (particles and aggregates) are weighed and compared to the total mass of sediment eroded, and also to the concentration of sediments suspended in the flow stream.

  20. Adjustment Disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Adjustment Disorder is a condition strongly tied to acute and chronic stress. Despite clinical suggestion of a large prevalence in the general population and the high frequency of its diagnosis in the clinical settings, there has been relatively little research reported and, consequently, very few hints about its treatments. Methods the authors gathered old and current information on the epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidity, treatment and outcome of adjustment disorder by a systematic review of essays published on PUBMED. Results After a first glance at its historical definition and its definition in the DSM and ICD systems, the problem of distinguishing AD from other mood and anxiety disorders, the difficulty in the definition of stress and the implied concept of 'vulnerability' are considered. Comorbidity of AD with other conditions, and outcome of AD are then analyzed. This review also highlights recent data about trends in the use of antidepressant drugs, evidence on their efficacy and the use of psychotherapies. Conclusion AD is a very common diagnosis in clinical practice, but we still lack data about its rightful clinical entity. This may be caused by a difficulty in facing, with a purely descriptive methods, a "pathogenic label", based on a stressful event, for which a subjective impact has to be considered. We lack efficacy surveys concerning treatment. The use of psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants, in AD with anxious or depressed mood is not properly supported and should be avoided, while the usefulness of psychotherapies is more solidly supported by clinical evidence. To better determine the correct course of therapy, randomized-controlled trials, even for the combined use of drugs and psychotherapies, are needed vitally, especially for the resistant forms of AD. PMID:19558652

  1. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  2. 7 CFR 4288.132 - Payment adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program... to the advanced biofuel producer if there is a difference between the amount actually produced...

  3. 7 CFR 4288.132 - Payment adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAYMENT PROGRAMS Advanced Biofuel Payment Program... to the advanced biofuel producer if there is a difference between the amount actually produced...

  4. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  5. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  6. 63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF AUTOTRANSFERS. THE ACTUAL AUTOTRANSFERS ARE ENCLOSED IN THE OIL FILLED CYLINDERS ON THE RIGHT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE ELECTRICAL DEVICES BOOSTED THE GENERATOR OUTPUT OF 11,000 VOLTS TO 22,000 VOLTS PRIOR TO TRANSMISSION OUT TO THE MAIN FEEDER LINES. A SPARE INNER UNIT IS CONTAINED IN THE METAL BOX AT THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  7. A newer technique to program a semi adjustable articulator

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshwaran, R.; Karthigeyan, Suma; Manoharan, P. S.; Konchada, Jagadish; Ramaswamy, Manikandan; Bhuminathan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The difficulty in reproducing accurate angle of condylar guidance in semi-adjustable articulators. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the angle of horizontal condylar inclination obtained on a semi-adjustable articulator and the corresponding angle traced on a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) radiograph in completely edentulous subject. Materials and Methods: The horizontal condylar inclination angle was obtained in a semi-adjustable articulator by means of height tracer (extra oral tracing device) and interocclusal records to program the articulator in 21 subjects. TMJ radiograph were recorded by the same operator with same orthopantomogram (OPG) machine (planmeca). Tracings of inclines of articular eminence on the radiograph were compared with the angle obtained on a semi-adjustable articulator. Each measurement was made using manual methods of measuring angle. The results were subjected to the Pearson correlation statistical analysis (α =0.01). Results: The outline of the articular eminence in a TMJ tomogram radiographic image was identified and traced. A significant correlation was found between the horizontal condylar inclination on a semi-adjustable and the corresponding TMJ tomogram radiographic image for both right (R = 0.789; P = 0.001) and left (i = 0.747; P = 0.004) sides. Conclusion: The articular eminence traced on a TMJ tomogram image represents the horizontal condylar inclination with a mean difference of 5° in 21 subjects evaluated. PMID:25210356

  8. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care.

  9. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  10. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  11. Generalized Weierstrass-Mandelbrot Function Model for Actual Stocks Markets Indexes with Nonlinear Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Yu, C.; Sun, J. Q.

    2015-03-01

    It is difficult to simulate the dynamical behavior of actual financial markets indexes effectively, especially when they have nonlinear characteristics. So it is significant to propose a mathematical model with these characteristics. In this paper, we investigate a generalized Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function (WMF) model with two nonlinear characteristics: fractal dimension D where 2 > D > 1.5 and Hurst exponent (H) where 1 > H > 0.5 firstly. And then we study the dynamical behavior of H for WMF as D and the spectrum of the time series γ change in three-dimensional space, respectively. Because WMF and the actual stock market indexes have two common features: fractal behavior using fractal dimension and long memory effect by Hurst exponent, we study the relationship between WMF and the actual stock market indexes. We choose a random value of γ and fixed value of D for WMF to simulate the S&P 500 indexes at different time ranges. As shown in the simulation results of three-dimensional space, we find that γ is important in WMF model and different γ may have the same effect for the nonlinearity of WMF. Then we calculate the skewness and kurtosis of actual Daily S&P 500 index in different time ranges which can be used to choose the value of γ. Based on these results, we choose appropriate γ, D and initial value into WMF to simulate Daily S&P 500 indexes. Using the fit line method in two-dimensional space for the simulated values, we find that the generalized WMF model is effective for simulating different actual stock market indexes in different time ranges. It may be useful for understanding the dynamical behavior of many different financial markets.

  12. [Early detection and intervention for adjustment disorder and depression in the work place].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Work-related adjustment disorder and depression are frequently work-related mental problems. Over 60% of employees feel job stress in the work place in Japan. The number of employees who become psychiatric disorders such as depressive state and depression, and lead to the suspension of jobs is increasing. It is an important issue for Japanese government is planning to introduce a new rule for mental examinations for workers using a self-check questionnaire. However, it is quite skeptical to detect depressive employees using such methods. It is well known that the sensitivity and specificity in self-rating questionnaire for depression is very low, because depression is not homogeneous disorder and patients reveals various symptoms. It is quite questionable that workers who required receiving a mental interview go to meet occupational health physicians or psychiatrists or workers answer the questionnaire in precise, because of stigma of the mental disorders or afraid of worsening evaluations to themselves by their superiors. Moreover it is actually very difficult for psychiatrist to deal with the subjects including false positive cases as well as true depressed patients. Therefore, more realistic and useful methods should be reconsidered. I think enhancing cooperation or interaction between occupational health physicians and psychiatrists is one of important issues.

  13. Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.

  14. Multi-adjustable headband. [for headsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toole, Pierce C. (Inventor); Chalson, Howard E. (Inventor); Bussey, Walter S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to a headband for a headset having separate coarse and fine adjustment features. The adjustments may be to the axial distance between at least one earpiece element and a side support. Such adjustment to the axial distance varies the pressure exerted on the head of the user. The present fine adjustment feature may be used while the headset is being worn, thereby permitting a user to optimize the amount of pressure between the contending criteria of comfort and keeping the headset in place on the user's head.

  15. Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band (LAGB) Migration - Endoscopic Treatment Modalities.

    PubMed

    Klimczak, Tomasz; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Janczak, Przemysław; Jurałowicz, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Laparoscopic adjustible gastric binding (LAGB) is one of most common surgical methods of treating obesity. Gastric band migration (erosion) is a typical LAGB complication, with a frequency of about 1-4%. The aim of the study was to present the possibilities of endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of this complication.

  16. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  17. Coercively Adjusted Auto Regression Model for Forecasting in Epilepsy EEG

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Faloutsos, Christos; Yang, Hyung-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, data with complex characteristics such as epilepsy electroencephalography (EEG) time series has emerged. Epilepsy EEG data has special characteristics including nonlinearity, nonnormality, and nonperiodicity. Therefore, it is important to find a suitable forecasting method that covers these special characteristics. In this paper, we propose a coercively adjusted autoregression (CA-AR) method that forecasts future values from a multivariable epilepsy EEG time series. We use the technique of random coefficients, which forcefully adjusts the coefficients with −1 and 1. The fractal dimension is used to determine the order of the CA-AR model. We applied the CA-AR method reflecting special characteristics of data to forecast the future value of epilepsy EEG data. Experimental results show that when compared to previous methods, the proposed method can forecast faster and accurately. PMID:23710252

  18. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  19. Stratification of complexity in congenital heart surgery: comparative study of the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) method, Aristotle basic score and Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardio- Thoracic Surgery (STS-EACTS) mortality score

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Paulo Ernando Ferraz; Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; dos Santos, Cecília Andrade; Esmeraldo, Isaac Melo; Chaves, Mariana Leal; Lins, Ricardo Felipe de Albuquerque; Lima, Ricardo de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether stratification of complexity models in congenital heart surgery (RACHS-1, Aristotle basic score and STS-EACTS mortality score) fit to our center and determine the best method of discriminating hospital mortality. Methods Surgical procedures in congenital heart diseases in patients under 18 years of age were allocated to the categories proposed by the stratification of complexity methods currently available. The outcome hospital mortality was calculated for each category from the three models. Statistical analysis was performed to verify whether the categories presented different mortalities. The discriminatory ability of the models was determined by calculating the area under the ROC curve and a comparison between the curves of the three models was performed. Results 360 patients were allocated according to the three methods. There was a statistically significant difference between the mortality categories: RACHS-1 (1) - 1.3%, (2) - 11.4%, (3)-27.3%, (4) - 50 %, (P<0.001); Aristotle basic score (1) - 1.1%, (2) - 12.2%, (3) - 34%, (4) - 64.7%, (P<0.001); and STS-EACTS mortality score (1) - 5.5 %, (2) - 13.6%, (3) - 18.7%, (4) - 35.8%, (P<0.001). The three models had similar accuracy by calculating the area under the ROC curve: RACHS-1- 0.738; STS-EACTS-0.739; Aristotle- 0.766. Conclusion The three models of stratification of complexity currently available in the literature are useful with different mortalities between the proposed categories with similar discriminatory capacity for hospital mortality. PMID:26107445

  20. A simultaneous determination method for 5-fluorouracil and its metabolites in human plasma with linear range adjusted by in-source collision-induced dissociation using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hideaki; Shimada, Miki; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Mano, Nariyasu

    2016-11-01

    We applied a new technique for quantitative linear range shift using in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) to complex biological fluids to demonstrate its utility. The technique was used in a simultaneous quantitative determination method of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an anticancer drug for various solid tumors, and its metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). To control adverse effects after administration of 5-FU, it is important to monitor the plasma concentration of 5-FU and its metabolites; however, no simultaneous determination method has yet been reported because of vastly different physical and chemical properties of compounds. We developed a new analytical method for simultaneously determining 5-FU and its metabolites in human plasma by LC/ESI-MS/MS coupled with the technique for quantitative linear range shift using in-source CID. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography using a stationary phase with zwitterionic functional groups, phosphorylcholine, was suitable for separation of 5-FU from its nucleoside and interfering endogenous materials. The addition of glycerin into acetonitrile-rich eluent after LC separation improved the ESI-MS response of high polar analytes. Based on the validation results, linear range shifts by in-source CID is the reliable technique even with complex biological samples such as plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. ADJUSTED FIELD PROFILE FOR THE CHROMATICITY CANCELLATION IN FFAG ACCELERATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    RUGGIERO, A.G.

    2004-10-13

    In an earlier report they have reviewed four major rules to design the lattice of Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators. One of these rules deals with the search of the Adjusted Field Profile, that is the field non-linear distribution along the length and the width of the accelerator magnets, to compensate for the chromatic behavior, and thus to reduce considerably the variation of betatron tunes during acceleration over a large momentum range. The present report defines the method for the search of the Adjusted Field Profile.

  2. Petroleum staff reluctance and adjustment to innovative changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makasheva, Yu S.; Makasheva, N. P.; Remnyakov, V. V.; Burykhin, B. S.; Shenderova, I. V.

    2015-11-01

    The modern economy is developing in the direction of innovations implementation. Innovations are becoming the basic prerequisite for the competitiveness of the enterprises. The Russian oil and gas sector innovation issue is very crucial. Low innovation activity of companies could result in a serious threat due to the strong global competition, increased uncertainty and risks. The need for innovative changes often meets reluctance. The reasons of it vary and require serious research. Managers should give special attention to the development of adjustment ability of the staff, to introduce modern methods for improving the adjustment potential of the enterprise staff.

  3. Adjustable stiffness of individual piezoelectric nanofibers by electron beam polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Anton; Yao, Nan; Shi, Yong

    2011-11-01

    We present a method to adjust the stiffness of individual piezoelectric nanofiber by electron beam induced polarization under an in situ scanning electron microscopy. The lead zirconate titanate (PZT) nanofibers were fabricated by an electrospinning process. The Young's modulus was calculated from the resonant frequency excited by an oscillating electric field applied through a nanomanipulator. The stiffness can be adjusted up to 75% by induced polarization under the exposure of an electron beam to control the domain boundaries in single PZT nanofibers. Splitting effect of the resonant frequencies was observed due to anisotropic stiffness in polarized PZT nanofibers.

  4. Equity flotation cost adjustments in utilities' cost of service

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, H. Jr.; Hass, J.E.

    1984-03-01

    Recovery of the unavoidable costs of issuing new shares of stock is generally agreed to be appropriate in determining utility revenue requirements. This article suggests that the methods by which that is usually accomplished are of questionable accuracy. The conventional practice of adjusting the allowed rate of return on common equity is examined, and an improved adjustment formulation is presented. Acknowledging that application of the formula remains subject to considerable error, however, the authors propose yet another solution. Capitalization of flotation costs as intangible assets is suggested as a way of more accurately factoring such expenses into tariff determinations. 6 references.

  5. Micromachined needles and lancets with design adjustable bevel angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Douglas; Hubbard, Timothy

    2004-08-01

    A new method of micromachining hollow needles and two-dimensional needle arrays from single crystal silicon is described. The process involves a combination of fusion bonding, photolithography and anisotropic plasma etching. The cannula produced with this process can have design adjustable bevel angles, wall thickness and channel dimensions. A subset of processing steps can be employed to produce silicon blades and lancets with design adjustable bevel angles and shaft dimensions. Applications for this technology include painless drug infusion, blood diagnosis, glucose monitoring, cellular injection and the manufacture of microkeratomes for ocular, vascular and neural microsurgery.

  6. 25 CFR 166.306 - Can the BIA adjust the grazing capacity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can the BIA adjust the grazing capacity? 166.306 Section... Land and Operations Management § 166.306 Can the BIA adjust the grazing capacity? Yes. In consultation... capacity using the best evaluation method(s) relevant to the ecological region....

  7. 25 CFR 166.306 - Can the BIA adjust the grazing capacity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can the BIA adjust the grazing capacity? 166.306 Section... Land and Operations Management § 166.306 Can the BIA adjust the grazing capacity? Yes. In consultation... capacity using the best evaluation method(s) relevant to the ecological region....

  8. 25 CFR 166.306 - Can the BIA adjust the grazing capacity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can the BIA adjust the grazing capacity? 166.306 Section... Land and Operations Management § 166.306 Can the BIA adjust the grazing capacity? Yes. In consultation... capacity using the best evaluation method(s) relevant to the ecological region....

  9. Pre-hospital antibiotic treatment and mortality caused by invasive meningococcal disease, adjusting for indication bias

    PubMed Central

    Perea-Milla, Emilio; Olalla, Julián; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Martos, Francisco; Matute-Cruz, Petra; Carmona-López, Guadalupe; Fornieles, Yolanda; Cayuela, Aurelio; García-Alegría, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background Mortality from invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) has remained stable over the last thirty years and it is unclear whether pre-hospital antibiotherapy actually produces a decrease in this mortality. Our aim was to examine whether pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy reduces mortality from IMD, adjusting for indication bias. Methods A retrospective analysis was made of clinical reports of all patients (n = 848) diagnosed with IMD from 1995 to 2000 in Andalusia and the Canary Islands, Spain, and of the relationship between the use of pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy and mortality. Indication bias was controlled for by the propensity score technique, and a multivariate analysis was performed to determine the probability of each patient receiving antibiotics, according to the symptoms identified before admission. Data on in-hospital death, use of antibiotics and demographic variables were collected. A logistic regression analysis was then carried out, using death as the dependent variable, and pre-hospital antibiotic use, age, time from onset of symptoms to parenteral antibiotics and the propensity score as independent variables. Results Data were recorded on 848 patients, 49 (5.72%) of whom died. Of the total number of patients, 226 had received oral antibiotics before admission, mainly betalactams during the previous 48 hours. After adjusting the association between the use of antibiotics and death for age, time between onset of symptoms and in-hospital antibiotic treatment, pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy remained a significant protective factor (Odds Ratio for death 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.15–0.93). Conclusion Pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy appears to reduce IMD mortality. PMID:19344518

  10. Actual drawing of histological images improves knowledge retention.

    PubMed

    Balemans, Monique C M; Kooloos, Jan G M; Donders, A Rogier T; Van der Zee, Catharina E E M

    2016-01-01

    Medical students have to process a large amount of information during the first years of their study, which has to be retained over long periods of nonuse. Therefore, it would be beneficial when knowledge is gained in a way that promotes long-term retention. Paper-and-pencil drawings for the uptake of form-function relationships of basic tissues has been a teaching tool for a long time, but now seems to be redundant with virtual microscopy on computer-screens and printers everywhere. Several studies claimed that, apart from learning from pictures, actual drawing of images significantly improved knowledge retention. However, these studies applied only immediate post-tests. We investigated the effects of actual drawing of histological images, using randomized cross-over design and different retention periods. The first part of the study concerned esophageal and tracheal epithelium, with 384 medical and biomedical sciences students randomly assigned to either the drawing or the nondrawing group. For the second part of the study, concerning heart muscle cells, students from the previous drawing group were now assigned to the nondrawing group and vice versa. One, four, and six weeks after the experimental intervention, the students were given a free recall test and a questionnaire or drawing exercise, to determine the amount of knowledge retention. The data from this study showed that knowledge retention was significantly improved in the drawing groups compared with the nondrawing groups, even after four or six weeks. This suggests that actual drawing of histological images can be used as a tool to improve long-term knowledge retention.

  11. Integrating Risk Adjustment and Enrollee Premiums in Health Plan Payment

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Thomas G.; Glazer, Jacob; Newhouse, Joseph P.; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Shi, Julie; Sinaiko, Anna D.; Zuvekas, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    In two important health policy contexts – private plans in Medicare and the new state-run “Exchanges” created as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) – plan payments come from two sources: risk-adjusted payments from a Regulator and premiums charged to individual enrollees. This paper derives principles for integrating risk-adjusted payments and premium policy in individual health insurance markets based on fitting total plan payments to health plan costs per person as closely as possible. A least squares regression including both health status and variables used in premiums reveals the weights a Regulator should put on risk adjusters when markets determine premiums. We apply the methods to an Exchange-eligible population drawn from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). PMID:24308878

  12. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  13. Adjustable reed for weaving net-shaped tailored fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1994-06-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method for forming woven fabrics through the use of an adjustable reed. The adjustable reed has multiple groups of reed wires that guide the warp yarns. The groups of reed wires move on reed rails parallel to the warp direction. In addition, rail expanders permit the space between the reed wires to be modified and telescoping rods attached to the rail sliders can be turned to permit the reed wires to be skewed to alter the fill yarn angle. These adjustments to the reed permit simultaneous variation of fill yarn angles and fabric widths and allow these variations to be made during fabrication, without the need to halt production.

  14. Inverse dynamics of adaptive space cranes with tip point adjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, S. K.; Utku, S.; Wada, B. K.

    1990-01-01

    The 'space crane', which resembles a conventional solid-link robot but employs truss sections in place of links and length-adjustable bars in place of torque-generating motors, is presently characterized by means of two different inverse-dynamics schemes. While in the first of these the nominal angles are maintained between the links constituting the crane, the second scheme adjusts the nominal angles as a function of time in order to always maintain the tip of the crane along the desired (nomical) trajectory. Attention is given to the second scheme, and to a tip-adjustment method which keeps the high frequency flexibility vibration within limits and ensures numerical stability.

  15. An assessment of marital adjustment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Hatice; Sahin, Basak; Ertekin, Hulya; Bilim, Serhad; Savas, Yılmaz

    2017-02-01

    Aim To investigate marital adjustment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and factors affecting this. Methods A total of 32 patients diagnosed with Steinbrocker class 1-2 rheumatoid arthritis and 32 healthy individuals from a similar age group were included. Sociodemographic characteristics, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), short-form 36(SF-36) and the dyadic adjustment scale (DAS) were evaluated in both groups. A visual analogue scale (VAS), the disease activity score 28(DAS28) and a health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) were also investigated in the patient group. Results Mean ages were 46.5±9.2 years in the patient group and 47.7±8.1 in the control group (p=0.5). No significant difference was determined between the two groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics. No statistically significant correlation was observed between erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), patient and physician global VAS, DAS28, HAQ and morning stiffness and DAS total score. Comparison of DAS subunits revealed a significant difference in dyadic satisfaction and affectional expression in the patient and control groups (p=0.046 and p=0.037). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between duration of the disease and marital adjustment (p=0.01;r= -0.58). Conclusion Due to its progressive and prolonged course rheumatoid arthritis can also affect individuals' social relationships besides restricted daily living activities. Activation of rheumatoid arthritis did not affect marital adjustment in this study, but adjustment decreased with duration of the disease.

  16. Adjusting the Adjusted X[superscript 2]/df Ratio Statistic for Dichotomous Item Response Theory Analyses: Does the Model Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Louis; Drasgow, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Two Monte Carlo simulation studies investigated the effectiveness of the mean adjusted X[superscript 2]/df statistic proposed by Drasgow and colleagues and, because of problems with the method, a new approach for assessing the goodness of fit of an item response theory model was developed. It has been previously recommended that mean adjusted…

  17. Carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae photosynthesis using actual flue gas discharged from a boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Hiroyo; Shioji, Norio; Hamasaki, Akihiro

    1995-12-31

    To mitigate CO{sub 2} discharged from thermal power plants, studies on CO{sub 2} fixation by the photosynthesis of microalgae using actual exhaust gas have been carried out. The results are as follows: (1) A method is proposed for evaluating the maximum photosynthesis rate in the raceway cultivator using only the algal physical properties; (2) Outdoor cultivation tests taking actual flue gas were performed with no trouble or break throughout 1 yr using the strain collected in the test; (3) The produced microalgae is effective as solid fuel; and (4) The feasibility studies of this system were performed. The system required large land area, but the area is smaller than that required for other biomass systems, such as tree farms.

  18. What does a modified-Fibonacci dose-escalation actually correspond to?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In most phase I oncology trials, it is often stated that the dose increments follow a “modified-Fibonacci sequence”. This term, however, is vague. Methods To better characterize this sequence, we reviewed 81 phase I trials based on this concept. Results Out of 198 phase I oncology trials, 81 (41%) are based on modified-Fibonacci series. Actual incremental ratios varied in a large range from 0.80 to 2.08. The median of actual increments was about 2.00, 1.50, 1.33, 1.33, 1.33, 1.33, 1.30, 1.35…. The “modified Fibonacci-sequence” gathers heterogeneous variation of the genuine sequence, which does not tend to a constant number at higher dose-levels. Conclusion This confusing term should be avoided. PMID:22824322

  19. Dieting: really harmful, merely ineffective or actually helpful?

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Timko, C Alix

    2004-08-01

    Dieting has developed a negative reputation among many researchers and health care professionals. However, 'dieting' can refer to a variety of behavioural patterns that are associated with different effects on eating and body weight. The wisdom of dieting depends on what kind of dieting is involved, who is doing it, and why. Thus, depending on what one means by the term, dieting can be quite harmful, merely ineffective or actually beneficial. The present paper considers examples of all three. In particular, we argue that judgements about the desirability of dieting should consider the likely consequences to particular individuals of engaging in, or not engaging in, dieting behaviour.

  20. The Frictional Force with Respect to the Actual Contact Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Ragnar

    1944-01-01

    Hardy's statement that the frictional force is largely adhesion, and to a lesser extent, deformation energy is proved by a simple experiment. The actual contact surface of sliding contacts and hence the friction per unit of contact surface was determined in several cases. It was found for contacts in normal atmosphere to be about one-third t-one-half as high as the macroscopic tearing strength of the softest contact link, while contacts annealed in vacuum and then tested, disclosed frictional forces which are greater than the macroscopic strength.

  1. Adjusted Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index Score as a Risk Measure of Perioperative Mortality before Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Wei, Chang-Kao; Wu, Chin-Chia; Su, Yu-Chieh; Yu, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of patients at risk of death from cancer surgery should aid in preoperative preparation. The purpose of this study is to assess and adjust the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) to identify cancer patients with increased risk of perioperative mortality. Methods We identified 156,151 patients undergoing surgery for one of the ten common cancers between 2007 and 2011 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Half of the patients were randomly selected, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop an adjusted-ACCI score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by variables from the original ACCI. The score was validated. The association between the score and perioperative mortality was analyzed. Results The adjusted-ACCI score yield a better discrimination on mortality after cancer surgery than the original ACCI score, with c-statics of 0.75 versus 0.71. Over 80 years of age, 70–80 years, and renal disease had the strongest impact on mortality, hazard ratios 8.40, 3.63, and 3.09 (P < 0.001), respectively. The overall 90-day mortality rates in the entire cohort varied from 0.9%, 2.9%, 7.0%, and 13.2% in four risk groups stratifying by the adjusted-ACCI score; the adjusted hazard ratio for score 4–7, 8–11, and ≥ 12 was 2.84, 6.07, and 11.17 (P < 0.001), respectively, in 90-day mortality compared to score 0–3. Conclusions The adjusted-ACCI score helps to identify patients with a higher risk of 90-day mortality after cancer surgery. It might be particularly helpful for preoperative evaluation of patients over 80 years of age. PMID:26848761

  2. Family Adjustment Measure: Scale Construction and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daire, Andrew P.; Dominguez, Vanessa N.; Carlson, Ryan G.; Case-Pease, Jenene

    2014-01-01

    We administered the Family Adjustment Measure to 368 parents of children with special needs to identify positive adjustment. We randomly split the sample to conduct exploratory factor analysis ("n" = 194) and confirmatory factor analysis ("n" = 174). Results indicated four possible subscales and that explain 51% of the variance.

  3. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  4. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  5. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  6. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  7. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  8. Parenting Styles and Adjustment in Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilarinos, Vassiliki; Solomon, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between parenting styles and the psychosocial adjustment of 48 children aged 7 to 11 years, each of whom had been identified as gifted on the basis of a score of 130 or above on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition. Parenting styles and child psychosocial adjustment were measured…

  9. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  10. Adjustable, Audible Continuity Tester For Delicate Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalister, William B.

    1988-01-01

    Unit adjustable to resistances up to 35 ohms. Adjustable, audible electrical-continuity tester gives audible indication. Used safely on circuit boards in which semiconductor components installed, and on complementary metal oxide/semiconductor integrated circuits. Tester compact and circuit simple. Built from inexpensive standard components.

  11. Adjustably Preloaded Quick-Release Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold W.

    1992-01-01

    Modified adjustable-grip-length quick-release pin holds two bodies together. Threaded shaft of pin threaded in floating nut to pretension fastener. Pin connects and disconnects rapidly and adjusted to accommodate small differences between thicknesses of nominally identical sets of parts to be attached to each other.

  12. 78 FR 70080 - Market Dominant Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Market Dominant Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... market dominant products. The adjustments are scheduled to take effect January 26, 2014. This notice.... Ordering Paragraphs I. Overview A. Index-Based Price Changes for Market Dominant Classes of Mail...

  13. College Student Adjustment and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lisa Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between student adjustment theory and college student health behaviors. Specifically, this research examined first-year freshmen college student physical activity and nutrition behaviors and impact on adjustment to college (N = 37,564). The design for this study was a non-experimental "ex post facto"…

  14. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Title IV of the HEA, which authorizes the Federal Family Education Loan Program $35,000. 20 U.S.C. 1094... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION §...

  15. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  16. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  17. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  18. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  19. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  20. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  1. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  2. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  3. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  4. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  5. Fuel injection pump with adjustable timing

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Abe, N.

    1987-04-28

    A fuel injection pump is described comprising: a pump body; a plunger disposed in the pump body for reciprocating within the pump body; and a pre-stroke adjusting mechanism disposed in the pump body and operatively connected with the plunger for adjusting an effective pre-stroke of the plunger.

  6. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...-term firm power contracts only as required to respond to changes in hydrology and river...

  7. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...-term firm power contracts only as required to respond to changes in hydrology and river...

  8. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...-term firm power contracts only as required to respond to changes in hydrology and river...

  9. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...-term firm power contracts only as required to respond to changes in hydrology and river...

  10. Psychological Separation and Adjustment to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between psychological separation and adjustment to college in freshmen (N=130) and upperclassmen (N=123). Found freshmen showed more psychological dependencies on parents than upperclassmen; separation appeared more strongly related to personal/emotional adjustment, particularly functional and emotional independence from…

  11. Divorcing Parents: Guidelines for Promoting Children's Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kurt A.; Adams, Christina D; Drabman, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    There are measures that parents can take to help their children through the often distressing process of parental divorce. Describes the empirical literature regarding issues and factors relevant to children's adjustment to divorce. Provides practical guidelines and suggestions likely to help parents enhance their children's adjustment.…

  12. 7 CFR 2201.30 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustments. 2201.30 Section 2201.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.30 Adjustments. (a) The...

  13. 7 CFR 2201.30 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustments. 2201.30 Section 2201.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.30 Adjustments. (a) The...

  14. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  15. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  16. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  17. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  18. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  19. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  20. A Digital Game for International Students' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisadi, Maryam; Chua, Alton Y. K; Keong, Lee Chu

    2013-01-01

    Although digital games have been developed for various subject areas, little attention has been focused on using digital games to address international students' adjustment issues. For this reason, this paper endeavors to explore the use of a digital game in facilitating international students acquire adjustment-related information. Specifically,…

  1. Adjustable Optical Mount Is More Rigid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Bill G.; Coombs, David S.; Jones, Irby W.; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Improved mount for lens or mirror in laser offers rigidity similar to that of nonadjustable optical mount. In comparison with older adjustable optical mounts, this one less susceptible to movements and distortions caused by vibrations and by thermal expansions and contractions. Mount contains neither adjustment rods (which grow or shrink as temperature varies) nor springs (which transmit vibrations to mounted optic).

  2. Religiousity, Spirituality and Adolescents' Self-Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japar, Muhammad; Purwati

    2014-01-01

    Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…

  3. Investigating the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demanuele, Christine

    The threat of climate change has increased the demand for energy efficiency in buildings, with various stakeholders requesting more accurate predictions of energy consumption, and energy consultants coming under increased pressure to guarantee the energy performance of buildings. This study aims to investigate the factors causing the discrepancy which currently exists between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings, which will lead to a deeper understanding of this discrepancy and, ultimately, more accurate energy predictions. As part of this study, a non-domestic building in London was modelled and monitored, so as to identify the main contributors to the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy consumption. In addition, sensitivity analysis was carried out on a number of input variables to establish the set of influential parameters, and to determine whether using such techniques would successfully predict the range in which building energy consumption is likely to fall. The results show that the uncertainty calculated from differential sensitivity analysis encompasses the actual energy performance of the building. The most variable and influential parameters are those which are controlled by occupants, therefore it is paramount that management and occupants are well-informed about the building operation for energy targets to be achieved. Although the sensitivity analysis methods employed are impractical for commercial use, it is possible to develop simpler methods, encompassing all stages of building design and operation, which would decrease the discrepancy between the actual and predicted energy performance of buildings. Such techniques would be invaluable to energy consultants, for whom the cost resting on uncertainties in predictions is substantial due to more demanding clients and fines liable to be paid if energy predictions go wrong. A better understanding of the discrepancy, together with more accurate predictions, would

  4. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  5. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  6. Actual ratio of triacylglycerol positional isomers in milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Yumiko; Nagai, Toshiharu; Mizobe, Hoyo; Yoshinaga, Kazuaki; Kojima, Koichi; Kuroda, Ikuma; Kitamura, Yohei; Shimizu, Takashi; Ishida, Hiroki; Wada, Shun

    2012-01-01

    Actual ratios of triacylglycerol (TAG) positional isomers in human, rat, and cow milk fat and cow, buffalo, goat, and sheep cheese fat were analyzed using HPLC-UV-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS/MS system equipped with an octacosyl silylation column or polymeric ODS column. We substituted cheese fats for milk fats in parts of our study because milks from ruminants, with the exception of cows, are difficult to get in Japan. The actual ratio of β-PPC (the TAG consisting of two palmitic acids (P) and one capric acid (C), with the palmitic acid located at the β position) and β-PCP in human milk was different from those in ruminants, with more than half of the medium-chain fatty acids located at the β position even though other fats possessed it mainly at the α position. Palmitic acid was mainly located at the β position for human milk and rat milk; however, the location in ruminant cheese fat was mainly at the α position. The location of fatty acids is thought to be very important for infant nutrition. Particularly, the location of palmitic acid in case of human milk and of medium-chain fatty acids in case of ruminant milk was very characteristic and is considered to be very important to the fatty acids in milk fat.

  7. Experimental study on the regenerator under actual operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Kwanwoo; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2002-05-01

    An experimental apparatus was prepared to investigate thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of the regenerator under its actual operating conditions. The apparatus included a compressor to pressurize and depressurize regenerator with various operating frequencies. Cold end of the regenerator was maintained around 100 K by means of liquid nitrogen container and heat exchanger. Instantaneous gas temperature and mass flow rate were measured at both ends of the regenerator during the whole pressure cycle. Pulsating pressure and pressure drop across the regenerator were also measured. The operating frequency of the pressure cycle was varied between 3 and 60 Hz, which are typical operating frequencies of Gifford-McMahon, pulse tube, and Stirling cryocoolers. First, friction factor for the wire screen mesh was directly determined from room temperature experiments. When the operating frequency was less than 9 Hz, the oscillating flow friction factor was nearly same as the steady flow friction factor for Reynolds number up to 100. For 60 Hz operations, the ratio of oscillating flow friction factor to steady flow one was increased as hydraulic Reynolds number became high. When the Reynolds number was 100, this ratio was about 1.6. Second, ineffectiveness of the regenerator was obtained when the cold-end was maintained around 100 K and the warm-end at 300 K to simulate the actual operating condition of the regenerator in cryocooler. Effect of the operating frequency on ineffectiveness of regenerator was discussed at low frequency range.

  8. What do tests of formal reasoning actually measure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Tests of formal operational reasoning derived from Piagetian theory have been found to be effective predictors of academic achievement. Yet Piaget's theory regarding the underlying nature of formal operations and their employment in specific contexts has run into considerable empirical difficulty. The primary purpose of this study was to present the core of an alternative theory of the nature of advanced scientific reasoning. That theory, referred to as the multiple-hypothesis theory, argues that tests of formal operational reasoning actually measure the extent to which persons have acquired the ability to initiate reasoning with more than one specific antecedent condition, or if they are unable to imagine more than one antecedent condition, they are aware that more than one is possible; therefore conclusions that are drawn are tempered by this possibility. As a test of this multiple-hypothesis theory of advanced reasoning and the contrasting Piagetian theory of formal operations, a sample of 922 college students were first classified as concrete operational, transitional, or formal operational, based upon responses to standard Piagetian measures of formal operational reasoning. They were then administered seven logic tasks. Actual response patterns to the tasks were analyzed and found to be similar to predicted response patterns derived from the multiple-hypothesis theory and were different from those predicted by Piagetian theory. Therefore, support was obtained for the multiple-hypothesis theory. The terms intuitive and reflective were suggested to replace the terms concrete operational and formal operational to refer to persons at varying levels of intellectual development.

  9. 49 CFR 393.53 - Automatic brake adjusters and brake adjustment indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... indicators. 393.53 Section 393.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... brake adjustment indicators. (a) Automatic brake adjusters (hydraulic brake systems). Each commercial... vehicle at the time it was manufactured. (c) Brake adjustment indicator (air brake systems). On...

  10. 49 CFR 393.53 - Automatic brake adjusters and brake adjustment indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... brake adjustment indicators. (a) Automatic brake adjusters (hydraulic brake systems). Each commercial motor vehicle manufactured on or after October 20, 1993, and equipped with a hydraulic brake system, shall meet the automatic brake adjustment system requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety...

  11. Vicarious Adjustment of MERIS Reflectances Using an Inverse Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulloch, M. E.; Barker, K. L.; Zibordi, G..

    2010-12-01

    The method used for the vicarious adjustment of the SeaWiFS & MERIS ocean colour data relies on the assumptions that the water-leaving radiance is negligible in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) in oligotrophic waters, and the NIR band is perfectly calibrated. Here, a novel approach to vicarious adjustment is proposed that does not need these assumptions: a least-squares inverse technique is used to adjust the most uncertain parameters in the atmosphere model: the aerosol scattering (ρa) and the error in the ozone optical depth (dτoz) within their error bars to obtain a best fit between the satellite and buoy water reflectance. Examples are presented using match-ups of satellite and in situ observations from MERMAID (the MERis Match- up In-situ Database) for the MOBY, Gustav Dalen, BOUSSOLE and AAOT platforms. The new method predicts the lowest dτ for MOBY, the lowest ρ for the Gustav Dalen site, and the largest a values of both at AAOT. The method is simple to code, potentially more flexible than the present gain method, can weight observations for reliability and predicts poorly-known atmospheric properties. However, it requires accurate physics, a good initial guess, enough data for convergence and cannot correct biases. The method could be tested by running it in parallel with the existing method.

  12. The CACAO Method for Smoothing, Gap Filling, and Characterizing Seasonal Anomalies in Satellite Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verger, Aleixandre; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Kandasamy, S.; Vermote, E.

    2013-01-01

    Consistent, continuous, and long time series of global biophysical variables derived from satellite data are required for global change research. A novel climatology fitting approach called CACAO (Consistent Adjustment of the Climatology to Actual Observations) is proposed to reduce noise and fill gaps in time series by scaling and shifting the seasonal climatological patterns to the actual observations. The shift and scale CACAO parameters adjusted for each season allow quantifying shifts in the timing of seasonal phenology and inter-annual variations in magnitude as compared to the average climatology. CACAO was assessed first over simulated daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) time series with varying fractions of missing data and noise. Then, performances were analyzed over actual satellite LAI products derived from AVHRR Long-Term Data Record for the 1981-2000 period over the BELMANIP2 globally representative sample of sites. Comparison with two widely used temporal filtering methods-the asymmetric Gaussian (AG) model and the Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter as implemented in TIMESAT-revealed that CACAO achieved better performances for smoothing AVHRR time series characterized by high level of noise and frequent missing observations. The resulting smoothed time series captures well the vegetation dynamics and shows no gaps as compared to the 50-60% of still missing data after AG or SG reconstructions. Results of simulation experiments as well as confrontation with actual AVHRR time series indicate that the proposed CACAO method is more robust to noise and missing data than AG and SG methods for phenology extraction.

  13. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  14. Experiment on performance of adjustable jet pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. M.; Long, X. P.; Zhang, S. B.; Lu, X.

    2012-11-01

    When the water level of upper or lower reaches of hydraulic power station changes, the adjustable jet pump which is different from traditional fixed jet pump can maintain stable pressure and flow rate for the system of technical water supply of hydraulic power plant. The model test indicates that the efficiency of the adjustable jet pump is slightly lower than fixed jet pump near rating operation point. With the decrease of opening degree, both efficiencies are more and more close to each other. The fundamental performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is better than II-type and the cavitation performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is worse than II-type. Test data also indicate that the performance of adjustable jet pump is very different from fixed jet pump, so the theory of fixed jet pump is not able to be copied to adjustable jet pump. It is necessary to farther study on the performance of the adjustable jet pump. This paper has reference value for analogous design of system of circulation water supply to turbine units in hydraulic power station.

  15. Designers' and users' roles in participatory design: What is actually co-designed by participants?

    PubMed

    Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements.

  16. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students and the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization. The group experience did increase self-actualization, but participants' initial level of ego strength was unrelated to changes in self-actualization.…

  17. Development of Adjustable Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, W.; Schwartz, D. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Wilke, R. H. T.

    2010-03-01

    We report on the development of adjustable grazing incidence optics. We are developing bimorph mirrors for high resolution (sub-arc second) imaging. Bimorph mirrors consist of a thin layer of piezo-electric material deposited on the back surface of a thin (< 0.4 mm) thermally formed glass or electroplated metal segmented mirror. Voltage applied across the thickness of the piezo produces a strain in the plane of the mirror surface. The strain produces bending of the mirror similar to the bi-metallic effect. No reaction structure is necessary, which allows one to densely nest mirror shells for large effective area. A pixilated array of outer electrodes on the piezo material localizes the strain to the particular piezo "pixel.” Mirror figure errors are corrected (on-orbit) via induced localized deformations. We have successfully deposited a 1-micrometer thick layer of the piezo-electric material lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) on thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors, and mirror requirements. We discuss finite element modeling of bimorph mirrors. In particular, we focus on how a difference in mirror mounting affects the influence functions ( the induced deformations). We are also developing the use of electrostrictive adjusters for moderate resolution (a few arc second) imaging. Electroplated nickel/cobalt full shells are mounted together using the adjusters. The adjusters are arrayed axially and tangentially between shells, with their adjustable dimension in the radial direction. Each shell is adjusted and fixed in place during mirror assembly, starting with the innermost shell. We review finite element modeling of the adjustable optics and the application of the adjustment system to correct manufacturing errors. We discuss initial tests using electrostrictive adjusters to change the shape of flat mirror segments. This work is supported by NASA Contract NNX09AE87G and a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore

  18. Individual actual or perceived property flood risk: did it predict evacuation from Hurricane Isabel in North Carolina, 2003?

    PubMed

    Horney, Jennifer A; Macdonald, Pia D M; Van Willigen, Marieke; Berke, Philip R; Kaufman, Jay S

    2010-03-01

    Individual perception of risk has consistently been considered an important determinant of hurricane evacuation in published studies and reviews. Adequate risk assessment is informed by environmental and social cues, as well as evacuation intentions and past disaster experience. This cross-sectional study measured perceived flood risk of 570 residents of three coastal North Carolina counties, compared their perception with actual risk determined by updated flood plain maps, and determined if either was associated with evacuation from Hurricane Isabel in 2003. Census blocks were stratified by flood zone and 30 census blocks were randomly selected from each flood zone. Seven interviews were conducted at random locations within selected blocks. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to produce crude and adjusted risk differences. Neither the designated flood zone of the parcel where the home was located nor the residents' perceived flood risk was associated with evacuation from Hurricane Isabel in the bivariate analysis. In the multivariable analysis, intention to evacuate and home type were important confounders of the association between actual risk and evacuation. The belief that one is at high risk of property damage or injury is important in evacuation decision making. However, in this study, while coastal residents' perceived risk of flooding was correlated with their actual flood risk, neither was associated with evacuation. These findings provide important opportunities for education and intervention by policymakers and authorities to improve hurricane evacuation rates and raise flood risk awareness.

  19. Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

  20. Photovoltaic performance models: an evaluation with actual field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TamizhMani, Govindasamy; Ishioye, John-Paul; Voropayev, Arseniy; Kang, Yi

    2008-08-01

    Prediction of energy production is crucial to the design and installation of the building integrated photovoltaic systems. This prediction should be attainable based on the commonly available parameters such as system size, orientation and tilt angle. Several commercially available as well as free downloadable software tools exist to predict energy production. Six software models have been evaluated in this study and they are: PV Watts, PVsyst, MAUI, Clean Power Estimator, Solar Advisor Model (SAM) and RETScreen. This evaluation has been done by comparing the monthly, seasonaly and annually predicted data with the actual, field data obtained over a year period on a large number of residential PV systems ranging between 2 and 3 kWdc. All the systems are located in Arizona, within the Phoenix metropolitan area which lies at latitude 33° North, and longitude 112 West, and are all connected to the electrical grid.

  1. Motion fading is driven by perceived, not actual angular velocity.

    PubMed

    Kohler, P J; Caplovitz, G P; Hsieh, P-J; Sun, J; Tse, P U

    2010-06-01

    After prolonged viewing of a slowly drifting or rotating pattern under strict fixation, the pattern appears to slow down and then momentarily stop. Here we examine the relationship between such 'motion fading' and perceived angular velocity. Using several different dot patterns that generate emergent virtual contours, we demonstrate that whenever there is a difference in the perceived angular velocity of two patterns of dots that are in fact rotating at the same angular velocity, there is also a difference in the time to undergo motion fading for those two patterns. Conversely, whenever two patterns show no difference in perceived angular velocity, even if in fact rotating at different angular velocities, we find no difference in the time to undergo motion fading. Thus, motion fading is driven by the perceived rather than actual angular velocity of a rotating stimulus.

  2. On feedback and stable price adjustment mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos

    2007-04-01

    Given an excess demand function of an economy, say Z(p), a stable price adjustment mechanism (SPAM) guarantees convergence of solution path p(t,p0) to an equilibrium peq solution of Z(p)=0. Besides, all equilibrium points of Z(p) are asymptotically stable. Some SPAMs have been proposed, including Newton and transpose Jacobian methods. Despite this powerful stability property of SPAMs, their acceptation in the economics community has been limited by a lack of interpretation. This paper focuses on this issue. Specifically, feedback control theory is used to link SPAMs and price dynamics models with control inputs, which match the economically intuitive Walrasian Hypothesis (i.e., prices change with excess demand sign). Under mild conditions, it is shown the existence of a feedback function that transforms the price dynamics into a desired SPAM. Hence, a SPAM is interpreted as a fundamental (e.g., Walrasian) price dynamics under the action of a feedback function aimed to stabilize the equilibrium set of the excess demand function.

  3. Error and adjustment of reflecting prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wenwei

    1997-12-01

    A manufacturing error in the orientation of the working planes of a reflecting prism, such as an angle error or an edge error, will cause the optical axis to deviate and the image to lean. So does an adjustment (position error) of a reflecting prism. A universal method to be used to calculate the optical axis deviation and the image lean caused by the manufacturing error of a reflecting prism is presented. It is suited to all types of reflecting prisms. A means to offset the position error against the manufacturing error of a reflecting prism and the changes of image orientation is discussed. For the calculation to be feasible, a surface named the 'separating surface' is introduced just in front of the real exit face of a real prism. It is the image of the entrance face formed by all reflecting surfaces of the real prism. It can be used to separate the image orientation change caused by the error of the prism's reflecting surfaces from the image orientation change caused by the error of the prism's refracting surface. Based on ray tracing, a set of simple and explicit formulas of the optical axis deviation and the image lean for a general optical wedge is derived.

  4. Non-actual motion: phenomenological analysis and linguistic evidence.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Johan; Zlatev, Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Sentences with motion verbs describing static situations have been seen as evidence that language and cognition are geared toward dynamism and change (Talmy in Toward a cognitive semantics, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2000; Langacker in Concept, image, and symbol: the cognitive basis of grammar, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin and New York, 1990). Different concepts have been used in the literature, e.g., fictive motion, subjective motion and abstract motion to denote this. Based on phenomenological analysis, we reinterpret such concepts as reflecting different motivations for the use of such constructions (Blomberg and Zlatev in Phenom Cogn Sci 13(3):395-418, 2014). To highlight the multifaceted character of the phenomenon, we propose the concept non-actual motion (NAM), which we argue is more compatible with the situated cognition approach than explanations such as "mental simulation" (e.g., Matlock in Studies in linguistic motivation, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 2004). We investigate the expression of NAM by means of a picture-based elicitation task with speakers of Swedish, French and Thai. Pictures represented figures that either afford human motion or not (±afford); crossed with this, the figure extended either across the picture from a third-person perspective (3 pp) or from a first-person perspective (1 pp). All picture types elicited NAM-sentences with the combination [+afford, 1 pp] producing most NAM-sentences in all three languages. NAM-descriptions also conformed to language-specific patterns for the expression of actual motion. We conclude that NAM shows interaction between pre-linguistic motivations and language-specific conventions.

  5. Thermoregulation during prolonged actual and laboratory-simulated bicycling.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L; Banister, E W

    1985-01-01

    Thermoregulatory and cardiorespiratory responses to bicycling 55 km (mean speed 9.7 m X s-1) outdoors (15 degrees C DB) were compared to equivalent cycle ergometry (90 min at 65% VO2max) in the laboratory (20-23 degrees C DB, 50% RH) in 7 trained cyclists. Outdoor environmental conditions were simulated with fans and lamps, and were contrasted with standard no-wind, no-sun laboratory conditions. Sweating rate was similar during outdoor and laboratory simulated outdoor cycling (0.90 and 0.87 to 0.94 1 X h-1 respectively). During outdoor bicycling, mean heart rate (161 bt X min-1) was 7-13% higher (p less than .05) than under laboratory conditions, suggesting a greater strain for a similar external work rate. The increase in rectal temperature (0.8 degrees C) was 33-50% less (p less than 0.05) at the cooler outdoor ambient temperature than in the laboratory. Thermoregulatory stress was greater under the no-fan, no-lamp laboratory condition than during simulated outdoor conditions (36-38% greater (p less than 0.05) sweating rate, 15-18% greater (p less than 0.01) mean skin temperature, 6.4 to 7.8 fold greater (p less than 0.01) amount of clothing-retrained sweat). The cooling wind encountered in actual road bicycling apparently reduces thermoregulatory and circulatory demands compared with stationary cycle ergometry indoors. Failure to account for this enhanced cooling may result in overestimation of the physiological stress of actual road cycling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Ting, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE) is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE) is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA), which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods. PMID:27338412

  7. Relationship of cognitive function and adjustment difficulties among children and adolescents with dissociative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Mehta, Manju; Sagar, Rajesh; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Although it has been suggested that children and adolescents with dissociative disorder have some cognitive deficits, the association of these cognitive impairments with adjustment difficulties has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive functioning and adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents with dissociative disorder. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive assessment was carried out in the outpatient setting of child and adolescent psychiatric service in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty newly diagnosed children and adolescents with dissociative disorder were included. The cognitive functions were assessed by varied neuropsychological tests, and Bell's adjustment inventory was used for assessing various domains of adjustment. Results: The mean age of the sample which comprised 40% males was 13.0 (±2.4) years. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of the sample was 90.6. Impairment in cognitive test was maximum for verbal working memory followed by sustained attention, visual learning and memory, and verbal retention and recall. Adjustment difficulties were greatest in the domains of self, followed by domains of health, school, and family. Significant association was found between the IQ and adjustment in school; visual learning and memory and adjustments in school and overall adjustment; and sustained attention and adjustment of health. Conclusions: Dissociative children have poor cognitive ability which may be related to poor adjustment scores. PMID:27114655

  8. Smooth connection method of segment test data in road surface profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Hu-Ming; Ma, Ying; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Kai-Bin; Xie, Fei

    2011-12-01

    It's reviewed that the measurement system of road surface profile and the calculation method of segment road test data have been introduced. Because of there are sudden vertical steps at the connection points of segment data which will influence the application of road surface data in automotive engineering. So a new smooth connection method of segment test data is proposed which revised the sudden vertical steps connection by the Signal Local Baseline Adjustment (SLBA) method. Besides, there is an actual example which mentioned the detailed process of the smooth connection of segment test data by the SLBA method and the adjusting results at these connection points. The application and calculation results show that the SLBA method is simple and has achieved obvious effect in smooth connection of the segment road test data. The method of SLBA can be widely applied to segment road surface data processing or the long period vibration signal processing.

  9. Smooth connection method of segment test data in road surface profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Hu-Ming; Ma, Ying; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Kai-Bin; Xie, Fei

    2012-01-01

    It's reviewed that the measurement system of road surface profile and the calculation method of segment road test data have been introduced. Because of there are sudden vertical steps at the connection points of segment data which will influence the application of road surface data in automotive engineering. So a new smooth connection method of segment test data is proposed which revised the sudden vertical steps connection by the Signal Local Baseline Adjustment (SLBA) method. Besides, there is an actual example which mentioned the detailed process of the smooth connection of segment test data by the SLBA method and the adjusting results at these connection points. The application and calculation results show that the SLBA method is simple and has achieved obvious effect in smooth connection of the segment road test data. The method of SLBA can be widely applied to segment road surface data processing or the long period vibration signal processing.

  10. Are Africa's actual problems a result of overpopulation?

    PubMed

    Logie, D; Woodroffe, J

    1994-01-01

    After the lost decade of the 1980s, Africa seems to be mired in debt, ecological devastation, drought, and disease. Malnutrition claims the lives of 11,000 children each day, and exposure to disease is heightened by the fact that 2/3 of all Africans do not have access to clean water for cooking and drinking. Sub-Saharan African countries are currently spending 50% more on servicing their debt than on the health and education of their children and less now on health per capita than they did in 1980. Despite paying out more than US$ 1,300 billion between 1982 and 1990, debtor countries are now 61% more indebted than they were in 1982. The first step toward a solution is to reduce the outstanding debt burden. Debt relief initiatives have resulted in some short-term alleviation, but so far less than 3% of total African debt has been cancelled. The considerable amount of debt owed to the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, which now absorb 36% of total debt service payments, has not been addressed. Governed by immutable laws, they cannot currently forgive debt, they can only delay its repayment. A major problem with all debt reduction schemes has been that they are linked to adjustment programs. The USA's latest offer to cancel 50% of debt to the very poorest African countries is conditional on their acceptance of such programs. The second step is to make sure that adjustment programs put the needs and aspirations of the poor at the center of any planning. In the past few years, Unicef, Oxfam, Christian Aid, and other non-governmental organizations have called for such reforms. Though some change has taken place in the rhetoric of the World Bank, it is vital to maintain pressure to ensure that reforms are put into practice.

  11. 76 FR 67500 - Postal Service Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Adjustment Notice states that the overall average for Special Services is a result of large price reductions...; Address Management Services; Caller Service; Change-of-Address Credit Card Authentication; Confirm... Periodicals, Nonprofit and Classroom Periodicals, Science of Agriculture Periodicals advertising...

  12. Adjustable throttle linkage for outboard motors

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, W.D.; Miller, G.L.

    1986-02-17

    An adjustable throttle linkage is described for use in controlling operation of an internal combustion engine having a carburetor including a pivotable throttle valve, a throttle valve position control member operably connected to the throttle valve and movable so as to control the position of the throttle valve, and a throttle lever for controlling the position of the throttle valve. The adjustable throttle linkage comprises a connecting link having one end connected to one of the throttle lever and the control member, and having a threaded portion, means for adjustably connecting the threaded portion to the other of the throttle lever and the control member. The adjustable connecting means includes a slot in the other of the throttle lever and the control member, and a rotatable member threaded onto the threaded portion and receive in the slot such that rotation of the rotatable member causes relative movement between the link and the other of the throttle lever and the control member.

  13. Multi-Scale 7DOF View Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Cho, Isaac; Li, Jialei; Wartell, Zachary

    2017-02-13

    Multi-scale virtual environments contain geometric details ranging over several orders of magnitude and typically employ out-of-core rendering techniques. When displayed in virtual reality systems this entails using a 7 degree-of-freedom (DOF) view model where view scale is a separate 7th DOF in addition to 6DOF view pose. Dynamic adjustment of this and other view parameters become very important to usability. In this paper, we evaluate how two adjustment techniques interact with uni- and bi-manual 7 degree-of-freedom navigation in DesktopVR and a CAVE. The travel task has two stages, an initial targeted zoom and a detailed geometric inspection. The results show benefits of the auto-adjustments on completion time and stereo fusion issues, but only in certain circumstances. Peculiar view configuration examples show the difficulty of creating robust adjustment rules.

  14. Floating-diffusion electrometer with adjustable sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, John R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The effective capacitance of the floating diffusion in a floating-diffusion electrometer is modified to adjust electrometer sensitivity. This is done by changing the direct potential applied to a gate electrode proximate to the floating diffusion.

  15. 49 CFR 1135.1 - Quarterly adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... railroad productivity as prescribed in Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures, 1 I.C.C.2d 207 (1984), and any subsequent amendments thereto. In addition, the AAR shall calculate the productivity-adjusted RCAF...

  16. 49 CFR 1135.1 - Quarterly adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... railroad productivity as prescribed in Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures, 1 I.C.C.2d 207 (1984), and any subsequent amendments thereto. In addition, the AAR shall calculate the productivity-adjusted RCAF...

  17. Adjustment to Divorce Through Transactional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, James D.; Prescott, Mary R.

    1976-01-01

    Transactional Analysis in a group facilitates adjustment to divorce. Two case histories highlight the value of TA in conceptualizing the problem areas of each individual and the changes during group therapy. (Author)

  18. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan.

    PubMed

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L; Whisman, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries.

  19. Wide-range adjustment technique of playback wavelength of MBDCG Lippmann hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Dong, Guangxing; Li, Jiangfeng; Du, Jinglei

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, a new technique is presented for adjusting the playback wavelength of Lippmann holograms recorded in methylene-blue sensitized dichromated gelatin (MBDCG). The main feature of this technique is introducing a water-soluble organic reagent into MBDCG photosensitive layer as preswelling reagent and wavelength adjuster. This method has wide wavelength adjustment range and high signal-to-noise ratio, can be applied to adjust the playback wavelength of reflection hologram quantitatively by changing the concentration of preswelling reagent. Its possible applications include color image display, holographic optical elements, and optical anti-counterfeiting.

  20. Child, Parent and Family Factors as Predictors of Adjustment for Siblings of Children with a Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, R.; Gavidia-Payne, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Siblings adjust to having a brother or sister with a disability in diverse ways. This study investigated a range of child, parent and family factors as predictors of sibling adjustment outcomes. Methods: Forty-nine siblings (aged 7-16 years) and parents provided information about (1) sibling daily hassles and uplifts; (2) sibling…

  1. 48 CFR 3016.203 - Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... economic price adjustments. 3016.203 Section 3016.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) CONTRACT METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 3016.203 Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments....

  2. Impact of Socio-Emotional Adjustment on Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…

  3. 26 CFR 1.56-1 - Adjustment for the book income of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cumulative adjustments resulting from accounting method changes. Net book income is not reduced by any...) Computation of adjusted net book income when taxable year and financial accounting year differ—(i) In general. If a taxpayer's applicable financial statement is prepared on the basis of a financial...

  4. Stress, Coping, and Psychological Adjustment of Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined psychological adjustment to sickle cell disease (SCD) among 109 African-American adults. Good psychological adjustment was associated with lower levels of perceived daily stress and stress regarding SCD illness tasks, higher efficacy expectations, less use of palliative coping methods and negative thinking/passive adherence pain-coping…

  5. Method to adjust multilayer film stress induced deformation of optics

    DOEpatents

    Spiller, Eberhard A.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Montcalm, Claude; Bajt, Sasa; Folta, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Stress compensating systems that reduces/compensates stress in a multilayer without loss in reflectivity, while reducing total film thickness compared to the earlier buffer-layer approach. The stress free multilayer systems contain multilayer systems with two different material combinations of opposite stress, where both systems give good reflectivity at the design wavelengths. The main advantage of the multilayer system design is that stress reduction does not require the deposition of any additional layers, as in the buffer layer approach. If the optical performance of the two systems at the design wavelength differ, the system with the poorer performance is deposited first, and then the system with better performance last, thus forming the top of the multilayer system. The components for the stress reducing layer are chosen among materials that have opposite stress to that of the preferred multilayer reflecting stack and simultaneously have optical constants that allow one to get good reflectivity at the design wavelength. For a wavelength of 13.4 nm, the wavelength presently used for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, Si and Be have practically the same optical constants, but the Mo/Si multilayer has opposite stress than the Mo/Be multilayer. Multilayer systems of these materials have practically identical reflectivity curves. For example, stress free multilayers can be formed on a substrate using Mo/Be multilayers in the bottom of the stack and Mo/Si multilayers at the top of the stack, with the switch-over point selected to obtain zero stress. In this multilayer system, the switch-over point is at about the half point of the total thickness of the stack, and for the Mo/Be--Mo/Si system, there may be 25 deposition periods Mo/Be to 20 deposition periods Mo/Si.

  6. Method to adjust multilayer film stress induced deformation of optics

    DOEpatents

    Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Montcalm, Claude

    2000-01-01

    A buffer-layer located between a substrate and a multilayer for counteracting stress in the multilayer. Depositing a buffer-layer having a stress of sufficient magnitude and opposite in sign reduces or cancels out deformation in the substrate due to the stress in the multilayer. By providing a buffer-layer between the substrate and the multilayer, a tunable, near-zero net stress results, and hence results in little or no deformation of the substrate, such as an optic for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography tool. Buffer-layers have been deposited, for example, between Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films and their associated substrate reducing significantly the stress, wherein the magnitude of the stress is less than 100 MPa and respectively near-normal incidence (5.degree.) reflectance of over 60% is obtained at 13.4 nm and 11.4 nm. The present invention is applicable to crystalline and non-crystalline materials, and can be used at ambient temperatures.

  7. 26 CFR 1.6655-3 - Adjusted seasonal installment method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) = $819,717 (M) 100% of this paragraph (e), Example (iv)(L) = $819,717 (N) Amount of all prior required... (M) 100% of this paragraph (e), Example (v)(L) = $1,055,345 (N) Amount of all prior required...), (I), and (J) and divide by 3 = .9375 (L) Multiply this paragraph (e), Example (vi)(G) by...

  8. 26 CFR 1.6655-3 - Adjusted seasonal installment method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) = $819,717 (M) 100% of this paragraph (e), Example (iv)(L) = $819,717 (N) Amount of all prior required... (M) 100% of this paragraph (e), Example (v)(L) = $1,055,345 (N) Amount of all prior required...), (I), and (J) and divide by 3 = .9375 (L) Multiply this paragraph (e), Example (vi)(G) by...

  9. Sightability adjustment methods for aerial surveys of wildlife populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinhorst, R.K.; Samuel, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Aerial surveys are routinely conducted to estimate the abundance of wildlife species and the rate of population change. However, sightability of animal groups is acknowledged as a significant source of bias in these estimates. Recent research has focused on the development of sightability models to predict the probability of sighting groups under various conditions. Given such models, we show how sightability can be incorporated into the estimator of population size as a probability of response using standard results from sample surveys. We develop formulas for the cases where the sighting probability must be estimated. An example, using data from a helicopter survey of moose in Alberta (Jacobson, Alberta Oil Sands Research Project Report, 1976), is given to illustrate the technique.

  10. Height and age adjustment for cross sectional studies of lung function in children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, S; Rona, R J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No standard exists for the adjustment of lung function for height and age in children. Multiple regression should not be used on untransformed data because, for example, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), though normally distributed for height, age, and sex, has increasing standard deviation. A solution to the conflict is proposed. METHODS: Spirometry on representative samples of children aged 6.5 to 11.99 years in primary schools in England. After exclusion of children who did not provide two repeatable blows 910 white English boys and 722 girls had data on FEV1 and height. Means and standard deviations of FEV1 divided by height were plotted to determine whether logarithmic transformation of FEV1 was appropriate. Multiple regression was used to give predicted FEV1 for height and age on the transformed scale; back transformation gave predicted values in litres. Other lung function measures were analysed, and data on inner city children, children from ethnic minority groups, and Scottish children were described. RESULTS: After logarithmic (ln) transformation of FEV1 standard deviation was constant. The ratios of actual and predicted values of FEV1 were normally distributed in boys and girls. From the means and standard deviations of these distributions, and the predicted values, centiles and standard deviation scores can be calculated. CONCLUSION: The method described is valid because the assumption of stable variance for multiple regression was satisfied on the log scale and the variation of ratios of actual to predicted values on the original scale was well described by a normal distribution. The adoption of the method will lead to uniformity and greater ease of comparison of research findings. PMID:1440464

  11. The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: do people adjust from provided anchors?

    PubMed

    Simmons, Joseph P; LeBoeuf, Robyn A; Nelson, Leif D

    2010-12-01

    Increasing accuracy motivation (e.g., by providing monetary incentives for accuracy) often fails to increase adjustment away from provided anchors, a result that has led researchers to conclude that people do not effortfully adjust away from such anchors. We challenge this conclusion. First, we show that people are typically uncertain about which way to adjust from provided anchors and that this uncertainty often causes people to believe that they have initially adjusted too far away from such anchors (Studies 1a and 1b). Then, we show that although accuracy motivation fails to increase the gap between anchors and final estimates when people are uncertain about the direction of adjustment, accuracy motivation does increase anchor-estimate gaps when people are certain about the direction of adjustment, and that this is true regardless of whether the anchors are provided or self-generated (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 5). These results suggest that people do effortfully adjust away from provided anchors but that uncertainty about the direction of adjustment makes that adjustment harder to detect than previously assumed. This conclusion has important theoretical implications, suggesting that currently emphasized distinctions between anchor types (self-generated vs. provided) are not fundamental and that ostensibly competing theories of anchoring (selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment) are complementary.

  12. Adjustment in Parents of Children Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lindwall, Jennifer J.; Russell, Kathy; Huang, Qinlei; Zhang, Hui; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru; Alderfer, Melissa; Phipps, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Background Pediatric stem cell transplant (SCT) is a demanding procedure for children and parents. Interventions to promote positive adjustment of parents in this setting are needed. Method 171 patient/parent dyads from 4 sites received one of 3 interventions to reduce SCT-related distress: a child intervention with massage and humor therapy, an identical child intervention plus a parent intervention with massage and relaxation/imagery, or standard care. Parents completed weekly self-report measures of distress and positive affect during the acute phase of treatment (weeks −1 through +6), and measures of depression, posttraumatic stress (PTSD), and benefit-finding at baseline and week +24. Results No significant differences across treatment arms were observed on repeated measures of parental distress. There was a marginally significant effect of the child intervention on parental positive affect. Over time, parental distress decreased significantly and positive affect increased significantly in all groups. Similarly, there were no significant intervention effects on the global adjustment outcomes of depression, PTSD, and benefit finding. However, reports of depression and PTSD decreased significantly and reports of benefit-finding increased significantly from baseline to week +24 for all groups. Conclusion Across all study arms, parent adjustment improved over time, suggesting that parents demonstrate a transient period of moderately elevated distress at the time of their child’s admission for transplant, followed by rapid improved to normative levels of adjustment. Similar to results previously reported for their children, these parents appear resilient to the challenges of transplant. PMID:24434783

  13. Tutorial on Actual Space Environmental Hazards For Space Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, J. E.; Fennell, J. F.; Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    It has become common in the space science community to conduct research on diverse physical phenomena because they are thought to contribute to space weather. However, satellites contend with only three primary environmental hazards: single event effects, vehicle charging, and total dose, and not every physical phenomenon that occurs in space contributes in substantial ways to create these hazards. One consequence of the mismatch between actual threats and all-encompassing research is the often-described gap between research and operations; another is the creation of forecasts that provide no actionable information for design engineers or spacecraft operators. An example of the latter is the physics of magnetic field emergence on the Sun; the phenomenon is relevant to the formation and launch of coronal mass ejections and is also causally related to the solar energetic particles that may get accelerated in the interplanetary shock. Unfortunately for the research community, the engineering community mitigates the space weather threat (single-event effects from heavy ions above ~50 MeV/nucleon) with a worst-case specification of the environment and not with a prediction. Worst-case definition requires data mining of past events, while predictions involve large-scale systems science from the Sun to the Earth that is compelling for scientists and their funding agencies but not actionable for design or for most operations. Differing priorities among different space-faring organizations only compounds the confusion over what science research is relevant. Solar particle impacts to human crew arise mainly from the total ionizing dose from the solar protons, so the priority for prediction in the human spaceflight community is therefore much different than in the unmanned satellite community, while both communities refer to the fundamental phenomenon as space weather. Our goal in this paper is the presentation of a brief tutorial on the primary space environmental phenomena

  14. Simultaneous dimension reduction and adjustment for confounding variation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhixiang; Yang, Can; Zhu, Ying; Duchi, John; Fu, Yao; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Bai; Zamanighomi, Mahdi; Xu, Xuming; Li, Mingfeng; Sestan, Nenad; Zhao, Hongyu; Wong, Wing Hung

    2016-12-20

    Dimension reduction methods are commonly applied to high-throughput biological datasets. However, the results can be hindered by confounding factors, either biological or technical in origin. In this study, we extend principal component analysis (PCA) to propose AC-PCA for simultaneous dimension reduction and adjustment for confounding (AC) variation. We show that AC-PCA can adjust for (i) variations across individual donors present in a human brain exon array dataset and (ii) variations of different species in a model organism ENCODE RNA sequencing dataset. Our approach is able to recover the anatomical structure of neocortical regions and to capture the shared variation among species during embryonic development. For gene selection purposes, we extend AC-PCA with sparsity constraints and propose and implement an efficient algorithm. The methods developed in this paper can also be applied to more general settings. The R package and MATLAB source code are available at https://github.com/linzx06/AC-PCA.

  15. Incorporating the sampling design in weighting adjustments for panel attrition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qixuan; Gelman, Andrew; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    We review weighting adjustment methods for panel attrition and suggest approaches for incorporating design variables, such as strata, clusters and baseline sample weights. Design information can typically be included in attrition analysis using multilevel models or decision tree methods such as the CHAID algorithm. We use simulation to show that these weighting approaches can effectively reduce bias in the survey estimates that would occur from omitting the effect of design factors on attrition while keeping the resulted weights stable. We provide a step-by-step illustration on creating weighting adjustments for panel attrition in the Galveston Bay Recovery Study, a survey of residents in a community following a disaster, and provide suggestions to analysts in decision making about weighting approaches. PMID:26239405

  16. Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) Optics Adjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Scientists at Marshall's Adaptive Optics Lab demonstrate the Wave Front Sensor alignment using the Phased Array Mirror Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) optics adjustment. The primary objective of the PAMELA project is to develop methods for aligning and controlling adaptive optics segmented mirror systems. These systems can be used to acquire or project light energy. The Next Generation Space Telescope is an example of an energy acquisition system that will employ segmented mirrors. Light projection systems can also be used for power beaming and orbital debris removal. All segmented optical systems must be adjusted to provide maximum performance. PAMELA is an on going project that NASA is utilizing to investigate various methods for maximizing system performance.

  17. Gauge-adjusted rainfall estimates from commercial microwave links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fencl, Martin; Dohnal, Michal; Rieckermann, Jörg; Bareš, Vojtěch

    2017-01-01

    Increasing urbanization makes it more and more important to have accurate stormwater runoff predictions, especially with potentially severe weather and climatic changes on the horizon. Such stormwater predictions in turn require reliable rainfall information. Especially for urban centres, the problem is that the spatial and temporal resolution of rainfall observations should be substantially higher than commonly provided by weather services with their standard rainfall monitoring networks. Commercial microwave links (CMLs) are non-traditional sensors, which have been proposed about a decade ago as a promising solution. CMLs are line-of-sight radio connections widely used by operators of mobile telecommunication networks. They are typically very dense in urban areas and can provide path-integrated rainfall observations at sub-minute resolution. Unfortunately, quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) from CMLs are often highly biased due to several epistemic uncertainties, which significantly limit their usability. In this manuscript we therefore suggest a novel method to reduce this bias by adjusting QPEs to existing rain gauges. The method has been specifically designed to produce reliable results even with comparably distant rain gauges or cumulative observations. This eliminates the need to install reference gauges and makes it possible to work with existing information. First, the method is tested on data from a dedicated experiment, where a CML has been specifically set up for rainfall monitoring experiments, as well as operational CMLs from an existing cellular network. Second, we assess the performance for several experimental layouts of ground truth from rain gauges (RGs) with different spatial and temporal resolutions. The results suggest that CMLs adjusted by RGs with a temporal aggregation of up to 1 h (i) provide precise high-resolution QPEs (relative error < 7 %, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient > 0.75) and (ii) that the

  18. Condensation heat transfer of actual flue gas on horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Osakabe, Masahiro; Itoh, Tugue; Yagi, Kiyoyuki

    1999-07-01

    In order to improve the boiler efficiency, latent heat recovery from an exhaust flue gas is a very important concept. Condensation heat transfer on horizontal stainless steel tubes was investigated experimentally using an actual flue gas from a natural gas boiler. The experiment was conducted at different air ratios and steam mass concentrations of the flue gas, and in a wide range of tube wall temperature. The condensation pattern was similar to the dropwise condensation near the dew point. As the wall temperature was decreased, the wall region covered with a thin liquid film increased. The heat and mass transfer behavior were well predicted with the simple analogy correlation in the high wall temperature region. But in the low wall temperature region, the total heat transfer rate was higher than that predicted by the simple analogy correlation. At a high steam mass concentration artificially generated with steam injection, the total heat transfer rate was higher than that predicted by the simple analogy correlation. The analogy correlation using the modified Sherwood number taking account of the mass absorption effect was proposed. The modified correlation gave a good prediction of the heat flux at the high steam mass concentration.

  19. A taxometric analysis of actual Internet sports gambling behavior.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Julia; LaBrie, Richard A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2011-03-01

    This article presents findings from the first taxometric study of actual gambling behavior to determine whether we can represent the characteristics of extreme gambling as qualitatively distinct (i.e., taxonic) or as a point along a dimension. We analyzed the bets made during a 24-month study period by the 4,595 most involved gamblers among a cohort of 48,114 people using an Internet service to gamble on sporting events. We applied two taxometric procedures (i.e., MAMBAC and MAXCOV) to three indicators of betting behavior: total money lost, total number of bets, and total money wagered. The results fail to provide support for the view that the most involved Internet sports gamblers include a distinct category of gamblers. More research is necessary to clarify the similar features of recreational and extreme gamblers and the dimensions that scientists can use to measure these behaviors. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for clinical, research, and public policy activities.

  20. Alternate corrections for estimating actual wetland evapotranspiration from potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, Shoemaker W.; Sumner, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Corrections can be used to estimate actual wetland evapotranspiration (AET) from potential evapotranspiration (PET) as a means to define the hydrology of wetland areas. Many alternate parameterizations for correction coefficients for three PET equations are presented, covering a wide range of possible data-availability scenarios. At nine sites in the wetland Everglades of south Florida, USA, the relatively complex PET Penman equation was corrected to daily total AET with smaller standard errors than the PET simple and Priestley-Taylor equations. The simpler equations, however, required less data (and thus less funding for instrumentation), with the possibility of being corrected to AET with slightly larger, comparable, or even smaller standard errors. Air temperature generally corrected PET simple most effectively to wetland AET, while wetland stage and humidity generally corrected PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman most effectively to wetland AET. Stage was identified for PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman as the data type with the most correction ability at sites that are dry part of each year or dry part of some years. Finally, although surface water generally was readily available at each monitoring site, AET was not occurring at potential rates, as conceptually expected under well-watered conditions. Apparently, factors other than water availability, such as atmospheric and stomata resistances to vapor transport, also were limiting the PET rate. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  1. Actual development of the chenier coast of suriname (South America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustinus, Pieter G. E. F.

    1980-04-01

    The Holocene coastal plain of Suriname is a chenier plain. Its actual sedimentological development has been studied during three field-work periods (1966, 1967/1968, 1972). Clay is the predominant sediment in this low- to medium-energy environment. It accumulates in extensive shoreface-attached mudflats (sometimes considered as giant mudwaves), which migrate continuously to the west due to deposition of slingmud at their west side and simultaneous erosion of the east side. In between the mudflats cheniers may develop. Thin-section analysis of the clay deposits revealed that they are built up of an alternation of thick clayey laminae and thin laminae of silt and fine sand. The clayey laminae chiefly show a unistrial plasmic fabric. Disturbaces in the upper zone are caused by bioturbation. Two types of cheniers can be distinguished. One type contains fine sand which has been winnowed out of the pelite deposits. Since this sand is brought from the shelf the chenier formation begins at approximately mean low-water level. Longshore bars are formed and these are driven shoreward by wave action. The other type is built up of medium to coarse sand supplied by a local river. It is transported westward by beachdrift in a narrow zone around the mean high-water line. These cheniers develop therefore at or just above the mean high-tide level. The sedimentary structures of both types of cheniers have many characteristics in common. However, each type also has its own distinct features.

  2. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-07-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on "predation awareness" campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom.

  3. Is transferring an educational innovation actually a process of transformation?

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bell, Robert; Hollingworth, Gary; Jalali, Alireza; Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth; Regehr, Glenn

    2012-08-01

    Recent debates question the extent to which adopting an educational innovation requires compromise between the innovation's original design and the adoption site's context. Through compromises, the innovation's fundamental principles may be transferred, transformed, or abandoned. This paper analyzes such compromises during the piloting of Team-Based Learning (TBL). We ask: When is the process of transferring an innovation actually a process of transformation? This study is an autoethnography of our research team's implementation process. Autoethnographies are personalized accounts where authors draw on their own experiences to extend understanding of a particular topic. To conduct this autoethnography, we used an in-depth, interactive interview with the piloting clinician educator. In the analysis of TBL's fundamental principles, some aspects of the principles transferred easily, while others were transformed. Analysis raised concerns that the transformations threatened the foundational principles of TBL. While an educational innovation's techniques may seem to be surface structures, they are realizations of deeper fundamental principles. The fundamental principles are themselves realizations of the innovation's foundational philosophy. When techniques and/or principles are modified to a context, it is important to analyze if the modifications continue to uphold the innovation's philosophy.

  4. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  5. Virtual reality as telemedicine tool: technology, ergonomics and actual applications.

    PubMed

    Riva, G; Gamberini, L

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys the state of the art in telemedicine applications of virtual environments (VEs) and related technologies for health care. The possible use of VEs as telemedicine tool has attracted much interest in medicine. Actually this technology is commonly used in remote or augmented surgery, and surgical training, which are critically dependent upon eye-hand coordination. Recently, however, different researchers have tried to use VEs in anatomic learning and for the assessment and rehabilitation in neuro-psychology. To date, such applications have improved the quality of health care, and later they will lead to substantial cost savings. Tools that respond to the needs of present VE systems are being refined or developed. However, the possible use of VEs in telemedicine is not linked to the solution of technical problems only. In fact telemedicine is not simply a technology but a complex process whose successful exploitation needs significant attention to ergonomics, human factors and organizational changes in the structure of the relevant health service.

  6. Testing a theoretical model for examining the relationship between family adjustment and expatriates' work adjustment.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, P M; Hyland, M M; Joshi, A; Bross, A S

    1998-08-01

    Based on theoretical perspectives from the work/family literature, this study tested a model for examining expatriate families' adjustment while on global assignments as an antecedent to expatriates' adjustment to working in a host country. Data were collected from 110 families that had been relocated for global assignments. Longitudinal data, assessing family characteristics before the assignment and cross-cultural adjustment approximately 6 months into the assignment, were coded. This study found that family characteristics (family support, family communication, family adaptability) were related to expatriates' adjustment to working in the host country. As hypothesized, the families' cross-cultural adjustment mediated the effect of family characteristics on expatriates' host-country work adjustment.

  7. Predicting Eating Disorder Continuum Groups: Hardiness and College Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Boyd, Gail D.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.

    This study examined relationships between hardiness, college adjustment (academic adjustment, social adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment, institutional attachment) and eating disorder (ED) continuum categories in 122 female and 20 male college students. Students who exhibited a higher level of personal-emotional adjustment (PEA) to college…

  8. Reporting on covariate adjustment in randomised controlled trials before and after revision of the 2001 CONSORT statement: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the use and reporting of adjusted analysis in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and compare the quality of reporting before and after the revision of the CONSORT Statement in 2001. Design Comparison of two cross sectional samples of published articles. Data Sources Journal articles indexed on PubMed in December 2000 and December 2006. Study Selection Parallel group RCTs with a full publication carried out in humans and published in English Main outcome measures Proportion of articles reported adjusted analysis; use of adjusted analysis; the reason for adjustment; the method of adjustment and the reporting of adjusted analysis results in the main text and abstract. Results In both cohorts, 25% of studies reported adjusted analysis (84/355 in 2000 vs 113/422 in 2006). Compared with articles reporting only unadjusted analyses, articles that reported adjusted analyses were more likely to specify primary outcomes, involve multiple centers, perform stratified randomization, be published in general medical journals, and recruit larger sample sizes. In both years a minority of articles explained why and how covariates were selected for adjustment (20% to 30%). Almost all articles specified the statistical methods used for adjustment (99% in 2000 vs 100% in 2006) but only 5% and 10%, respectively, reported both adjusted and unadjusted results as recommended in the CONSORT guidelines. Conclusion There was no evidence of change in the reporting of adjusted analysis results five years after the revision of the CONSORT Statement and only a few articles adhered fully to the CONSORT recommendations. PMID:20482769

  9. Enteric coating of mycophenolate reduces dosage adjustments.

    PubMed

    Brister, K; Yau, C L; Slakey, D

    2009-06-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) are bioequivalent. However, the effectiveness of MMF may be limited by gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. This study assessed the relationship between the number of medication dosage adjustments and posttransplantation side effects. In a review of 109 kidney transplant patients, 65 initially received MMF and 44 initially received EC-MPS. The incidences of patient-reported GI complications were significantly different: MMF 45.5% vs EC-MPS 35.3% (P = .0194). The proportions of patients requiring dosage adjustment due to GI complications were MMF 5.9% and EC-MPS 2.3% (P < .0001). Patients receiving MMF were more likely to experience GI complications resulting in dosage adjustment (odds ratio = 9.9; P = .0306). The incidences of acute rejection, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and leukopenia resulting in dosage adjustment were not significantly different. Patients receiving MMF required more immunosuppressive medication adjustments, which may complicate care and decrease overall compliance.

  10. Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Wu, R. S.

    2002-09-01

    Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating how is examined in detail with a linear shallow water model. The Initial Unbalanced flow considered first falls under two classes. The first is similar to that adopted by Gill and is here referred to as it mass imbalance model, for the flow is initially motionless but with a sea surface displacement. The other is the same as that considered by Rossby and is referred to as I momentum imbalance model since there is only a velocity perturbation in the initial field. The significant feature of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment for the above two extreme models is that althongh the energy conversion ratio has a large case-to-case variability for different initial conditions, Its value is bounded below by 0 and above by 1 / 2. Based on the discussion of the above extreme models, the energetics of adjustment for an arbitrary initial condition is investigated. It is found that the characteristics of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment mentioned above are also applicable to adjustment of the general unbalanced flow under the condition that the energy conversion ratio is redefined as the conversion ratio between the change of kinetic energy and potential energy of the deviational fields.

  11. Motivating drivers to correctly adjust head restraints: assessing effectiveness of three different interventions.

    PubMed

    Fockler, S K; Vavrik, J; Kristiansen, L

    1998-11-01

    Three types of driver educational strategies were tested to determine the most effective approach for motivating drivers to adjust their head restraints to the correct vertical position: (1) a human interactive personal contact with a member of an ICBC-trained head restraint adjustment team, (2) a passive video presentation of the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment, and (3) an interactive three-dimensional kinetic model showing the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment. An experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. A different educational treatment was used in each of three lanes of a vehicle emissions testing facility, with a fourth lane with no intervention serving as a control group. Observational and self-reported data were obtained from a total of 1,974 vehicles entering and exiting the facility. The human intervention led to significantly more drivers actually adjusting their head restraints immediately after the intervention than the passive video or interactive kinetic model approaches, which were both no different from the control group. The human intervention was recommended as the most effective and was implemented successfully on a limited basis during 3 months of 1995 and again during 3 months of 1996.

  12. [Actual respiratory technologies in thoracic surgery: traditional problems and innovative solutions].

    PubMed

    Vyzhigina, M A; Parshin, V D; Titov, V A; Alekseev, A V

    2015-01-01

    The problem of efficient gas exchange maintenance is always actual in anesthetic management of thoracic surgery and determines the selection of appropriate method of anesthesia. The article presents an experience of anesthesia during operations on lungs, trachea, bronchi and mediastinal structures performed from 1963 to 2015. Current concept of safety and efficacy of anesthetic management in thoracic surgery is presented. The role of actual current respiratory technologies and methods of anesthesia per se to maximize the efficiency of gas exchange in all stages of thoracicsurgery is emphasized. Absolute coherence of anesthesiologist and surgeon based on correct interaction is the most important condition of successful surgery. Effectiveness of special respiratory technologies for thoracic surgery associated with one-lung ventilation and prolonged wide dissection of airways is described. The research results and pathophysiological rationale for the use of special respiratory technologies including different variants of differentiated independent lung ventilation especially important for patients with concomitant cardiorespiratory pathology are presented. We reported experience of effective gas exchange maintenance in reconstructive surgery of trachea and main bronchi including traditional mechanical ventilation with "shunt-breath" system, use of jet high-frequency ventilation and relatively new respiratory technology such as flow apnoeic oxygenation.

  13. NDVI saturation adjustment: a new approach for improving cropland performance estimates in the Greater Platte River Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Daniel M.; Phuyal, Khem P.; Ji, Lei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new approach that adjusted normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pixel values that were near saturation to better characterize the cropland performance (CP) in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB), USA. The relationship between NDVI and the ratio vegetation index (RVI) at high NDVI values was investigated, and an empirical equation for estimating saturation-adjusted NDVI (NDVIsat_adjust) based on RVI was developed. A 10-year (2000–2009) NDVIsat_adjust data set was developed using 250-m 7-day composite historical eMODIS (expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data. The growing season averaged NDVI (GSN), which is a proxy for ecosystem performance, was estimated and long-term NDVI non-saturation- and saturation-adjusted cropland performance (CPnon_sat_adjust, CPsat_adjust) maps were produced over the GPRB. The final CP maps were validated using National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) crop yield data. The relationship between CPsat_adjust and the NASS average corn yield data (r = 0.78, 113 samples) is stronger than the relationship between CPnon_sat_adjust and the NASS average corn yield data (r = 0.67, 113 samples), indicating that the new CPsat_adjust map reduces the NDVI saturation effects and is in good agreement with the corn yield ground observations. Results demonstrate that the NDVI saturation adjustment approach improves the quality of the original GSN map and better depicts the actual vegetation conditions of the GPRB cropland systems.

  14. Using lysimeters to test the Penman Monteith actual evapotranspiration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Asher, Jiftah; Volinski, Roman; Zilberman, Arkadi; Bar Yosef, Beni; Silber, Avner

    2015-04-01

    Differences in actual transpiration (ETa) of banana plants were quantified in a lysimeter experiment. ETA was computed using instantaneous data from two weighing lysimeters and compared to PM (Penman-Monteith) model for ETa. Two critical problems were faced in this test. A) Estimating canopy and aerodynamic resistances ("rc" and "ra" respectively ) and B) converting the lysimeter changes in water volume ( LYv cm3 ) to ETa length units ( cm ). The two unknowns " rc" and "ra" were obtained from continuous measurements of the differences between canopy and air temperature (Tc - Ta). This difference was established by means of the infrared thermometry which was followed by numerical and analytical calculation of ETa using the modification suggested by R. Jackson to the PM model. The conversion of lysimeter volumetric units (LYv) to ETa length units was derived from the slope of cumulative LYv/ETa. This relationship was significantly linear (r2=0.97and 0.98.). Its slope was interpreted as "evaporating leaf area" which accounted for 1.8E4 cm2 in lysimeter 1 and 2.3E4 cm2.in lysimeter 2 . The comparison between LYv and PM model was acceptable even under very low ETa. The average of two lysimeters was 1.1mm/day (1.4 mm/day , LYv 1 and 0.8 LYv 2) while ETa calculated on the basis of PM model was 1.2 mm/day. It was concluded that although lysimeters are most accurate systems to measure ETa one of its disadvantages ( beside the high cost) is the volumetric output that in many cases should be supported by a one dimensional energy balance system. The PM model was found to be a reliable complementary tool to convert lysimeters volumetric output into conventional length units of ETa.

  15. Automatic dynamic range adjustment for ultrasound B-mode imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonhwa; Kang, Jinbum; Yoo, Yangmo

    2015-02-01

    In medical ultrasound imaging, dynamic range (DR) is defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum values of the displayed signal to display and it is one of the most essential parameters that determine its image quality. Typically, DR is given with a fixed value and adjusted manually by operators, which leads to low clinical productivity and high user dependency. Furthermore, in 3D ultrasound imaging, DR values are unable to be adjusted during 3D data acquisition. A histogram matching method, which equalizes the histogram of an input image based on that from a reference image, can be applied to determine the DR value. However, it could be lead to an over contrasted image. In this paper, a new Automatic Dynamic Range Adjustment (ADRA) method is presented that adaptively adjusts the DR value by manipulating input images similar to a reference image. The proposed ADRA method uses the distance ratio between the log average and each extreme value of a reference image. To evaluate the performance of the ADRA method, the similarity between the reference and input images was measured by computing a correlation coefficient (CC). In in vivo experiments, the CC values were increased by applying the ADRA method from 0.6872 to 0.9870 and from 0.9274 to 0.9939 for kidney and liver data, respectively, compared to the fixed DR case. In addition, the proposed ADRA method showed to outperform the histogram matching method with in vivo liver and kidney data. When using 3D abdominal data with 70 frames, while the CC value from the ADRA method is slightly increased (i.e., 0.6%), the proposed method showed improved image quality in the c-plane compared to its fixed counterpart, which suffered from a shadow artifact. These results indicate that the proposed method can enhance image quality in 2D and 3D ultrasound B-mode imaging by improving the similarity between the reference and input images while eliminating unnecessary manual interaction by the user.

  16. 25 CFR 39.145 - Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... small high school adjustment? 39.145 Section 39.145 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Adjustment § 39.145 Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment? A school that meets the criteria in § 39.140 can receive both a small school adjustment and a small...

  17. 25 CFR 39.145 - Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... small high school adjustment? 39.145 Section 39.145 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Adjustment § 39.145 Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment? A school that meets the criteria in § 39.140 can receive both a small school adjustment and a small...

  18. 25 CFR 39.145 - Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... small high school adjustment? 39.145 Section 39.145 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Adjustment § 39.145 Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment? A school that meets the criteria in § 39.140 can receive both a small school adjustment and a small...

  19. 25 CFR 39.145 - Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... small high school adjustment? 39.145 Section 39.145 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Adjustment § 39.145 Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment? A school that meets the criteria in § 39.140 can receive both a small school adjustment and a small...

  20. 25 CFR 39.145 - Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... small high school adjustment? 39.145 Section 39.145 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Adjustment § 39.145 Can a school receive both a small school adjustment and a small high school adjustment? A school that meets the criteria in § 39.140 can receive both a small school adjustment and a small...