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Sample records for adjustment family functioning

  1. Gifted Population and Adjustment: A Literature Review of Giftedness on Conduct, Family Adjustment, Emotional Functioning, Social Functioning and Perceived Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Mark Stephen

    This review of research studies on the psychological adjustment of gifted persons focused on five dimensions: social/behavioral conduct, family adjustment, emotional functioning (personality characteristics, anxiety, depression), social functioning (interpersonal relationships, social skills), and perceived competence (self-concept, self-esteem,…

  2. Family Functions and Children's Post-Divorce Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Pedro R.; And Others

    Divorce is common phenomenon in the lives of many persons today. It changes the structure of the family and, in so doing, changes the lives of the couples involved and presents the children of divorce with their own set of adjustment issues. This study examined the literature on children's overall adjustment to divorce. Subjects (N=102) were…

  3. In Vitro Fertilization and the Family: Quality of Parenting, Family Functioning, and Child Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Chun-Shin; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parenting quality, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral adjustment of 3- to 7-year-olds. Found that IVF mothers reported greater protectiveness than mothers of naturally conceived children. Teachers rated IVF mothers as displaying greater warmth but not overprotective or…

  4. Typologies of Family Functioning and Children's Adjustment during the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Guided by family systems theory, the present study sought to identify patterns of family functioning from observational assessments of interparental, parent-child, and triadic contexts. In addition, it charted the implications for patterns of family functioning for children's developmental trajectories of adjustment in the school context across…

  5. Lying Behavior, Family Functioning and Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Finkenauer, Catrin; van Kooten, Dyana C.

    2006-01-01

    Communication between children and parents has been the subject of several studies, examining the effects of, for example, disclosure and secrecy on adolescents' social relationships and adjustment. Less attention has paid to adolescent deception. We developed and tested a new instrument on lying behavior in a sample of 671 parent-adolescent…

  6. The Relation of Marital Adjustment and Family Functions With Quality of Life in Women

    PubMed Central

    Basharpoor, Sajjad; Sheykholeslami, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Given the immense importance of marital relationships in the quality of life, this research was conducted in order to investigate the relationships between marital adjustment and family functions with quality of life in women. The design of the current study was correlational. Seven hundred and thirty women were selected randomly among all women living in the province of Western Azerbaijan (Iran) and participated in this study. The sample responded to the Family Assessment Device, Dyadic Adjustment scale and Quality of Life questionnaire, individually in their homes. Collected data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression tests. The results showed that all dimensions of family functions and dyadic adjustment were positively correlated with quality of life in women. Results of multiple regression also revealed that 33 percent of total quality of life can be explained by family functions and 24 percent of this variable can be explained by dyadic adjustment. Our study demonstrated that women’s quality of life was affected by family functions and marital adjustment in family. PMID:27247668

  7. Parental Adjustment, Marital Relationship, and Family Function in Families of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chou, Miao-Churn; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the psychopathology, marital relationship, and family function in parents of children with autistic disorder (autism) as compared to parents of typically developing children. We also compared these measures between the mothers and the fathers. We assessed 151 families with at least one child with autistic disorder…

  8. Course and Severity of Maternal Depression: Associations with Family Functioning and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Cynthia Ewell; Webster, Melissa C.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Rush, A. John; Hughes, Carroll W.; Garber, Judy; Malloy, Erin; Cerda, Gabrielle; Kornstein, Susan G.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Fava, Maurizio; King, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    Number of lifetime episodes, duration of current episode, and severity of maternal depression were investigated in relation to family functioning and child adjustment. Participants were the 151 mother-child pairs in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) child multi-site study. Mothers were diagnosed with Major…

  9. A Genetically Informed Study of Associations between Family Functioning and Child Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schermerhorn, Alice C.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2011-01-01

    Research has documented associations between family functioning and offspring psychosocial adjustment, but questions remain regarding whether these associations are partly due to confounding genetic factors and other environmental factors. The current study used a genetically informed approach, the Children of Twins design, to explore the…

  10. The Impact of Children with High-Functioning Autism on Parental Stress, Sibling Adjustment, and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Patricia A.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2009-01-01

    The article discuses a study conducted to investigate the impact of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) on parental stress, sibling adjustment, and family functioning; the study involves a sample of parents of 15 children with HFA and parents of 15 matched control children who completed questionnaires measuring the dependent variables. The…

  11. A Genetically Informed Study of Associations between Family Functioning and Child Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Schermerhorn, Alice C.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2010-01-01

    Research has documented associations between family functioning and offspring psychosocial adjustment, but questions remain regarding whether these associations are partly due to confounding genetic factors and other environmental factors. The current study used a genetically informed approach, the Children of Twins design, to explore the associations between family functioning (family conflict, marital quality, and agreement about parenting) and offspring psychopathology. Participants were 867 twin pairs (388 MZ; 479 DZ) from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS), their spouses, and children (51.7% female; M = 15.75 years). The results suggested associations between exposure to family conflict (assessed by the mother, father, and child) and child adjustment were independent of genetic factors and other environmental factors. However, when family conflict was assessed using only children’s reports, the results indicated that genetic factors also influenced these associations. In addition, the analyses indicated that exposure to low marital quality and agreement about parenting was associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing problems, and that genetic factors also contributed to the associations of marital quality and agreement about parenting with offspring externalizing problems. PMID:21142367

  12. Managing the Transition to College: Family Functioning, Emotion Coping, and Adjustment in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Vanessa Kahen; Gans, Susan E.; Kerr, Sandra; LaValle, William

    2010-01-01

    Using a self-reported assessment of 320 first-time college students, we tested the hypothesis that one's ability to manage emotion moderates the relationship between family environment and college adjustment. Results add to growing evidence that the way one views one's whole family environment during the emerging adulthood years is linked to one's…

  13. The Effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy in Reducing Adolescent Mental Health Risk and Family Adjustment Difficulties in an Irish Context.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Dan; Carr, Alan; Sexton, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy (FFT) 42 cases were randomized to FFT and 55 to a waiting-list control group. Minimization procedures controlled the effects of potentially confounding baseline variables. Cases were treated by a team of five therapists who implemented FFT with a moderate degree of fidelity. Rates of clinical recovery were significantly higher in the FFT group than in the control group. Compared to the comparison group, parents in the FFT group reported significantly greater improvement in adolescent problems on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and both parents and adolescents reported improvements in family adjustment on the Systemic Clinical Outcomes and Routine Evaluation (SCORE). In addition, 93% of youth and families in the treatment condition completed FFT. Improvements shown immediately after treatment were sustained at 3-month follow-up. Results provide a current demonstration of FFT's effectiveness for youth with behavior problems in community-based settings, expand our understanding of the range of positive outcomes of FFT to include mental health risk and family-defined problem severity and impact, and suggests that it is an effective intervention when implemented in an Irish context. PMID:26542420

  14. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this time. Seek additional counseling services as necessary. Communication Skills Family members also can help the person ... aphasia develop new skills to compensate for the communication problems. Some suggestion include: Continue to talk to ...

  15. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  16. Behavioral and emotional adjustment, family functioning, academic performance, and social relationships in children with selective mutism.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Charles E; McHolm, Angela; Boyle, Michael H; Patel, Sejal

    2004-11-01

    This study addressed four questions which parents of children with selective mutism (SM) frequently ask: (1) Is SM associated with anxiety or oppositional behavior? (2) Is SM associated with parenting and family dysfunction? (3) Will my child fail at school? and (4) Will my child make friends or be teased and bullied? In comparison to a sample of 52 community controls, 52 children with SM were more anxious, obsessive, and prone to somatic complaints. In contrast, children with SM were less oppositional and evidenced fewer attentional difficulties at school. We found no group differences in family structure, economic resources, family functioning, maternal mood difficulties, recreational activities, or social networks. While parents reported no differences in parenting strategies, children with SM were described as less cooperative in disciplinary situations. The academic (e.g., reading and math) and classroom cooperative skills of children with SM did not differ from controls. Parents and teachers reported that children with SM had significant deficits in social skills. Though teachers and parents rated children with SM as less socially assertive, neither teachers nor parents reported that children with SM were victimized more frequently by peers. PMID:15482497

  17. The implementation and the cultural adjustment of functional family therapy in a Dutch psychiatric day-treatment center.

    PubMed

    Breuk, Rene E; Sexton, Thomas L; van Dam, Astrid; Disse, Claudia; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Slot, Wim N; Rowland, Marcy K

    2006-10-01

    Because of the increasing severity of adolescent problem behavior, evidence-based practices are becoming of interest as an alternative to traditional treatment with the behavior problems of adolescents in juvenile justice settings. Despite interest in evidence-based practices, questions exist regarding whether or not evidence-based intervention models can be successfully transported to cultures other than those in which they were developed. This article describes the transportation process of an American evidence-based family therapy (Functional Family Therapy [FFT]) into the service delivery system of a psychiatric day treatment center for juvenile delinquents in Amsterdam. The characteristics of FFT that make it cross-culturally sensitive are discussed. Results from the changes in service delivery suggest FFT can be successfully implemented in international settings with adjustments to make the model fit the culture(s) of The Netherlands without changing the model of FFT itself. PMID:17120523

  18. Family Preservation & Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Meezan, William

    This book reports a study of the outcomes of home-based family preservation services for abusive and neglectful families in Los Angeles County. Using the Family Assessment Form, the research project evaluated services provided by two voluntary agencies, and focused on changes in family functioning between the opening and closing of services during…

  19. Behavioral and Emotional Adjustment, Family Functioning, Academic Performance, and Social Relationships in Children with Selective Mutism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela; Boyle, Michael H.; Patel, Sejal

    2004-01-01

    This study addressed four questions which parents of children with selective mutism (SM) frequently ask: (1) Is SM associated with anxiety or oppositional behavior? (2) Is SM associated with parenting and family dysfunction? (3) Will my child fail at school? and (4) Will my child make friends or be teased and bullied? In comparison to a sample of…

  20. Individual Differences in Adolescents' Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Functioning Moderate Associations between Family Environment and Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…

  1. SIDS Family Adjustment Scale: A Method of Assessing Family Adjustment to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Harold J.; Breme, Frederick J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and the family's resultant grief process. Explores SIDS as a family crisis, and by identifying the psychological factors or tasks pertinent to family adjustment, proposes a SIDS Family Adjustment Scale which assists in recognizing adaptive and maladaptive grief responses. (Author)

  2. Indian Family Adjustment to Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Lee Anne; Keltner, Bette

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the community response of how American Indian families adapt to having school age children with disabilities in two diverse American Indian communities. An ethnographic design was utilized to construct a taxonomy about family adjustment of American Indian families with disabilities. Community Assessment…

  3. Family Adjustment Measure: Scale Construction and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daire, Andrew P.; Dominguez, Vanessa N.; Carlson, Ryan G.; Case-Pease, Jenene

    2014-01-01

    We administered the Family Adjustment Measure to 368 parents of children with special needs to identify positive adjustment. We randomly split the sample to conduct exploratory factor analysis ("n" = 194) and confirmatory factor analysis ("n" = 174). Results indicated four possible subscales and that explain 51% of the variance.

  4. Family Background, Adolescent Coping Styles, and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schludermann, Shirin; And Others

    This study explored the effects of family background variables on coping styles, and the contribution of coping styles and locus of control to the overall adjustment of older adolescents. The objectives of this study were to develop a Canadian adaptation of the Seiffge-Krenke Adolescent Coping Style Scale; to explore the influences of family and…

  5. Is More Too Many? Adjustment in Families with Adopted Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, Laraine Masters; Flaherty, Evelyn M.; McGlone, Andrew P.

    2000-01-01

    Compared adjustment of large versus conventional sized adoptive families rearing children with disabilities. Found that parents of large families functioned as well or better than parents of conventional-sized families with regard to family strengths, disharmony, marital adjustment, and adjustment to adopted child. Concluded that placement should…

  6. ADHD and autistic traits, family function, parenting style, and social adjustment for Internet addiction among children and adolescents in Taiwan: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-04-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the prevalence, predictors, and related factors for Internet addiction among elementary and junior high school students in Taiwan. A convenient sample of grades 3, 5, and 8 students (n = 1153) was recruited from six elementary and one junior high schools. They were assessed during the beginning and the end of the spring semester of 2013. Internet addiction was examined by the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS). Other factors were screened using the Chinese version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) for autistic trait, the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) for parenting, the Family APGAR for family support, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for social function, and the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV) for ADHD symptoms. The prevalence of Internet addiction decreased from 11.4% to 10.6%. Male, low family support, poor social adjustment, and high ADHD-related symptoms were related to Internet addiction. However, there was an inverse relationship between autistic traits and Internet addiction. Further, its predictivity could be accounted by poor academic performance, male, and protective parenting style. Internet addiction is not uncommon among youths in Taiwan. The predictors identified in this study could be the specific measures for the development of a prevention program for Internet addiction in the youth population. PMID:25617844

  7. Parenting Practices, Child Adjustment, and Family Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Fowler, Frieda

    2002-01-01

    Uses data from the National Survey of Families and Households to test the generality of the links between parenting practices and child outcomes. Parents' reports of support, monitoring, and harsh punishment were associated in the expected direction with parents' reports of children's adjustment, school grades, and behavior problems, and with…

  8. Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Mental Health Problems: Behaviour, Self-Concept, Quality of Life and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, R. A.; Hunter, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems. The participants had brothers or sisters receiving treatment at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service within the Hunter New England Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. Seventy-five siblings completed questionnaires on their self-concept, quality…

  9. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with…

  10. Normal Functioning Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  11. Parental Perceptions of Family Adjustment in Childhood Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandra; Hiebert-Murphy, Diane; Trute, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Based on the adjustment phase of the double ABC-X model of family stress (McCubbin and Patterson, 1983) this study examined the impact of parenting stress, positive appraisal of the impact of child disability on the family, and parental self-esteem on parental perceptions of family adjustment in families of children with disabilities. For mothers,…

  12. Transracial Adoption of Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Focus on Parental and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Carrie; Evans, Joi N.; Glidden, Laraine M.; Flaherty, Evelyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined adjustment of families who had adopted children with disabilities. Compared 34 families who had adopted a child transracially with 63 families who had adopted a same-race child and 13 families who had adopted both transracially and inracially. Found few differences in family functioning between transracial and inracial adoptive parents.…

  13. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueter, Martha A.; Koerner, Ascan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208…

  14. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Rueter, Martha A.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208 nonadoptive families. Adolescents in these families were, on average, 16 years of age. The results supported our hypothesis. Adopted adolescents were at significantly greater risk for adjustment problems compared to nonadopted adolescents in families that emphasized conformity orientation without conversation orientation and in families that emphasized neither conformity nor conversation orientation. Adolescents in families emphasizing conversation orientation were at lower risk for adjustment problems, regardless of adoption status. PMID:19649145

  15. Children's Family Drawings: A Study of Attachment, Personality, and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Limor; Scharf, Miri

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between children's attachment security, as manifested in their family drawings, and their personality and adjustment. Family drawings were collected from 222 Israeli children, as well as data regarding their personality and adjustment. Each drawing was coded and classified into 1 of 4 attachment categories…

  16. Evaluation of the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model among Families Reporting Economic Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandsburger, Etty; Biggerstaff, Marilyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the Stress Adjustment and Adaptation Model (double ABCX model) examining the effects resiliency resources on family functioning when families experience economic pressure. Families (N = 128) with incomes at or below the poverty line from a rural area of a southern state completed measures of perceived economic pressure,…

  17. Postshelter Adjustment of Children from Violent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Kelly L.; Novaco, Raymond W.

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have examined the adjustment of battered women and their children after exiting domestic violence shelters. Participants were 62 women who had endured severe partner abuse, completed a shelter program with their children, and resided in the community for at least 6 months. Field interviews concerned mothers' and children's abuse…

  18. Marital violence, co-parenting, and family-level processes in relation to children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Low, Sabina M

    2004-06-01

    A multimethod approach was used to examine relations between marital violence, coparenting, and family-level processes and children's adjustment in a community-based sample of marital violence. Two hypotheses were tested, one in which family-level and co-parenting processes mediate relations between marital violence and child functioning and one in which marital violence and family-level/co-parenting processes function relatively independently in influencing children's adjustment. Observations of family processes were made within a triadic parent-child interaction, and several dimensions of children's socioemotional adjustment (i.e., peer relations, behavior problems) were examined. Results indicated that hostile-withdrawn co-parenting mediated the relations between marital violence and children's anxiety and depression. Marital violence, co-parenting, and family-level processes also functioned independently in predicting child outcome. Findings are discussed in terms of the family dynamics present in maritally violent homes. PMID:15222844

  19. Family Structure History and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.

    2008-01-01

    As patterns of union formation and dissolution in adult lives become complex, the living arrangements of American children are becoming increasingly fluid. With a sample (N = 12,843) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study attempted to capture this complexity by mapping out children's family structure histories…

  20. Adjustment to College in Nonresidential First-Year Students: The Roles of Stress, Family, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gefen, Dalia R.; Fish, Marian C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored factors related to college adjustment in nonresidential first-year students. It was hypothesized that stress, family functioning, and coping strategies would predict academic, personal-emotional, and social adjustment in addition to institutional attachment. The sample comprised 167 first-year college students (ages 18-23)…

  1. Temperament, Stress and Family Factors in Behavioral Adjustment of 3-5-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrios, Michael; Prior, Margot

    1990-01-01

    Temperamental characteristics, especially low reactivity-high manageability, appeared to curtail the influence of adverse family factors on children's adjustment. Strength of relationships between temperament and children's behavioral adjustment differed as a function of time, temperamental characteristics, and the source of behavioral ratings.…

  2. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally-oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with SB support a resilience-disruption view of family functioning. That is, the presence of a child with SB disrupts normative family functioning, but many families adapt to such disruption and exhibit considerable resilience in the face of adversity. Parents of youth with SB, and particularly those from lower SES homes, are at-risk for psychosocial difficulties. Individuals with SB are at-risk for developing internalizing symptoms, attention problems, educational difficulties, social maladjustment, and delays in the development of independent functioning. Emerging adults are often delayed in achieving milestones related to this stage of development (e.g., vocational and educational achievements). Methodologically-sound, longitudinal, and theory-driven studies of family and psychosocial functioning are needed, as are randomized family-based intervention trials, to promote adaptive functioning and better psychosocial outcomes in families of individuals with SB. PMID:20419770

  3. Adjusting Population Risk for Functional Health Status.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard L; Hughes, John S; Goldfield, Norbert I

    2016-04-01

    Risk adjustment accounts for differences in population mix by reducing the likelihood of enrollee selection by managed care plans and providing a correction to otherwise biased reporting of provider or plan performance. Functional health status is not routinely included within risk-adjustment methods, but is believed by many to be a significant enhancement to risk adjustment for complex enrollees and patients. In this analysis a standardized measure of functional health was created using 3 different source functional assessment instruments submitted to the Medicare program on condition of payment. The authors use a 5% development sample of Medicare claims from 2006 and 2007, including functional health assessments, and develop a model of functional health classification comprising 9 groups defined by the interaction of self-care, mobility, incontinence, and cognitive impairment. The 9 functional groups were used to augment Clinical Risk Groups, a diagnosis-based patient classification system, and when using a validation set of 100% of Medicare data for 2010 and 2011, this study found the use of the functional health module to improve the fit of observed enrollee cost, measured by the R(2) statistic, by 5% across all Medicare enrollees. The authors observed complex nonlinear interactions across functional health domains when constructing the model and caution that functional health status needs careful handling when used for risk adjustment. The addition of functional health status within existing risk-adjustment models has the potential to improve equitable resource allocation in the financing of care costs for more complex enrollees if handled appropriately. (Population Health Management 2016;19:136-144). PMID:26348621

  4. Fathering in Family Context and Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schacht, Patricia M.; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on relations between fathers’ behavior in family context and children’s adjustment, including the roles of paternal depressive symptoms, paternal marital conflict behaviors, paternal parenting, and children’s emotional security. Participants included 235 families with a six year old child, with families followed longitudinally each year for three years. In terms of fathers’ adjustment, paternal problem drinking was related to paternal negative marital conflict behaviors and decreased positive parenting, which was associated with children’s externalizing and internalizing problems. Fathers’ depressive symptoms were directly related with children’s internalizing problems. Children’s emotional security was an intervening variable in relations between father’s behavior in family context and children’s development. PMID:20001137

  5. Parental Postdivorce Adjustment in Joint and Sole Physical Custody Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coysh, William S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined postdivorce adjustment of 149 men and 149 women with joint or sole physical custody of their children. Shared custody arrangements and access of parents to their children had no significant relationship to parents' postdivorce adjustment or relationships with their ex-spouses. Prior levels of individual functioning were indicators of…

  6. An Examination of Family Adjustment among Operation Desert Storm Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Casey T.; Schumm, Jeremiah A.; Panuzio, Jillian; Proctor, Susan P.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined interrelationships among combat exposure, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and family adjustment in a sample of male and female Operation Desert Storm veterans (N = 1,512). In structural equation models for both male and female veterans, higher combat exposure was associated with higher PTSD symptoms, which in…

  7. Using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and Adjustment among Interethnic and Interracial Families in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Yoo, Joan P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes a model of using the Multicultural Family Support Centers and adjustment among foreign brides and their interethnic and interracial families in South Korea based on the narratives of 10 foreign brides married to Korean men and 11 service providers who directly interact with these women and their families. The results…

  8. Families created through surrogacy: mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment at age 7.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-11-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity, or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  9. Family Relationships and the Psychosocial Adjustment of School-Aged Children in Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Esther M.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale,…

  10. Family Adjustment to Childhood Cancer: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kristin A.; Marsland, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review integrates qualitative and quantitative research findings regarding family changes in the context of childhood cancer. Twenty-eight quantitative, 42 qualitative, and one mixed-method studies were reviewed. Included studies focused on family functioning, marital quality, and/or parenting in the context of pediatric cancer,…

  11. Disaster Hits Home: A Model of Displaced Family Adjustment after Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget; Marlatt, Holly

    2011-01-01

    The authors explored individual and family adjustment processes among parents (n = 30) and children (n = 55) who were displaced to Colorado after Hurricane Katrina. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 23 families, this article offers an inductive model of displaced family adjustment. Four stages of family adjustment are presented in the model: (a)…

  12. Family Functioning in Pediatric Trichotillomania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Phoebe S.; Franklin, Martin E.; Keuthen, Nancy J.; Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Piacentini, John A.; Stein, Dan J.; Loew, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about how pediatric trichotillomania (TTM), a clinically significant and functionally impairing disorder, is impacted by, and impacts, family functioning. We explored dimensions of family functioning and parental attitudes in a sample of children and adolescents who participated in an Internet-based survey and satisfied…

  13. Inmate family functioning.

    PubMed

    Klein, Shirley R; Bartholomew, Geannina S; Hibbert, Jeff

    2002-02-01

    Two-hundred-nine noninmates and 169 inmates completed questionnaires that assessed retrospective perceptions of 12 dimensions of family life and one overall assessment of quality of family life. Between the inmates and noninmates, means for all dependent variables differed significantly except for self-reliance; however, meaningful eta-squares were found only for dimensions of bridging, disengagement, and quality of life. Among the independent-samples t tests for gender, eta-squares were not meaningful. Implications for family life interventions in correctional facilities are suggested. PMID:12112992

  14. Family adjustment of deployed and non-deployed mothers in families with a parent deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Gewirtz, Abigail H.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Hanson, Sheila; Davis, Laurel

    2014-01-01

    Almost nothing is known about the family and individual adjustment of military mothers who have deployed to the conflicts in Iraq or Afghanistan (Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn; OIF, OEF, OND), constituting a gap in psychologists’ knowledge about how best to help this population. We report baseline data on maternal, child, parenting, and couple adjustment for mothers in 181 families in which a parent deployed to OIF/OEF/OND. Among this sample, 34 mothers had deployed at least once, and 147 mothers had experienced the deployment of a male spouse/partner. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires assessing past year adverse life events, war experiences (for deployed mothers only), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms, difficulties in emotion regulation, parenting, couple adjustment, and child functioning. Mothers who had deployed reported greater distress than non-deployed mothers (higher scores on measures of PTSD and depression symptoms), and slightly more past year adverse events. A moderate number of war experiences (combat and post-battle aftermath events) were reported, consistent with previous studies of women in current and prior conflicts. However, no differences were found between the two groups on measures of couple adjustment, parenting, or child functioning. Results are discussed in terms of the dearth of knowledge about deployed mothers, and implications for psychologists serving military families. PMID:25663739

  15. Parent – Adolescent Relationship Qualities and Adolescent Adjustment in Two-Parent African American Families

    PubMed Central

    Stanik, Christine E.; Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Using multi-informant data from 134 two-parent African American families, the goals of this study were to (a) describe parent – adolescent warmth and shared time as a function of parent and youth gender and (b) assess links between these indices of relationship quality and adolescent adjustment. Mixed-model ANCOVAs revealed that mothers reported warmer relationships with adolescents than fathers, and both parents reported warmer relationships with younger versus older offspring. Interparental differences in time spent with sons and daughters and older and younger siblings were also found. Tests of multilevel models indicated that greater maternal warmth was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and less risky behavior for sons, and more paternal warmth and shared time with fathers were associated with less risky behavior in youth. Discussion highlights the utility of cultural ecological and family systems perspectives for understanding parent-adolescent relationships and youth adjustment in African American families. PMID:24532863

  16. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents. PMID:9120405

  17. Adjustment in Mothers of Children with Asperger Syndrome: An Application of the Double ABCX Model of Family Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Samios, Christina; Sofronoff, Kate

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the applicability of the double ABCX model of family adjustment in explaining maternal adjustment to caring for a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Forty-seven mothers completed questionnaires at a university clinic while their children were participating in an anxiety intervention. The children were aged between…

  18. Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. DESIGN: The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children's adjustment was measured with parents', teachers', and peers' or children's reports. RESULTS: Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children's externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child's adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes. PMID:23226715

  19. Female inmates, family caregivers, and young children's adjustment: A research agenda and implications for corrections programming

    PubMed Central

    Cecil, Dawn K.; McHale, James; Strozier, Anne; Pietsch, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Attendant to the exponential increase in rates of incarceration of mothers with young children in the United States, programming has been established to help mothers attend to parenting skills and other family concerns while incarcerated. Unfortunately, most programs overlook the important, ongoing relationship between incarcerated mothers and family members caring for their children—most often, the inmates' own mothers. Research reveals that children's behavior problems escalate when different co-caregivers fail to coordinate parenting efforts and interventions, work in opposition, or disparage or undermine one another. This article presents relevant research on co-caregiving and child adjustment, highlights major knowledge gaps in need of study to better understand incarcerated mothers and their families, and proposes that existing interventions with such mothers can be strengthened through targeting and cultivating functional coparenting alliances in families. PMID:19884977

  20. Mother Positivity and Family Adjustment in Households with Children with a Serious Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trute, Barry; Benzies, Karen M.; Worthington, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Only limited attention has been given to parent coping resources in the positive adjustment of families of children with a disability. This study is the first to explore maternal positivity as a psychological coping resource related to family adjustment in these families. Consistent with broaden-and-build theory and prior positivity research,…

  1. Cumulative Family Risk Predicts Increases in Adjustment Difficulties across Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent…

  2. Family Functioning and Low Vision: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambara, Jennifer K.; Wadley, Virginia; Owsley, Cynthia; Martin, Roy C.; Porter, Chebon; Dreer, Laura E.

    2009-01-01

    This review highlights the literature on the function and adjustment process of family members of persons with adult-onset vision loss. The majority of the literature has focused on the unique role that the family plays in providing both instrumental and emotional support to adults with low vision. In contrast, the impact of low vision on the…

  3. Child and family adjustment following pediatric solid organ transplantation: factors to consider during the early years post-transplant.

    PubMed

    Brosig, Cheryl; Pai, Ahna; Fairey, Elise; Krempien, Jennifer; McBride, Michael; Lefkowitz, Debra S

    2014-09-01

    Adjusting to life after transplant can be challenging to pediatric solid organ transplant recipients and their families. In this review, we discuss a number of important factors to consider during the first 2-3 yr after transplant (defined as the "early years"), including transitioning from hospital to home, returning to physical activity, feeding and nutrition, school reentry, potential cognitive effects of transplant, family functioning, and QOL. We highlight steps that providers can take to optimize child and family adjustment during this period. PMID:24923434

  4. Families created through surrogacy: Mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment at age 7

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children’s psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years. PMID:21895360

  5. Linguistic Indicators of Patient, Couple, and Family Adjustment following Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Megan L.; Mehl, Matthias R.; Smith, Hillary L.; Weihs, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study examined how language reflective of emotional and social processes during a cancer-related discussion relates to patient, couple, and family adjustment after breast cancer. It investigated whether emotional expression or relational focus, manifested in language use, indicates healthy family coping following breast cancer. Methods Family members each completed measures of adjustment (Family Environment Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and patient Profile of Mood States), and engaged in a 15-minute family discussion about how they have coped with breast cancer. Transcripts from the discussion were submitted to a text-analysis software program to obtain frequency of positive and negative emotion words, and personal pronouns spoken by each family member. The relationship between self-reports of adjustment and frequency of language use during the family discussion was analyzed with regression models. Results Partners’ positive emotion words were indicative of better family adjustment, patients’ negative emotion words indicated greater family conflict, and sons’ and daughters’ anger words indicated poorer adjustment, whereas their anxiety words indicated better family adjustment. Partner we-talk was related to better dyadic adjustment, and couples’ “you” was somewhat related to worse adjustment at all levels. Conclusions/Implications Important information about how a family copes with breast cancer can be obtained by attending to families’ emotional and relational language. This study suggests that clinicians and members of families’ support networks can gauge how well a family has adapted after the breast cancer experience by attending to the type of words that each family member uses to describe how they coped with breast cancer. PMID:22887054

  6. Marital Adjustment Over the Family Life Cycle: The Issue of Curvilinearity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.; And Others

    Marital adjustment over the family life cycle is reexamined using data from probability samples of married couples studied in coordinated research projects in three different states--Iowa, Ohio, and Georgia. A total of 1,584 respondents completed the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Scale and responded to questions about stage of the family life…

  7. The Relationship between Frequency of Family Dinner and Adolescent Problem Behaviors after Adjusting for Other Family Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Bisakha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between frequency of family dinners (FFD) and selected problem behaviors for adolescents after adjusting for family connectedness, parental awareness, other family activities, and other potentially confounding factors. Methods: Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. The primary…

  8. Family Relations and the Adjustment of Young Children of Mexican Descent: Do Family Cultural Values Moderate These Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Modry-Mandell, Kerri

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of family cultural values as moderators of the association between family relations and the adjustment of young children. Fifty-five families of Mexican descent with young children enrolled in Head Start programs in the Southwest participated. Mothers provided information about closeness of the mother-child…

  9. Children's Adjustment in Joint and Sole Physical Custody Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Marsha; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined patterns of custody and their relationship to the behavioral-emotional and social adjustment of 93 children of 3-14 years of age. Found no evidence that joint physical custody arrangements differ from sole physical custody arrangements with regard to postdivorce child adjustment. (RH)

  10. Differential impact of fathers' authoritarian parenting on early adolescent adjustment in conservative protestant versus other families.

    PubMed

    Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner; Hetherington, E Mavis; Reiss, David

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether well-established associations between authoritarian parenting and adolescent adjustment pertain to conservative Protestant (CP) families. Structural equation modeling was used to test paths from biological fathers' authoritarian parenting to adolescent adjustment in 65 CP versus 170 comparison families in the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development Study (NEAD; D. Reiss et al., 1994). The hypothesis that adolescents in CP families would be less harmed by authoritarian parenting than would adolescents in control families was partially supported: Authoritarian parenting directly predicted greater externalizing and internalizing for adolescents in control families but not for adolescents in CP families. In contrast, parents' religious affiliation failed to moderate the negative associations between authoritarian parenting and positive adjustment. Understanding family processes specific to the CP subculture is important for helping these families raise competent children. PMID:17176193

  11. Relationship of cognitive function and adjustment difficulties among children and adolescents with dissociative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Mehta, Manju; Sagar, Rajesh; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Although it has been suggested that children and adolescents with dissociative disorder have some cognitive deficits, the association of these cognitive impairments with adjustment difficulties has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive functioning and adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents with dissociative disorder. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive assessment was carried out in the outpatient setting of child and adolescent psychiatric service in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty newly diagnosed children and adolescents with dissociative disorder were included. The cognitive functions were assessed by varied neuropsychological tests, and Bell's adjustment inventory was used for assessing various domains of adjustment. Results: The mean age of the sample which comprised 40% males was 13.0 (±2.4) years. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of the sample was 90.6. Impairment in cognitive test was maximum for verbal working memory followed by sustained attention, visual learning and memory, and verbal retention and recall. Adjustment difficulties were greatest in the domains of self, followed by domains of health, school, and family. Significant association was found between the IQ and adjustment in school; visual learning and memory and adjustments in school and overall adjustment; and sustained attention and adjustment of health. Conclusions: Dissociative children have poor cognitive ability which may be related to poor adjustment scores. PMID:27114655

  12. Functional Family Therapy: A Life Cycle Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetchler, Joseph L.

    1985-01-01

    Functional family therapy model assesses family behavior from perspectives of interactional process and functional payoffs for the individual family members. Illustrates that functional needs change as a result of development, and that by including a family life cycle perspective in the assessment process, clinicians will get a clearer picture of…

  13. Does welfare affect family processes and adolescent adjustment?

    PubMed

    Kalil, A; Eccles, J S

    1998-12-01

    Recent welfare reform legislation requires increased parental work effort and imposes time limits on the receipt of federal assistance. These changes were based in part on assumptions that parental welfare receipt may be negatively related to family processes and children's attitudes and behaviors. Currently, researchers know little about the effects of welfare by itself relative to the effects of related variables such as family demographic characteristics, economic strain, and neighborhood factors on processes among families with adolescent children. This study investigates parenting behaviors, parent-adolescent relationships, and adolescent attitudes and behaviors in three family types. Families of adolescents ages 11-15 who received income from Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in the previous 12 months are compared with poor families who have not received AFDC in the last year and with families who are neither poor nor welfare dependent. We found minimal support for the hypothesis that welfare is negatively related to family processes and adolescent attitudes and behaviors, although mothers receiving welfare report fewer effective parent management practices than their poor non-welfare counterparts. Implications of the findings for current social policy debates are discussed. PMID:9914641

  14. Relationship between Illness Severity, Social/Familial Variables and Adjustment in Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Anita Landau; Koepke, David

    The study examined the effects of social support and family functioning on illness and adjustment in 70 children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Four sources of information were used: patient interview and standardized tests; parent interview and standardized tests; teacher interview; and medical records. Results revealed several…

  15. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  16. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…

  17. The Remarried Family: Variables Affecting Adjustment to Stepmothering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Lezin, Sandra

    Despite the increase in the numbers of remarried families, little research has examined interpersonal relationships within these stepfamilies. Interpersonal and family systems variables which may contribute to stepmothers' satisfaction were examined in 65 part- and full-time stepmothers aged 22-27 and in 65 stepchildren aged 10-16. Eleven…

  18. Does Welfare Affect Family Processes and Adolescent Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated parenting behavior, parent/adolescent relationship, and adolescent attitudes and behaviors in three family types. Results showed minimal support for the hypothesis that welfare is negatively related to family processes and adolescent attitudes and behavior, although mothers receiving welfare reported fewer effective parent-management…

  19. New School Blues: Helping Children Adjust After a Family Move.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marilyn

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for parents to help their children make the adjustment to a new school, focusing on: understanding how moving affects children, teens, and in-betweens; meeting the school counselor or psychologist; looking for warning signs (e.g., prolonged anxiety, depression, or interrupted sleeping); and providing reassurance. A sidebar…

  20. The Differential Effects of Family Violence on Adolescent Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Maura

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effects of different types of domestic violence on adolescent adjustment. High school students (n=935) participated in this study. Results revealed the amounts of parent-child violence and interparental violence witnessed were significant predictors of both externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Significant effects were…

  1. Adjustment to Kindergarten: Child, Family, and Kindergarten Program Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausken, Elvira Germino; Rathbun, Amy H.

    Noting that the kindergarten year is important in establishing competencies critical to children's success and achievement in school, and the lack of information on how children make the transition to kindergarten, this study examined differences in parental reports of children's adjustment behaviors for a large, nationally representative sample…

  2. Children's Adjustment Problems in Families Characterized by Men's Severe Violence toward Women: Does Other Family Violence Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women's intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children's adjustment problems in families characterized by men's severe violence toward women. Methods: Participants were 258 children and their mothers…

  3. Cross-Cultural Adjustment Process of Expatriate Families in a Multinational Organization: A Family System Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this survey based study was to examine whether the characteristics (i.e., flexibility and cohesion) of expatriate families in a multinational corporation as measured by the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale can predict cross-cultural adjustment of the expatriate (individual level of analysis) and his/her family…

  4. Parental encouragement of initiative-taking and adjustment in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan

    2012-12-01

    Due to the requirements of the competitive, market-oriented urban society, parents in urban and urbanized families are more likely than parents in rural families to encourage initiative-taking in child rearing in China. The socialization experiences of children from different types of families may be related to their adjustment. This study examined parental socialization attitudes, social and school adjustment, and their relations in Chinese children from rural, urban, and urbanized families. Participants were elementary school students (N = 1,033; M age = 11 years) and their parents in China. Data were obtained from parental reports, peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that parents in urban and urbanized families had higher scores than parents in rural families on encouragement of initiative-taking. Urban children, particularly girls, were more sociable, obtained higher social status, and had fewer school problems than their rural counterparts. Children from urbanized families were different from rural children and similar to urban children in social and school adjustment. Moreover, multigroup invariance tests showed that parental encouragement of initiative-taking was associated more strongly with children's sociable-assertive behavior and social standing in the urban and urbanized groups than in the rural group. The results indicate that particular socialization attitudes may vary in their adaptive value in child development as a function of specific social and cultural requirements in changing societies. PMID:23244457

  5. Executive functions, depressive symptoms, and college adjustment in women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Jana; Kalkut, Erica; Tuminello, Elizabeth; Asconape, Josefina; Han, S Duke

    2013-01-01

    Many students have difficulty adjusting to college, and the contribution of academic and relational factors have been considered in previous research. In particular, depression commonly emerges among college women at this time and could be related to poor adjustment to college. This study examined the relationship between executive functions, depressive symptoms, and college adjustment in college women. Seventy-seven female participants from a midsize urban university completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, College Adjustment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and four subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System: the Trail-Making Test, Design Fluency Test, Verbal Fluency Test, and Color-Word Interference Test. After controlling for IQ score, hierarchical regression analyses showed that subjective and objective measures of executive functioning and depressive symptoms were significantly related to college adjustment problems in academic, relational, and psychological areas. The current study provides evidence for a relationship between cognitive abilities, psychiatric symptoms, and college adjustment. PMID:23397999

  6. Family support and acceptance, gay male identity formation, and psychological adjustment: a path model.

    PubMed

    Elizur, Y; Ziv, M

    2001-01-01

    While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men. PMID:11444052

  7. Marital Adjustment Over the Family Life Cycle: The Issue of Curvilinearity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Marital adjustment over the family life cycle is reexamined using data from probability samples of married couples studied in coordinated research projects in three different states--Iowa, Ohio, and Georgia. (Author)

  8. Filling Gaps in the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: Heritage Cultural Maintenance and Adjustment in Mexican-American Families.

    PubMed

    Telzer, Eva H; Yuen, Cynthia; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate faster than do their parents, resulting in an acculturation gap that leads to family and youth maladjustment. However, empirical support for the acculturation gap-distress model has been inconclusive. In the current study, 428 Mexican-American adolescents (50.2 % female) and their primary caregivers independently completed questionnaires assessing their levels of American and Mexican cultural orientation, family functioning, and youth adjustment. Contrary to the acculturation gap-distress model, acculturation gaps were not associated with poorer family or youth functioning. Rather, adolescents with higher levels of Mexican cultural orientations showed positive outcomes, regardless of their parents' orientations to either American or Mexican cultures. Findings suggest that youths' heritage cultural maintenance may be most important for their adjustment. PMID:26759225

  9. Child, Parent and Family Factors as Predictors of Adjustment for Siblings of Children with a Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, R.; Gavidia-Payne, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Siblings adjust to having a brother or sister with a disability in diverse ways. This study investigated a range of child, parent and family factors as predictors of sibling adjustment outcomes. Methods: Forty-nine siblings (aged 7-16 years) and parents provided information about (1) sibling daily hassles and uplifts; (2) sibling…

  10. College Adjustment and Subjective Well-Being when Coping with a Family Member's Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Christa K.; Welsh, Anne C.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals coping with the chronic or terminal illness of a family member are presented with a unique challenge that may influence their adjustment and overall well-being. This study investigated variables that relate to college adjustment and subjective well-being, including attachment, social support, coping, and illness-related constructs, in…

  11. Doing Well vs. Feeling Well: Understanding Family Dynamics and the Psychological Adjustment of Chinese Immigrant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Desiree Baolian

    2008-01-01

    Despite their average high levels of educational achievement, Asian American students often report poor psychological and social adjustment, suggesting an achievement/adjustment paradox. Yet, the reasons for this paradox remain unclear. Drawing on 5-year longitudinal qualitative interview data, this paper compares the family dynamics of two groups…

  12. The Adjustment of Black Children Adopted by White Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Arnold R.; Feigelman, William

    This paper discusses a research project undertaken to explore placement of minority children in white families. The intent of the research was to evaluate criticism of transracial adoption by groups including the National Association of Black Social Workers which stated in 1972 that "Black children should be placed only with black…

  13. Adjustment and Achievement Associated with Mobility in Military Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Karen H.; Medway, Frederic J.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated 40 Army families regarding history of geographic mobility, identification with Army life, personal well-being, and children's school achievement and social competence. Frequent relocation was not detrimental to service member or spouse and was positively associated with higher child and social competence. Military identification…

  14. Functional Family Therapy. Family Strengthening Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Thomas L.; Alexander, James F.

    Increases in delinquency and violence over the past decade are often rooted in a number of interrelated social problems that may originate within the family structure. The focus of this publication is the effectiveness of family intervention programs and chronicles one type of intervention, the Functional Family Therapy (FFT). FFT draws on a…

  15. Strengthening Families: Exploring the Impacts of Family Camp Experiences on Family Functioning and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Barry A.; Baughman, Sarah; Franz, Nancy K.; Seidel, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that family camp experiences can enhance family relationships. Families often participate in family camp experiences for a vacation, as part of a therapeutic and/or intervention strategy, or to gain general enrichment or engagement. To better understand the impacts of family camp experiences on family functioning, a mixed-methods…

  16. Sudomotor function in familial dysautonomia

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, A; Axelrod, F; Marthol, H; Schmelz, M; Hilz, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: Patients with familial dysautonomia (FD) manifest episodic hyperhidrosis despite the reduction of sudomotor fibres and sweat glands associated with this autonomic neuropathy. We assessed peripheral sudomotor nerve fibre and sweat gland function to determine if this symptom was due to peripheral denervation hypersensitivity. Methods: In 14 FD patients and 11 healthy controls, direct and axon reflex mediated sweat responses were determined by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after application of acetylcholine via a microdialysis membrane, a novel method to evaluate sudomotor function in neuropathy patients. Results were compared with data from conventional quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing (QSART). Using microdialysis, interstitial fluid was analysed for plasma proteins to evaluate protein extravasation induced by acetylcholine as an additional parameter of C-fibre function. Results: Although reduced axon reflex sweating was expected in FD patients, neither direct or axon reflex mediated sweat responses, nor acetylcholine induced protein extravasation differed between control and patient groups. However, the baseline resting sweat rate was higher in FD patients than controls (p<0.05). TEWL and QSART test results correlated (r = 0.64, p = 0.01), proving the reliability of TEWL methodology in evaluating sudomotor function. Conclusion: The finding of normal direct and axon reflex mediated sweat output in FD patients supports our hypothesis that, in a disorder with severe sympathetic nerve fibre reduction, sudomotor fibres, but not the sweat gland itself, exhibit chemical hypersensitivity. This might explain excessive episodic hyperhidrosis in situations with increased central sympathetic outflow. PMID:14742604

  17. Family functioning in the aftermath of a natural disaster

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased understanding of the complex determinants of adverse child mental health outcomes following acute stress such as natural disasters has led to a resurgence of interest in the role of parent psychopathology and parenting. The authors investigated whether family functioning in the post-disaster environment would be impaired relative to a non-exposed sample and potential correlates with family functioning such as disaster-related exposure and child posttraumatic mental health symptoms. Methods Three months after a category 5 tropical cyclone that impacted north Queensland Australia, school-based screening was undertaken to case identify children who may benefit from a mental health intervention. Along with obtaining informed consent, parents completed a measure of family functioning. Results Of 145 families of children aged 8 to 12 years, 28.3% met criteria for dysfunction on the Family Adjustment Device, double the frequency in a community sample. The dysfunction group was significantly more likely to have experienced more internalising (anxiety/depression) symptoms. However, in an adjusted logistic regression model this group were not more likely to have elevated disaster-related exposure nor did children in these families validate more PTSD symptoms. Conclusions The implications of post-disaster discordant family functioning and possible different causal pathways for depressive and PTSD-related symptomatic responses to traumatic events are discussed. PMID:22647086

  18. Socio-Emotional Adjustment in Adolescence and the Perception of Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    This paper presents results of a study of how family dysfunction contributes to adjustment of adolescents. The question is considered from two disciplinary vantage points: (1) structural anthropology, which considers dysfunction in terms of the affirmation of kinship relations; and (2) a family systems approach which emphasizes the role of factors…

  19. Family and Cultural Influences on Low-Income Latino Children's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined family and cultural influences on adjustment among 90 low-income Latino middle school children (46% girls; average age = 11.38, SD = 0.66) and their primary caregivers (93% female; average age = 36.12, SD = 6.13). All participants identified as Hispanic/Latino, with 75% of families identifying as Mexican-origin Latino, and 77%…

  20. The Role of Family Obligations and School Adjustment in Explaining the Immigrant Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of family obligations and school adjustment in explaining immigrant adolescents' adaptation. Despite a relatively low socio-economic status, immigrant adolescents have been found to have a pattern of adaptation superior to that of national adolescents. Immigrant adolescents' strong sense of family obligations and…

  1. The Impact of Familial and Environmental Factors on the Adjustment of Immigrants: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mirsky, Julia; Rubinstein, Ludmila; Nauck, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of family interaction, perceived discrimination, stressful life events, and the hosting country on the adjustment of Israeli and German immigrants. Results show that changes in self-esteem between the 1st year of immigration and 2 and 4 years later were significantly related to family relations: the better the…

  2. Parental Depressive Symptoms, Children's Representations of Family Relationships, and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Keller, Peggy S.; Davies, Patrick T.

    2008-01-01

    This study extends the investigation of family process models of parental dysphoria and child adjustment, by examining depressive symptoms in both fathers and mothers, and by examining children's representations of family relationships as possible explanatory mechanisms. Participants were 232 children (Time 1 mean age: 5.99; 105 boys, 127 girls)…

  3. Marital Conflict, Child Emotional Security about Family Relationships and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harold, Gordon T.; Shelton, Katherine H.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2004-01-01

    Addressing a gap in process-oriented understanding of relations between marital conflict and children's adjustment, propositions of the emotional security hypothesis from a family-wide perspective were tested in a longitudinal research design. Participants were 181 families and their 11-12 year-old-child (115 boys, 76 girls) living in Wales, in…

  4. Relations between Parent-Child Acculturation Differences and Adjustment within Immigrant Chinese Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costigan, Catherine L.; Dokis, Daphn P.

    2006-01-01

    The relations between parent and child acculturation and family and child adjustment were examined among 91 immigrant Chinese families in Canada with early adolescents (average age of 12). Acculturation was assessed in public (e.g., language use) and private (e.g., values) domains separately in Chinese and Canadian cultures. With one exception,…

  5. Mexican American Fathers' Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members' Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers' occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members' psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the…

  6. Youth Psychosocial Adjustment Following Wildfire: The Role of Family Resilience, Emotional Support, and Concrete Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Caryll M.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Felix, Erika; Afifi, Tamara; Reyes, Gilbert; Afifi, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural disasters can have a significant impact on youth and family mental health and well-being. However, the relationship between family protective factors and youth adjustment in the aftermath of disaster remains unclear. Objective: In order to address the present gaps in the field, this study investigated perceived disaster-related…

  7. Socioeconomic Stress and Academic Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents: The Protective Role of Family Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and…

  8. The Social World of Preadolescents with Mental Retardation: Social Support, Family Environment and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Siperstein, Gary N.

    1996-01-01

    Social networks, social supports, family environment, and adjustment among 36 preadolescent students with and without mild mental retardation (MMR) were examined. Students with MMR were more likely to turn to family and adults for companionship, while those without MMR generally turned to peers. Those who received greater support experienced fewer…

  9. Marital Adjustment, Parental Functioning, and Emotional Sharing in War Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Zahava; Debby-Aharon, Shimrit; Zerach, Gadi; Horesh, Danny

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine the implications of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and emotional sharing in marital adjustment and parental functioning among Israeli veterans of the 1982 Lebanon War. The sample consisted of combat stress reaction (CSR) veterans (n = 264) and non-CSR veterans (n = 209). Results show that traumatized…

  10. Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment: The Role of Parental Reflective Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbassat, Naomi; Priel, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Reflective function (RF) is the capacity to reflect on one's own mental experiences and those of others. This study examined the relationship between parental RF and adolescent adjustment. One hundred and five adolescents, aged 14-18, and their mothers and fathers were interviewed and completed questionnaires during home visits. We measured…

  11. Lifestyle-Adjusted Function: Variation beyond BADL and IADL Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Steven M.; Bear-Lehman, Jane; Burkhardt, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Using the Activity Card Sort (ACS), we derived a measure of lifestyle-adjusted function and examined the distribution of this measure and its correlates in a community sample of older adults at risk for disability transitions. Design and Methods: Participants in the Sources of Independence in the Elderly project (n = 375) completed the…

  12. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent–Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3–9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent–child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. PMID:24033323

  13. Adoptive gay father families: parent-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. PMID:24033323

  14. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  15. Physically Abused Children’s Adjustment at the Transition to School: Child, Parent, and Family Factors

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, Karen Appleyard; Haskett, Mary E.; Loehman, Jessisca; Rose, Roderick A

    2015-01-01

    Childhood physical abuse predicts emotional/behavioral, self-regulatory, and social problems. Yet factors from multiple ecological levels contribute to children’s adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which the social-emotional adjustment of physically abused children in first grade would be predicted by a set of child-, parent-, and family-level predictors in kindergarten. Drawing on a short-term longitudinal study of 92 physically abused children and their primary caregivers, the current study used linear regression to examine early childhood child (i.e., gender, IQ, child perceptions of maternal acceptance), parent (i.e., parental mental health), and family relationship (i.e., sensitive parenting, hostile parenting, family conflict) factors as predictors of first grade internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, emotion dysregulation, and negative peer interactions. We used a multi-method, multi-informant approach to measuring predictors and children’s adjustment. Internalizing symptomatology was significantly predicted by child IQ, parental mental health, and family conflict. Externalizing symptomatology and emotion dysregulation were predicted by child IQ. Although a large proportion of variance in measures of adjustment was accounted for by the set of predictors, few individual variables were unique predictors of child adjustment. Variability in the predictors of adjustment for physically abused children underscores the need for individualized treatment approaches. PMID:26401095

  16. Family Demands, Social Support and Family Functioning in Taiwanese Families Rearing Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, C-Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and…

  17. Stress, coping, and adjustment in mothers and young adolescents in single- and two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Compas, B E; Williams, R A

    1990-08-01

    Compared stress, coping, and psychological adjustment in single (divorced or separated) and married mothers and their young adolescent children. Single mothers reported more daily hassles related to economic, family, and personal health problems, and more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism. Single mothers also reported using more coping strategies related to accepting responsibility and positive reappraisal. After controlling for level of family income, differences in family hassles and coping strategies remained significant. The two groups did not differ on subtypes of symptoms after controlling for income, but single mothers still reported more total psychological symptoms. No differences were found between children in these two family constellations on maternal reports of emotional/behavioral problems or on children's self-reported emotional/behavioral problems, stressful events, or coping. Implications of these findings for adjustment to life in single-parent families are discussed. PMID:2075890

  18. Perceived Family Functioning and Family Resources of Hong Kong Families: Implications for Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Joyce L. C.; Wong, Timothy K. Y.; Lau, Luk King; Pun, Shuk Han

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a telephone survey (n = 1,015 respondents) that aims to identify the perceived general family functioning and family resources of Hong Kong Chinese families and their linkage to each other in a rapidly transforming society. The perceived general family functioning of the respondents was average, and the five…

  19. The Role of Family Functioning in Bipolar Disorder in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Findling, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Investigated the association between family functioning and conflict and their links with mood disorder in parents and with children's risk for bipolar disorder. Participants were 272 families with a child between the ages of 5-17 years. Parents' history of psychiatric diagnoses and children's current diagnoses were obtained via semi-structured…

  20. Mother-Daughter Conflict and Adjustment in Mexican-Origin Families: Exploring the Role of Family and Sociocultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Pflieger, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of mother-daughter conflict in both mothers' and daughters' adjustment. Drawing from ecologically oriented and person-environment fit models, the authors investigated how the family context, as defined by the transition to adolescent motherhood, and the sociocultural context, as measured by mother-daughter…

  1. Towards a Family Process Model of Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms: Exploring Multiple Relations with Child and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy S.; Davies, Patrick T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has focused on maternal dysphoria and child adjustment. However, family process models indicate gaps in the study of paternal dysphoria, broader family functioning, and diverse child outcomes. Method: A community sample of 235 mothers and fathers of kindergarten children completed measures of depressive symptoms, family…

  2. Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume III: Marital Adjustment and Breakdown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    Third in a series of seven volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with marital adjustment and breakdown. Papers are organized into four major sections: education for family tasks, marital satisfaction, adjustment to separation, and construction of family image. Papers and…

  3. Long-Term Effects of Incestuous Child Abuse in College Women: Social Adjustment, Social Cognition, and Family Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephanie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated family and social cognitive characteristics as mediators of social adjustment among college women. Indicated decreased cohesion and adaptability in the family of origin, increased perception of social isolation, and poorer social adjustment among subjects abused as children. Family characteristics and especially increased perceptions…

  4. Family and school influences on adolescents' adjustment: The moderating role of youth hopefulness and aspirations for the future.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Jean M; Booth, Margaret Zoller

    2015-10-01

    Using a school-based sample of 675 adolescents, this short-term longitudinal investigation examined the relationships among individual, family, and school influences on adolescent adjustment problems. Adolescents' perceptions of school climate and their sense of connectedness to school were negatively associated with conduct problems. A significant interaction between parental academic support and adolescents' academic aspirations was detected for the total sample, boys, and White youth, indicating that parental support serves a protective function against conduct problems for students with low academic expectations. Adolescents' hopefulness, parental academic aspirations, and school connectedness were negatively associated with depression. Adolescents' hopefulness and their academic aspirations moderated associations between both family and school influences on adolescent adjustment with youth gender and race qualifying these interaction effects. PMID:26177519

  5. Family Correlates of Adjustment Profiles in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A "High Functioning" (n = 173) group, which exhibited high…

  6. The Experience of Risk-Adjusted Capitation Payment for Family Physicians in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Reza; Hadian, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Shariati, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Hossien

    2016-01-01

    Background When a country’s health system is faced with fundamental flaws that require the redesign of financing and service delivery, primary healthcare payment systems are often reformed. Objectives This study was conducted with the purpose of exploring the experiences of risk-adjusted capitation payment of urban family physicians in Iran when it comes to providing primary health care (PHC). Materials and Methods This is a qualitative study using the framework method. Data were collected via digitally audio-recorded semi-structured interviews with 24 family physicians and 5 executive directors in two provinces of Iran running the urban family physician pilot program. The participants were selected using purposive and snowball sampling. The codes were extracted using inductive and deductive methods. Results Regarding the effects of risk-adjusted capitation on the primary healthcare setting, five themes with 11 subthemes emerged, including service delivery, institutional structure, financing, people’s behavior, and the challenges ahead. Our findings indicated that the health system is enjoying some major changes in the primary healthcare setting through the implementation of risk-adjusted capitation payment. Conclusions With regard to the current challenges in Iran’s health system, using risk-adjusted capitation as a primary healthcare payment system can lead to useful changes in the health system’s features. However, future research should focus on the development of the risk-adjusted capitation model. PMID:27340558

  7. Microtransitions and the dynamics of family functioning.

    PubMed

    Everri, Marina; Fruggeri, Laura; Molinari, Luisa

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a qualitative observational study aimed at exploring microtransitions in the relational dynamics of family functioning when the children are adolescents. Three concurrent levels were considered central for family functioning in this period: the acknowledgment of emerging competences, the redefinition of the power structure, and the regulation of interpersonal distances. Twenty-eight non-clinical Italian families with at least one adolescent child were interviewed and video-recorded in their homes. A stance-taking process analysis was carried out on the family interactive sequences arising in the course of the interviews. This analysis was based on the stances taken by all family members in relation to their reciprocal evaluations, positions, and alignments, which allowed us to point out the interlocking of competences, power and distances. Out of all the possible theoretical combinations of these three dimensions, we identified four forms of interaction. In two forms, the emerging changes were not incorporated in the families' interactive repertoires by either reconfirming family stability or resisting family changes. In these ways of interacting competences, power, and distances were not reorganized. In the other two forms, instead, family microtransitions were observable in the extent to which family members either explored family changes or legitimated family reorganizations. In these processes, they could redefine and readdress their ways of interacting. PMID:24048919

  8. The Redefinition of Family Farming: Agricultural Restructuring and Farm Adjustment in Waihemo, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsen, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    The process of agricultural restructuring embarked upon by the New Zealand government in the mid-1980s precipitated a period of financial hardship for many of the nation's farmers. It was not uncommon for families to adapt major adjustment strategies in order to maintain the viability of their enterprise at this time. Drawing upon a detailed case…

  9. Parent-Child Cultural Orientations and Child Adjustment in Chinese American Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Stephen H.; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H.; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on…

  10. Panamanian Grandmothers' Family Relationships and Adjustment to Having a Grandchild with a Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, J. Emmett; Scherman, Avraham; Efthimiadis, Maria S.; Shultz, Shelli K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore the family relationships and role adjustment of grandmothers in the Republic of Panama who have a grandchild with special needs. Thirty Panamanian grandmothers of children with a disability were interviewed using a standardized format and non-directive probing. Categories of analysis were established only…

  11. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment among Chinese American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…

  12. Mexican American Seventh Graders' Future Work and Family Plans: Associations with Cultural Experiences and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cansler, Emily; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Simpkins, Sandra D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe Mexican American seventh graders' expectations for future work and family roles and investigate links between patterns of future expectations and adolescents' cultural experiences and adjustment. Adolescents participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Five unique patterns of adolescents' future…

  13. Adjustment among Youth in Military Families: The Protective Roles of Effortful Control and Maternal Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Age, Tolonda Ricard

    2009-01-01

    This study examined coping, effortful control, and mental health among 65 youth (ages 9-15) residing in families where at least one parent was serving in the United States military. Parents provided basic demographic and deployment information. Youth reported on their coping, effortful control, and adjustment using standardized self-report…

  14. Grandmother-Grandchild Relationship Quality Predicts Psychological Adjustment among Youth from Divorced Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Craig E.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Sanders, Leah M.; Louden, Linda

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates maternal grandmother-grandchild relationship quality as a predictor of psychological adjustment among youth from divorced families. Three hundred twenty-four adolescents aged between 17 and 20 report on the quality of their relationships with their maternal grandmothers and their relational competence, self-efficacy, and…

  15. Factors of Social Adjustment to School: Child's Personality, Family and Pre-School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…

  16. Donor insemination: a follow-up study of disclosure decisions, family relationships and child adjustment at adolescence.

    PubMed

    Freeman, T; Golombok, S

    2012-08-01

    The call for greater openness about gamete donation highlights the need to assess the long-term implications of telling donor-conceived children about their origins. This longitudinal study examined the consequences of secrecy versus openness about donor insemination (DI) for family relationships and child adjustment at adolescence. Thirty heterosexual families with an adolescent (aged 10-14 years) conceived by anonymous DI were assessed using standardized measures of parent-child and marital relationships, and parents' and adolescents' psychological wellbeing. Ten (33%) adolescents had been told about their donor conception. The only differences found between disclosed and non-disclosed families concerned parent-child relationships. In particular, whilst disclosure was associated with lower levels of conflict between mothers and sons, adolescents who were aware of their donor origins reported less warm father-child relationships than those who had not been told. This is of interest given that identity issues and a fuller understanding of donor conception are likely to arise at adolescence. However, differences between disclosing and non-disclosing families cannot be directly attributed to parents' disclosure decisions. Overall, these findings suggest that openness about DI does not create significant difficulties for family functioning or child adjustment and that a child's age and sex may be important in assessing the impact of secrecy and disclosure. PMID:22683153

  17. Depression and the Family Life Cycle: Adjusting the System at Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shean, Glenn

    This document uses family systems constructs to explain the onset and maintenance of clinical symptoms such as depression and their relation to life cycle issues among the elderly. The basic assumptions of family systems thinking about structure and function are summarized. Figures and tables are used to illustrate changing family circumstances…

  18. Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2014-07-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture. PMID:25045950

  19. Malnutrition in cystic fibrosis: psychosocial functioning of patients and their families.

    PubMed

    Brennan, J L; Todd, A L; Jools, P A; Gaskin, K J

    1990-02-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and psychosocial functioning was examined in 35 children with cystic fibrosis, aged 7-16 years. Twelve malnourished children and their families were compared with 23 well nourished children and their families. Established measures of adjustment and coping in the children, parents and families were used. Few statistically significant differences between the two groups emerged, and all comparisons of psychosocial functioning were not significant. The results of the study suggest that there is no relationship between the nutritional status of the child with cystic fibrosis and the current psychosocial adjustment and coping of child, parents and family. PMID:2331416

  20. Parent-child cultural orientations and child adjustment in Chinese American immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Chen, Stephen H; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on children's and their own Chinese and American orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social relationships. Parents and teachers rated children's externalizing and internalizing problems and social competence. Using structural equation modeling, we found evidence for both the effects of children's and parents' cultural orientations and the effects of parent-child gaps. Specifically, children's American orientations across domains were associated with their better adjustment (especially social competence). These associations were partly mediated by authoritative parenting. Parents' English and Chinese media use were both associated with higher authoritative parenting, which in turn was associated with children's better adjustment. Furthermore, greater gaps in parent-child Chinese proficiency were associated with children's poorer adjustment, and these relations were partly mediated by authoritative parenting. Together, the findings underscore the complex relations between immigrant families' dual orientations to the host and heritage cultures and children's psychological adjustment. PMID:23566081

  1. Socioeconomic stress and academic adjustment among Asian American adolescents: the protective role of family obligation.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L; Supple, Andrew J; Gonzalez, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and interactive effects at two time points in the same sample of Asian American adolescents-early high school (N = 180 9th-10th graders; 60 % female) and 2 years later in late high school (N = 156 11th-12th graders; 87% of original sample). Results suggest that socioeconomic stress is indeed associated with poor academic adjustment, measured broadly through self-reported GPA, importance of academic success, and educational aspirations and expectations. Family obligation was positively related to adjustment, and also was found to buffer the negative effects of socioeconomic stress, but only during adolescents' later high school years. Adolescents reporting more family obligation experienced less of the negative effects of financial stress on academic outcomes than those reporting lower obligation. Cultural and developmental implications are discussed in light of these direct and moderating effects. PMID:23371003

  2. Family resources study: part 1: family resources, family function and caregiver strain in childhood cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Severe illness can disrupt family life, cause family dysfunction, strain resources, and cause caregiver burden. The family's ability to cope with crises depends on their resources. This study sought to assess families of children with cancer in terms of family function-dysfunction, family caregiver strain and the adequacy of family resources using a new family resources assessment instrument. Methods This is a cross-sectional study involving 90 Filipino family caregivers of children undergoing cancer treatment. This used a self-administered questionnaire composed of a new 12-item family resources questionnaire (SCREEM-RES) based on the SCREEM method of analysis, Family APGAR to assess family function-dysfunction; and Modified Caregiver Strain Index to assess strain in caring for the patient. Results More than half of families were either moderately or severely dysfunctional. Close to half of caregivers were either predisposed to strain or experienced severe strain, majority disclosed that their families have inadequate economic resources; many also report inaccessibility to medical help in the community and insufficient educational resources to understand and care for their patients. Resources most often reported as adequate were: family's faith and religion; help from within the family and from health providers. SCREEM-RES showed to be reliable with Cronbach's alpha of 0.80. There is good inter-item correlation between items in each domain: 0.24-0.70. Internal consistency reliability for each domain was also good: 0.40-0.92. Using 2-point scoring system, Cronbach's alpha were slightly lower: full scale (0.70) and for each domain 0.26-.82. Results showed evidence of association between family resources and family function based on the family APGAR but none between family resources and caregiver strain and between family function and caregiver strain. Conclusion Many Filipino families of children with cancer have inadequate resources, especially economic

  3. Effects Of Family Conflict, Divorce, And Attachment Patterns On The Psychological Distress And Social Adjustment Of College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannum,James W.; Dvorak,Dawn M.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-five freshmen completed measures of attachment, family conflict, family structure, psychological distress, and social adjustment. Attachment to mother predicted less psychological distress and attachment to father and structure predicted better social adjustment. Conflict reduced attachment and predicted psychological distress. Attachment…

  4. Marital Adjustment in Families of Young Children with Disabilities: Associations with Daily Hassles and Problem-Focused Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneman, Zolinda; Gavidia-Payne, Susana

    2006-01-01

    A family systems framework was used to examine associations between stressors/hassles, problem-focused coping, and marital adjustment in 67 families of young children with disabilities. Most of the couples were experiencing average to above average marital adjustment. When daily stressors/hassles were higher, husbands and wives viewed their…

  5. Family and Cultural Processes Linking Family Instability to Mexican American Adolescents' Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Danyel A.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.; O'Donnell, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rapidly growing Mexican American population, no studies to date have attempted to explain the underlying relations between family instability and Mexican American children's development. Using a diverse sample of 740 Mexican American adolescents (49% female; 5th grade M age = 10.4; 7th grade M age = 12.8) and their mothers, we prospectively examined the relations between family instability and adolescent academic outcomes and mental health in the 7th grade. The model fit the data well and results indicated that family instability between 5th and 7th grade was related to increased 7th grade mother-adolescent conflict and in turn, mother-adolescent conflict was related to decreased school attachment and to increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms in the 7th grade. Results also indicated that 7th grade mother-adolescent conflict mediated the relations between family instability and 7th grade academic outcomes and mental health. Further, we explored adolescent familism values as a moderator and found that adolescent familism values served as a protective factor in the relation between mother-adolescent conflict and grades. Implications for future research and intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:23750521

  6. The Alba protein family: Structure and function.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Manish; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Nag, Shiladitya; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2016-05-01

    Alba family proteins are small, basic, dimeric nucleic acid-binding proteins, which are widely distributed in archaea and a number of eukaryotes. This family of proteins bears the distinct features of regulation through acetylation/deacetylation, hence named as acetylation lowers binding affinity (Alba). Alba family proteins bind DNA cooperatively with no apparent sequence specificity. Besides DNA, Alba proteins also interact with diverse RNA species and associate with ribonucleo-protein complexes. Initially, Alba proteins were recognized as chromosomal proteins and supposed to be involved in the maintenance of chromatin architecture and transcription repression. However, recent studies have shown increasing evidence of functional plasticity among Alba family of proteins that widely range from genome packaging and organization, transcriptional and translational regulation, RNA metabolism, and development and differentiation processes. In recent years, Alba family proteins have attracted growing interest due to their widespread occurrence in large number of organisms. Presence in multiple copies, functional crosstalk, differential binding affinity, and posttranslational modifications are some of the key factors that might regulate the biological functions of Alba family proteins. In this review article, we present an overview of the Alba family proteins, their salient features and emphasize their functional role in different organisms reported so far. PMID:26900088

  7. Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children’s Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Stephen H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objectives Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children’s psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. Design The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children’s adjustment was measured with parents’, teachers’, and peers’ or children’s reports. Results Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children’s externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. Conclusions Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child’s adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes. PMID:23226715

  8. Family Correlates of Adjustment Profiles in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Gayles, Jochebed G.; Lara, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study used a person-centered approach to examine patterns of adjustment along psychological (i.e., depression, self-esteem, anxiety) and academic (i.e., academic motivation) domains in a sample (N = 338) of Mexican-origin female adolescents. Four adjustment profiles were identified. A High Functioning (n = 173) group, which exhibited high positive adjustment and academic functioning, an Average Functioning (n = 83) group, who exhibited average psychological and academic functioning, an Academically Oriented and Stressed (n = 19) group, who exhibited high academic motivation, but poor psychological functioning in anxiety and negative affect, and a Low Functioning” (n = 25) group, who exhibited poor adjustment overall. Further, paternal and maternal parenting characteristics (i.e., autonomy granting, parent-adolescent conflict, and supportive parenting) were differentially related to Mexican-origin female adolescents’ profiles, providing further evidence for the existence of the profiles. Results contribute to the current literature on Latino adolescents and highlight the importance of examining psychological and academic domains concurrently to determine how these two domains of adjustment are linked among this population. PMID:23678230

  9. Functional Somatic Symptoms: Family Practice Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Frederick Donald

    1990-01-01

    Functional symptoms are a common and at times irritating part of family practice. The expedient way of dealing with these patients is to investigate, prescribe, and reassure that nothing serious is wrong. This reassurance may not be convincing to the patient whose symptom persists. The author reviews the main issues in this field and describes a subset of patients who seem to have identification as the basis for their functional symptom. When cases are of short term, this subset can be handled by the family physician who is aware of the logic behind the functional symptoms in certain cases. An understanding of functional symptoms and a belief in their logic are important dimensions of comprehensive care in family practice. PMID:21233989

  10. Hostility, Hostile Detachment, and Conflict Engagement in Marriages: Effects on Child and Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Woodin, Erica M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations between patterns of marital communication, child adjustment, and family functioning. Subjects were couples observed to be hostile, hostile- withdrawn, or engaged, and having a 4- or 5-year-old child. Found that families in which couples were hostile-detached showed the most negative outcomes. Marital typology accounted for…

  11. Altitude-adjusted corrected geomagnetic coordinates: Definition and functional approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, S. G.

    2014-09-01

    Analysis of the functional approximations used to transform between geographic and Altitude-Adjusted Corrected Geomagnetic (AACGM) coordinates reveals that errors of >50 km can occur in the auroral and polar regions. These errors are the result of efforts to better approximate AACGM coordinates near the magnetic equator and the South Atlantic Anomaly. In these regions AACGM coordinates are not defined and alternate coordinates have been used. This augmentation and emphasis on the solution in regions near the equator result in spherical harmonic approximating functions that are less accurate than need be in the auroral and polar regions. In response, a new set of spherical harmonic coefficients have been derived that better represent AACGM coordinates in these regions. These new AACGM coefficients are limited to below 2000 km in altitude in order to ensure accuracy. For altitudes above 2000 km, a magnetic field-line tracing solution is recommended. A software package developed to take advantage of the new AACGM coefficients provides the capability of tracing magnetic field lines at any altitude, for improved accuracy. In addition, linear interpolation between 5 year epochs is used to produce coordinates that vary smoothly over the entire period from 1965 to present. The intent of this work is to provide a more accurate procedure for determining AACGM coordinates in the auroral and polar regions for the study of magnetospheric and ionospheric processes.

  12. Body image and its relationship with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Karamidehkordi, Akram; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body image is related to cognitive, emotional, and physical aspects of women's life. Therefore, it is expected to have an important role in women's sexual health and marital adjustment too. This issue seems to be salient in infertile women who suffer from psychological consequences of infertility. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of body image with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women in 2011 in Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: This correlational study was performed on 130 infertile women who referred to Montaserieh Infertility Research Centre in Mashhad, Iran. Subjects were selected using convenient sampling method. To collect data, valid and reliable questionnaires including demographic and infertility-related data tool, modified Younesi Body Image Questionnaire, Rosen Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) were used. Data analysis was performed by SPSS software using Student's t-test, correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey post-hoc test. Results: The mean scores of body image, sexual function, and marital adjustment in women were 308.1 ± 45.8, 27.23 ± 3.80, and 113.8 ± 19.73, respectively. There was a direct correlation between overall body image and subscales of sexual function including sexual arousal (P = 0.003), sexual desire (P = 0.024), vaginal moisture (P = 0.001), orgasm (P < 0.001), sexual satisfaction (P < 0.001), and dyspareunia (P = 0.007). A direct correlation was also observed between overall body image and subscales of marital adjustment including agreement and consent (P < 0.001), satisfaction with life (P < 0.001), continuity of life (P = 0.007), and expressing emotions within the family environment (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Improved sexual function and marital adjustment in cases with higher body image provides evidence that one of the solutions to reduce sexual dysfunction and marital dispute in infertile women could be

  13. Adjusted sequence kernel association test for rare variants controlling for cryptic and family relatedness.

    PubMed

    Oualkacha, Karim; Dastani, Zari; Li, Rui; Cingolani, Pablo E; Spector, Timothy D; Hammond, Christopher J; Richards, J Brent; Ciampi, Antonio; Greenwood, Celia M T

    2013-05-01

    Recent progress in sequencing technologies makes it possible to identify rare and unique variants that may be associated with complex traits. However, the results of such efforts depend crucially on the use of efficient statistical methods and study designs. Although family-based designs might enrich a data set for familial rare disease variants, most existing rare variant association approaches assume independence of all individuals. We introduce here a framework for association testing of rare variants in family-based designs. This framework is an adaptation of the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) which allows us to control for family structure. Our adjusted SKAT (ASKAT) combines the SKAT approach and the factored spectrally transformed linear mixed models (FaST-LMMs) algorithm to capture family effects based on a LMM incorporating the realized proportion of the genome that is identical by descent between pairs of individuals, and using restricted maximum likelihood methods for estimation. In simulation studies, we evaluated type I error and power of this proposed method and we showed that regardless of the level of the trait heritability, our approach has good control of type I error and good power. Since our approach uses FaST-LMM to calculate variance components for the proposed mixed model, ASKAT is reasonably fast and can analyze hundreds of thousands of markers. Data from the UK twins consortium are presented to illustrate the ASKAT methodology. PMID:23529756

  14. Children in planned lesbian families: stigmatisation, psychological adjustment and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny M W; van Balen, Frank

    2008-04-01

    The study assessed the extent to which children between eight and 12 years old in planned lesbian families in the Netherlands experience stigmatization, as well as the influence of protective factors (relationship with parents, social acceptance by peers, contact with children from other families headed by lesbian mothers or gay fathers) on their psychological adjustment (conduct problems, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity, self-esteem). Data were collected by questionnaires filled out by the mothers and by the children themselves. The children in the sample generally reported low levels of stigmatization. However, boys more often reported that, in their view, they were excluded by peers because of their non-traditional family situation. Girls more often reported that other children gossiped about the fact that they had two lesbian mothers. Higher levels of stigmatization were associated with more hyperactivity for boys and lower self-esteem for girls. Having frequent contact with other children who have a lesbian mother or gay father protects against the negative influence of stigmatization on self-esteem. Findings support the idea that children in planned lesbian families benefit from the experience of meeting other children from similar families. PMID:18432422

  15. Parental conflict and children's coping styles in litigating separated families: relationships with children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, H

    1993-12-01

    The influence of interparental verbal and physical aggression, children's coping styles, and relevant demographic factors on children's adjustment was examined in a group of 52 families who were disputing custody and/or access arrangements after separation. It was hypothesized that parental conflict and specific children's coping strategies (i.e., cognitive redefinition and social support seeking) would be important predictors of children's adjustment. Consistent with previous research, aggressive styles of resolving conflict between parents were related to more frequent and severe behavior problems and diminished competence among children. Conversely, greater flexibility in coping and greater use of cognitive coping strategies among children were related to decreased behavioral disturbance. The unique and combined influence of these variables is discussed. PMID:8126321

  16. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment Among Chinese American Families

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents’ and mothers’ self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth’s academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents’ heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth. PMID:19636729

  17. Adjusting for Network Size and Composition Effects in Exponential-Family Random Graph Models.

    PubMed

    Krivitsky, Pavel N; Handcock, Mark S; Morris, Martina

    2011-07-01

    Exponential-family random graph models (ERGMs) provide a principled way to model and simulate features common in human social networks, such as propensities for homophily and friend-of-a-friend triad closure. We show that, without adjustment, ERGMs preserve density as network size increases. Density invariance is often not appropriate for social networks. We suggest a simple modification based on an offset which instead preserves the mean degree and accommodates changes in network composition asymptotically. We demonstrate that this approach allows ERGMs to be applied to the important situation of egocentrically sampled data. We analyze data from the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). PMID:21691424

  18. Four RNA families with functional transient structures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5' flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5' UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All

  19. Four RNA families with functional transient structures

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2015-01-01

    Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5′ flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5′ UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM

  20. Time in U.S. Residency and the Social, Behavioral, and Emotional Adjustment of Latino Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Charles R., Jr.; McClure, Heather H.; Eddy, J. Mark; Wilson, D. Molloy

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about contributors to positive social, behavioral, and emotional adjustment among foreign-born youth at different stages of adapting to life in the United States. Using baseline data from the Adolescent Latino Acculturation Study (N = 217), this article examines the effects of time in residency on parent adjustment, family stress,…

  1. A prospective study of the effects of marital status and family relations on young children's adjustment among African American and European American families.

    PubMed

    Shaw, D S; Winslow, E B; Flanagan, C

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of divorce and family relations on young children's development prospectively, using an ethnically diverse sample of approximately 300 low-income families. We also were able to examine the moderating effects of ethnicity on child adjustment in always two-parent, to-be-divorced, already-divorced, and always single-parent families. Results indicated that to-be-divorced European American and African American families demonstrated higher rates of preschool-age behavior problems, and already-divorced families showed similar trends. Parental conflict and behavior problems accounted for predivorce differences in child behavior problems, whereas rejecting parenting accounted for differences in problem behavior between always single-parent and always two-parent families. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of ethnicity in influencing young, low-income children's adjustment to different family structures. PMID:10368919

  2. Child Involvement in Interparental Conflict and Child Adjustment Problems: A Longitudinal Study of Violent Families

    PubMed Central

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents’ conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and internalizing problems, and physical intimate partner violence. Measures were completed at three assessments, spaced 6 months apart. Results indicated that children’s involvement in their parents’ conflicts was positively associated with child adjustment problems. These associations emerged in between-subjects and within-subjects analyses, and for child externalizing as well as internalizing problems, even after controlling for the influence of physical intimate partner violence. In addition, child involvement in parental conflicts predicted later child reports of externalizing problems, but child reports of externalizing problems did not predict later involvement in parental conflicts. These findings highlight the importance of considering children’s involvement in their parents’ conflicts in theory and clinical work pertaining to high-conflict families. PMID:24249486

  3. Characteristics of family functioning in patients with endogenous monopolar depression.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Toshinari; Asukai, Nozomu; Miyake, Yuko; Miguchi, Masahiro; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate dysfunctions in families with a member suffering from endogenous monopolar depression during the acute phase by means of a case-control study, and to consider the possibilities of psychiatric intervention for families with a patient in the course of monopolar depression. Twenty patients with monopolar depression during the acute phase and family members living in the same household (Depressive families) were compared with twenty-seven non-clinical college students and their family members (Control families) with regard to family functioning assessed by the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Depressive families reported significantly worse family functioning than Control families, especially in three areas: Problem Solving, Communication, and General Functioning. Members of Depressive families also perceived their family functioning to be significantly poorer than that of Control families, in the areas of Problem Solving, Communication, Roles, Affective Responsiveness, Affective Involvement and General Functioning, which yielded the same result as a comparison between depressive couples and control couples. The pattern of family dysfunction that was found in the present study, especially in the three areas of family functioning, Problem Solving, Communication, and General Functioning, emphasizes the importance of appropriate family intervention to improve the family's competence in problem solving and to promote better communication in the family during the acute phase of endogenous monopolar depression. Additionally such family dysfunction has been similarly observed in North American studies, indicating that diverse problems emerge beyond differences in the cultural background of families containing a patient with endogenous monopolar depression. PMID:12164346

  4. Functional Promiscuity of the COG0720 Family

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Gabriela; Grochowski, Laura L.; Bonnett, Shilah; Xu, Huimin; Bailly, Marc; Haas-Blaby, Crysten; El Yacoubi, Basma; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; White, Robert H.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    The biosynthesis of GTP derived metabolites such as tetrahydrofolate (THF), biopterin (BH4), and the modified tRNA nucleosides queuosine (Q) and archaeosine (G+) relies on several enzymes of the Tunnel-fold superfamily. A subset of these proteins include the 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin (PTPS-II), PTPS-III, and PTPS-I homologs, all members of the COG0720 family, that have been previously shown to transform 7,8-dihydroneopterin triphosphate (H2NTP) into different products. PTPS-II catalyzes the formation of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin in the BH4 pathway. PTPS-III catalyzes the formation of 6-hydroxylmethyl-7,8-dihydropterin in the THF pathway. PTPS-I catalyzes the formation of 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin in the Q pathway. Genes of these three enzyme families are often misannotated as they are difficult to differentiate by sequence similarity alone. Using a combination of physical clustering, signature motif, and phylogenetic co-distribution analyses, in vivo complementation studies, and in vitro enzymatic assays, a complete reannotation of the COG0720 family was performed in prokaryotes. Notably, this work identified and experimentally validated dual function PTPS-I/III enzymes involved in both THF and Q biosynthesis. Both in vivo and in vitro analyses showed that the PTPS-I family could tolerate a translation of the active site cysteine and was inherently promiscuous, catalyzing different reactions on the same substrate, or the same reaction on different substrates. Finally, the analysis and experimental validation of several archaeal COG0720 members confirmed the role of PTPS-I in archaeosine biosynthesis, and resulted in the identification PTPS-III enzymes with variant signature sequences in Sulfolobus species. This study reveals an expanded versatility of the COG0720 family members and illustrates that for certain protein families, extensive comparative genomic analysis beyond homology is required to correctly predict function. PMID:21999246

  5. Family and Community Services. Module XII: The Family: Functions and Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrich, Beatrice

    This twelfth of 14 curriculum modules in the Family and Community Services Occupational Education Modules series deals with functions and structure of the family. Definitions of the family are compared, and students are helped to understand various forms, functions, and structures of families. The developmental stages of the family life cycle and…

  6. Cognitive Function in Families with Exceptional Survival

    PubMed Central

    Barral, S; Cosentino, S; Costa, R; Matteini, A; Christensen, K; Andersen, S; Glynn, N; Newman, A; Mayeux, R

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated whether cognitive function may be used as an endophenotype for longevity by assessing the cognitive performance of a family-based cohort consisting of one thousand three hundred and eighty individuals from 283 families recruited for exceptional survival in field centers in Boston, New York, Pittsburgh and Denmark. Cognitive performance was assessed in the combined offspring of the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) probands and their LLFS siblings as compared with their spouses’ cognitive performance. Our results indicate that the combined offspring of the LLFS probands and their siblings achieve significantly higher scores on both digit forward and backward tasks (p=5E-5 and p=8E-4 respectively) as well as on a verbal fluency task (p=0.008) when compared with their spouse controls. No differences between groups were found for the other cognitive tests assessed. We conclude that LLFS family members in the offspring generation demonstrate significantly better performance on multiple tasks requiring attention, working memory, and semantic processing when compared with individuals without a family history of exceptional survival, suggesting that cognitive performance may serve as an important endophenotype for longevity. PMID:21439683

  7. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children's Adjustment among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…

  8. Explaining the Higher Incidence of Adjustment Problems among Children of Divorce Compared with Those in Two-Parent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Lin, Kuei-Hsiu; Gordon, Leslie C.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Frederick O.

    1999-01-01

    Examines whether differences between adolescent adjustment problems in divorced families and intact families can be explained by parental conflicts and parents' level of involvement. Determined the quality of mother's parenting and father's involvement explained the association between divorce and boys' externalizing problems; the quality of…

  9. Adolescents' True-Self Behavior and Adjustment: The Role of Family Security and Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldner, Limor; Berenshtein-Dagan, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Associations between security within the family, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, true-self behavior, and knowledge of true self, as well as levels of adjustment, were explored in a sample of early adolescents and midadolescents in Israel (N = 302, mean age = 14.19 years). Both security within the family and needs satisfaction were found…

  10. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  11. The Effects of Child Sexual Abuse in Later Family Life; Mental Health, Parenting and Adjustment of Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ron; O'Connor, Tom; Dunn, Judy; Golding, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate links between child sexual abuse (occurring before 13 years), later mental health, family organization, parenting behaviors, and adjustment in offspring. Method: The present study investigates a subsample of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children an ongoing study of women and their families in the area of…

  12. Physiological Functions of APP Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Ulrike C.; Zheng, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical and genetic evidence establishes a central role of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. Biochemically, deposition of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides produced from proteolytic processing of APP forms the defining pathological hallmark of AD; genetically, both point mutations and duplications of wild-type APP are linked to a subset of early onset of familial AD (FAD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. As such, the biological functions of APP and its processing products have been the subject of intense investigation, and the past 20+ years of research have met with both excitement and challenges. This article will review the current understanding of the physiological functions of APP in the context of APP family members. PMID:22355794

  13. Stressors, Family Environment and Coping Styles as Predictors of Educational and Psychosocial Adjustment in Palestinian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of child and parents' sociodemographics, daily stressors, family environment, and coping strategies, to academic achievement, cognitive functioning and aggression in a sample of 600 children at the intermediate grade levels from Gaza Strip. Each of the predictor variables exhibited a different pattern…

  14. Neighborhood and housing disorder, parenting, and youth adjustment in low-income urban families.

    PubMed

    Jocson, Rosanne M; McLoyd, Vonnie C

    2015-06-01

    Using two waves of data, this study examined relations among neighborhood and housing disorder, parents' psychological distress, parenting behaviors, and subsequent youth adjustment in a low-income, multiethnic sample of families with children aged 6-16. Results supported the hypothesized indirect relation between disorder and youth outcomes via parenting processes. Higher levels of neighborhood and housing disorder were associated with higher levels of parents' psychological distress, which was in turn related to more frequent use of harsh and inconsistent discipline strategies and lower parental warmth. More frequent use of harsh and inconsistent discipline was associated with higher levels of youth internalizing and externalizing behaviors 3 years later. Housing disorder contributed more strongly to parents' psychological distress than neighborhood disorder, whereas neighborhood disorder contributed more strongly to youth externalizing behaviors compared to housing disorder. Multiple-group analyses showed that the patterns of relations were similar for younger and older children, and for girls and boys. PMID:25753403

  15. Two Paycheck Families: Therapeutic Techniques to Enhance Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; Hartl, Alan J.

    American family life is being transformed by the trend toward two paycheck families, yet most people have not been socialized to live in this way, and social institutions have been slow to accommodate the needs of two paycheck families. Accordingly, this paper presents a package of therapeutic techniques designed to help members of two paycheck…

  16. Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment: Longitudinal Associations in Two-Parent African American Families.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings [at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48 % female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52 % female] and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for 3 years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents' depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents' adjustment. PMID:25893573

  17. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children’s Adjustment Among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents’ mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family Stress Model explained toddler-aged adjustment among Hurricane Katrina affected and nonaffected families. Two groups of very low-income mothers and their 2-year-old children participated (pre-Katrina, n = 55; post-Katrina, n = 47). Consistent with the Family Stress Model, financial strain and neighborhood violence were associated with higher levels of mothers’ depressed mood; depressed mood was linked to less parenting efficacy. Poor parenting efficacy was associated to more child internalizing and externalizing problems. PMID:18645744

  18. Dimensions of Functioning in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Examines various dimensions of functioning in alcoholic and nonalcoholic families. Participants were 813 college students who completed a standardized measure of family functioning, demographic questions, and questions related to experiences in their families of origin. Results indicate that children raised in alcoholic families tend to experience…

  19. Midlife sexuality among Thai adults: Adjustment to aging in the Thai family context

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most respondents were aware of this change and saw a decrease in sexual activity and desire more often among women compared to men. At the same time, many respondents viewed sexuality as important to a marriage. Some respondents accepted the decrease in sexual activity and focused more on work, family and temple activities. Thai Buddhism was seen as an important resource for people who were dealing with changes due to aging. Other persons turned to other partners including both commercial and non-commercial partners. The influence of the HIV epidemic that began in the 1990s was seen in concerns about disease transmission with extramarital partners and consequent attitudes toward condom use. The acceptability of extramarital partners in the family and community ranged from acceptance to strong disapproval of extramarital relationships PMID:22582023

  20. Child adjustment and parenting in planned lesbian families with known and as-yet unknown donors.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny M W; Hakvoort, Esther M

    2007-06-01

    The present study examined child adjustment, experience of parenthood, and child-rearing between two types of planned lesbian families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child had been born to the lesbian relationship), viz. those with a known donor (n = 42) and those with an as-yet unknown donor (n = 58) (both with children between 4 - 8 years old). Data were collected by means of parental reports and standardized instruments were used in the questionnaires (e.g., Child Behaviour Checklist; CBCL). No differences were found on internalizing, externalizing and total problem behaviour scales of the CBCL between children with a known and a currently unknown donor, nor were differences found on parental stress and child rearing. However, social problems were more frequently reported for the children with known donors, and boys with a known donor showed more attention problems. Furthermore, annoying questions from people in their social environment as well as gossip and feelings of being excluded, were more frequently reported by mothers with a (currently) unknown donor. PMID:17538820

  1. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and functional parameters. Low muscle mass was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean height-adjusted (hSMI) or weight-adjusted (wSMI) muscle mass of a young reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.7% vs. 0.4% (male/female) by hSMI, and 4.0% vs. 10.7% (male/female) by wSMI. The κ coefficients for these two criteria were 0.39 vs. 0.03 (male/female), and 0.17 in all subjects. Serum myostatin levels correlated positively with gait speed (r = 0.142, p = 0.007) after adjustment for gender. hSMI correlated with grip strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. wSMI correlated with grip strength, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. Since hSMI correlated more closely with grip strength and more muscular functions, we recommend hSMI in the diagnosis of low muscle mass. PMID:26785759

  2. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and functional parameters. Low muscle mass was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean height-adjusted (hSMI) or weight-adjusted (wSMI) muscle mass of a young reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.7% vs. 0.4% (male/female) by hSMI, and 4.0% vs. 10.7% (male/female) by wSMI. The κ coefficients for these two criteria were 0.39 vs. 0.03 (male/female), and 0.17 in all subjects. Serum myostatin levels correlated positively with gait speed (r = 0.142, p = 0.007) after adjustment for gender. hSMI correlated with grip strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. wSMI correlated with grip strength, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. Since hSMI correlated more closely with grip strength and more muscular functions, we recommend hSMI in the diagnosis of low muscle mass. PMID:26785759

  3. An Examination of Family Communication within the Core and Balance Model of Family Leisure Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kevin M.; Freeman, Patti A.; Zabriskie, Ramon B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine family communication within the core and balance model of family leisure functioning. The study was conducted from a youth perspective of family leisure and family functioning. The sample consisted of youth (N= 95) aged 11 - 17 from 25 different states in the United States. Path analyses indicated that…

  4. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  5. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  6. The McMaster Model of Family Functioning: observer and parental ratings in a nonclinical sample.

    PubMed

    Stevenson-Hinde, J; Akister, J

    1995-09-01

    The McMaster Model of Family Functioning defines seven dimensions, which may be assessed either by an observer applying a Clinical Rating Scale (CRS) to a semi-structured interview of the family and/or by family members completing a questionnaire, the Family Assessment Device (FAD). The present article applied both methods of assessment, as well as the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), to a nonclinical sample (N = 105). Interobserver reliability on the CRS was highly significant. Parent (FAD) vs. observer (CRS) agreement was also highly significant, except for Affective Responsiveness and Behavior Control, for which agreement was barely significant. When families were labeled as "healthy" or "unhealthy" according to cut-offs, agreement between observers and parents was high (87%), and disagreements illuminated dynamics of individual families. Finally, the DAS (completed by mothers) was significantly correlated with both the CRS and the FAD, particularly for General Functioning. PMID:8582479

  7. The Role of Family Conflict and Marital Conflict in Adolescent Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Corinne; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Hypothesizes that marital conflict contributes unique variance of child functioning only when it occurs in front of children. Subjects were 146 mother/adolescent pairs. Results indicated that general family conflict was more predictive of child adjustment problems than marital satisfaction, and marital conflict occurring in front of children was…

  8. Family Functioning and Parental Divorce as Predictors of Attachment Styles and Sexual Attitudes in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kufskie, Kathy L.

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental divorce and family functioning are associated with children's socieomotional and psychological adjustment well into their adult years. Research has also demonstrated that sexual attitudes are becoming more liberal (cf., Harding & Jencks, 2003; Leiblum, Wiegel, & Brickle, 2003). The purpose of this research…

  9. Remission of Maternal Depression: Relations to Family Functioning and Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Cynthia Ewell; Webster, Melissa C.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Talati, Ardesheer; Rush, A. John; Hughes, Carroll W.; Garber, Judy; Malloy, Erin; Cerda, Gabrielle; Kornstein, Susan G.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Fava, Maurizio; King, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    Family functioning and parenting were hypothesized to mediate the relation between remission of maternal depression and children's psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 114 mother-child dyads participating in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression Child 3-month follow-up. All mothers had been diagnosed with major…

  10. Family Functioning and Academic Achievement in Middle School: A Social-Emotional Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentzel, Kathryn R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews literature on links between parenting and children's cognitive competence, proposing that social and emotional adjustment might play a critical role in mediating the relationship between these variables. Describes a program of research on family functioning, emotional distress, self-restraint, and academic performance. Explores future…

  11. Unique and protective contributions of parenting and classroom processes to the adjustment of African American children living in single-parent families.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Dorsey, Shannon; Forehand, Rex; Armistead, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    The unique contributions that parenting processes (high levels of monitoring with a supportive, involved mother-child relationship) and classroom processes (high levels of organization, rule clarity, and student involvement) make to children's self-regulation and adjustment were examined with a sample of 277 single-parent African American families. A multi-informant design involving mothers, teachers, and 7- to 15-year-old children was used. Structural equation modeling indicated that parenting and classroom processes contributed uniquely to children's adjustment through the children's development of self-regulation. Additional analyses suggested that classroom processes can serve a protective-stabilizing function when parenting processes are compromised, and vice versa. Further research is needed to examine processes in both family and school contexts that promote child competence and resilience. PMID:14717257

  12. Systematic review of family functioning in families of children and adolescents with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Amy S.; Palermo, Tonya M.; Stinson, Jennifer; Handley, Susannah; Chambers, Christine T.

    2010-01-01

    Disturbances in family functioning have been identified in youth with chronic pain and are associated with worse child physical and psychological functioning. Assessment measures of family functioning used in research and clinical settings vary. This systematic review summarizes studies investigating relationships among family functioning, pain and pain-related disability in youth with chronic pain. Sixteen articles were reviewed. All studies were cross-sectional, seven utilized between-group comparisons (chronic pain versus healthy/control) and twelve examined within-group associations among family functioning, pain and/or pain-related disability. Studies represented youth with various pain conditions (e.g., headache, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia) aged 6 – 20 years. Findings revealed group differences in family functioning between children with chronic pain and healthy controls in five of seven studies. Significant associations emerged among family variables and pain-related disability in six of nine studies with worse family functioning associated with greater child disability; relationships between family functioning and children’s pain were less consistent. Different patterns of results emerged depending on family functioning measure used. Overall, findings showed that families of children with chronic pain generally have poorer family functioning than healthy populations, and that pain-related disability is more consistently related to family functioning than pain intensity. PMID:21055709

  13. Goal direction and effectiveness, emotional maturity, and nuclear family functioning.

    PubMed

    Klever, Phillip

    2009-07-01

    Differentiation of self, a cornerstone concept in Bowen theory, has a profound influence over time on the functioning of the individual and his or her family unit. This 5-year longitudinal study tested this hypothesis with 50 developing nuclear families. The dimensions of differentiation of self that were examined were goal direction and effectiveness and emotional maturity. A qualitative analysis of participants' goals demonstrated that couples with higher functioning developing nuclear families, when compared with couples with lower functioning families, placed more emphasis on family goals, had more balance between family and personal goals, and pursued more goals over the 5 years. The quantitative analysis supported the hypothesis that goal effectiveness and emotional maturity influenced variation in nuclear family functioning. In addition, couple goal effectiveness and emotional maturity were associated with nuclear family functioning more strongly than individual goal effectiveness and emotional maturity were associated with individual functioning. PMID:19522784

  14. Socio-economic status and family structure differences in early trajectories of child adjustment: Individual and neighbourhood effects.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of single-parent family status and high parental socio-economic status (SES) on the trajectories of children's emotional/behavioural adjustment in early-to-middle childhood (ages 3-7 years). We also assessed whether these family characteristics interact with the equivalent neighbourhood characteristics of shares of single-parent families and high-SES adults in predicting these trajectories. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that family status and parental SES predicted children's trajectories of adjustment. Even after controlling for these family factors and key child and parent characteristics, the neighbourhood shares of high-SES adults and single-parent families were related (negatively and positively, respectively) to child problem behaviour. Importantly, children of low-SES parents in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of high-SES adults had fewer emotional symptoms than their counterparts in areas with fewer high-SES adults. Surprisingly, the adverse effect of single-parent family status on child hyperactivity was attenuated in areas with a higher share of single-parent families. PMID:26699446

  15. Treatment response in couple therapy: Relationship adjustment and individual functioning change processes.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M; Pinsof, William M; Haase, Claudia M

    2015-10-01

    This study, a naturalistic investigation of the process of change in relationship adjustment and individual functioning during conjoint therapy, examined the first 8 sessions of a multisystemic model of couple therapy, integrative problem-centered metaframeworks (Breunlin, Pinsof, Russell, & Lebow, 2011; Pinsof, Breunlin, Russell, & Lebow, 2011). The sample consisted of 125 heterosexual couples who reported on their relationship adjustment and individual functioning before every session using the Systemic Therapy Inventory of Change (Pinsof et al., 2009; Pinsof, Zinbarg, et al., in press). Data were analyzed using dyadic latent growth curve and cross-lagged models. For both men and women, relationship adjustment and individual functioning showed nonlinear change, increasing during Sessions 1-4 and stabilizing during Sessions 5-8. At pretreatment, women reported lower levels of relationship adjustment than men; no gender differences existed in initial levels of individual functioning or in the change trajectories of relationship adjustment or individual functioning. Higher relationship adjustment predicted positive change in individual functioning for men (but not for women). In contrast, there were no cross-lagged effects of individual functioning on relationship adjustment for men or women. The results demonstrate the importance of examining the processes by which relational and individual pathology respond to couple-based interventions. PMID:26376428

  16. Family functioning in two treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Family functioning impairment is widely reported in the eating disorders literature, yet few studies have examined the role of family functioning in treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). This study examined family functioning in two treatments for adolescent AN from multiple family members’ perspectives. Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN ages 12–18 from a randomized-controlled trial comparing family-based treatment (FBT) to individual adolescent-focused therapy (AFT). Multiple clinical characteristics were assessed at baseline. Family functioning from the perspective of the adolescent and both parents was assessed at baseline and after one year of treatment. Full remission from AN was defined as achieving both weight restoration and normalized eating disorder psychopathology. Results In general, families dealing with AN reported some baseline impairment in family functioning, but average ratings were only slightly elevated compared to published impaired functioning cutoffs. Adolescents’ perspectives on family functioning were the most impaired and were generally associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and greater clinical severity. Regardless of initial level of family functioning, improvements in several family functioning domains were uniquely related to full remission at the end of treatment in both FBT and AFT. However, FBT had a more positive impact on several specific aspects of family functioning compared to AFT. Discussion Families seeking treatment for adolescent AN report some difficulties in family functioning, with adolescents reporting the greatest impairment. While FBT may be effective in improving some specific aspects of family dynamics, remission from AN was associated with improved family dynamics, regardless of treatment type. PMID:24902822

  17. Parent-Adolescent Communication, Family Functioning, and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masselam, Venus S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared 40 families with adolescents unsuccessful in public schools who were attending alternative schools with 52 families of public school adolescents. Results showed predicted differences in direction of greater balanced functioning and more positive communication in public school families. Public school families also perceived greater…

  18. Maternal Scaffolding of Children's Problem Solving and Children's Adjustment in Kindergarten: Hmong Families in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Herr, Maysee Yang; Neitzel, Carin

    2009-01-01

    The study examined relations between maternal scaffolding of children's problem solving and children's adjustment in kindergarten in Hmong families living in the United States. Mothers and their children (63 dyads) were visited the summer before kindergarten. Mothers' years in the United States, age, education, reasoning skills, and parenting…

  19. Family Ranching and Farming: A Consensus Management Model to Improve Family Functioning and Decrease Work Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Fetsch, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that internal and external threats could squeeze ranch and farm families out of business. Offers six-step Consensus Management Model that combines strategic planning with psychoeducation/family therapy. Describes pilot test with intergenerational ranch family that indicated improvements in family functioning, including reduced stress and…

  20. The Influences of Family Leisure Patterns on Perceptions of Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabriskie, Ramon B.; McCormick, Bryan P.

    2001-01-01

    Conducted a preliminary test of a model of family leisure functioning by examining the relationship of core and balance family leisure patterns to family cohesion and adaptability. Hypothesized that core leisure patterns address family needs for stability and facilitate cohesive relationships, whereas balance leisure patterns address the need for…

  1. Grandmother Support, Family Functioning, and Parenting Stress in Families with a Child with a Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tumbarello, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among grandparent support, family functioning, and parental stress on families with children with and without disabilities between the ages of 2 and 12 years. Families are viewed as an ever-changing complex system with reciprocal interactions. One possible stressor on the family system is the birth of a child…

  2. Children’s Representations of Family Relationships, Peer Information Processing, and School Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Bascoe, Sonnette M.; Davies, Patrick T.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    This study examined children’s peer information processing as an explanatory mechanism underlying the association between their insecure representations of interparental and parent-child relationships and school adjustment in a sample of 210 first-graders. Consistent with emotional security theory (EST; Davies & Cummings, 1994), results indicated that children’s insecure representations of the interparental relationship were indirectly related to their academic functioning through association with their negative information processing of stressful peer events. Insecure interparental relationships were specifically linked with negative peer information processing patterns which, in turn, predicted increases in child maladjustment over a one-year period. These pathways remained robust after taking into account the roles of representations of parent-child relationships, trait measures of child negative affect, and socioeconomic characteristics as predictors in the analyses. PMID:19899928

  3. The Relation of Parental Marital Status and Perceived Family Conflict to Adjustment in White Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enos, Diane M.; Handal, Paul J.

    1986-01-01

    Examined two contrasting views of divorce and long-term adjustment of children. Failed to support physical-wholeness position; parental marital status was not significantly related to psychological adjustment or social life satisfaction. Results provided strong support for psychological-wholeness position: adolescents' psychological adjustment and…

  4. Couple-Focused Prevention at the Transition to Parenthood, a Randomized Trial: Effects on Coparenting, Parenting, Family Violence, and Parent and Child Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Hostetler, Michelle L; Roettger, Michael E; Paul, Ian M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B

    2016-08-01

    The transition to parenthood is a stressful period for most parents as individuals and as couples, with variability in parent mental health and couple relationship functioning linked to children's long-term emotional, mental health, and academic outcomes. Few couple-focused prevention programs targeting this period have been shown to be effective. The purpose of this study was to test the short-term efficacy of a brief, universal, transition-to-parenthood intervention (Family Foundations) and report the results of this randomized trial at 10 months postpartum. This was a randomized controlled trial; 399 couples expecting their first child were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions after pretest. Intervention couples received a manualized nine-session (five prenatal and four postnatal classes) psychoeducational program delivered in small groups. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that intervention couples demonstrated better posttest levels than control couples on more than two thirds of measures of coparenting, parent mental health, parenting, child adjustment, and family violence. Program effects on family violence were particularly large. Of eight outcome variables that did not demonstrate main effects, seven showed moderated intervention impact; such that, intervention couples at higher levels of risk during pregnancy showed better outcomes than control couples at similar levels of risk. These findings replicate a prior smaller study of Family Foundations, indicating that the Family Foundations approach to supporting couples making the transition to parenthood can have broad impact for parents, family relationships, and children's adjustment. Program effects are consistent and benefit all families, with particularly notable effects for families at elevated prenatal risk. PMID:27334116

  5. Effect of Multiple Testing Adjustment in Differential Item Functioning Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jihye; Oshima, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    In a typical differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, a significance test is conducted for each item. As a test consists of multiple items, such multiple testing may increase the possibility of making a Type I error at least once. The goal of this study was to investigate how to control a Type I error rate and power using adjustment…

  6. Political violence and child adjustment: longitudinal tests of sectarian antisocial behavior, family conflict, and insecurity as explanatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Edward M; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Toward examining pathways longitudinally, mothers and their adolescents (M = 12.33, SD = 1.78, at Time 1) from 2-parent families in Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures assessing multiple levels of a social ecological model. Utilizing autoregressive controls, a 3-wave longitudinal model test (T1, n = 299; T2, n = 248; T3, n = 197) supported a specific pathway linking sectarian community violence, family conflict, children's insecurity about family relationships, and adjustment problems. PMID:22313052

  7. The Role of Family Functioning in the Stress Process of Dementia Caregivers: A Structural Family Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitrani, Victoria B.; Lewis, John E.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Czaja, Sara J.; Eisdorfer, Carl; Schulz, Richard; Szapocznik, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of family functioning in the stress process in a sample of caregivers of dementia patients by using a structural family framework. The stress-process model of caregiver distress included family functioning as an intervening variable in the relationship between objective burden and…

  8. Executive functions and theory of mind as predictors of social adjustment in childhood traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Kristen E; Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry; Bigler, Erin D; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2014-11-15

    This study examined whether executive function and theory of mind mediate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social adjustment, relative to children with orthopedic injury (OI). Participants included 19 children with severe TBI, 41 children with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 57 children with OI. They completed measures of executive function, as well as cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind. Parents provided ratings of children's social adjustment. Children with severe TBI performed more poorly than children with OI on executive function and theory of mind tasks and were rated by parents as having more behavioral symptoms and worse communication and social skills. Executive function and theory of mind were positively correlated with social skills and communication skills, and negatively correlated with behavioral symptoms. In multiple mediator models, theory of mind and executive function were not significant direct predictors of any measure of social adjustment, but mediated the association between injury and adjustment for children with severe TBI. Theory of mind was a significant independent mediator when predicting social skills, but executive function was not. TBI in children, particularly severe injury, is associated with poor social adjustment. The impact of TBI on children's social adjustment is likely mediated by its effects on executive function and theory of mind. PMID:25003478

  9. Heritability of left ventricular structure and function in Caucasian families

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yu; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Bochud, Murielle; Richart, Tom; Thijs, Lutgarde; Cusi, Daniele; Fagard, Robert; Staessen, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the heritability as well as genetic and environmental correlations of left ventricular (LV) structural and functional traits in complex pedigrees of a Caucasian population. Methods and results We randomly recruited 459 white European subjects from 52 families (50% women; mean age 45 years). LV structure was measured by M-mode and 2D echocardiography and LV function was measured by conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Other measurements included blood pressure, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements. We estimated the heritability of LV traits while adjusting for covariables, including sex, age, body height and weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and heart rate. With full adjustment, heritability of LV mass was 0.23 (P= 0.025). The TDI-derived mitral annular velocities Ea and Aa showed moderate heritability (h2= 0.36 and 0.53, respectively), whereas the mitral inflow A peak had weak heritability (h2 = 0.25) and the E peak was not heritable (h2 = 0.11). We partitioned the total phenotypic correlation when it reached significance, into a genetic and an environmental component. The genetic correlations were 0.61 between the E and Ea peaks and 0.90 between the A and Aa peaks. Conclusion Our study demonstrated moderate heritability for LV mass as well as the mitral annular Ea and Aa peaks. We also found significant genetic correlations between the E and Ea peaks and between the A and Aa peaks. Our current findings support the ongoing research to map and detect genetic variants that contribute to the variation in LV mass and other LV structural and functional phenotypes. PMID:21398654

  10. Family Time and the Psycho-Social Adjustment of Adolescent Siblings and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouter, Ann C.; Head, Melissa R.; Mchale, Susan M.; Tucker, Corinna Jenkins

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the implications of family time for first-born and second-born adolescent offspring, mothers, and fathers in 192 dual-earner families, defining family time as time shared by the foursome in activities across 7 days. Data were gathered in daily telephone interviews. For first-borns, higher levels of family time at Time 1…

  11. Changes in Adult, Child, and Family Functioning among Participants in a Family Treatment Drug Court.

    PubMed

    Cosden, Merith; Koch, Lauren M

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral changes for 76 adults and 115 children from 62 families participating in a Family Treatment Drug Court (FTDC), in either residential or outpatient settings, were studied. Improvements in psychosocial functioning were calculated using a reliable change index (RCI) for family, adult, and child measures. Among outcomes, significant improvements in family functioning were noted and associated with improvements in child development and the likelihood of reunification. Support for FTDCs and implications for future practice and research are discussed. PMID:26827466

  12. Effortful Control, Behavior Problems and Peer Relations: What Predicts Academic Adjustment in Kindergarteners from Low-income Families?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy L.; Morris, Michael D. S.; Robinson, Lara R.; Myers, Sonya S.; Aucoin, Katherine J.; Keyes, Angela W.; Terranova, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of effortful control, behavior problems, and peer relations in the academic adjustment of 74 kindergarten children from primarily low-income families using a short-term longitudinal design. Teachers completed standardized measures of children’s effortful control, internalizing and externalizing problems, school readiness, and academic skills. Children participated in a sociometric interview to assess peer relations. Research Findings: Correlational analyses indicate that children’s effortful control, behavior problems in school, and peer relations are associated with academic adjustment variables at the end of the school year, including school readiness, reading skills, and math skills. Results of regression analyses indicate that household income and children’s effortful control primarily account for variation in children’s academic adjustment. The associations between children’s effortful control and academic adjustment did not vary across sex of the child or ethnicity. Mediational analyses indicate an indirect effect of effortful control on school readiness, through children’s internalizing problems. Practice or Policy: Effortful control emerged as a strong predictor of academic adjustment among kindergarten children from low-income families. Strategies for enhancing effortful control and school readiness among low-income children are discussed. PMID:24163572

  13. Self-Perception of Parental Role, Family Functioning, and Familistic Beliefs in Italian Parents: Early Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Salcuni, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has explored the relationships between family and cultural issues, claiming attention on the need to consider and evaluate cultural values and beliefs as useful factors to promote positive family adjustment and parenting outcomes (Cardoso and Thompson, 2010; Taylor et al., 2012). This paper explored self-perception of parental role, family maladjustment and cultural beliefs in a sample of Italian parents. More specifically, 204 mother and 204 fathers of adolescents (13–17 years old) filled self-report questionnaires about family system maladjustment (Family Assessment Measure-III), self-perception of parental role (Self-Perception of Parental Role), parents’ beliefs and attitudes toward the family (Attitudinal Familism Scale), and parents’ cultural values (Cultural Values Survey). Results showed that parents have a similar self-perception of family functioning and they share common cultural beliefs and values toward the family. However, fathers felt more satisfied and involved in parenting then mothers and they were more able to balance the different roles of their life. Mothers and fathers showed a similar path of correlations, in which greater level of satisfaction in parenting and better ability in role balancing correlated with a more positive family adjustment. Moreover, a higher perception of family maladjustment was associated to lower levels of family cohesion and cooperation. Furthermore, higher levels of satisfaction were associated to higher scores in family solidarity, equality among sexes and equality in decision takers. These results introduce important implications for family studies in Italian culture, and open to comparison with parenting in other cultures. PMID:26793134

  14. Neurologic music therapy improves executive function and emotional adjustment in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Gardiner, James C; Holmberg, Dawn; Horwitz, Javan; Kent, Luanne; Andrews, Garrett; Donelan, Beth; McIntosh, Gerald R

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the immediate effects of neurologic music therapy (NMT) on cognitive functioning and emotional adjustment with brain-injured persons. Four treatment sessions were held, during which participants were given a pre-test, participated in 30 min of NMT that focused on one aspect of rehabilitation (attention, memory, executive function, or emotional adjustment), which was followed by post-testing. Control participants engaged in a pre-test, 30 min of rest, and then a post-test. Treatment participants showed improvement in executive function and overall emotional adjustment, and lessening of depression, sensation seeking, and anxiety. Control participants improved in emotional adjustment and lessening of hostility, but showed decreases in measures of memory, positive affect, and sensation seeking. PMID:19673815

  15. The Role of Stress Exposure and Family Functioning in Internalizing Outcomes of Urban Families

    PubMed Central

    Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Strachan, Martha K.

    2013-01-01

    Although research suggests that stress exposure and family functioning are associated with internalizing problems in adolescents and caregivers, surprisingly few studies have investigated the mechanisms that underlie this association. To determine whether family functioning buffers the development of internalizing problems in stress-exposed families, we assessed the relation between stress exposure, family functioning, and internalizing symptoms among a large sample of inner-city male youth and their caregivers living in poverty across five waves of data collection. We hypothesized that stress exposure and family functioning would predict development of subsequent youth and caregiver internalizing problems and that family functioning would moderate this relation, with higher functioning families demonstrating greater resiliency to stress exposure. We used a longitudinal, prospective design to evaluate whether family functioning (assessed at waves one through four) activated or buffered the effects of stress exposure (assessed at wave one) on subsequent internalizing symptoms (assessed at waves four and five). Stress from Developmental Transitions and family functioning were significant predictors of depressive symptoms and anxiety in youth; however, family functioning did not moderate the relation. Family functioning mediated the relation between stress from Daily Hassles and internalizing outcomes suggesting that poor parenting practices, low structure, and low emotional cohesion activate depression and anxiety in youth exposed to chronic and frequent everyday stressors. Surprisingly, only family functioning predicted depressive symptoms in caregivers. Results validate the use of a comprehensive, multi-informant assessment of stress when investigating internalizing outcomes in youth and support using family-based interventions in the treatment and prevention of internalizing. PMID:25601821

  16. Adolescents' Perceptions of Kinship Support and Family Management Practices: Association with Adolescent Adjustment in African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.

    1996-01-01

    Examined relationships among kinship support, family management, and adolescence in 135 African American adolescents, ages 14 to 19. Found that kin social support was positively related to self-reliance and grades, family organization, and parental involvement in schooling, and negatively associated with problem behavior. Poor kin relations were…

  17. Family beyond Parents? An Exploration of Family Configurations and Psychological Adjustment in Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmer, Eric D.; Kempf, Nadine; Sapin, Marlene; Galli-Carminati, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the family configurations of young adults with intellectual disability. Based on a sample of 40 individuals interviewed two times in a year, we found as many as four types of family configurations, with distinct compositions, and different types of social capital. This diversity is not without consequences for individual…

  18. Postdivorce Adjustment and Single Parenting: Exploring the Impact of Culture for Korean Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sunny Y.

    Formal mental health services offered in traditional Western settings may be neither appropriate for nor accessible to Korean Americans who are adjusting to divorce. This paper presents an overview of current research on postdivorce adjustment and single parenting in the United States, examines various cultural differences (e.g., African, Asian,…

  19. Psychological Control Associated with Youth Adjustment and Risky Behavior in African American Single Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…

  20. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Stress on Children's Adjustment in Woman-Abusing Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levendosky, Alytia A.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes sheltered battered women (n=60) and their 7- to 12-year-old children and nonsheltered women (n=61) and their children, to examine the potential moderating effects of maternal parenting stress on children's adjustment in homes with varying levels of domestic violence. Results indicate that children's adjustment was predicted by parenting…

  1. Maternal Depression, Family Functioning, and Child Outcomes: A Narrative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Susan; St. Andre, Martin; Sameroff, Arnold; Seifer, Ronald; Schiller, Masha

    1999-01-01

    Investigated differences in family narratives between mothers with and those without current depressive symptoms as an indicator of family functioning. Found that Family Narrative Consortium measures of narrative coherence distinguished level of symptom severity. Found that more coherent narratives were associated with marital satisfaction,…

  2. Children on the Autism Spectrum: Grandmother Involvement and Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Alison; Winograd, Greta; Verkuilen, Jay; Fish, Marian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated associations between the presence of a child with autism or Asperger's disorder in the family, family functioning and grandmother experiences with the goal of better understanding grandparent involvement in the lives of grandchildren on the autism spectrum and their families. Methods: Mothers and grandmothers of…

  3. Parent Adolescent Communication, Family Functioning, and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masselam, Venus Shirley

    Fifty-two families of students successful in public school and 40 families of students requiring alternative school programs completed self-report instruments on their perceptions of parent-adolescent communication and family functioning. The alternative school programs included residential and day treatment programs for adolescents with emotional…

  4. Relations of Growth in Effortful Control to Family Income, Cumulative Risk, and Adjustment in Preschool-age Children

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children’s preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  5. Relations of growth in effortful control to family income, cumulative risk, and adjustment in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50 % girls, 50 % boys) from families representing a range of income (29 % at- or near-poverty; 28 % lower-income; 25 % middle-income; 18 % upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36-40 month. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children's preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  6. Parent Stress, Family Functioning and Social Support in Families of Young Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Lily

    This study compared parent stress, family functioning, and social support in 55 families with a developmentally handicapped child (ages 0-7) and 55 families with a nonhandicapped child. Findings indicated that a young handicapped child did induce greater stress in his parents than did a nonhandicapped child. Parents of handicapped children…

  7. The Impact of Family Violence, Family Functioning, and Parental Partner Dynamics on Korean Juvenile Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting…

  8. Functional Family Therapy and the Treatment of Inhibited Sexual Desire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regas, Susan J.; Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the therapy, assessment, and education principles of Functional Family Therapy and applies them to the treatment of inhibited sexual desire, using a case illustration. Functional Family Therapy works at motivating the couple to want change, rather than providing an understanding of underlying causes of the problem. (JAC)

  9. Implied adjusted volatility functions: Empirical evidence from Australian index option market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, Hanani Farhah; Hafizah, Mimi

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the implied adjusted volatility functions using the different Leland option pricing models and to assess whether the use of the specified implied adjusted volatility function can lead to an improvement in option valuation accuracy. The implied adjusted volatility is investigated in the context of Standard and Poor/Australian Stock Exchange (S&P/ASX) 200 index options over the course of 2001-2010, which covers the global financial crisis in the mid-2007 until the end of 2008. Both in- and out-of-sample resulted in approximately similar pricing error along the different Leland models. Results indicate that symmetric and asymmetric models of both moneyness ratio and logarithmic transformation of moneyness provide the overall best result in both during and post-crisis periods. We find that in the different period of interval (pre-, during and post-crisis) is subject to a different implied adjusted volatility function which best explains the index options. Hence, it is tremendously important to identify the intervals beforehand in investigating the implied adjusted volatility function.

  10. Family Functioning in Families with a Child with Down Syndrome: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povee, K.; Roberts, L.; Bourke, J.; Leonard, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the factors that predict functioning in families with a child with Down syndrome using a mixed methods design. The quantitative component examined the effect of maladaptive and autism-spectrum behaviours on the functioning of the family while the qualitative component explored the impact of having a child…

  11. Type 1 diabetes mellitus: psychosocial factors and adjustment of pediatric patient and his/her family. Review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Marín, Marián; Gómez-Rico, Irene; Montoya-Castilla, Inmaculada

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic endocrine disease in children, with a very low incidence in the first months of life and reaching its peak during puberty (10-15 years old is the age group with the highest incidence at the time of onset). Based on the review of the scientific literature, our objective is to study the main psychosocial factors associated with the adjustment of these pediatric patients and their families. Research underscore the following risk factors: situational (stressful life events), personal (additional physical diseases, low self-esteem, emotional disturbances), and interpersonal (family breakdown and conflicts), and also protection factors (coping strategies, social support, fluent communication). There is a pressing need to deal with the disturbances that affect these diabetic patients and their families, by implementing effective health care psychological interventions that take into account psychosocial factors associated with the course of type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25727829

  12. Cation Diffusion Facilitator family: Structure and function.

    PubMed

    Kolaj-Robin, Olga; Russell, David; Hayes, Kevin A; Pembroke, J Tony; Soulimane, Tewfik

    2015-05-22

    The Cation Diffusion Facilitators (CDFs) form a family of membrane-bound proteins capable of transporting zinc and other heavy metal ions. Involved in metal tolerance/resistance by efflux of ions, CDF proteins share a two-modular architecture consisting of a transmembrane domain (TMD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) that protrudes into the cytoplasm. Discovery of a Zn²⁺ and Cd²⁺ CDF transporter from a marine bacterium Maricaulis maris that does not possess the CTD questions current perceptions regarding this family of proteins. This article describes a new, CTD-lacking subfamily of CDFs and our current knowledge about this family of proteins in the view of these findings. PMID:25896018

  13. Can pets function as family members?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Susan Phillips

    2002-10-01

    This exploratory study investigated how clients of a large urban veterinary center viewed the role of their pet in the famil and how they compared this role to that of humans. In Phase 1, randomly selected clients (N = 201) completed a questionnaire containing scales delineating family relationships and pet attachment. Being either a man or a college graduate was associated with lesser feelings of psychological kinship and intimacy, both with pets and people. Neither living with a partner norhaving a child affected the strength of pet relationships. In Phase 2, 16 participants from Phase I completed a social network instrument and answered questions about family roles and boundaries. Thirteen of the 16 respondents said that there were circumstances in which they would give a scarce drug to their pet in preference to a person outside the family. PMID:12365764

  14. Family issues in child anxiety: attachment, family functioning, parental rearing and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Bögels, Susan M; Brechman-Toussaint, Margaret L

    2006-11-01

    Family studies have found a large overlap between anxiety disorders in family members. In addition to genetic heritability, a range of family factors may also be involved in the intergenerational transmission of anxiety. Evidence for a relationship between family factors and childhood as well as parental anxiety is reviewed. Four groups of family variables are considered: (I) attachment; (II), aspects of family functioning, such as marital conflict, co-parenting, functioning of the family as a whole, and sibling relationships; (III) parental rearing strategies; and (IV) beliefs that parents hold about their child. The reviewed literature provides evidence for an association between each of these family factors and child anxiety. However, there is little evidence as yet that identified family factors are specific to child anxiety, rather than to child psychopathology in general. Moreover, evidence for a relationship between child anxiety and family factors is predominantly cross-sectional. Therefore, whether the identified family factors cause childhood anxiety still needs to be investigated. Further research that investigates mechanisms mediating the relationship between family factors and child anxiety is also called for. Finally, parental beliefs are identified as important predictors of parental behaviour that have largely not been investigated in relation to child anxiety disorders. PMID:16473441

  15. Paternal and maternal influences on family functioning among Hong Kong Chinese families.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    2001-03-01

    The linkages between dyadic relationships in the family and family functioning were examined in 378 Chinese families on two occasions. The following dyadic relationships were investigated: (a) parent-child relationship qualities reported by adolescent children (questionnaire and interview measures of parenting style, parent-adolescent conflict, parent-adolescent communication, and parent-adolescent relationship) and by their parents (questionnaire measures of parent-child relationship quality and demand); and (b) marital quality reported by the parents via questionnaire measures. Results showed that parents' and children's views of family functioning were longitudinally related to dyadic relationships in the family. Relative to mother-adolescent relationship and mothers' report of marital quality, father-adolescent relationship and fathers' report of marital quality were generally found to have a stronger association with perception of family functioning and its change over time. PMID:11338441

  16. Challenges for environmental epidemiology research: are biomarker concentrations altered by kidney function or urine concentration adjustment?

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Kotchmar, Dennis J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2016-01-01

    Biomonitoring has become a standard approach for exposure assessment in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The use of biological effect markers to identify early adverse changes in target organs has also become widely adopted. However, the potential for kidney function to affect biomarker levels in the body and the optimal approach to adjustment of biomarker concentrations in spot urine samples for hydration status are two important but underappreciated challenges associated with biomarker use. Several unexpected findings, such as positive associations between urine nephrotoxicant levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), have been reported recently in research using biomarkers. These and other findings, discussed herein, suggest an impact of kidney glomerular filtration or tubule processing on biomarker levels. This is more commonly raised in the context of decreased kidney filtration, traditionally referred to as reverse causality; however, recent data suggest that populations with normal kidney filtration may be affected as well. Misclassification bias would result if biomarkers reflect kidney function as well as either exposures or early biological effect outcomes. Furthermore, urine biomarker associations with eGFR that differ markedly by approach used to adjust for urine concentration have been reported. Associations between urine measures commonly used for this adjustment, such as urine creatinine, and specific research outcomes could alter observed biomarker associations with outcomes. Research recommendations to address the potential impact of kidney function and hydration status adjustment on biomarkers are provided, including a range of approaches to study design, exposure and outcome assessment, and adjustment for urine concentration. PMID:25736163

  17. Risk of addiction to work and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Robinson, B E; Post, P

    1997-08-01

    A total of 107 self-identified workaholics from across the United States and Canada responded to a set of inventories assessing their scores on the Work Addiction Risk Test and the correlations with current family functioning. Individuals in the High-risk group, compared to those in the Low- and Medium-groups, were significantly more likely to perceive their current families as having less effective problem-solving ability, worse communication, less clearly established family roles, fewer affective responses, less affective involvement, and lower general family functioning. PMID:9293197

  18. Family and Personal Adjustment of Economically Disadvantaged Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Tsui, Pik Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the relationship between poverty and adolescent developmental outcomes in the family and personal domains in 3,328 Chinese secondary school students in Hong Kong. Developmental outcomes included positive youth development constructs, problem behaviors, perceived family interaction, and parental parenting. Results showed that adolescents experiencing poverty did not differ from nonpoor adolescents in terms of risk behavior and in most indicators of positive youth development. On the other hand, adolescents with economic disadvantage displayed lower levels of positive identity, family interaction, and perceived paternal parenting than did those without economic disadvantage. PMID:22919290

  19. Families Created through Surrogacy: Mother-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-01-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child…

  20. Parenting and Child Behavioral Adjustment in Early Childhood: A Quantitative Genetic Approach To Studying Family Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2000-01-01

    Examined environmental and gene-environment processes linking parenting (affect, control, responsiveness) and preschoolers' behavioral adjustment difficulties (noncompliance, conduct problems). Found that estimates of shared environmental variance and mediation were greatest for observational data, and estimates of child genetic variance and…

  1. A Model of Divorce Adjustment for Use in Family Service Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Ruth Griffith

    1987-01-01

    Presents a combined educationally and therapeutically oriented model of treatment to (1) control and lessen disruptive experiences associated with divorce; (2) enable individuals to improve their skill in coping with adjustment reactions to divorce; and (3) modify the pressures and response of single parenthood. Describes the model's four-session…

  2. Child, Parent, and Family Predictors of Latter Adjustment in Siblings of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Paul R.; Karlof, Kristie L.

    2008-01-01

    Research findings examining the adjustment of siblings of children with autism has been inconsistent, with some studies concluding that siblings are negatively impacted, while others have found no adverse effects. We argue that one reason for these inconsistent findings may be the failure by some investigators to take into account the increased…

  3. The Role of Culture, Family Processes, and Anger Regulation in Korean American Adolescents’ Adjustment Problems

    PubMed Central

    Park, Irene J. K.; Kim, Paul Youngbin; Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Kim, May

    2010-01-01

    Using an ecologically informed, developmental psychopathology perspective, the present study examined contextual and intrapersonal predictors of depressive symptoms and externalizing problems among Korean American adolescents. Specifically, the role of cultural context (self-construals), family processes (family cohesion and conflict), and anger regulation (anger control, anger suppression, and outward anger expression) were examined. Study participants were N = 166 Korean American adolescents ranging from 11-15 (M = 13.0; SD = 1.2) years old. Results showed that depressive symptoms were significantly associated with lower levels of perceived family cohesion, higher levels of perceived family conflict intensity, and higher levels of anger suppression. Externalizing problems were associated with male gender, a weaker interdependent self-construal, higher levels of perceived family conflict, lower levels of anger control, and higher levels of outward anger expression. The distinction between specific vs. common factors associated with depressive symptoms and externalizing problems was discussed with an eye towards prevention or intervention strategies targeting specific coping mechanisms (e.g., generating alternatives to anger suppression) or developing psychoeducational approaches to facilitate family processes. PMID:20553519

  4. 5 CFR 551.424 - Time spent adjusting grievances or performing representational functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time spent adjusting grievances or performing representational functions. 551.424 Section 551.424 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of...

  5. The Role of Executive Functions Skills and Self-Regulation Behaviors in School Readiness and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasser, Tyler R.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine co-variation in the development of self-regulatory skills evident in pre-kindergarten and evaluate the implications of that variation for school adjustment in kindergarten and first grade. Measures of self-regulatory skill development included: direct assessments of EF (executive function) (e.g., Peg Tapping,…

  6. Can Executive Functions Explain the Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda; McBurnett, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the ability of executive functions (EF) to account for the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) status and social adjustment as indexed by parent and teacher report and by performance on a standardized observational "chat room" task. Children with the Combined subtype (ADHD-C; n = 23), the…

  7. A Social Adjustment Enhancement Intervention for High Functioning Autism, Asperger's Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Marjorie; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Anders, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a 20-week social adjustment enhancement curriculum for boys aged 8-12. The curriculum was designed to address three areas hypothesized to be deficient in persons with HFA, AS, and PDDNOS: emotion recognition and understanding; theory of mind; and executive functions/real life type problem solving. Parents…

  8. Youths with ADHD with and without Tic Disorders: Comorbid Psychopathology, Executive Function and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders (TD) commonly co-occur. Clarifying the psychiatric comorbidities, executive functions and social adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents of ADHD with and without TD is informative to understand the developmental psychopathology and to identify their specific clinical…

  9. Gay and Lesbian Adoptive Families: An Exploratory Study of Family Functioning, Adoptive Child's Behavior, and Familial Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…

  10. Promoting adolescent behavioral adjustment in violent neighborhoods: supportive families can make a difference!

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Mesman, Glenn R; Pemberton, Joy R; Casey, Patrick H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of family cohesion on the relationship between community violence and child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program, an intervention study for low-birthweight, preterm infants. Six of eight sites in the Infant Health and Development Program were in large metropolitan areas; two served rural and urban areas. About half of the sample was African American. Research teams collected data from caregivers multiple times in the first 3 years of the target child's life, and at 4, 5, 6½, 8, and 18 years. Caregivers reported on community violence, neighborhood problems with (a) drug users/sellers; (b) delinquent gangs; and (c) crime, assaults, and burglaries reports when children were 4, 5, and 8 years of age. Family cohesion was assessed twice, at ages 6½ and 8 years, using caregiver reports on the Family Environment Scale. Adolescent self-report of Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems at age 18 were assessed using the Behavior Problems Index. In this study, the association between adolescent psychosocial outcomes and community violence were moderated by family cohesion and gender such that being in a highly cohesive family as a child protected male children from the negative effects of community violence. Findings demonstrate the long-term protective effects of family cohesion on child behavioral development for male children but suggest a need to examine additional supports for females exposed to community violence during childhood. PMID:24787626

  11. Political Violence, Family Relations, and Palestinian Youth Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Brian K.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated associations among involvement in political violence, family relations, and adolescent social and psychological functioning in Palestinian families in Israel. Found that childhood "Intifada" experience predicted increased antisocial behavior for adolescent males and females and depression for females 1 to 2 years after the end of the…

  12. Goal Direction and Effectiveness, Emotional Maturity, and Nuclear Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klever, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Differentiation of self, a cornerstone concept in Bowen theory, has a profound influence over time on the functioning of the individual and his or her family unit. This 5-year longitudinal study tested this hypothesis with 50 developing nuclear families. The dimensions of differentiation of self that were examined were goal direction and…

  13. Family conflict, autonomic nervous system functioning, and child adaptation: State of the science and future directions

    PubMed Central

    EL-SHEIKH, MONA; ERATH, STEPHEN A.

    2011-01-01

    The family is one of the primary contexts of child development. Marital and parent–child conflict (family conflict) are common and predict a wide range of negative behavioral and emotional outcomes in children. Thus, an important task for developmental researchers is to identify the processes through which family conflict contributes to children's psychological maladjustment, as well as vulnerability and protective factors in the context of family conflict. In the current paper, we aim to advance a conceptual model that focuses on indices of children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning that increase vulnerability or provide protection against psychological maladjustment in the context of family conflict. In doing so, we provide a selective review that reflects the state of the science linking family conflict, children's ANS activity, and child psychological adjustment, and offer directions and guidance for future research. Our hope is to accelerate research at the intersection of family conflict and ANS functioning to advance understanding of risk and resilience among children. PMID:23786705

  14. Family conflict, autonomic nervous system functioning, and child adaptation: state of the science and future directions.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Erath, Stephen A

    2011-05-01

    The family is one of the primary contexts of child development. Marital and parent-child conflict (family conflict) are common and predict a wide range of negative behavioral and emotional outcomes in children. Thus, an important task for developmental researchers is to identify the processes through which family conflict contributes to children's psychological maladjustment, as well as vulnerability and protective factors in the context of family conflict. In the current paper, we aim to advance a conceptual model that focuses on indices of children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning that increase vulnerability or provide protection against psychological maladjustment in the context of family conflict. In doing so, we provide a selective review that reflects the state of the science linking family conflict, children's ANS activity, and child psychological adjustment, and offer directions and guidance for future research. Our hope is to accelerate research at the intersection of family conflict and ANS functioning to advance understanding of risk and resilience among children. PMID:23786705

  15. The transmission of trauma in refugee families: associations between intra-family trauma communication style, children's attachment security and psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, Nina Thorup; Todd, Brenda Kathryn; Daniel, Sarah I F; Montgomery, Edith

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the transmission of trauma in 30 Middle Eastern refugee families in Denmark, where one or both parents were referred for treatment of PTSD symptoms and had non-traumatized children aged 4-9 years. The aim of the study was to explore potential risk and protective factors by examining the association between intra-family communication style regarding the parents' traumatic experiences from the past, children's psychosocial adjustment and attachment security. A negative impact of parental trauma on children might be indicated, as children's Total Difficulties Scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were significantly higher than the Danish norms. A negative association between children's attachment security as measured by the Attachment and Traumatization Story Task and higher scores on the SDQ Total Difficulties Scale approached significance, suggesting that the transmission of trauma may be associated with disruptions in children's attachment representations. Furthermore a significant association between parental trauma communication and children's attachment style was found. PMID:26608277

  16. Role of family resources and paternal history of substance use problems in psychosocial adjustment among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use problems) and their mothers. Results draw attention to the differences between the subjective experiences of the child and those of the mother, and by indicating that the effect of the interaction between the father's and the mother's control parenting style on the child's psychosocial outcome is greater than the sum total of influences of each of them separately. PMID:19157043

  17. Relationships between quality of life and family function in caregiver

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are caregivers who see their quality of life (QoL) impaired due to the demands of their caregiving tasks, while others manage to adapt and overcome the crises successfully. The influence of the family function in the main caregiver's situation has not been the subject of much evaluation. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the functionality of the family and the QoL of caregivers of dependent relatives. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 153 caregivers. Setting: Two health centers in the city of Salamanca(Spain). Caregiver variables analysed: demographic characteristics, care recipient features; family functionality (Family APGAR-Q) and QoL (Ruiz-Baca-Q) perceived by the caregiver. Five multiple regressions are performed considering global QoL and each of the four QoL dimensions as dependent variables. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to study the influence of the family function questionnaire on QoL. Results Family function is the only one of the variables evaluated that presented an association both with global QoL and with each of the four individual dimensions (p < 0.05). Using the CCA, we found that the physical and mental well-being dimensions are the ones which present a closer relationship with family functionality, while social support is the quality dimension that is least influenced by the Family APGAR-Q. Conclusion We find an association between family functionality and the caregiver's QoL. This relation holds for both the global measure of QoL and each of its four individual dimensions. PMID:21496270

  18. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others

    To test Maccoby and Martin's (1983) revision of Baumrind's conceptual framework, the families of approximately 4,100 14- to 18-year-olds were classified into one of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) on the basis of the adolescents' ratings of their parents on 2 dimensions: acceptance/involvement and firm control.…

  19. Socioenvironmental Risk and Adjustment in Latino Youth: The Mediating Effects of Family Processes and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Loukas, Alexandra; Jordan-Green, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The direct and mediated effects of socioenvironmental risk on internalizing and externalizing problems among Latino youth aged 10-14 were examined using prospective analyses. Participants in this study were 464 Latino mother and child dyads surveyed as part of the "Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study." It was hypothesized that…

  20. Parenting Practices and Child Adjustment in Different Types of Households: A Study of African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This article uses a sample of 867 African American households to investigate differences in parenting practices and child outcomes by type of household. Results indicate that mothers provide similar levels of parenting regardless of family structure. Secondary caregivers, however, show a great deal of variation in quality of parenting. Fathers and…

  1. Joint versus maternal custody for families with latency age boys: parent characteristics and child adjustment.

    PubMed

    Shiller, V M

    1986-07-01

    Families with boys aged 6-11 in joint and maternal physical custody were interviewed 1-6 years following the parental separation. According to ratings made by parents and teachers, boys in joint custody had fewer behavioral difficulties than their maternal custody counterparts. Joint custody parents also evidenced some strengths compared to parents with maternal physical custody. PMID:3740232

  2. Block adjustment of Chang'E-1 images based on rational function model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Yiliang; Di, Kaichang; Sun, Xiliang

    2014-05-01

    Chang'E-1(CE-1) is the first lunar orbiter of China's lunar exploration program. The CCD camera carried by CE-1 has acquired stereo images covering the entire lunar surface. Block adjustment and 3D mapping using CE-1 images are of great importance for morphological and other scientific research of the Moon. Traditional block adjustment based on rigorous sensor model is complicated due to a large number of parameters and possible correlations among them. To tackle this problem, this paper presents a block adjustment method using Rational Function Model (RFM). The RFM parameters are generated based on rigorous sensor model using virtual grid of control points. Afterwards, the RFM based block adjustment solves the refinement parameters through a least squares solution. Experimental results using CE-1 images located in Sinus Irdium show that the RFM can fit the rigorous sensor model with a high precision of 1% pixel level. Through the RFM-based block adjustment, the back-projection residuals in image space can be reduced from around 1.5 pixels to sub-pixel., indicating that RFM can replace rigorous sensor model for geometric processing of lunar images.

  3. A systematic review of the literature on family functioning across all eating disorder diagnoses in comparison to control families.

    PubMed

    Holtom-Viesel, Anita; Allan, Steven

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this review were to systematically identify and evaluate quantitative research comparing family functioning (a) in eating disorder families with control families, (b) in families with different eating disorder diagnoses (c) perceptions of different family members and (d) the relationship between family functioning and recovery. This adds to the findings of previous reviews of family functioning by including data from control families, the range of diagnoses, and focusing on recovery. Findings were considered in relation to models of family functioning. Using specific search criteria, 17 research papers were identified and evaluated. Findings indicated that eating disorder families reported worse family functioning than control families but there was little evidence for a typical pattern of family dysfunction. A consistent pattern of family dysfunction for different diagnoses was not suggested but patients consistently rated their family as more dysfunctional than one or both of their parents. With respect to outcome and recovery, those with more positive perceptions of family functioning generally had more positive outcomes, irrespective of severity of eating disorder. Conclusions were limited by inconsistent findings and methodological issues. Further research is needed into the relationship between family functioning and outcome and the assessment of family functioning beyond self-report. PMID:24321132

  4. Parent–Child Conflict and Early Childhood Adjustment in Two-Parent Low-Income Families: Parallel Developmental Processes

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Crossan, Jennifer L.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2015-01-01

    Parent–child conflict is central to most intervention models focused on reducing child problem behavior, yet few longitudinal studies have examined these processes during early childhood. The current study investigates (1) growth in mother–child and father figure (FF)–child conflict, (2) associations between trajectories of mother–child and FF–child conflict and children’s adjustment; and (3) intervention effects in attenuating conflict. Participants are 195 ethnically diverse mother–FF–child triads drawn from a larger parenting intervention study for families with children at risk for developing conduct problems. Mother–child conflict decreased from ages 2 to 4, but decreases were unrelated to changes in children’s adjustment problems. In contrast, the slope of FF–child conflict was positively related to the slope of child externalizing behaviors. Random assignment to a family-centered parenting intervention predicted rate of decline in mother–child conflict. Findings are discussed with respect to developmental patterns of parent–child conflict in early childhood and implications for prevention. PMID:24610382

  5. Parental Acculturative Stressors and Adolescent Adjustment Through Interparental and Parent-Child Relationships in Chinese American Families.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie

    2016-07-01

    Perpetual foreigner stereotype and bicultural management difficulty are two understudied acculturative stressors frequently experienced by Asian Americans. This study expanded the family stress model to examine how parental experiences of these two acculturative stressors relate to measures of adolescent adjustment (depressive symptoms, delinquent behaviors, and academic performance) during high school and emerging adulthood through interparental and parent-child relationship processes. Participants were 350 Chinese American adolescents (M age  = 17.04, 58 % female) and their parents in Northern California. Path models showed that parental acculturative stressors positively related to parent-child conflict, either directly (for both mother-adolescent and father-adolescent dyads) or indirectly through interparental conflict (for mother-adolescent dyads only). Subsequently, both interparental and parent-child conflict positively related to a sense of alienation between parents and adolescents, which then related to more depressive symptoms, more delinquent behaviors, and lower academic performance in adolescents, for mother-adolescent and father-adolescent dyads. These effects persisted from high school to emerging adulthood. The results highlight the indirect effects of maternal and paternal acculturative stressors on adolescent adjustment through family processes involving interparental and parent-child relationships. PMID:26885827

  6. Protein function annotation using protein domain family resources.

    PubMed

    Das, Sayoni; Orengo, Christine A

    2016-01-15

    As a result of the genome sequencing and structural genomics initiatives, we have a wealth of protein sequence and structural data. However, only about 1% of these proteins have experimental functional annotations. As a result, computational approaches that can predict protein functions are essential in bridging this widening annotation gap. This article reviews the current approaches of protein function prediction using structure and sequence based classification of protein domain family resources with a special focus on functional families in the CATH-Gene3D resource. PMID:26434392

  7. The Growth of a Family

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, June C.; Biringer, Anne

    1991-01-01

    Caring for a family during pregnancy and birth is an ideal opportunity for family physicians to assess family functioning and help the family adjust to the birth of a new child. Stress and support systems can influence the course of pregnancy, including obstetric and perinatal outcomes. A family-centered approach can help patients during this critical stage of family development. PMID:21229107

  8. Doubling Time for Nonexponential Families of Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2010-01-01

    One special characteristic of any exponential growth or decay function f(t) = Ab[superscript t] is its unique doubling time or half-life, each of which depends only on the base "b". The half-life is used to characterize the rate of decay of any radioactive substance or the rate at which the level of a medication in the bloodstream decays as it is…

  9. Executive function and psychosocial adjustment in healthy children and adolescents: A latent variable modelling investigation.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish latent executive function (EF) and psychosocial adjustment factor structure, to examine associations between EF and psychosocial adjustment, and to explore potential development differences in EF-psychosocial adjustment associations in healthy children and adolescents. Using data from the multisite National Institutes of Health (NIH) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development, the current investigation examined latent associations between theoretically and empirically derived EF factors and emotional and behavioral adjustment measures in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents (7-18 years old; N = 352). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was the primary method of data analysis. CFA results revealed that, in the whole sample, the proposed five-factor model (Working Memory, Shifting, Verbal Fluency, Externalizing, and Internalizing) provided a close fit to the data, χ(2)(66) = 114.48, p < .001; RMSEA = .046; NNFI = .973; CFI = .980. Significant negative associations were demonstrated between Externalizing and both Working Memory and Verbal Fluency (p < .01) factors. A series of increasingly restrictive tests led to the rejection of the hypothesis of invariance, thereby precluding formal statistical examination of age-related differences in latent EF-psychosocial adjustment associations. Findings indicate that childhood EF skills are best conceptualized as a constellation of interconnected yet distinguishable cognitive self-regulatory skills. Individual differences in certain domains of EF track meaningfully and in expected directions with emotional and behavioral adjustment indices. Externalizing behaviors, in particular, are associated with latent Working Memory and Verbal Fluency factors. PMID:25569593

  10. The Effects of Economic and Social Stressors on Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment of African-American Families. CEIC Research Brief, No. 109.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald

    This study examines economic and social stressors and their effects on the parenting styles and adolescent adjustment of African American families. It systematically characterizes and explains the nature of some of the chronic economic and social stressors experienced by poor African American families as they affect parenting and adolescent…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Family, Friends, and School Experiences on the Psychological Adjustment of Ethnic Minority, Low-SES Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Niobe; Robinson, Melissa G.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the influence over time of demographic variables and perceived family and friend support and school climate on changes in psychological adjustment among Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents from low-income families. Found a greater increase in self-esteem in students reporting more positive perceptions of school climate and,…

  12. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  13. Parents of children with haemophilia at an early age: assessment of perceived stress and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ortuño, A; Cuesta-Barriuso, R; Nieto-Munuera, J

    2014-11-01

    Haemophilia is a chronic disease that requires a multidisciplinary approach for proper management and control of its clinical manifestations. The perception and management of parents of children with haemophilia can be affected by stressful situations as a result of treatment or disease progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of stress and family functioning in parents of children with haemophilia 1-7 years. This is an observational clinical study involving 49 parents of children with haemophilia 1-7 years who attended the VIII Workshop for Parents of Children with haemophilia, organized by the Spanish Federation of Hemophilia in La Charca, Murcia (Spain). After obtaining parental consent, the questionnaires was applied to them, FACES III (family functioning) and Pediatric Inventory for Parents (perceived stress), and a record of data on the clinical characteristics and treatment. Significant differences in the perception of stressors by gender of parents were found. A family history of haemophilia, the use of port-a-cath, inhibitor development and gender of the parents were the descriptive variables most correlated with dependents variables. These variables, together with the type of haemophilia affect significantly in the parental stress and family functioning. Parents have difficulty adjusting to disease management, perceiving many stressors. Gender and family history, can hinder the proper compliance with treatments, reducing its effectiveness. PMID:25142950

  14. Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families.

    PubMed

    Lamborn, S D; Mounts, N S; Steinberg, L; Dornbusch, S M

    1991-10-01

    In order to test Maccoby and Martin's revision of Baumrind's conceptual framework, the families of approximately 4,100 14-18-year-olds were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) on the basis of the adolescents' ratings of their parents on 2 dimensions: acceptance/involvement and strictness/supervision. The youngsters were then contrasted along 4 sets of outcomes: psychosocial development, school achievement, internalized distress, and problem behavior. Results indicate that adolescents who characterize their parents as authoritative score highest on measures of psychosocial competence and lowest on measures of psychological and behavioral dysfunction; the reverse is true for adolescents who describe their parents as neglectful. Adolescents whose parents are characterized as authoritarian score reasonably well on measures indexing obedience and conformity to the standards of adults but have relatively poorer self-conceptions than other youngsters. In contrast, adolescents from indulgent homes evidence a strong sense of self-confidence but report a higher frequency of substance abuse and school misconduct and are less engaged in school. The results provide support for Maccoby and Martin's framework and indicate the need to distinguish between two types of "permissive" families: those that are indulgent and those that are neglectful. PMID:1756655

  15. Community Violence, Family Conflict, and Preschoolers' Socioemotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farver, Jo Ann M.; Xu, Yiyuan; Eppe, Stefanie; Fernandez, Alicia; Schwartz, David

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations among family conflict, community violence, and young children's socioemotional functioning and explored how children's social cognition and mothers' psychological functioning may mediate the outcomes associated with this exposure. Mothers of 431 Head Start preschoolers completed questionnaires about their family…

  16. Familial Clustering of Executive Functioning in Affected Sibling Pair Families with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Swaab-Barneveld, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo; Buitelaar, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate familial clustering of executive functioning (i.e., response inhibition, fine visuomotor functioning, and attentional control) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-affected sibling pairs. Method: Fifty-two affected sibling pairs aged 6 to 18 years and diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV performed the…

  17. The Brief Family Relationship Scale: A Brief Measure of the Relationship Dimension in Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David

    2011-01-01

    The Relationship dimension of the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994), which consists of the Cohesion, Expressiveness, and Conflict subscales, measures a person's perception of the quality of their family relationship functioning. This study investigates an adaptation of the Relationship dimension of the FES for Alaska Native youth. We tested the adapted measure, the Brief Family Relationship Scale (BFRS), for psychometric properties and internal structure with 284 12 to18 year-old predominately Yup'ik Eskimo Alaska Native adolescents from rural, remote communities. This non-Western cultural group is hypothesized to display higher levels of collectivism traditionally organized around an extended kinship family structure. Results demonstrate a subset of the adapted items function satisfactorily, a three-response alternative format provided meaningful information, and the subscale's underlying structure is best described through three distinct first-order factors, organized under one higher order factor. Convergent and discriminant validity of the BFRS was assessed through correlational analysis. PMID:22084400

  18. Predicting self-care with patients and family members' affective states and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Musci, E C; Dodd, M J

    1990-01-01

    People with cancer manage the side effects of treatment with the assistance of their family members. This study was designed to describe self-care behaviors (SCBs) initiated by patients and their family members and to determine the relationship between patients and family members' affective states and family functioning and SCBs. Using a longitudinal design, 42 patients and 40 family members were followed during 3 cycles of chemotherapy (12-16 weeks). The patients completed measures of affective state (POMS) each cycle; patients and family members completed a family functioning measure (F-COPES) at second cycle only; and the patients reported in an SCB log on an ongoing basis. The overall pattern of SCBs corroborated previous findings. The average number of SCBs initiated was 1.4 per side effect. Depression and vigor significantly predicted SCBs at Cycle 1 only. The severity of side effects consistently predicted SCB over the 3 cycles (r 2 = -0.39 to -0.46). Patients who experienced more severe side effects were at risk of diminished self-care. PMID:2342973

  19. Adjustable grazing incidence x-ray optics: measurement of actuator influence functions and comparison with modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.

    2011-09-01

    The present generation of X-ray telescopes emphasizes either high image quality (e.g. Chandra with sub-arc second resolution) or large effective area (e.g. XMM-Newton), while future observatories under consideration (e.g. Athena, AXSIO) aim to greatly enhance the effective area, while maintaining moderate (~10 arc-seconds) image quality. To go beyond the limits of present and planned missions, the use of thin adjustable optics for the control of low-order figure error is needed to obtain the high image quality of precisely figured mirrors along with the large effective area of thin mirrors. The adjustable mirror prototypes under study at Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory are based on two different principles and designs: 1) thin film lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric actuators directly deposited on the mirror back surface, with the strain direction parallel to the glass surface (for sub-arc-second angular resolution and large effective area), and 2) conventional leadmagnesium- niobate (PMN) electrostrictive actuators with their strain direction perpendicular to the mirror surface (for 3-5 arc second resolution and moderate effective area). We have built and operated flat test mirrors of these adjustable optics. We present the comparison between theoretical influence functions as obtained by finite element analysis and the measured influence functions obtained from the two test configurations.

  20. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2010-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct, CD/ODD and MDD symptoms, and greater parent-child conflict than their counterparts in two parent families. Single parent mothers reported greater economic hardship, depression and family stress. Family stress and parent-child conflict emerged as significant mediators of the association between family structure and early adolescent outcomes, suggesting important processes linking MA single parent families and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21361925

  1. RASSF tumor suppressor gene family: biological functions and regulation.

    PubMed

    Volodko, Natalia; Gordon, Marilyn; Salla, Mohamed; Ghazaleh, Haya Abu; Baksh, Shairaz

    2014-08-19

    Genetic changes through allelic loss and nucleic acid or protein modifications are the main contributors to loss of function of tumor suppressor proteins. In particular, epigenetic silencing of genes by promoter hypermethylation is associated with increased tumor severity and poor survival. The RASSF (Ras association domain family) family of proteins consists of 10 members, many of which are tumor suppressor proteins that undergo loss of expression through promoter methylation in numerous types of cancers such as leukemia, melanoma, breast, prostate, neck, lung, brain, colorectal and kidney cancers. In addition to their tumor suppressor function, RASSF proteins act as scaffolding agents in microtubule stability, regulate mitotic cell division, modulate apoptosis, control cell migration and cell adhesion, and modulate NFκB activity and the duration of inflammation. The ubiquitous functions of these proteins highlight their importance in numerous physiological pathways. In this review, we will focus on the biological roles of the RASSF family members and their regulation. PMID:24607545

  2. Family functioning and adolescent alcohol use: A moderated mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Flannery, Kaitlin M; Simpson, Emily; Russell, Beth S

    2016-06-01

    The primary goals of this longitudinal study were to examine the relationship between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use and to examine whether depressed mood mediates this relationship. An additional goal was to explore whether these relations were moderated by gender. The sample included 1031 high school students from the Mid-Atlantic United States. Participants completed surveys in school during the spring of 2007, 2008, and 2009. Path analysis results indicated that family functioning predicted alcohol use for girls. Moreover, depressed mood mediated this relationship. None of the direct paths between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use were significant for boys. However, similar to girls, depressed mood negatively predicted alcohol use for boys. Taken together, the findings highlight the need for prevention programs targeting adolescent substance use to consider gender-specific trajectories. PMID:26994346

  3. Social functioning and adjustment in Chinese children: the imprint of historical time.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Cen, Guozhen; Li, Dan; He, Yunfeng

    2005-01-01

    This study examined, in 3 cohorts (1990, 1998, and 2002) of elementary school children (M age=10 years), relations between social functioning and adjustment in different phases of the societal transition in China. Data were obtained from multiple sources. The results indicate that sociability-cooperation was associated with peer acceptance and teacher-rated competence, whereas aggression was associated with social and school difficulties in all 3 cohorts. The effect of different social contexts was reflected mainly in the relations between shyness-sensitivity and adjustment. Whereas shyness was associated with social and academic achievement in the 1990 cohort, the associations became weaker or nonsignificant in the 1998 cohort. Furthermore, shyness was associated with peer rejection, school problems, and depression in the 2002 cohort. PMID:15693766

  4. Parent adjustment over time in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual parent families adopting from foster care.

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Waterman, Jill; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2014-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of gay and lesbian individuals and couples are adopting children, gay men and lesbian women continue to face increased scrutiny and legal obstacles from the child welfare system. To date, little research has compared the experiences of gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents over time, limiting conceptual understandings of the similarities they share and the unique challenges that gay and lesbian adoptive parents may face. This study compared the adoption satisfaction, depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and social support at 2, 12, and 24 months postplacement of 82 parents (60 heterosexual, 15 gay, 7 lesbian) adopting children from foster care in Los Angeles County. Few differences were found between heterosexual and gay or lesbian parents at any of the assessments or in their patterns of change over time. On average, parents in both household types reported significant increases in adoption satisfaction and maintained low, nonclinical levels of depressive symptoms and parenting stress over time. Across all family types, greater parenting stress was associated with more depressive symptoms and lower adoption satisfaction. Results indicated many similarities between gay or lesbian and heterosexual adoptive parents, and highlight a need for services to support adoptive parents throughout the transition to parenthood to promote their well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24826826

  5. Evolutionary and Functional Relationships in the Truncated Hemoglobin Family

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Juan P.; Radusky, Leandro; Boechi, Leonardo; Estrin, Darío A.; ten Have, Arjen; Martí, Marcelo A.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting function from sequence is an important goal in current biological research, and although, broad functional assignment is possible when a protein is assigned to a family, predicting functional specificity with accuracy is not straightforward. If function is provided by key structural properties and the relevant properties can be computed using the sequence as the starting point, it should in principle be possible to predict function in detail. The truncated hemoglobin family presents an interesting benchmark study due to their ubiquity, sequence diversity in the context of a conserved fold and the number of characterized members. Their functions are tightly related to O2 affinity and reactivity, as determined by the association and dissociation rate constants, both of which can be predicted and analyzed using in-silico based tools. In the present work we have applied a strategy, which combines homology modeling with molecular based energy calculations, to predict and analyze function of all known truncated hemoglobins in an evolutionary context. Our results show that truncated hemoglobins present conserved family features, but that its structure is flexible enough to allow the switch from high to low affinity in a few evolutionary steps. Most proteins display moderate to high oxygen affinities and multiple ligand migration paths, which, besides some minor trends, show heterogeneous distributions throughout the phylogenetic tree, again suggesting fast functional adaptation. Our data not only deepens our comprehension of the structural basis governing ligand affinity, but they also highlight some interesting functional evolutionary trends. PMID:26788940

  6. Evolutionary and Functional Relationships in the Truncated Hemoglobin Family.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Juan P; Radusky, Leandro; Boechi, Leonardo; Estrin, Darío A; Ten Have, Arjen; Martí, Marcelo A

    2016-01-01

    Predicting function from sequence is an important goal in current biological research, and although, broad functional assignment is possible when a protein is assigned to a family, predicting functional specificity with accuracy is not straightforward. If function is provided by key structural properties and the relevant properties can be computed using the sequence as the starting point, it should in principle be possible to predict function in detail. The truncated hemoglobin family presents an interesting benchmark study due to their ubiquity, sequence diversity in the context of a conserved fold and the number of characterized members. Their functions are tightly related to O2 affinity and reactivity, as determined by the association and dissociation rate constants, both of which can be predicted and analyzed using in-silico based tools. In the present work we have applied a strategy, which combines homology modeling with molecular based energy calculations, to predict and analyze function of all known truncated hemoglobins in an evolutionary context. Our results show that truncated hemoglobins present conserved family features, but that its structure is flexible enough to allow the switch from high to low affinity in a few evolutionary steps. Most proteins display moderate to high oxygen affinities and multiple ligand migration paths, which, besides some minor trends, show heterogeneous distributions throughout the phylogenetic tree, again suggesting fast functional adaptation. Our data not only deepens our comprehension of the structural basis governing ligand affinity, but they also highlight some interesting functional evolutionary trends. PMID:26788940

  7. Determination of discount functions in rats with an adjusting-amount procedure.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, J B; Mitchell, S H; de Wit, H; Seiden, L S

    1997-01-01

    An adjusting-amount procedure was used to measure discounting of reinforcer value by delay. Eight rats chose between a varying amount of immediate water and a fixed amount of water given after a delay. The amount of immediate water was systematically adjusted as a function of the rats' previous choices. This procedure was used to determine the indifference point at which each rat chose the immediate amount and the delayed amount with equal frequency. The amount of immediate water at this indifference point was used to estimate the value of the delayed amount of water. In Experiment 1, the effects of daily changes in the delay to the fixed reinforcer (100 microliters of water delivered after 0, 2, 4, 8, or 16 s) were tested. Under these conditions, the rats reached indifference points within the first 30 trials of each 60-trial session. In Experiment 2, the effects of water deprivation level on discounting of value by delay were assessed. Altering water deprivation level affected the speed of responding but did not affect delay discounting. In Experiment 3, the effects of varying the magnitude of the delayed water (100, 150, and 200 microliters) were tested. There was some tendency for the discounting function to be steeper for larger than for smaller reinforcers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. In all three experiments, the obtained discount functions were well described by a hyperbolic function. These experiments demonstrate that the adjusting-amount procedure provides a useful tool for measuring the discounting of reinforcer value by delay. PMID:9163939

  8. Platinum nanoparticles from size adjusted functional colloidal particles generated by a seeded emulsion polymerization process.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Nicolas; Ziener, Ulrich; Manzke, Achim; Plettl, Alfred; Ziemann, Paul; Biskupek, Johannes; Weiss, Clemens K; Landfester, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of miniemulsion and emulsion polymerization are combined in a seeded emulsion polymerization process with functional seed particles synthesized by miniemulsion polymerization. A systematic study on the influence of different reaction parameters on the reaction pathway is conducted, including variations of the amount of monomer fed, the ratio of initiator to monomer and the choice of surfactant and composition of the continuous phase. Critical parameters affecting the control of the reaction are determined. If carefully controlled, the seeded emulsion polymerization with functional seed particles yields monodisperse particles with adjustable size and functionalities. Size-adjusted platinum-acetylacetonate containing latex particles with identical seed particles and varied shell thicknesses are used to produce arrays of highly ordered platinum nanoparticles with different interparticle distances but identical particle sizes. For that, a self-assembled monolayer of functional colloids is prepared on a solid substrate and subsequently treated by oxygen plasma processing in order to remove the organic constituents. This step, however, leads to a saturated state of a residual mix of materials. In order to determine parameters influencing this saturation state, the type of surfactant, the amount of precursor loading and the size of the colloids are varied. By short annealing at high temperatures platinum nanoparticles are generated from the saturated state particles. Typically, the present fabrication method delivers a maximum interparticle distance of about 260 nm for well-defined crystalline platinum nanoparticles limited by deformation processes due to softening of the organic material during the plasma applications. PMID:22003452

  9. Executive Functioning and School Adjustment: The Mediational Role of Pre-kindergarten Learning-related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Sasser, Tyler R.; Bierman, Karen L.; Heinrichs, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    164 four-year-old children (14% Latino American, 30% African American, 56% European American; 57% girls) in 22 Head Start classrooms were followed through third grade. Growth curve models were used to estimate the predictive associations between pre-kindergarten executive function (EF) skills and trajectories of academic skill development (math, literacy, overall academic functioning) and social-emotional adjustment at school (social competence, aggression), controlling for child sex, race, verbal IQ, and pre-kindergarten baseline scores. Direct developmental pathways were examined, along with indirect pathways, in which the association between preschool EF and elementary school adjustment was mediated by classroom learning behaviors. Preschool EF significantly predicted later math skills, academic functioning, and social competence, and marginally predicted later literacy skills. Preschool learning behaviors fully mediated the association between EF and later literacy skills and social competence, but did not mediate associations between EF and later math skills or academic functioning. Implications for developmental theory and early education are discussed. PMID:27231409

  10. Hostility, hostile detachment, and conflict engagement in marriages: effects on child and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Woodin, Erica M

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relations between patterns of marital communication, child adjustment, and family functioning. Couples with a 4- or 5-year-old child were divided into three groups (N = 126) based on observed patterns of emotional communication: Hostile couples showed a cumulative increase in negative speaker behaviors over the course of a high-conflict marital discussion; hostile-withdrawn couples showed a cumulative increase in both negative speaker and negative listener behaviors over the course of the interaction; and engaged couples showed a cumulative increase in both positive speaker and listener behaviors over the course of the interaction. The families of these three types of couples were then compared on child outcomes (i.e., peer relations, behavior problems), parenting quality, co-parenting quality, and family-level functioning. Differences in marital violence and marital satisfaction between marital couples were also examined in relation to family risk. Families in which couples were hostile-detached showed the most negative outcomes. Hostile-detached couples were more likely than hostile or conflict-engaging couples to use more power-assertive methods of discipline; to be ineffective in co-parenting their child; to have family units that were less cohesive, less playful, and more conflictual; and to have children that exhibited behavior problems. Results also indicated that marital typology still accounted for significant variance in child outcome after controlling for marital violence and marital satisfaction. Differences in the absolute degree of negative behaviors also did not account for results. Findings are discussed in terms of the detrimental impact of marital conflict on child and family functioning. PMID:11949913

  11. [Function and structure of families with chronically ill children].

    PubMed

    Hauser, E; Freilinger, M; Skyllouriotis, M; Zacherl, S; Wimmer, M; Balzar, E; Schubert, M T

    1996-11-01

    In modern medicine especially the sick child often points out the limits of the psychosocial potentialities. This project investigates the function, structure, coping mechanisms, power and weakness of families with chronically ill children. We investigated 28 children from the nephrological ward and 55 patients from the cardiological department and also their families with the FAM III and compared the obtained T-scores with the results of the control-group (76 families, t-test, analysis of variance). Families with patients after renal transplantation (NTX) pointed out significant worse T-scores than the group with patients on CAPD or with preterminal renal insufficiency and CG (p < 0.05). Within the cardiological groups the differences were not statistically significant, on the other hand the group with patients before heart-operation and the group with patients after palliative heart-operation had better T-scores than the CT (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that families with children suffering from a chronic renal or heart disease mobilize substantial resources to cope with these problems. By contrast the results of the families with patients after NTX or successful heart surgery are significant worse than the control-group and the other investigated patients groups. Our results come to the conclusion that especially after successful NTX or heart-surgery a psychosocial care of these families is necessary. PMID:9036411

  12. Adaptive, Emotional, and Family Functioning of Children With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; do Rosario-Campos, Maria C.; Scahill, Lawrence; Katsovich, Lily; Pauls, David L.; Peterson, Bradley S.; King, Robert A.; Lombroso, Paul J.; Findley, Diane B.; Leckman, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study was to examine adaptive, emotional, and family functioning in a well-characterized group of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to evaluate the influence of comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the levels of impairment in various functional domains. Method The study group included 287 children and adolescents (191 boys, 96 girls) ages 7–18 years. Fifty-six subjects had a diagnosis of OCD only, 43 had both OCD and ADHD, 95 had ADHD, and 93 were unaffected comparison children. Best estimate DSM-IV diagnoses were assigned on the basis of structured interviews and clinical ratings. The children's functioning was evaluated with a comprehensive battery of well-established, standardized measures, including the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, parents' ratings of social and family functioning, and children's self-reports of emotional adjustment. Results The children with OCD only were more impaired than were unaffected comparison subjects in most areas of adaptive functioning and emotional adjustment. Children with OCD plus ADHD had additional difficulties in social functioning, school problems, and self-reported depression. Impairment in daily living skills, reduced number of activities, and self-reported anxiety were uniquely associated with the diagnosis of OCD. Family dysfunction was associated with ADHD but not with OCD. Conclusions Children and adolescents with OCD are impaired in multiple domains of adaptive and emotional functioning. When comorbid ADHD is present, there is an additional burden on social, school, and family functioning. PMID:15930061

  13. The brief family relationship scale: a brief measure of the relationship dimension in family functioning.

    PubMed

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David

    2014-02-01

    The Relationship dimension of the Family Environment Scale, which consists of the Cohesion, Expressiveness, and Conflict subscales, measures a person's perception of the quality of his or her family relationship functioning. This study investigates an adaptation of the Relationship dimension of the Family Environment Scale for Alaska Native youth. The authors tested the adapted measure, the Brief Family Relationship Scale, for psychometric properties and internal structure with 284 12- to 18-year-old predominately Yup'ik Eskimo Alaska Native adolescents from rural, remote communities. This non-Western cultural group is hypothesized to display higher levels of collectivism traditionally organized around an extended kinship family structure. Results demonstrate a subset of the adapted items function satisfactorily, a three-response alternative format provided meaningful information, and the subscale's underlying structure is best described through three distinct first-order factors, organized under one higher order factor. Convergent and discriminant validity of the Brief Family Relationship Scale was assessed through correlational analysis. PMID:22084400

  14. Using Green's Functions to initialize and adjust a global, eddying ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brix, H.; Menemenlis, D.; Hill, C.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Jahn, O.; Wang, D.; Bowman, K.; Zhang, H.

    2015-11-01

    The NASA Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) Flux Project aims to attribute changes in the atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide to spatially resolved fluxes by utilizing the full suite of NASA data, models, and assimilation capabilities. For the oceanic part of this project, we introduce ECCO2-Darwin, a new ocean biogeochemistry general circulation model based on combining the following pre-existing components: (i) a full-depth, eddying, global-ocean configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), (ii) an adjoint-method-based estimate of ocean circulation from the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II (ECCO2) project, (iii) the MIT ecosystem model "Darwin", and (iv) a marine carbon chemistry model. Air-sea gas exchange coefficients and initial conditions of dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and oxygen are adjusted using a Green's Functions approach in order to optimize modeled air-sea CO2 fluxes. Data constraints include observations of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) for 2009-2010, global air-sea CO2 flux estimates, and the seasonal cycle of the Takahashi et al. (2009) Atlas. The model sensitivity experiments (or Green's Functions) include simulations that start from different initial conditions as well as experiments that perturb air-sea gas exchange parameters and the ratio of particulate inorganic to organic carbon. The Green's Functions approach yields a linear combination of these sensitivity experiments that minimizes model-data differences. The resulting initial conditions and gas exchange coefficients are then used to integrate the ECCO2-Darwin model forward. Despite the small number (six) of control parameters, the adjusted simulation is significantly closer to the data constraints (37% cost function reduction, i.e., reduction in the model-data difference, relative to the baseline simulation) and to independent observations (e.g., alkalinity). The adjusted air-sea gas

  15. Deciphering the Molecular and Functional Basis of Dbl Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Mamta; Dvorsky, Radovan; Ahmadian, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    The diffuse B-cell lymphoma (Dbl) family of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors is a direct activator of the Rho family proteins. The Rho family proteins are involved in almost every cellular process that ranges from fundamental (e.g. the establishment of cell polarity) to highly specialized processes (e.g. the contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells). Abnormal activation of the Rho proteins is known to play a crucial role in cancer, infectious and cognitive disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. However, the existence of 74 Dbl proteins and 25 Rho-related proteins in humans, which are largely uncharacterized, has led to increasing complexity in identifying specific upstream pathways. Thus, we comprehensively investigated sequence-structure-function-property relationships of 21 representatives of the Dbl protein family regarding their specificities and activities toward 12 Rho family proteins. The meta-analysis approach provides an unprecedented opportunity to broadly profile functional properties of Dbl family proteins, including catalytic efficiency, substrate selectivity, and signaling specificity. Our analysis has provided novel insights into the following: (i) understanding of the relative differences of various Rho protein members in nucleotide exchange; (ii) comparing and defining individual and overall guanine nucleotide exchange factor activities of a large representative set of the Dbl proteins toward 12 Rho proteins; (iii) grouping the Dbl family into functionally distinct categories based on both their catalytic efficiencies and their sequence-structural relationships; (iv) identifying conserved amino acids as fingerprints of the Dbl and Rho protein interaction; and (v) defining amino acid sequences conserved within, but not between, Dbl subfamilies. Therefore, the characteristics of such specificity-determining residues identified the regions or clusters conserved within the Dbl subfamilies. PMID:23255595

  16. Functioning of family system in pediatric oncology during treatment phase.

    PubMed

    Perricone, Giovanna; Polizzi, Concetta; Morales, Maria Regina; Marino, Santo; Scacco, Cinzia Favara

    2012-10-01

    The study focuses on parents' psychological implications caused by the treatment of their children suffering from tumor. It investigates some specific mothers' resource factors such as their strategies of coping and the perception of their own family functioning in terms of cohesion and adaptability. The study was performed with 34 mothers of children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), during the treatment phase. The used tools were the Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced--New Italian Version, to investigate coping strategies, and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-III, to analyze both real and ideal perception of family functioning. The data related to coping, show how the involved mothers tend to mainly use the strategies of positive aptitude, orientation toward problem and social support (F = 99.88, df = 4, P < .01). The family functioning, in terms of adaptability, is described as chaotic relating to both the real (χ(2) = 13.29, df = 3, P = .004) and ideal (χ(2) = 11.52, df = 2, P = .003) family, whereas in terms of cohesion, it is perceived as chiefly disengaged in the real family (χ(2) = 12.3, df = 3, P = .006) and as enmeshed in the ideal one (χ(2) = 12.58, df = 3, P = .006). Statistically positive correlations were only detected between adaptability and avoidance (r = 0.49, P < .01); adaptability and orientation toward problem (r = 0.36, P < .05); and adaptability and transcendent orientation (r = -0.04, P < .05). Despite the critical situation, the mothers have shown optimistic view, care for problem management and capability to ask for help. These coping strategies allow the therapeutic alliance between families and health care workers, so useful for the quality of childcare. PMID:22732085

  17. Covariate adjustment of cumulative incidence functions for competing risks data using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Anke; Billionnet, Cécile

    2016-06-01

    In observational studies without random assignment of the treatment, the unadjusted comparison between treatment groups may be misleading due to confounding. One method to adjust for measured confounders is inverse probability of treatment weighting. This method can also be used in the analysis of time to event data with competing risks. Competing risks arise if for some individuals the event of interest is precluded by a different type of event occurring before, or if only the earliest of several times to event, corresponding to different event types, is observed or is of interest. In the presence of competing risks, time to event data are often characterized by cumulative incidence functions, one for each event type of interest. We describe the use of inverse probability of treatment weighting to create adjusted cumulative incidence functions. This method is equivalent to direct standardization when the weight model is saturated. No assumptions about the form of the cumulative incidence functions are required. The method allows studying associations between treatment and the different types of event under study, while focusing on the earliest event only. We present a SAS macro implementing this method and we provide a worked example. PMID:27084321

  18. Family Functionality and Coping Attitudes of Patients with Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Çuhadar, Döndü; Savaş, Haluk Asuman; Ünal, Ahmet; Gökpınar, Fatma

    2015-10-01

    The coping of patients with prodromal syndromes prevents relapses, and the differences in coping strategies affect the results of bipolar disorder. The various functionality levels of bipolar disorder patients such as work, marital relations, parental abilities and social presentation are significantly related with how well they cope. The objective of this study was to determine the family functionality and coping attitudes of bipolar disorder patients. The study planned as a descriptive one was carried with 81 bipolar disorder patients. Personal description form, family assessment device and Coping Attitudes Scale were used as data acquisition tools. It was determined that the adaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were religious coping, positive reinterpretation, active coping, problem-focused coping and emotional focused coping, beneficial social support use, emotional social support use, planning, suppression of competing activities and restraint coping; maladaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were "focusing on the problem and venting of emotions and mental disengagement." It was determined that family functions affected the coping attitudes of patients and that the patients who evaluated family functions in a healthy manner made use of adaptive coping strategies more at a statistically significant level. PMID:25086849

  19. Family History in Patients Who Present with Functional Articulation Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Kamal, Sana Mohammed; Qa'dan, Wa'el Nafith; Haj-Tas, Maisa Atef

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine family history of functional articulation disorders (FAD) among Jordanian patients who present with FAD, as well as to investigate the relation of other factors related to the disorder (age, gender, genetic connection between parents, sounds affected, and type of disorder). A convenience sample of 45 patients (ages…

  20. Healthy family functioning: a cross-cultural appraisal*

    PubMed Central

    David, Henry P.

    1978-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that rapid cultural, social, economic, and technological changes are imposing increasing stress on family structures, traditional values, and the ability to adapt to new environments in different societies. For the purposes of this paper, ”healthy family functioning” is defined in terms of a family unit (however it is conceived in any given culture) effectively coping with cultural, environmental, psychosocial, and socioeconomic stresses throughout the family life cycle. While a review of international literature in the behavioural and biomedical sciences yields little data on comparative studies, there is growing awareness of the need for cooperative international research on family coping mechanisms and determinants of self-reliant communal coping behaviour, as well as more efficient utilization of already available knowledge. After consideration of methodological pitfalls of assessment procedures, there is a presentation of an evolving theory of healthy family functioning with the suggestion that studies of young married couples constitute a particularly promising vehicle for developing needed cooperative cross-cultural research. PMID:308401

  1. A new family of distribution functions for spherical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, Ortwin E.

    1991-06-01

    The present study describes a new family of anisotropic distribution functions for stellar systems designed to keep control of the orbit distribution at fixed energy. These are quasi-separable functions of energy and angular momentum, and they are specified in terms of a circularity function h(x) which fixes the distribution of orbits on the potential's energy surfaces outside some anisotropy radius. Detailed results are presented for a particular set of radially anisotropic circularity functions h-alpha(x). In the scale-free logarithmic potential, exact analytic solutions are shown to exist for all scale-free circularity functions. Intrinsic and projected velocity dispersions are calculated and the expected properties are presented in extensive tables and graphs. Several applications of the quasi-separable distribution functions are discussed. They include the effects of anisotropy or a dark halo on line-broadening functions, the radial orbit instability in anisotropic spherical systems, and violent relaxation in spherical collapse.

  2. Attachment-based classifications of children's family drawings: psychometric properties and relations with children's adjustment in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Pianta, R C; Longmaid, K; Ferguson, J E

    1999-06-01

    Investigated an attachment-based theoretical framework and classification system, introduced by Kaplan and Main (1986), for interpreting children's family drawings. This study concentrated on the psychometric properties of the system and the relation between drawings classified using this system and teacher ratings of classroom social-emotional and behavioral functioning, controlling for child age, ethnic status, intelligence, and fine motor skills. This nonclinical sample consisted of 200 kindergarten children of diverse racial and socioeconomic status (SES). Limited support for reliability of this classification system was obtained. Kappas for overall classifications of drawings (e.g., secure) exceeded .80 and mean kappa for discrete drawing features (e.g., figures with smiles) was .82. Coders' endorsement of the presence of certain discrete drawing features predicted their overall classification at 82.5% accuracy. Drawing classification was related to teacher ratings of classroom functioning independent of child age, sex, race, SES, intelligence, and fine motor skills (with p values for the multivariate effects ranging from .043-.001). Results are discussed in terms of the psychometric properties of this system for classifying children's representations of family and the limitations of family drawing techniques for young children. PMID:10353083

  3. Families with special needs children: family health, functioning, and care burden.

    PubMed

    Caicedo, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    There are 11.2 million children with special health care needs in the United States or one in five households caring for a special needs child. A small group of children who need continuous medical, nursing, therapeutic services that enable them to survive is growing in numbers. This study examined physical health (physical functioning), mental health (emotional, social, and cognitive functioning; communication; and worry), family functioning (daily activities, family relationships), and care burden (caregiver employment, caregiving time, travel time, health-related out-of-pocket expenditures) of parent caregivers for medically complex, medical technology-dependent children. Data were collected once a month for 5 months on 84 parents recruited in South Florida using the Pediatric Quality of Life Family Impact Module. Physically, parents were tired when they woke up: too tired to do the things they liked to do and with little energy for chores or social activities. Mentally, they were frustrated, anxious, and angry; felt helpless and hopeless; had cognitive problems remembering and focusing on tasks; were worried about the child's medications, treatments, side effects; and were anxious about child's future and effect of the child's condition on other family members. Socially, they felt isolated and that people did not understand their family situation; they found it hard to talk with others including physicians and nurses. Average weekly hours of direct care was 33.0 (SD = 30.4 hours); average monthly out-of-pocket expenditures was $348.78 (SD = $623.34). It is essential to assess parents' physical and mental health and functioning and to provide interventions to improve health and functioning for both the parents and the children for whom they are caring. PMID:25428686

  4. The role of executive function in children's competent adjustment to middle school.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisa A; Williford, Amanda P; Pianta, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    Executive function (EF) skills play an important role in children's cognitive and social functioning. These skills develop throughout childhood, concurrently with a number of developmental transitions and challenges. One of these challenges is the transition from elementary into middle-level schools, which has the potential to significantly disrupt children's academic and social trajectories. However, little is known about the role of EF in children's adjustment during this transition. This study investigated the relation between children's EF skills, assessed both before and during elementary school, and sixth grade academic and social competence. In addition, the influences of the type of school setting attended in sixth grade on children's academic and behavioral outcomes were examined. EF assessed prior to and during elementary school significantly predicted sixth grade competence, as rated by teachers and parents, in both academic and social domains, after controlling for background characteristics. The interactions between type of school setting and EF skills were significant: Parents tended to report more behavioral problems and less regulatory control in children with weaker EF skills who were attending middle school. In contrast, teachers reported greater academic and behavioral difficulty in students with poorer EF attending elementary school settings. In conclusion, children's performance-based EF skills significantly affect adjustment to the academic and behavioral demands of sixth grade, with parent report suggesting greater difficulty for children with poorer EF in settings where children are provided with less external supports (e.g., middle school). PMID:21246422

  5. The Role of Executive Function in Children’s Competent Adjustment to Middle School

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Williford, Amanda P.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) skills play an important role in children’s cognitive and social functioning. These skills develop throughout childhood, concurrently with a number of developmental transitions and challenges. One of these challenges is the transition from elementary into middle-level schools, which has the potential to significantly disrupt children’s academic and social trajectories. However, little is known about the role of EF in children’s adjustment during this transition. This study investigated the relation between children’s EF skills, assessed both before and during elementary school, and sixth grade academic and social competence. In addition, the influences of the type of school setting attended in sixth grade on children’s academic and behavioral outcomes were examined. EF assessed prior to and during elementary school significantly predicted sixth grade competence, as rated by teachers and parents, in both academic and social domains, after controlling for background characteristics. The interactions between type of school setting and EF skills were significant: parents tended to report more behavioral problems and less regulatory control in children with weaker EF skills who were attending middle school. In contrast, teachers reported greater academic and behavioral difficulty in students with poorer EF attending elementary school settings. In conclusion, children’s performance-based EF skills significantly affect adjustment to the academic and behavioral demands of sixth grade, with parent report suggesting greater difficulty for children with poorer EF in settings where children are provided with less external supports (e.g., middle school). PMID:21246422

  6. Preschool children's views on emotion regulation: Functional associations and implications for social-emotional adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Tracy A; Kelemen, Deborah A

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and fear. Forty-seven adults were presented with a parallel questionnaire. Participants rated the degree to which six emotion-regulation strategies were effective in decreasing negative emotions. Results showed that even the youngest preschoolers viewed cognitive and behavioral distraction and repairing the situation as relatively effective; compared to adults, however, preschoolers favored relatively "ineffective" strategies such as venting and rumination. Children also showed a functional view of emotion regulation; that effective strategies depend on the emotion being regulated. All participants favored repairing a negative situation to reduce anger and behavioral distraction to reduce sadness and fear. Finally, the more children indicated that venting would reduce negative emotions, the lower their maternal report of social skills. Findings are discussed in terms of functional emotion theory and implications of emotion-regulation understanding for child adjustment. PMID:19724663

  7. Adolescent Attachment Security, Family Functioning, and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual’s social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all 3 types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention. PMID:23560608

  8. Mixed-linker solid solutions of functionalized pillared-layer MOFs - adjusting structural flexibility, gas sorption, and thermal responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Schwedler, Inke; Henke, Sebastian; Wharmby, Michael T; Bajpe, Sneha R; Cheetham, Anthony K; Fischer, Roland A

    2016-03-14

    Flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can undergo fascinating structural transitions triggered by external stimuli, such as adsorption/desorption of specific guest molecules or temperature changes. In this detailed study we investigate the potentials and limitations of tuning framework flexibility systematically by exploiting the powerful concept of mixed-linker solid solutions. We chose the prototypical family of functionalized pillared-layer MOFs of the general type Zn2(fu(1)-bdc)2x(fu(2)-bdc)(2-2x)dabco (with x = 1.00, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25 and 0.00; fu-bdc = 2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate with varying alkoxy chain length, dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) and examined their guest responsive, as well as intrinsic temperature dependent structural flexibility by X-ray diffraction, gas physisorption and calorimetric measurements. The ratio of the different fu-bdc linkers can be adjusted freely, offering opportunity for a targeted design of these functional materials by modulating their key features, such as magnitude of framework contraction upon guest removal, breathing behaviour upon CO2 adsorption/desorption, thermoresponsive phase behaviour, and their general thermal expansivity, by the careful choice of fu-bdc linkers and their combination. PMID:26526973

  9. Supportive relationships within ongoing families: cross-lagged effects between components of support and adjustment in parents and young adult children.

    PubMed

    Lanz, M; Tagliabue, S

    2014-12-01

    Italy is the first country in which the phenomenon of cohabitation of parents and young adult children was examined. From the earliest studies, it seemed clear that the transition to adulthood occurs within the family of origin: indeed, the successful outcome of this transition depends on the quality of family relationships. Using the Social Relations Model, this study examines the importance of the components of support within family relationships during the transition of young adults from university to job contexts (Kenny & La Voie, 1984). The cross-lagged influence among the components of perceived support and the adjustment of family members has also been investigated. Findings show that family components of support are significant for perception in both parents and young adults. Furthermore, cross-lagged models reveal different results for parents than for young adults. Discussion of results regarding the transition to adulthood and family theory is provided. PMID:25154544

  10. The ubiquilin gene family: evolutionary patterns and functional insights

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ubiquilins are proteins that function as ubiquitin receptors in eukaryotes. Mutations in two ubiquilin-encoding genes have been linked to the genesis of neurodegenerative diseases. However, ubiquilin functions are still poorly understood. Results In this study, evolutionary and functional data are combined to determine the origin and diversification of the ubiquilin gene family and to characterize novel potential roles of ubiquilins in mammalian species, including humans. The analysis of more than six hundred sequences allowed characterizing ubiquilin diversity in all the main eukaryotic groups. Many organisms (e. g. fungi, many animals) have single ubiquilin genes, but duplications in animal, plant, alveolate and excavate species are described. Seven different ubiquilins have been detected in vertebrates. Two of them, here called UBQLN5 and UBQLN6, had not been hitherto described. Significantly, marsupial and eutherian mammals have the most complex ubiquilin gene families, composed of up to 6 genes. This exceptional mammalian-specific expansion is the result of the recent emergence of four new genes, three of them (UBQLN3, UBQLN5 and UBQLNL) with precise testis-specific expression patterns that indicate roles in the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. A gene with related features has independently arisen in species of the Drosophila genus. Positive selection acting on some mammalian ubiquilins has been detected. Conclusions The ubiquilin gene family is highly conserved in eukaryotes. The infrequent lineage-specific amplifications observed may be linked to the emergence of novel functions in particular tissues. PMID:24674348

  11. Distinct Functions of Egr Gene Family Members in Cognitive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Roseline; Cheval, Hélène; Mailhes, Caroline; Garel, Sonia; Charnay, Patrick; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The different gene members of the Egr family of transcriptional regulators have often been considered to have related functions in brain, based on their co-expression in many cell-types and structures, the relatively high homology of the translated proteins and their ability to bind to the same consensus DNA binding sequence. Recent research, however, suggest this might not be the case. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the functional roles of the different Egr family members in learning and memory. We briefly outline evidence from mutant mice that Egr1 is required specifically for the consolidation of long-term memory, while Egr3 is primarily essential for short-term memory. We also review our own recent findings from newly generated forebrain-specific conditional Egr2 mutant mice, which revealed that Egr2, as opposed to Egr1 and Egr3, is dispensable for several forms of learning and memory and on the contrary can act as an inhibitory constraint for certain cognitive functions. The studies reviewed here highlight the fact that Egr family members may have different, and in certain circumstances antagonistic functions in the adult brain. PMID:18982106

  12. Loss of SUFU Function in Familial Multiple Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Aavikko, Mervi; Li, Song-Ping; Saarinen, Silva; Alhopuro, Pia; Kaasinen, Eevi; Morgunova, Ekaterina; Li, Yilong; Vesanen, Kari; Smith, Miriam J.; Evans, D. Gareth R.; Pöyhönen, Minna; Kiuru, Anne; Auvinen, Anssi; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Taipale, Jussi; Vahteristo, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Meningiomas are the most common primary tumors of the CNS and account for up to 30% of all CNS tumors. An increased risk of meningiomas has been associated with certain tumor-susceptibility syndromes, especially neurofibromatosis type II, but no gene defects predisposing to isolated familial meningiomas have thus far been identified. Here, we report on a family of five meningioma-affected siblings, four of whom have multiple tumors. No NF2 mutations were identified in the germline or tumors. We combined genome-wide linkage analysis and exome sequencing, and we identified in suppressor of fused homolog (Drosophila), SUFU, a c.367C>T (p.Arg123Cys) mutation segregating with the meningiomas in the family. The variation was not present in healthy controls, and all seven meningiomas analyzed displayed loss of the wild-type allele according to the classic two-hit model for tumor-suppressor genes. In silico modeling predicted the variant to affect the tertiary structure of the protein, and functional analyses showed that the activity of the altered SUFU was significantly reduced and therefore led to dysregulated hedgehog (Hh) signaling. SUFU is a known tumor-suppressor gene previously associated with childhood medulloblastoma predisposition. Our genetic and functional analyses indicate that germline mutations in SUFU also predispose to meningiomas, particularly to multiple meningiomas. It is possible that other genic mutations resulting in aberrant activation of the Hh pathway might underlie meningioma predisposition in families with an unknown etiology. PMID:22958902

  13. North Carolina Rural Adjustment Studies. A Study of Farm Families and Their Level of Living-Income Patterns in Watauga County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Glenn C.

    The purposes of this 1961 study were to identify attitudes and goals of farm people in low income areas and to relate these factors and selected social and personal factors to patterns of adjustment to economic and situational conditions. The sample for the study consisted of 296 farm families in Watauga County, North Carolina. Results of the…

  14. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship of Family Support and Coping with Adjustment: Implications for College Students with a Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodka, Ericka L.; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the role of family support and coping in the adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness (CI) transitioning into college, college freshmen and sophomores (N[subscript chronic illness] = 32, N[subscript primarily negative life event] = 53, N[subscript primarily positive life event] = 16) were administered standard measures. CI group…

  15. Sibling Adjustment and Maternal Well-Being: An Examination of Families with and without a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintero, Nicole; McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2010-01-01

    Differences in sibling social, behavioral, and academic adjustment and maternal well-being in families with (n = 20) and without (n = 23) a preschooler with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were explored. Results are interpreted to suggest that mothers of children with autism report more daily hassles, life stress, and depression than mothers…

  16. Vav family exchange factors: an integrated regulatory and functional view.

    PubMed

    Bustelo, Xosé R

    2014-01-01

    The Vav family is a group of tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated signal transduction molecules hierarchically located downstream of protein tyrosine kinases. The main function of these proteins is to work as guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for members of the Rho GTPase family. In addition, they can exhibit a variety of catalysis-independent roles in specific signaling contexts. Vav proteins play essential signaling roles for both the development and/or effector functions of a large variety of cell lineages, including those belonging to the immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. They also contribute to pathological states such as cancer, immune-related dysfunctions, and atherosclerosis. Here, I will provide an integrated view about the evolution, regulation, and effector properties of these signaling molecules. In addition, I will discuss the pros and cons for their potential consideration as therapeutic targets. PMID:25483299

  17. Vav family exchange factors: an integrated regulatory and functional view

    PubMed Central

    Bustelo, Xosé R

    2014-01-01

    The Vav family is a group of tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated signal transduction molecules hierarchically located downstream of protein tyrosine kinases. The main function of these proteins is to work as guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for members of the Rho GTPase family. In addition, they can exhibit a variety of catalysis-independent roles in specific signaling contexts. Vav proteins play essential signaling roles for both the development and/or effector functions of a large variety of cell lineages, including those belonging to the immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. They also contribute to pathological states such as cancer, immune-related dysfunctions, and atherosclerosis. Here, I will provide an integrated view about the evolution, regulation, and effector properties of these signaling molecules. In addition, I will discuss the pros and cons for their potential consideration as therapeutic targets. PMID:25483299

  18. Adjustment of Born-Oppenheimer electronic wave functions to simplify close coupling calculations.

    PubMed

    Buenker, Robert J; Liebermann, Heinz-Peter; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Yong; Yan, Lingling; Liu, Chunhua; Qu, Yizhi; Wang, Jianguo

    2013-04-30

    Technical problems connected with use of the Born-Oppenheimer clamped-nuclei approximation to generate electronic wave functions, potential energy surfaces (PES), and associated properties are discussed. A computational procedure for adjusting the phases of the wave functions, as well as their order when potential crossings occur, is presented which is based on the calculation of overlaps between sets of molecular orbitals and configuration interaction eigenfunctions obtained at neighboring nuclear conformations. This approach has significant advantages for theoretical treatments describing atomic collisions and photo-dissociation processes by means of ab initio PES, electronic transition moments, and nonadiabatic radial and rotational coupling matrix elements. It ensures that the electronic wave functions are continuous over the entire range of nuclear conformations considered, thereby greatly simplifying the process of obtaining the above quantities from the results of single-point Born-Oppenheimer calculations. The overlap results are also used to define a diabatic transformation of the wave functions obtained for conical intersections that greatly simplifies the computation of off-diagonal matrix elements by eliminating the need for complex phase factors. PMID:23345171

  19. Social support, family functioning and parenting competence in adolescent parents.

    PubMed

    Angley, Meghan; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Depression is known to mediate the association between low social support and parenting competence in adult mothers, but this relationship is rarely assessed in adolescent mothers and fathers. The primary aim of this study was to identify the association between social support, family functioning and social capital on parenting competence, including self-efficacy and satisfaction in adolescent mothers and their partners. Secondary aims included identifying potential partner effects (e.g. whether a partner's social support influenced the respondent's parenting efficacy). Data was obtained from a subset of participants from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescent females and their partners. Couples completed individual structured interviews via audio computer-assisted self-interview during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. To measure the influence of support on parenting outcomes, multi-level modeling was used to assess the Actor-Partner Interdependence model, which examines responses from both members of a dyad in a single analysis. Greater social support was associated with increased parenting self-efficacy (B = 0.062, p = 0.006) and parenting satisfaction (B = 0.111, p < 0.001). Higher family functioning was also associated with greater parenting satisfaction (B = 0.05, p = 0.035). Greater partner family functioning was associated with higher parenting satisfaction (B = 0.047, p = 0.026). This study found the importance of a strong support structure during pregnancy on perceived parenting competence in the early postpartum period for young mothers and fathers. Both social support and family functioning during pregnancy were associated with a greater sense of parenting competence, and these associations were mediated by parental depression. The results of this study underscore the importance of providing social support for young expectant fathers as well as mothers. PMID:24833286

  20. Expression patterns of a novel AtCHX gene family highlight potential roles in osmotic adjustment and K+ homeostasis in pollen development.

    PubMed

    Sze, Heven; Padmanaban, Senthilkumar; Cellier, Françoise; Honys, David; Cheng, Ning-Hui; Bock, Kevin W; Conéjéro, Genevieve; Li, Xiyan; Twell, David; Ward, John M; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2004-09-01

    A combined bioinformatic and experimental approach is being used to uncover the functions of a novel family of cation/H(+) exchanger (CHX) genes in plants using Arabidopsis as a model. The predicted protein (85-95 kD) of 28 AtCHX genes after revision consists of an amino-terminal domain with 10 to 12 transmembrane spans (approximately 440 residues) and a hydrophilic domain of approximately 360 residues at the carboxyl end, which is proposed to have regulatory roles. The hydrophobic, but not the hydrophilic, domain of plant CHX is remarkably similar to monovalent cation/proton antiporter-2 (CPA2) proteins, especially yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) KHA1 and Synechocystis NhaS4. Reports of characterized fungal and prokaryotic CPA2 indicate that they have various transport modes, including K(+)/H(+) (KHA1), Na(+)/H(+)-K(+) (GerN) antiport, and ligand-gated ion channel (KefC). The expression pattern of AtCHX genes was determined by reverse transcription PCR, promoter-driven beta-glucuronidase expression in transgenic plants, and Affymetrix ATH1 genome arrays. Results show that 18 genes are specifically or preferentially expressed in the male gametophyte, and six genes are highly expressed in sporophytic tissues. Microarray data revealed that several AtCHX genes were developmentally regulated during microgametogenesis. An exciting idea is that CHX proteins allow osmotic adjustment and K(+) homeostasis as mature pollen desiccates and then rehydrates at germination. The multiplicity of CHX-like genes is conserved in higher plants but is not found in animals. Only 17 genes, OsCHX01 to OsCHX17, were identified in rice (Oryza sativa) subsp. japonica, suggesting diversification of CHX in Arabidopsis. These results reveal a novel CHX gene family in flowering plants with potential functions in pollen development, germination, and tube growth. PMID:15347787

  1. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety. PMID:24177484

  2. Plant Ion Channels: Gene Families, Physiology, and Functional Genomics Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ward, John M.; Mäser, Pascal; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    Distinct potassium, anion, and calcium channels in the plasma membrane and vacuolar membrane of plant cells have been identified and characterized by patch clamping. Primarily owing to advances in Arabidopsis genetics and genomics, and yeast functional complementation, many of the corresponding genes have been identified. Recent advances in our understanding of ion channel genes that mediate signal transduction and ion transport are discussed here. Some plant ion channels, for example, ALMT and SLAC anion channel subunits, are unique. The majority of plant ion channel families exhibit homology to animal genes; such families include both hyperpolarization-and depolarization-activated Shaker-type potassium channels, CLC chloride transporters/channels, cyclic nucleotide–gated channels, and ionotropic glutamate receptor homologs. These plant ion channels offer unique opportunities to analyze the structural mechanisms and functions of ion channels. Here we review gene families of selected plant ion channel classes and discuss unique structure-function aspects and their physiological roles in plant cell signaling and transport. PMID:18842100

  3. Family Functioning in Asian Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Capabilities and Positive Meanings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xue, J.; Ooh, J.; Magiati, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in exploring the factors contributing to successful adaptation and family functioning in ethnically and culturally diverse families who raise children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), in order to inform more appropriate strength-based family support services. This pilot study used the Family…

  4. An Investigation of Violent and Nonviolent Adolescents' Family Functioning, Problems Concerning Family Members, Anger and Anger Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…

  5. A Prospective Study of the Effects of Marital Status and Family Relations on Young Children's Adjustment among African American and European American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Winslow, Emily B.; Flanagan, Clare

    1999-01-01

    Investigated effects of divorce and family relations on young children's development in ethnically diverse low-income families. Found that soon-to-be-divorced families demonstrated higher rates of preschool-age behavior problems, and already-divorced families showed similar trends. Parental conflict and behavior problems accounted for pre-divorce…

  6. Good Things Come in Threes: Single-Parent Multigenerational Family Structure and Adolescent Adjustment. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeire, Thomas; Kalil, Ariel

    This research used data from the 1998 National Educational Longitudinal Study to investigate the development of outcomes for adolescents living with single mothers in multigenerational families compared with adolescents living in married families (as well as a disaggregated set of other family structures). The study measured family structure when…

  7. Function and regulation of TRP family channels in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X. Z. Shawn

    2010-01-01

    Seventeen transient receptor potential (TRP) family proteins are encoded by the C. elegans genome, and they cover all of the seven TRP subfamilies, including TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPN, TRPA, TRPP and TRPML. Classical forward and reverse genetic screens have isolated mutant alleles in every C. elegans trp gene, and their characterizations have revealed novel functions and regulatory mechanisms of TRP channels. For example, the TRPC channels TRP-1 and TRP-2 control nicotine-dependent behavior, while TRP-3, a sperm TRPC channel, is regulated by sperm activation and required for sperm-egg interactions during fertilization. Similar to their vertebrate counterparts, C. elegans TRPs function in sensory physiology. For instance, the TRPV channels OSM-9 and OCR-2 act in chemosensation, osmosensation and touch sensation, the TRPA member TRPA-1 regulates touch sensation, while the TRPN channel TRP-4 mediates proprioception. Some C. elegans TRPM, TRPP and TRPML members exhibit cellular functions similar to their vertebrate homologues and have provided insights into human diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, hypomagnesemia and mucolipidosis type IV. The availability of a complete set of trp gene mutants in conjunction with its facile genetics makes C. elegans a powerful model for studying the function and regulation of TRP family channels in vivo. PMID:19421772

  8. The KCTD family of proteins: structure, function, disease relevance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The family of potassium channel tetramerizationdomain (KCTD) proteins consists of 26 members with mostly unknown functions. The name of the protein family is due to the sequence similarity between the conserved N-terminal region of KCTD proteins and the tetramerization domain in some voltage-gated potassium channels. Dozens of publications suggest that KCTD proteins have roles in various biological processes and diseases. In this review, we summarize the character of Bric-a-brack,Tram-track, Broad complex(BTB) of KCTD proteins, their roles in the ubiquitination pathway, and the roles of KCTD mutants in diseases. Furthermore, we review potential downstream signaling pathways and discuss future studies that should be performed. PMID:24268103

  9. The regulation and function of the NUAK family.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xianglan; Gao, Ling; Chien, Hung-Yu; Li, Wan-Chun; Zhao, Jiajun

    2013-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a critical regulator of cellular and whole-body energy homeostasis. Twelve AMPK-related kinases (ARKs; BRSK1, BRSK2, NUAK1, NUAK2, QIK, QSK, SIK, MARK1, MARK2, MARK3, MARK4, and MELK) have been identified recently. These kinases show a similar structural organization, including an N-terminal catalytic domain, followed by a ubiquitin-associated domain and a C-terminal spacer sequence, which in some cases also contains a kinase-associated domain 1. Eleven of the ARKs are phosphorylated and activated by the master upstream kinase liver kinase B1. However, most of these ARKs are largely unknown, and the NUAK family seems to have different regulations and functions. This review contains a brief discussion of the NUAK family including the specific characteristics of NUAK1 and NUAK2. PMID:23873311

  10. Longitudinal Linkages among Parent-Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Parenting, Parent-Child Sense of Alienation, and Adolescent Adjustment in Chinese Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation discrepancy and child adjustment during early and middle adolescence. Acculturation discrepancy scores were created using multilevel modeling to take into account the interdependence among family members. Structural equation models showed that, during early adolescence, parent-child American orientation discrepancy is related to parents’ use of unsupportive parenting practices; parents’ use of unsupportive parenting is related to increased sense of alienation between parents and children, which in turn is related to more depressive symptoms and lower academic performance in Chinese American adolescents. These patterns of negative adjustment established in early adolescence persist into middle adolescence. This mediating effect is more apparent among father-adolescent dyads than among mother-adolescent dyads. In contrast, parent-child Chinese orientation discrepancy does not demonstrate a significant direct or indirect effect on adolescent adjustment, either concurrently or longitudinally. The current findings suggest that early adolescence is more susceptible to the negative effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancy; they also underscore the importance of fathering in Chinese immigrant families. PMID:22799587

  11. Longitudinal linkages among parent-child acculturation discrepancy, parenting, parent-child sense of alienation, and adolescent adjustment in Chinese immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2013-05-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the authors of the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation discrepancy and child adjustment during early and middle adolescence. Acculturation discrepancy scores were created using multilevel modeling to take into account the interdependence among family members. Structural equation models showed that during early adolescence, parent-child American orientation discrepancy is related to parents' use of unsupportive parenting practices; parents' use of unsupportive parenting is related to increased sense of alienation between parents and children, which in turn is related to more depressive symptoms and lower academic performance in Chinese American adolescents. These patterns of negative adjustment established in early adolescence persist into middle adolescence. This mediating effect is more apparent among father-adolescent dyads than among mother-adolescent dyads. In contrast, parent-child Chinese orientation discrepancy does not demonstrate a significant direct or indirect effect on adolescent adjustment, either concurrently or longitudinally. The current findings suggest that during early adolescence, children are more susceptible to the negative effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancy; they also underscore the importance of fathering in Chinese immigrant families. PMID:22799587

  12. Early adversity and neural correlates of executive function: Implications for academic adjustment

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Jennifer M.; Westerlund, Alissa; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Early adversity can negatively impact the development of cognitive functions, although little is known about whether such effects can be remediated later in life. The current study examined one facet of executive functioning — inhibitory control — among children who experienced institutional care and explored the impact of a foster care intervention within the context of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). Specifically, a go/nogo task was administered when children were eight years old and behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures were collected. Results revealed that children assigned to care as usual (i.e., institutional care) were less accurate and exhibited slower neural responses compared to children assigned to the foster care intervention and children who had never been institutionalized. However, children in both the care as usual and foster care groups exhibited diminished attention processing of nogo cues as assessed via P300 amplitude. Foster care children also showed differential reactivity between correct and error responses via the error-related negativity (ERN) as compared to children in the care as usual group. Combined, the results highlight perturbations in neural sources of behavioral and attention problems among children experiencing early adversity. Potential implications for academic adjustment in at risk children are discussed. PMID:22682911

  13. Multi-Sensor Bundle Adjustment using Rational Polynomial Functions for Glaciological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Y.; Howat, I. M.; Morin, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Several high-resolution satellite radiometers have been monitoring glaciated regions for over a decade, providing detailed information about changing glacier surface conditions such as calving events, thinning/thickening of glaciers/ice sheets, glacier surface velocity etc. that can be quantified using photogrammetric methods. These observations improve our understanding of glacier dynamics and its impact to sea level rise. Processing of large amounts of imagery, however, is hampered by incomplete and/or erroneous sensor model and ephemeris information. We develop an algorithm using rational polynomial functions to provide automated and sensor-independent registration with similar accuracy to that using physical sensor models. We focus on bundle adjustment using rational polynomial functions for several different sensors, including IKONOS, Worldview, CORONA and aerial photographs (vertical/oblique). Existing high-resolution imagery and DEM are used for ground control points measurement and the propagated errors due to the uncertainty in GCP will be assessed. We apply our approach to major outlet glaciers in Greenland and generate ortho-photos using an existing DEM. We discuss the level of applicability in velocity feature tracking and the methods limitations.

  14. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26301514

  15. Differences between Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Functioning with the Family Assessment Device: The Validity of Combined Parent Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Dawson; Marais, Ida; Cavanagh, Robert; Kendall, Garth; Priddis, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device were examined using the Rasch Model (N = 237 couples). Mothers' and fathers' ratings of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device are recommended, provided these are analyzed separately. More than a quarter of…

  16. Facilitating Adjustment to Higher Education: Towards Enhancing Academic Functioning in an Academic Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidowitz, B.; Schreiber, B.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have emphasised the importance of addressing social and emotional factors in facilitating adjustment to tertiary education. This article describes the Skills for Success in Science programme at the University of Cape Town. The broad aims were life skills development and improved adjustment which are assumed to underpin academic…

  17. The APOBEC Protein Family: United by Structure, Divergent in Function.

    PubMed

    Salter, Jason D; Bennett, Ryan P; Smith, Harold C

    2016-07-01

    The APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like) family of proteins have diverse and important functions in human health and disease. These proteins have an intrinsic ability to bind to both RNA and single-stranded (ss) DNA. Both function and tissue-specific expression varies widely for each APOBEC protein. We are beginning to understand that the activity of APOBEC proteins is regulated through genetic alterations, changes in their transcription and mRNA processing, and through their interactions with other macromolecules in the cell. Loss of cellular control of APOBEC activities leads to DNA hypermutation and promiscuous RNA editing associated with the development of cancer or viral drug resistance, underscoring the importance of understanding how APOBEC proteins are regulated. PMID:27283515

  18. The Extended Granin Family: Structure, Function, and Biomedical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Possenti, Roberta; Mahata, Sushil K.; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Loh, Y. Peng

    2011-01-01

    The chromogranins (chromogranin A and chromogranin B), secretogranins (secretogranin II and secretogranin III), and additional related proteins (7B2, NESP55, proSAAS, and VGF) that together comprise the granin family subserve essential roles in the regulated secretory pathway that is responsible for controlled delivery of peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. Here we review the structure and function of granins and granin-derived peptides and expansive new genetic evidence, including recent single-nucleotide polymorphism mapping, genomic sequence comparisons, and analysis of transgenic and knockout mice, which together support an important and evolutionarily conserved role for these proteins in large dense-core vesicle biogenesis and regulated secretion. Recent data further indicate that their processed peptides function prominently in metabolic and glucose homeostasis, emotional behavior, pain pathways, and blood pressure modulation, suggesting future utility of granins and granin-derived peptides as novel disease biomarkers. PMID:21862681

  19. Sucrose metabolism gene families and their biological functions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Chi, Yun-Hua; Wang, Ji-Zhou; Zhou, Jun-Xia; Cheng, Yan-Song; Zhang, Bao-Lan; Ma, Ali; Vanitha, Jeevanandam; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Sucrose, as the main product of photosynthesis, plays crucial roles in plant development. Although studies on general metabolism pathway were well documented, less information is available on the genome-wide identification of these genes, their expansion and evolutionary history as well as their biological functions. We focused on four sucrose metabolism related gene families including sucrose synthase, sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. These gene families exhibited different expansion and evolutionary history as their host genomes experienced differentiated rates of the whole genome duplication, tandem and segmental duplication, or mobile element mediated gene gain and loss. They were evolutionarily conserved under purifying selection among species and expression divergence played important roles for gene survival after expansion. However, we have detected recent positive selection during intra-species divergence. Overexpression of 15 sorghum genes in Arabidopsis revealed their roles in biomass accumulation, flowering time control, seed germination and response to high salinity and sugar stresses. Our studies uncovered the molecular mechanisms of gene expansion and evolution and also provided new insight into the role of positive selection in intra-species divergence. Overexpression data revealed novel biological functions of these genes in flowering time control and seed germination under normal and stress conditions. PMID:26616172

  20. The IRBIT domain adds new functions to the AHCY family.

    PubMed

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Sammels, Eva; De Smedt, Humbert

    2008-07-01

    During the past few years, the IRBIT domain has emerged as an important add-on of S-adenosyl-L-homocystein hydrolase (AHCY), thereby creating the new family of AHCY-like proteins. In this review, we discuss the currently available data on this new family of proteins. We describe the IRBIT domain as a unique part of these proteins and give an overview of its regulation via (de)phosphorylation and proteolysis. The second part of this review is focused on the potential functions of the AHCY-like proteins. We propose that the IRBIT domain serves as an anchor for targeting AHCY-like proteins towards cytoplasmic targets. This leads to regulation of (i) intracellular Ca2+ via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), (ii) intracellular pH via the Na+/HCO3 - cotransporters (NBCs); whereas inactivation of the IRBIT domain induces (iii) nuclear translocation and regulation of AHCY activity. Dysfunction of AHCY-like proteins will disturb these three important functions, with various biological implications. PMID:18536033

  1. Correlation between heart rate variability and pulmonary function adjusted by confounding factors in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Bianchim, M S; Sperandio, E F; Martinhão, G S; Matheus, A C; Lauria, V T; da Silva, R P; Spadari, R C; Gagliardi, A R T; Arantes, R L; Romiti, M; Dourado, V Z

    2016-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system maintains homeostasis, which is the state of balance in the body. That balance can be determined simply and noninvasively by evaluating heart rate variability (HRV). However, independently of autonomic control of the heart, HRV can be influenced by other factors, such as respiratory parameters. Little is known about the relationship between HRV and spirometric indices. In this study, our objective was to determine whether HRV correlates with spirometric indices in adults without cardiopulmonary disease, considering the main confounders (e.g., smoking and physical inactivity). In a sample of 119 asymptomatic adults (age 20-80 years), we evaluated forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). We evaluated resting HRV indices within a 5-min window in the middle of a 10-min recording period, thereafter analyzing time and frequency domains. To evaluate daily physical activity, we instructed participants to use a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days. Physical inactivity was defined as <150 min/week of moderate to intense physical activity. We found that FVC and FEV1, respectively, correlated significantly with the following aspects of the RR interval: standard deviation of the RR intervals (r =0.31 and 0.35), low-frequency component (r =0.38 and 0.40), and Poincaré plot SD2 (r =0.34 and 0.36). Multivariate regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical inactivity, and cardiovascular risk, identified the SD2 and dyslipidemia as independent predictors of FVC and FEV1 (R2=0.125 and 0.180, respectively, for both). We conclude that pulmonary function is influenced by autonomic control of cardiovascular function, independently of the main confounders. PMID:26840706

  2. Correlation between heart rate variability and pulmonary function adjusted by confounding factors in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Bianchim, M.S.; Sperandio, E.F.; Martinhão, G.S.; Matheus, A.C.; Lauria, V.T.; da Silva, R.P.; Spadari, R.C.; Gagliardi, A.R.T.; Arantes, R.L.; Romiti, M.; Dourado, V.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system maintains homeostasis, which is the state of balance in the body. That balance can be determined simply and noninvasively by evaluating heart rate variability (HRV). However, independently of autonomic control of the heart, HRV can be influenced by other factors, such as respiratory parameters. Little is known about the relationship between HRV and spirometric indices. In this study, our objective was to determine whether HRV correlates with spirometric indices in adults without cardiopulmonary disease, considering the main confounders (e.g., smoking and physical inactivity). In a sample of 119 asymptomatic adults (age 20-80 years), we evaluated forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). We evaluated resting HRV indices within a 5-min window in the middle of a 10-min recording period, thereafter analyzing time and frequency domains. To evaluate daily physical activity, we instructed participants to use a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days. Physical inactivity was defined as <150 min/week of moderate to intense physical activity. We found that FVC and FEV1, respectively, correlated significantly with the following aspects of the RR interval: standard deviation of the RR intervals (r =0.31 and 0.35), low-frequency component (r =0.38 and 0.40), and Poincaré plot SD2 (r =0.34 and 0.36). Multivariate regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical inactivity, and cardiovascular risk, identified the SD2 and dyslipidemia as independent predictors of FVC and FEV1 (R 2=0.125 and 0.180, respectively, for both). We conclude that pulmonary function is influenced by autonomic control of cardiovascular function, independently of the main confounders. PMID:26840706

  3. Psychometric validation of the depression and family functioning scale.

    PubMed

    Williams, Valerie; François, Clément; Danchenko, Natalya; Nelson, Lauren; Williams, Nicole; Yarr, Stuart; DiBenedetti, Dana; Lançon, Christrophe

    2016-04-01

    Objective A new patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure developed to assess the impact of major depressive disorder (MDD) on partner and family interactions and quality of relationships, the Depression and Family Functioning Scale (DFFS), was analyzed to establish its reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Methods Data from a multi-center, prospective, 2-year observational study were analyzed to assess the psychometric properties of the DFFS in patients with MDD (nBaseline = 478; nMonth2 = 433). Measures administered to assess validity included the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) and Short Form Health Survey-12 (SF-12). Reliability (Cronbach's alphas and intra-class correlations), construct validity (factor analysis and correlations), discriminating ability (analyses of variance), and responsiveness (standardized effect size estimates) were evaluated. Results Principal components analyses indicated a single underlying dimension, confirmed by highly satisfactory Cronbach's alphas (αBaseline = 0.85, αMonth2 = 0.89). The DFFS demonstrated satisfactory test-re-test reliability in patients with the same SDS family life/home responsibilities ratings at baseline and month 2 (intraclass correlation = 0.75). Correlations with other measures showed convergent and divergent validity; e.g., the DFFS correlated better with SF-12 mental component scores (rBaseline = -0.35, rMonth2 = -0.49) than with SF-12 physical component scores (rBaseline = -0.05, rMonth2 = -0.31). Hypothesis tests were generally as predicted; many were statistically significant, substantiating DFFS discriminating ability. Standardized effect size estimates of responsiveness ranged from 0.44-0.84, demonstrating that the items were capable of detecting change. Conclusions The psychometric analyses support the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the DFFS and its usefulness for assessing the impact of depression on family

  4. The QTP family of consistent functionals and potentials in Kohn-Sham density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yifan; Bartlett, Rodney J

    2016-07-21

    This manuscript presents the second, consistent density functional in the QTP (Quantum Theory Project) family, that is, the CAM-QTP(01). It is a new range-separated exchange-correlation functional in which the non-local exchange contribution is 100% at large separation. It follows the same basic principles of this family that the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues of the occupied orbitals approximately equal the vertical ionization energies, which is not fulfilled by most of the traditional density functional methods. This new CAM-QTP(01) functional significantly improves the accuracy of the vertical excitation energies especially for the Rydberg states in the test set. It also reproduces many other properties such as geometries, reaction barrier heights, and atomization energies. PMID:27448874

  5. Update on Pyrin Functions and Mechanisms of Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Manukyan, Gayane; Aminov, Rustam

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the MEFV gene, which encodes the protein named pyrin (also called marenostrin or TRIM20), are associated with the autoinflammatory disease familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Recent genetic and immunologic studies uncovered novel functions of pyrin and raised several new questions in relation to FMF pathogenesis. The disease is clinically heterogeneous reflecting the complexity and multiplicity of pyrin functions. The main functions uncovered so far include its involvement in innate immune response such as the inflammasome assemblage and, as a part of the inflammasome, sensing intracellular danger signals, activation of mediators of inflammation, and resolution of inflammation by the autophagy of regulators of innate immunity. Based on these functions, the FMF-associated versions of pyrin confer a heightened sensitivity to a variety of intracellular danger signals and postpone the resolution of innate immune responses. It remains to be demonstrated, however, what kind of selective advantage the heterozygous carriage conferred in the past to be positively selected and maintained in populations from the Mediterranean basin. PMID:27066000

  6. Observed Macro- and Micro-Level Parenting Behaviors During Preadolescent Family Interactions as Predictors of Adjustment in Emerging Adults With and Without Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Christina M.; Devine, Katie A.; Psihogios, Alexandra M.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine observed autonomy-promoting and -inhibiting parenting behaviors during preadolescence as predictors of adjustment outcomes in emerging adults with and without spina bifida (SB). Methods Demographic and videotaped interaction data were collected from families with 8/9-year-old children with SB (n = 68) and a matched group of typically developing youth (n = 68). Observed interaction data were coded with macro- and micro-coding schemes. Measures of emerging adulthood adjustment were collected 10 years later (ages 18/19 years; n = 50 and n = 60 for SB and comparison groups, respectively). Results Autonomy-promoting (behavioral control, autonomy-relatedness) and -inhibiting (psychological control) observed preadolescent parenting behaviors prospectively predicted emerging adulthood adjustment, particularly within educational, social, and emotional domains. Interestingly, high parent undermining of relatedness predicted better educational and social adjustment in the SB sample. Conclusions Parenting behaviors related to autonomy have long-term consequences for adjustment in emerging adults with and without SB. PMID:24864277

  7. Relationships between Perceptions of Personal and Family Functioning, Defensive Functioning, and Working Models of Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Steven A.; And Others

    Current psychological literature suggests that positive representations of self and others are associated with sensitivity of caregiving. This study was designed to examine the relationship among self-perceptions, perceptions of family functioning, and caregiving schemata in 618 undergraduates (437 females, 181 males) enrolled in Introductory…

  8. Social problem solving, family functioning, and suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C Lai; Shek, Daniel T L

    2009-01-01

    Based on the responses of 5,557 Chinese secondary students in Hong Kong, the relationship among social problem solving, perceived family functioning, and suicidal ideation were examined in this study. Results showed that suicidal ideation was negatively related to social problem solving and family functioning. It was further found that the linkage between social problem solving and adolescent suicidal ideation was stronger under high family functioning relative to low family functioning, thus suggesting the moderating effect of family functioning on the effect of social problem solving on suicidal ideation. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:19764274

  9. Comparing Judgements of Social, Behavioural, Emotional and School Adjustment Functioning for Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Woo Sik; Stinnett, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    Social, emotional, behavioural and school adjustment functioning among Korean, Korean American and Caucasian American children was examined with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) Self-Report of Personality (SRP) and the Parent Rating Scale (PRS). One hundred and twenty Korean, Korean-American and Caucasian-American children, ages…

  10. Exposure to Family Violence, Perceived Psychological Adjustment of Parents, and the Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms Among Palestinian University Students.

    PubMed

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Bargal, David

    2015-10-01

    The article presents the results of a study on the relationship between exposure to (i.e., witnessing and experiencing) different patterns and types of family violence during childhood, during adolescence, and during young adulthood, on one hand, and adult post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), on the other. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,969 Palestinian students using a self-administered questionnaire. The results reveal that the more the participants witnessed and experienced psychological aggression (PS) and physical violence (PH) in their families of origin, the more they exhibited PTSS. Furthermore, the results indicate that a significant amount of the variance in the participants' PTSS could be attributed to their exposure to family violence, over and above the amounts of variance that were explained by their sociodemographic characteristics and by their perceptions of their parents' psychological adjustment. The limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25392383

  11. From Early Childhood to Adolescence: Linking Family Functioning and School Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Vanessa K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study uses observational assessment of 66 two-parent families working and playing together when their eldest child is in kindergarten and again in ninth grade to identify distinct patterns of family functioning derived from structural family systems theory. Whereas concurrent assessment of the relationship between family type and…

  12. A case of functional urinary retention: the use of family play therapy.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, F R; Wilberger, M S; Olafson, E

    1993-09-01

    This case presents a technique for doing family therapy in families with young children. In family play therapy, the entire family plays together, allowing full participation of even the youngest children in the therapeutic process. Standard family therapy interventions in the latter part of each session make use of family interaction patterns and unconscious processes revealed during the earlier play. In the case presented here, the technique was successfully applied to a family with a 3-year-old son who had functional urinary retention. This case also provided an opportunity for interdisciplinary collaboration between the separate Child and Family Services at a major teaching hospital. PMID:8243618

  13. Adolescents-Family Connectedness: A First Cross-Cultural Research on Parenting and Psychological Adjustment of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan; Achoui, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Connectedness between children and their family is a major factor that distinguishes between collective and individualistic cultures. The "Multigenerational Interconnectedness Scale", measuring adolescents-family connectedness was administered to adolescents in nine western and eastern countries. The findings show that connectedness in eastern…

  14. Regulation of osteoclast structure and function by FAK family kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Brianne J.; Thomas, Keena; Huang, Cynthia S.; Gutknecht, Michael F.; Botchwey, Edward A.; Bouton, Amy H.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells that resorb bone and contribute to bone remodeling. Diseases such as osteoporosis and osteolytic bone metastasis occur when osteoclast-mediated bone resorption takes place in the absence of concurrent bone synthesis. Considerable effort has been placed on identifying molecules that regulate the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts. To this end, we investigated unique and overlapping functions of members of the FAK family (FAK and Pyk2) in osteoclast functions. With the use of a conditional knockout mouse model, in which FAK is selectively targeted for deletion in osteoclast precursors (FAKΔmyeloid), we found that loss of FAK resulted in reduced bone resorption by osteoclasts in vitro, coincident with impaired signaling through the CSF-1R. However, bone architecture appeared normal in FAKΔmyeloid mice, suggesting that Pyk2 might functionally compensate for reduced FAK levels in vivo. This was supported by data showing that podosome adhesion structures, which are essential for bone degradation, were significantly more impaired in osteoclasts when FAK and Pyk2 were reduced than when either molecule was depleted individually. We conclude that FAK contributes to cytokine signaling and bone resorption in osteoclasts and partially compensates for the absence of Pyk2 to maintain proper adhesion structures in these cells. PMID:22941736

  15. Relations between Parent Psychopathology, Family Functioning, and Adolescent Problems in Substance-Abusing Families: Disaggregating the Effects of Parent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent

    2012-01-01

    The present study: (1) examined relations between parent psychopathology and adolescent internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and substance use in substance-abusing families; and (2) tested family functioning problems as mediators of these relations. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the independent effects of parent…

  16. Assessing Family-of-Origin Functioning in Mexican American Adults: Retrospective Application of the Family Environment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K.

    2006-01-01

    Although both theoretical and empirical literature suggests that individuals' family-of-origin experiences affect subsequent relationship functioning as adults, few studies have examined the appropriateness of family assessment techniques when applied retrospectively for use in either theory development or clinical applications. This study…

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  18. The Impact of Family Functioning on Caregiver Burden among Caregivers of Veterans with Congestive Heart Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Crystal Dea

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 76 family caregivers of older veterans with congestive heart failure utilized the McMaster model of family functioning to examine the impact of family functioning variables (problem solving, communication, roles, affective responsiveness, and affective involvement) on caregiver burden dimensions (relationship burden,…

  19. The Influence of Family Factors on the Executive Functioning of Adult Children of Alcoholics in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined executive functioning in college aged adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; n = 84) and non-ACOAs (188). We examined whether characteristics of the family environment and family responsibility in one's family of origin were associated with executive functioning above the contribution of ACOA status. ACOAs reported more…

  20. A Systems Perspective of Individual Development and Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyers, Janet K.; Moran, James D., III

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to advance understanding of the individual and family from a systems perspective and to facilitate interdisciplinary communication between individual and family theorists. This article outlines the systems concepts in human development and family theories to show that the groundwork for unification is already…

  1. Family Functioning and Child Development in the Context of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Rashmita S.; Wadsworth, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Children in low-income families face a myriad of risks which compromise optional development. Despite this, many children from disadvantaged backgrounds grow up to lead productive and healthy lives. A key contributor to this variability is the family context. This article reviews research on how families exacerbate or buffer children's experience…

  2. Adolescents with ADHD: patterns of behavioral adjustment, academic functioning, and treatment utilization.

    PubMed

    Barkley, R A; Anastopoulos, A D; Guevremont, D C; Fletcher, K E

    1991-09-01

    Adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were compared with a control group on a comprehensive assessment battery. More ADHD teenagers had oppositional defiant disorder (68%) and conduct disorder (39%) and were rated as more impaired in social competence, behavioral and emotional adjustment, and school performance by parents and teachers than control teens. The ADHD youths, however, rated themselves as better adjusted than did their parents and teachers, differing only from controls in depressive symptoms and antisocial acts. Poorer performances in verbal learning and vigilance and greater ADHD behaviors during a math task also distinguished the ADHD from control teenagers. PMID:1938790

  3. Political Violence and Child Adjustment: Longitudinal Tests of Sectarian Antisocial Behavior, Family Conflict, and Insecurity as Explanatory Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Edward M.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Toward examining pathways longitudinally,…

  4. Patterns of Adolescent Friendships, Psychological Adjustment and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Family Stress and Friendship Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciairano, Silvia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Roggero, Antonella; Bonino, Silvia; Beyers, Wim

    2007-01-01

    This study distinguishes different patterns of friendship quality in terms of support from and conflict with friends, and reciprocity. Associations between friendship patterns and adolescents' adjustment (self-perception, expectations for the future, depressive feelings, sense of alienation, lying, disobedience, and aggression) were hypothesized…

  5. Functional analysis of the aquaporin gene family in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunyi George; Lamitina, Todd; Agre, Peter; Strange, Kevin

    2007-05-01

    Aquaporin channels facilitate the transport of water, glycerol, and other small solutes across cell membranes. The physiological roles of many aquaporins remain unclear. To better understand aquaporin function, we characterized the aquaporin gene family in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Eight canonical aquaporin-encoding genes (aqp) are present in the worm genome. Expression of aqp-2, aqp-3, aqp-4, aqp-6, or aqp-7 in Xenopus oocytes increased water permeability five- to sevenfold. Glycerol permeability was increased three to sevenfold by expression of aqp-1, aqp-3, or aqp-7. Green fluorescent protein transcriptional and translational reporters demonstrated that aqp genes are expressed in numerous C. elegans cell types, including the intestine, excretory cell, and hypodermis, which play important roles in whole animal osmoregulation. To define the role of C. elegans aquaporins in osmotic homeostasis, we isolated deletion alleles for four aqp genes, aqp-2, aqp-3, aqp-4, and aqp-8, which are expressed in osmoregulatory tissues and mediate water transport. Single, double, triple, and quadruple aqp mutant animals exhibited normal survival, development, growth, fertility, and movement under normal and hypertonic culture conditions. aqp-2;aqp-3;aqp-4;aqp-8 quadruple mutants exhibited a slight defect in recovery from hypotonic stress but survived hypotonic stress as well as wild-type animals. These results suggest that C. elegans aquaporins are not essential for whole animal osmoregulation and/or that deletion of aquaporin genes activates mechanisms that compensate for loss of water channel function. PMID:17229810

  6. Structural and functional insight into the universal stress protein family

    PubMed Central

    Tkaczuk, Karolina L; A Shumilin, Igor; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei; Minor, Wladek

    2013-01-01

    We present the crystal structures of two universal stress proteins (USP) from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and Nitrosomonas europaea in both apo- and ligand-bound forms. This work is the first complete synthesis of the structural properties of 26 USP available in the Protein Data Bank, over 75% of which were determined by structure genomics centers with no additional information provided. The results of bioinformatic analyses of all available USP structures and their sequence homologs revealed that these two new USP structures share overall structural similarity with structures of USPs previously determined. Clustering and cladogram analyses, however, show how they diverge from other members of the USP superfamily and show greater similarity to USPs from organisms inhabiting extreme environments. We compared them with other archaeal and bacterial USPs and discuss their similarities and differences in context of structure, sequential motifs, and potential function. We also attempted to group all analyzed USPs into families, so that assignment of the potential function to those with no experimental data available would be possible by extrapolation. PMID:23745136

  7. Structure and Function of SLC4 Family HCO3- Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Yang, Jichun; Chen, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The solute carrier SLC4 family consists of 10 members, nine of which are HCO3- transporters, including three Na+-independent Cl−/HCO3- exchangers AE1, AE2, and AE3, five Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters NBCe1, NBCe2, NBCn1, NBCn2, and NDCBE, as well as “AE4” whose Na+-dependence remains controversial. The SLC4 HCO3- transporters play critical roles in pH regulation and transepithelial movement of electrolytes with a broad range of demonstrated physiological relevances. Dysfunctions of these transporters are associated with a series of human diseases. During the past decades, tremendous amount of effort has been undertaken to investigate the topological organization of the SLC4 transporters in the plasma membrane. Based upon the proposed topology models, mutational and functional studies have identified important structural elements likely involved in the ion translocation by the SLC4 transporters. In the present article, we review the advances during the past decades in understanding the structure and function of the SLC4 transporters. PMID:26648873

  8. Assessing family-of-origin functioning in Mexican American adults: retrospective application of the family environment scale.

    PubMed

    Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K

    2006-12-01

    Although both theoretical and empirical literature suggests that individuals' family-of-origin experiences affect subsequent relationship functioning as adults, few studies have examined the appropriateness of family assessment techniques when applied retrospectively for use in either theory development or clinical applications. This study examined psycho-metric characteristics of the Family Environment Scale (FES) when used retrospectively with Mexican Americans to assess their families-of-origin. Findings provided qualified support for the internal consistency of the FES and showed significant mean profile differences for this population across gender and when compared to the normative sample for this measure. Retrospective reports on the FES related to independent measures of family history of distress and, to a lesser extent, with current relationship functioning, providing preliminary support for the criterion-related validity of the FES when adapted for retrospective assessment. Limitations and implications of findings for further research are discussed. PMID:17050910

  9. Parental incarceration, transnational migration, and military deployment: family process mechanisms of youth adjustment to temporary parent absence.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Aubrey J; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-03-01

    The temporary absence of a parent (e.g., due to incarceration, migration, or military deployment) is experienced by many youth and can have profound effects. Available research within these disparate literatures primarily has catalogued contextual and individual variables that influence youth adaptation, which are integrated and summarized here. In addition, we present a systematic review of proximal family process mechanisms by which youth and their family members adapt to periods of temporary parent absence. This systematic review across the different types of parent absence produced four themes: communication among family members, parenting characteristics during absence, negotiation of decision-making power and authority, and shifts in family roles. By juxtaposing the three types of temporary parent absence, we aim to bridge the separate research silos of parent absence due to incarceration, deployment, and migration, and to bring wide-ranging characteristics and processes of temporary parent-absent families into sharper focus. The review highlights possibilities for fuller integration of these literatures, and emphasizes the clinical value of considering these types of experiences from a family and relational perspective, rather than an individual coping perspective. PMID:25304163

  10. Parental Incarceration, Transnational Migration, and Military Deployment: Family Process Mechanisms of Youth Adjustment to Temporary Parent Absence

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Aubrey J.; Margolin, Gayla

    2015-01-01

    The temporary absence of a parent (e.g., due to incarceration, migration, or military deployment) is experienced by many youth and can have profound effects. Available research within these disparate literatures primarily has catalogued contextual and individual variables that influence youth adaptation, which are integrated and summarized here. In addition, we present a systematic review of proximal family process mechanisms by which youth and their family members adapt to periods of temporary parent absence. This systematic review across the different types of parent absence produced four themes: communication among family members, parenting characteristics during absence, negotiation of decision-making power and authority, and shifts in family roles. By juxtaposing the three types of temporary parent absence, we aim to bridge the separate research silos of parent absence due to incarceration, deployment, and migration, and to bring wide-ranging characteristics and processes of temporary parent-absent families into sharper focus. The review highlights possibilities for fuller integration of these literatures, and emphasizes the clinical value of considering these types of experiences from a family and relational perspective, rather than an individual coping perspective. PMID:25304163

  11. Primary and Secondary Control among Children Undergoing Medical Procedures: Adjustment as a Function of Coping Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Obtained reports of coping and goals from 33 children being treated for leukemia. Coping strategies were classified as primary control coping (attempts to alter objective conditions), secondary control coping (attempts to adjust to objective conditions), or relinquished control (no attempt to cope). Secondary control coping was positively…

  12. Toddlers' Adjustment to the Stress of Immunization in Function of Mothers' General and Specific Coping Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favez, N.; Reicherts, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess the relative influence of mothers' coping strategies in everyday life and mothers' specific coping acts on toddlers' adjustment behavior to pain and distress during a routine immunization. The population is 41 mothers with toddlers (23 girls, 18 boys; mean age, 22.7 months) undergoing a routine immunization in…

  13. Preschool Children's Views on Emotion Regulation: Functional Associations and Implications for Social-Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Kelemen, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and…

  14. Family Transitions Following the Birth of a Sibling: An Empirical Review of Changes in the Firstborn’s Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Volling, Brenda L.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 80% of children in the U.S. have at least one sibling, indicating that the birth of a baby sibling is a normative ecological transition for most children. Many clinicians and theoreticians believe the transition is stressful, constituting a developmental crisis for most children. Yet, a comprehensive review of the empirical literature on children’s adjustment over the transition to siblinghood (TTS) has not been done for several decades. The current review summarized research examining change in firstborns’ adjustment to determine whether there was evidence that the TTS was disruptive for most children. Thirty studies addressing the transition to siblinghood were found and of those studies, the evidence did not support a crisis model of developmental transitions, nor was there overwhelming evidence of consistent changes in firstborn adjustment. Although there were decreases in children’s affection and responsiveness toward mothers, the results were more equivocal for many other behaviors (e.g., sleep problems, anxiety, aggression, regression). An inspection of the scientific literature indicated there are large individual differences in children’s adjustment and that the TTS can be a time of disruption, an occasion for developmental advances, or a period of quiescence with no noticeable changes. The TTS may be a developmental turning point for some children that portends future psychopathology or growth depending on the transactions between children and the changes in the ecological context over time. A developmental ecological systems framework guided the discussion of how child, parent, and contextual factors may contribute to the prediction of firstborn children’s successful adaptation to the birth of a sibling. PMID:22289107

  15. [Mediation and adjustment of the rupture of the union: the impact of Quebec law on family mediation].

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Daniel; Beaudoin, André; Champoux, Lyne; St-Amand, Annick

    2002-01-01

    In September 1997, a new family mediation law came into force in Quebec. This law allows couples with children to be provided with the services of a professional mediator while their application for separation, divorce, child custody, spousal or child support is being negotiated and settled or an existing decision is being reviewed. This article presents and discusses the results of a study that compares the practices and results of family mediation under this law with the previous situation. According to the data, the law provides greater access to mediation for low-income couples. PMID:14664106

  16. Young Children’s Adjustment as a Function of Maltreatment, Shame, and Anger

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David S.; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Maltreated children are at increased risk for behavior problems. This study examines a model in which shame mediates the potential relation between maltreatment and anger, and anger mediates the potential relation between shame and behavior problems. Participants were 177 children (ages 3 to 7 years) and their mothers, 90 of whom had histories of perpetrating neglect and/or physical abuse. Physical abuse, but not neglect, was related to increased shame during an evaluative task; shame was related to increased anger; and anger to teacher ratings of total behavior problems and externalizing problems. Age moderated the relation between physical abuse and adjustment, as abuse was related to more total problems only among the younger children. Anger was a significant mediator of shame and both behavior problems and externalizing problems. Shame, anger, age, and type of maltreatment appear to be important factors in explaining variance in behavioral adjustment following a history of maltreatment. PMID:16204734

  17. Human soluble guanylate cyclase: functional expression and revised isoenzyme family.

    PubMed Central

    Zabel, U; Weeger, M; La, M; Schmidt, H H

    1998-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a heterodimeric (alpha/beta) haem protein that converts GTP to the second messenger cGMP, functions as the receptor for nitric oxide (NO) and nitrovasodilator drugs. Three distinct cDNA species of each subunit (alpha1-alpha3, beta1-beta3) have been reported from various species. From human sources, none of these have been expressed as functionally active enzyme. Here we describe the expression of human alpha/beta heterodimeric sGC in Sf9 cells yielding active recombinant enzyme that was stimulated by the nitrovasodilator sodium nitroprusside or the NO-independent activator 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1). At the protein level, both alpha and beta subunits were detected in human tissues, suggesting co-expression also in vivo. Moreover, resequencing of the human cDNA clones [originally termed alpha3 and beta3; Giuili, Scholl, Bulle and Guellaen (1992) FEBS Lett. 304, 83-88] revealed several sequencing errors in human alpha3; correction of these eliminated major regions of divergence from rat and bovine alpha1. As human beta3 also displays more than 98% similarity to rat and bovine beta1 at the amino acid level, alpha3 and beta3 represent the human homologues of rat and bovine alpha1 and beta1, and the isoenzyme family is decreased to two isoforms for each subunit (alpha1, alpha2; beta1, beta2). Having access to the human key enzyme of NO signalling will now permit the study of novel sGC-modulating compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:9742212

  18. Cardiac autonomic functions in children with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Murat; Kır, Mustafa; Makay, Balahan; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Bora, Elçin; Ünsal, Erbil; Ünal, Nurettin

    2016-05-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common inherited autoinflammatory disease in the world. The long-term effects of subclinical inflammation in FMF are not well recognized. Some studies have suggested that FMF is associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunction in adult FMF patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiac autonomic functions in pediatric FMF patients by using several autonomic tests. Thirty-five patients with FMF and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Demographic data, disease-specific data, and orthostatic symptoms were recorded. In all participants, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG), 24 h ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring, transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill exercise test, and head upright tilt-table (HUTT) test were performed. The heart rate recovery (HRR) indices of the two groups were similar. Also, chronotropic response was similar in both groups. The time-domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were similar in both groups, except mean RR (p = 0.024). Frequencies of ventricular and supraventricular ectopic stimuli were similar in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in average QT and average corrected QT interval length, average QT interval dispersion, and average QT corrected dispersion. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the ratio of clinical dysautonomic reactions on HUTT. However, we observed a significantly higher rate of dysautonomic reactions on HUTT in patients with exertional leg pain than that in patients without (p = 0.013). When the fractal dimension of time curves were compared, FMF patients exhibited significantly lower diastolic blood pressure parameters than controls in response to HUTT. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in children with FMF is not prominent. Particularly, patients with exertional leg pain are more prone to have dysautonomic features

  19. Perceptions of Father Involvement Patterns in Teenage-Mother Families: Predictors and Links to Mothers' Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2005-01-01

    Based on adolescent mothers' reports, longitudinal patterns of involvement of young, unmarried biological fathers (n=77) in teenage-mother families using cluster analytic techniques were examined. Approximately one third of fathers maintained high levels of involvement over time, another third demonstrated low involvement at both time points, and…

  20. Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Child Adjustment Moderated by Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Activity: Within- and between-Family Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fisher, Philip A.; Marceau, Kristine; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    Child hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity was investigated as a moderator of parental depressive symptom effects on child behavior in an adoption sample ("n" = 210 families). Adoptive parents' depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing were assessed at 18, 27, and 54 months, and child morning and evening HPA activity…

  1. Family, Neighborhood, and Peer Characteristics as Predictors of Child Adjustment: A Longitudinal Analysis of Additive and Mediation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Michael M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Moilanen, Kristin L.; Hitchings, Julia E.; Ingoldsby, Erin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test direct, additive, and mediation models involving family, neighborhood, and peer factors in relation to emerging antisocial behavior and social skills. Neighborhood danger, maternal depressive symptoms, and supportive parenting were assessed in early childhood. Peer group acceptance was measured in middle…

  2. Alcohol use longitudinally predicts adjustment and impairment in college students with ADHD: The role of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Kipperman, Kristen L; Molitor, Stephen J; Eddy, Laura D

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether alcohol consumption longitudinally predicts the adjustment, overall functioning, and grade point average (GPA) of college students with ADHD and to determine whether self-report of executive functioning (EF) mediates these relationships. Sixty-two college students comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD completed ratings at the beginning and end of the school year. Regression analyses revealed that alcohol consumption rated at the beginning of the year significantly predicted self-report of adjustment and overall impairment at the end of the year, above and beyond ADHD symptoms and baseline levels of adjustment/impairment but did not predict GPA. Exploratory multiple mediator analyses suggest that alcohol use impacts impairment primarily through EF deficits in self-motivation. EF deficits in the motivation to refrain from pursuing immediately rewarding behaviors in order to work toward long-term goals appear to be particularly important in understanding why college students with ADHD who consume alcohol have a higher likelihood of experiencing significant negative outcomes. The implications of these findings for the prevention of the negative functional outcomes often experienced by college students with ADHD are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25347020

  3. Economic well-being and children's social adjustment: the role of family process in an ethnically diverse low-income sample.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Rashmita S; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Huston, Aletha C; McLoyd, Vonnie C

    2002-01-01

    Using latent variable structural equation modeling, a family economic stress model that links economic well-being to child well-being in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 419 elementary school-age children was evaluated. The sample was 57% African American and 28% Hispanic, and most families were headed by single mothers. The results provided support for the position that family process is a critical mediator of the effects of economic hardship on children's social adjustment. Lower levels of economic well-being, and the corollary elevated perceptions of economic pressure indirectly affected parenting behavior through an adverse impact on parental psychological well-being. Distressed parents reported feeling less effective and capable in disciplinary interactions with their child and were observed to be less affectionate in parent-child interactions. In turn, less than optimal parenting predicted lower teacher ratings of children's positive social behavior and higher ratings of behavior problems. Multiple-group analyses revealed that the pathways by which economic hardship influences children's behavior appear to operate similarly for boys and girls, and for African American and Hispanic families. PMID:12038561

  4. No direct association among respiratory function, disease control and family functioning in a sample of Mexican children with intermittent asthma.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain Raimundo; Núñez-Tapia, Rosa María; Ramírez-Silva, Armando; Gómez-Alonso, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    Asthma has been linked to family disfunctioning and poor control of the disease.This study was conducted to analyze the interactions between the level of intermittent asthma control, family functioning and respiratory function and between quality of life of asthmatic patients and their caregivers.7 to 15 years old children with intermittent asthma were included. Asthma Control Test Questionnaire, Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) test, and flowmetry were applied to children and Pediatric Asthma Caregiver´s Quatily of Life Questionnaire (PAQCLQ) and the Family Functioning Perception Test (FF-SIL) were applied to their parents.The most affected areas of family functioning in dysfunctional families were adaptability and permeability. A medium to high strength of association was founded between the emotional function of parents and the emotional function of children, R2=0.552. The most remarkable associations were among parents' limitation of activities and parents' emotional function (r=0.837), parents' limitation of activities and child's emotional function (r=0.722), parents' emotional role and limitation of activities (r=0.837), parents' emotional role and emotional functioning of children with asthma (r=0.743) and the limitation of activities of children with asthma and the emotional function of children with asthma (r=0.870).No direct associations were founded among respiratory function, disease control and family functioning in Mexican children with intermittent asthma and emotional function of parents and children were associated in both groups. PMID:23754351

  5. Structure of CD84 Provides Insight into SLAM Family Function

    SciTech Connect

    Yan,Q.; Malashkevich, V.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Cao, E.; Lary, J.; Cole, J.; Nathenson, S.; Almo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family includes homophilic and heterophilic receptors that modulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. These receptors share a common ectodomain organization: a membrane-proximal immunoglobulin constant domain and a membrane-distal immunoglobulin variable domain that is responsible for ligand recognition. CD84 is a homophilic family member that enhances IFN-{gamma} secretion in activated T cells. Our solution studies revealed that CD84 strongly self-associates with a K{sub d} in the submicromolar range. These data, in combination with previous reports, demonstrate that the SLAM family homophilic affinities span at least three orders of magnitude and suggest that differences in the affinities may contribute to the distinct signaling behavior exhibited by the individual family members. The 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the human CD84 immunoglobulin variable domain revealed an orthogonal homophilic dimer with high similarity to the recently reported homophilic dimer of the SLAM family member NTB-A. Structural and chemical differences in the homophilic interfaces provide a mechanism to prevent the formation of undesired heterodimers among the SLAM family homophilic receptors. These structural data also suggest that, like NTB-A, all SLAM family homophilic dimers adopt a highly kinked organization spanning an end-to-end distance of {approx}140 {angstrom}. This common molecular dimension provides an opportunity for all two-domain SLAM family receptors to colocalize within the immunological synapse and bridge the T cell and antigen-presenting cell.

  6. Parenting in 2 Worlds: Effects of a Culturally Adapted Intervention for Urban American Indians on Parenting Skills and Family Functioning.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Stephen S; Ayers, Stephanie L; Harthun, Mary L; Jager, Justin

    2016-08-01

    Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W) is a culturally grounded parenting intervention that addresses the distinctive social and cultural worlds of urban American Indian (AI) families. P2W was culturally adapted through community-based participatory research in three urban AI communities with diverse tribal backgrounds. This paper reports the immediate outcomes of P2W in a randomized controlled trial, utilizing data from 575 parents of AI children (ages 10-17). Parents were assigned to P2W or to the comparison group, an informational family health curriculum, Healthy Families in 2 Worlds (HF2W). Both the P2W and HF2W curricula consisted of 10 workshops delivered weekly by AI community facilitators. Pretests were administered at the first workshop and a post-test at the last workshop. Tests of the efficacy of P2W versus HF2W on parenting skills and family functioning were analyzed with pairwise t tests, within intervention type, and by baseline adjusted path models using FIML estimation in Mplus. Intervention effect sizes were estimated with Cohen's d. Participants in P2W reported significant improvements in parental agency, parenting practices, supervision and family cohesion, and decreases in discipline problems and parent-child conflict. Compared to HF2W, P2W participants reported significantly larger increases in parental self-agency and positive parenting practices, and fewer child discipline problems. Most of these desired program effects for P2W approached medium size. Culturally adapted parenting interventions like P2W can effectively strengthen parenting practices and family functioning among urban AI families and help address their widespread need for targeted, culturally grounded programs. PMID:27129476

  7. Short-term family-centered workshop for children with developmental delays enhances family functioning and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Hsieh, Wen-Huei; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the clinical efficacy on family functioning and parental satisfaction of a short-term family-centered workshop for children with developmental delays. A total of 32 children with developmental delays and their parents participated in 2-hour weekly group therapy sessions over 6 weeks. The workshop was conducted by rehabilitation professionals and teachers using a family-centered multidisciplinary approach. Both before and after the 6-week workshop, the parents were administered the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Family Impact Module, the PedsQL Healthcare Satisfaction Module, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life brief assessment instrument. Overall satisfaction with the workshop was also evaluated. Significant improvements were noted in physical aspect (P = 0.03), communication (P = 0.002), and daily activities (P = 0.04) in the PedsQL Family Impact Module, and in communication (P = 0.03) and technical skills (P = 0.05) in the PedsQL Healthcare Satisfaction Module. Overall satisfaction with the workshop was rated as very high. There was no significant effect on psychological distress or quality of life. Short-term family-centered workshops for children with developmental delays improved family functioning and the parental perception of satisfaction, including health care satisfaction. PMID:27495025

  8. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  9. Family Structure and Functions Identified by Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Wylie, Gina; Doherty-Poirier, Maryanne; Kieren, Dianne

    1999-01-01

    A study looked at the structural and functional aspects of family from the perspective of six people living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results showing how HIV/AIDS affects all members of the sufferer's family have implications for family practitioners. (Author/JOW)

  10. Work and Family Functioning: An Annotated Bibliography Selected from Family Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mari, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists works published in Australia on issues regarding work obligations and family responsibilities. All works cited are included in Australia's FAMILY database. The following topics are covered: (1) adolescents and attitudes to employment (14 citations); (2) the aged and employment (20 citations); (3) career…

  11. Longitudinal Relationships Between Family Functioning and Identity Development in Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Mason, Craig A.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate trajectories of identity development and their relationship to family functioning in a sample of Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers. Two hundred fifty adolescents completed measures of identity coherence and confusion and of family functioning, and parents completed measures of family functioning. Significant variability over time and across individuals emerged in identity confusion, but not in identity coherence. As a result, the present analyses focused on identity confusion. Changes in adolescent-reported, but not parent-reported, family functioning were significantly related to changes in identity confusion. Follow-up analyses suggested that family functioning primarily influences identity confusion in early adolescence, but that identity confusion begins to exert a reciprocal effect in middle adolescence. Exploratory latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) analyses produced three classes of adolescents based on their baseline values and change trajectories in identity confusion. The potential for family-strengthening interventions to affect identity development is discussed. PMID:19756226

  12. New Functions for the Ancient DedA Membrane Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Rakesh; Kumar, Sujeet; Boughner, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    The DedA protein family is a highly conserved and ancient family of membrane proteins with representatives in most sequenced genomes, including those of bacteria, archaea, and eukarya. The functions of the DedA family proteins remain obscure. However, recent genetic approaches have revealed important roles for certain bacterial DedA family members in membrane homeostasis. Bacterial DedA family mutants display such intriguing phenotypes as cell division defects, temperature sensitivity, altered membrane lipid composition, elevated envelope-related stress responses, and loss of proton motive force. The DedA family is also essential in at least two species of bacteria: Borrelia burgdorferi and Escherichia coli. Here, we describe the phylogenetic distribution of the family and summarize recent progress toward understanding the functions of the DedA membrane protein family. PMID:23086209

  13. Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood.

    PubMed

    Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding. PMID:21073770

  14. Sleep, Psychosocial Functioning, and Device-Specific Adjustment in Patients with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs).

    PubMed

    McCrae, Christina S; Roth, Alicia J; Ford, Jessica; Crew, Earl C; Conti, Jamie B; Berry, Richard B; Sears, Samuel F

    2016-01-01

    Rates of sleep disorders and associated adjustment were examined in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs; n = 42; Mage = 61.57, SD = 12.60). One night of ambulatory polysomnography, 14 days of sleep diaries, and questionnaires (mood, sleepiness, fatigue, device acceptance) were administered. Controlling for ischemia, MANCOVA examined adjustment by sleep diagnosis. Apnea was most common (28.6%), followed by Insomnia (16.7%) and Comorbid Insomnia/Apnea (11.9%). Patients with insomnia reported poorer mood, greater sleepiness, and lower device acceptance than good sleepers; they also demonstrated poorer mood and less ICD device acceptance than patients with sleep apnea. Patients with comorbid insomnia/apnea also exhibited poorer mood and less ICD device acceptance than good sleepers; however, comorbid patients did not significantly differ from insomnia or apnea patients on any measure. Those with disordered sleep (regardless of type) reported greater fatigue than good sleepers. Assessment (and treatment) of difficulties with sleep, mood, fatigue, and device acceptance may be important for the comprehensive clinical management of ICD patients. Further research appears warranted. PMID:25174823

  15. A study of posterior column function in familial spastic paraplegia.

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrijevic, M R; Lenman, J A; Prevec, T; Wheatly, K

    1982-01-01

    A family is described in which affected members have clinical features consistent with the late onset form of Strümpell's Familial Spastic Paraplegia which is of dominant inheritance. Abnormalities in cortical somatosensory to peroneal nerve stimulation were found in all affected members of the family and in several who were clinically unaffected. In some cases responses were better defined at slow rates of stimulation. Peripheral nerve conduction velocity was normal. These changes are consistent with previous findings of degeneration in the posterior columns at necroscopy and with a dying back process in the first sensory neuron. Clinically unaffected members of the family with abnormalities in the somatosensory response may represent asymptomatic heterozygotes. PMID:7062069

  16. Children's coping with marital conflict and their adjustment and physical health: vulnerability and protective functions.

    PubMed

    Nicolotti, Linda; el-Sheikh, Mona; Whitson, Stephanie M

    2003-09-01

    Children's strategies for coping with parental marital conflict were examined as predictors, mediators, and moderators of the relations between marital conflict and 8- to 11-year-olds' internalizing, externalizing, and physical health problems. In the context of marital conflict, a higher level of active coping and support coping combined was a protective factor against girls' depression symptoms and self-esteem problems and both boys' and girls' health problems. Further, avoidance coping was a vulnerability factor for externalizing, internalizing, and physical health problems in boys, and distraction coping was protective against children's depression and health problems. These findings extend the literature by delineating coping strategies that either protected children against, or heightened their vulnerability to, adjustment and health problems associated with exposure to parental marital conflict. PMID:14562456

  17. Family Environment and Parent-Child Relationships as Related to Executive Functioning in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Valarie M.; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the associations between family environment, parenting practices and executive functions in normally developing children. One hundred parents of children between the ages of 5 and 12 completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions from the Family Environment Scale and the Parent-Child Relationship…

  18. Longitudinal Relationships between Family Functioning and Identity Development in Hispanic Adolescents: Continuity and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Mason, Craig A.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate trajectories of identity development and their relationship to family functioning in a sample of Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers. Two hundred fifty adolescents completed measures of identity coherence and confusion and of family functioning, and parents completed measures of family…

  19. Positive Adjustment in Parents Rearing Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Evelyn M.; Glidden, Laraine Masters

    2000-01-01

    Compared adjustment in adoptive and biological parents rearing 1- to 12-year-olds with Down syndrome. Found that birth mothers and fathers were functioning quite similarly to adoptive mothers and fathers on family strengths, marital adjustment, and resources and stress. Birth mothers displayed higher personal burden than adoptive mothers, with the…

  20. Family Functioning and the Well-Being of Children With Chronic Conditions: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Jennifer; Crandell, Jamie L; Lee, Anna; Bai, Jinbing; Sandelowski, Margarete; Knafl, Kathleen

    2016-08-01

    For children with chronic conditions, well-being is closely related to how well their families function. Most prior research syntheses on family functioning and child well-being have focused on children with a single condition, thereby limiting the potential to aggregate and build on what is known across conditions. To address this challenge, research reports were reviewed and meta-analyses conducted of findings on the relationship between family functioning and child well-being across a range of chronic physical conditions. The sample was derived from a larger systematic review study that included 1,028 reports published between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2014. The current review includes 53 studies in which a relationship between family functioning and child well-being was analyzed using one of four family measures: Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, Family Environment Scale, Family Relationship Index, or Family Assessment Device. Most studies were cross-sectional and observational (n = 43, 81%). The most frequently studied conditions were diabetes, cancer, sickle cell disease, and asthma. In 37 studies, findings were sufficiently comparable to conduct meta-analyses. Significant correlations were identified between children's psychological health and seven of nine dimensions of family functioning. Significant correlations also were found between dimensions of family functioning and children's problem behaviors, social competence, quality of life, and, to a lesser extent, adherence and physical health. Of the family dimensions, cohesion and conflict were associated most strongly with child outcomes. Understanding the specific family variables, such as conflict, linked to varied child outcomes is key for intervention development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27128982

  1. Family Functioning in First-Episode and Chronic Psychosis: The Role of Patient's Symptom Severity and Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Koutra, Katerina; Triliva, Sofia; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basta, Maria; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between illness-related characteristics, such as symptom severity and psychosocial functioning, and specific aspects of family functioning both in patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis (FEP) and chronically ill patients. A total of 50 FEP and 50 chronic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (most recent episode manic severe with psychotic features) and their family caregivers participated in the study. Family functioning was evaluated in terms of cohesion and flexibility (FACES IV Package), expressed emotion (FQ), family burden (FBS) and caregivers' psychological distress (GHQ-28). Patients' symptom severity (BPRS) and psychosocial functioning (GAS) were assessed by their treating psychiatrist within 2 weeks from the caregivers' assessment. Increased symptom severity was associated with greater dysfunction in terms of family cohesion and flexibility (β coefficient -0.13; 95 % CI -0.23, -0.03), increased caregivers' EE levels on the form of emotional overinvolvement (β coefficient 1.03; 95 % CI 0.02, 2.03), and psychological distress (β coefficient 3.37; 95 % CI 1.29, 5.45). Family burden was found to be significantly related to both symptom severity (β coefficient 3.01; 95 % CI 1.50, 4.51) and patient's functioning (β coefficient -2.04; 95 % CI -3.55, -0.53). No significant interaction effect of chronicity was observed in the afore-mentioned associations. These findings indicate that severe psychopathology and patient's low psychosocial functioning are associated with poor family functioning. It appears that the effect for family function is significant from the early stages of the illness. Thus, early psychoeducational interventions should focus on patients with severe symptomatology and impaired functioning and their families. PMID:26286079

  2. Family Functioning and Adolescent Psychological Maladjustment: The Mediating Role of Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Rita; Loios, Sara; Pedro, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to analyze the mediating role of coping strategies in the relationship between family functioning and youth maladjustment. A community sample of 341 adolescents (M = 15.11 years old; SD = 1.71) completed self-report measures about such variables. Results showed that a perception of an inadequate family functioning was associated with the use of maladaptive coping strategies, as well as with youth psychological maladjustment. The results also revealed that rumination and support-seeking mediated the relationship between family functioning and internalizing behavior, and hostile expression of feelings played a mediating role between family functioning and externalizing behavior. No gender differences were found in the relationship between variables. This study emphasizes the importance of coping strategies used by adolescents to understand the relationship between family functioning and youth psychological maladjustment. PMID:26615594

  3. [Structural, developmental and functional evaluation of the family of individuals with arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Radovanovic, Cremilde Aparecida Trindade; Cecilio, Hellen Pollyanna Mantelo; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the structure, development and functionality of the family that suffers from arterial hypertension. This is a qualitative study, developed with two families using the Calgary Model of Family Evaluation. It proposes the use of three categories of analysis: structural developmental and functional, and the use of a genogram and an ecomap. The two families are nuclear, however one is formed by the couple and their three sons who are married and reside in different homes. The other is a single-parent family established by the mother and children. The married son resides at another house in the same backyard with wife and daughter The application of the model of family evaluation allowed knowing the aspects related to the structure, operation and development of the two families that interfere impair or favor the development of the care in their quotidian. PMID:23781723

  4. Family Functioning: Associations with Weight Status, Eating Behaviors, and Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the relationship between family functioning (e.g. communication, closeness, problem solving, behavioral control) and adolescent weight status and relevant eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Data are from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study that assessed eating and activity among socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse youth (n = 2,793). Adolescents (46.8% boys, 53.2% girls) completed anthropometric assessments and surveys at school in 2009–2010. Multiple linear regression was used to test the relationship between family functioning and adolescent weight, dietary intake, family meal patterns, and physical activity. Additional regression models were fit to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. Results For adolescent girls, higher family functioning was associated with lower body mass index z-score and percent overweight, less sedentary behavior, higher intake of fruits and vegetables, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. For adolescent boys, higher family functioning was associated with more physical activity, less sedentary behavior, less fast food consumption, and more frequent family meals and breakfast consumption. There was one significant interaction by race/ethnicity for family meals; the association between higher family functioning and more frequent family meals was stronger for non-white boys compared to white boys. Overall, strengths of associations tended to be small with effect sizes ranging from - 0.07 to 0.31 for statistically significant associations. Conclusions Findings suggest that family functioning may be protective for adolescent weight and weight-related health behaviors across all race/ethnicities, although assumptions regarding family functioning in the homes of overweight children should be avoided given small effect sizes. PMID:23299010

  5. The European study of assisted reproduction families: family functioning and child development.

    PubMed

    Golombok, S; Brewaeys, A; Cook, R; Giavazzi, M T; Guerra, D; Mantovani, A; van Hall, E; Crosignani, P G; Dexeus, S

    1996-10-01

    Findings are presented of a European study (conducted in the UK, Italy, Spain and The Netherlands) of family relationships and the social and emotional development of children in families created as a result of the two most widely used reproductive technologies, in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and donor insemination (DI), in comparison with control groups of families with naturally conceived child and adoptive families. Mothers of children conceived by assisted reproduction expressed greater warmth towards their child, were more emotionally involved with their child, interacted more with their child and reported less stress associated with parenting than mothers who conceived their child naturally. Similarly, assisted reproduction fathers were found to interact more with their child and to contribute more to parenting than fathers with a naturally conceived child. With respect to the children themselves, no group differences were found for either the presence of psychological disorder or for children's perceptions of the quality of family relationships. The findings relating to the quality of parenting and the socio-emotional development of the children were similar in each of the four countries studied. PMID:8943550

  6. Parent-Reported Family Functioning Among Children With Cleft Lip/Palate

    PubMed Central

    Crerand, Canice E.; Rosenberg, Janine; Magee, Leanne; Stein, Margot B.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Broder, Hillary L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine family functioning related to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics in youth with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P). Design Cross-sectional, multisite investigation. Setting Six U.S. cleft centers. Patients/Participants A diverse sample of 1200 children with CL/P and their parents. Main Outcome Measure Parents completed the Family Environment Scale (FES), which assesses three domains of family functioning: cohesion (or closeness), expressiveness (open expression of feelings), and conflict. Demographic and clinical characteristics were also assessed including race, ethnicity, type of insurance, and surgical recommendations. Results The FES scores for families seeking team evaluations for their youth with CL/P (mean age = 11.6 years) fall within the average range compared with normative samples. Families receiving surgical recommendations for their youth also had FES scores in the average range, yet families of children recommended for functional surgery reported greater cohesion, expressiveness, and less conflict compared with those recommended for aesthetic surgery (P < .05). For cohesion and expressiveness, significant main effects for race (P = .012, P < .0001, respectively) and ethnicity (P =.004, P < .0001, respectively) were found but not for their interaction. No significant differences were found on the conflict domain. Families with private insurance reported significantly greater cohesion (P < .001) and expressiveness (P < .001) than did families with public insurance. Conclusions Family functioning across domains was in the average range. However, observed differences by race, ethnicity, type of insurance, and surgical recommendation may warrant consideration in clinical management for patients and families. PMID:25405543

  7. Family Functioning and School Success in At-Risk, Inner-City Adolescents1

    PubMed Central

    Annunziata, Diane; Hogue, Aaron; Faw, Leyla; Liddle, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between family functioning and school success was examined in 211 at risk, African American, inner city adolescents attending middle school (grades 6–8). Interviews with adolescents and caregivers yielded data on family cohesion, parental monitoring, and school engagement; school records provided data on grade point average. Results showed that both family cohesion and parental monitoring predicted school engagement, but neither family characteristic predicted GPA. Important gender differences also emerged. For boys only, the relation between family cohesion and school engagement was stronger when parental monitoring was high. For girls only, the effects of cohesion and monitoring on school engagement were additive: girls with both high family cohesion and high parental monitoring were most likely to be engaged in school. These findings extend the research base on family protective factors for antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Implications for future examination of family process characteristics in high-risk adolescents are discussed. PMID:21394228

  8. The Assessment and Treatment of Adolescents with Visual Impairments and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Louise E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This review examines evaluation and treatment of adjustment problems in adolescents with visual impairments and describes a behavioral family treatment program. It considers the impact of the child on the family and the family on the child; assessment (psychopathology, social skills competence, family adjustment, and marital functioning); and…

  9. An Investigation of Preschool Children's Family Functions: A General Outlook on the Family from the Mother's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Baran; Guven, Yildiz

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to investigate preschool children's family functions. To fulfill this aim, mothers' viewpoints and characteristics (e.g., educational level, age, number of children, time spent in Istanbul, relations with spouse, employment status, relatives living in the same house, and perceived economic level) have been considered. The study…

  10. Paternal Alcoholism, Family Functioning, and Infant Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Eiden, Rina Das

    2007-01-01

    The authors share results from two longitudinal studies exploring the impact of father's alcohol use on child development. The Michigan Longitudinal Study (MLS) has followed a sample of alcoholic families with 3-5 year old children for 20 years. The Buffalo Longitudinal Study (BLS) has followed a sample of alcoholic and nonalcoholic families…

  11. Beyond Conflict: Functional Facets of the Work-Family Interplay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Seiger, Christine P.; Schmid, Christian M.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper deals with three positive facets of the work-family interplay, i.e., transfer of competencies, transfer of positive mood, and cross-domain compensation. The latter refers to the experience that engagement in one domain helps dealing with failures in the other domain. In two correlational studies (N[subscript 1] = 107 working…

  12. Emotional Neglect and Family Structure: Impact on Student Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, Mary Jo; Kruczek, Theresa; Boley, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 69 female and 22 male undergraduates found participants who reported childhood emotional neglect by a primary female caregiver described greater current psychological distress and lower cohesion and adaptability in their family of origin than those reporting no neglect or neglect by a primary male caregiver. (Contains…

  13. Functional Exploration of the Polysaccharide Lyase Family PL6

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Sophie; Henrissat, Bernard; Labre, Flavien; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund; Helbert, William

    2016-01-01

    Alginate, the main cell-wall polysaccharide of brown algae, is composed of two residues: mannuronic acid (M-residues) and, its C5-epimer, guluronic acid (G-residues). Alginate lyases define a class of enzymes that cleave the glycosidic bond of alginate by β-elimination. They are classified according to their ability to recognize the distribution of M- and G-residues and are named M-, G- or MG-lyases. In the CAZy database, alginate lyases have been grouped by sequence similarity into seven distinct polysaccharide lyase families. The polysaccharide lyase family PL6 is subdivided into three subfamilies. Subfamily PL6_1 includes three biochemically characterized enzymes (two alginate lyases and one dermatan sulfatase lyase). No characterized enzymes have been described in the two other subfamilies (PL6_2 and PL6_3). To improve the prediction of polysaccharide-lyase activity in the PL6 family, we re-examined the classification of the PL6 family and biochemically characterized a set of enzymes reflecting the diversity of the protein sequences. Our results show that subfamily PL6_1 includes two dermatan sulfates lyases and several alginate lyases that have various substrate specificities and modes of action. In contrast, subfamilies PL6_2 and PL6_3 were found to contain only endo-poly-MG-lyases. PMID:27438604

  14. DOES FAMILY OF ORIGIN FUNCTIONING PREDICT ADULT SOMATIC COMPLAINTS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has long been believed that adult somatic complaints are associated with early family dysfunction. Yet few studies have examined this hypothesis in community samples, where medically unexplained symptom complaints are estimated to be very common. Given the potential population-wide impact of subt...

  15. Family function of the families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Joh, Ju-Youn; Shin, Il-Seon

    2015-03-01

    Marriages between Korean men and immigrant women from elsewhere in Asia have increased rapidly during recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship within families consisting of immigrant women and to identify the relevant factors. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a baseline study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and family APGAR (adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve) scores were measured. Family APGAR has been widely used to study the relationship of family function and health problems in the busy clinician's office. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the baseline study results. Family APGAR scores were higher at the 3-year follow-up than those at baseline. Changes in family APGAR scores were found to be influenced by the birthplace, reported subjective ability to read Korean, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale score. PMID:22652245

  16. PANTHER: A Library of Protein Families and Subfamilies Indexed by Function

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Paul D.; Campbell, Michael J.; Kejariwal, Anish; Mi, Huaiyu; Karlak, Brian; Daverman, Robin; Diemer, Karen; Muruganujan, Anushya; Narechania, Apurva

    2003-01-01

    In the genomic era, one of the fundamental goals is to characterize the function of proteins on a large scale. We describe a method, PANTHER, for relating protein sequence relationships to function relationships in a robust and accurate way. PANTHER is composed of two main components: the PANTHER library (PANTHER/LIB) and the PANTHER index (PANTHER/X). PANTHER/LIB is a collection of “books,” each representing a protein family as a multiple sequence alignment, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and a family tree. Functional divergence within the family is represented by dividing the tree into subtrees based on shared function, and by subtree HMMs. PANTHER/X is an abbreviated ontology for summarizing and navigating molecular functions and biological processes associated with the families and subfamilies. We apply PANTHER to three areas of active research. First, we report the size and sequence diversity of the families and subfamilies, characterizing the relationship between sequence divergence and functional divergence across a wide range of protein families. Second, we use the PANTHER/X ontology to give a high-level representation of gene function across the human and mouse genomes. Third, we use the family HMMs to rank missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), on a database-wide scale, according to their likelihood of affecting protein function. PMID:12952881

  17. The Relationship Between Family Functioning and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Emotional Clarity.

    PubMed

    Freed, Rachel D; Rubenstein, Liza M; Daryanani, Issar; Olino, Thomas M; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-03-01

    Emotion regulation has been implicated in the etiology of depression. A first step in adaptive emotion regulation involves emotional clarity, the ability to recognize and differentiate one's emotional experience. As family members are critical in facilitating emotional understanding and communication, we examined the impact of family functioning on adolescent emotional clarity and depressive symptoms. We followed 364 adolescents (ages 14-17; 52.5% female; 51.4 % Caucasian, 48.6% African American) and their mothers over 2 years (3 time points) and assessed emotional clarity, depressive symptoms, and adolescents' and mothers' reports of family functioning. Emotional clarity mediated the relationship between adolescents' reports of family functioning and depressive symptoms at all time points cross-sectionally, and according to mothers' reports of family functioning at Time 1 only. There was no evidence of longitudinal mediation for adolescents' or mothers' reports of family functioning. Thus, family functioning, emotional clarity, and depressive symptoms are strongly related constructs during various time points in adolescence, which has important implications for intervention, especially within the family unit. PMID:26832726

  18. Calibrating Item Families and Summarizing the Results Using Family Expected Response Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Johnson, Matthew S.; Williamson, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Item families, which are groups of related items, are becoming increasingly popular in complex educational assessments. For example, in automatic item generation (AIG) systems, a test may consist of multiple items generated from each of a number of item models. Item calibration or scoring for such an assessment requires fitting models that can…

  19. Preschool children’s views on emotion regulation: Functional associations and implications for social-emotional adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Kelemen, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and fear. Forty-seven adults were presented with a parallel questionnaire. Participants rated the degree to which six emotion-regulation strategies were effective in decreasing negative emotions. Results showed that even the youngest preschoolers viewed cognitive and behavioral distraction and repairing the situation as relatively effective; compared to adults, however, preschoolers favored relatively “ineffective” strategies such as venting and rumination. Children also showed a functional view of emotion regulation; that effective strategies depend on the emotion being regulated. All participants favored repairing a negative situation to reduce anger and behavioral distraction to reduce sadness and fear. Finally, the more children indicated that venting would reduce negative emotions, the lower their maternal report of social skills. Findings are discussed in terms of functional emotion theory and implications of emotion-regulation understanding for child adjustment. PMID:19724663

  20. 5 CFR 551.424 - Time spent adjusting grievances or performing representational functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work... shall be considered hours of work. (b) “Official time” granted an employee by an agency to perform... hours of work. This includes time spent by an employee performing such functions during regular...

  1. Child adjustment and parent functioning: Considering the role of child-driven effects.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ni; Ansari, Arya

    2016-04-01

    Based on 13,694 mother-child dyads from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Kindergarten Study (ECLS-K; Rock & Pollack, 2002; Tourangeau, Nord, Lê, Sorongon, & Najarian, 2009), this study is an examination of the bidirectional relations between parental and child functioning from kindergarten through 3rd grade. Results from the cross-lagged models demonstrated that child-driven effects co-occurred with parental effects, and that these effects were comparable in size. At the same time, however, results from the latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed idiosyncratic patterns of parent and child functioning. Compared with children in the least optimal functioning profiles, those in the average and above-average profiles elicited greater improvement in parents' functioning over time. Although children characterized by poor academic performance at kindergarten appeared to precede parents characterized by harsh parenting at 3rd grade, there was a threshold in the evolving strength of the overall child-driven effects. Taken together, the results from this study underscore the importance of considering reciprocal processes in the parent-child dynamic while also underscoring individual differences in these processes across the early- to middle-childhood years. PMID:26866838

  2. Sampling the membrane: function of rhomboid-family proteins.

    PubMed

    Lemberg, Marius K

    2013-05-01

    Rhomboids constitute a conserved protein superfamily that specifically binds membrane proteins and directs them into various different cellular pathways ranging from regulated secretion to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). Rhomboid proteases are known to release protein domains from membranes by a cut in their membrane anchor, whereas an emerging new class of rhomboid-family proteins lacks key catalytic residues and is not proteolytically active. Recent work has shown that these rhomboid pseudoproteases, including iRhoms and derlins, bind membrane proteins to regulate their fate, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not known. This review summarizes recent advances in the molecular understanding of rhomboid-family proteins and discusses common principles in how they recognize and bind proteins in the plane of the membrane. PMID:23369641

  3. The FoxO Family in Cardiac Function and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ronnebaum, Sarah M.; Patterson, Cam

    2010-01-01

    The Forkhead family of transcription factors mediates many aspects of physiology, including stress response, metabolism, commitment to apoptosis, and development. The Forkhead box subfamily O (FoxO) proteins have garnered particular interest due to their involvement in the modulation of cardiovascular biology. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of FoxO regulation and outcomes of FoxO signaling under normal and pathological cardiovascular contexts. PMID:20148668

  4. On certain families of rational functions arising in dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, C. I.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that linear systems, depending on parameters, can occur in diverse situations including families of rational solutions to the Korteweg-de Vries equation or to the finite Toda lattice. The inverse scattering method used by Moser (1975) to obtain canonical coordinates for the finite homogeneous Toda lattice can be used for the synthesis of RC networks. It is concluded that the multivariable RC setting is ideal for the analysis of the periodic Toda lattice.

  5. The influence of unemployment on functioning of the family.

    PubMed

    Latalski, Maciej; Kulik, Teresa Bernadetta; Pacian, Anna; Skórzyńska, Hanna; Rudnicka-Drozak, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of unemployment on family welfare. It was conducted between April and June 2002 among 200 unemployed registered at the Regional Employment Bureau in Lublin. The method of choice was a questionnaire. The study results demonstrated that the most direct consequence of unemployment is financial impoverishment. Most participants claimed their income did not allow them to cover the basic needs. Managing a very limited budget, they had to give up buying new clothes, more expensive food and toilet items as well as spending money on cultural and leisure pursuits. They were unable to use paid medical services and to meet household payments deadlines. These consequences were borne not only by the unemployed themselves but also by their families. Those with school children had to cut their expenditures on education and in extreme cases the children were unable to attend junior or senior high school. The results indicate that unemployment had a negative impact on many different spheres of family life and in the long run it has a negative impact on the life of the whole society. PMID:15323194

  6. Adaptive functioning in Williams syndrome and its relation to demographic variables and family environment.

    PubMed

    Brawn, Gabrielle; Porter, Melanie

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed adaptive functioning in children and adults with Williams syndrome. The aims were to: (1) profile adaptive functioning; (2) investigate the relationship between adaptive functions and gender, CA, and IQ; (3) investigate the relationship between levels of adaptive functioning and family environment characteristics. In line with predictions: (1) there was extensive variability in adaptive functions; (2) neither gender nor IQ were significantly related to adaptive skills, but Communication skills and Interpersonal Relationship skills failed to make appropriate gains relative to same aged peers and (3) adaptive functioning was significantly related to family environment. Practical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25310713

  7. Perceived discrimination, family functioning, and depressive symptoms among immigrant women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao-Jan; Wu, Jyun-Yi; Huang, Sheng-Shiung; Lien, Mei-Huei; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of family functioning on the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms in immigrant women. A total of 239 immigrant women were selected from four administrative regions in Central Taiwan. Questionnaires concerning perceived discrimination, family functioning (including family cohesion and family adaptability), depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics were completed by either women themselves (N = 120) or their husbands (N = 119). The moderating effect of family functioning on the relationship between perceived discrimination and depression symptoms was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Findings showed that a higher level of perceived discrimination among immigrant women is associated with more severe depressive symptoms. Family functioning serves as a moderator between the relationship of perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms, but the moderating effect of family adaptability was evident only in data reported by immigrant women. The results indicate that perceived discrimination has negative mental health implications, and also point to the importance of family functioning for depression. Findings suggest that providers should consider addressing immigrant women's mental health needs through declining their psychosocial distress at multiple ecological levels. PMID:24414300

  8. Expressed Emotion, Family Functioning, and Treatment Outcome for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Rienecke, Renee D; Accurso, Erin C; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment. PMID:26201083

  9. Expressed Emotion, Family Functioning, and Treatment Outcome for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Rienecke, Renee D.; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment. PMID:26201083

  10. Families of atomic functions ch a, n ( x) and fup n ( x) in digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, V. F.; Konovalov, Ya. Yu.; Pustovoit, V. I.

    2015-05-01

    A new class of weight functions constructed on the basis of family of atomic functions and ch a, n ( x) and fup n ( x) is proposed and substantiated. The study consists of three parts. In the first part, the definition of atomic functions and their convolutions are presented. In the second part, a definition of a new family of atomic functions ch a, n ( x) as convolutions of h a ( x) is given. In the third part, a family of weight functions is constructed by truncation of ch a, n ( x) to the effective support. If smoothening with classical windows is applied after the truncation combined weight functions will be received. The physical characteristics of the weight functions constructed by the direct truncation and in combination with the Hamming and Riesz windows are presented. The found functions can find wide application in problems of digital signal processing, restoration of images, radar, radiometry, radio astronomy, remote probing, and other physical domains.

  11. Adjustment of surface chemical and physical properties with functionalized polymers to control cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhaoli

    Cell-surface interaction is crucial in many cellular functions such as movement, growth, differentiation, proliferation and survival. In the present work, we have developed several strategies to design and prepare synthetic polymeric materials with selected cues to control cell attachment. To promote neuronal cell adhesion on the surfaces, biocompatible, non-adhesive PEG-based materials were modified with neurotransmitter acetylcholine functionalities to produce hydrogels with a range of porous structures, swollen states, and mechanical strengths. Mice hippocampal cells cultured on the hydrogels showed differences in number, length of processes and exhibited different survival rates, thereby highlighting the importance of chemical composition and structure in biomaterials. Similar strategies were used to prepare polymer brushes to assess how topographical cues influence neuronal cell behaviors. The brushes were prepared using the "grown from" method through surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) reactions and further patterned via UV photolithography. Protein absorption tests and hippocampal neuronal cell culture of the brush patterns showed that both protein and neuronal cells can adhere to the patterns and therefore can be guided by the patterns at certain length scales. We also prepared functional polymers to discourage attachment of undesirable cells on the surfaces. For example, we synthesized PEG-perfluorinated alkyl amphiphilic surfactants to modify polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)- block-polyisoprene (SEBI or K3) triblock copolymers for marine antifouling/fouling release surface coatings. Initial results showed that the polymer coated surfaces can facilitate removal of Ulva sporelings on the surfaces. In addition, we prepared both bioactive and dual functional biopassive/bioactive antimicrobial coatings based on SEBI polymers. Incubating the polymer coated surfaces with gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus), gram

  12. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of

  13. Social relationships and health: the relative roles of family functioning and social support.

    PubMed

    Franks, P; Campbell, T L; Shields, C G

    1992-04-01

    The associations between social relationships and health have been examined using two major research traditions. Using a social epidemiological approach, much research has shown the beneficial effect of social supports on health and health behaviors. Family interaction research, which has grown out of a more clinical tradition, has shown the complex effects of family functioning on health, particularly mental health. No studies have examined the relative power of these two approaches in explicating the connections between social relationships and health. We hypothesized that social relationships (social support and family functioning) would exert direct and indirect (through depressive symptoms) effects on health behaviors. We also hypothesized that the effects of social relationships on health would be more powerfully explicated by family functioning than by social support. We mailed a pilot survey to a random sample of patients attending a family practice center, including questions on depressive symptoms, cardiovascular health behaviors, demographics, social support using the ISEL scale, and family functioning using the FEICS scale. FEICS is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess family emotional involvement and criticism, the media elements of family expressed emotion. Eighty-three useable responses were obtained. Regression analyses and structural modelling showed both direct and indirect statistically significant paths from social relationships to health behaviors. Family criticism was directly associated (standardized coefficient = 0.29) with depressive symptoms, and family emotional involvement was directly associated with both depressive symptoms (coefficient = 0.35) and healthy cardiovascular behaviors (coefficient = 0.32). The results support the primacy of family functioning factors in understanding the associations among social relationships, mental health, and health behaviors. The contrasting relationships between emotional involvement and

  14. The FGGY carbohydrate kinase family: insights into the evolution of functional specificities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zagnitko, Olga; Rodionova, Irina; Osterman, Andrei; Godzik, Adam

    2011-12-01

    Function diversification in large protein families is a major mechanism driving expansion of cellular networks, providing organisms with new metabolic capabilities and thus adding to their evolutionary success. However, our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms of functional diversity in such families is very limited, which, among many other reasons, is due to the lack of functionally well-characterized sets of proteins. Here, using the FGGY carbohydrate kinase family as an example, we built a confidently annotated reference set (CARS) of proteins by propagating experimentally verified functional assignments to a limited number of homologous proteins that are supported by their genomic and functional contexts. Then, we analyzed, on both the phylogenetic and the molecular levels, the evolution of different functional specificities in this family. The results show that the different functions (substrate specificities) encoded by FGGY kinases have emerged only once in the evolutionary history following an apparently simple divergent evolutionary model. At the same time, on the molecular level, one isofunctional group (L-ribulokinase, AraB) evolved at least two independent solutions that employed distinct specificity-determining residues for the recognition of a same substrate (L-ribulose). Our analysis provides a detailed model of the evolution of the FGGY kinase family. It also shows that only combined molecular and phylogenetic approaches can help reconstruct a full picture of functional diversifications in such diverse families. PMID:22215998

  15. Sub-grouping and sub-functionalization of the RIFIN multi-copy protein family

    PubMed Central

    Joannin, Nicolas; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Sonnhammer, Erik L; Wahlgren, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Background Parasitic protozoans possess many multicopy gene families which have central roles in parasite survival and virulence. The number and variability of members of these gene families often make it difficult to predict possible functions of the encoded proteins. The families of extra-cellular proteins that are exposed to a host immune response have been driven via immune selection to become antigenically variant, and thereby avoid immune recognition while maintaining protein function to establish a chronic infection. Results We have combined phylogenetic and function shift analyses to study the evolution of the RIFIN proteins, which are antigenically variant and are encoded by the largest multicopy gene family in Plasmodium falciparum. We show that this family can be subdivided into two major groups that we named A- and B-RIFIN proteins. This suggested sub-grouping is supported by a recently published study that showed that, despite the presence of the Plasmodium export (PEXEL) motif in all RIFIN variants, proteins from each group have different cellular localizations during the intraerythrocytic life cycle of the parasite. In the present study we show that function shift analysis, a novel technique to predict functional divergence between sub-groups of a protein family, indicates that RIFINs have undergone neo- or sub-functionalization. Conclusion These results question the general trend of clustering large antigenically variant protein groups into homogenous families. Assigning functions to protein families requires their subdivision into meaningful groups such as we have shown for the RIFIN protein family. Using phylogenetic and function shift analysis methods, we identify new directions for the investigation of this broad and complex group of proteins. PMID:18197962

  16. The adipokinetic hormone family in Chrysomeloidea: structural and functional considerations *

    PubMed Central

    Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The presented work is a hybrid of an overview and an original research paper on peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family that are present in the corpora cardiaca of Chrysomeloidea. First, we introduce the AKH/red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) peptide family. Second, we collate the available primary sequence data on AKH peptides in Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae, and we present new sequencing data (from previously unstudied species) obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled with ion trap electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Our expanded data set encompasses the primary structure of AKHs from seven species of Cerambycidae and three species of Chrysomelidae. All of these species synthesise the octapeptide code-named Peram-CAH-I (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). Whereas this is the sole AKH peptide in Cerambycidae, Chrysomelidae demonstrate a probable event of AKH gene duplication, thereby giving rise to an additional AKH. This second AKH peptide may be either Emppe-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide) or Peram-CAH-II (pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). The peptide distribution and structural data suggest that both families are closely related and that Peram-CAH-I is the ancestral peptide. We hypothesise on the molecular evolution of Emppe-AKH and Peram-CAH-II from the ancestral peptide due to nonsynonymous missense single nucleotide polymorphism in the nucleotide coding sequence of prepro-AKH. Finally, we review the biological significance of the AKH peptides as hyperprolinaemic hormones in Chrysomeloidea, i.e. they cause an increase in the circulating concentration of proline. The mobilisation of proline has been demonstrated during flight in both cerambycid and chrysomelid beetles. PMID:22303105

  17. The CCN family of proteins: structure–function relationships

    PubMed Central

    Holbourn, Kenneth P.; Acharya, K. Ravi; Perbal, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The CCN proteins are key signalling and regulatory molecules involved in many vital biological functions, including cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumourigenesis and wound healing. How these proteins influence such a range of functions remains incompletely understood but is probably related to their discrete modular nature and a complex array of intra- and inter-molecular interactions with a variety of regulatory proteins and ligands. Although certain aspects of their biology can be attributed to the four individual modules that constitute the CCN proteins, recent results suggest that some of their biological functions require cooperation between modules. Indeed, the modular structure of CCN proteins provides important insight into their structure–function relationships. PMID:18789696

  18. Tipping Points in Adolescent Adjustment: Predicting Social Functioning from Adolescents’ Conflict with Parents and Friends

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents’ experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents’ experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semi-structured discussions about areas of adolescent-parent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents’ social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents. PMID:22946461

  19. The Impact of Intellectual Disability, Caregiver Burden, Family Functioning, Marital Quality, and Sense of Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R.; Al Gharaibeh, Fakir

    2011-01-01

    The present article is the first to consider the impact of intellectual disability on Bedouin-Arab families' caregiver burden, family functioning, marital quality, and sense of coherence. A random sample of 300 Bedouin-Arab parents with one or more intellectually disabled children, and a control group (n = 100) completed the McMaster Family…

  20. Demographic and Familial Predictors of Early Executive Function Development: Contribution of a Person-Centered Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Brittany L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Blair, Clancy

    2011-01-01

    Executive function (EF) skills are integral components of young children's growing competence, but little is known about the role of early family context and experiences in their development. We examined how demographic and familial risks during infancy predicted EF competence at 36 months of age in a large, predominantly low-income sample of…

  1. Family Functioning in Microtransition and Socio-Emotional Competence in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigala, Ada; Venturelli, Elena; Fruggeri, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Microtransitions can be identified as those exchanges that occur during everyday life when family members negotiate a change in their interactions. This study aims to highlight how certain aspects of family functioning during microtransitions could influence the development of children's socio-emotional competence in their interactions with…

  2. Tracing Differential Pathways of Risk: Associations among Family Adversity, Cortisol, and Cognitive Functioning in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suor, Jennifer H.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G.

    2015-01-01

    Guided by family risk and allostasis theoretical frameworks, the present study utilized a prospective longitudinal design to examine associations among family risk experiences, basal cortisol patterns, and cognitive functioning in children. The sample included 201 low-income children living within a midsize city in the Northeastern United States.…

  3. Work Experiences and Family Functioning among Employed Fathers with Children of School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Ulla; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigated how 657 fathers' job satisfaction and job stress were related to four domains: individual, parent-child, marital, and child. Results showed that the job affected all four domains. Job stress and job satisfaction were directly related to family functioning. Discusses implications for families with school-age children. (RJM)

  4. Parent Cultural Adaptation and Child Functioning in Culturally Diverse, Urban Families of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzada, Esther J.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Bat-Chava, Yael; Kingston, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Parent cultural adaptation and preschool behavioral and socioemotional functioning were examined in a community sample of urban families from diverse cultural backgrounds. Participants were 130 families of children (mean age = 4.1 years) attending eight public Pre-Kindergarten programs in urban communities. Parents completed a measure of cultural…

  5. Relationships between Humor Styles and Family Functioning in Parents of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Alicja; McGrail, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The humor styles and family functioning of parents of children with disabilities are understudied subjects. This study seeks to shed quantitative light on these areas. Seventy-two parents of children with disabilities completed the "Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales" (FACES IV) and the "Humor Styles…

  6. Children's Perceived Parent-Child Relationships and Family Functioning in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Shams, Fatemeh

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare Children's Perceived Parent-Child Relationships (PCR) and family functioning in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and a general population sample. Method: A total of 49 ADHD subjects and 51 subjects without any psychiatric disorder were matched for age, sex, educational level, family income, level…

  7. Disorder and function: a review of the dehydrin protein family.

    PubMed

    Graether, Steffen P; Boddington, Kelly F

    2014-01-01

    Dehydration proteins (dehydrins) are group 2 members of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family. The protein architecture of dehydrins can be described by the presence of three types of conserved sequence motifs that have been named the K-, Y-, and S-segments. By definition, a dehydrin must contain at least one copy of the lysine-rich K-segment. Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, and salinity cause the upregulation of dehydrin mRNA and protein levels. Despite the large body of genetic and protein evidence of the importance of these proteins in stress response, the in vivo protective mechanism is not fully known. In vitro experimental evidence from biochemical assays and localization experiments suggests multiple roles for dehydrins, including membrane protection, cryoprotection of enzymes, and protection from reactive oxygen species. Membrane binding by dehydrins is likely to be as a peripheral membrane protein, since the protein sequences are highly hydrophilic and contain many charged amino acids. Because of this, dehydrins in solution are intrinsically disordered proteins, that is, they have no well-defined secondary or tertiary structure. Despite their disorder, dehydrins have been shown to gain structure when bound to ligands such as membranes, and to possibly change their oligomeric state when bound to ions. We review what is currently known about dehydrin sequences and their structures, and examine the various ligands that have been shown to bind to this family of proteins. PMID:25400646

  8. Disorder and function: a review of the dehydrin protein family

    PubMed Central

    Graether, Steffen P.; Boddington, Kelly F.

    2014-01-01

    Dehydration proteins (dehydrins) are group 2 members of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family. The protein architecture of dehydrins can be described by the presence of three types of conserved sequence motifs that have been named the K-, Y-, and S-segments. By definition, a dehydrin must contain at least one copy of the lysine-rich K-segment. Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, and salinity cause the upregulation of dehydrin mRNA and protein levels. Despite the large body of genetic and protein evidence of the importance of these proteins in stress response, the in vivo protective mechanism is not fully known. In vitro experimental evidence from biochemical assays and localization experiments suggests multiple roles for dehydrins, including membrane protection, cryoprotection of enzymes, and protection from reactive oxygen species. Membrane binding by dehydrins is likely to be as a peripheral membrane protein, since the protein sequences are highly hydrophilic and contain many charged amino acids. Because of this, dehydrins in solution are intrinsically disordered proteins, that is, they have no well-defined secondary or tertiary structure. Despite their disorder, dehydrins have been shown to gain structure when bound to ligands such as membranes, and to possibly change their oligomeric state when bound to ions. We review what is currently known about dehydrin sequences and their structures, and examine the various ligands that have been shown to bind to this family of proteins. PMID:25400646

  9. Multicatalytic colloids with highly scalable, adjustable, and stable functionalities in organic and aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Donghee; Cheong, Sanghyuk; Ahn, Yun Gyong; Ryu, Sook Won; Kim, Jai-Kyeong; Cho, Jinhan

    2016-03-01

    Despite a large number of developments of noble metal (or metal oxide) NP-based catalysts, it has been a great challenge to prepare high-performance recyclable catalysts with integrated functionalities that can be used in various solvent media. Here, we report on layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled multicatalysts with high catalytic performance, showing high dispersion and recycling stability in organic and aqueous media. The remarkable advantages of our approach are as follows. (i) Various metal or metal oxide NPs with desired catalytic performance can be easily incorporated into multilayered shells, forming densely packed arrays that allow one colloid to be used as a multicatalyst with highly integrated and controllable catalytic properties. (ii) Additionally, the dispersion stability of catalytic colloids in a desired solvent can be determined by the type of ultrathin outermost layer coating each colloid. (iii) Lastly, the covalent bonding between inorganic NPs and dendrimers within multilayer shells enhances the recycling stability of multicatalytic colloids. The resulting core-shell colloids including OA-Fe3O4 NPs, TOABr-Pd NPs, and OA-TiO2 NPs exhibited excellent performance in the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and photocatalysis in aqueous media and in the Sonogashira coupling reaction (99% yield) in organic media. Given that the catalytic properties of recyclable colloids reported to date have entirely depended on the functionality of a single catalytic NP layer deposited onto colloids in selective solvent media, our approach provides a basis for the design and exploitation of high-performance recyclable colloids with integrated multicatalytic properties and high dispersion stability in a variety of solvents.Despite a large number of developments of noble metal (or metal oxide) NP-based catalysts, it has been a great challenge to prepare high-performance recyclable catalysts with integrated functionalities that can be used in various solvent

  10. Family Functioning and Early Learning Practices in Immigrant Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Sunyoung; Fuller, Bruce; Galindo, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Poverty-related developmental-risk theories dominate accounts of uneven levels of household functioning and effects on children. But immigrant parents may sustain norms and practices--stemming from heritage culture, selective migration, and social support--that buffer economic exigencies. "Comparable" levels of social-emotional functioning in…

  11. Multicatalytic colloids with highly scalable, adjustable, and stable functionalities in organic and aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghee; Cheong, Sanghyuk; Ahn, Yun Gyong; Ryu, Sook Won; Kim, Jai-Kyeong; Cho, Jinhan

    2016-04-01

    Despite a large number of developments of noble metal (or metal oxide) NP-based catalysts, it has been a great challenge to prepare high-performance recyclable catalysts with integrated functionalities that can be used in various solvent media. Here, we report on layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled multicatalysts with high catalytic performance, showing high dispersion and recycling stability in organic and aqueous media. The remarkable advantages of our approach are as follows. (i) Various metal or metal oxide NPs with desired catalytic performance can be easily incorporated into multilayered shells, forming densely packed arrays that allow one colloid to be used as a multicatalyst with highly integrated and controllable catalytic properties. (ii) Additionally, the dispersion stability of catalytic colloids in a desired solvent can be determined by the type of ultrathin outermost layer coating each colloid. (iii) Lastly, the covalent bonding between inorganic NPs and dendrimers within multilayer shells enhances the recycling stability of multicatalytic colloids. The resulting core-shell colloids including OA-Fe3O4 NPs, TOABr-Pd NPs, and OA-TiO2 NPs exhibited excellent performance in the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and photocatalysis in aqueous media and in the Sonogashira coupling reaction (99% yield) in organic media. Given that the catalytic properties of recyclable colloids reported to date have entirely depended on the functionality of a single catalytic NP layer deposited onto colloids in selective solvent media, our approach provides a basis for the design and exploitation of high-performance recyclable colloids with integrated multicatalytic properties and high dispersion stability in a variety of solvents. PMID:26524289

  12. A Discriminant Function Approach to Adjust for Processing and Measurement Error When a Biomarker is Assayed in Pooled Samples.

    PubMed

    Lyles, Robert H; Van Domelen, Dane; Mitchell, Emily M; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2015-11-01

    Pooling biological specimens prior to performing expensive laboratory assays has been shown to be a cost effective approach for estimating parameters of interest. In addition to requiring specialized statistical techniques, however, the pooling of samples can introduce assay errors due to processing, possibly in addition to measurement error that may be present when the assay is applied to individual samples. Failure to account for these sources of error can result in biased parameter estimates and ultimately faulty inference. Prior research addressing biomarker mean and variance estimation advocates hybrid designs consisting of individual as well as pooled samples to account for measurement and processing (or pooling) error. We consider adapting this approach to the problem of estimating a covariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) relating a binary outcome to a continuous exposure or biomarker level assessed in pools. In particular, we explore the applicability of a discriminant function-based analysis that assumes normal residual, processing, and measurement errors. A potential advantage of this method is that maximum likelihood estimation of the desired adjusted log OR is straightforward and computationally convenient. Moreover, in the absence of measurement and processing error, the method yields an efficient unbiased estimator for the parameter of interest assuming normal residual errors. We illustrate the approach using real data from an ancillary study of the Collaborative Perinatal Project, and we use simulations to demonstrate the ability of the proposed estimators to alleviate bias due to measurement and processing error. PMID:26593934

  13. Adjusting spectral indices for spectral response function differences of very high spatial resolution sensors simulated from field spectra.

    PubMed

    Cundill, Sharon L; van der Werff, Harald M A; van der Meijde, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The use of data from multiple sensors is often required to ensure data coverage and continuity, but differences in the spectral characteristics of sensors result in spectral index values being different. This study investigates spectral response function effects on 48 spectral indices for cultivated grasslands using simulated data of 10 very high spatial resolution sensors, convolved from field reflectance spectra of a grass covered dike (with varying vegetation condition). Index values for 48 indices were calculated for original narrow-band spectra and convolved data sets, and then compared. The indices Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI2) and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), which include the difference between the near-infrared and red bands, have values most similar to those of the original spectra across all 10 sensors (1:1 line mean 1:1R2 > 0.960 and linear trend mean ccR2 > 0.997). Additionally, relationships between the indices' values and two quality indicators for grass covered dikes were compared to those of the original spectra. For the soil moisture indicator, indices that ratio bands performed better across sensors than those that difference bands, while for the dike cover quality indicator, both the choice of bands and their formulation are important. PMID:25781511

  14. Adjusting Spectral Indices for Spectral Response Function Differences of Very High Spatial Resolution Sensors Simulated from Field Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Cundill, Sharon L.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; van der Meijde, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The use of data from multiple sensors is often required to ensure data coverage and continuity, but differences in the spectral characteristics of sensors result in spectral index values being different. This study investigates spectral response function effects on 48 spectral indices for cultivated grasslands using simulated data of 10 very high spatial resolution sensors, convolved from field reflectance spectra of a grass covered dike (with varying vegetation condition). Index values for 48 indices were calculated for original narrow-band spectra and convolved data sets, and then compared. The indices Difference Vegetation Index (DVI), Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI2) and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), which include the difference between the near-infrared and red bands, have values most similar to those of the original spectra across all 10 sensors (1:1 line mean 1:1R2 > 0.960 and linear trend mean ccR2 > 0.997). Additionally, relationships between the indices’ values and two quality indicators for grass covered dikes were compared to those of the original spectra. For the soil moisture indicator, indices that ratio bands performed better across sensors than those that difference bands, while for the dike cover quality indicator, both the choice of bands and their formulation are important. PMID:25781511

  15. Parental psychopathology and treatment outcome for anxious youth: Roles of family functioning and caregiver strain

    PubMed Central

    Schleider, Jessica L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Weisz, John R.; Birmaher, Boris; Kendall, Phillip C.; Piacentini, John; Sherrill, Joel; Walkup, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research has examined the effects of parental psychopathology, family functioning, and caregiver strain on treatment response in anxious youths. Although these variables have shown individual links to youth treatment response, theoretical models for their combined effects remain unexplored. This study tested the hypothesis that improvements in family functioning and reductions in caregiver strain explained the effects of parental psychopathology on youth treatment outcome in an anxiety treatment trial. Method A multiple mediation technique was used to test the proposed model across independent evaluator (IE), parent, and youth informants in 488 youths, aged 7–17 years (50% female; mean age 10.7) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for social phobia, separation anxiety, and/or generalized anxiety disorder. Youths were randomized to receive 12 weeks of cognitive-behavioral treatment (Coping Cat), medication (sertraline), their combination, or a pill placebo. At pre- and post-treatment, parents completed self-report measures of global psychopathology symptoms, family functioning, and caregiver strain; parents, youths, and IEs rated youths’ anxiety symptom severity. Results Changes in family functioning and caregiver strain jointly explained relations between parental psychopathology and reductions in youth anxiety. Specifically, across IE and parent informants, families with higher pre-treatment parental psychopathology showed more improvement in family functioning and caregiver strain, which in turn predicted greater youth anxiety reductions. Further, higher pre-treatment parental psychopathology predicted greater caregiver strain reductions, and in turn, greater youth anxiety reductions, based on youths’ reports of their own anxiety. Conclusions Findings suggest that improvements in family functioning and reductions in caregiver strain can influence treatment outcomes for anxious youths, especially among youths with more distressed parents. Public health

  16. Family History and Functional Outcome in Korean Stroke Patients: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Jung; Kim, Tae Uk; Hyun, Jung Keun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of family history of stroke with functional outcomes in stroke patients in Korea. Methods A case-control study was conducted. A total of 170 patients who were admitted to a rehabilitation unit were included. Risk factors for stroke such as age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, smoking, high blood cholesterol and homocysteine level, obesity, and family history of stroke were taken into account. Stroke subtypes were the following: large vessel infarct, small vessel infarct, embolic infarct, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracranial hemorrhage. Stroke severity as assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), functional outcomes using the Korean version of the Modified Barthel index (K-MBI), Functional Independence Measurement (FIM), and cognitive function using the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) were assessed at admission and discharge. Results Subjects with a family history of stroke were more likely to have an ischemic stroke (90.7%) than were those without a family history (70.9%). The K-MBI, FIM, NIHSS, and K-MMSE scores did not show significant differences between patients with or without family history. Conclusion Family history of stroke was significantly associated with ischemic stroke, but not with functional outcomes. Other prognostic factors of stroke were not distributed differently between patients included in this study with or without a family history of stroke. PMID:26798613

  17. A longitudinal study of emotional adjustment, quality of life and adaptive function in attenuated MPS II

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Elsa G.; Rudser, Kyle; Ahmed, Alia; Steiner, Robert D.; Delaney, Kathleen A.; Yund, Brianna; King, Kelly; Kunin-Batson, Alicia; Eisengart, Julie; Whitley, Chester B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The behavioral, adaptive and quality of life characteristics of attenuated mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) have not been well studied. Understanding changes over time in the attenuated phenotype may assist in helping achieve better outcomes in long-term function. This longitudinal study investigates these outcomes in relation to age, somatic disease burden, and IQ. Specifically, somatic disease burden is a major challenge for these patients, even with treatment with enzyme replacement therapy. Methods 15 patients, 10 between ages 6 and < 12 and 5 between ages ≥ 12 and 18, were selected who had at least 2 yearly visits. The occurrence of physical signs, the Physical Symptom Score, and IQ in these two groups was studied as well as the longitudinal association of age with standardized measures of quality of life, adaptive function, and behavioral symptoms as rated by parents and the child's self-report. Slopes by age across and within patients were calculated for these measures. Results All but one child had hearing loss, most had joint contractures and short stature. Somatic disease burden increased with age. IQ, although normal for most, also improved with age in those under 12 years of age. Physical quality of life decreased while psychosocial quality of life increased with age. Although other adaptive skills were in the broad average range, daily living skills were low at baseline relative to normative data and decreased over time. Behavior ratings indicated improvement in attention and hyperactivity over time. No patient had severe psychopathology, but older children reported an increasing sense of inadequacy and low self-esteem on self-report, presumably due to increasing awareness of differences from peers over time. Conclusions Attenuated MPS II patients have increasing somatic disease burden and poor physical quality of life as they develop as well as decreasing self-esteem and sense of adequacy. Psychosocial quality of life, adaptive

  18. The Role of Acculturation and Family Functioning in Predicting HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Delinquent Youth

    PubMed Central

    Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between Berry’s acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry’s four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population. PMID:22532299

  19. Family Functioning and Dysfunctional Eating Among Italian Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Gender.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; McPhie, Meghan L; Baumgartner, Emma; Rawana, Jennine S; Pompili, Sara; Baiocco, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine the association between different dimensions of family functioning and dysfunctional eating in a sample of Italian adolescent boys and girls. The second aim was to investigate whether gender moderates the relationship between family functioning and dysfunctional eating. Seven hundred and twenty seven adolescents (500 boys and 227 girls) with ages ranging from 15 to 18 years completed a survey of self-report measures. Findings from hierarchical multiple regression analysis suggested that aspects of family functioning such as flexibility, cohesion, disengagement, enmeshment, rigidity and chaotic were related to dysfunctional eating in adolescents. Additionally the results indicated differences between boys and girls, in particular dysfunctional eating in adolescent boys seemed to be more affected by dimensions of enmeshment and disengagement than dysfunctional eating in girls. This research highlights the important role of various aspects of family functioning in relation to dysfunctional eating in adolescents. PMID:25776344

  20. The role of acculturation and family functioning in predicting HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic delinquent youth.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population. PMID:22532299

  1. Factors impacting the mental health of the caregivers of children with asthma in china: effects of family socioeconomic status, symptoms control, proneness to shame, and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli; Zhang, Xuxia; Wang, Yuyin

    2014-12-01

    Caregiver mental health is widely considered to be an important factor influencing children's asthma symptoms. The present study aimed to examine key factors that contribute to caregiver mental health in pediatric asthma with a Chinese sample. Two hundred participants reported their family socioeconomic status (SES), proneness to shame, asthma symptoms control of their child, family functioning, and their depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggested that low family SES, low family functioning, and a high level of shame proneness were associated with high levels of anxiety and depression for caregivers. Family functioning mediated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver mental health and also moderated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver depression. This study highlights the importance of reducing experience of shame and enhancing family functioning in families affected by pediatric asthma. PMID:25201057

  2. Circadian clock adjustment to plant iron status depends on chloroplast and phytochrome function

    PubMed Central

    Salomé, Patrice A; Oliva, Michele; Weigel, Detlef; Krämer, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Plant chloroplasts are not only the main cellular location for storage of elemental iron (Fe), but also the main site for Fe, which is incorporated into chlorophyll, haem and the photosynthetic machinery. How plants measure internal Fe levels is unknown. We describe here a new Fe-dependent response, a change in the period of the circadian clock. In Arabidopsis, the period lengthens when Fe becomes limiting, and gradually shortens as external Fe levels increase. Etiolated seedlings or light-grown plants treated with plastid translation inhibitors do not respond to changes in Fe supply, pointing to developed chloroplasts as central hubs for circadian Fe sensing. Phytochrome-deficient mutants maintain a short period even under Fe deficiency, stressing the role of early light signalling in coupling the clock to Fe responses. Further mutant and pharmacological analyses suggest that known players in plastid-to-nucleus signalling do not directly participate in Fe sensing. We propose that the sensor governing circadian Fe responses defines a new retrograde pathway that involves a plastid-encoded protein that depends on phytochromes and the functional state of chloroplasts. PMID:23241948

  3. The Nature of Elder Impairment and Its Impact on Family Caregivers' Health and Psychosocial Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattanach, Lynn; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    1991-01-01

    Assessed nature of elder impairment and its impact on health and psychosocial functioning of 102 family caregivers. Found no differences among caregivers of cognitively impaired, functionally impaired, and nonimpaired elderly relatives in terms of self-reported health or psychosocial functioning. Suggests that other aspects of caregiving context…

  4. Young-adult children of alcoholic parents: protective effects of positive family functioning.

    PubMed

    Hill, E M; Nord, J L; Blow, F C

    1992-12-01

    The occurrence of alcoholism is clustered within families, but the detrimental effect of a positive family history may vary with the degree of family impairment involved. In this study we assessed the effects of family history and family environment on alcohol misuse. From ongoing studies we recruited parents who had a child aged 18-30, 20 with a DSM-III-R alcohol dependence diagnosis, 20 without. The child then completed a multidimensional assessment. The young-adult participants included 20 men and 20 women (mean age = 24.8). Differences by family history were restricted to substance abuse behaviors. While a high level of alcohol problems occurred in both groups, those with an alcohol-dependent parent were more likely to be heavy drinkers and showed more symptoms of alcohol dependence. Overall psychological adjustment did not differ between the groups, however. Alcohol misuse measures did correlate moderately with symptoms of poor emotional health. The most important correlates of alcohol misuse measures in this study were exposure to parental alcoholism, abusive punishment, and psychological symptoms, with some separation of effects in the two subgroups. Psychological symptoms had a stronger relationship with misuse in subjects with social-drinking parents, while abuse was more associated in the group with an alcohol-dependent parent. These results confirm the importance of environmental interactions with familial risk. A biological vulnerability from an alcohol-dependent parent was not sufficient or necessary for the participants in this study to develop alcohol dependence as a young adult, although there was an increased risk. There appear to be strong protective effects of positive family relationships on the potential negative effects of a family history of alcoholism. PMID:1490082

  5. Functional and cancer genomics of ASXL family members

    PubMed Central

    Katoh, M

    2013-01-01

    Additional sex combs-like (ASXL)1, ASXL2 and ASXL3 are human homologues of the Drosophila Asx gene that are involved in the regulation or recruitment of the Polycomb-group repressor complex (PRC) and trithorax-group (trxG) activator complex. ASXL proteins consist of ASXN, ASXH, ASXM1, ASXM2 and PHD domains. ASXL1 directly interacts with BAP1, KDM1A (LSD1), NCOA1 and nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), such as retinoic acid receptors, oestrogen receptor and androgen receptor. ASXL family members are epigenetic scaffolding proteins that assemble epigenetic regulators and transcription factors to specific genomic loci with histone modifications. ASXL1 is involved in transcriptional repression through an interaction with PRC2 and also contributes to transcriptional regulation through interactions with BAP1 and/or NHR complexes. Germ-line mutations of human ASXL1 and ASXL3 occur in Bohring-Opitz and related syndromes. Amplification and overexpression of ASXL1 occur in cervical cancer. Truncation mutations of ASXL1 occur in colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI), malignant myeloid diseases, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and liver, prostate and breast cancers; those of ASXL2 occur in prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer and breast cancer and those of ASXL3 are observed in melanoma. EPC1-ASXL2 gene fusion occurs in adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma. The prognosis of myeloid malignancies with misregulating truncation mutations of ASXL1 is poor. ASXL family members are assumed to be tumour suppressive or oncogenic in a context-dependent manner. PMID:23736028

  6. Effect of birth weight on adulthood renal function: A bias-adjusted meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Mannan, Munim; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Ahmed, Tahmeed; McIntyre, Harold David; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    While the association between low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) and development of adult chronic renal disease (CKD) is inconsistently reported, less information is available regarding association of high birth weight (HBW; ≥4000 g) with CKD. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies published before 30 September 2015 and report associations between birth weight and renal function. Blood (glomerular filtration rate (GFR)) and urine (microalbuminuria/albumin excreation rate (AER)/urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR)) parameters were used to define CKD. Three different effect size estimates were used (odds ratio, regression coefficient and mean difference). The odds of developing CKD in the life course among those born LBW was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.20) times and 1.68 (1.27, 2.33) times, assessed by blood and urine parameters respectively. Higher risk was also observed among Asian and Australian populations (blood: OR 2.68; urine: OR 2.28), individuals aged ≤30 years (blood: OR 2.30; urine: OR 1.26), and ≥50 years (blood: OR 3.66; urine: OR 3.10), people with diabetes (blood: OR 2.51), and aborigines (urine: OR 2.32). There was no significant association between HBW and CKD. For every 1 kg increase in BW, the estimated GFR increased by 2.09 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (1.33-2.85), and it was negatively associated with LogACR (ß -0.07, 95% CI: -0.14, 0.00). LBW inborn had lower mean GFR -4.62 (-7.10, -2.14) compared with normal BW. Findings of this study suggest that LBW increased the risk of developing CKD, and HBW did not show any significant impact. PMID:26807855

  7. Family quality of life and ASD: the role of child adaptive functioning and behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Emily, Gardiner; Grace, Iarocci

    2015-04-01

    The family is the key support network for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in many cases into adulthood. The Family Quality of Life (FQOL) construct encompasses family satisfaction with both internal and external dynamics, as well as support availability. Therefore, although these families face considerable risk in raising a child with a disability, the FQOL outcome is conceptualized as representative of a continuum of family adaptation. This study examined the role of child characteristics, including adaptive functioning and behaviour problems, in relation to FQOL. Eighty-four caregivers of children and adolescents (range = 6-18 years) with ASD participated, completing questionnaires online and by telephone. Adaptive functioning, and specifically daily living skills, emerged as a significant predictor of FQOL satisfaction, after accounting for behavioural and demographic characteristics, including child age, gender, perceived disability severity, and behavioural problems, as well as family income. Furthermore, there were significant differences across each domain of FQOL when groups were separated by daily living skill functioning level ('low,' 'moderately low,' and 'adequate'). The results suggest that intervention strategies targeting daily living skills will likely have beneficial effects for both individual and family well-being, and may reduce family support demands. PMID:25641930

  8. Demographic and Familial Predictors of Early Executive Function Development: Contribution of a person-centered perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Brittany L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Blair, Clancy

    2010-01-01

    Executive function (EF) skills are integral components of young children’s growing competence, but little is known about the role of early family context and experiences in their development. We examined how demographic and familial risks during infancy predicted EF competence at 36 months in a large, predominantly low-income sample of non-urban families from Pennsylvania and North Carolina. Using latent class analysis, six ecological risk profiles best captured the diverse experiences of these families. Profiles with various combinations of family structure, income, and psychosocial risks were differentially related to EF. Much of the influence of early risks on later EF appears to be transmitted through quality of parent-child interactions during infancy. Findings suggest that early family environments may prove to be especially fruitful contexts for the promotion of EF development. PMID:20828709

  9. Determinants of adjustment for children of divorcing parents.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, K; Prinz, R J; Bella, B S

    1990-01-01

    Family physicians frequently see children and parents when they are adjusting to marital separation. This study examined how well child adjustment at school could be determined from an assessment of interspousal relations, maternal functioning, and child perception variables. Teachers evaluated adaptive functioning, social withdrawal, and aggressive behavior at school for a carefully selected sample of 22 boys and 24 girls (ages 7-12) whose parents had been separated for two to 18 months. Regression analyses indicated that boys' overall school adjustment was associated with better maternal parenting skills, lower child fear of abandonment, less blaming of father for the separation, and positive parental verbal attributions toward the other parent. Girls with better overall school adjustment reported less blaming of their mothers and a higher rate of positive attributions by mother about father. These findings suggest concepts family physicians can use in working with families to minimize the effect of divorce on children. PMID:2323490

  10. Daily family stress and HPA axis functioning during adolescence: The moderating role of sleep.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Jessica J; Tsai, Kim M; Park, Heejung; Bower, Julienne E; Almeida, David M; Dahl, Ronald E; Irwin, Michael R; Seeman, Teresa E; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of sleep in the association between family demands and conflict and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in a sample of ethnically diverse adolescents (n=316). Adolescents completed daily diary reports of family demands and conflict for 15 days, and wore actigraph watches during the first 8 nights to assess sleep. Participants also provided five saliva samples for 3 consecutive days to assess diurnal cortisol rhythms. Regression analyses indicated that sleep latency and efficiency moderated the link between family demands and the cortisol awakening response. Specifically, family demands were related to a smaller cortisol awakening response only among adolescents with longer sleep latency and lower sleep efficiency. These results suggest that certain aspects of HPA axis functioning may be sensitive to family demands primarily in the context of longer sleep latency and lower sleep efficiency. PMID:27235639

  11. Dose-based duration adjustments for the effects of inhaled trichloroethylene on rat visual function.

    PubMed

    Boyes, William K; Bercegeay, Mark; Ali, Joseph S; Krantz, Todd; McGee, John; Evans, Marina; Raymer, James H; Bushnell, Philip J; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2003-11-01

    Risk assessments often must consider exposures that vary over time or for which the exposure duration of concern differs from the available data, and a variety of extrapolation procedures have been devised accordingly. The present experiments explore the relationship(s) between exposure concentration (C) and time (t) to investigate procedures for assessing the risks of short-term solvent exposures. The first hypothesis tested was that the product of C x t would produce a constant health effect (Haber's rule). The second hypothesis tested was that exposure conditions produce effects in proportion to the tissue concentrations created. Awake, adult, male Long-Evans (LE) rats were exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) vapor in a head-only exposure chamber while pattern onset/offset visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded. Exposure conditions were designed to provide C x t products of 0 ppm/h (0 ppm for 4 h) or 4000 ppm/h created through four exposure scenarios: 1000 ppm for 4 h; 2000 ppm for 2 h; 3000 ppm for 1.3 h; or 4000 ppm for 1h (n = 9-10/concentration). The amplitude of the VEP frequency double component (F2) was decreased significantly by exposure; this decrease was related to C but not to t or to the C x t product, indicating that Haber's rule did not hold. The mean amplitude (+/- SEM in muV) of the F2 component in the control and treatment groups measured 4.4 +/- 0.5 (0 ppm/4 h), 3.1 +/- 0.5 (1000 ppm/4 h), 3.1 +/- 0.4 (2000 ppm/2 h), 2.3 +/- 0.3 (3000 ppm/1.3 h), and 1.9 +/- 0.4 (4000 ppm/1 h). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was used to estimate the concentrations of TCE in the brain achieved during each exposure condition. The F2 amplitude of the VEP decreased monotonically as a function of the estimated peak brain concentration but was not related to the area under the curve (AUC) of the brain TCE concentration. In comparison to estimates from the PBPK model, extrapolations based on Haber's rule yielded approximately a 6-fold error

  12. Family Functioning and Mood Disorders: A Comparison between Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Lauren M.; Keitner, Gabor I.; Ryan, Christine E.; Solomon, David A.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2006-01-01

    Within a sample of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 121) and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD; n = 69), the authors examined (a) diagnostic differences in family functioning at acute episode, (b) diagnostic differences in family functioning at episode recovery, (c) within-group changes in family functioning from acute episode to…

  13. Comparison Between Family Function Dimensions and Quality of Life Among Amphetamine Addicts and Non- Addicts

    PubMed Central

    Eshagh Afkari, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Tol, Azar; Rahimi Foroshani, Abass; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the most important factors in drug abuse and drug avoidance is family and its function. Objectives This study aimed to compare family function and quality of life dimensions among Amphetamine addicts and non-addicts. Materials and Methods The current study is a case-control, which assessed 95 Iranian addicts and 95 non-addicts. Sampling method in the addicts group was random clustering. The non-addicts were selected from accompanied addicts in other centers with respect to the demographic characteristics. The instruments were Family Assessment and Quality of Life (SF-36) scales. SPSS software version 11.5 was used for statistical analysis and Pearson’s correlation coefficient, stepwise regression analysis, and independent samples t-test were conducted. Results The study revealed that some disorders in family function dimensions were higher in the addicts compared to non-addicts. Addicts have a quality of life lower than non-addicts (P < 0.05). There was a relationship between different dimensions of family function and the quality of life in both the addicts and non-addicts (P < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that roles dimensions and family function could roughly account for 17% of the changes in the addicts’ quality of life while in the non-addicts, behavioral control dimension of family function could account for roughly 17% of the changes in their quality of life. Conclusions Regarding the study findings, there was a significant difference between family function dimensions and quality of life among addicts and non-addicts. PMID:24083013

  14. Enhanced and adjustable adsorption of organo-functional groups on Li decorated carbon nanotubes: A first principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yutao; Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Wenhao; Yan, Zeyu; Zhao, Chengbo; Chen, Chi; Miao, Ling; Jiang, Jianjun

    2014-08-01

    The adsorption of several organo-functional groups (-NH2, -CH3, -COOH, -CHO, and -OH) and alanine on Li decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are studied, based on the first-principle calculations. The calculated binding energies on Li-CNTs show obvious enhancement relative to the cases on pure CNTs, from about 0.3 eV to about 1.4 eV except -CH3, which is attributed to strong electrostatic dipole attraction between positive Li ion and polarized organo-functional groups by charge population analysis. It is interesting that the adsorption could be effectively adjusted under external electric field for the interaction with Li-group dipole. For the combinational contribution of charge redistribution and interaction of inherent electric dipole with external electric field, the adsorption of these organo-functional groups shows two discriminative variety trends. Finally, the adsorption of alanine including -NH2, -CH3, and -COOH groups is studied as an illustration to generalize above conclusions to organic macromolecule on Li decorated CNTs.

  15. Adjustment of interaural time difference in head related transfer functions based on listeners' anthropometry and its effect on sound localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yôiti; Watanabe, Kanji; Iwaya, Yukio; Gyoba, Jiro; Takane, Shouichi

    2005-04-01

    Because the transfer functions governing subjective sound localization (HRTFs) show strong individuality, sound localization systems based on synthesis of HRTFs require suitable HRTFs for individual listeners. However, it is impractical to obtain HRTFs for all listeners based on measurements. Improving sound localization by adjusting non-individualized HRTFs to a specific listener based on that listener's anthropometry might be a practical method. This study first developed a new method to estimate interaural time differences (ITDs) using HRTFs. Then correlations between ITDs and anthropometric parameters were analyzed using the canonical correlation method. Results indicated that parameters relating to head size, and shoulder and ear positions are significant. Consequently, it was attempted to express ITDs based on listener's anthropometric data. In this process, the change of ITDs as a function of azimuth angle was parameterized as a sum of sine functions. Then the parameters were analyzed using multiple regression analysis, in which the anthropometric parameters were used as explanatory variables. The predicted or individualized ITDs were installed in the nonindividualized HRTFs to evaluate sound localization performance. Results showed that individualization of ITDs improved horizontal sound localization.

  16. Improved lipids, diastolic pressure and kidney function are potential contributors to familial longevity: a study on 60 Chinese centenarian families.

    PubMed

    He, Yong-Han; Pu, Shao-Yan; Xiao, Fu-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Qiong; Yan, Dong-Jing; Liu, Yao-Wen; Lin, Rong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Yu, Qin; Yang, Li-Qin; Yang, Xing-Li; Ge, Ming-Xia; Li, Ying; Jiang, Jian-Jun; Cai, Wang-Wei; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Centenarians are a good healthy aging model. Interestingly, centenarians' offspring are prone to achieve longevity. Here we recruited 60 longevity families and investigated the blood biochemical indexes of family members to seek candidate factors associated with familial longevity. First, associations of blood indexes with age were tested. Second, associations of blood parameters in centenarians (CEN) with their first generation of offspring (F1) and F1 spouses (F1SP) were analyzed. Third, genes involved in regulating target factors were investigated. We found that total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) increased with age (20-80 years), but decreased in CEN. Similarly, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood creatinine (BCr) increased with age (20-80 years), but were maintained on a plateau in CEN. Importantly, we first revealed dual changes in blood pressure, i.e., decreased diastolic blood pressure but increased systolic blood pressure in CEN, which associated with altered CST3 expression. Genetic analysis revealed a significant association of blood uric acid (BUA) and BCr in CEN with F1 but not with F1SP, suggesting they may be heritable traits. Taken together, our results suggest serum lipids, kidney function and especially diastolic pressure rather than systolic pressure were improved in CEN or their offspring, suggesting these factors may play an important role in familial longevity. PMID:26911903

  17. Improved lipids, diastolic pressure and kidney function are potential contributors to familial longevity: a study on 60 Chinese centenarian families

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong-Han; Pu, Shao-Yan; Xiao, Fu-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Qiong; Yan, Dong-Jing; Liu, Yao-Wen; Lin, Rong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Yu, Qin; Yang, Li-Qin; Yang, Xing-Li; Ge, Ming-Xia; Li, Ying; Jiang, Jian-Jun; Cai, Wang-Wei; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Centenarians are a good healthy aging model. Interestingly, centenarians’ offspring are prone to achieve longevity. Here we recruited 60 longevity families and investigated the blood biochemical indexes of family members to seek candidate factors associated with familial longevity. First, associations of blood indexes with age were tested. Second, associations of blood parameters in centenarians (CEN) with their first generation of offspring (F1) and F1 spouses (F1SP) were analyzed. Third, genes involved in regulating target factors were investigated. We found that total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) increased with age (20–80 years), but decreased in CEN. Similarly, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood creatinine (BCr) increased with age (20–80 years), but were maintained on a plateau in CEN. Importantly, we first revealed dual changes in blood pressure, i.e., decreased diastolic blood pressure but increased systolic blood pressure in CEN, which associated with altered CST3 expression. Genetic analysis revealed a significant association of blood uric acid (BUA) and BCr in CEN with F1 but not with F1SP, suggesting they may be heritable traits. Taken together, our results suggest serum lipids, kidney function and especially diastolic pressure rather than systolic pressure were improved in CEN or their offspring, suggesting these factors may play an important role in familial longevity. PMID:26911903

  18. Depression in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Parental Expressed Emotion and Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Tompson, MC; O Connor, EE; Kemp, GN; Langer, DA; Asarnow, JR

    2016-01-01

    Across development depression is associated with impairments in interpersonal and family functioning. In turn, these impairments may predict a more negative depression course and outcome. This study examined family functioning and parental Expressed Emotion (EE) among depressed youth during middle childhood and early adolescence and their relationship to demographic and clinical factors. Data were drawn from pretreatment evaluations of 132 depressed youth ages 7–14 and their families enrolled in a randomized clinical trial comparing family to individual treatment for youth depressive disorders. Families completed semi-structured diagnostic interviews, self-report measures of family functioning, and the Five Minute Speech Sample EE measure. High parental EE was more common in one-parent, as opposed to two-parent families, and early adolescent youth were more likely than pre-adolescent youth to have high critical EE parents. Severity and chronicity of child depression, child comorbidity, functional impairment, and maternal depressive symptoms were not associated with parental EE. Parental high EE overall and critical EE in particular were associated with reports of higher conflict and lower cohesion by both parents and children when compared to low parental EE. Similar patterns of associations were evident for youth across pre-adolescent and early adolescent developmental periods. Single parent status may be an indicator of greater family stress; and higher levels of critical EE may reflect the higher levels of parent-child conflict characteristic of the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Among youth with depression parental EE appears to reflect potentially important impairments in family functioning. PMID:27347564

  19. Genome-scale phylogenetic function annotation of large and diverse protein families

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Jordan, Michael I.; Srouji, John R.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships (SIFTER) framework uses a statistical graphical model that applies phylogenetic principles to automate precise protein function prediction. Here we present a revised approach (SIFTER version 2.0) that enables annotations on a genomic scale. SIFTER 2.0 produces equivalently precise predictions compared to the earlier version on a carefully studied family and on a collection of 100 protein families. We have added an approximation method to SIFTER 2.0 and show a 500-fold improvement in speed with minimal impact on prediction results in the functionally diverse sulfotransferase protein family. On the Nudix protein family, previously inaccessible to the SIFTER framework because of the 66 possible molecular functions, SIFTER achieved 47.4% accuracy on experimental data (where BLAST achieved 34.0%). Finally, we used SIFTER to annotate all of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe proteins with experimental functional characterizations, based on annotations from proteins in 46 fungal genomes. SIFTER precisely predicted molecular function for 45.5% of the characterized proteins in this genome, as compared with four current function prediction methods that precisely predicted function for 62.6%, 30.6%, 6.0%, and 5.7% of these proteins. We use both precision-recall curves and ROC analyses to compare these genome-scale predictions across the different methods and to assess performance on different types of applications. SIFTER 2.0 is capable of predicting protein molecular function for large and functionally diverse protein families using an approximate statistical model, enabling phylogenetics-based protein function prediction for genome-wide analyses. The code for SIFTER and protein family data are available at http://sifter.berkeley.edu. PMID:21784873

  20. The N-Acetylglutamate Synthase Family: Structures, Function and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dashuang; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) catalyzes the production of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) from acetyl-CoA and l-glutamate. In microorganisms and plants, the enzyme functions in the arginine biosynthetic pathway, while in mammals, its major role is to produce the essential co-factor of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) in the urea cycle. Recent work has shown that several different genes encode enzymes that can catalyze NAG formation. A bifunctional enzyme was identified in certain bacteria, which catalyzes both NAGS and N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK) activities, the first two steps of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. Interestingly, these bifunctional enzymes have higher sequence similarity to vertebrate NAGS than those of the classical (mono-functional) bacterial NAGS. Solving the structures for both classical bacterial NAGS and bifunctional vertebrate-like NAGS/K has advanced our insight into the regulation and catalytic mechanisms of NAGS, and the evolutionary relationship between the two NAGS groups. PMID:26068232

  1. The N-Acetylglutamate Synthase Family: Structures, Function and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dashuang; Allewell, Norma M; Tuchman, Mendel

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) catalyzes the production of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) from acetyl-CoA and L-glutamate. In microorganisms and plants, the enzyme functions in the arginine biosynthetic pathway, while in mammals, its major role is to produce the essential co-factor of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) in the urea cycle. Recent work has shown that several different genes encode enzymes that can catalyze NAG formation. A bifunctional enzyme was identified in certain bacteria, which catalyzes both NAGS and N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK) activities, the first two steps of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. Interestingly, these bifunctional enzymes have higher sequence similarity to vertebrate NAGS than those of the classical (mono-functional) bacterial NAGS. Solving the structures for both classical bacterial NAGS and bifunctional vertebrate-like NAGS/K has advanced our insight into the regulation and catalytic mechanisms of NAGS, and the evolutionary relationship between the two NAGS groups. PMID:26068232

  2. ProtoBug: functional families from the complete proteomes of insects

    PubMed Central

    Rappoport, Nadav; Linial, Michal

    2015-01-01

    ProtoBug (http://www.protobug.cs.huji.ac.il) is a database and resource of protein families in Arthropod genomes. ProtoBug platform presents the relatedness of complete proteomes from 17 insects as well as a proteome of the crustacean, Daphnia pulex. The represented proteomes from insects include louse, bee, beetle, ants, flies and mosquitoes. Based on an unsupervised clustering method, protein sequences were clustered into a hierarchical tree, called ProtoBug. ProtoBug covers about 300 000 sequences that are partitioned to families. At the default setting, all sequences are partitioned to ∼20 000 families (excluding singletons). From the species perspective, each of the 18 analysed proteomes is composed of 5000–8000 families. In the regime of the advanced operational mode, the ProtoBug provides rich navigation capabilities for touring the hierarchy of the families at any selected resolution. A proteome viewer shows the composition of sequences from any of the 18 analysed proteomes. Using functional annotation from an expert system (Pfam) we assigned domains, families and repeats by 4400 keywords that cover 73% of the sequences. A strict inference protocol is applied for expanding the functional knowledge. Consequently, secured annotations were associated with 81% of the proteins, and with 70% of the families (≥10 proteins each). ProtoBug is a database and webtool with rich visualization and navigation tools. The properties of each family in relation to other families in the ProtoBug tree, and in view of the taxonomy composition are reported. Furthermore, the user can paste its own sequences to find relatedness to any of the ProtoBug families. The database and the navigation tools are the basis for functional discoveries that span 350 million years of evolution of Arthropods. ProtoBug is available with no restriction at: www.protobug.cs.huji.ac.il. Database URL: www.protobug.cs.huji.ac.il. PMID:25911153

  3. ProtoBug: functional families from the complete proteomes of insects.

    PubMed

    Rappoport, Nadav; Linial, Michal

    2015-01-01

    ProtoBug (http://www.protobug.cs.huji.ac.il) is a database and resource of protein families in Arthropod genomes. ProtoBug platform presents the relatedness of complete proteomes from 17 insects as well as a proteome of the crustacean, Daphnia pulex. The represented proteomes from insects include louse, bee, beetle, ants, flies and mosquitoes. Based on an unsupervised clustering method, protein sequences were clustered into a hierarchical tree, called ProtoBug. ProtoBug covers about 300,000 sequences that are partitioned to families. At the default setting, all sequences are partitioned to ∼20,000 families (excluding singletons). From the species perspective, each of the 18 analysed proteomes is composed of 5000-8000 families. In the regime of the advanced operational mode, the ProtoBug provides rich navigation capabilities for touring the hierarchy of the families at any selected resolution. A proteome viewer shows the composition of sequences from any of the 18 analysed proteomes. Using functional annotation from an expert system (Pfam) we assigned domains, families and repeats by 4400 keywords that cover 73% of the sequences. A strict inference protocol is applied for expanding the functional knowledge. Consequently, secured annotations were associated with 81% of the proteins, and with 70% of the families (≥10 proteins each). ProtoBug is a database and webtool with rich visualization and navigation tools. The properties of each family in relation to other families in the ProtoBug tree, and in view of the taxonomy composition are reported. Furthermore, the user can paste its own sequences to find relatedness to any of the ProtoBug families. The database and the navigation tools are the basis for functional discoveries that span 350 million years of evolution of Arthropods. ProtoBug is available with no restriction at: www.protobug.cs.huji.ac.il. Database URL: www.protobug.cs.huji.ac.il PMID:25911153

  4. Differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority preschoolers in the Netherlands and the role of family functioning and parenting factors as mediators: the Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that, compared to native counterparts, preschoolers from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of problem behaviour. Socio-economic factors only partly explain this increased risk. This study aimed to further unravel the differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and native preschoolers by examining the mediating role of family functioning and parenting factors. Methods We included 4,282 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, an ethnically-diverse cohort study with inclusion in early pregnancy. At child age 3 years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5); information on demographics, socio-economic status and measures of family functioning (maternal psychopathology; general family functioning) and parenting (parenting stress; harsh parenting) were retrieved from questionnaires. CBCL Total Problems scores in each ethnic subgroup were compared with scores in the Dutch reference population. Mediation was evaluated using multivariate regression models. Results After adjustment for confounders, preschoolers from ethnic minorities were more likely to present problem behaviour than the Dutch subgroup (e.g. CBCL Total Problems Turkish subgroup (OR 7.0 (95% CI 4.9; 10.1)). When considering generational status, children of first generation immigrants were worse off than the second generation (P<0.01). Adjustment for socio-economic factors mediated the association between the ethnic minority status and child problem behaviour (e.g. attenuation in OR by 54.4% (P<0.05) from OR 5.1 (95% CI 2.8; 9.4) to OR 2.9 (95% CI 1.5; 5.6) in Cape Verdean subgroup). However, associations remained significant in most ethnic subgroups. A final adjustment for family functioning and parenting factors further attenuated the association (e.g. attenuation in OR by 55.5% (P<0.05) from OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.3; 4.4) to OR 1.5 (95% CI 1.0; 2.4) in European other subgroup). Conclusions This study showed that preschoolers from

  5. Age Moderates the Relationships between Family Functioning and Neck Pain/Disability

    PubMed Central

    Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:27078854

  6. Age Moderates the Relationships between Family Functioning and Neck Pain/Disability.

    PubMed

    Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:27078854

  7. Family Functioning and High Risk Adolescents' Aggressive Behavior: Examining Effects by Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, Angela K; Varga, Shannon M; Moudy, Alyssa; Tolan, Patrick H

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between family functioning and adolescents' physical aggression has been well established, but whether these relationships might differ by ethnicity has received less attention. Ethnic variations may be important for targeting prevention programs to specific youth and families. This study examined the longitudinal relationship between family cohesion, parental monitoring, and physical aggression using data from the Multisite Violence Prevention Project sample of high-risk youth (elevated aggression). Participants were 1,232 high-risk middle school students (65% male; 70% African American; 15% Hispanic). Meaningful demographic variations were identified. After controlling for intervention condition and study site, family cohesion was significantly negatively related to physical aggression, more so for Hispanic youth. Parental monitoring was negatively associated with physical aggression for African American youth only. Our findings point to the importance of developing culturally sensitive family interventions to prevent physical aggression in middle school. PMID:25416227

  8. Parenting, Family Socioeconomic Status, and Child Executive Functioning: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…

  9. How Do Families Help or Hinder the Emergence of Early Executive Function?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire H.; Ensor, Rosie A.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter describes longitudinal findings from a socially diverse sample of 125 British children seen at ages two and four. Four models of social influence on executive function are tested, using multiple measures of family life as well as comprehensive assessments of children's executive functions. Our results confirm the importance of…

  10. Family Functioning, Social Impairment, and Symptoms Among Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Peris, Tara; Axelson, David; Kowatch, Robert A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Impaired social functioning is common among youth with bipolar disorder (BD), emerges in multiple settings, and persists over time. However, little is known about factors associated with poor peer and family functioning in the early-onset form of BD. Using a sample of adolescents with BD I or II, we examined which symptoms of BD,…

  11. Functional and Existential Tasks of Family Caregiving for End-of-Life, Hospitalized Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Chaim Charles; Auslander, Gail; Dror, Yossi Freier; Breuer, Gabriel S

    2016-07-01

    The current study examined how functional and existential coping factors are related to the sense of self-benefit among end-of-life (EOL) family caregivers caring for hospitalized older adults. A convenience sample of 92 family caregivers was interviewed in two Israeli hospitals using a structured questionnaire based on Pearlin's stress process model. Findings show that engagement in EOL existential tasks and motivations, such as life review, spirituality, multigenerational family relationships, and preparation for death, acted as a coping resource and was positively related with caregivers' sense of self-benefit. However, functional caregiving did not act as a significant stressor, as it was weakly related to care-givers' sense of self-benefit. Findings discuss the importance of training health professionals to recognize and discuss existential concerns with EOL family caregivers. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(7), 55-64.]. PMID:27064609

  12. Stimulation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis by proteins of glycoside hydrolase family 61: structure and function of a large, enigmatic family.

    PubMed

    Harris, Paul V; Welner, Ditte; McFarland, K C; Re, Edward; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian; Brown, Kimberly; Salbo, Rune; Ding, Hanshu; Vlasenko, Elena; Merino, Sandy; Xu, Feng; Cherry, Joel; Larsen, Sine; Lo Leggio, Leila

    2010-04-20

    Currently, the relatively high cost of enzymes such as glycoside hydrolases that catalyze cellulose hydrolysis represents a barrier to commercialization of a biorefinery capable of producing renewable transportable fuels such as ethanol from abundant lignocellulosic biomass. Among the many families of glycoside hydrolases that catalyze cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis, few are more enigmatic than family 61 (GH61), originally classified based on measurement of very weak endo-1,4-beta-d-glucanase activity in one family member. Here we show that certain GH61 proteins lack measurable hydrolytic activity by themselves but in the presence of various divalent metal ions can significantly reduce the total protein loading required to hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass. We also solved the structure of one highly active GH61 protein and find that it is devoid of conserved, closely juxtaposed acidic side chains that could serve as general proton donor and nucleophile/base in a canonical hydrolytic reaction, and we conclude that the GH61 proteins are unlikely to be glycoside hydrolases. Structure-based mutagenesis shows the importance of several conserved residues for GH61 function. By incorporating the gene for one GH61 protein into a commercial Trichoderma reesei strain producing high levels of cellulolytic enzymes, we are able to reduce by 2-fold the total protein loading (and hence the cost) required to hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:20230050

  13. Family Functioning as a Constituent Aspect of a Child's Chronic Illness.

    PubMed

    Cipolletta, Sabrina; Marchesin, Valentina; Benini, Franca

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how family functioning may contribute to trace a child's illness trajectory. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 33 parents of children in care at a hospice in northern Italy. We also examined the medical records of the children, and interviewed the physician who cared for them. Data analysis was based on the grounded theory approach. Different illness progressions corresponded to the different ways with which families experienced the illness: possibility, focus on illness, denial, and anger. Clinical interventions should involve the whole family and take into account their role in the construction of illness trajectories. PMID:25682020

  14. A structural and functional perspective of DyP-type peroxidase family.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toru; Sugano, Yasushi

    2015-05-15

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidase from the basidiomycete Bjerkandera adusta Dec 1 (DyP) is a heme peroxidase. This name reflects its ability to degrade several anthraquinone dyes. The substrate specificity, the amino acid sequence, and the tertiary structure of DyP are different from those of the other heme peroxidase (super)families. Therefore, many proteins showing the similar amino acid sequences to that of DyP are called DyP-type peroxidase which is a new family of heme peroxidase identified in 2007. In fact, all structures of this family show a similar structure fold. However, this family includes many proteins whose amino acid sequence identity to DyP is lower than 15% and/or whose catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) is a few orders of magnitude less than that of DyP. A protein showing an activity different from peroxidase activity (dechelatase activity) has been also reported. In addition, the precise physiological roles of DyP-type peroxidases are unknown. These facts raise a question of whether calling this family DyP-type peroxidase is suitable. Here, we review the differences and similarities of structure and function among this family and propose the reasonable new classification of DyP-type peroxidase family, that is, class P, I and V. In this contribution, we discuss the adequacy of this family name. PMID:25655348

  15. Family history of Alzheimer’s disease limits improvement in cognitive function after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective: Bariatric surgery can reverse cognitive impairments associated with obesity. However, such benefits may be attenuated in individuals with a predisposing risk for cognitive impairment such as family history of Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: In all, 94 bariatric surgery participants completed a computerized cognitive test battery before and 12 weeks after surgery. Family history of Alzheimer’s disease was obtained through self-report. Results: In the overall sample, cognitive function improved in memory and attention/executive function 12 weeks post-surgery. Repeated measures showed similar rates of improvements in attention/executive function between patients with and without a family history of Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast, only individuals without a family history of Alzheimer’s disease exhibited post-operative improvements in memory. A family history of Alzheimer’s disease was associated with greater post-surgery rates of cognitive impairment. Conclusions: Family history of Alzheimer’s disease may limit post-surgery cognitive benefits. Future studies should examine whether weight loss can modify the course of cognitive decline in patients at-risk for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26770731

  16. Functional divergence outlines the evolution of novel protein function in NifH/BchL protein family.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Subarna; Bothra, Asim K; Sen, Arnab

    2013-11-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is accomplished by prokaryotes through the catalytic action of complex metalloenzyme, nitrogenase. Nitrogenase is a two-protein component system comprising MoFe protein (NifD and K) and Fe protein (NifH). NifH shares structural and mechanistic similarities as well as evolutionary relationships with light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase (BchL), a photosynthesis-related metalloenzyme belonging to the same protein family. We performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of the NifH/BchL family in order to elucidate the intrinsic functional diversity and the underlying evolutionary mechanism among the members. To analyse functional divergence in the NifH/ BchL family, we have conducted pair-wise estimation in altered evolutionary rates between the member proteins. We identified a number of vital amino acid sites which contribute to predicted functional diversity. We have also made use of the maximum likelihood tests for detection of positive selection at the amino acid level followed by the structure-based phylogenetic approach to draw conclusion on the ancient lineage and novel characterization of the NifH/BchL protein family. Our investigation provides ample support to the fact that NifH protein and BchL share robust structural similarities and have probably deviated from a common ancestor followed by divergence in functional properties possibly due to gene duplication. PMID:24287653

  17. Maternal depression across the first years of life compromises child psychosocial adjustment; relations to child HPA-axis functioning.

    PubMed

    Apter-Levi, Yael; Pratt, Maayan; Vakart, Adam; Feldman, Michal; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    Maternal depression across the first years of life negatively impacts children's development. One pathway of vulnerability may involve functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We utilize a community cohort of 1983 women with no comorbid risk repeatedly assessed for depression from birth to six years to form two groups; chronically depressed (N=40) and non-depressed (N=91) women. At six years, mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis, child salivary cortisol (CT) was assessed three times during a home-visit, mother-child interaction was videotaped, and child empathy was coded from behavioral paradigms. Latent Growth curve Model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) estimated the links between maternal depression and mother's negative parenting and three child outcomes; psychopathology, social withdrawal, and empathy as related to child CT baseline and variability. Depressed mothers displayed more negative parenting and their children showed more Axis-I psychopathology and social withdrawal. SEM analysis revealed that maternal depression was associated with reduced CT variability, which predicted higher child psychopathology and social withdrawal. Whereas all children exhibited similar initial levels of CT, children of controls reduced CT levels over time while children of depressed mothers maintained high, non-flexible levels. Mother negativity was related to lower initial CT levels, which predicted decreased empathy. Findings suggest that chronic maternal depression may compromise children's social-emotional adjustment by diminishing HPA-system flexibility as well as limiting the mother's capacity to provide attuned and predictable caregiving. PMID:26610204

  18. Nucleo-cytoplasmic functions of the PDZ-LIM protein family: new insights in organ development

    PubMed Central

    Krcmery, Jennifer; Camarata, Troy; Kulisz, Andre; Simon, Hans-Georg

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recent work on the PDZ-LIM protein family has revealed important activities at the cellular level, mediating signals between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton, with significant impact on organ development. We review and integrate current knowledge about the PDZ-LIM protein family and propose a new functional role, sequestering nuclear factors in the cytoplasm. Characterized by their PDZ and LIM domains, the PDZ-LIM family is comprised of evolutionarily conserved proteins found throughout the animal kingdom, from worms to humans. Combining two functional domains in one protein, PDZ-LIM proteins have wide-ranging and multi-compartmental cell functions during development and homeostasis while, in contrast, misregulation can lead to cancer formation and progression. New emerging roles include interactions with integrins, T-box transcription factors, and receptor tyrosine kinases. Facilitating the assembly of protein complexes, PDZ-LIM proteins can act as signal modulators, influence actin dynamics, regulate cell architecture and control gene transcription. PMID:20091751

  19. Functional and pathological relevance of HERC family proteins: a decade later.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Tena, Susana; Cubillos-Rojas, Monica; Schneider, Taiane; Rosa, Jose Luis

    2016-05-01

    The HERC gene family encodes proteins with two characteristic domains in their sequence: the HECT domain and the RCC1-like domain (RLD). In humans, the HERC family comprises six members that can be divided into two groups based on their molecular mass and domain structure. Whereas large HERCs (HERC1 and HERC2) contain one HECT and more than one RLD, small HERCs (HERC3-6) possess single HECT and RLD domains. Accumulating evidence shows the HERC family proteins to be key components of a wide range of cellular functions, including neurodevelopment, DNA damage repair, cell growth and immune response. Considering the significant recent advances made regarding HERC functionality, an updated review summarizing the progress is greatly needed at 10 years since the last HERC review. We provide an integrated view of HERC function and go into detail about its implications for several human diseases such as cancer and neurological disorders. PMID:26801221

  20. Pain Reports by Older Hospice Cancer Patients and Family Caregivers: The Role of Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Rebecca S.; Haley, William E.; Small, Brent J.; McMillan, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Prior research in nursing homes has shown that cognitive impairment may reduce self-reported pain, but this relation has not been systematically explored among hospice patients. The assessment and treatment of pain is a primary goal of hospice care, and both disease processes and the use of opioid analgesics may lead to cognitive impairment among hospice patients. However, little is known about how cognitive functioning may impact the self-report of pain or the report of care recipient pain by family caregivers. Design and Methods We explored the associations between pain, cognitive functioning, and gender among cancer patients and their family caregivers (N = 176 dyads) during in-home hospice care. This was a cross-sectional, correlational study. Results Contrary to expectation, care recipients with cognitive impairment reported more intense pain than care recipients with intact cognitive functioning. However, cognitive impairment among care recipients had no impact on the pain report of family caregivers. Care recipient cognitive impairment was related to greater discrepancy in the pain reports of caregivers and care recipients. No gender differences in pain intensity report were found. Implications Measurement issues and implications for assessing self-reported pain among hospice cancer patients with impaired cognitive functioning and the report of care recipient pain by family caregivers are discussed. Specifically, hospice staff must educate family caregivers regarding the potential impact of care recipient cognitive impairment on pain reports in order to facilitate accurate pain assessment and management. PMID:12145378