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Sample records for adjuvant chemotherapy patients

  1. Adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly patients with breast cancer: key challenges.

    PubMed

    Pondé, Noam; Dal Lago, Lissandra; Azim, Hatem A

    2016-06-01

    Elderly women with early breast cancer (BC) form a heterogeneous and large subgroup (41.8% of women with BC are over 65). Decision making in this subgroup is made more difficult by lack of familiarity with their physical, cognitive and social issues. Adequate management depends on biological factors and accurate clinical evaluation through comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). CGA can help to better select and determine potential risks factors for patients who are candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy. It is still recently introduced in geriatric oncology and there is a lack of awareness of its importance. Available data on adjuvant chemotherapy for BC is limited but suggests it can be of benefit for well selected patients, though the risk of short and long-term toxicity is significant. Here we provide a discussion of the key practical issues in decision making in the setting of adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly BC patients. PMID:27010772

  2. [Adjuvant chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Del Nero, A; Mandressi, A; Longo, G; Cogni, M; Mangiarotti, B; Buzzetti, V; Russo, R

    1991-06-01

    The authors treated 10 advanced renal cell carcinoma with circadian venous continuous infusion of 5-Fluoro 2-Deoxyuridine (FUDR). The drug was delivered by Medtronic Synchromed implantable pump in 14-day cycles alternating with 14-day intervals of physiologic saline infusion. Of the patient observed for at least 8 months (range: 8-32, median: 22.1) 1 showed progression. Circadian continuous central venous infusion of FUDR is minimally toxic. The FUDR can be delivered safely and conveniently in this way for long spans. This therapy is administrated in on entirely out patient setting, and associated with a normal quality of life. PMID:1830673

  3. Adjuvant Chemotherapy Use and Adverse Events among Older Patients with Stage III Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Katherine L.; Adams, John L.; Weeks, Jane C.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Schrag, Deborah; Ayanian, John Z.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Bhoopalam, Nirmala; Potosky, Arnold L.; Harrington, David P.; Fletcher, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Context Randomized trials suggest adjuvant chemotherapy is effective for elderly patients with stage III colon cancer. However, the elderly are less likely to receive this therapy than younger patients, perhaps because of concern about adverse effects. Objective To evaluate adjuvant chemotherapy use and outcomes for older patients with stage III colon cancer from well-defined population-based settings and healthcare systems. Design Observational study of adjuvant chemotherapy use and outcomes by age, using Poisson regression to estimate the number of adverse events adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, including comorbid illness and specific elements of chemotherapy regimens documented with clinically detailed medical record reviews and patient and surrogate surveys. Setting Five geographically defined regions (Alabama, Iowa, Los Angeles County, Northern California, and North Carolina), five integrated health-care delivery systems, and 15 Veterans hospitals. Patients All 675 patients diagnosed with stage III colon cancer during 2003-2005 who underwent surgical resection were followed up to 15 months post-diagnosis. Main outcome measures Chemotherapy regimen, dose, duration and annualized mean number of adverse events stratified by age. Results Half of the 202 patients >=75 years received adjuvant chemotherapy compared with 87% of 473 younger patients (diff 37%, 95% CI 30%-45%). Among adjuvant chemotherapy users, 14 (14%) of patients >=75 years and 178 (44%) of younger patients received a regimen containing oxaliplatin (diff 30%, 95% CI 21%-38%). Older patients were less likely to continue. By 150 days, 99 (40%) patients >= 65 years and 68 (25%) younger patients had discontinued chemotherapy (diff 15%, 95% CI 7%-23%). Overall, 162 (24%) patients had at least one adverse clinical event, with more events among patients treated with vs. without adjuvant chemotherapy (mean 0.394 vs. 0.160, diff 0.234, 95% CI 0.11-0.36, p<0.001). Among adjuvant chemotherapy

  4. Adjuvant chemotherapy in adult medulloblastoma: is it an option for average-risk patients?

    PubMed

    Franceschi, E; Bartolotti, M; Paccapelo, A; Marucci, G; Agati, R; Volpin, L; Danieli, D; Ghimenton, C; Gardiman, M P; Sturiale, C; Poggi, R; Mascarin, M; Balestrini, D; Masotto, B; Brandes, A A

    2016-06-01

    The standard treatment in children with average-risk medulloblastoma (MB) is reduced-dose radiotherapy (RT) followed by chemotherapy. However, in adults, there is no agreement on the use of adjuvant chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective analysis of adult MB patients with average-risk disease, defined as no postsurgical residual (or ≤1.5 cm(2)) and no metastatic disease (M0). Main inclusion criteria were: age >16 years, post-surgical treatment with craniospinal irradiation with or without adjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin and etoposide ± cyclophosphamide). From 1988 to 2012 were accrued 43 average-risk MB patients treated with surgery and adjuvant RT. Fifteen (34.9 %) patients received also chemotherapy: 7 before RT, 5 after RT, and 3 before and after RT. Reasons to administer chemotherapy were presence of residual disease (even if ≤1.5 cm) and delay in RT. After a median follow up time of 10 years (range: 8-13), median survival was 18 years (95 % CI 9-28) in patients who receive RT alone, and was not reached in patients treated with RT plus chemotherapy. The survival rates at 5, 10 and 15 years were 100 %, 78.6 % (95 % CI 60.0-97.2 %) and 60.2 % (95 % CI 36.9-83.5 %), in patients treated with RT alone, and 100, 100 and 100 %, in patients treated with RT plus chemotherapy (p = 0.079). Our findings suggest a role for adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of average-risk MB adult patients. Further improvements might drive to add chemotherapy in average-risk setting with less favourable biological signatures (i.e., non-WNT group). PMID:26940908

  5. Pilot study of bone mineral density in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headley, J. A.; Theriault, R. L.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R.; Hortobagyi, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in breast cancer patients previously treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Sixteen of 27 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Chemotherapy drugs and dosages along with a history of risk factors for reduced bone density including activity level, tobacco and/or alcohol use, metabolic bone disease, family history, and hormone exposure were identified. Results showed that women who became permanently amenorrheic as a result of chemotherapy had BMD 14% lower than women who maintained menses after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-treated women who maintained ovarian function had normal BMD. This study suggests that women who have premature menopause as a result of chemotherapy for breast cancer are at increased risk of bone loss and may be at risk for early development of osteoporosis. Women who maintain menses do not appear to be at risk for accelerated trabecular bone loss.

  6. Is adjuvant chemotherapy necessary for patients with microinvasive breast cancer after surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Hai-Fei; Wei, Li-Juan; Yu, Jin-Pu; Lian, Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Zi-Zheng; Liu, Jun-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Survival and treatment of patients with microinvasive breast cancer (MIBC) remain controversial. In this paper, we evaluated whether adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary for patients with MIBC to identify risk factors influencing its prognosis and decide the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: In this retrospective study, 108 patients with MIBC were recruited according to seventh edition of the staging manual of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). The subjects were divided into chemotherapy and non-chemotherapy groups. We compared the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates between groups. Furthermore, we analyzed the factors related to prognosis for patients with MIBC using univariate and multivariate analyses. We also evaluated the impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on the prognostic factors by subgroup analysis after median follow-up time of 33 months (13-104 months). Results: The 5-year DFS and OS rates for the chemotherapy group were 93.7% and 97.5%, whereas those for the non-chemotherapy group were 89.7% and 100%. Results indicate that 5-year DFS was superior, but OS was inferior, in the former group compared with the latter group. However, no statistical significance was observed in the 5-year DFS (P=0.223) or OS (P=0.530) rate of the two groups. Most relevant poor-prognostic factors were Ki-67 overexpression and negative hormonal receptors. Cumulative survival was 98.2% vs. 86.5% between low Ki-67 (≤20%) and high Ki-67 (>20%). The hazard ratio of patients with high Ki-67 was 16.585 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.969-139.724; P=0.010]. Meanwhile, ER(-)/PR(-) patients with MIBC had cumulative survival of 79.3% compared with 97.5% for ER(+) or PR(+) patients with MIBC. The hazard ratio for ER(-)/PR(-) patients with MIBC was 19.149 (95% CI, 3.702-99.057; P<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that chemotherapy could improve the outcomes of ER(-)/PR(-) patients (P=0.014), but not those who overexpress Ki-67

  7. Should all patients with serous and clear cell endometrial carcinoma receive adjuvant chemotherapy?

    PubMed

    Boren, Todd P; Miller, David S

    2010-11-01

    Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and uterine clear cell carcinoma (UCCC) represent two rare subtypes that have an increased risk of recurrence and worse overall survival compared with the more common endometrioid endometrial cancers. Meaningful data in the form of prospective randomized trials is lacking for both advanced and early-stage UPSC and UCCC. Data extrapolated from prospective trials in advanced endometrioid endometrial cancer and retrospective trials on early-stage UPSC suggest that adjuvant platinum and taxane-based chemotherapy may provide a survival benefit for these patients. Future trials specifically examining UPSC and UCCC are needed to elucidate the optimal treatment regimen for these patients. Given the current data, the option of chemotherapy should be considered in treatment-planning discussions for all patients with UPSC and UCCC. PMID:21118038

  8. How much survival benefit is necessary for breast cancer patients to opt for adjuvant chemotherapy? Results from a Chilean survey

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Francisco; Sanchez, Cesar; Jans, Jaime; Rivera, Solange; Camus, Mauricio; Besa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer death in Chilean women. Adjuvant chemotherapy decreases recurrence and death from BC. The recommendation to indicate chemotherapy is complex. Adjuvant! Online is a valuable computational tool to predict survival benefit obtained with adjuvant systemic therapy. Previous studies in Caucasian patients with BC showed that they are willing to receive chemotherapy for a small benefit. No studies, to our knowledge, have been done in the Hispanic or Latino populations. Methods: We interviewed females with BC who had previously received adjuvant chemotherapy. Age, stage at presentation, time since last chemotherapy, type of chemotherapy, marital status, number of children, and level of education were recorded. We used the graphic representation from Adjuvant! Online to question each patient on how much survival benefit she required to accept chemotherapy. Results: There were 101 women surveyed. The average age was 55.9 (±10.2), 54.5% had involved lymph nodes, 59.4% were married, and 15.8% did not have parity; 62.3% of females accepted chemotherapy for an absolute survival benefit of 1% or less. In a multivariate analysis, younger (p = 0.02) and less-educated patients (p = 0.018) were associated with lower survival benefit required to opt for chemotherapy. Conclusion: In our study, the acceptance of chemotherapy by the Hispanic population requires minimal survival benefit and is in agreement with the Caucasian population reported elsewhere. To our knowledge, our report is the first study that evaluates the perception of Latino patients regarding the benefit of chemotherapy in early BC. PMID:24678346

  9. Cardiac Monitoring During Adjuvant Trastuzumab-Based Chemotherapy Among Older Patients With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Niu, Jiangong; Zhang, Ning; Elting, Linda S.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Banchs, Jose; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Giordano, Sharon H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Patients treated with adjuvant trastuzumab require adequate cardiac monitoring. We describe the patterns of cardiac monitoring and evaluate factors associated with adequate monitoring in a large population-based study of older patients with breast cancer. Patients and Methods Patients age 66 years or older with full Medicare coverage, diagnosed with stage I to III breast cancer between 2005 and 2009, and treated with adjuvant trastuzumab-based chemotherapy were identified in the SEER-Medicare and the Texas Cancer Registry-Medicare databases. The adequacy of cardiac monitoring was determined. Chemotherapy, trastuzumab use, cardiac monitoring, and comorbidities were identified by using International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes. Prescribing physician characteristics were also evaluated. Analyses included descriptive statistics and multilevel logistic regression models. Results In all, 2,203 patients were identified; median age was 72 years. Adequate monitoring was identified in only 36.0% of the patients (n = 793). In the multivariable model, factors associated with optimal cardiac monitoring included a more recent year of diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.83; 95% CI, 1.32 to 2.54), anthracycline use (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71), female prescribing physician (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.70), and physician graduating after 1990 (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.29 to 2.12). The presence of cardiac comorbidities was not a determinant for cardiac monitoring. Of the variance in the adequacy of cardiac monitoring, 15.3% was attributable to physician factors and 5.2% to measured patient factors. Conclusion A large proportion of patients had suboptimal cardiac monitoring. Physician characteristics had more influence than measured patient-level factors in the adequacy of cardiac monitoring. Because trastuzumab-related cardiotoxicity is reversible, efforts to improve the adequacy of cardiac monitoring are needed

  10. [Integrative management of operation, perioperative rehabilitation and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly patients with colorectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Jiao, Yurong; Ding, Kefeng

    2016-05-25

    With the aging of the Chinese population, it seems obvious that the number of elderly patients with the disease of colorectal carcinoma grows significantly. Meanwhile, no evidence-based practical guideline for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma are available in this particular age group. Therefore, the concept of integrative management has been brought up by the Colorectal Cancer Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, which combines the processes of surgery, perioperative rehabilitation and adjuvant chemotherapy together. In this way, the cooperation and complementarity between different clinical departments could cooperate and complete tasks together to integrate the treatment processes into a cohesive one. To achieve the goal of integrative management, the project is divided into horizontal and vertical aspects. The horizontal integration means the cooperation between different clinical departments, which is also known as multi-discipline treatment (MDT). The vertical integration reflects the completeness of the entire treatment under the goal of consistency, strictness and job separation, which could also be explained as the clinical pathway. Furthermore, this review stresses on the integrative strategy of both clinical and biochemical indexes rehabilitation, as well as the operation and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy which has been put in execution several years by the Colorectal Cancer Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University. PMID:27215515

  11. Racial variation in adjuvant chemotherapy initiation among breast cancer patients receiving oncotype DX testing.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Megan C; Weinberger, Morris; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Dinan, Michaela A; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Troester, Melissa A; Carey, Lisa A; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-08-01

    It is unknown whether racial differences exist in adjuvant chemotherapy initiation among women with similar oncotype DX (ODX) risk scores. We examined whether adjuvant chemotherapy initiation varied by race. Data come from the Phase III, Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a longitudinal, population-based study of North Carolina women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2008 and 2014. We used modified Poisson regression and report adjusted relative risk (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) to estimate the association between race and adjuvant chemotherapy initiation across ODX risk groups among women who received the test (n = 541). Among women who underwent ODX testing, 54.2, 37.5, and 8.3% of women had tumors classified as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. We observed no racial variation in adjuvant chemotherapy initiation. Increasing ODX risk score (aRR = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.22, 1.58) and being married (aRR = 2.92, 95%CI = 1.12, 7.60) were independently associated with an increased likelihood of adjuvant chemotherapy in the low-risk group. Among women in the intermediate-risk group, ODX risk score (aRR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.11, 1.20), younger age (aRR = 1.95, 95%CI = 1.35, 2.81), larger tumor size (aRR = 1.70, 95%CI = 1.22, 2.35), and higher income were independently associated with increased likelihood of adjuvant chemotherapy initiation. No racial differences were found in adjuvant chemotherapy initiation among women receiving ODX testing. As treatment decision-making becomes increasingly targeted with the use of genetic technologies, these results provide evidence that test results may drive treatment in a similar way across racial subgroups. PMID:26216535

  12. Impact of Pattern Recognition Receptors on the Prognosis of Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Adjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Enot, David P; Pietrocola, Federico; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-06-01

    Pattern recognition receptors allow the innate immune system to perceive the presence of microbial products and to launch the first steps of the defense response. Some pattern recognition receptors also sense endogenous ligands that are released from uninfected dying cells, thereby activating immune responses against dead-cell antigens. This applies to toll-like receptors 3 and 4 (TLR3, TLR4), which sense double-stranded RNA and high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), respectively, as well as to formyl peptide receptor-1 (FPR1), which interacts with Annexin A1 (ANXA1) from dead cells. Breast cancer patients who bear loss-of-function alleles in TLR3, TLR4, and FPR1 exhibit a reduced metastasis-free and overall survival after treatment with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. These genetic defects are epistatic with respect to each other, suggesting that they act on the same pathway, linking chemotherapy to a therapeutically relevant anticancer immune response. Loss-of-function alleles in TLR4 and FPR1 also affect the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Altogether, these results support the idea that conventional anticancer treatments rely on stimulation of anticancer immune responses to become fully efficient. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3122-6. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197163

  13. Economic Evaluation of First-Line Adjuvant Chemotherapies for Resectable Gastric Cancer Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chongqing; Peng, Liubao; Zeng, Xiaohui; Li, Jianhe; Wan, Xiaomin; Chen, Gannong; Yi, Lidan; Luo, Xia; Zhao, Ziying

    2013-01-01

    Background First-line postoperative adjuvant chemotherapies with S-1 and capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) were first recommended for resectable gastric cancer patients in the 2010 and 2011 Chinese NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Gastric Cancer; however, their economic impact in China is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy with XELOX, with S-1 and no treatment after a gastrectomy with extended (D2) lymph-node dissection among patients with stage II-IIIB gastric cancer. Methods A Markov model, based on data from two clinical phase III trials, was developed to analyse the cost-effectiveness of patients in the XELOX group, S-1 group and surgery only (SO) group. The costs were estimated from the perspective of Chinese healthcare system. The utilities were assumed on the basis of previously published reports. Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated with a lifetime horizon. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results For the base case, XELOX had the lowest total cost ($44,568) and cost-effectiveness ratio ($7,360/QALY). The relative scenario analyses showed that SO was dominated by XELOX and the ICERs of S-1 was $58,843/QALY compared with XELOX. The one-way sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential parameter was the utility of disease-free survival. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis predicted a 75.8% likelihood that the ICER for XELOX would be less than $13,527 compared with S-1. When ICER was more than $38,000, the likelihood of cost-effectiveness achieved by S-1 group was greater than 50%. Conclusions Our results suggest that for patients in China with resectable disease, first-line adjuvant chemotherapy with XELOX after a D2 gastrectomy is a best option comparing with S-1 and SO in view of our current study. In addition, S-1 might be a better choice, especially with a

  14. Identification of distinct fatigue trajectories in patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Junghaenel, Doerte U.; Cohen, Jules; Schneider, Stefan; Neerukonda, Anu R.; Broderick, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to characterize changes in daily fatigue in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer. We examined whether there are subgroups of patients with distinct fatigue trajectories and explored potential psychosocial and biomedical predictors of these subgroups. Methods Participants were 77 women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy with AC-T (2-week cycle) and TC or TCH (3-week cycle) regimens. They completed 28 daily ratings online using an adapted version of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) fatigue instrument. Results Both regimens followed an “inverted-U shaped” fatigue pattern over approximately 2 weeks. Growth mixture modeling identified three patient subgroups with distinct trajectories. Fatigue scores in the “low fatigue” group (23%) increased following the infusion and quickly abated. The “transient fatigue” (27%) group had a very pronounced increase. Patients in the “high fatigue” (50%) group reported consistently elevated fatigue with a relatively small increase. Demographic and medical variables were not associated with fatigue trajectory. Patients in the “high fatigue” group reported significantly poorer physical, emotional, and social functioning, poorer general health, and more depressed mood than patients in the “low fatigue” group. The “transient fatigue” group reported significantly better physical and social functioning than the “high fatigue” group, but emotional distress and depression similar to the “high fatigue” group. Conclusions The identification of patient subgroups with distinct fatigue trajectories during chemotherapy is an essential step for developing preventative strategies and tailored interventions. Our results suggest that different trajectories are associated with patients’ psychosocial and general health. PMID:25876159

  15. Is distance to chemotherapy an obstacle to adjuvant care among the N.C. Medicaid—enrolled colon cancer patients?

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eunyoung; Klepin, Heidi D.; Foley, Kristie L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer has been linked to patient and provider characteristics but little is known about whether distance to chemotherapy providers constitutes an obstacle to chemotherapy. Methods A total of 1,184 Medicaid patients diagnosed with colon cancer in North Carolina in 1999–2002 comprised the sample. Data from the N.C. Central Cancer Registry, N.C. Medicaid Claims, American Hospital Directory and US Census were merged. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between chemotherapy receipt and the distance to nearest chemotherapy provider. Results Compared to the referent group of SEER-staged II (local) cancer patients living less than 2 miles from the nearest chemotherapy provider, the odds of receiving chemotherapy fell as the distance to the nearest provider increased. The odds ratio (OR) for those living ≥5 to <15 miles away was 0.13 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.04–0.39], and OR for those living ≥15 miles away was 0.06 (95% CI, 0.01–0.52). Patients diagnosed with regional, SEER-staged III (regional) cancer were less likely to receive chemotherapy if they lived in rural areas more than 20 miles away from the nearest provider (OR =0.08; 95% CI, 0.01–0.72). However, we found no evidence of association between chemotherapy receipt and distance to the nearest provider for regional cancer patients living in urban areas and those living in rural areas within 20 miles from the nearest chemotherapy provider. Conclusions Distance to provider may be an obstacle to chemotherapy for some groups of low-income colon cancer patients. Relieving travel burdens of rural patients living far from providers may help Medicaid increase guideline-consistent adjuvant care for regional cancer patients. PMID:27284464

  16. [Rectal cancer and adjuvant chemotherapy: which conclusions?].

    PubMed

    Bachet, J-B; Rougier, P; de Gramont, A; André, T

    2010-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the rectum represents about a third of cases of colorectal cancer, with an annual incidence of 12,000 cases in France. On the contrary of colon cancer, the benefice of adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer has not been definitively proved, more because this question was assessed in few recent studies than because negative results. Preoperative radiochemotherapy is now the reference treatment for mid and lower rectal cancers, and allow to increase the local control without improvement of progression free survival and overall survival. The data of the "historical studies" of adjuvant treatment in rectal cancer published before 1990, of the meta-analysis of adjuvant trials in rectal cancer and of the QUASAR study suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines (intravenous or oral), in absence of pre-operative treatment, decrease the risk of metastatic relapse after curative surgery for a rectal cancer of stage II or III. This benefice seems similar to the one observed in colon cancer. In the EORTC radiotherapy group trial 22921, an adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and low dose of leucovorin was not associated with a significantly improvement of overall survival but, despite the fact that only 42.9% of patients received all planed cycles, the progression free survival was increased (not significantly) in groups receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. The French recommendations are to discuss the indication of adjuvant chemotherapy by fluoropyrimidines in cases of stage III rectal cancer on histopathologic reports and no chemotherapy in case of stade II. Despite the fact that none study have assessed a combination of fluoropyrimidines and oxaliplatin in adjuvant setting in rectal cancer, like in colon cancer, the Folfox4, modified Folfox6 or Xelox regimens are valid options in stage III (experts opinion). In cases of pathologic complete remission or in absence of involved nodes, the benefice of adjuvant chemotherapy is not assessed. In

  17. Metronomic Adjuvant Chemotherapy Improves Treatment Outcome in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients With Postradiation Persistently Detectable Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus Deoxyribonucleic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Twu, Chih-Wen; Wang, Wen-Yi; Chen, Chien-Chih; Liang, Kai-Li; Jiang, Rong-San; Wu, Ching-Te; Shih, Yi-Ting; Lin, Po-Ju; Liu, Yi-Chun; Lin, Jin-Ching

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with persistently detectable plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA (pEBV DNA) after curative radiation therapy plus induction/concurrent chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 625 NPC patients with available pEBV DNA levels before and after treatment. Eighty-five patients with persistently detectable pEBV DNA after 1 week of completing radiation therapy were eligible for this retrospective study. Of the 85 patients, 33 were administered adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of oral tegafur-uracil (2 capsules twice daily) for 12 months with (n=4) or without (n=29) preceding intravenous chemotherapy of mitomycin-C, epirubicin, and cisplatin. The remaining 52 patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy served as the control group. Results: Baseline patient characteristics at diagnosis (age, sex, pathologic type, performance status, T classification, N classification, and overall stage), as well as previous treatment modality, were comparable in both arms. After a median follow-up of 70 months for surviving patients, 45.5% (15 of 33 patients) with adjuvant chemotherapy and 71.2% (37 of 52 patients) without adjuvant chemotherapy experienced tumor relapses (P=.0323). There were a significant reduction in distant failure (P=.0034) but not in local or regional recurrence. The 5-year overall survival rate was 71.6% for patients with adjuvant chemotherapy and 28.7% for patients without adjuvant chemotherapy (hazard ratio 0.27; 95% confidence interval 0.17-0.55; P<.0001). Conclusions: Our retrospective data showed that adjuvant chemotherapy can reduce distant failure and improve overall survival in NPC patients with persistently detectable pEBV DNA after curative radiation therapy plus induction/concurrent chemotherapy.

  18. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer: Is it needed?

    PubMed Central

    Milinis, Kristijonas; Thornton, Michael; Montazeri, Amir; Rooney, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy has become a standard treatment of advanced rectal cancer in the West. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery alone have been well established. However, controversy surrounds the use adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy, despite it being recommended by a number of international guidelines. Results of recent multicentre randomised control trials showed no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in terms of survival and rates of distant metastases. However, concerns exist regarding the quality of the studies including inadequate staging modalities, out-dated chemotherapeutic regimens and surgical approaches and small sample sizes. It has become evident that not all the patients respond to adjuvant chemotherapy and more personalised approach should be employed when considering the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy. The present review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the current evidence-base and suggests improvements for future studies. PMID:26677436

  19. Phase 2 Study of Erlotinib Combined With Adjuvant Chemoradiation and Chemotherapy in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, Joseph M.; Fan, Katherine Y.; Wild, Aaron T.; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Wood, Laura D.; Blackford, Amanda L.; Ellsworth, Susannah; Zheng, Lei; Le, Dung T.; De Jesus-Acosta, Ana; Hidalgo, Manuel; Donehower, Ross C.; Schulick, Richard D.; Edil, Barish H.; Choti, Michael A.; Hruban, Ralph H.; and others

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Long-term survival rates for patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have stagnated at 20% for more than a decade, demonstrating the need to develop novel adjuvant therapies. Gemcitabine-erlotinib therapy has demonstrated a survival benefit for patients with metastatic PDAC. Here we report the first phase 2 study of erlotinib in combination with adjuvant chemoradiation and chemotherapy for resected PDAC. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients with resected PDAC received adjuvant erlotinib (100 mg daily) and capecitabine (800 mg/m{sup 2} twice daily Monday-Friday) concurrently with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), 50.4 Gy over 28 fractions followed by 4 cycles of gemcitabine (1000 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days) and erlotinib (100 mg daily). The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results: The median follow-up time was 18.2 months (interquartile range, 13.8-27.1). Lymph nodes were positive in 85% of patients, and margins were positive in 17%. The median RFS was 15.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.4-17.9), and the median overall survival (OS) was 24.4 months (95% CI, 18.9-29.7). Multivariate analysis with adjustment for known prognostic factors showed that tumor diameter >3 cm was predictive for inferior RFS (hazard ratio, 4.01; P=.001) and OS (HR, 4.98; P=.02), and the development of dermatitis was associated with improved RFS (HR, 0.27; P=.009). During CRT and post-CRT chemotherapy, the rates of grade 3/4 toxicity were 31%/2% and 35%/8%, respectively. Conclusion: Erlotinib can be safely administered with adjuvant IMRT-based CRT and chemotherapy. The efficacy of this regimen appears comparable to that of existing adjuvant regimens. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0848 will ultimately determine whether erlotinib produces a survival benefit in patients with resected pancreatic cancer.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of adjuvant FOLFOX and 5FU/LV chemotherapy for patients with stage II colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ayvaci, Mehmet U.S.; Shi, Jinghua; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Lubner, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy using 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin (5FU/LV), and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) compared with 5FU/LV alone and 5FU/LV compared with observation alone for patients who had resected stage II colon cancer. Methods We developed two Markov models to represent the adjuvant chemotherapy and follow-up periods and a single Markov model to represent the observation group. We used calibration to estimate the transition probabilities among different toxicity levels. The base-case considered 60-year-old patients who had undergone an uncomplicated hemicolectomy for stage II colon cancer and was medically fit to receive 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy. We measured health outcomes in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and estimated costs using 2007 US$. Results In the base-case, adjuvant chemotherapy of FOLFOX regimen had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $54,359/QALY compared with the 5FU/LV regimen and the 5FU/LV regimen had an ICER of $14,584/QALY compared with the observation group from the third-party payer perspective. The ICER values were most sensitive to 5-year relapse probability, cost of adjuvant chemotherapy, and the discount rate for the FOLFOX arm, whereas the ICER value of 5FU/LV was most sensitive to the 5-year relapse probability, 5-year survival probability, and the relapse cost. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicate that the ICER of 5FU/LV is less than $50,000/QALY with a probability of 99.62% and the ICER of FOLFOX as compared to 5FU/LV is less than $50,000/QALY and $100,000/QALY with a probability of 44.48% and 97.24%, respectively. Conclusion While adjuvant chemotherapy with 5FU/LV is cost-effective at all ages for patients who had undergone an uncomplicated hemicolectomy for stage II colon cancer, FOLFOX is not likely to be cost-effective as compared to 5FU/LV. PMID:23313932

  1. Update on Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rampurwala, Murtuza M; Rocque, Gabrielle B; Burkard, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Although most women are diagnosed with early breast cancer, a substantial number recur due to persistent micro-metastatic disease. Systemic adjuvant chemotherapy improves outcomes and has advanced from first-generation regimens to modern dose-dense combinations. Although chemotherapy is the cornerstone of adjuvant therapy, new biomarkers are identifying patients who can forego such treatment. Neo-adjuvant therapy is a promising platform for drug development, but investigators should recognize the limitations of surrogate endpoints and clinical trials. Previous decades have focused on discovering, developing, and intensifying adjuvant chemotherapy. Future efforts should focus on customizing therapy and reducing chemotherapy for patients unlikely to benefit. In some cases, it may be possible to replace chemotherapy with treatments directed at specific genetic or molecular breast cancer subtypes. Yet, we anticipate that chemotherapy will remain a critical component of adjuvant therapy for years to come. PMID:25336961

  2. Predominant histologic subtype in lung adenocarcinoma predicts benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in completely resected patients: discovery of a holy grail?

    PubMed

    Russell, Prudence Anne; Wright, Gavin Michael

    2016-01-01

    The recently published 2015 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of lung tumors, which is based on the 2011 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ATS) multidisciplinary classification, recommends diagnosis of resected lung adenocarcinoma according to the predominant histologic subtype. This has been shown to correlate with overall and disease-free survival (DFS) in many studies from four continents. Now classification according to predominant histologic subtype has been demonstrated to predict benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in a subset of patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma previously included in the International Adjuvant Lung Cancer Trial (IALT), JBR.10, Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9633 and Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association 01 (ANITA) adjuvant chemotherapy trials, all of which were part of the LACE-Bio study. This "hot-off-the press" landmark investigation further cements the clinical importance of classification of resected lung adenocarcinoma according to predominant histologic subtype and suggests that it could be a critical factor for patient stratification in future clinical trials. PMID:26855952

  3. Predominant histologic subtype in lung adenocarcinoma predicts benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in completely resected patients: discovery of a holy grail?

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Gavin Michael

    2016-01-01

    The recently published 2015 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of lung tumors, which is based on the 2011 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ATS) multidisciplinary classification, recommends diagnosis of resected lung adenocarcinoma according to the predominant histologic subtype. This has been shown to correlate with overall and disease-free survival (DFS) in many studies from four continents. Now classification according to predominant histologic subtype has been demonstrated to predict benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in a subset of patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma previously included in the International Adjuvant Lung Cancer Trial (IALT), JBR.10, Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9633 and Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association 01 (ANITA) adjuvant chemotherapy trials, all of which were part of the LACE-Bio study. This “hot-off-the press” landmark investigation further cements the clinical importance of classification of resected lung adenocarcinoma according to predominant histologic subtype and suggests that it could be a critical factor for patient stratification in future clinical trials. PMID:26855952

  4. Role of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in ypT0-2N0 Patients Treated with Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy and Radical Resection for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, In Ja; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, Nam Kyu; Kim, Hyeong-Rok; Kang, Sung-Bum; Choi, Gyu-Seog; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Seon-Hahn; Oh, Seung Taek; Lim, Seok-Byung; Kim, Jin Cheon; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sun Young; Lee, Woo Yong; Lee, Jung Bok; Yu, Chang Sik

    2015-07-01

    Objective: To explore the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with ypT0-2N0 rectal cancer treated by preoperative chemoradiation therapy (PCRT) and radical resection. Patients and Methods: A national consortium of 10 institutions was formed, and patients with ypT0-2N0 mid- and low-rectal cancer after PCRT and radical resection from 2004 to 2009 were included. Patients were categorized into 2 groups according to receipt of additional adjuvant chemotherapy: Adj CTx (+) versus Adj CTx (−). Propensity scores were calculated and used to perform matched and adjusted analyses comparing relapse-free survival (RFS) between treatment groups while controlling for potential confounding. Results: A total of 1016 patients, who met the selection criteria, were evaluated. Of these, 106 (10.4%) did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. There was no overall improvement in 5-year RFS as a result of adjuvant chemotherapy [91.6% for Adj CTx (+) vs 87.5% for Adj CTx (−), P=.18]. There were no differences in 5-year local recurrence and distant metastasis rate between the 2 groups. In patients who show moderate, minimal, or no regression in tumor regression grade, however, possible association of adjuvant chemotherapy with RFS would be considered (hazard ratio 0.35; 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.88; P=.03). Cox regression analysis after propensity score matching failed to show that addition of adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with improved RFS (hazard ratio 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.39-1.70; P=.58). Conclusions: Adjuvant chemotherapy seemed to not influence the RFS of patients with ypT0-2N0 rectal cancer after PCRT followed by radical resection. Thus, the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy needs to be weighed against its oncologic benefits.

  5. Chemotherapy: Does Neoadjuvant or Adjuvant Therapy Improve Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Canter, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Since preoperative chemotherapy has been clearly shown to improve outcomes for patients with Ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and osteosarcoma, practitioners have attempted to extend the use of adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy to other types of adult soft tissue sarcoma. Given the high risk of distant recurrence and disease-specific death for patients with soft tissue sarcoma tumors larger than 10 cm, these patients should be considered candidates for neoadjuvant chemotherapy as well as investigational therapies. Yet, potential toxicity from cytotoxic chemotherapy is substantial, and there remains little consensus and wide variation regarding the indications for use of chemotherapy in the adjuvant/neoadjuvant setting. PMID:27591503

  6. Psychosocial and Physical Effects of Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, Thomas Gregory; Elwood, J. Mark; Waxler-Morrison, Nancy; Ragaz, Joseph; Skippen, Diane Hazel; Turner, I.D.

    1991-01-01

    Breast cancer patients younger than 55 completed a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and physical side effects shortly after diagnosis and 9 to 15 months after diagnosis. Those who had used adjuvant chemotherapy were more likely than those who had not to report physical side effects; there was little difference in psychosocial factors. Recent users were more likely than ex-users to report physical side effects, difficulties with domestic chores, and improvement in psychosocial factors. PMID:21229020

  7. Adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Hiroshi; Todo, Yukiharu; Watari, Hidemichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to address the current status of adjuvant chemotherapy alone in early-stage cervical cancer treatments in the literature. At present, the therapeutic effect of adjuvant chemotherapy alone after radical surgery (RS) has not yet been established, and radiation therapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is recommended as the standard adjuvant therapy after RS for early-stage cervical cancer in various guidelines. The main purpose of adjuvant therapy after RS, however, should be to reduce extrapelvic recurrence rather than local recurrence, although adjuvant RT or CCRT has survival benefits for patients with intermediate- or high-risk factors for recurrence. Moreover, several studies reported that adjuvant therapies including RT were associated with a higher incidence of complications, such as lymphedema, bowel obstruction and urinary disturbance, and a lower grade of long-term quality of life (QOL) or sexual functioning than adjuvant chemotherapy alone. The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy alone for early-stage cervical cancer with intermediate- or high-risk factors for recurrence were not fully investigated in prospective studies, but several retrospective studies suggest that the adjuvant effects of chemotherapy alone are at least similar to that of RT or CCRT in terms of recurrence rate, disease-free survival, or overall survival (OS) with lower incidence of complications. Whereas cisplatin based combination regimens were used in these studies, paclitaxel/cisplatin (TP) regimen, which is currently recognized as a standard chemotherapy regimen for patients with metastatic, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer by Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), had also survival benefit as an adjuvant therapy. Therefore, it may be worth considering a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) of adjuvant chemotherapy alone using TP regimen versus adjuvant RT as an alternative adjuvant therapy. Because early-stage cervical cancer is a curable

  8. Prospective cohort study of febrile neutropenia in breast cancer patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy: CSPOR-BC FN study.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Narui, Kazutaka; Kaise, Hiroshi; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Mukai, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of adjuvant chemotherapy for treating early breast cancer, febrile neutropenia management has become crucial. Guidelines for febrile neutropenia management are mostly based on a Caucasian population survey although ethnic differences are reported in terms of adverse events. We survey the current status of febrile neutropenia and risk factors in Japanese female breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens potential for febrile neutropenia. Subsequently, we plan to conduct a multicenter prospective cohort study involving 1000 patients with operable breast cancer. With the current state of oral antibiotics being routinely prescribed without hematology tests, we survey febrile neutropenia based on two different definitions, namely, true febrile neutropenia: ≥37.5°C and Grade 4 neutropenia, and surrogate febrile neutropenia: ≥37.5°C and oral antibiotic and antipyretic intake. The comparison of true febrile neutropenia and surrogate febrile neutropenia incidences is anticipated to provide information on the safety and feasibility of chemotherapy management without performing blood tests. PMID:27162322

  9. Adjuvant systemic chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab in patients with resected pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Nedim; Benekli, Mustafa; Dane, Faysal; Unal, Olcun Umit; Kara, Hasan Volkan; Koca, Dogan; Balvan, Ozlem; Eren, Tulay; Tastekin, Didem; Helvaci, Kaan; Berk, Veli; Demirci, Umut; Ozturk, Selcuk Cemil; Dogan, Erkan; Cetin, Bulent; Kucukoner, Mehmet; Tonyali, Onder; Tufan, Gulnihal; Oztop, Ilhan; Gumus, Mahmut; Coskun, Ugur; Uner, Aytug; Ozet, Ahmet; Buyukberber, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the impact of modern chemotherapy regimens and bevacizumab following pulmonary metastasectomy (PM) from metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods A total of 122 consecutive patients who were curatively resected for pulmonary metastases of CRC in twelve oncology centers were retrospectively analysed between January 2000 and April 2012. Results Of 122 patients, 14 did not receive any treatment following PM. The remaining 108 patients received fluoropyrimidine-based (n = 12), irinotecan-based (n = 56) and oxaliplatin-based (n = 40) chemotherapy combinations. Among these, 52 patients received bevacizumab (BEV) while 56 did not (NoBEV). Median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 17 months and median overall survival (OS) has not been reached at a median follow-up of 25 months after PM. Three and five-year OS rates were 66% and 53%, respectively. RFS and OS were similar, irrespective of the chemotherapy regimen or BEV use. Positive pulmonary margin, KRAS mutation status, and previous liver metastasectomy were negative independent prognostic factors for RFS, while pathologically confirmed thoracic lymph node involvement was the only negative independent prognostic for OS in multivariate analysis. Conclusions No significant RFS or OS difference was observed in respect to chemotherapy regimens with or without BEV in patients with pulmonary metastases of CRC following curative resection. PMID:26763794

  10. Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Chemotherapy of Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mallmann, Peter; Mallmann, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is indicated in patients who can tolerate the side effects of a chemotherapy and with preoperative presentation of one of the following clinical risk situations: bulky disease with a maximal tumor diameter of > 4 cm, suspicious lymph nodes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scan or endosonography, histopathologically confirmed lymph node metastasis, or histopathologically documented risk factors such as G3 and L1V1. A neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery should be performed with cisplatin at a dosage of > 25 mg/m2 per week and an application interval of < 14 days. The previously published data suggests an improved rate of complete resection and reduced incidences of positive lymph nodes and parametric infiltration. Accordingly, the percentage of patients in need for adjuvant radiochemotherapy after operation can be significantly reduced. Some studies demonstrated a prolongation of progression-free and overall survival. Following the previously published studies, adjuvant chemotherapy after operation or after radiochemotherapy has no significant effect on the overall survival and, following the current guidelines, should be avoided. PMID:27614740

  11. Short-term mortality in older patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenstock, Aron S; Lei, Xiudong; Tripathy, Debu; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Giordano, Sharon H; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana

    2016-06-01

    Chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer has lowered cancer recurrence and deaths. However, short-term mortality rates due to cancer or treatment in the general population remain largely unknown. In this study, we evaluate the short-term mortality rate and the determinants of such outcome among a cohort of older breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. This is a population-based study based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER)-Medicare and the Texas Cancer Registry (TCR)-Medicare databases. Patients diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer between 2003 and 2011 who were 66 years or older and were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy within 6 months of diagnosis were included. Short-term mortality was defined as death from any cause within one year of breast cancer diagnosis. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression modeling were used for the analysis. Of the 21,536 patients included, a total of 625 (2.9 %) died within one year of breast cancer diagnosis. In multivariate analysis, older age (using 66-70 as reference category; 71-75 years OR 1.31, 95 % CI 1.05-1.62; 76-80 years OR 1.73, 95 % CI 1.36-2.19; >80 years OR 3.48, 95 % CI 2.7-4.48) and higher comorbidity index (using Charlson score of 0 as a reference, those with score of 1 or >2 had higher risk OR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.19-1.8 and OR 2.98, 95 % CI 2.42-3.67, respectively) were associated with the increased risk of short-term mortality. Other factors significantly associated with the outcome were higher grade and stage, ER-negative status, poor census tract area, and mastectomy. The findings of this study revealed that, in this large cohort of older breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, 2.9 % of the population died within one year of breast cancer diagnosis. Finally, it was concluded that tumor- and patient-related characteristics were associated with short-term death. Our findings add relevant information that can be

  12. The effect of comorbidity on the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and type of regimen for curatively resected stage III colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Thompson, Trevor; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Styles, Timothy; O'Flarity, Mary B; Morris, Cyllene R; Chen, Vivien W

    2016-05-01

    Postsurgical chemotherapy is guideline-recommended therapy for stage III colon cancer patients. Factors associated with patients not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were identified in numerous studies; comorbidity was recognized as an important factor besides patient's age. We assessed the association between comorbidity and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and type of chemotherapy regimen. Stage III colon cancer patients who underwent surgical resection were obtained from ten Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-NPCR Specialized Registries which participated in the Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) project. Comorbidity was classified into no comorbidity recorded, Charlson, non-Charlson comorbidities, number, and severity of Charlson comorbidity. Pearson chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression were employed. Of 3180 resected stage III colon cancer patients, 64% received adjuvant chemotherapy. After adjusting for patient's demographic and tumor characteristics, there were no significant differences in receipt of chemotherapy between Charlson and non-Charlson comorbidity. However, patients who had two or more Charlson comorbidities or had moderate to severe disease were significantly less likely to have chemotherapy (ORs 0.69 [95% CI, 0.51-0.92] and 0.62 [95% CI, 0.42-0.91], respectively) when compared with those with non-Charlson comorbidity. In addition, those with moderate or severe comorbidities were more likely to receive single chemotherapy agent (P < 0.0001). Capecitabine and FOLFOX were the most common single- and multi-agent regimens regardless of type of comorbidity grouping. Both the number and severity of comorbidity were significantly associated with receipt of guideline-recommended chemotherapy and type of agent in stage III resected colon cancer patients. Better personalized care based on individual patient's condition ought to be recognized. PMID:26773804

  13. Irinotecan and capecitabine combination chemotherapy in a patient with triple-negative breast cancer relapsed after adjuvant chemotherapy with anthracycline and taxane.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anna; Go, Se-Il; Lee, Won Sup; Lee, Un Seok; Kim, Moon Jin; Kang, Myoung Hee; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kang, Jung Hun; Jeon, Kyung-Nyeo; Cho, Jae Min; Lee, Jeong-Hee

    2015-01-01

    The most effective regimen for taxane- and anthracycline-refractory triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has not yet been established. Capecitabine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced breast cancer and has shown efficacy in advanced breast cancer refractory to anthracyclines and taxanes. Irinotecan has synergism with 5-fluorouracil and shows efficacy in advanced breast cancer. Here we report on a patient with TNBC who relapsed with widespread bone and lung metastases shortly after adjuvant anthracycline followed by taxane chemotherapy. She achieved a metabolic complete response with irinotecan and capecitabine combination therapy and had 10 months' progression-free survival and 22 months' overall survival. She relapsed with and died of brain metastasis without any definite signs of progression of the lung and bone lesions she had had before the irinotecan and capecitabine combination therapy. To validate this favorable result, larger clinical trials are warranted in patients with metastatic or relapsed TNBC. PMID:25702650

  14. Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer: Current evidence and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Rosalba; Tomasello, Gianluca; Bregni, Giacomo; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Pietrantonio, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer still represents one of the major causes of cancer mortality worldwide. Patients survival is mainly related to stage, with a high proportion of patients with metastatic disease at presentation. Thus, the cure rate largely depend upon surgical resection. Despite the additional, albeit small, benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy has been clearly demonstrated, no general consensus has been reached on the best treatment option. Moreover, the narrow therapeutic index of adjuvant chemotherapy (i.e., limited survival benefit with considerable toxicity) requires a careful assessment of expected risks and benefits for individual patients. Treatment choices vary widely based on the different geographic areas, with chemotherapy alone more often preferred in Europe or Asia and chemoradiotherapy in the United States. In the present review we discuss the current evidence and future challenges regarding adjuvant chemotherapy in curatively resected gastric cancer with particular emphasis on the recently completed landmark studies and meta-analyses. The most recent patient-level meta-analysis demonstrated the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy over curative surgery; the same Authors also showed that disease-free survival may be used as a surrogate end-point for overall survival. We finally discuss future research issues such as the need of economic evaluations, development of prognostic or predictive biomarkers, and the unmet clinical need of trials comparing perioperative chemotherapy with adjuvant treatment. PMID:24782604

  15. Adjuvant chemotherapy for soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Casali, Paolo G

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is not standard treatment in soft tissue sarcoma (STS). However, when the risk of relapse is high, it is an option for shared decision making with the patient in conditions of uncertainty. This is because available evidence is conflicting, even if several randomized clinical trials have been performed for 4 decades and also have been pooled into meta-analyses. Indeed, available meta-analyses point to a benefit in the 5% to 10% range in terms of survival and distant relapse rate. Some local benefit also was suggested by some trials. Placing chemotherapy in the preoperative setting may help gain a local advantage in terms of the quality of surgical margins or decreased sequelae. This may be done within a personalized approach according to the clinical presentation. Attempts to personalize treatment on the basis of the variegated pathology and molecular biology of STS subgroups are ongoing as well, according to what is done in the medical treatment of advanced STS. Thus, decision making for adjuvant and neoadjuvant indications deserves personalization in clinical research and in clinical practice, taking profit from all multidisciplinary clinical skills available at a sarcoma reference center, though with a degree of subjectivity because of the limitations of available evidence. PMID:25993233

  16. Impact of Postoperative Radiation Therapy on Survival in Patients With Complete Resection and Stage I, II, or IIIA Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Adjuvant Chemotherapy: The Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association (ANITA) Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Douillard, Jean-Yves Rosell, Rafael; De Lena, Mario; Riggi, Marcello; Hurteloup, Patrick; Mahe, Marc-Andre

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) on survival in the Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association (ANITA) randomized study of adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: ANITA is a randomized trial of adjuvant cisplatin and vinorelbine chemotherapy vs. observation in completely resected non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) Stages IB to IIIA. Use of PORT was recommended for pN+ disease but was not randomized or mandatory. Each center decided whether to use PORT before initiation of the study. We describe here the survival of patients with and without PORT within each treatment group of ANITA. No statistical comparison of survival was performed because this was an unplanned subgroup analysis. Results: Overall, 232 of 840 patients received PORT (33.3% in the observation arm and 21.6% in the chemotherapy arm). In univariate analysis, PORT had a deleterious effect on the overall population survival. Patients with pN1 disease had an improved survival from PORT in the observation arm (median survival [MS] 25.9 vs. 50.2 months), whereas PORT had a detrimental effect in the chemotherapy group (MS 93.6 months and 46.6 months). In contrast, survival was improved in patients with pN2 disease who received PORT, both in the chemotherapy (MS 23.8 vs. 47.4 months) and observation arm (median 12.7 vs. 22.7 months). Conclusion: This retrospective evaluation suggests a positive effect of PORT in pN2 disease and a negative effect on pN1 disease when patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. The results support further evaluation of PORT in prospectively randomized studies in completely resected pN2 NSCLC.

  17. Adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ejlertsen, Bent

    2016-05-01

    these CMF regimens has not been compared within the context of a randomised trial. Shifting from the 77B's classic CMF regimen to the 82B four-weekly IV regimen or the 89B three-weekly IV regimen was associated with a 30% increased risk of a DFS event in a multivariate analysis of a population-based cohort study. Furthermore, the four-weekly regimen used in 82B was associated with a 40% increase in mortality. The strengths of the design include identical selection criteria, uniform and prospective registration of treatment, tumour and patient characteristics. Caution is still required due to the non-experimental design of the comparison. Another finding was a substantial difference in the risk of amenorrhoea; and while 15% of patients aged 40 or younger in 77B had regular menses throughout chemotherapy, the corresponding percentage was 37 in 82B and 47 in 89B. The DBCG in collaboration with a Swedish and a Dutch centre participating in the DBCG trial 89B compared CMF with ovarian ablation in premenopausal high-risk breast cancer patients with ER-positive tumours. No significant differences were found in DFS or OS in the preplanned analysis, suggesting that the benefits of CMF may, at least in part, be explained by ovarian suppression in premenopausal patients with ER-positive tumours. However, these results are not clinically useful by themselves as other chemotherapy regimens have been more efficacious, and knowledge is still lacking regarding the benefits from adding ovarian suppression to chemotherapy plus tamoxifen. The results from the DBCG 77B and 82C are in accordance with other large adjuvant trials and the EBCTCG meta-analyses. The benefits obtained with any individual anticancer drug are largely determined by the cancer (somatic) genome; and by being a molecular target of anthracyclines, TOP2A aberrations could obviously be associated with cancer drug benefits. In the DBCG 89D, a significant heterogeneity was observed between a beneficial effect on DFS and OS

  18. PTK7 as a potential prognostic and predictive marker of response to adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients, and resistance to anthracycline drugs.

    PubMed

    Ataseven, Beyhan; Gunesch, Angela; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Kates, Ronald E; Högel, Bernhard; Knyazev, Pjotr; Ullrich, Axel; Harbeck, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers predicting resistance to particular chemotherapy regimens could play a key role in optimally individualized treatment concepts. PTK7 (protein tyrosine kinase 7) belongs to the receptor tyrosine kinase family involved in several physiological, but also malignant, cell behaviors. Recent studies in acute myeloid leukemia have associated PTK7 expression with resistance to anthracycline therapy. PTK7 mRNA expression in primary tumor tissue (PTT) and corresponding lymph node tissue (LNT) were retrospectively measured in 117 patients with early breast cancer; PTK7 expression was available in 103 PTT and 108 LNT samples. Median age was 60 years (range, 27-87 years). At a median follow-up of 28.5 months, 6 deaths and 16 recurrences had occurred. PTK7 expression correlations with clinicopathological features were computed and PTK7 expression effects on patient outcome were analyzed in three cohorts defined by adjuvant treatment: anthracycline-based treatment, other chemotherapy regimens (including taxane or other substances), or no chemotherapy. Association of PTK7 expression with clinicopathological features was seen only for age in PTT and nodal stage in LNT. High LN PTK7 was associated with poorer disease-free survival (DFS) in the total population (3-year DFS: low [81.7%] versus high [70.4%]; P=0.016) and in patients without adjuvant chemotherapy (3-year DFS: low [91.7%] versus high [22.3%]; P<0.001), but not in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (P=0.552). DFS stratified by PTK7 expression was compared in treatment cohorts: In patients with low LN PTK7 expression, neither chemotherapy cohort showed significantly better survival than the no-chemotherapy cohort. In patients with high LN PTK7 expression, those receiving chemotherapy, including substances other than anthracyclines, but not those receiving only anthracycline-based chemotherapy, showed significantly better DFS than those receiving no chemotherapy (P=0.001). Our results support earlier

  19. PTK7 as a potential prognostic and predictive marker of response to adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients, and resistance to anthracycline drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ataseven, Beyhan; Gunesch, Angela; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Kates, Ronald E; Högel, Bernhard; Knyazev, Pjotr; Ullrich, Axel; Harbeck, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers predicting resistance to particular chemotherapy regimens could play a key role in optimally individualized treatment concepts. PTK7 (protein tyrosine kinase 7) belongs to the receptor tyrosine kinase family involved in several physiological, but also malignant, cell behaviors. Recent studies in acute myeloid leukemia have associated PTK7 expression with resistance to anthracycline therapy. PTK7 mRNA expression in primary tumor tissue (PTT) and corresponding lymph node tissue (LNT) were retrospectively measured in 117 patients with early breast cancer; PTK7 expression was available in 103 PTT and 108 LNT samples. Median age was 60 years (range, 27–87 years). At a median follow-up of 28.5 months, 6 deaths and 16 recurrences had occurred. PTK7 expression correlations with clinicopathological features were computed and PTK7 expression effects on patient outcome were analyzed in three cohorts defined by adjuvant treatment: anthracycline-based treatment, other chemotherapy regimens (including taxane or other substances), or no chemotherapy. Association of PTK7 expression with clinicopathological features was seen only for age in PTT and nodal stage in LNT. High LN PTK7 was associated with poorer disease-free survival (DFS) in the total population (3-year DFS: low [81.7%] versus high [70.4%]; P=0.016) and in patients without adjuvant chemotherapy (3-year DFS: low [91.7%] versus high [22.3%]; P<0.001), but not in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (P=0.552). DFS stratified by PTK7 expression was compared in treatment cohorts: In patients with low LN PTK7 expression, neither chemotherapy cohort showed significantly better survival than the no-chemotherapy cohort. In patients with high LN PTK7 expression, those receiving chemotherapy, including substances other than anthracyclines, but not those receiving only anthracycline-based chemotherapy, showed significantly better DFS than those receiving no chemotherapy (P=0.001). Our results support earlier

  20. [Adjuvant chemotherapy of adults soft tissue sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Bui-Nguyen, B; Italiano, A; Delva, F; Toulmond, M

    2010-06-01

    The main progress in the management of soft tissue sarcomas have been obtained in the field of local control. Although the main evolutive, vital, risk of these diseases is metastatic dissemination, efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy remains a controversial issue. Thus, adjuvant chemotherapy cannot be considered as a standard for any situation. The last results of clinical trials, meta-analysis and population studies are presented and discussed in this article. New therapeutic strategies are to be developed to prevent metastases in soft tissue sarcomas. This needs a better understanding of the biology of those tumors, of metastases risk factors and of the determinants of systemic therapies efficacy in these tumors. PMID:20547481

  1. Additional Therapy with a Mistletoe Product during Adjuvant Chemotherapy of Breast Cancer Patients Improves Quality of Life: An Open Randomized Clinical Pilot Trial.

    PubMed

    Tröger, Wilfried; Zdrale, Zdravko; Tišma, Nevena; Matijašević, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy often experience a loss of quality of life. Moreover chemotherapy may induce neutropenia. Patients report a better quality of life when additionally treated with mistletoe products during chemotherapy. Methods. In this prospective randomized open-label pilot study 95 patients were randomized into three groups. All patients were treated with an adjuvant chemotherapy. The primary objective of the study was quality of life, the secondary objective was neutropenia. Here we report the comparison of HxA (n = 34) versus untreated control (n = 31). Results. In the explorative analysis ten of 15 scores of the EORTC QLQ-C30 showed a better quality of life in the HxA group compared to the control group (P < 0.001 to P = 0.038 in Dunnett-T3 test). The difference was clinically relevant (difference of at least 5 points, range 5.4-12.2) in eight of the ten scores. Neutropenia occurred in 7/34 HxA patients and in 8/31 control patients (P = 0.628). Conclusions. This pilot study showed an improvement of quality of life by treating breast cancer patients with HxA additionally to CAF. Although the open design may be a limitation, the findings show the feasibility of a confirmatory study using the methods described here. PMID:24701238

  2. Additional Therapy with a Mistletoe Product during Adjuvant Chemotherapy of Breast Cancer Patients Improves Quality of Life: An Open Randomized Clinical Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tröger, Wilfried; Ždrale, Zdravko; Tišma, Nevena; Matijašević, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy often experience a loss of quality of life. Moreover chemotherapy may induce neutropenia. Patients report a better quality of life when additionally treated with mistletoe products during chemotherapy. Methods. In this prospective randomized open-label pilot study 95 patients were randomized into three groups. All patients were treated with an adjuvant chemotherapy. The primary objective of the study was quality of life, the secondary objective was neutropenia. Here we report the comparison of HxA (n = 34) versus untreated control (n = 31). Results. In the explorative analysis ten of 15 scores of the EORTC QLQ-C30 showed a better quality of life in the HxA group compared to the control group (P < 0.001 to P = 0.038 in Dunnett-T3 test). The difference was clinically relevant (difference of at least 5 points, range 5.4–12.2) in eight of the ten scores. Neutropenia occurred in 7/34 HxA patients and in 8/31 control patients (P = 0.628). Conclusions. This pilot study showed an improvement of quality of life by treating breast cancer patients with HxA additionally to CAF. Although the open design may be a limitation, the findings show the feasibility of a confirmatory study using the methods described here. PMID:24701238

  3. Therapeutic Usefulness of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy with Tegafur–Uracil (UFT) in Patients with Breast Cancer: Focus on the Results of Clinical Studies in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Shinzaburo

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, the history of postoperative chemotherapy for breast cancer started with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), launched in the 1980s. Currently, oral fluoropyrimidine–based regimens indicated for the treatment of breast cancer in Japan include tegafur plus uracil (UFT); tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil (TS-1); doxifluridine; and capecitabine. In particular, UFT represents an important option for long-term treatment because of minimal adverse events and the potential for long-term maintenance of effective plasma concentrations of 5-FU to inhibit micrometastasis after surgery. Therefore, various clinical studies of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with UFT have been conducted in patients with completely resected tumors. Recent studies have shown that UFT prolongs survival after tumor resection in patients with gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer. In patients with breast cancer, large clinical trials of UFT-based postoperative chemotherapy conducted in Japan have shown that UFT is useful for the treatment of intermediate-risk patients with no lymph node metastasis. This paper reviews the results of clinical studies of UFT conducted in Japan to assess the therapeutic usefulness of this oral 5-FU. The types of patients most likely to benefit from UFT are discussed on the basis of currently available evidence and a global consensus of treatment recommendations. The optimal timing of endocrine therapy and strategies for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with UFT in patients with breast cancer are also discussed. PMID:20080863

  4. Adjuvant chemotherapy for endometrial cancer after hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nick; Bryant, Andrew; Miles, Tracie; Hogberg, Thomas; Cornes, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Endometrial adenocarcinoma (womb cancer) is a malignant growth of the lining (endometrium) of the womb (uterus). It is distinct from sarcomas (tumours of the uterine muscle). Survival depends the risk of microscopic metastases after surgery. Adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy improves survival from some other adenocarcinomas, and there is evidence that endometrial cancer is sensitive to cytotoxic therapy. This systematic review examines the effect of chemotherapy on survival after hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. Objectives To assess efficacy of adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy for endometrial cancer. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE and EMBASE up to August 2010, registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with any other adjuvant treatment or no other treatment. Data collection and analysis We used a random-effects meta-analysis to assess hazard ratios (HR) for overall and progression-free survival and risk ratios (RR) to compare death rates and site of initial relapse. Main results Five RCTs compared no additional treatment with additional chemotherapy after hysterectomy and radiotherapy. Four trials compared platinum based combination chemotherapy directly with radiotherapy. Indiscriminate pooling of survival data from 2197 women shows a significant overall survival advantage from adjuvant chemotherapy (RR (95% CI) = 0.88 (0.79 to 0.99)). Sensitivity analysis focused on trials of modern platinum based chemotherapy regimens and found the relative risk of death to be 0.85 ((0.76 to 0.96); number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) = 25; absolute risk reduction = 4% (1% to 8%)). The HR for overall survival is 0.74 (0.64 to 0.89), significantly

  5. The Benefit of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Elderly Patients with Stage III Colorectal Cancer is Independent of Age and Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Wildes, Tanya M.; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Powers, Brian; Vlahiotis, Anna; Mutch, Matthew; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Tan, Benjamin; Piccirillo, Jay F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the combined effect of age and comorbidity on receipt of chemotherapy and its impact on survival in elderly patients with stage III colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and methods All patients over age 65 with Stage III CRC diagnosed 1996–2006 were identified from the Barnes-Jewish Hospital Oncology Data Services registry. An age/comorbidity staging system was created using the ACE-27 comorbidity index and data from both Stage II and III CRC. The staging system was then applied to patients with Stage III CRC. Odds of receiving chemotherapy were calculated, and survival analyses determined the impact of chemotherapy on overall survival in each age/comorbidity stage. Results 435 patients with Stage III CRC were evaluated [median age 75 years (range 65–99)]. Advancing age/comorbidity stage (Alpha, Beta, Gamma) was associated with decreasing odds of receiving chemotherapy for Stage III CRC [Odds Ratio 0.83 (95% CI, 0.51–1.35) for Beta and 0.14 (95% CI, 0.08–0.24) for Gamma, compared to Alpha]. Chemotherapy was associated with lower risk of death in each of the age/comorbidity stages, compared to those who underwent surgery only. The hazard ratio for death in patients who did not receive chemotherapy, relative to those who did, within each age/comorbidity stage was 1.8 [95%CI 1.06–3.06] for Alpha, 2.24 [95%CI 1.38–3.63] for Beta and 2.10 [95% CI 1.23–3.57] for Gamma. Conclusion While stage III CRC patients with increasing age and comorbidity are less likely to receive chemotherapy, receipt of chemotherapy is associated with a lower risk of death. PMID:21113435

  6. Prognostic Effects of Adjuvant Chemotherapy-Induced Amenorrhea and Subsequent Resumption of Menstruation for Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se Jeong; Lee, Jae Il; Jeon, Myung Jae; Lee, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) is a side effect that occurs in patients with breast cancer (BC) as a result of chemotherapy. These patients require special treatments to avoid infertility and menopause. However, the factors controlling CIA, resumption of menstruation (RM), and persistence of menstruation after chemotherapy are unknown. The long-term prognosis for premenopausal patients with BC and the prognostic factors associated with CIA and RM are subject to debate. We performed a retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of 249 patients with BC (stage I to stage III) who were treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. The median patient age was 43 (range, 26-55 years) and the median duration of follow-up was 64 months (range, 28-100 months). The medical records indicated that 219 patients (88.0%) scored as positive for the hormone receptor (HR); the majority of these patients completed chemotherapy and then received additional therapy of tamoxifen. Our analyses revealed that 88.0% (n = 219) of patients experienced CIA, and the percentage of RM during follow-up was 48.6% (n = 121). A total of 30 patients (12.0%) did not experience CIA. Disease-free survival (DFS) was affected by several factors, including tumour size ≥2 cm, node positivity, HR negative status, and body mass index ≥23 kg/m. Multivariate analysis indicated that tumour size ≥2 cm remained as a significant factor for DFS (hazard ratio = 3.3, P = 0.034). In summary, this study finds that the majority of premenopausal patients with BC (stage I to stage III) who receive chemotherapy experience CIA and subsequent RM. Although tumour size ≥2 cm is negatively associated with DFS, RM after CIA is not associated with poor prognosis. PMID:27057900

  7. [Adjuvant Systemic Chemotherapy with S-1/Oxaliplatin or mFOLFOX6 after Curative Resection of Distant Metastases in Patients with Colorectal Cancer].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Ryohei; Kameyama, Noriaki; Tomita, Masato; Mitsuhashi, Hiroaki; Baba, Shigeaki; Amada, En

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed to assess the feasibility and short-term outcomes of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy with either S-1/oxaliplatin (SOX) or mFOLFOX6 (FOLFOX)after curative resection of distant metastases from colorectal cancer. We retrospectively examined 16 patients who underwent R0 resection of colorectal metastases, including the liver (n=6), lung (n=5), lymph node (n=3), and peritoneum (n=2), followed by chemotherapy with SOX (n=7) or FOLFOX (n=9) until disease progression. The mean recurrence-free survival was 13.2 months in the SOX group and 16.9 months in the FOLFOX group. The mean overall survival was 17.9 and 22.9 months, respectively. The number of given courses were 6.5 and 11.0, respectively. Although sensory neuropathy was observed in 38% of the patients, relative dose intensity was higher than 80%. Adjuvant chemotherapy with SOX or FOLFOX was feasible and effective. Further randomized prospective trials are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:27067848

  8. [Recent Status of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy after Completely Resected Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Naito, Masahito; Tsuboi, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Several landmark study elucidated that adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy for stage II-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)patients after appropriate surgical resection can significantly improve 5-year survival rate. Meta-analysis of modern cisplatin based adjuvant chemotherapy trial confirmed this benefit. Furthermore, in Japan, large randomized trial and metaanalysis assessing the efficacy of uracil-tegafur(UFT)for stage I patients with completely resected NSCLC reported that UFT can significantly improve 5-year survival rate. Meta-analysis of subgroup assessed that effectiveness of UFT for stage I NSCLC patients with a tumor lager than 2 cm. According to these evidence, cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II-III A NSCLC and UFT for stage I NSCLC patients with a tumor lager than 2 cm are used standard postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in Japan. In recent year, it is presumed that personalized care will be necessary to re-evaluate strategies for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy of lung cancer. Considering histological subtype of lung cancer, several randomize trial for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with non-squamous NSCLC or high neuroendocrine tumor of lung are ongoing. In addition, recent studies of biological research indicate that some tumor marker such as ERCC1 may had a predictive value for selecting patients who will derive the benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:27067681

  9. Changes over time in the impact of gene-expression profiles on the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy in estrogen receptor positive early stage breast cancer patients: A nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Kuijer, A; Drukker, C A; Elias, S G; Smorenburg, C H; Th Rutgers, E J; Siesling, S; van Dalen, Th

    2016-08-15

    Ten years ago gene-expression profiles were introduced to aid adjuvant chemotherapy decision making in breast cancer. Since then subsequent national guidelines gradually expanded the indication area for adjuvant chemotherapy. In this nation-wide study the evolution of the proportion of patients with estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) tumors receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in relation to gene-expression profile use in patient groups that became newly eligible for chemotherapy according to national guideline changes over time is assessed. Data on all surgically treated early breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2004-2006 and 2012-2014 were obtained from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. ER+/Her2- patients with tumor-characteristics making them eligible for gene-expression testing in both cohorts and a discordant chemotherapy recommendation over time (2004 guideline not recommending and 2012 guideline recommending chemotherapy) were identified. We identified 3,864 patients eligible for gene-expression profile use during both periods. Gene-expression profiles were deployed in 5% and 35% of the patients in the respective periods. In both periods the majority of patients was assigned to a low genomic risk-profile (67% and 69%, respectively) and high adherence rates to the test result were observed (86% and 91%, respectively). Without deploying a gene-expression profile 8% and 52% (p <0.001) of the respective cohorts received chemotherapy while 21% and 28% of these patients received chemotherapy when a gene-expression profile was used (p 0.191). In conclusion, in ER+/Her2- early stage breast cancer patients gene-expression profile use was associated with a consistent proportion of patients receiving chemotherapy despite an adjusted guideline-based recommendation to administer chemotherapy. PMID:27062369

  10. Impact of resistance and aerobic exercise on sarcopenia and dynapenia in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Adams, Scott C; Segal, Roanne J; McKenzie, Donald C; Vallerand, James R; Morielli, Andria R; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Friedenreich, Christine M; Reid, Robert D; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an exploratory analysis of the START examining the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) and aerobic exercise training (AET) on sarcopenia, dynapenia, and associated quality of life (QoL) changes in breast cancer (BC) patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Participants were randomized to usual care (UC) (n = 70), AET (n = 64), or RET (n = 66) for the duration of chemotherapy. Measures of sarcopenia [skeletal muscle index (SMI)] and dynapenia [upper extremity (UE) and lower extremity (LE) muscle dysfunction (MD)] were normalized relative to age-/sex-based clinical cut-points. QoL was assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An) scales. At baseline, 25.5 % of BC patients were sarcopenic and 54.5 % were dynapenic with both conditions associated with poorer QoL. ANCOVAs showed significant differences favoring RET over UC for SMI (0.32 kg/m(2); p = 0.017), UE-MD (0.12 kg/kg; p < 0.001), and LE-MD (0.27 kg/kg; p < 0.001). Chi-square analyses revealed significant effects of RET, compared to UC/AET combined, on reversing sarcopenia (p = 0.039) and dynapenia (p = 0.019). The reversal of sarcopenia was associated with clinically relevant improvements in the FACT-An (11.7 points [95 % confidence interval (CI) -4.2 to 27.6]), the Trial Outcome Index-Anemia (10.0 points [95 % CI -4.0 to 24.1]), and fatigue (5.3 points [95 % CI -1.5 to 12.1]). Early-stage BC patients initiating adjuvant chemotherapy have higher than expected rates of sarcopenia and dynapenia which are associated with poorer QoL. RET during adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in the reversal of both sarcopenia and dynapenia; however, only the reversal of sarcopenia was associated with clinically meaningful improvements in QoL. PMID:27394134

  11. Feasibility Of Administering Adjuvant Chemotherapy Of Pemetrexed Followed By Pemetrexed/oxaliplatin Immediately Post-VATS In Patients With Completely Resected NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianxing; Shao, Wenlong; Li, Shuben; Chen, Manyin; Chen, Hanzhang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Yuan; Wang, Daoyuan

    2009-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for the largest number of cancer deaths annually, worldwide. It seems reasonable to test a less toxic regimen also in early stages after complete (R0) resection of the tumor, where reduced toxicities might improve the feasibility of drug delivery, compliance and the convenience of treatment for the patient and hence perhaps improve survival. The main purpose of this phase II trial is to evaluate the clinical feasibility-in terms of patients without dose limiting toxicities or premature treatment withdrawal or death-of administering adjuvant chemotherapy of pemetrexed followed by pemetrexed/oxaliplatin immediately post-VATS (video-assisted thoracic surgery) in patients with completely resected NSCLC. PMID:22263005

  12. A seven-gene signature can predict distant recurrence in patients with triple-negative breast cancers who receive adjuvant chemotherapy following surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeon Hee; Jung, Hae Hyun; Do, In-Gu; Cho, Eun Yoon; Sohn, Insuk; Jung, Sin-Ho; Kil, Won Ho; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate candidate genes that might function as biomarkers to differentiate triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) among patients, who received adjuvant chemotherapy after curative surgery. We tested whether the results of a NanoString expression assay that targeted 250 prospectively selected genes and used mRNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded would predict distant recurrence in patients with TNBC. The levels of expression of seven genes were used in a prospectively defined algorithm to allocate each patient to a risk group (low or high). NanoString expression profiles were obtained for 203 tumor tissue blocks. Increased expressions of the five genes (SMAD2, HRAS, KRT6A, TP63 and ETV6) and decreased expression of the two genes (NFKB1 and MDM4) were associated favorable prognosis and were validated with cross-validation. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of the rates of distant recurrence at 10 years in the low- and high-risk groups according to gene expression signature were 62% [95% confidence interval (CI), 48.6-78.9%] and 85% (95% CI, 79.2-90.7%), respectively. When adjusting for TNM stage, the distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS)s in the low-risk group was significantly longer than that in the high-risk group (p <0.001) for early stage (I and II) and advanced stage (III) tumors. In a multivariate Cox regression model, the gene expression signature provided significant predictive power jointly with the TNM staging system. A seven-gene signature could be used as a prognostic model to predict DRFS in patients with TNBC who received curative surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:25537444

  13. LINE-1 Methylation Status Correlates Significantly to Post-Therapeutic Recurrence in Stage III Colon Cancer Patients Receiving FOLFOX-4 Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yun-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lu, Chien-Yu; Wu, I-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Huang, Ching-Wen; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Methylation levels of long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) are representative of genome-wide methylation status and crucial in maintaining genomic stability and expression. Their prognostic impact on colon cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy has not been well established. We evaluated the association between LINE-1 methylation status and clinicopathologic features and postoperative oncological outcomes in stage III colon cancer patients. Materials and Methods 129 UICC stage III colon cancer patients who had received radical resection and FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled. Global methylation was estimated by analyzing tumor LINE-1 methylation status using bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing assay. Demographics, clinicopathological data, and postoperative outcomes were recorded by trained abstractors. Outcome measurements included postoperative recurrence and disease-free survival. Univariate, multivariate, and survival analyses were conducted to identify prognostic factors of oncological outcomes. Results The LINE-1 methylation of all 129 patients was measured on a 0–100 scale (mean 63.3; median 63.7, standard deviation 7.1), LINE-1 hypomethylation was more common in patients aged 65 years and above (61.7%±7.6% vs. 64.6±6.4, p=0.019) and those with post-therapeutic recurrence (61.7±7.4 vs 64.3±6.7, p=0.041). Considering risk adjustment, LINE-1 hypomethylation was found to be an independent risk factor of post-therapeutic recurrence (Adjusted OR=14.1, p=0.012). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients in the low methylation group had shorter period of disease free survival (p=0.01). In a stratified analysis that included 48 patients with post-therapeutic recurrence, it was found that those who experienced shorter period of disease free survival (≦6 months) appeared to have lower LINE-1 methylation levels than patients who reported of recurrence after 6 months (56.68±15.75 vs. 63.55±7

  14. Optimizing adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Perez, Edith; Muss, Hyman B

    2005-12-01

    Mortality in breast cancer has declined in the past decade, owing to advances in diagnosis, surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic treatments. Adjuvant chemotherapy has had a major effect on increasing survival in women with locoregional breast cancer. Like all treatments, adjuvant chemotherapy is a work in progress, and it has evolved from single oral agents to complex multidrug regimens. The choice of regimens is not without controversy, however, and several have been shown to be more effective than others, especially in patients who are at high risk for recurrence. The taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel (Taxotere) have been shown to be effective in the adjuvant setting, and they have also been shown to improve the outcomes in node-positive disease. Both disease-free and overall survival are greater with doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and cyclophosphamide given in a dose-dense, every-2-week schedule with growth factor support than with the same agents given in an every-3-week schedule. Disease-free and overall survival in patients with node-positive disease are greater with docetaxel, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and cyclophosphamide (TAC) than with fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC). Febrile neutropenia is common with the TAC regimen, but it can be minimized with growth factor support. Based on these findings, dose-dense therapy and TAC are the current adjuvant treatments of choice in patients with node-positive disease; other, less-intense regimens may be appropriate in patients with lower-risk disease. Ongoing trials are investigating the efficacy of commonly used regimens, new chemotherapeutic and biologic agents, and novel doses and schedules of currently available agents. PMID:16506631

  15. Prolactin-induced protein as a potential therapy response marker of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Jablonska, Karolina; Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzenna; Stasiolek, Mariusz; Pula, Bartosz; Olbromski, Mateusz; Gomulkiewicz, Agnieszka; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Rys, Janusz; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Ong, Siew Hwa; Zabel, Maciej; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Many studies are dedicated to exploring the molecular mechanisms of chemotherapy-resistance in breast cancer (BC). Some of them are focused on searching for candidate genes responsible for this process. The aim of this study was typing the candidate genes associated with the response to standard chemotherapy in the case of invasive ductal carcinoma. Frozen material from 28 biopsies obtained from IDC patients with different responses to chemotherapy were examined using gene expression microarray, Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot (WB). Based on the microarray results, further analysis of candidate gene expression was evaluated in 120 IDC cases by RT-PCR and in 224 IDC cases by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results were correlated with clinical outcome and molecular subtype of the BC. Gene expression microarray revealed Prolactin-Induced Peptide (PIP) as a single gene differentially expressed in BC therapy responder or non-responder patients (p <0.05). The level of PIP expression was significantly higher in the BC therapy responder group than in the non-responder group at mRNA (p=0.0092) and protein level (p=0.0256). Expression of PIP mRNA was the highest in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) BC cases (p=0.0254) and it was the lowest in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (p=0.0336). Higher PIP mRNA expression was characterized by significantly longer disease free survival (DFS, p=0.0093), as well as metastasis free survival (MFS, p=0.0144). Additionally, PIP mRNA and PIP protein expression levels were significantly higher in luminal A than in other molecular subtypes and TNBC. Moreover significantly higher PIP expression was observed in G1, G2 vs. G3 cases (p=0.0027 and p=0.0013, respectively). Microarray analysis characterized PIP gene as a candidate for BC standard chemotherapy response marker. Analysis of clinical data suggests that PIP may be a good prognostic and predictive marker in IDC patients. Higher levels of PIP were related to longer DFS and MFS

  16. Feasibility of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 consisting of a 4-week administration and a two-week rest period in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    OKUMURA, SHUNSUKE; SASAKI, TAKAAKI; SATOH, KAZUHIRO; KITADA, MASAHIRO; NAGASE, ATSUSHI; YATSUYANAGI, EIJI; OHSAKI, YOSHINOBU

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has yet to be clarified, and the appropriate schedule for the adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 remains unknown. A phase II study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1. Patients enrolled in this study were 20–75 years old, had pathological stage IB-IIIA NSCLC, and had received complete resection of NSCLC. S-1 (80 mg/m2) was administered orally to the patients for four weeks followed by a two-week rest period (conventional schedule), for a maximum of eight cycles. The primary endpoint was relative dose intensity (RDI), while the secondary endpoints were safety and 1 year of disease-free survival (1y-DFS). Between May 2007 and October 2009, 28 patients were enrolled. The RDI was 63.1% (95% CI, 48.6–77.7). No grade 3 or worse hematological toxicity was observed. Grade 3 non-hematological toxicities were observed in four patients. No grade 4 or worse hematological toxicity was detected. The probability of 1y-DFS was 85.7% (95% CI, 72.8–98.6). In the subgroup analysis, the median RDI of patients over 65 years old was lower compared to the other patients (44.8 vs. 100%; P=0.013; Mann-Whitney U test). Creatinine clearance (CCr) was lower in the older group, with more grade 2 or 3 non-hematological toxicities in the elderly patients. These results suggest that the conventional schedule of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 is not likely to be feasible in older patients with completely resected NSCLC. PMID:24649134

  17. Significance of PIK3CA Mutations in Patients with Early Breast Cancer Treated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG) Study

    PubMed Central

    Alexopoulou, Zoi; Kalogeras, Konstantine T.; Zagouri, Flora; Timotheadou, Eleni; Gogas, Helen; Pentheroudakis, George; Christodoulou, Christos; Koutras, Angelos; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Papakostas, Pavlos; Charalambous, Elpida; Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Varthalitis, Ioannis; Efstratiou, Ioannis; Zaramboukas, Thomas; Patsea, Helen; Scopa, Chrisoula D.; Skondra, Maria; Kosmidis, Paris; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Fountzilas, George

    2015-01-01

    Background The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in breast cancer. PIK3CA mutations are most frequently found in the helical (exon 9) and kinase (exon 20) domains of this protein. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of different types of PIK3CA mutations in combination with molecular biomarkers related to PI3K-AKT signaling in patients with early breast cancer. Methods Tumor tissue samples from 1008 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in two similar randomized trials of HeCOG were examined. Tumors were subtyped with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and FISH for ER, PgR, Ki67, HER2 and androgen receptor (AR). PIK3CA mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing (exon 20) and qPCR (exon 9) (Sanger/qPCR mutations). In 610 cases, next generation sequencing (NGS) PIK3CA mutation data were also available. PIK3CA mutations and PTEN protein expression (IHC) were analyzed in luminal tumors (ER and/or PgR positive), molecular apocrine carcinomas (MAC; ER/PgR negative / AR positive) and hormone receptor (ER/PgR/AR) negative tumors. Results PIK3CA mutations were detected in 235/1008 tumors (23%) with Sanger/qPCR and in 149/610 tumors (24%) with NGS. Concordance between the two methods was good with a Kappa coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69–0.82). Lobular histology, low tumor grade and luminal A tumors were associated with helical domain mutations (PIK3CAhel), while luminal B with kinase domain mutations (PIK3CAkin). The overall incidence of PIK3CA mutations was higher in luminal as compared to MAC and hormone receptor negative tumors (p = 0.004). Disease-free and overall survival did not significantly differ with respect to PIK3CA mutation presence and type. However, a statistically significant interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and PTEN low protein expression with regard to prognosis was identified. Conclusions The present study did not show any prognostic significance of specific PIK3CA mutations in a large group of

  18. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not associated with improved survival for all high-risk factors in stage II colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Verhoeff, S R; van Erning, F N; Lemmens, V E P P; de Wilt, J H W; Pruijt, J F M

    2016-07-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy can be considered in high-risk stage II colon cancer comprising pT4, poor/undifferentiated grade, vascular invasion, emergency surgery and/or <10 evaluated lymph nodes (LNs). Adjuvant chemotherapy administration and its effect on survival was evaluated for each known risk factor. All patients with high-risk stage II colon cancer who underwent resection and were diagnosed in the Netherlands between 2008 and 2012 were included. After stratification by risk factor(s) (vascular invasion could not be included), Cox regression was used to discriminate the independent association of adjuvant chemotherapy with the probability of death. Relative survival was used to estimate disease-specific survival. A total of 4,940 of 10,935 patients with stage II colon cancer were identified as high risk, of whom 790 (16%) patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with a pT4 received adjuvant chemotherapy more often (37%). Probability of death in pT4 patients receiving chemotherapy was lower compared to non-recipients (3-year overall survival 91% vs. 73%, HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.28-0.66). The relative excess risk (RER) of dying was also lower for pT4 patients receiving chemotherapy compared to non-recipients (3-year relative survival 94% vs. 85%, RER 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.74). For patients with only poor/undifferentiated grade, emergency surgery or <10 LNs evaluated, no association between receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy and survival was observed. In high-risk stage II colon cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with higher survival in pT4 only. To prevent unnecessary chemotherapy-induced toxicity, further refinement of patient subgroups within stage II colon cancer who could benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy seems indicated. PMID:26914273

  19. Benefit of Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in pT3 and Node Positive Bladder Cancer Patients Treated with Radical Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Peter J.; Mirtti, Tuomas; van Rhijn, Bas; Fleshner, Neil E.; Finelli, Antonio; Laato, Matti; Jewett, Michael A.; Moore, Malcom J.; Sridhar, Srikala; Nurmi, Martti; Tannock, Ian F.; Zlotta, Alexandre R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) and extent of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in radical cystectomy (RC) are debated. Results from randomized trials are still expected. Objective: To analyze the effects of AC and PLND in two academic centers with opposite policies regarding their use. Methods: 581 bladder cancer patients who underwent RC without neoadjuvant chemotherapy, from Toronto (University Health Network), Canada, and Turku University Hospital, Finland were included. Disease specific survival (DSS) and failure patterns were assessed. Results: Centers differed in PLND rate (93% and 36% in Toronto and Turku respectively, p <  0.001), PLND extent (≥10 removed nodes, 58% vs. 8%, p <  0.001) and AC rate (21% vs. 2%, p <  0.001). Survival between centers among pT≤1 or pT4 patients was similar. pT3 patients in Toronto had an improved 10 year DSS (43% vs. 22%, p = 0.025). Distant failures were less common after AC (HR 0.56, 95%  CI 0.33–0.98, p <  0.042). In node positive (N+) patients, mortality was significantly higher in Turku (HR 2.19, 95%  CI 1.44–3.34, p <  0.001) and lower in patients receiving AC (HR 0.60, 95%  CI 0.37–0.99, p = 0.044). 41% DSS at 10 years was observed in N+ Toronto patients. Limitations included the non-randomized retrospective design and absence of propensity score analysis. Conclusion: Combining AC and PLND to RC is associated with improved survival in pT3 and N+ patients. PLND did not affect survival independently but helps in selecting patients for AC. Our data adds to the growing body of evidence supporting the usefulness of AC in addition to PLND in high risk patients operated by cystectomy. PMID:27376145

  20. Adjuvant chemotherapy of axillary node-negative carcinoma of the breast using doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Brooks, R J; Jones, S E; Salmon, S E; Chase, E M; Davis, S L; Moon, T E; Giordano, G F; Ketchel, S J; Jackson, R A

    1986-01-01

    One hundred fifty-six women with axillary node-negative breast cancer and primary tumors less than or equal to 5 cm in diameter (T1N0 or T2N0) were treated with a brief course of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. Treatment was well tolerated and toxicity was minimal. With a median follow-up time of 58 months, there has been 1 relapse among 58 patients with T1 primary lesions and 15 relapses among 98 patients with T2 primary tumors. When compared with a matched historical control group receiving surgery alone, significant improvement was apparent in disease-free survival among the patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Prospective controlled trials are needed if we are to confirm this favorable experience with adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of women with node-negative breast cancer. PMID:3534586

  1. Dose intensity and toxicity associated with Taxotere formulation: a retrospective study in a population of breast cancer patients treated with docetaxel as an adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chanat, Cédric; Delbaldo, Catherine; Denis, Jennifer; Bocaccio, François; Cojean-Zelek, Isabelle; Le Guyader, Nathalie

    2015-10-01

    Docetaxel is an antineoplastic drug from the taxane family that inhibits tubulin polymerization. Its brand name is Taxotere. In mid-2010, the formulation of Taxotere changed from a two-vial preparation needing a predilution (T2V) to a one-vial ready-to-use preparation (T1V). The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity profile of these two formulations. This retrospective observational and monocentric study included all patients who received Taxotere-based chemotherapy (100 mg/m) as an adjuvant or a neoadjuvant treatment for localized breast cancer, following initial treatment with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Patients received either T2V or T1V Taxotere depending on the period of treatment. The main endpoint was the ratio of the dose of Taxotere received to that scheduled (R=docetaxel dose received/docetaxel dose scheduled). The secondary endpoint was tolerance. A total of 97 patients were included: 39 in the T2V group and 58 in the T1V group. The ratio of docetaxel received/docetaxel scheduled was significantly lower in the T1V than in the T2V group (0.83 vs. 0.95, respectively; P=0.028). A higher proportion of patients did not receive the totality of the scheduled dose in the T1V than in the T2V group (28 vs. 8%, respectively; P=0.03). Furthermore, the proportion of patients experiencing cutaneous toxicity was significantly higher in the T1V than in the T2V group (50 vs. 15%, respectively; P<0.001) as well as for neurological toxicity (31 vs. 15%, respectively; P=0.03). The frequency of grade 3 toxicities was higher in the T1V than in the T2V group (50 vs. 8%, P=0.016). The frequency of idiosyncratic toxicities was not affected by the change of formulation (4.7 vs. 5.4%, P=0.98). This study shows that patients treated with the T1V formulation received a significantly smaller dose of Taxotere than patients treated with T2V. In this small retrospective study, no conclusions can be drawn as to why a change in formulation would be associated with

  2. Is It Possible to Shorten the Duration of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    You, Kai-Yun; Huang, Rong; Yu, Xin; Liu, Yi-Min; Gao, Yuan-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The long duration of 4 months of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is currently recommended for locally advanced rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiation and surgery. Whether a short duration could be applied in these patients is unknown. So, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects on prognosis based on different durations of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer. We performed a retrospective study of 200 rectal cancer patients who were treated with preoperative chemoradiation and were pathologically graded as ypII and ypIII stages between March 2003 and May 2012. All patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median duration of adjuvant chemotherapy of 2 months. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared between patients with duration shorter and longer than 2 months in the whole group and subgroups of ypII and ypIII. Recurrence patterns were also analyzed in all subgroups. Multivariate analysis was performed to explore clinical factors that were significantly associated with DFS, local recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival. In subgroup of ypII stage, the 5-year OS and DFS were similar between patients in long and short durations of adjuvant chemotherapy. For patients of ypIII stage, although no significant difference was found in OS between patients in short and long durations, DFS was showed to be higher in the group of long duration. Further analysis showed that longer duration of adjuvant chemotherapy could lead to improved control of distant metastasis and no impact on local control. Multivariable analysis indicated that long duration of adjuvant chemotherapy is significantly associated with longer distant metastasis-free survival in patients with ypIII stage, but not in those with ypII stage. A long duration of at least 2 months of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary for patients with ypIII stage, whereas it may not be absolutely appropriate for those

  3. Adjuvant Chemotherapy Following Complete Resection of Soft Tissue Sarcoma in Adults: A Clinical Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Bramwell, Vivien H. C.; Bell, Robert; Davis, Aileen M.; Charette, Manya L.; The members of the cancer care Ontario practice guidelines initiative sarcoma disease site group

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. To review the literature and make recommendations for the use of anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy in adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Patients. The recommendations apply to patients >15 years old with completely resected STS. Methods. A systematic overview of the published literature was combined with a consensus process around the interpretation of the evidence in the context of conventional practice to develop an evidence-based practice guideline. Results. Four meta-analyses and 17 randomized clinical trials comparing anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation were reviewed. The Sarcoma Meta-Analysis Collaboration (SMAC) was the best analysis because it assessed individual patient data and had the longest follow-up. The results of the SMAC meta-analysis together with data from more recently published randomized trials, as well as our analysis of the toxicity and compliance data, are incorporated in this systematic review. Discussion. It is reasonable to consider anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who have had removal of a sarcoma with features predicting a high likelihood of relapse (deep location, size >5 cm, high histological grade). Although the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy are most apparent in patients with extremity sarcomas, patients with high-risk tumours at other sites should also be considered for such therapy. PMID:18521341

  4. Adjuvant chemotherapy in soft tissue sarcomas…Conflicts, consensus, and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Jyoti; Susan, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are an uncommon and diverse group of more than 50 mesenchymal malignancies. Each of these histologic subtypes represents a unique disease with distinct biologic behavior and varying sensitivity to chemotherapy. The judicious use of adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy along with surgery and radiation in the treatment of localized STS has a role in improving patient outcomes by decreasing local and distant recurrences. There is evidence that the use of adjuvant chemotherapy to a mixed cohort of chemo sensitive and insensitive sarcoma subtypes results in limited benefit. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify the subpopulation with high metastatic potential and to identify effective histology-specific treatment options to these patients. Present perspective, will focus on the rationale for adjuvant chemotherapy in sarcoma, with emphasis on the histology driven chemotherapy. It will outline key therapeutic opportunities and hurdles in adjuvant medical treatment of sarcoma, focusing on specific subtypes that are on the verge of new breakthroughs, as well as those in which promise has not lived up to expectations. PMID:27169114

  5. Adjuvant chemotherapy in soft tissue sarcomas…Conflicts, consensus, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Jyoti; Susan, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are an uncommon and diverse group of more than 50 mesenchymal malignancies. Each of these histologic subtypes represents a unique disease with distinct biologic behavior and varying sensitivity to chemotherapy. The judicious use of adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy along with surgery and radiation in the treatment of localized STS has a role in improving patient outcomes by decreasing local and distant recurrences. There is evidence that the use of adjuvant chemotherapy to a mixed cohort of chemo sensitive and insensitive sarcoma subtypes results in limited benefit. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to identify the subpopulation with high metastatic potential and to identify effective histology-specific treatment options to these patients. Present perspective, will focus on the rationale for adjuvant chemotherapy in sarcoma, with emphasis on the histology driven chemotherapy. It will outline key therapeutic opportunities and hurdles in adjuvant medical treatment of sarcoma, focusing on specific subtypes that are on the verge of new breakthroughs, as well as those in which promise has not lived up to expectations. PMID:27169114

  6. Palliative oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy after exposure to oxaliplatin in the adjuvant setting for colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Aalok; Lim, Howard John

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the efficacy of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for metastatic colon cancer patients who have already received adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 22 consecutive patients who developed recurrence after adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer and received another course of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for their metastatic disease. The main endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results A total of 635 patients received oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer at the British Columbia Cancer Agency from 2006 to 2011. A total of 176 patients recurred, 22 (12.5%) of whom were re-exposed to oxaliplatin in the metastatic scenario. Oxaliplatin in combination with fluoropyrimidine was given as first, second and third line in in 3 (13.6%), 14 (63.6%), and 5 (22.7%) patients respectively. Median time from the last cycle of adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy to the first cycle of palliative oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy was 44.3 months. Median PFS and overall survival (OS) were 3.3 (95% CI, 1.4-5.1) and 10.0 months (95% CI, 5.3-14.6), respectively. There was no difference in PFS for patients re-exposed to oxaliplatin less than 36 months compared to longer (3.6 versus 3.1 months, P=0.793, HR =0.88). Conclusions In this population-based study, only a small proportion of pts who recurred after oxaliplatin-based adjuvant therapy received oxaliplatin in the metastatic setting. Re-exposure of oxaliplatin in combination with fluoropyrimidine is associated with only modest PFS benefit. Larger studies evaluating the role of oxaliplatin re-exposure are needed. PMID:26487941

  7. MYST3/CREBBP Rearranged Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Mrinal M.; Naina, Harris V.

    2014-01-01

    Although rare, clinicians and patients must be aware that therapy related malignancies, specifically acute myeloid leukemia (AML), can occur as a complication of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Vigilance for signs and symptoms is appropriate. AML with t (8;16) is a specific translocation leading to formation of a fusion protein (MYST3/CREBBP). The MYST3/CREBBP AML tends to develop within 2 years of adjuvant chemotherapy, especially for breast cancer, without preceding myelodysplasia. It usually presents with disseminated intravascular coagulation and osteolytic lesions and has a poor prognosis despite aggressive resuscitation and therapy. With the increasing use of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, we are seeing a definite increase in the incidence of therapy related myelodysplastic syndromes and AML. One must keep this complication in mind while counseling and following up breast cancer patients who have received adjuvant chemotherapy. New osteolytic bone lesions in a patient with history of breast cancer do not necessarily mean metastatic disease and should be fully evaluated. PMID:25548695

  8. CT-Guided Wire Localization for Involved Axillary Lymph Nodes After Neo-adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With Initially Node-Positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Long; Miyake, Kanae K; Dirbas, Frederick M; Kothary, Nishita; Horst, Kathleen C; Lipson, Jafi A; Carpenter, Catherine; Thompson, Atalie C; Ikeda, Debra M

    2016-07-01

    Resection of biopsy-proven involved axillary lymph nodes (iALNs) is important to reduce the false-negative rates of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with initially node-positive breast cancer. Preoperative wire localization for iALNs marked with clips placed during biopsy is a technique that may help the removal of iALNs after NAC. However, ultrasound (US)-guided localization is often difficult because the clips cannot always be reliably visible on US. Computed tomography (CT)-guided wire localization can be used; however, to date there have been no reports on CT-guided wire localization for iALNs. The aim of this study was to describe a series of patients who received CT-guided wire localization for iALN removal after NAC and to evaluate the feasibility of this technique. We retrospectively analyzed five women with initially node-positive breast cancer (age, 41-52 years) who were scheduled for SLN biopsy after NAC and received preoperative CT-guided wire localization for iALNs. CT visualized all the clips that were not identified on post-NAC US. The wire tip was deployed beyond or at the target, with the shortest distance between the wire and the index clip ranging from 0 to 2.5 mm. The total procedure time was 21-38 minutes with good patient tolerance and no complications. In four of five cases, CT wire localization aided in identification and resection of iALNs that were not identified with lymphatic mapping. Residual nodal disease was confirmed in two cases: both had residual disease in wire-localized lymph nodes in addition to SLNs. Although further studies with more cases are required, our results suggest that CT-guided wire localization for iALNs is a feasible technique that facilitates identification and removal of the iALNs as part of SLN biopsy after NAC in situations where US localization is unsuccessful. PMID:27061012

  9. Randomized phase III trial of treatment duration for oral uracil and tegafur plus leucovorin as adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage IIB/III colon cancer: final results of JFMC33-0502

    PubMed Central

    Sadahiro, S.; Tsuchiya, T.; Sasaki, K.; Kondo, K.; Katsumata, K.; Nishimura, G.; Kakeji, Y.; Baba, H.; Sato, S.; Koda, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Morita, T.; Matsuoka, J.; Usuki, H.; Hamada, C.; Kodaira, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background While adjuvant chemotherapy is preferable for high-risk colon cancer, treatment duration is controversial. Oral uracil and tegafur (UFT)/leucovorin (LV) is widely used as a standard adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer in Japan. We conducted a phase III trial to investigate the optimal duration of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IIB/III colon cancer. Patients and methods Patients with curatively resected stage IIB/III colon cancer were eligible for enrollment in this trial. Patients were registered within 6 weeks after surgery and were randomly assigned to receive UFT/LV for 28 of 35 days for 6 months in the control group or for 5 consecutive days per week for 18 months in the study group. The primary end point was the disease-free survival (DFS), and the secondary end points were overall survival (OS) and safety. Result A total of 1071 patients were registered from 233 centers. A statistically significant difference in DFS was not observed between the study group and the control group; the 5-year DFS was 69% in the study group and 69% in the control group. The 5-year OS was 85% in the study group and 85% in the control group. Conclusion Eighteen-month treatment with UFT/LV did not improve DFS or OS compared with 6-month UFT/LV treatment in patients with stage IIB/III colon cancer. The important finding from this study is that not 18 months but 6 months of treatment is enough for postoperative UFT/LV for stage IIB/III colon cancer. Clinical trial number UMIN-CTR C000000245. PMID:26347106

  10. The effects of gemcitabine and capecitabine combination chemotherapy and of low-dose adjuvant GM-CSF on the levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Annels, Nicola E; Shaw, Victoria E; Gabitass, Rachel F; Billingham, Lucinda; Corrie, Pippa; Eatock, Martin; Valle, Juan; Smith, David; Wadsley, Jonathan; Cunningham, David; Pandha, Hardev; Neoptolemos, John P; Middleton, Gary

    2014-02-01

    In pre-clinical models, the only two chemotherapy drugs which have been demonstrated to directly reduce the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil. Here we analyze the dynamics of MDSCs, phenotyped as Lin-DR-CD11b+, in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer receiving the combination of gemcitabine and capecitabine, a 5-FU pro-drug. We found no evidence that gemcitabine and capecitabine directly reduce MDSC% in patients. Gemcitabine and capecitabine reduced MDSCs in 42% of patients (n = 19) and MDSC% fell in only 3/9 patients with above-median baseline MDSCs. In 5/8 patients with minimal tumour volume change on treatment, the MDSC% went up: increases in MDSC% in these patients appeared to correlate with sustained cancer-related inflammatory cytokine upregulation. In a separate cohort of 21 patients treated with gemcitabine and capecitabine together with concurrently administered GV1001 vaccine with adjuvant GM-CSF, the MDSC% fell in 18/21 patients and there was a significant difference in the trajectory of MDSCs between those receiving GV1001 and GM-CSF in combination with chemotherapy and those receiving chemotherapy alone. Thus, there was no evidence that the addition of low-dose adjuvant GM-CSF increased Lin-DR-CD11b+ MDSC in patients receiving combination chemoimmunotherapy. 9/21 patients developed an immune response to GV1001 and the MDSCs fell in 8 of these 9 patients, 6 of whom had above-median pre-vaccination MDSC levels. A high pre-vaccination MDSC% does not preclude the development of immunity to a tumour-associated antigen. PMID:24292263

  11. Comparison of the effectiveness and toxicity of neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens, capecitabine/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide vs 5-fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide, followed by adjuvant, capecitabine/docetaxel vs docetaxel, in patients with operable breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minmin; Wei, Wei; Liu, Jianlun; Yang, Huawei; Jiang, Yi; Tang, Wei; Li, Qiuyun; Liao, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and toxicity of neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens, xeloda/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (XEC) vs 5-fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC), followed by adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, capecitabine/taxotere (XT) vs taxotere (T), in axillary lymph node (LN)-positive early-stage breast cancer. In this randomized, Phase III trial, 137 patients with operable primary breast cancer (T2-0, N0-1) who were tested axillary LN positive through aspiration biopsy of axillary LNs were randomized (1:1) to four 3-weekly cycles of XEC or FEC. Patients underwent surgery within 4–6 weeks after the fourth cycle, followed by four adjuvant cycles of 3-weekly XT or T. The primary end point was tumor pathological complete response. Toxicity profiles were secondary objectives. In total, 131 patients had clinical and radiological evaluation of response and underwent surgery. Treatment with XEC led to an increased rate of pathological complete response in primary tumor (18% vs 6%, respectively, P=0.027) and objective remission rate (87% vs 73%, P=0.048) compared to FEC. Clinical complete response occurred in 20% and 7% for XEC and FEC, respectively. Compared to FEC, XEC was associated with more hand-foot syndrome (57% vs 11%, P<0.001) and 3/4 grade nausea/vomiting/diarrhea (30% vs 14%, P=0.034) but less phlebitis (3% vs 14%, P=0.035). XT and T adjuvant chemotherapy regimens were well tolerated: treatment-related 3/4 grade adverse events occurred in 28% and 17% of patients receiving XT and T, respectively. PMID:27354816

  12. Comparison of the effectiveness and toxicity of neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens, capecitabine/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide vs 5-fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide, followed by adjuvant, capecitabine/docetaxel vs docetaxel, in patients with operable breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minmin; Wei, Wei; Liu, Jianlun; Yang, Huawei; Jiang, Yi; Tang, Wei; Li, Qiuyun; Liao, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and toxicity of neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens, xeloda/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (XEC) vs 5-fluorouracil/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC), followed by adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, capecitabine/taxotere (XT) vs taxotere (T), in axillary lymph node (LN)-positive early-stage breast cancer. In this randomized, Phase III trial, 137 patients with operable primary breast cancer (T2-0, N0-1) who were tested axillary LN positive through aspiration biopsy of axillary LNs were randomized (1:1) to four 3-weekly cycles of XEC or FEC. Patients underwent surgery within 4-6 weeks after the fourth cycle, followed by four adjuvant cycles of 3-weekly XT or T. The primary end point was tumor pathological complete response. Toxicity profiles were secondary objectives. In total, 131 patients had clinical and radiological evaluation of response and underwent surgery. Treatment with XEC led to an increased rate of pathological complete response in primary tumor (18% vs 6%, respectively, P=0.027) and objective remission rate (87% vs 73%, P=0.048) compared to FEC. Clinical complete response occurred in 20% and 7% for XEC and FEC, respectively. Compared to FEC, XEC was associated with more hand-foot syndrome (57% vs 11%, P<0.001) and 3/4 grade nausea/vomiting/diarrhea (30% vs 14%, P=0.034) but less phlebitis (3% vs 14%, P=0.035). XT and T adjuvant chemotherapy regimens were well tolerated: treatment-related 3/4 grade adverse events occurred in 28% and 17% of patients receiving XT and T, respectively. PMID:27354816

  13. [Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage III Colon Cancer - Drug Selection, Tolerability, and Safety in Clinical Practice].

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazutake; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Saito, Gota; Tanaka, Akira; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    In the National Comprehensive Cancer Network(NCCN)guidelines, oxaliplatin(L-OHP)-based chemotherapeutic regimens, including 5-fluorouracil, Leucovorin(LV), and L-OHP(FOLFOX); capecitabine and L-OHP(CapeOX); , and 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid, and L-OHP(FLOX)are designated as category 1 recommendations for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in Stage III colon cancer, followed by capecitabine and 5-fluorouracil plus LV as category 2A recommendations. We studied the selection of drugs for adjuvant chemotherapy and assessed the tolerability and safety of CapeOX and tegafur- uraci(l UFT)plus LV(UFT/LV)in patients with Stage III colon cancer. The study group included 104 consecutive patients with Stage III colon cancer who underwent curative surgery. One patient changed hospitals immediately after surgery. Among the remaining 103 patients, 82(80%)received adjuvant chemotherapy and 21(20%)did not. CapeOX was administered to 32 patients(31%), UFT/LV to 49 patients(48%), and capecitabine to 1 patient(1%). In 59 patients, the treatment choice was determined according to the patient's preference; 32 patient(s 54%)selected CapeOX, 26(44%)selected UFT/LV, and 1(2%) selected no chemotherapy. The treatment completion rate was 80% for CapeOX and 84% for UFT/LV. Among patients who completed chemotherapy, dose reduction and drug withdrawal were not required in 22% of patients who received CapeOX and 80% of those who received UFT/LV. Neither CapeOX nor UFT/LV was associated with any serious adverse events. The tolerability and safety of CapeOX and UFT/LV were acceptable. However, CapeOX dose had to be carefully adjusted according to each patient's condition. PMID:27210088

  14. Adjuvant chemotherapy for bladder cancer-why does level 1 evidence not support it?

    PubMed

    Raghavan, D; Bawtinhimer, A; Mahoney, J; Eckrich, S; Riggs, S

    2014-10-01

    Neoadjuvant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy provides a 5% increase in cure rate, an increase in median survival of about 3 years, and statistically significant and clinically relevant increments in overall survival for patients with invasive bladder cancer. Despite compelling level 1 data, it has become quite clear that facts that are similar to those that changed the paradigm of treatment of breast cancer in the 1970s have not had a similar influence on patterns of practice in bladder cancer care. Instead of using this proven approach, cystectomy alone or surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is often used as a functional alternative for patients with deeply invasive and/or node-metastatic disease discovered at radical cystectomy. However, there is no well-powered level 1 evidence to support routine adjuvant chemotherapy for invasive bladder cancer, and some randomized trials have shown inferior outcomes. There is a clear need for a well-designed, randomized trial that tests the utility of adjuvant chemotherapy for invasive bladder cancer, but until that has been completed, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by definitive local treatment should be the standard of care for invasive bladder cancer. PMID:24569916

  15. West Midlands Oncology Association trials of adjuvant chemotherapy in operable breast cancer: results after a median follow-up of 7 years. I. Patients with involved axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J. M.; Howell, A.; Kelly, K. A.; Grieve, R. J.; Monypenny, I. J.; Walker, R. A.; Waterhouse, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a regimen of combination chemotherapy known to be active in advanced breast cancer when given as an adjuvant treatment after mastectomy. A total of 569 patients with cancer of the breast and involvement of axillary lymph nodes were randomised, after simple mastectomy with axillary sampling, to receive either no adjuvant treatment or intravenous adriamycin 50 mg, vincristine 1 mg, cyclophosphamide 250 mg, methotrexate 150 mg and fluorouracil 250 mg (AVCMF) every 21 days for eight cycles. Randomisation was stratified according to menopausal status and tumour size. Treatment was started within 14 days of surgery in 94% of patients. Eighty-eight per cent of patients received at least seven cycles of chemotherapy with no dose reduction. The median relapse-free survival was prolonged by 14 months in patients treated with AVCMF (chi2 1 = 11.7; P = 0.0006). In the premenopausal group this period was 17 months (chi2 1 = 8.8; P = 0.003) compared with 8 months in the post-menopausal group (chi2 1 = 3.3; P = 0.07). Neither overall survival nor survival in these subgroups was significantly influenced by treatment. PMID:2690913

  16. Toxicity of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy for BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Drooger, Jan C; Heemskerk-Gerritsen, Bernadette A M; Smallenbroek, Nyrée; Epskamp, Cynthia; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Jager, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Treatment with (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer, as currently given, causes cell damage by induction of double-strand DNA breaks. Because BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins play a role in the repair of DNA damage, the efficacy of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy may be increased in BRCA1/2-associated breast cancer patients. As a downside, acute chemotherapy-related toxicity may also be increased. We selected all female patients who were treated at the Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, with (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy for primary or locoregional recurrence of breast cancer (PBC/LR) between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2014. The primary outcome was the relative total dose intensity (RTDI), calculated for anthracyclines and taxanes separately. Secondary outcomes were the occurrence of febrile neutropenia, delay in chemotherapy administration, and switch to another chemotherapy regimen due to toxicity. In total, 701 patients treated for PBC/LR were eligible for data analyses, among which 85 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (n = 67 BRCA1 and n = 18 BRCA2). The mean RTDI for anthracyclines was not significantly different between both groups (98.7 % in the BRCA1/2, 96.6 % in the sporadic group, p = 0.27). Also the mean RTDI for taxanes was not significantly different between the groups (93.6 % in the BRCA1/2-associated, 90.0 % in the sporadic group, p = 0.12). Linear regression analysis revealed no significant effect of BRCA1/2 mutation carriership on the RTDIs. No significant differences were found in the percentages of patients presenting with febrile neutropenia, having a delay in chemotherapy administration or switching to an altered chemotherapy regimen. Additionally, the odds ratios showed no significant effect of BRCA1/2 mutation carriership on the secondary outcome variables. (Neo)adjuvant chemotherapy-related toxicity was not different between BRCA1/2-associated and sporadic breast cancer patients suggesting that the DNA damage repair mechanism of non-cancer cells

  17. Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy for early stage cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Daniela D; Medeiros, Lídia RF; Edelweiss, Maria I; Pohlmann, Paula R; Stein, Airton T

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3. Most women with early cervical cancer (stages I to IIA) are cured with surgery or radiotherapy, or both. We performed this review originally because it was unclear whether cisplatin-based chemotherapy after surgery, radiotherapy or both, in women with early stage disease with risk factors for recurrence, was associated with additional survival benefits or risks. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of platinum-based chemotherapy after radical hysterectomy, radiotherapy, or both in the treatment of early stage cervical cancer. Search methods For the original 2009 review, we searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOLOGICAL ABSTRACTS and CancerLit, the National Research Register and Clinical Trials register, with no language restriction. We handsearched abstracts of scientific meetings and other relevant publications. We extended the database searches to November 2011 for this update. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy (after radical surgery, radiotherapy or both) with no adjuvant chemotherapy, in women with early stage cervical cancer (stage IA2-IIA) with at least one risk factor for recurrence. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted data independently. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, with death and disease progression as outcomes. Main results For this updated version, we identified three additional ongoing trials but no new studies for inclusion. Three trials including 368 evaluable women with early cervical cancer were included in the meta-analyses. The median follow-up period in these trials ranged from 29 to 42 months. All women had undergone surgery first. Two trials

  18. Effects of resistance exercise on fatigue and quality of life in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martina E; Wiskemann, Joachim; Armbrust, Petra; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Steindorf, Karen

    2015-07-15

    Multiple exercise interventions have shown beneficial effects on fatigue and quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients, but various psychosocial interventions as well. It is unclear to what extent the observed effects of exercise interventions are based on physical adaptations or rather on psychosocial factors associated with supervised, group-based programs. It needs to be determined which aspects of exercise programs are truly effective. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether resistance exercise during chemotherapy provides benefits on fatigue and QoL beyond potential psychosocial effects of group-based interventions. One-hundred-one breast cancer patients starting chemotherapy were randomly assigned to resistance exercise (EX) or a relaxation control (RC) group. Both interventions were supervised, group-based, 2/week over 12 weeks. The primary endpoint fatigue was assessed with a 20-item multidimensional questionnaire, QoL with the EORTC QLQ-C30/BR23. Analyses of covariance for individual changes from baseline to Week 13 were calculated. In RC, total and physical fatigue worsened during chemotherapy, whereas EX showed no such impairments (between-group p = 0.098 and 0.052 overall, and p = 0.038 and 0.034 among patients without severe baseline depression). Differences regarding affective or cognitive fatigue were not significant. Benefits of EX were also seen to affect role and social function. Effect sizes were between 0.43 and 0.48. Explorative analyses indicated significant effect modification by thyroxin use (p-interaction = 0.044). In conclusion, resistance exercise appeared to mitigate physical fatigue and maintain QoL during chemotherapy beyond psychosocial effects inherent to supervised group-based settings. Thus, resistance exercise could be an integral part of supportive care for breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:25484317

  19. Adjuvant paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy with involved field radiation in advanced endometrial cancer: A sequential approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lupe, Krystine; Kwon, Janice . E-mail: Janice.kwon@lhsc.on.ca; D'Souza, David; Gawlik, Christine; Stitt, Larry; Whiston, Frances; Nascu, Patricia; Wong, Eugene; Carey, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of adjuvant paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy interposed with involved field radiotherapy for women with advanced endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: This was a prospective cohort study of women with Stage III and IV endometrial cancer. Adjuvant therapy consisted of 4 cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m{sup 2}) and carboplatin (350 mg/m{sup 2}) every 3 weeks, followed sequentially by external beam radiotherapy (RT) to the pelvis (45 Gy), followed by an additional two cycles of chemotherapy. Para-aortic RT and/or HDR vault brachytherapy (BT) were added at the discretion of the treating physician. Results: Thirty-three patients (median age, 63 years) received treatment between April 2002 and June 2005. Median follow-up was 21 months. Stage distribution was as follows: IIIA (21%), IIIC (70%), IVB (9%). Combination chemotherapy was successfully administered to 30 patients (91%) and 25 patients (76%), before and after RT respectively. Nine patients (27%) experienced acute Grade 3 or 4 chemotherapy toxicities. All patients completed pelvic RT; 19 (58%) received standard 4-field RT and 14 (42%) received intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Ten (30%) received extended field radiation. Four patients (12%) experienced acute Grade 3 or 4 RT toxicities. Six (18%) patients developed chronic RT toxicity. There were no treatment-related deaths. Two-year disease-free and overall survival rates were both 55%. There was only one pelvic relapse (3%). Conclusions: Adjuvant treatment with combination chemotherapy interposed with involved field radiation in advanced endometrial cancer was well tolerated. This protocol may be suitable for further evaluation in a clinical trial.

  20. The role of surgical margins in treatment of Ewing's sarcoma family tumors: Experience of a single institution with 512 patients treated with adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bacci, Gaetano . E-mail: gaetano.bacci@ior.it; Longhi, Alessandra; Briccoli, Antonio; Bertoni, Franco; Versari, Michela; Picci, Piero

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the importance of surgical margins for local and systemic control of Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT). Methods and Materials: Between 1979 and 1999, 512 patients with ESFTs entered 4 different adjuvant and neoadjuvant studies performed at a single institution. Of these patients, 335 were treated with surgery alone (196) or surgery followed by radiotherapy at doses of 44.8 Gy (139). We compared their outcome with that of the 177 patients who were locally treated by radiotherapy at 60 Gy. Results: Local control (88.8% vs. 80.2%, p < 0.009) and 5-year disease-free survival (63.8% vs. 47.6%, p < 0.0007) were significantly better in patients treated with surgery and, among them, in those with adequate surgical margins (96.6% vs. 71,7%, p < 0.0008, and 69.6% vs. 46.3%, p < 0.0002). Nonetheless, better results were observed only in extremity tumors. Conclusions: Surgery is better than radiotherapy in cases of extremity ESFT with achievable adequate surgical margins, and in cases of inadequate surgical margins, adjuvant reduced-dose radiotherapy is ineffective. Therefore, when inadequate margins are expected, patients are better treated with full-dose radiotherapy from the start.

  1. The effect of immediate breast reconstruction on the timing of adjuvant chemotherapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xavier Harmeling, J; Kouwenberg, Casimir A E; Bijlard, Eveline; Burger, Koert N J; Jager, Agnes; Mureau, Marc A M

    2015-09-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is often needed to achieve adequate breast cancer control. The increasing popularity of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) raises concerns that this procedure may delay the time to adjuvant chemotherapy (TTC), which may negatively impact oncological outcome. The current systematic review aims to investigate this effect. During October 2014, a systematic search for clinical studies was performed in six databases with keywords related to breast reconstruction and chemotherapy. Eligible studies met the following inclusion criteria: (1) research population consisted of women receiving therapeutic mastectomy, (2) comparison of IBR with mastectomy only groups, (3) TTC was clearly presented and mentioned as outcome measure, and (4) original studies only (e.g., cohort study, randomized controlled trial, case-control). Fourteen studies were included, representing 5270 patients who had received adjuvant chemotherapy, of whom 1942 had undergone IBR and 3328 mastectomy only. One study found a significantly shorter mean TTC of 12.6 days after IBR, four studies found a significant delay after IBR averaging 6.6-16.8 days, seven studies found no significant difference in TTC between IBR and mastectomy only, and two studies did not perform statistical analyses for comparison. In studies that measured TTC from surgery, mean TTC varied from 29 to 61 days for IBR and from 21 to 60 days for mastectomy only. This systematic review of the current literature showed that IBR does not necessarily delay the start of adjuvant chemotherapy to a clinically relevant extent, suggesting that in general IBR is a valid option for non-metastatic breast cancer patients. PMID:26285643

  2. Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected colorectal cancer metastases: Literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brandi, Giovanni; De Lorenzo, Stefania; Nannini, Margherita; Curti, Stefania; Ottone, Marta; Dall’Olio, Filippo Gustavo; Barbera, Maria Aurelia; Pantaleo, Maria Abbondanza; Biasco, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is the only option of cure for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the risk of recurrence within 18 mo after metastasectomy is around 75% and the liver is the most frequent site of relapse. The current international guidelines recommend an adjuvant therapy after surgical resection of CRC metastases despite the lower level of evidence (based on the quality of studies in this setting). However, there is still no standard treatment and the effective role of an adjuvant therapy remains controversial. The aim of this review is to report the state-of-art of systemic chemotherapy and regional chemotherapy with hepatic arterial infusion in the management of patients after resection of metastases from CRC, with a literature review and meta-analysis of the relevant randomized controlled trials. PMID:26811604

  3. Exploration of optimal time for initiating adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical resection: A retrospective study in Chinese patients with stage IIIA non‐small cell lung cancer in a single center

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yixiang; Zhai, Xiaoyu; Chen, Sipeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) can reduce the risk of recurrence and improve survival after surgical resection in non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We explore the optimal time from surgery to initiation of ACT in Chinese patients with stage IIIA NSCLC. Methods Patients pathologically diagnosed with IIIA NSCLC who underwent radical surgery were included in this study. The cut‐off point of time to initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy (TTAC) was determined by maximally selected log‐rank statistics. Patients were divided into two groups according to the TTAC cut‐off point. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to eliminate confounding variables, and Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to analyze the impact of TTAC on disease‐free survival (DFS). Results The cut‐off time was 46 days from surgery to the first ACT. Prior to PSM, baseline characteristic variables were balanced with no statistical difference between the groups, except for pathologic subtype and smoking history. No difference in DFS was found between the two groups prior to PSM (P = 0.529); after PSM, the median DFS was consistent between the two (P = 0.822). N2 lymph node station involvement was an independent factor associated with poor survival compared with patients with N0 lymph node involvement. Moderate differentiation and postoperative radiotherapy could improve survival; however, TTAC was not significantly correlated with DFS. Subgroup analyses showed no significant correlation between DFS and different TTAC programs. Conclusion No survival difference was obtained as to when ACT was initiated for patients with stage IIIA NSCLC.

  4. In Vitro Adenosine Triphosphate-Based Chemotherapy Response Assay as a Predictor of Clinical Response to Fluorouracil-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage II Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hye Youn; Kim, Im-kyung; Kang, Jeonghyun; Sohn, Seung-Kook; Lee, Kang Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the usefulness of the in vitro adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA) for prediction of clinical response to fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods Tumor specimens of 86 patients with pathologically confirmed stage II colorectal adenocarcinoma were tested for chemosensitivity to fluorouracil. Chemosensitivity was determined by cell death rate (CDR) of drug-exposed cells, calculated by comparing the intracellular ATP level with that of untreated controls. Results Among the 86 enrolled patients who underwent radical surgery followed by fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy, recurrence was found in 11 patients (12.7%). The CDR ≥ 20% group was associated with better disease-free survival than the CDR < 20% group (89.4% vs. 70.1%, p=0.027). Multivariate analysis showed that CDR < 20% and T4 stage were poor prognostic factors for disease-free survival after fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusion In stage II colorectal cancer, the in vitro ATP-CRA may be useful in identifying patients likely to benefit from fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26511802

  5. Helicobacter pylori and gastrointestinal symptoms in diagnostics and adjuvant chemotherapy of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Soveri, Leena-Maija; Osterlund, Pia; Ruotsalainen, Tarja; Poussa, Tuija; Rautelin, Hilpi; Bono, Petri

    2014-02-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy is the mainstay of adjuvant treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC). Few studies have explored Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastrointestinal symptoms in the diagnosis of CRC, and the association between H. pylori infection and gastrointestinal toxicity during adjuvant chemotherapy in CRC. Seventy-nine CRC patients were randomised in a prospective clinical trial to receive 5-FU and leucovorin administered as bolus injection (Mayo regimen) or continuous infusion (simplified de Gramont regimen). H. pylori antibodies were analysed at baseline, twice monthly during treatment and after treatment up to 12 months. Thirty-seven patients (47%) were H. pylori-seronegative at baseline. There was no significant association between baseline H. pylori seropositivity (n=42; 53%) and oro-gastrointestinal toxicity during chemotherapy. The median time from symptom onset of CRC to surgery was significantly longer in patients with H. pylori infection (median time, 6 vs. 5 months; P=0.012). Functional dyspeptic symptoms at presentation significantly delayed diagnosis (median time, 7.5 vs. 5 months; P=0.035), whereas anaemia, bowel symptoms, occlusion, blood in the stool, infection and hypolactasia did not. We conclude that there is no association between H. pylori status and gastrointestinal toxicity in CRC patients during chemotherapy. Dyspeptic symptoms and presence of H. pylori may delay the diagnosis of CRC. (www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN98405441). PMID:24396486

  6. Successful treatment of gallbladder mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) carcinomas rarely occur in the gallbladder. Here we reported a case of giant gallbladder unresectable mass with local liver invasion and omentum metastasis, which proved to be neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) by biopsy, received successful radical operation after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy plus somatostatin treatment. The patient showed good response as the neoplasm diminished dramatically and showed clear margin after 6 courses of treatment. A radical operation including cholecystectomy, hepatic wedge resection of the gallbladder fossa segment and lymph node of group 8a and 8p resection was performed successfully. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed neuroendocrine carcinoma mixed with adenocarcinoma in the gallbladder wall. Followed up showed no evidence of recurrence after 7 months of the operation. We suggest that neo-adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial to gallbladder mixed neuroendocrine carcinomas in an advanced stage which could also be advantageous to NEC of other organs. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2731892837743787 PMID:23186166

  7. Long-term outcome of adjuvant chemotherapy cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, and fluorouracil in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kumpulainen, Eero J; Hirvikoski, Pasi P; Johansson, Risto T

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to report the long-term outcome and secondary tumours of early breast cancer patients of adjuvant CNF (cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, and 5-fluorouracil) chemotherapy. One hundred and ninety four patients, 185 primary early breast cancer and nine locoregionally recurrent breast cancer patients, were entered onto the trial between May 1986 and November 1993. The therapies included surgery, radiation therapy, adjuvant CNF chemotherapy, and tamoxifen according to hormonal status. Some of patients were treated twice with CMF (methotrexate). The median follow-up time was 12.9 years. Eighty nine (48%) primary breast cancers relapsed, and six locoregional breast cancers relapsed. After 5-10 years the relapse incidence decreased notably. Eighty three patients died of breast cancer, and nine of other causes. Two cases of leukemia, six cases of skin cancer, two cases of Hodgkin's disease, two cases of meningioma, and two cases of endometrial cancer were observed. This article confirms the feasibility of adjuvant CNF for early breast cancer patients. Questions of possible causability of secondary cancer have yet to be explored. PMID:18097780

  8. Postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy for patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lim, Do Hoon

    2012-12-01

    In gastric adenocarcinoma, high rates of loco-regional recurrences have been reported even after complete resection, and various studies have been tried to find the role of postoperative adjuvant therapy. Among them, Intergroup 0116 trial was a landmark trial, and demonstrated the definite survival benefit in adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, compared with surgery alone. However, the INT 0116 trial had major limitation for global acceptance of the INT 0116 regimen as an adjuvant treatment modality because of the limited lymph node dissection. Lately, several randomized studies that were performed to patients with D2-dissected gastric cancer were published. This review summarizes the data about patterns of failure after surgical resection and the earlier prospective studies, including INT 0116 study. Author will introduce the latest studies, including ARTIST trial and discuss whether external beam radiotherapy should be applied to patients receiving extended lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:23346491

  9. Thymidine phosphorylase mRNA expression may be a predictor of response to post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 in patients with stage III colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masaichi; Watanabe, Michiaki; Mitsuyama, Yoshinobu; Anan, Tadashi; Ohkuma, Masahisa; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Eto, Ken; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate markers in surgically resected specimens of colorectal cancer that can be used to predict the response to chemotherapy. The mRNA expression levels of enzymes involved in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) metabolism and folate metabolism were measured in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor sections obtained from the primary tumors of 54 patients with resected stage II or III colorectal cancer who received S-1 for one year. The 5-FU metabolizing enzymes studied were thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and thymidine phosphorylase (TP). The folate metabolizing enzymes studied were folypolyglutamate synthetase, γ-glutamyl hydrolase and dihydrofolate reductase. The associations between the mRNA expression levels of these enzymes and clinical variables were investigated. Tumors were classified as exhibiting high or low expression as compared with the median mRNA expression level of each metabolizing enzyme defined as the cutoff value. The associations between the high and low expression levels of each enzyme and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed with the use of Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test. DFS was not significantly associated with the relative mRNA expression level of any metabolizing enzyme in the study group as a whole, but there was a trend toward longer DFS in patients with high TP expression (P=0.066). In patients with stage III colorectal cancer, high TP expression was associated with significantly improved outcomes compared with low TP expression (P=0.039). These results indicate that the mRNA expression of TP, a metabolizing enzyme of 5-FU, is a significant predictor of response to post-operative chemotherapy with S-1 in patients with stage III colorectal cancer. PMID:25364408

  10. Adjuvant post-operative chemotherapy in bitches with mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Karayannopoulou, M; Kaldrymidou, E; Constantinidis, T C; Dessiris, A

    2001-03-01

    The survival time in a group of eight bitches with malignant mammary tumours given adjuvant post-operative chemotherapy was compared with survival in another group of eight bitches with mammary cancer which were treated by surgical excision alone. The same surgical procedure was used in both groups. All bitches had stage III disease according to the World Health Organization clinical staging system. Histologically, 10 of the bitches had complex carcinomas (carcinomatous mixed tumours), the remaining six bitches had carcinosarcomas. The chemotherapeutic protocol used was a combination of 5-fluorouracil (150 mg/m2 of body surface area) and cyclophosphamide (100 mg/m2) given on the same day, intravenously, every week for four consecutive weeks. Chemotherapy was started one week post-surgery. Selected haematological parameters (packed cell volume, white blood cell count, platelet count and differential white blood cell count) and serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) were measured before and during chemotherapy. Survival analysis indicated that the chemotherapeutic regimen had a positive influence on the disease-free interval and the survival time of the eight bitches (P < 0.05). Although leucocyte numbers were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) during chemotherapy, the mean leucocyte counts remained within normal limits. Temporary leukopenia was noted only in one bitch. Packed cell volume and alkaline phosphatase increased significantly (P < 0.05) but within normal limits. Creatinine was also increased significantly (P < 0.01) but the mean creatinine concentrations were within normal limits, although in half of the bitches the concentrations occasionally rose above normal. PMID:11315572

  11. Surgery and Adjuvant Chemotherapy Use Among Veterans With Colon Cancer: Insights From a California Study

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, Denise M.; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Perrin, Ruth; Zhang, Qiuying; Weichle, Thomas; Ferreira, M. Rosario; Lee, Todd; Benson, Al B.; Bhoopalam, Nirmala; Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose US veterans have been shown to be a vulnerable population with high cancer rates, and cancer care quality in Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals is the focus of a congressionally mandated review. We examined rates of surgery and chemotherapy use among veterans with colon cancer at VA and non-VA facilities in California to gain insight into factors associated with quality of cancer care. Methods A retrospective cohort of incident colon cancer patients from the California Cancer Registry, who were ≥ 66 years old and eligible to use VA and Medicare between 1999 and 2001, were observed for 6 months after diagnosis. Results Among 601 veterans with colon cancer, 72% were initially diagnosed and treated in non-VA facilities. Among veterans with stage I to III cancer, those diagnosed and initially treated in VA facilities experienced similar colectomy rates as those at non-VA facilities. Stage III patients diagnosed and initially treated in VA versus non-VA facilities had similar odds of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. In both settings, older patients had lower odds of receiving chemotherapy than their younger counterparts even when race and comorbidity were considered (age 76 to 85 years: odds ratio [OR] = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.46; age ≥ 86 years: OR = 0.17; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.73). Conclusion In California, older veterans with colon cancer used both VA and non-VA facilities for cancer treatment, and odds of receiving cancer-directed surgery and chemotherapy were similar in both systems. Among stage III patients, older age lowered odds of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy in both systems. Further studies should continue to explore potential health system effects on quality of colon cancer care across the United States. PMID:20406940

  12. GALNT14 Genotype Predicts Postoperative Outcome of Stage III Colorectal Cancer With Oxaliplatin as Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wey-Ran; Chiang, Jy-Ming; Liang, Kung-Hao; Lim, Siew-Na; Lai, Ming-Wei; Tsou, Yung-Kuan; Hsieh, Tzu-Yun; Hsu, Chih-Kai; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is widely used for stage III colorectal cancer (CRC) after curative surgery. CRC is a molecularly heterogeneous disease, and our current knowledge of therapeutic response-related genetic factors remains limited. N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 14 (GALNT14)-rs9679162 genotype is a prognostic predictor for chemotherapy response in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we investigated whether this genotype was related to the therapeutic outcome of stage III CRC. A cohort of 300 stage III CRC patients receiving curative resection followed by oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy was retrospectively recruited. GALNT14 genotypes and the clinicopathological factors were correlated with posttherapeutic prognosis. Of these patients, 18% patients had GALNT14-rs9679162 “TT” and 82% had the “GT” + “GG” genotypes. The analysis showed that the “TT” genotype was associated with unfavorable overall survival (OS, P = 0.009) but not with recurrence-free survival (RFS, P = 0.700). The subgroup analysis showed that the “TT” genotype was associated with unfavorable OS in the following subgroups: age ≤65 years, men, left side CRC, N2 stage, carcinoembryonic antigen >5 ng/mL, and mucinous histology (P = 0.012, 0.011, 0.009, 0.025, 0.013, and 0.007, respectively). Within the latter 2 subgroups, the “TT” genotype was the only independent predictor for OS. Finally, the “TT” genotype was associated with the T4 tumor stage (P = 0.017) and in patients with T4 tumors, the “TT” genotype was the only independent predictor for unfavorable RFS (P = 0.007). GALNT14 “TT” genotype was associated with unfavorable OS in stage III CRC patients receiving curative surgery and adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. PMID:27124048

  13. Id-1, Id-2, and Id-3 co-expression correlates with prognosis in stage I and II lung adenocarcinoma patients treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Antonângelo, Leila; Tuma, Taila; Fabro, Alexandre; Acencio, Milena; Terra, Ricardo; Parra, Edwin; Vargas, Francisco; Takagaki, Teresa; Capelozzi, Vera

    2016-06-01

    Inhibitors of DNA binding/inhibitors of differentiation (Id) protein family have been shown to be involved in carcinogenesis. However, the roles of Id during lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) progression remain unclear. Eighty-eight ADC samples were evaluated for Id-1,2,3 level and angiogenesis (CD 34 and VEGF microvessel density) by immunohistochemistry and morphometry. The impact of these markers was tested on follow-up until death or recurrence. A significant difference between tumor and normal tissue was found for Id-1,2,3 expression (P < 0.01). In addition, high levels of nuclear Id-1 were associated with higher angiogenesis in the tumor stroma (P < 0.01). Equally significant was the association between patients in T1-stage and low cytoplasmic Id-2, as well as patients in stage-IIb and low Id-3. High cytoplasm Id-3 expression was also directly associated to lymph nodes metastasis (P = 0.05). Patients at stages I to III, with low Id-1 and Id-3 cytoplasm histoscores showed significant long metastasis-free survival time than those with high Id-1 or Id-3 expression (P = 0.04). Furthermore, high MVD-CD34 and MVD-VEGF expression were associated with short recurrence-free survival compared to low MVD-CD34 and MVD-VEGF expressions (P = 0.04). Cox model analyses controlled for age, lymph node metastasis, and adjuvant treatments showed that nuclear Id-1, cytoplasmic Id-3, and MVD-CD34 were significantly associated with survival time. Median score for nuclear Id-1 and cytoplasmic Id-3 divided patients in two groups, being that those with increased Id-1 and Id-3 presented higher risk of death. Ids showed an independent prognostic value in patients with lung ADC, regardless of disease stage. Id-1 and Id-3 should be considered new target candidates in the development of personalized therapy in lung ADC. PMID:26869608

  14. [Surgical resection with adjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced Masaoka stage IVa thymoma; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Takeshige, Mariko; Aoki, Tadashi; Motono, Nozomu; Shimada, Koji; Nakayama, Takashi; Yazawa, Masatomo

    2010-03-01

    A 39-year-old woman was presented with a mediastinal tumor and some pleural tumors. A computed tomography (CT)-guided needle biopsy of the pleural tumor was undertaken which showed thymoma, type B1 according to the World Health Organization classification. She had underwent extended-thymectomy and resection of all pleural tumors. Histopathology confirmed these lesions to be type B2 thymoma and pleural dissemination. She received adjuvant chemotherapy. Two years after surgery the patient is alive without recurrence. PMID:20214360

  15. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma with bulky neck lymph nodes in the era of IMRT

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tingting; Shen, Chunying; Ou, Xiaomin; He, Xiayun; Ying, Hongmei; Hu, Chaosu

    2016-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with N2–3 diseases are prone to develop distant metastasis even treated with standard concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Our study is aim to determine the optimal treatment strategy of these patients. Patients with histologically proven NPC were retrospectively analyzed according to the AJCC 2002 stage classification system. A total of 547 patients who had N2–3 diseases were enrolled. They were all treated with Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with systemic treatments, including radiotherapy alone (RT alone), neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (NACT+RT), CCRT, NACT+CCRT, NACT followed by radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT+RT+AC), CCRT+AC and NACT+CCRT+AC. A subgroup analysis was also conducted. With a median follow-up time of 53.8 months, adjuvant chemotherapy significantly decreased the risk of distant metastasis (HR 0.413, 95% CI 0.194–0.881, p = 0.022) as well as significantly increased the OS (HR 0.398, 95% CI 0.187–0.848, p = 0.017) in patients with N3 disease. The addition of adjuvant chemotherapy seemed to provide benefits to patients with N3 stage NPC and the current study may indicate the need for further randomized investigation. PMID:26942700

  16. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma with bulky neck lymph nodes in the era of IMRT.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tingting; Shen, Chunying; Ou, Xiaomin; He, Xiayun; Ying, Hongmei; Hu, Chaosu

    2016-04-12

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with N2-3 diseases are prone to develop distant metastasis even treated with standard concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Our study is aim to determine the optimal treatment strategy of these patients. Patients with histologically proven NPC were retrospectively analyzed according to the AJCC 2002 stage classification system. A total of 547 patients who had N2-3 diseases were enrolled. They were all treated with Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined with systemic treatments, including radiotherapy alone (RT alone), neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (NACT+RT), CCRT, NACT+CCRT, NACT followed by radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT+RT+AC), CCRT+AC and NACT+CCRT+AC. A subgroup analysis was also conducted. With a median follow-up time of 53.8 months, adjuvant chemotherapy significantly decreased the risk of distant metastasis (HR 0.413, 95% CI 0.194-0.881, p = 0.022) as well as significantly increased the OS (HR 0.398, 95% CI 0.187-0.848, p = 0.017) in patients with N3 disease. The addition of adjuvant chemotherapy seemed to provide benefits to patients with N3 stage NPC and the current study may indicate the need for further randomized investigation. PMID:26942700

  17. [A Case of Nasopharyngeal Cancer with Febrile Neutropenia Followed by Death during Adjuvant Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Susumu; Kitamura, Koji; Honma, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Takenaka, Yukinori; Yasui, Toshimichi; Hanamoto, Atsushi; Morii, Eiichi; Inohara, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    Chemotherapy-related death can occur, but is rarely experienced in the case of head and neck cancer. In this report, we present the case of a 55-year-old male who died of a severe febrile neutropenia during adjuvant chemotherapy. He was initially diagnosed as having nasopharyngeal carcinoma (cT2N0M0), and concurrent chemoradiotherapy was used as a primary treatment. He did not show any critical side effects during that therapy. After residual disease was proven by biopsy, docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) therapy was introduced as adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient developed a high fever with a decreased neutrophil count on day 8, and went into a state of shock on day 9. He underwent immediate systemic management, but methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia and enteritis were uncontrolled, resulting in death on day 43. The autopsy findings suggested that the main cause of death was acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was also noted in multiple organs. . Since it is assumed from literature that the mortality rate in TPF therapy is about 2-4%, it was considered that prior sufficient explanations and informed consent should be required before this therapy. PMID:26336750

  18. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia as an adjuvant cancer therapy with chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryk, Alicia Ailie

    Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (mNPH) is an emerging cancer therapy which has shown to be most effective when applied in the adjuvant setting with chemotherapy, radiation or surgery. Although mNPH employs heat as a primary therapeutic modality, conventional heat may not be the only cytotoxic effect. As such, my studies have focused on the mechanism and use of mNPH alone and in conjunction with cisplatinum chemotherapy in murine breast cancer cells and a related in vivo model. MNPH was compared to conventional microwave tumor heating, with results suggesting that mNPH (mNP directly injected into the tumor and immediately activated) and 915 MHz microwave hyperthermia, at the same thermal dose, result in similar tumor regrowth delay kinetics. However, mNPH shows significantly less peri-tumor normal tissue damage. MNPH combined with cisplatinum also demonstrated significant improvements in regrowth delay over either modality applied as a monotherapy. Additional studies demonstrated that a relatively short tumor incubation time prior to AMF exposure (less than 10 minutes) as compared to a 4-hour incubation time, resulted in faster heating rates, but similar regrowth delays when treated to the same thermal dose. The reduction of heating rate correlated well with the observed reduction in mNP concentration in the tumor observed with 4 hour incubation. The ability to effectively deliver cytotoxic mNPs to metastatic tumors is the hope and goal of systemic mNP therapy. However, delivering relevant levels of mNP is proving to be a formidable challenge. To address this issue, I assessed the ability of cisplatinum to simultaneously treat a tumor and improve the uptake of systemically delivered mNPs. Following a cisplatinum pretreatment, systemic mNPs uptake was increased by 3.1 X, in implanted murine breast tumors. Additional in vitro studies showed the necessity of a specific mNP/ Fe architecture and spatial relation for heat-based cytotoxicity in cultured cells.

  19. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms as Prognostic and Predictive Factors of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Colorectal Cancer of Stages I and II

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Matej; Potočnik, Uroš; Repnik, Katja; Kavalar, Rajko; Štabuc, Borut

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly heterogeneous disease regarding the stage at time of diagnosis and there is special attention regarding adjuvant chemotherapy in unselected patients with stage I and stage II. The clinicohistologically based TNM staging system with emphasis on histological evaluation of primary tumor and resected regional lymph nodes remains the standard of staging, but it has restricted sensitivity resulting in false downward stage migration. Molecular characteristics might predispose tumors to a worse prognosis and identification of those enables identifying patients with high risk of disease recurrence. Suitable predictive markers also enable choosing the most appropriate therapy. The current challenge facing adjuvant chemotherapy in stages I and II CRC is choosing patients with the highest risk of disease recurrence who are going to derive most benefit without facing unnecessary adverse effects. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are one of the potential molecular markers that might help us identify patients with unfavorable prognostic factors regarding disease initiation and recurrence and could determine selection of an appropriate chemotherapy regimen in the adjuvant and metastatic setting. In this paper, we discuss SNPs of genes involved in the multistep processes of cancerogenesis, metastasis, and the metabolism of chemotherapy that might prove clinically significant. PMID:26884752

  20. Adjuvant chemotherapy after primary treatments for cervical cancer: a critical point of view and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Angioli, Roberto; Luvero, Daniela; Aloisi, Alessia; Capriglione, Stella; Gennari, Paolo; Linciano, Francesca; Li Destri, Marta; Scaletta, Giuseppe; Montera, Roberto; Plotti, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent female malignancy worldwide. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy represents the standard of care for patients with advanced stage cervical cancer, while radical surgery (RS) and radiotherapy is widely used for treating early stage cervical cancer. However, the poor control of micrometastasis, declining operability, the lack of radiotherapy departments and the high incidence of long-term complications due to radiotherapy have brought about the development of different therapeutic approaches such as neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by RS. Unfortunately, treatment results are still unsatisfactory due to a high recurrence rate and several authors have studied the possibility to add an adjuvant treatment to primary therapy. We reviewed the literature concerning the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in advanced cervical cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by RS and after chemoradiotherapy. PMID:24483847

  1. Adjuvant chemotherapy of pT1a and pT1b breast carcinoma: results from the NEMESI study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prognosis of pT1a-pT1b breast cancer (BC) used to be considered very good, with a 10-y RFS of 90%. However, some retrospective studies reported a 10-y RFS of 81%–86% and suggested benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy. Methods To evaluate the variables that determined the choice of adjuvant chemotherapy and the type of chemotherapy delivered in pT1a-pT1b BC, we analysed the small tumours enrolled in the NEMESI study. Results Out of 1,894 patients with pathological stage I-II BC enrolled in NEMESI, 402 (21.2%) were pT1a-pT1b. Adjuvant chemotherapy was delivered in 127/402 (31.59%). Younger age, grading G3, high proliferative index, ER-negative and HER2-positive status were significantly associated with the decision to administer adjuvant chemotherapy. An anthracycline without taxane regimen was administered in 59.1% of patients, anthracycline with taxane in 24.4%, a CMF-like regimen in 14.2% and taxane in 2.4%. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in 88.4% triple-negative and 73.46% HER2-positive pT1a-pT1b BC. Adjuvant trastuzumab was delivered in 30/49 HER2-positive BC (61.2%). Conclusions Adjuvant chemotherapy was delivered in 31.59% T1a-pT1b BC treated at 63 Italian oncological centres from January 2008 to June 2008. The choice to deliver chemotherapy was based on biological prognostic factors. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy was administered in 83.5% patients. PMID:22545982

  2. Failure to Adhere to Protocol Specified Radiation Therapy Guidelines Was Associated With Decreased Survival in RTOG 9704-A Phase III Trial of Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Chemoradiotherapy for Patients With Resected Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, Ross A.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Regine, William F.; Safran, Howard; Hoffman, John P.; Lustig, Robert; Konski, Andre A.; Benson, Al B.; Macdonald, John S.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: In Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9704, as previously published, patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma received continuous infusion 5-FU and concurrent radiotherapy (5FU-RT). 5FU-RT treatment was preceded and followed by randomly assigned chemotherapy, either 5-FU or gemcitabine. This analysis explored whether failure to adhere to specified RT guidelines influenced survival and/or toxicity. Methods and Materials: RT requirements were protocol specified. Adherence was scored as per protocol (PP) or less than per protocol (patient treatment outcomes. Scoring was done for all tumor locations and for the subset of pancreatic head location. Results: RT was scored for 416 patients: 216 PP and 200 patients with pancreatic head tumors, both PP score and gemcitabine treatment correlated with improved MS (p = 0.016, p = 0.043, respectively). For all tumor locations, PP score was associated with decreased risk of failure (p = 0.016) and, for gemcitabine patients, a trend toward reduced Grade 4/5 nonhematologic toxicity (p = 0.065). Conclusions: This is the first Phase III, multicenter, adjuvant protocol for pancreatic adenocarcinoma to evaluate the impact of adherence to specified RT protocol guidelines on protocol outcomes. Failure to adhere to specified RT guidelines was associated with reduced survival and, for patients receiving gemcitabine, trend toward increased nonhematologic toxicity.

  3. Impact of Lymph Node Ratio on Oncologic Outcomes in ypStage III Rectal Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy followed by Total Mesorectal Excision, and Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Kim, Tae-You

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic impact of the lymph node ratio (LNR) in ypStage III rectal cancer patients who were treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of 638 consecutive patients who underwent NCRT followed by total mesorectal excision, and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer from 2004 to 2011. Of these, 125 patients were positive for lymph node (LN) metastasis and were analyzed in this study. Results The median numbers of examined and metastatic LNs were 17 and 2, respectively, and the median LNR was 0.143 (range, 0.02–1). Median follow-up time was 55 months. In multivariate analyses, LNR was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 2.17, p = 0.041), disease-free survival (DFS) (HR 2.28, p = 0.005), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (HR 2.30, p = 0.010). When ypN1 patients were divided into low (low LNR ypN1 group) and high LNR (high LNR ypN1 group) according to a cut-off value of 0.152, the high LNR ypN1 group had poorer OS (p = 0.043) and DFS (p = 0.056) compared with the low LNR ypN1 group. And there were no differences between the high LNR ypN1 group and the ypN2 group in terms of the OS (p = 0.703) and DFS (p = 0.831). Conclusions For ypN-positive rectal cancer patients, the LNR was a more effective prognostic marker than the ypN stage, circumferential resection margin, or tumor regression grade after NCRT, and could be used to discern the high-risk group among ypN1 patients. PMID:26381522

  4. Influence of definitive radiation therapy for primary breast cancer on ability to deliver adjuvant chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lippman, M.E.; Edwards, B.K.; Findlay, P.; Danforth, D.W. Jr.; MacDonald, H.; D'Angelo, T.; Gorrell, C.

    1986-01-01

    Primary radiotherapy as a means of managing stage I and II breast cancer is receiving increasing attention. In a prospectively randomized trial comparing modified radical mastectomy to lumpectomy followed by definitive radiotherapy, we evaluated whether radiotherapy has a deleterious effect on the ability to administer adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide to patients with histologically positive axillary lymph nodes. All patients were treated with an identical regimen, and doses were escalated to the same degree until myelosuppression occurred. There were no significant differences in the amount of chemotherapy administered to either treatment group. Patients in both groups received approximately 100% of the predicted dose of doxorubicin and approximately 117% of the predicted dose of cyclophosphamide. At present, we have no evidence that there are differences in recurrence rates as a function of the quantity of drug received, although longer follow-up is required.

  5. Biological characterization and selection criteria of adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer: experience from the Italian observational NEMESI study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background International treatment guidelines recommend administration of adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer based on clinical, prognostic and predictive parameters. Methods An observational study (NEMESI) was conducted in 63 Italian oncology centres in patients with early breast cancer. Age, performance status, concomitant disease, menopausal status, histology, tumor dimension (pT), axillary lymph node status (pN), grading (G), estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER and PgR), proliferative index (ki67 or MIB-1), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and type of adjuvant treatment were recorded. The primary objective of the study was to define parameters influencing the decision to prescribe adjuvant chemotherapy and the type of chemotherapy. Results Data for 1894 patients were available. 69.0% postmenopausal, 67.0% pT1, 22.3% pTmic/pT1a/pT1b, 61.0% pN0, 48.7% luminal A, 18.1% luminal B, 16.1% HER2 positive, 8.7% triple negative, 8.4% unknown. 57.8% received adjuvant chemotherapy: 38.1% of luminal A, 67.3% luminal B, 88.2% HER2-positive, 97.6% triple negative. Regimens administered: 9.1% CMF-like, 48.8% anthracyclines, 38.4% anthracyclines plus taxanes, 3.7% taxanes alone. Increasing pT/pN and, marginally, HER2-positive were associated with the prescription of anthracyclines plus taxanes. Suboptimal schedules (CMF-like or AC/EC or FEC-75) were prescribed in 37.3% receiving chemotherapy, even in HER2-positive and triple negative disease (36.5% and 34.0%, respectively). Conclusions This study showed an overprescription of adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer, particularly referred to luminal A. pT, pN and, marginally, HER2 were the principal determinants for the choice of chemotherapy type. Suboptimal chemotherapy regimens were adopted in at least one third of HER2-positve and triple negative. PMID:22672524

  6. EMX2 Is a Predictive Marker for Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Tolani, Bhairavi; Mo, Minli; Zhang, Hua; Zheng, Qingfeng; Yang, Yue; Cheng, Runfen; Jin, Joy Q.; Luh, Thomas W.; Yang, Cathryn; Tseng, Hsin-Hui K.; Giroux-Leprieur, Etienne; Woodard, Gavitt A.; Hao, Xishan; Wang, Changli; Jablons, David M.; He, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) account for approximately 30% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Current staging methods do not adequately predict outcome for this disease. EMX2 is a homeo-domain containing transcription factor known to regulate a key developmental pathway. This study assessed the significance of EMX2 as a prognostic and predictive marker for resectable lung SCC. Methods Two independent cohorts of patients with lung SCC undergoing surgical resection were studied. EMX2 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, or immunofluorescence. EMX2 expression levels in tissue specimens were scored and correlated with patient outcomes. Chemo-sensitivity of lung SCC cell lines stably transfected with EMX2 shRNAs to cisplatin, carboplatin, and docetaxel was examined in vitro. Results EMX2 expression was down-regulated in lung SCC tissue samples compared to their matched adjacent normal tissues. Positive EMX2 expression was significantly associated with improved overall survival in stage I lung SCC patients, and in stage II/IIIA lung SCC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. EMX2 expression was also associated with expression of EMT markers in both lung SCC cell lines and tissue samples. Knock-down of EMX2 expression in lung SCC cells promoted chemo-resistance and cell migration. Conclusions EMX2 expression is down-regulated in lung SCC and its down-regulation is associated with chemo-resistance in lung SCC cells, possibly through regulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). EMX2 may serve as a novel prognostic marker for stage I lung SCC patients and a prediction marker for stage II/IIIA lung SCC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26132438

  7. Intensified Adjuvant IFADIC Chemotherapy for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A Prospective Randomized Feasibility Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brodowicz, Thomas; Schwameis, Eva; Widder, Joachim; Amann, Gabriele; Wiltschke, Christoph; Dominkus, Martin; Windhager, Reinhard; Ritschl, Peter; Pötter, Richard; Kotz, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. The present prospective randomized adjuvant trial was carried out to compare the toxicity, feasibility and efficacy of augmented chemotherapy added to hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy after wide or marginal resection of grade 2 and grade 3 soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Patients and methods. Fifty-nine patients underwent primary surgery by wide or marginal excision and were subsequently randomized to receive radiotherapy alone or under the addition of six courses of ifosfamide (1500 mg/m2 , days 1–4), dacarbazine (DTIC) (200 mg/m2 , days 1–4) and doxorubicin (25 mg/m2 , days 1–2) administered in 14-day-intervals supported by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (30 × 106 IU/day, s.c.) on days 5–13. According to the randomization protocol, 28 patients received radiotherapy only, whereas 31 patients were treated with additional chemotherapy. Results. The relative ifosfamide–doxorubicin–DTIC (IFADIC) dose intensity achieved was 93%. After a mean observation period of 41±19.7 months (range, 8.1–84 months), 16 patients (57%) in the control group versus 24 patients (77%) in the chemotherapy group were free of disease (p>0.05).Within the control group, tumor relapses occurred in 12 patients (43%;six patients with distant metastases, two with local relapse, four with both) versus seven patients (23%; five patients with distant metastases, one with local recurrence, one with both) from the chemotherapy group. Relapse-free survival (RFS) (p=0.1), time to local failure (TLF) (p=0.09), time to distant failure (TDF) (p=0.17) as well as overall survival (OS) (p=0.4) did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. Treatment-related toxicity was generally mild in both treatment arms. Conclusion. We conclude that the safety profile of intensified IFADIC added to radiotherapy was manageable and tolerable in the current setting. Inclusion of intensified IFADIC was not translated into a significant benefit concerning OS, RFS, TLF and

  8. Dose-dense sequential adjuvant chemotherapy followed, as indicated, by trastuzumab for one year in patients with early breast cancer: first report at 5-year median follow-up of a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group randomized phase III trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dose-dense sequential chemotherapy including anthracyclines and taxanes has been established in the adjuvant setting of high-risk operable breast cancer. However, the preferable taxane and optimal schedule of administration in a dose-dense regimen have not been defined yet. Methods From July 2005 to November 2008, 1001 patients (990 eligible) were randomized to receive, every 2 weeks, 3 cycles of epirubicin 110 mg/m2 followed by 3 cycles of paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 followed by 3 cycles of intensified CMF (Arm A; 333 patients), or 3 cycles of epirubicin followed by 3 cycles of CMF, as in Arm A, followed 3 weeks later by 9 weekly cycles of docetaxel 35 mg/m2 (Arm B; 331), or 9 weekly cycles of paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 (Arm C; 326). Trastuzumab was administered for one year to HER2-positive patients post-radiation. Results At a median follow-up of 60.5 months, the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 86%, 90% and 88%, for Arms A, B and C, respectively, while the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96% in all arms. No differences were found in DFS or OS between the combined B and C Arms versus Arm A (DFS: HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.59-1.11, P = 0.20; OS: HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.55-1.30, P = 0.43). Among the 255 patients who received trastuzumab, 189 patients (74%) completed 1 year of treatment uneventfully. In all arms, the most frequently reported severe adverse events were neutropenia (30% vs. 27% vs. 26%) and leucopenia (12% vs. 13% vs. 12%), while febrile neutropenia occurred in fifty-one patients (6% vs. 4% vs. 5%). Patients in Arm A experienced more often severe pain (P = 0.002), neurological complications (P = 0.004) and allergic reactions (P = 0.004), while patients in Arm B suffered more often from severe skin reactions (P = 0.020). Conclusions No significant differences in survival between the regimens were found in the present phase III trial. Taxane scheduling influenced the type of severe toxicities. HER2

  9. Gemcitabine-Based Combination Chemotherapy Followed by Radiation With Capecitabine as Adjuvant Therapy for Resected Pancreas Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Sameer; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Griffith, Kent A.; Simeone, Diane; Greenson, Joel K.; Francis, Isaac R.; Hampton, Janet; Colletti, Lisa; Chang, Alfred E.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Zalupski, Mark M.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes for patients with resected pancreas cancer treated with an adjuvant regimen consisting of gemcitabine-based combination chemotherapy followed by capecitabine and radiation. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of a series of patients treated at a single institution with a common postoperative adjuvant program. Between January 2002 and August 2006, 43 resected pancreas cancer patients were offered treatment consisting of 4, 21-day cycles of gemcitabine 1 g/m{sup 2} intravenously over 30 min on Days 1 and 8, with either cisplatin 35 mg/m{sup 2} intravenously on Days 1 and 8 or capecitabine 1500 mg/m{sup 2} orally in divided doses on Days 1-14. After completion of combination chemotherapy, patients received a course of radiotherapy (54 Gy) with concurrent capecitabine (1330 mg/m{sup 2} orally in divided doses) day 1 to treatment completion. Results: Forty-one patients were treated. Median progression-free survival for the entire group was 21.7 months (95% confidence interval 13.9-34.5 months), and median overall survival was 45.9 months. In multivariate analysis a postoperative CA 19-9 level of >=180 U/mL predicted relapse and death. Toxicity was mild, with only two hospitalizations during adjuvant therapy. Conclusions: A postoperative adjuvant program using combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and either cisplatin or capecitabine followed by radiotherapy with capecitabine is tolerable and efficacious and should be considered for Phase III testing in this group of patients.

  10. [Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer and fertility: estimation of the impact, options of preservation and role of the oncologist].

    PubMed

    Mailliez, Audrey; Decanter, Christine; Bonneterre, Jacques

    2011-07-01

    Fifty-two thousand new breast cancers occur each year in France, 7% in patients less than 40 years. The standard regimens of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer now include anthracyclines and taxanes. These therapeutics advances have significantly improved the prognosis of these young women who may later wish to become mother and have biological offspring. The impact of chemotherapy on reproductive function should be accurately assessed and the ovarian reserve has to be taken into account. The estimated risk of chemo-induced amenorrhea and infertility has to be balanced with the expected results and risks of methods of fertility preservation. The place of different options for fertility preservation depends on patient age, presence or not of a partner and the time available before the initiation of treatment. For these breast cancer patients who will receive chemotherapy, new techniques of in vitro oocyte maturation seem promising. Even if some ethical and technical issues are unresolved, fertility preservation must now be part of the management of these young patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. This new approach must be multidisciplinary and complex. PMID:21700552

  11. Adjuvant chemotherapy for soft-tissue sarcoma: review and meta-analysis of the published results of randomised clinical trials.

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, J. F.; Mosseri, V.; Stewart, L. A.; Souhami, R. L.; Parmar, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Fifteen published randomised trials comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with no chemotherapy in soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) were identified (1546 patients). A qualitative review and a meta-analysis of this published literature were performed. With the qualitative review it was not possible to synthesise the apparently conflicting results of individual trials. The meta-analysis of the published data suggests an improvement in survival at 2 years (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.53-0.99, P = 0.044) and at 5 years (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.45-0.78, P = 0.0002) in favour of chemotherapy. However, the assumptions and approximations required to conduct this quantitative summary demand that the results are interpreted with caution. The only reliable means of assessing the current evidence on whether adjuvant chemotherapy has a role in the treatment of patients with STS, is to collect, check and reanalyse individual patients data (IPD) from each trial centrally, and formally combine the results in a stratified time-to-event analysis. Such an IPD analysis is currently being undertaken by an international collaborative group. PMID:7640234

  12. Salivary Gland Tumors Treated With Adjuvant Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfeld, Jonathan D.; Sher, David J.; Norris, Charles M.; Haddad, Robert I.; Posner, Marshall R.; Balboni, Tracy A.; Tishler, Roy B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the recent single-institution experience of patients with salivary gland tumors who had undergone adjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 35 salivary gland carcinoma patients treated primarily at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2005 and 2010 with surgery and adjuvant IMRT. The primary endpoints were local control, progression-free survival, and overall survival. The secondary endpoints were acute and chronic toxicity. The median follow-up was 2.3 years (interquartile range, 1.2-2.8) among the surviving patients. Results: The histologic types included adenoid cystic carcinoma in 15 (43%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 6 (17%), adenocarcinoma in 3 (9%), acinic cell carcinoma in 3 (9%), and other in 8 (23%). The primary sites were the parotid gland in 17 (49%), submandibular glands in 6 (17%), tongue in 4 (11%), palate in 4 (11%), and other in 4 (11%). The median radiation dose was 66 Gy, and 22 patients (63%) received CRT. The most common chemotherapy regimen was carboplatin and paclitaxel (n = 14, 64%). A trend was seen for patients undergoing CRT to have more adverse prognostic factors, including Stage T3-T4 disease (CRT, n = 12, 55% vs. n = 4, 31%, p = .29), nodal positivity (CRT, n = 8, 36% vs. n = 1, 8%, p = .10), and positive margins (n = 13, 59% vs. n = 5, 38%, p = .30). One patient who had undergone CRT developed an in-field recurrence, resulting in an overall actuarial 3-year local control rate of 92%. Five patients (14%) developed distant metastases (1 who had undergone IMRT only and 4 who had undergone CRT). Acute Grade 3 mucositis, esophagitis, and dermatitis occurred in 8%, 8%, and 8% (1 each) of IMRT patients and in 18%, 5%, and 14% (4, 1, and 3 patients) of the CRT group, respectively. No acute Grade 4 toxicity occurred. The most common late toxicity was Grade 1 xerostomia (n = 8, 23%). Conclusions: Treatment of

  13. Retrospective Comparison of Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Adjuvant Chemotherapy, With or Without Prior Gliadel Implantation (Carmustine) After Initial Surgery in Patients With Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Noeel, Georges; Schott, Roland; Froelich, Sebastien; Gaub, Marie-Pierre; Boyer, Patrick; Fischer-Lokou, David; Dufour, Patrick; Kehrli, Pierre; Maitrot, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Retrospective study of patients treated for high-grade glioma, with or without biodegradable carmustine wafers and according to the Stupp protocol. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and June 2008, 65 patients underwent surgery for high-grade glioma, 28 had implantation of Gliadel and 37 patients did not. Patients received radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide followed by 5 consecutive days of temozolomide every month for 6 months. Results: Overall median follow-up was 17.1 months; the median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 14 months with a RFS of 54% at 12 months, and 38% at 24 months. For patient with and without Gliadel, median and 1-year RFS were 12.9 months and 52% vs. 14 months and 42%, respectively (p = 0.89). According to pathology, Gliadel did not influence RFS of patients with Grade III or glioblastoma. However, for all patients, in multivariate analysis, non-methylated methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) was the only unfavorable prognostic factor of RFS (p = 0.017; HR 2.8; CI [1.2-7]). Median overall survival (OS) was 20.8 months; the OS rate at 12 months was 78.5%, and at 24 months 35.4%. For patients treated with and without Gliadel, median and 1-year OS were 20.6 months and 78.6% vs. 20.8 months and 78.4%, respectively. According to pathology, Gliadel did not influence OS of patients with Grade III or glioblastoma. For all patients, in multivariate analysis, unfavorable prognosticators for OS were non-methylated MGMT (p = 0.001; HR: 6.5; CI [2-20]) and irradiation dose <60 Gy (p = 0.02; HR: 6.3; CI [2-20]). With carmustine wafers, before irradiation, median gross tumor volume plus edema was 84 mL (27-229), whereas it was 68 mL (10-362) without carmustine (p = nonsignificant). Four cases of Grade 3 thrombopenia occurred, all in the carmustine wafer group. Conclusion: In patients with high-grade gliomas, adding Gliadel before performing a Stupp protocol did not improve survival.

  14. A case of long-term 24-month survival in pancreatic anaplastic carcinoma (giant cell type) after S1 postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, Toshikatsu; Fujii, Kensuke; Kataoka, Jun; Tominaga, Tomo; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We herein describe the case of a 70-year-old female patient diagnosed with pancreatic carcinoma. An abdominal enhanced computed tomography scan revealed a poorly enhanced mass (17 mm × 15 mm in size) in the pancreatic head. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed stenosis of the main pancreatic and common bile ducts caused by a mass-neighboring cyst. Based on these findings, we performed subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. The patient demonstrated a good postoperative course, and was discharged from our hospital in remission 49 days after the surgery. Pathological findings confirmed that it was anaplastic pancreas carcinoma (giant cell type). After the surgery, we performed S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy 100 mg/day for four weeks, repeated similarly every six weeks for a total of four courses. We have followed this case for over 2 years so far with adjuvant chemotherapy, and no recurrence or metastasis has been revealed. Adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 in patients with resected anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas is also recommended as a result of Japan Adjuvant Study Group of Pancreatic Cancer 01(JASPAC-01) like the ordinary pancreatic ductal carcinomas. There is a possibility to achieve long-term survival in cases in which multidisciplinary treatment such as a curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy are performed. PMID:27111877

  15. Adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer: defining subgroups who may benefit after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and resection

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Monique; Nelemans, Patty J; Valentini, Vincenzo; Crane, Christopher H; Capirci, Carlo; Rödel, Claus; Nash, Garrett M; Kuo, Li-Jen; Glynne-Jones, Rob; García-Aguilar, Julio; Suárez, Javier; Calvo, Felipe A; Pucciarelli, Salvatore; Biondo, Sebastiano; Theodoropoulos, George; Lambregts, Doenja MJ; Beets-Tan, Regina GH; Beets, Geerard L

    2016-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy (aCT) for rectal cancer patients might depend on the response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT). Aim was to evaluate whether the effect of aCT in rectal cancer is modified by response to CRT and to identify which patients benefit from aCT after CRT, by means of a pooled analysis of individual patient data from 13 datasets. Patients were categorised into 3 groups: pCR (ypT0N0), ypT1-2 tumour and ypT3-4 tumour. Hazard ratios for the effect of aCT were derived from multivariable Cox regression analyses. Primary outcome measure was recurrence-free survival (RFS). 1723(52%) of 3313 included patients received aCT. 898 patients had a pCR, 966 had a ypT1-2 tumour and 1302 had a ypT3-4 tumour. For 122 patients response category was missing and 25 patients had ypT0N+. Median follow-up for all patients was 51 (0-219) months. Hazard ratios for RFS with 95%CI for patients treated with aCT were 1.25(0.68-2.29), 0.58(0.37-0.89) and 0.83(0.66-1.10) for patients with pCR, ypT1-2 and ypT3-4 tumours, respectively. The effect of aCT in rectal cancer patients treated with CRT differs between subgroups. Patients with a pCR after CRT may not benefit from aCT, whereas patients with residual tumour had superior outcomes when aCT was administered. The test for interaction did not reach statistical significance, but the results support further investigation of a more individualized approach to administer aCT after CRT and surgery based on pathologic staging. PMID:25418551

  16. Combination adjuvant chemotherapy with oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: a preliminary open-label study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Chen, Hong; Li, Qin; Zang, Yunjin; Chen, Xinguo; Zou, Weilong; Wang, Letian; Shen, Zhong-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with FOLFOX regimen on the outcome after LT for HCC patients who did not meet the Milan criteria. Ninety-five consecutive HCC patients with liver cirrhosis undergoing LT were enrolled. Fifty-eight who did not meet the Milan criteria were randomized to open-label treatment with or without adjuvant chemotherapy after LT (n = 29/group). The FOLFOX chemotherapy protocol comprised 3-week cycles of oxaliplatin 100 mg/m(2) on day 1, leucovorin (calcium folinate, CF) 200 mg/m(2) on day 1 followed by 3-day, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 2000 mg/m(2) as a 48-h continuous infusion, for up to six courses in the 1st year after transplantation. Median survival was extended by 4.57 months by combination chemotherapy. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 89.7% and 79.3% with chemotherapy versus 69.0% and 62.1% without chemotherapy. The cumulative 1-year survival was significantly increased by chemotherapy (log-rank test, P = 0.043). The 6-month tumor-free survival rate was 24.1% higher with chemotherapy than without. The recurrence rate after LT was significantly different between the two groups at 6 months (P = 0.036), but not at 3 years (P = 0.102). The chemotherapy regimen was generally well tolerated. Post-LT adjuvant chemotherapy with oxaliplatin/5-FU/CF could not prevent tumor recurrence post-LT but may contribute to improve the survival of HCC patients who do not meet the Milan criteria. These results should be verified in a larger sample with a longer follow-up period. PMID:21809025

  17. [A Case of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura during Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Colon Cancer].

    PubMed

    Takahara, Yoshihiro; Ozawa, Shinichi; Ogasawara, Takeshi; Shida, Takashi; Nomura, Satoru; Sato, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Makoto

    2015-11-01

    A 76-year-old man underwent surgery for sigmoid colon cancer. The pathological finding was stage Ⅱ with a high-risk of recurrence (SI [bladder], l y0, v2, pN0, H0, P0, M0). He was treated with TS-1 as adjuvant chemotherapy. After the 1 course of chemotherapy, his platelet count was 4,000/mL. The high index of platelet associated IgG (PA-IgG) and bone marrow examination suggested that thrombocytopenia was caused by idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. The platelet count improved by prednisolone administration and Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment. After 6 months with no administration of adjuvant chemotherapy, the colon cancer recurred locally, and we performed a Hartmann's operation. PMID:26805292

  18. Adjuvant systemic treatment for individual patients with triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Oakman, Catherine; Moretti, Erica; Galardi, Francesca; Biagioni, Chiara; Santarpia, Libero; Biganzoli, Laura; Di Leo, Angelo

    2011-10-01

    Chemotherapy is the only evidence based adjuvant systemic treatment option in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Despite emerging results for targeted biological therapies for this subpopulation, lack of robust results does not currently support their use beyond the confines of a clinical trial. Conventional systemic chemotherapy remains the standard of care and is curative in a minority of patients. There is no defined standard chemotherapy and there is currently no robust, prospective, randomized data to advise different use of specific chemotherapy agents in TNBC as compared to non-TNBC. Data suggest high sensitivity to chemotherapy, however it is yet to be determined whether this increased sensitivity is agent/regimen specific or whether it reflects general chemosensitivity. This review will focus on systemic chemotherapy in early TNBC, particularly anthracyclines and platinums, and potential predictive tools to guide chemotherapy use. PMID:22015281

  19. Prognostic Role of BRAF Mutation in Stage II/III Colorectal Cancer Receiving Curative Resection and Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Meta-Analysis Based on Randomized Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ying; Fang, Xuefeng; Zhong, Chenhan; Li, Dan; Yuan, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Studies examining the prognostic value of the BRAF mutation on relapse-free survival (RFS), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC) patients receiving curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy so far showed discrepant results. Therefore, a meta-analysis of relevant studies was performed for clarification. Methods Randomized trials of stage II/III colorectal cancer treated with curative resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy were selected to conduct a meta-analysis. The necessary descriptive and statistical information such as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from published survival data. Results Seven phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs) including 1,035 BRAF mutation stage II/III CRC patients receiving curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. Overall, BRAF mutation resulted in poorer OS (HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.25–1.60; P < 0.00001), and poorer DFS (HR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.07–1.48, P = 0.006) compared with BRAF wild-type CRC. The prognostic role on RFS could not be elucidated in the meta-analysis because of limited data. Conclusions BRAF mutation was significantly related with shorter DFS and OS among stage II/III CRC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection. Its prognostic role for RFS needs to be further analyzed when more data is available. PMID:27138801

  20. Adjuvant chemotherapy for older adults with breast cancer: making the standard a standard.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sumanta Kumar; Mortimer, Joanne

    2009-09-01

    Muss HB, Berry DA, Cirrincione CT et al.: Adjuvant chemotherapy in older women with early-stage breast cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 360, 2055-2065 (2009). To date, only two prospective trials evaluating adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in older adults have been published. The second and more recent trial, Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 49907, provides substantial evidence supporting the use of standard adjuvant chemotherapy regimens (doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide or cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-5-fluorouracil) as opposed to simplified oral regimens (capecitabine). In this trial, both the risk of relapse (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.38-3.17; p < 0.001) and the risk of death (hazard ratio: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.11-3.08; p = 0.02) were significantly higher with capecitabine compared with standard chemotherapy. The current review explores both the implications and potential caveats of this innovative trial. CALGB 49907 represents a paradigm for further studies of adjuvant cancer therapy in older adults. PMID:19702447

  1. Postoperative Radiotherapy for Pathologic N2 Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Review of the National Cancer Data Base

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Cliff G.; Patel, Aalok P.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; DeWees, Todd; Waqar, Saiama N.; Morgensztern, Daniel; Baggstrom, Maria Q.; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Bell, Jennifer M.; Guthrie, Tracey J.; Colditz, Graham A.; Crabtree, Traves D.; Kreisel, Daniel; Krupnick, Alexander S.; Patterson, G. Alexander; Meyers, Bryan F.; Puri, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the impact of modern postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) on overall survival (OS) for patients with N2 non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated nationally with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods Patients with pathologic N2 NSCLC who underwent complete resection and adjuvant chemotherapy from 2006 to 2010 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base and stratified by use of PORT (≥ 45 Gy). A total of 4,483 patients were identified (PORT, n = 1,850; no PORT, n = 2,633). The impact of patient and treatment variables on OS was explored using Cox regression. Results Median follow-up time was 22 months. On univariable analysis, improved OS correlated with younger age, treatment at an academic facility, female sex, urban population, higher income, lower Charlson comorbidity score, smaller tumor size, multiagent chemotherapy, resection with at least a lobectomy, and PORT. On multivariable analysis, improved OS remained independently predicted by younger age, female sex, urban population, lower Charlson score, smaller tumor size, multiagent chemotherapy, resection with at least a lobectomy, and PORT (hazard ratio, 0.886; 95% CI, 0.798 to 0.988). Use of PORT was associated with an increase in median and 5-year OS compared with no PORT (median OS, 45.2 v 40.7 months, respectively; 5-year OS, 39.3% [95% CI, 35.4% to 43.5%] v 34.8% [95% CI, 31.6% to 38.3%], respectively; P = .014). Conclusion For patients with N2 NSCLC after complete resection and adjuvant chemotherapy, modern PORT seems to confer an additional OS advantage beyond that achieved with adjuvant chemotherapy alone. PMID:25667283

  2. Primary proximal epithelioid sarcoma of the lung successfully treated with pneumonectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Saha, Debjit; Basu, Arnab; Maiti, Abhishek; Rodriguez, Estelamari

    2016-01-01

    Primary sarcomas of the lung and proximal epithelial sarcomas (PESs) are extremely rare. Inactivation of INI1 has been found in the majority of epithelioid sarcoma (ES). We report the third known case of a primary PES of the lung along with immunohistochemical data. A 41-year-old man with HIV infection, on highly active antiretroviral therapy, presented with haemoptysis, shortness of breath and progressive weight loss for 2 months. He was eventually diagnosed with stage IIA cT2bN0M0 grade-2 primary PES of the lung. This patient underwent pneumonectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide and doxorubicin. He remains in remission 36 months since diagnosis. Our case stands to help other clinicians as treatment of such rare cases is often reliant on case reports. We also posit a possible pathogenic mechanism given a history of HIV infection in this patient. The association of INI1 mutation with other atypical sarcomas in patients with HIV infection merits further evaluation. PMID:27045049

  3. Mastectomy With Immediate Expander-Implant Reconstruction, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation for Stage II-III Breast Cancer: Treatment Intervals and Clinical Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jean L.; Cordeiro, Peter G.; Ben-Porat, Leah; Van Zee, Kimberly J.; Hudis, Clifford; Beal, Kathryn; McCormick, Beryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine intervals between surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation in patients treated with mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, and to evaluate locoregional and distant control and overall survival in these patients. Methods and Materials: Between May 1996 and March 2004, 104 patients with Stage II-III breast cancer were routinely treated at our institution under the following algorithm: (1) definitive mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection and immediate tissue expander placement, (2) tissue expansion during chemotherapy, (3) exchange of tissue expander for permanent implant, (4) radiation. Patient, disease, and treatment characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Median age was 45 years. Twenty-six percent of patients were Stage II and 74% Stage III. All received adjuvant chemotherapy. Estrogen receptor staining was positive in 77%, and 78% received hormone therapy. Radiation was delivered to the chest wall with daily 0.5-cm bolus and to the supraclavicular fossa. Median dose was 5040 cGy. Median interval from surgery to chemotherapy was 5 weeks, from completion of chemotherapy to exchange 4 weeks, and from exchange to radiation 4 weeks. Median interval from completion of chemotherapy to start of radiation was 8 weeks. Median follow-up was 64 months from date of mastectomy. The 5-year rate for locoregional disease control was 100%, for distant metastasis-free survival 90%, and for overall survival 96%. Conclusions: Mastectomy with immediate expander-implant reconstruction, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation results in a median interval of 8 weeks from completion of chemotherapy to initiation of radiation and seems to be associated with acceptable 5-year locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival.

  4. Assessment of the Relation between the Expression of Oxaliplatin Transporters in Colorectal Cancer and Response to FOLFOX-4 Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Le Roy, Bertrand; Tixier, Lucie; Pereira, Bruno; Sauvanet, Pierre; Buc, Emmanuel; Pétorin, Caroline; Déchelotte, Pierre; Pezet, Denis; Balayssac, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer is mainly based on the combination of 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX-4). The pharmacological target of oxaliplatin remains intracellular and therefore dependent on its entry into cells. The intracellular distribution of oxaliplatin is mediated by organic cation transporters 1, 2 and 3 (OCT1, 2 and 3), copper transporter 1 (CTR1) and ATPase Cu2+ transporting beta polypeptide (ATP7B) and may modulate the efficacy of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective study to assess the relation between the expression of oxaliplatin transporters in colorectal cancer before chemotherapy and the response to FOLFOX-4 adjuvant chemotherapy in responder and non-responder patients. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at a single center (University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, France). The target population was patients with resectable colorectal cancer operated between 2006 and 2013. Inclusion criteria were defined for the responder patients as no cancer recurrence 3 years after the end of chemotherapy, and for the non-responder patients as cancer recurrence within 1 year. Other inclusion criteria were stages IIb–IV cancers, first-line adjuvant FOLFOX-4 chemotherapy, and the availability of resected primary tumor samples. Exclusion criteria were preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, a targeted therapy, other anticancer drugs, cancer recurrence between the first and the third year after the end of chemotherapy and follow-up < 3 years. Immunostaining of oxaliplatin transporters (OCT1, 2, 3, CTR1 and ATP7B) and Ki-67 was assessed in tumor samples. Results Retrospectively, 31 patients have been selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria (15 responders and 16 non-responders). Before FOLFOX-4 regimen, OCT3 expression was significantly lower in responder patients compared to non-responders (p<0.001). According to multivariate analysis

  5. The effects of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy on testicular function in men undergoing treatment for soft tissue sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shamberger, R.C.; Sherins, R.J.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1981-05-15

    Testicular function was studied in 26 men with sarcoma who received adjuvant treatment with doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high-dose methotrexate (with or without radiotherapy). Testicular size, sperm output, and serum FSH, LH and testosterone levels were assessed after treatment. Five of 17 men who received chemotherapy or chemotherapy with radiotherapy to the neck, arm, chest, or leg, had normal testicular function. Eight of the remaining 12 men who provided ejaculates were oligospermic or azoospermic and serum FSH was increased threefold and LH twofold; testosterone levels were normal. In the five men with normal testicular function, FSH was increased fourfold during therapy but returned to normal six to 21 months after treatment. In men less than 40 years old, the mean FSH was less than that of men over 40 years of age (P . to 0.05), suggesting that recovery from the injury was age-related. By contrast, all nine men who received chemotherapy plus radiotherapy to the abdomen or thigh had decreased testicular size, azoospermia, fourfold increase in FSH, and twofold increase in LH levels; but testosterone concentration was normal. These data increase in FSH, and reversible testicular injury occurs after treatment with doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high-dose methotrexate; recovery is age-related. However, these agents in combination with use of adjuvant radiotherapy to the thigh or abdomen may produce permanent testicular injury even in young patients.

  6. Effects of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy on testicular function in men undergoing treatment for soft tissue sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shamberger, R.C.; Sherins, R.J.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1981-05-15

    Testicular function was studied in 26 men with sarcoma who received adjuvant treatment with doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high-dose methotrexate (with or without radiotherapy). Testicular size, sperm output, and serum FSH, LH and testosterone levels were assessed after treatment. Five of 17 men who received chemotherapy or chemotherapy with radiotherapy to the neck, arm, chest or leg, had normal testicular function. Eight of the remaining 12 men who provided ejaculates were oligospermic or azoospermic and serum FSH was increased threefold and LH twofold; testosterone levels were normal. In men less than 40 years old, the mean FSH level was less than that of men over 40 years of age (P = 0.05), suggesting that recovery from the injury was age-related. By contrast, all nine men who received chemotherapy plus radiotherapy to the abdomen or thigh had decreased testicular size, azoospermia, fourfold increase in FSH, and twofold increase in LH levels; but testosterone concentration was normal. These data indicate that reversible testicular injury occurs after treatment with doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high-dose methotrexate; recovery is age-related. However, these agents in combination with use of adjuvant radiotherapy to the thigh or abdomen may produce permanent testicular injury even in young patients.

  7. Docetaxel as adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment for patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Heys, Steven D; Sarkar, Tarun; Hutcheon, Andrew W

    2004-10-01

    Developments in the role of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with breast cancer have focused on the taxes, in particular, docetaxel. This paper discusses the rationale for the introduction of docetaxel into the management of patients following surgery and also its role in those patients with locally-advanced disease, focussing on key clinical trials. The addition of docetaxel to standard adjuvant chemotherapeutic regimens does seem to result in an increased survival in some patients with early-stage disease. In the neoadjuvant setting, the addition of docetaxel to standard regimens does increase pathological response rates, which is a surrogate marker of eventual outcome. PMID:15461550

  8. Effect of Active Hexose-Correlated Compound in Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hangai, Sho; Iwase, Satoru; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Kogure, Yasunori; Matsunaga, Tadaharu; Nagumo, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Anthracyclines and taxanes are often used as first-line chemotherapy treatments in patients with breast cancer. There are, however, significant toxicity and side effects associated with these therapies. Previous studies have demonstrated that active hexose-correlated compound (AHCC) reduces such side effects. The present study explored the beneficial effects of AHCC on adverse events in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Subjects Forty-one women who were treated with anthracyclines and taxanes at Nagumo Clinic in Tokyo from October 2004 to March 2011 were selected for this study. Outcome measures We compared the occurrence of adverse events in patients who received AHCC with those who did not receive AHCC. Using Fisher's exact tests, we also compared the worst-grade adverse events in each treatment cycle. Generalized estimating equations were employed to compare longitudinal changes, and the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, in the two groups was analyzed using Student's t-test. Results We found that, compared to the control group, the AHCC group had significantly fewer neutrophil-related events (odds ratio, 0.30; p=0.016), significantly lower use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and a higher (although not significant) rate of adverse events associated with γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. Conclusions AHCC has the potential to reduce the severity of neutropenia induced by breast cancer chemotherapy and the use of G-CSF during chemotherapy. PMID:23829813

  9. A prospective cohort study of early discontinuation of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer: the breast cancer quality of care study (BQUAL).

    PubMed

    Neugut, Alfred I; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Kushi, Lawrence H; Lamerato, Lois; Buono, Donna L; Nathanson, S David; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Jacobson, Judith S; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-07-01

    For many women with non-metastatic breast cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy prevents recurrence and extends survival. Women who discontinue chemotherapy early may reduce those benefits, but little is known about what predicts early discontinuation. We sought to determine prospectively the rate and reasons for early discontinuation of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. We conducted a prospective cohort study among three U.S. health care organizations. Of 1158 women with newly diagnosed non-metastatic breast cancer, 2006-2010, we analyzed 445 (38.4 %) patients who initiated standard adjuvant chemotherapy as defined by accepted guidelines. We interviewed patients at baseline and twice during treatment regarding sociodemographic/psychosocial factors and treatment decision-making and collected clinical data. They were categorized according to the number of cycles required by the chemotherapy regimen they had initiated. The outcome was early discontinuation (<80 % of planned cycles). Of patients analyzed, 392 (88.1 %) completed the prescribed therapy. The strongest predictor was receipt of a regimen entailing >4 cycles of therapy (18.1 % for longer regimens, 7.4 % for 4 cycles) (odds ratio [OR] 2.59, 95 % CI 1.32-5.08), controlling for race, age, stage, hormone receptor status, social support, optimism, spirituality, stress, and physical symptoms. Higher levels of psychological symptoms on the Memorial symptom assessment scale also increased the odds of early discontinuation (OR 1.92, 95 % CI 0.998-3.68). The large majority of patients who initiated adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer completed their prescribed regimens, but early discontinuation was associated with lengthier regimens and, with borderline statistical significance, for those with psychological side effects. PMID:27287779

  10. Concurrent Radiotherapy and Gemcitabine for Unresectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Impact of Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ito, Yoshinori; Hirokawa, Naoki; Shibuya, Keiko; Kokubo, Masaki; Ogo, Etsuyo; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Saito, Tsutomu; Onishi, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Nemoto, Kenji; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze results of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) using gemcitabine (GEM) for unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: Records of 108 patients treated with concurrent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and GEM were reviewed. The median dose of EBRT in all 108 patients was 50.4 Gy (range, 3.6-60.8 Gy), usually administered in conventional fractionations (1.8-2 Gy/day). During radiotherapy, most patients received GEM at a dosage of 250 to 350 mg/m{sup 2} intravenously weekly for approximately 6 weeks. After CCRT, 59 patients (54.6%) were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC), mainly with GEM. The median follow-up for all 108 patients was 11.0 months (range, 0.4-37.9 months). Results: Initial responses after CCRT for 85 patients were partial response: 26 patients, no change: 51 patients and progressive disease: 8 patients. Local progression was observed in 35 patients (32.4%), and the 2-year local control (LC) rate in all patients was 41.9%. Patients treated with total doses of 50 Gy or more had significantly more favorable LC rates (2-year LC rate, 42.9%) than patients treated with total doses of less than 50 Gy (2-year LC rate, 29.6%). Regional lymph node recurrence was found in only 1 patient, and none of the 57 patients with clinical N0 disease had regional lymph node recurrence. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate and the median survival time in all patients were 23.5% and 11.6 months, respectively. Patients treated with AC had significantly more favorable OS rates (2-year OS, 31.8%) than those treated without AC (2-year OS, 12.4%; p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, AC use and clinical T stage were significant prognostic factors for OS. Conclusions: CCRT using GEM yields a relatively favorable LC rate for unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and CCRT with AC conferred a survival benefit compared to CCRT without AC.

  11. Recurrent Pericarditis, an Unexpected Effect of Adjuvant Interferon Chemotherapy for Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Marmoush, Fady; Shafi, Muhammad Ismail; Shah, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced pericarditis is a well-described cardiac pathology that can result from a variety of medications; however, interferon-mediated pericarditis is extremely rare. We present a case of a young female with recurrent pericarditis due to interferon therapy. The role of interferon in adjuvant chemotherapy is well known and yields good effect, but this case highlights the very uncommon phenomena of interferon induced pericarditis and the significant distress it can cause. PMID:27418981

  12. A phase II study evaluating neo-/adjuvant EIA chemotherapy, surgical resection and radiotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The role of chemotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma is controversial. Though many patients undergo initial curative resection, distant metastasis is a frequent event, resulting in 5-year overall survival rates of only 50-60%. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX) has been applied to achieve pre-operative cytoreduction, assess chemosensitivity, and to eliminate occult metastasis. Here we report on the results of our non-randomized phase II study on neo-adjuvant treatment for high-risk STS. Method Patients with potentially curative high-risk STS (size ≥ 5 cm, deep/extracompartimental localization, tumor grades II-III [FNCLCC]) were included. The protocol comprised 4 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (EIA, etoposide 125 mg/m2 iv days 1 and 4, ifosfamide 1500 mg/m2 iv days 1 - 4, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 day 1, pegfilgrastim 6 mg sc day 5), definitive surgery with intra-operative radiotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and 4 adjuvant cycles of EIA. Result Between 06/2005 and 03/2010 a total of 50 subjects (male = 33, female = 17, median age 50.1 years) were enrolled. Median follow-up was 30.5 months. The majority of primary tumors were located in the extremities or trunk (92%), 6% originated in the abdomen/retroperitoneum. Response by RECIST criteria to neo-adjuvant CTX was 6% CR (n = 3), 24% PR (n = 12), 62% SD (n = 31) and 8% PD (n = 4). Local recurrence occurred in 3 subjects (6%). Distant metastasis was observed in 12 patients (24%). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 2 years was 83% and 68%, respectively. Multivariate analysis failed to prove influence of resection status or grade of histological necrosis on OS or DFS. Severe toxicities included neutropenic fever (4/50), cardiac toxicity (2/50), and CNS toxicity (4/50) leading to CTX dose reductions in 4 subjects. No cases of secondary leukemias were observed so far. Conclusion The current protocol is feasible for achieving local control rates, as well as OS and

  13. Adjuvant Therapeutic Modalities in Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of Esophagus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Bingwen; Li, Tao; Zhou, Qiang; Ma, Daiyuan; Chen, Yongshun; Huang, Meijuan; Peng, Feng; Xu, Yong; Zhu, Jiang; Ding, Zhenyu; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Jin; Ren, Li; Yu, Min; Gong, Youling; Li, Yanying; Chen, Longqi; Lu, You

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the treatment pattern and survival of patients receiving radical resection for primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus (PSCCE). This retrospective study included 150 patients who received radical resection of PSCCE. Data were retrieved from 4 centers in Western China. Thirty-nine of 150 patients received postoperative chemo-radiotherapy, 62 received postoperative chemotherapy, and 49 received radical resection only. The median radiation dosage was 50 Gy. The chemotherapeutic regimen was platinum-based and lasted for 2 to 6 cycles (median, 3). Median disease-free survival (mDFS) and overall survival (mOS) were 12.0 and 18.3 months, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed that postoperative therapy did not improve survival in limited stage I (LSI) disease, whereas postoperative chemotherapy improved survival in limited stage II (LSII) disease. Relative to chemotherapy alone, chemoradiotherapy did not improve survival in patients with completely resected LSII disease. A multivariate analysis indicated an association of no postoperative chemotherapy with shorter DFS (P = 0.050) and OS (P = 0.010). Higher lymph node stage and length of disease longer than 3 cm were poor prognostic factors for both DFS and OS. Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in PSCCE patients with completely resected LSII disease. Adjuvant treatment with postoperative chemotherapy alone or postoperative chemo-radiotherapy does not increase survival in completely resected LSI disease. PMID:27124057

  14. Differential Response of Immunohistochemically Defined Breast Cancer Subtypes to Anthracycline-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy with or without Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Fountzilas, George; Dafni, Urania; Bobos, Mattheos; Batistatou, Anna; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Trihia, Helen; Malamou-Mitsi, Vassiliki; Miliaras, Spyros; Chrisafi, Sofia; Papadopoulos, Savvas; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Filippidis, Theodoros; Gogas, Helen; Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Televantou, Despina; Kalogeras, Konstantine T.; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Skarlos, Dimosthenis V.; Koutras, Angelos; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of adjuvant dose-dense sequential chemotherapy with epirubicin, paclitaxel, and CMF in subgroups of patients with high-risk operable breast cancer, according to tumor subtypes defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Materials and Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue samples from 1,039 patients participating in two adjuvant dose-dense sequential chemotherapy phase III trials were centrally assessed in tissue micro-arrays by IHC for 6 biological markers, that is, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), HER2, Ki67, cytokeratin 5 (CK5), and EGFR. The majority of the cases were further evaluated for HER2 amplification by FISH. Patients were classified as: luminal A (ER/PgR-positive, HER2-negative, Ki67low); luminal B (ER/PgR-positive, HER2-negative, Ki67high); luminal-HER2 (ER/PgR-positive, HER2-positive); HER2-enriched (ER-negative, PgR-negative, HER2-positive); triple-negative (TNBC) (ER-negative, PgR-negative, HER2-negative); and basal core phenotype (BCP) (TNBC, CK5-positive and/or EGFR-positive). Results After a median follow-up time of 105.4 months the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 73.1% and 86.1%, respectively. Among patients with HER2-enriched tumors there was a significant benefit in both DFS and OS (log-rank test; p = 0.021 and p = 0.006, respectively) for those treated with paclitaxel. The subtype classification was found to be of both predictive and prognostic value. Setting luminal A as the referent category, the adjusted for prognostic factors HR for relapse for patients with TNBC was 1.91 (95% CI: 1.31–2.80, Wald's p = 0.001) and for death 2.53 (95% CI: 1.62–3.60, p<0.001). Site of and time to first relapse differed according to subtype. Locoregional relapses and brain metastases were more frequent in patients with TNBC, while liver metastases were more often seen in patients with HER2

  15. Differential clonal evolution in oesophageal cancers in response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, John M.; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Makino, Seiko; Rayner, Emily; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Cross, William; Kovac, Michal; Ulahannan, Danny; Palles, Claire; Gillies, Richard S.; MacGregor, Thomas P.; Church, David; Maynard, Nicholas D.; Buffa, Francesca; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Graham, Trevor A.; Wang, Lai-Mun; Sharma, Ricky A.; Middleton, Mark; Tomlinson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    How chemotherapy affects carcinoma genomes is largely unknown. Here we report whole-exome and deep sequencing of 30 paired oesophageal adenocarcinomas sampled before and after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Most, but not all, good responders pass through genetic bottlenecks, a feature associated with higher mutation burden pre-treatment. Some poor responders pass through bottlenecks, but re-grow by the time of surgical resection, suggesting a missed therapeutic opportunity. Cancers often show major changes in driver mutation presence or frequency after treatment, owing to outgrowth persistence or loss of sub-clones, copy number changes, polyclonality and/or spatial genetic heterogeneity. Post-therapy mutation spectrum shifts are also common, particularly C>A and TT>CT changes in good responders or bottleneckers. Post-treatment samples may also acquire mutations in known cancer driver genes (for example, SF3B1, TAF1 and CCND2) that are absent from the paired pre-treatment sample. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy can rapidly and profoundly affect the oesophageal adenocarcinoma genome. Monitoring molecular changes during treatment may be clinically useful. PMID:27045317

  16. Efficacy of platinum chemotherapy agents in the adjuvant setting for adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Aaron T.; Dholakia, Avani S.; Fan, Katherine Y.; Kumar, Rachit; Moningi, Shalini; Rosati, Lauren M.; Laheru, Daniel A.; Zheng, Lei; De Jesus-Acosta, Ana; Ellsworth, Susannah G.; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Voong, Khinh R.; Tran, Phuoc T.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pancreatic adenosquamous carcinoma (PASC) accounts for only 1-4% of all exocrine pancreatic cancers and carries a particularly poor prognosis. This retrospective study was performed to determine whether inclusion of a platinum agent as part of adjuvant therapy is associated with improved survival in patients with resected PASC. Methods Records of all patients who underwent pancreatic resection at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1986 to 2012 were reviewed to identify those with PASC. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to assess for significant associations between patient characteristics and survival. Results In total, 62 patients (1.1%) with resected PASC were identified among 5,627 cases. Median age was 68 [interquartile range (IQR), 57-77] and 44% were female. Multivariate analysis revealed that, among all patients (n=62), the following factors were independently predictive of poor survival: lack of adjuvant therapy [hazard ratio (HR) =3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-7.0; P<0.001], margin-positive resection (HR =3.5; 95% CI, 1.8-6.8; P<0.001), lymph node involvement (HR =3.5; 95% CI, 1.5-8.2; P=0.004), and age (HR =1.0; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1; P=0.035). There were no significant differences between patients who did and did not receive adjuvant therapy following resection (all P>0.05). A second multivariable model included only those patients who received adjuvant therapy (n=39). Lack of inclusion of a platinum agent in the adjuvant regimen (HR =2.4; 95% CI, 1.0-5.8; P=0.040) and larger tumor diameter (HR =1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6; P=0.047) were independent predictors of inferior survival. Conclusions Addition of a platinum agent to adjuvant regimens for resected PASC may improve survival among these high-risk patients, though collaborative prospective investigation is needed. PMID:25830031

  17. Factors Influencing Chemotherapy Goal Perception in Newly Diagnosed Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Gumusay, Ozge; Cetin, Bulent; Benekli, Mustafa; Gurcan, Gamze; Ilhan, Mustafa N; Bostankolu, Basak; Ozet, Ahmet; Uner, Aytug; Coskun, Ugur; Buyukberber, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    Cancer patients who start receiving chemotherapy have difficulty in understanding the state of their disease, the prognosis, and the purpose of treatment. We used a survey to evaluate the extent of perception of chemotherapy goal among cancer patients. Two hundred sixteen cancer patients who received chemotherapy for the first time participated in the study. The presence of depression and anxiety was assessed using the "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale" (HAD). The consistency between the patients' perception of the chemotherapy goal and the physician's perception was described as "right," and the inconsistency was described as "wrong." Among the patients who participated in the survey, 53.2 % (n = 115) were receiving adjuvant treatment and 46.8 % (n = 101) were receiving palliative treatment for metastatic disease. The rate of right and wrong perception of the chemotherapy goal was 51.9 % (n = 108) and 32.2 % (n = 67), respectively, and the rate of confused patients was 18.9 % (n = 41). The level of education was shown to be the only parameter involved in accurate perception of the treatment purpose (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.444, p = 0.025, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.219-0.903). In this study, there was a 51.9 % consistency between the physician's perception and that of the patient regarding the purpose of treatment. We demonstrated that the level of education was the unique factor in accurate perception of chemotherapy goal among cancer patients. PMID:25851203

  18. [A Case of Urachal Carcinoma Treated by TS-1/CDDP as Adjuvant Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Katsuki; Shimada, Makoto; Saito, Katsuyuki; Ogawa, Yuuichiro; Matsubara, Eiji; Matsumoto, Yuuki; Keiichiro, Hayashi

    2015-11-01

    A 49-year-old female presented complaining of gross hematuria. Cystoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a papillary tumor on the bladder dome. At biopsy pathology the tumor was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma. We diagnosed the tumor as urachal adenocarcinoma and performed partial cystectomy of bladder dome with en-bloc resection of the urachal ligament up to the umbilicus. In surgical pathology, the tumor had invaded to the fat tissue around the urachal ligament with metastasis to the lymph node. Therefore the tumor was diagnosed as a stage IVA (Sheldon's category) urachal adenocarcinoma. After surgery, 6 cycles of chemotherapy with TS-1 and cisplatin (CDDP) were performed. There has been no relapse 5 years after surgery. This is the first report of successful adjuvant chemotherapy with TS-1/CDDP for advanced urachal adenocarcinoma. PMID:26699888

  19. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for cervical cancer: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yun-Hua; Wang, Xin-Xiu; Zhu, Jing-Song; Gao, Li

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) versus radical surgery (RS) for patients with cervical cancer. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) of NACT + RS versus RS alone for patients with cervical cancer was performed according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. The following electronic databases were searched from their inception to April 2015: PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. Statistical analysis was done using REVIEW MANAGER 5.3. Five RCT involving 739 patients were studied. There were significant differences between the NACT + RS and the RS-alone groups for positive lymph nodes (OR, 0.45; 95%CI: 0.29-0.70) and parametrial infiltration (OR, 0.48; 95% CI: 0.25-0.92), while treatment efficacy did not differ significantly for 5-year overall survival rate (OR, 1.17; 95% CI: 0.85-1.61), 5-year disease-free survival rate (OR, 1.09; 95% CI: 0.77-1.56) or recurrence rate (OR, 1.17; 95% CI: 0.85-1.61). The results also indicated that chemotherapy-related toxicity was well tolerated. For patients with cervical cancer, NACT could significantly reduce the number of positive lymph nodes and the level of parametrial infiltration compared with RS alone, and be well tolerated. PMID:26807961

  20. Eradication of breast cancer with bone metastasis by autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV) combined with palliative radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kuranishi, Fumito; Ohno, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis of breast carcinoma is refractory to intensive chemo-radiation therapy and therefore is assumed impossible to cure. Here, we report an advanced case of breast cancer with vertebra-Th7 metastasis that showed complete response to combined treatments with formalin-fixed autologous tumor vaccine (AFTV), palliative radiation therapy with 36 Gy, and adjuvant chemotherapy with standardized CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and 5FU), zoledronic acid, and aromatase inhibitors following mastectomy for the breast tumor. The patient has been disease-free for more than 4 years after the mammary surgery and remains well with no evidence of metastasis or local recurrence. Thus, a combination of AFTV, palliative radiation therapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy may be an effective treatment for this devastating disease. PMID:23734861

  1. A prospective phase II study of chemoradiation followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for FIGO stage I-IIIa (1988) uterine papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Jhingran, Anuja; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Bodurka, Diane C.; Slomovitz, Brian M.; Brown, Jubilee; Levy, Lawrence B.; Garcia, Michael E.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Lu, Karen H.; Burke, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate tumor control, survival, and toxic effects in patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (1988) stage I-IIIA papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium treated with concurrent chemoradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Thirty-two patients were enrolled from October 2001 through July 2009. Patients underwent full surgical disease staging and postoperative concurrent weekly paclitaxel (50 mg/m2) and pelvic RT to 45 Gy plus a vaginal cuff boost followed by 4 cycles of adjuvant paclitaxel (135 mg/m2). Results Thirty patients (94%) were evaluable (3 with stage IA disease, 11 IB, 3 IC, 1 IIB, and 12 IIIA). Eighteen patients (60%) received all 5 planned courses of concurrent chemotherapy, 10 (33%) received 4 courses, and 2 (7%) received 3 courses. All 30 patients received RT; 27 (90%) received the full dose, 2 received 43.2 Gy, and 1 received 39.6 Gy owing to toxic effects. Twenty-three patients (77%) completed all 4 cycles of adjuvant paclitaxel, 3 (10%) completed 3 cycles, 2 (7%) completed 2 cycles, and 2 received no adjuvant therapy. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control rates for all patients were 93%, 87%, and 87%, respectively, at 2 years and 85%, 83%, and 87%, respectively, at 5 years. Six patients developed (20%) grade 3/4 toxcities from the treatment. Four patients (13%) had grade 3 or more severe bowel complications and two patients developed symptomatic pelvic fractures. Conclusions Treatment with concurrent paclitaxel and pelvic RT followed by 4 courses of systemic paclitaxel produced favorable results in patients with surgically staged I-III UPSC. PMID:23385150

  2. The Development of a Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy (MBMT) Program for Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients' narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided. PMID:27517966

  3. Stage III Colon Cancer: The Individualized Strategy of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Aged Under and Over 70

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chieh-Sheng; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Yu-Guang; Chen, Jia-Hong; Wu, Yi-Ying; Ho, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the specific chemoregimens selected for adjuvant therapy in the patients with stage III colon cancer. We investigated the trends in chemotherapeutic prescribing patterns and looked for adequate therapeutic setting for these patients. Methods 288 patients presenting with stage III colon cancer and undergoing adjuvant therapies after curative surgery for more than 3-month were enrolled between January 2006 and December 2011. Demographic characteristics and therapeutic factors were analyzed, including age, gender, histological grade, tumor sizes, tumor location, pathologic stage, performance status, serum carcinoembryonic antigen, regimens selection, interval from the operation to the start of adjuvant therapy and prolonged adjuvant therapy. Kaplan– Meier methods were utilized for drawing survival curves and Cox model was used to analyze survival, prognostic factors. Results The analysis showed that the patients aged under 70 received more intensive therapies than those aged over 70 (P<0.001). Later, advanced analysis in therapeutic factors was conducted between the patients aged under 70 and those over 70. In the patients aged under 70, significant differences in 4-year overall survival (OS) were noted between UFUR (oral tegafur-uracil plus leucovorin) groups and FOLFOX (5-FU plus oxaliplatin) [65.6% versus (vs) 89.8%, relative risk (RR) 3.780, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.263–11.315, P = 0.017]. There were also differences in 4-year OS between these patients with and without oxaliplatin-contained regimens (92.1% vs 83.4%, respectively, RR 0.385, 95% CI 0.157–0.946, P = 0.037). In addition, the patients who received intravenous or combined therapy also had higher 4-year OS than those only received oral regimens (92.1% vs 76.6%, P = 0.077), though the finding did not reach statistical significance. In contrast to the survival benefits of above therapeutic settings for the patients aged under 70, there was less

  4. Selecting a specific pre- or postoperative adjuvant therapy for individual patients with operable gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Briasoulis, Evangelos; Liakakos, Theodore; Dova, Lefkothea; Fatouros, Michael; Tsekeris, Pericles; Roukos, Dimitrios H; Kappas, Angelos M

    2006-06-01

    Although the very high locoregional recurrence rates reported with limited D0/D1 surgery can be reduced with extended D2 gastrectomy for operable gastric cancer, overall relapse and survival rates remain poor and can only be improved with adequate perioperative adjuvant treatment. However, despite intensive research, no regimen has been established as standard. Meta-analyses have demonstrated a marginal survival benefit with adjuvant chemotherapy. Two recent large randomized trials for operable gastric cancer, the MAGIC trial and the INT-0116 trial, provide evidence that some patients may benefit from perioperative chemotherapy and chemoradiation, respectively. However, while both trials suggest an overall survival benefit with adjuvant treatment, they don't provide the harm-benefit ratio for specific subsets of patients wih different extent of surgery (D1 or D2) and tumor stage (early [T1,2]/advanced [T3,4]). This lack of evidence complicates current therapeutic adjuvant decisions. Estimating the risk of local and distant recurrence (high, moderate or low) after D1 or D2 surgery in various tumor stages and the expected harm-benefit ratio, the authors provide useful information for decisions on adjuvant chemotherapy with or withour radiotherapy in individual patients. Research on newer cytotoxic and targeted agents may improve treatment efficacy. Simultaneously, advances with microarray-based gene-expression profiling signatures may improve individualized treatment decisions. However, the validation and translation of these genomic classifiers as biomarkers into a completed 'bench-to-bedside' cycle for tailoring treatment to individuals is a major challenge and limits inflated expectations. PMID:16761937

  5. Prospective randomized trial of early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy as an adjuvant to resectable gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, W; Whang, I; Suh, I; Averbach, A; Chang, D; Sugarbaker, P H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Surgeons have postulated on numerous occasions that cancer resection may participate in the dissemination of a malignancy. This randomized trial sought to determine whether a large volume of chemotherapy solution used perioperatively to flood the peritoneal cavity could eliminate microscopic residual disease and thereby improve survival of patients with gastric cancer. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical treatment failures in patients with gastric cancer are confined to the abdomen in most patients. Resection site and peritoneal surface spread, along with liver metastases, are the most common areas of recurrence. Survival and quality of life of patients with gastric cancer would be improved if disease progression at these anatomic sites was reduced. METHODS: In a prospective randomized trial of 248 patients, intraperitoneal mitomycin C on day 1 and intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil on days 2 through 5 were administered after gastric cancer resection. Patients who were thought to have stage II or stage III disease were randomized after resection to surgery alone versus surgery plus early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. After final pathologic examinations, there were 39 patients with stage I, 50 with stage II 95 with stage III, and 64 with resected stage IV cancer. RESULTS: The 5-year survival of the surgery-only group was 29.3%, and the surgery-plus-intraperitoneal chemotherapy group was 38.7% (p = 0.219). In a subset analysis, the patients with stage I, stage II, and stage IV disease showed no statistically significant difference in survival. The 5-year survival rate of patients with stage III disease who underwent surgery only was 18.4% versus a survival rate of 49.1% for patients who underwent surgery plus intraperitoneal chemotherapy (p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: In a subset analysis, patients with stage III gastric cancer have shown a statistically significant improvement in survival when treated with perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy

  6. The Nature and Severity of Cognitive Impairment Associated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Women with Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of the Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falleti, Marina G.; Sanfilippo, Antonietta; Maruff, Paul; Weih, LeAnn; Phillips, Kelly-Anne

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Several studies have identified that adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is associated with cognitive impairment; however, the magnitude of this impairment is unclear. This study assessed the severity and nature of cognitive impairment associated with adjuvant chemotherapy by conducting a meta-analysis of the published literature to…

  7. Adjuvant radiotherapy following radical hysterectomy for patients with stage IB and IIA cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Soisson, A.P.; Soper, J.T.; Clarke-Pearson, D.L.; Berchuck, A.; Montana, G.; Creasman, W.T. )

    1990-06-01

    From 1971 through 1984, 320 women underwent radical hysterectomy as primary therapy of stage IB and IIA cervical cancer. Two hundred forty-eight patients (78%) were treated with surgery alone and 72 patients (22%) received adjuvant postoperative external-beam radiotherapy. Presence of lymph node metastasis, large lesion (greater than 4 cm in diameter), histologic grade, race (noncaucasian), and age (greater than 40 years) were significant poor prognostic factors for the entire group of patients. Patients treated with surgery alone had a better disease-free survival than those who received combination therapy (P less than 0.001). However, patients receiving adjuvant radiation therapy had a higher incidence of lymphatic metastases, tumor involvement of the surgical margin, and large cervical lesions. Adjuvant pelvic radiation therapy did not improve the survival of patients with unilateral nodal metastases or those who had a large cervical lesion with free surgical margins and the absence of nodal involvement. Radiation therapy appears to reduce the incidence of pelvic recurrences. Unfortunately, 84% of patients who developed recurrent tumor after combination therapy had a component of distant failure. The incidence of severe gastrointestinal or genitourinary tract complications was not different in the two treatment groups. However, the incidence of lymphedema was increased in patients who received adjuvant radiation therapy. Although adjuvant radiation therapy appears to be tolerated without a significant increase in serious complications, the extent to which it may improve local control rates and survival in high-risk patients appears to be limited. In view of the high incidence of distant metastases in high-risk patients, consideration should be given to adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in addition to radiation therapy.

  8. Prospective evaluation of concurrent paclitaxel and radiation therapy after adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for Stage II or III breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Burstein, Harold J. . E-mail: hburstein@partners.org; Bellon, Jennifer R.; Galper, Sharon; Lu, H.-M.; Kuter, Irene; Wong, Julia; Gelman, Rebecca; Bunnell, Craig A.; Parker, Leroy M.; Garber, Judy E.; Winer, Eric P.; Harris, Jay R.; Powell, Simon N.

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of concurrent radiation therapy and paclitaxel-based adjuvant chemotherapy, given either weekly or every 3 weeks, after adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC). Methods and Materials: After definitive breast surgery and AC chemotherapy, 40 patients with operable Stage II or III breast cancer received protocol-based treatment with concurrent paclitaxel and radiation therapy. Paclitaxel was evaluated on 2 schedules, with treatment given either weekly x 12 weeks (60 mg/m{sup 2}), or every 3 weeks x 4 cycles (135-175 mg/m{sup 2}). Radiation fields and schedules were determined by the patient's surgery and pathology. The tolerability of concurrent therapy was evaluated in cohorts of 8 patients as a phase I study. Results: Weekly paclitaxel treatment at 60 mg/m{sup 2} per week with concurrent radiation led to dose-limiting toxicity in 4 of 16 patients (25%), including 3 who developed pneumonitis (either Grade 2 [1 patient] or Grade 3 [2 patients]) requiring steroids. Efforts to eliminate this toxicity in combination with weekly paclitaxel through treatment scheduling and CT-based radiotherapy simulation were not successful. By contrast, dose-limiting toxicity was not encountered among patients receiving concurrent radiation with paclitaxel given every 3 weeks at 135-175 mg/m{sup 2}. However, Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis not requiring steroid therapy was seen in 2 of 24 patients (8%) treated in such a fashion. Excessive radiation dermatitis was not observed with either paclitaxel schedule. Conclusions: Concurrent treatment with weekly paclitaxel and radiation therapy is not feasible after adjuvant AC chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Concurrent treatment using a less frequent paclitaxel dosing schedule may be possible, but caution is warranted in light of the apparent possibility of pulmonary injury.

  9. Adjuvant chemotherapy and acute toxicity in hypofractionated radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kouloulias, Vassilis; Zygogianni, Anna; Kypraiou, Efrosini; Georgakopoulos, John; Thrapsanioti, Zoi; Beli, Ivelina; Mosa, Eftychia; Psyrri, Amanta; Antypas, Christos; Armbilia, Christina; Tolia, Maria; Platoni, Kalliopi; Papadimitriou, Christos; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Gennatas, Costas; Zografos, George; Kyrgias, George; Dilvoi, Maria; Patatoucas, George; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kouvaris, John

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of chemotherapy to the acute toxicity of a hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) schedule for breast cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 116 breast cancer patients with T1, 2N0Mx. The patients received 3-D conformal radiotherapy with a total physical dose of 50.54 Gy or 53.2 Gy in 19 or 20 fractions according to stage, over 23-24 d. The last three to four fractions were delivered as a sequential tumor boost. All patients were monitored for acute skin toxicity according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. The maximum monitored value was taken as the final grading score. Multivariate analysis was performed for the contribution of age, chemotherapy and 19 vs 20 fractions to the radiation acute skin toxicity. RESULTS: The acute radiation induced skin toxicity was as following: grade I 27.6%, grade II 7.8% and grade III 2.6%. No significant correlation was noted between toxicity grading and chemotherapy (P = 0.154, χ2 test). The mean values of acute toxicity score in terms of chemotherapy or not, were 0.64 and 0.46 respectively (P = 0.109, Mann Whitney test). No significant correlation was also noted between acute skin toxicity and radiotherapy fractions (P = 0.47, χ2 test). According to univariate analysis, only chemotherapy contributed significantly to the development of acute skin toxicity but with a critical value of P = 0.05. However, in multivariate analysis, chemotherapy lost its statistical significance. None of the patients during the 2-years of follow-up presented any locoregional relapse. CONCLUSION: There is no clear evidence that chemotherapy has an impact to acute skin toxicity after an HFRT schedule. A randomized trial is needed for definite conclusions. PMID:25405195

  10. [Chemotherapy for brain tumors in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Weller, M

    2008-02-01

    Chemotherapy has become a third major treatment option for patients with brain tumors, in addition to surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of gliomas is no longer limited to recurrent disease. Temozolomide has become the standard of care in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Several ongoing trials seek to define the role of chemotherapy in the primary care of other gliomas. Some of these studies are no longer only based on histological diagnoses, but take into consideration molecular markers such as MGMT promoter methylation and loss of genetic material on chromosomal arms 1p and 19q. Outside such clinical trials chemotherapy is used in addition to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic astrocytoma, medulloblastoma or germ cell tumors, or as an alternative to radiotherapy, e.g., in anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors or low-grade gliomas. In contrast, there is no established role for chemotherapy in other tumors such as ependymomas, meningiomas or neurinomas. Primary cerebral lymphomas are probably the only brain tumors which can be cured by chemotherapy alone and only by chemotherapy. The chemotherapy of brain metastases follows the recommendations for the respective primary tumors. Further, strategies of combined radiochemotherapy using mainly temozolomide or topotecan are currently explored. Leptomeningeal metastases are treated by radiotherapy or systemic or intrathecal chemotherapy depending on their pattern of growth. PMID:18253773

  11. Chemotherapy in Elderly Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeong Su; Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byung Chun

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequent malignant diseases in the elderly. Systemic chemotherapy showed an improvement of quality of life and survival benefit compared to supportive care alone in patients with advanced GC. Because comorbidities or age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may lead to higher toxicity, however, many oncologists hesitate to recommend elderly patients to receive chemotherapy. Available data suggest that elderly patients with GC are able to tolerate and benefit from systemic chemotherapy to the same extent as younger patients. The age alone should not be the only criteria to preclude effective chemotherapy. However, proper patient selection is extremely important to deliver effective treatment safely. A comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is a useful method to assess life expectancy and risk of morbidity in older patients and to guide providing optimal treatment. Treatment should be personalized based on the nature of the disease, the life expectancy, the risk of complication, and the patient's preference. Combination chemotherapy can be considered for older patients with metastatic GC who are classified as non-frail patients by CGA. For frail or vulnerable patients, however, monotherapy or only symptomatic treatment may be desirable. Targeted agents seem to be promising treatment options for elderly patients with GC considering their better efficacy and less toxicity. PMID:26722364

  12. A randomized phase III trial comparing S-1 versus UFT as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II/III rectal cancer (JFMC35-C1: ACTS-RC)

    PubMed Central

    Oki, E.; Murata, A.; Yoshida, K.; Maeda, K.; Ikejiri, K.; Munemoto, Y.; Sasaki, K.; Matsuda, C.; Kotake, M.; Suenaga, T.; Matsuda, H.; Emi, Y.; Kakeji, Y.; Baba, H.; Hamada, C.; Saji, S.; Maehara, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds Preventing distant recurrence and achieving local control are important challenges in rectal cancer treatment, and use of adjuvant chemotherapy has been studied. However, no phase III study comparing adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for rectal cancer has demonstrated superiority of a specific regimen. We therefore conducted a phase III study to evaluate the superiority of S-1 to tegafur–uracil (UFT), a standard adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for curatively resected stage II/III rectal cancer in Japan, in the adjuvant setting for rectal cancer. Patients and methods The ACTS-RC trial was an open-label, randomized, phase III superiority trial conducted at 222 sites in Japan. Patients aged 20–80 with stage II/III rectal cancer undergoing curative surgery without preoperative therapy were randomly assigned to receive UFT (500–600 mg/day on days 1–5, followed by 2 days rest) or S-1 (80–120 mg/day on days 1–28, followed by 14 days rest) for 1 year. The primary end point was relapse-free survival (RFS), and the secondary end points were overall survival and adverse events. Results In total, 961 patients were enrolled from April 2006 to March 2009. The primary analysis was conducted in 480 assigned to receive UFT and 479 assigned to receive S-1. Five-year RFS was 61.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 57.1% to 65.9%] for UFT and 66.4% (95% CI 61.9% to 70.5%) for S-1 [P = 0.0165, hazard ratio (HR): 0.77, 95% CI 0.63–0.96]. Five-year survival was 80.2% (95% CI 76.3% to 83.5%) for UFT and 82.0% (95% CI 78.3% to 85.2%) for S-1. The main grade 3 or higher adverse events were increased alanine aminotransferase and diarrhea (each 2.3%) in the UFT arm and anorexia, diarrhea (each 2.6%), and fatigue (2.1%) in the S-1 arm. Conclusion One-year S-1 treatment is superior to UFT with respect to RFS and has therefore become a standard adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for stage II/III rectal cancer following curative resection. PMID:27056996

  13. A clinical prognostic scoring system for resectable gastric cancer to predict survival and benefit from paclitaxel- or oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing; Qian, Yingying; Wang, Jian; Gu, Bing; Pei, Dong; He, Shaohua; Zhu, Fang; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Xu, Jin; Liu, Lianke; Gu, Yanhong; Guo, Renhua; Yin, Yongmei; Shu, Yongqian; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy is a standard procedure of curative resection for gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable prognostic scoring system for GC treated with D2 gastrectomy combined with adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods A prognostic scoring system was established based on clinical and laboratory data from 579 patients with localized GC without distant metastasis treated with D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Results From the multivariate model for overall survival (OS), five factors were selected for the scoring system: ≥50% metastatic lymph node rate, positive lymphovascular invasion, pathologic TNM Stage II or III, ≥5 ng/mL preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level, and <110 g/L preoperative hemoglobin. Two models were derived using different methods. Model A identified low- and high-risk patients for OS (P<0.001), while Model B differentiated low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients for OS (P<0.001). Stage III patients in the low-risk group had higher survival probabilities than Stage II patients. Both Model A (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69–0.78) and Model B (AUC: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72–0.83) were better predictors compared with the pathologic TNM classification (AUC: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.59–0.71, P<0.001). Adjuvant paclitaxel- or oxaliplatin-based or triple chemotherapy showed significantly better outcomes in patients classified as high risk, but not in those with low and intermediate risk. Conclusion A clinical three-tier prognostic risk scoring system was established to predict OS of GC treated with D2 gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. The potential advantage of this scoring system is that it can identify high-risk patients in Stage II or III who may benefit from paclitaxel- or oxaliplatin-based regimens. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results before they are applied clinically. PMID:26966350

  14. Acute and late toxicity following adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy for high-risk primary operable breast cancer--a quality assessment study.

    PubMed

    Svane, Inge M; Homburg, Keld M; Kamby, Claus; Nielsen, Dorte L; Roer, Ole; Sliffsgaard, Dorte; Johnsen, Hans E; Hansen, Steen W

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 2000, high-dose chemotherapy with haematopoietic stem-cell support was used as an adjuvant treatment strategy for management of primary high-risk breast cancer patients with more than five positive nodes. This single institution study included 52 women aged < or = 56 years with primary operable breast cancer and > or = 6 tumour-positive axillary lymph nodes. The treatment regimen consisted of at least three initial courses of FEC (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide) followed by high-dose chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, carboplatin) supported by autologous peripheral blood stem-cell reinfusion. This study focuses on quality control including evaluation of toxicity, supportive therapy and assessment of the stem-cell products. Cytokeratin 19 positive cells were found in the stem-cell product from 3/37 patients. Data regarding organ toxicity were used for evaluation of short- and long-term side effects. Substantial acute toxicity and frequent catheter-related infections were found. Long-term toxicities included reduced lung diffusion capacity (n = 36), fatigue (n = 14), arthralgia/myalgia (n = 10), neurotoxicity (n = 9) and memory loss (n = 4). However, most toxicities were grade 1-2 and reversible within two years. No treatment-related death occurred. Within a median follow-up of 30 months (range, 11-57), 25% of the patients had relapsed. Recurrence-free survival was 75% and overall survival was 88% three years after the start of treatment. Overall, high-dose chemotherapy was relatively well tolerated, with manageable toxicity and an acceptable requirement of supportive therapy. Until now, high-dose chemotherapy has not proven superior to conventional-dose adjuvant chemotherapy, therefore it is necessary in the future to focus on well-designed randomized studies. PMID:14651213

  15. Quality of life during chemotherapy in lung cancer patients: results across different treatment lines

    PubMed Central

    Wintner, L M; Giesinger, J M; Zabernigg, A; Sztankay, M; Meraner, V; Pall, G; Hilbe, W; Holzner, B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Most lung cancer patients are diagnosed at an advanced disease stage and predominantly receive palliative treatment, which increasingly consists of several chemotherapy lines. We report on patients' quality of life (QOL) to gain knowledge on QOL during and across multiple lines of chemotherapy. This includes patients with (neo)adjuvant therapy up to 3rd or above line palliative chemotherapy. Methods: Lung cancer patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy at the Kufstein County Hospital completed an electronic version of the EORTC QLQ-C30. Linear mixed models were used for statistical analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty seven patients were included in the study. Surprisingly, irrespective of the chemotherapy line patients reported stable QOL scores during treatment. None of the calculated monthly change rates attained clinical significance, referring to established guidelines that classify a small clinical meaningful change as 5 to 10 points. According to treatment line, 3rd or above line palliative chemotherapy was associated with the worst QOL scores, whereas patients undergoing (neo)adjuvant or 1st line palliative chemotherapy reported fairly comparable QOL. Conclusion: The essential finding of our study is that all QOL aspects of the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire remained unchanged during each chemotherapy line in an unselected population of lung cancer patients. Between treatment lines pronounced differences were found, indicating that later palliative chemotherapy lines are associated with higher QOL impairments. These changes in QOL may not primarily be related to the treatment, but rather refer to impairments due to disease progression and may be partly due to a consequence of the prior therapies. PMID:24091620

  16. Association of osteoprotegerin and bone loss after adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oostra, Drew R.; Lustberg, Maryam B.; Reinbolt, Raquel E.; Pan, Xueliang; Wesolowski, Robert; Shapiro, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure (CIOF) results in rapid bone loss. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANK-L) signaling balances bone resorption and formation. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts as a decoy receptor for RANK, interrupting osteoclast activation and bone resorption. This study examined the relationship between OPG and bone loss in women with CIOF. Methods Premenopausal women with stage I/II breast cancers receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were evaluated at chemotherapy initiation, 6 and 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), ionized calcium, osteocalcin, and OPG were serially measured. CIOF was defined as a negative pregnancy test, FSH levels >30 MIU/mL, and ≥3 months of amenorrhea. Results Forty women were enrolled; 31 (77.5%) met CIOF criteria. BMD significantly decreased (p < 0.001) in the CIOF group at both time points: LS BMD decreased from a median of 0.993 g/cm2 to 0.976 g/cm2 and 0.937 g/cm2 at 6 and 12 months, respectively. OPG was significantly elevated at 6 months (median increase 0.30 pmol/L, p = 0.015) and then decreased at 12 months to levels still above baseline (median difference 0.2 pmol/L, p = 0.70). Conclusions In what was likely a compensatory response to rapid bone loss, CIOF patients’ OPG levels increased at 6 months and then decreased at 12 months to values greater than baseline assessments. This phenomenon is described in other diseases, but never before in CIOF. PMID:25575458

  17. Adjuvant Chemotherapy With or Without Pelvic Radiotherapy After Simultaneous Surgical Resection of Rectal Cancer With Liver Metastases: Analysis of Prognosis and Patterns of Recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    An, Ho Jung; Yu, Chang Sik; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Kang, Byung Woog; Hong, Yong Sang; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Ryu, Min-Hee; Chang, Heung Moon; Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Jong Hoon; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Kim, Jin Cheon; Kim, Tae Won

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the outcomes of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) after simultaneous surgical resection in rectal cancer patients with liver metastases (LM). Materials and Methods: One hundred and eight patients receiving total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer and surgical resection for LM were reviewed. Forty-eight patients received adjuvant CRT, and 60 were administered CT alone. Recurrence patterns and prognosis were analyzed. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were compared between the CRT and CT groups. The inverse probability of the treatment-weighted (IPTW) method based on the propensity score was used to adjust for selection bias between the two groups. Results: At a median follow-up period of 47.7 months, 77 (71.3%) patients had developed recurrences. The majority of recurrences (68.8%) occurred in distant organs. By contrast, the local recurrence rate was only 4.7%. Median DFS and OS were not significantly different between the CRT and CT groups. After applying the IPTW method, we observed no significant differences in terms of DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.347; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.759-2.392; p = 0.309) and OS (HR, 1.413; CI, 0.752-2.653; p = 0.282). Multivariate analyses showed that unilobar distribution of LM and normal preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level (<6 mg/mL) were significantly associated with longer DFS and OS. Conclusions: The local recurrence rate after simultaneous resection of rectal cancer with LM was relatively low. DFS and OS rates were not different between the adjuvant CRT and CT groups. Adjuvant CRT may have a limited role in this setting. Further prospective randomized studies are required to evaluate optimal adjuvant treatment in these patients.

  18. Adjuvant therapy for highly malignant canine mammary tumours: Cox-2 inhibitor versus chemotherapy: a case-control prospective study.

    PubMed

    Arenas, C; Peña, L; Granados-Soler, J L; Pérez-Alenza, M D

    2016-07-30

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) enzyme participates in different steps of the carcinogenetic process and in canine mammary tumours (CMTs), a high expression of Cox-2 is associated with malignancy and tumour angiogenesis. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of a Cox-2 inhibitor as adjuvant therapy in dogs with highly malignant (HM)-CMTs and compare it with that of dogs treated with chemotherapy and with control dogs. Twenty-eight dogs were prospectively included. After surgery, dogs were alternatively allocated into two treatment groups (chemotherapy with mitoxantrone n=8; Cox-2 inhibitor, firocoxib n=7). Control group (n=13) included dogs whose owners rejected adjuvant therapy. All dogs were followed up for two years or until death. The DFS was significantly higher in dogs that received adjuvant treatment (mitoxantrone or firocoxib) (P=0.030) than in control dogs. Dogs on firocoxib treatment had significantly higher DFS (P=0.015) and OS (P=0.048) than control dogs. The DFS and OS of dogs on mitoxantrone treatment were not statistically different from controls. In conclusion, this study supports the use of firocoxib for the treatment of HM-CMTs. Further studies are needed to compare the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs versus Cox-2 inhibitors as adjuvant treatment in these cases. PMID:27377395

  19. Patterns of Care in the Administration of Neo-adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer. A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Vugts, Guusje; Maaskant-Braat, Adriana J G; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Roumen, Rudi M H; Luiten, Ernest J T; Voogd, Adri C

    2016-05-01

    Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is used to facilitate radical surgery for initially irresectable or locally advanced breast cancer. The indication for NAC has been extended to clinically node negative (cN0) patients in whom adjuvant systemic therapy is foreseen. A population-based study was conducted to evaluate the increasing use of NAC, breast conserving surgery (BCS) after NAC and timing of the sentinel node biopsy (SNB). All female breast cancer patients, treated in 10 hospitals in the Eindhoven Cancer Registry area in the Netherlands between January 2003 and June 2012 were included (N = 18,427). In total, 1,402 patients (7.6%) received NAC. The administration increased from 2.5% in 2003 to 13.0% in 2011 (p < 0.001). Use of NAC increased from 0.5% to 2.3% for cT1 tumors, from 2.8% to 27.0% for cT2, from 30.6% to 70.9% for cT3, and from 40.5% to 58.1% for cT4 tumors (p < 0.001). In cN0 patients, use of NAC increased from 1.0% to 4.4% and in clinically node positive patients from 12.0% to 57.5% (p < 0.001). Downsizing of the tumor and BCS are achieved increasingly. In 2011, in three hospitals NAC was administered in <10% of patients, in five hospitals in 10-15% and in two hospitals the proportion of patients receiving NAC was >20% (p < 0.001). Of the 1,402 patients with NAC, 495 patients underwent SNB, 91.5% of whom prior to NAC. In the Netherlands up to one in eight patients receive NAC. The administration of NAC and the percentage of BCS increased over the past decade, especially in cT2 tumors. Considerable hospital variation in the administration of NAC exists. PMID:26945566

  20. Reducing psychological distress in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Milanti, Ariesta; Metsälä, Eija; Hannula, Leena

    Psychological distress is a common problem among patients with cancer, yet it mostly goes unreported and untreated. This study examined the association of a psycho-educational intervention with the psychological distress levels of breast cancer and cervical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. One hundred patients at a cancer hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, completed Distress Thermometer screening before and after chemotherapy. Fifty patients in the intervention group were given a psycho-educational video with positive reappraisal, education and relaxation contents, while receiving chemotherapy. Patients who received the psycho-educational intervention had significantly lower distress levels compared with those in the control group. Routine distress screening, followed by distress management and outcome assessment, is needed to improve the wellbeing of cancer patients. PMID:26911178

  1. MGMT Promoter Methylation Is Prognostic but Not Predictive for Outcome to Adjuvant PCV Chemotherapy in Anaplastic Oligodendroglial Tumors: A Report From EORTC Brain Tumor Group Study 26951

    PubMed Central

    van den Bent, Martin J.; Dubbink, Hendrikus J.; Sanson, Marc; van der Lee-Haarloo, Cathleen R.; Hegi, Monika; Jeuken, Judith W.M.; Ibdaih, Ahmed; Brandes, Alba A.; Taphoorn, Martin J.B.; Frenay, Marc; Lacombe, Denis; Gorlia, Thierry; Dinjens, Winand N.M.; Kros, Johan M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation has been shown to predict survival of patients with glioblastomas if temozolomide is added to radiotherapy (RT). It is unknown if MGMT promoter methylation is also predictive to outcome to RT followed by adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy in patients with anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors (AOT). Patients and Methods In the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer study 26951, 368 patients with AOT were randomly assigned to either RT alone or to RT followed by adjuvant PCV. From 165 patients of this study, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was available for MGMT promoter methylation analysis. This was investigated with methylation specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results In 152 cases, an MGMT result was obtained, in 121 (80%) cases MGMT promoter methylation was observed. Methylation strongly correlated with combined loss of chromosome 1p and 19q loss (P = .00043). In multivariate analysis, MGMT promoter methylation, 1p/19q codeletion, tumor necrosis, and extent of resection were independent prognostic factors. The prognostic significance of MGMT promoter methylation was equally strong in the RT arm and the RT/PCV arm for both progression-free survival and overall survival. In tumors diagnosed at central pathology review as glioblastoma, no prognostic effect of MGMT promoter methylation was observed. Conclusion In this study, on patients with AOT MGMT promoter methylation was of prognostic significance and did not have predictive significance for outcome to adjuvant PCV chemotherapy. The biologic effect of MGMT promoter methylation or pathogenetic features associated with MGMT promoter methylation may be different for AOT compared with glioblastoma. PMID:19901104

  2. Arterial, portal, or systemic chemotherapy for patients with hepatic metastasis of colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kemeny, N; Fata, F

    1999-01-01

    Hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma are common and may be resected for cure. The response of liver metastases to systemic chemotherapy is low. In contrast, hepatic arterial chemotherapy produces higher response rates than systemic chemotherapy, but randomized trials have not definitely proved a survival advantage because they allowed cross over. Most adjuvant portal vein chemotherapy studies have shown a survival advantage over the control group, but it is not clear whether this benefit is from the portal vein therapy or from immediate postoperative chemotherapy, since there is rarely a reduction in liver metastases. We describe the results of systemic, hepatic artery infusion, and portal therapy for patients with liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:10436236

  3. Adjuvant chemotherapy for early female breast cancer: a systematic review of the evidence for the 2014 Cancer Care Ontario systemic therapy guideline

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, S.; Fletcher, G.G.; Eisen, A.; Mates, M.; Freedman, O.C.; Dent, S.F.; Trudeau, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Program in Evidence-Based Care (pebc) of Cancer Care Ontario recently created an evidence-based consensus guideline on the systemic treatment of early breast cancer. The evidence for the guideline was compiled using a systematic review to answer the question “What is the optimal systemic therapy for patients with early-stage, operable breast cancer, when patient and disease factors are considered?” The question was addressed in three parts: cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine treatment, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2)–directed therapy. Methods For the systematic review, the medline and embase databases were searched for the period January 2008 to May 2014. The Standards and Guidelines Evidence directory of cancer guidelines and the Web sites of major oncology guideline organizations were also searched. The basic search terms were “breast cancer” and “systemic therapy” (chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, targeted agents, ovarian suppression), and results were limited to randomized controlled trials (rcts), guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Results Several hundred documents that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved. The Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group meta-analyses encompassed many of the rcts found. Several additional studies that met the inclusion criteria were retained, as were other guidelines and systematic reviews. Chemotherapy was reviewed mainly in three classes: anti-metabolite–based regimens (for example, cyclophosphamide–methotrexate–5-fluorouracil), anthracyclines, and taxane-based regimens. In general, single-agent chemotherapy is not recommended for the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer in any patient population. Anthracycline–taxane-based polychemotherapy regimens are, overall, considered superior to earlier-generation regimens and have the most significant impact on patient survival outcomes. Regimens with varying anthracycline and taxane doses and

  4. Adjuvant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Asma; Neoptolemos, John

    2006-01-01

    Exocrine pancreatic cancer (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the western world, accounting for 5% of all cancer-related deaths. Only a small percentage of patients with pancreatic cancer are able to undergo potentially curative resection, even in specialized centres, and prognosis remains poor after successful surgery. Over the last few years efforts have been directed towards the development of adjuvant therapies in attempts to improve outcome. The main trials of adjuvant chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy with follow-on chemotherapy are described in this paper, followed by the results of the ESPAC-1 trial and the status of ESPAC-2 and -3 trials. PMID:18333088

  5. A rehabilitation program for lung cancer patients during postthoracotomy chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Amy J; Brintnall, Ruth Ann; von Eye, Alexander; Jones, Lee W; Alderink, Gordon; Patzelt, Lawrence H; Brown, Jean K

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this pilot study was to describe the effects of a 16-week home-based rehabilitative exercise program on cancer-related fatigue (CRF), other symptoms, functional status, and quality of life (QOL) for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after thoracotomy starting within days after hospital discharge and continuing through the initiation and completion of chemotherapy. Materials and methods Five patients with NSCLC completed the Brief Fatigue Inventory (measuring CRF severity) and the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (measuring symptom severity) before and after thoractomy, and at the end of each week of the 16-week exercise program. Additionally, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (measuring physical and mental functional status) and the Quality of Life Index (measuring QOL) were completed before and after thoracotomy, after weeks 3, 6, 12, and 16 (the end of the exercise program). Further, the 6-minute walk test (measuring functional capacity) was administered before thoracotomy, prior to the initiation of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, and at the end of the 16-week exercise program, after completion of chemotherapy. Results Participants had a mean age of 63 years and a mean of five comorbid conditions; the exercise program was initiated within 4 days after hospital discharge. Participants’ CRF severity scores were reduced to mild levels, while the mean number of symptoms decreased from 9 postthoracotomy to 6 after the exercise program, with mean levels of severity and interference decreasing to below prethoracotomy levels. Likewise, participants’ functional status and QOL after completing the exercise program improved to near or above prethoracotomy levels. Conclusion The home-based, light-intensity exercise program for NSCLC patients receiving and completing adjuvant chemotherapy postthoracotomy showed promising trends in improving CRF severity, other symptom severity, functional status, and QOL. Further

  6. Randomized Trial of Postoperative Adjuvant Therapy in Stage II and III Rectal Cancer to Define the Optimal Sequence of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy: 10-Year Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Won; Lee, Je-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Hee; Ahn, Jin-Hee; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung; Yu, Chang-Sik; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Ahn, Seung-Do; Kim, Woo-Kun; Kim, Jin-Cheon; Lee, Jung-Shin

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the optimal sequence of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients with Stage II or III rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 308 patients were randomized to early (n = 155) or late (n = 153) radiotherapy (RT). Treatment included eight cycles of chemotherapy, consisting of fluorouracil 375 mg/m{sup 2}/day and leucovorin 20 mg/m{sup 2}/day, at 4-week intervals, and pelvic radiotherapy of 45 Gy in 25 fractions. Radiotherapy started on Day 1 of the first chemotherapy cycle in the early RT arm and on Day 1 of the third chemotherapy cycle in the late RT arm. Results: At a median follow-up of 121 months for surviving patients, disease-free survival (DFS) at 10 years was not statistically significantly different between the early and late RT arms (71% vs. 63%; p = 0.162). A total of 36 patients (26.7%) in the early RT arm and 49 (35.3%) in the late RT arm experienced recurrence (p = 0.151). Overall survival did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. However, in patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection, the DFS rate at 10 years was significantly greater in the early RT arm than in the late RT arm (63% vs. 40%; p = 0.043). Conclusions: After the long-term follow-up duration, this study failed to show a statistically significant DFS advantage for early radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy after resection of Stage II and III rectal cancer. Our results, however, suggest that if neoadjuvant chemoradiation is not given before surgery, then early postoperative chemoradiation should be considered for patients requiring an abdominoperineal resection.

  7. Brief chemotherapy (Stanford V) and adjuvant radiotherapy for bulky or advanced Hodgkin's disease: an update.

    PubMed

    Horning, S J; Rosenberg, S A; Hoppe, R T

    1996-01-01

    From May 1989 to August 1995, 94 previously untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease stage II with bulky mediastinal involvement (n = 28) or stage III or IV (n = 66) received an abbreviated chemotherapy regimen, Stanford V, +/-radiotherapy (RT). Chemotherapy was given weekly for 12 weeks followed by consolidative RT to sites of initial bulky disease. With a median follow-up of 3 years, the actuarial 6-year survival is 93% and the freedom from progression is 89%. There have been no relapses or deaths among the 28 patients with stage II bulky mediastinal disease. Eight relapses and three deaths have occurred in the group of 66 patients with stage III-IV disease. The abbreviated chemotherapy regimen, Stanford V, in combination with RT is well tolerated and highly effective therapy for bulky, limited stage and advanced stage HD. Lower cumulative exposure to alkylating agents, doxorubicin, bleomycin and limited use of radiation is expected to improved the prospects for fertility and decrease the risks for second neoplasms and late cardiopulmonary toxicity. PMID:8836420

  8. BMI Influences Prognosis Following Surgery and Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Lymph Node Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vitolins, Mara Z.; Kimmick, Gretchen G.; Case, L. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Increased body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of disease recurrence and death. However, the association has not been consistent in the literature and may depend on several factors such as menopausal status, extent of disease, and receptor status. We performed a secondary analysis on what we believe is the largest prospective trial of adjuvant chemotherapy to assess the effect of BMI on prognosis in women with lymph node positive breast cancer. The study included 636 women with a median follow-up of over 13 years. Cox’s proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the effect of BMI on outcomes. Kaplan–Meier methods were used to estimate survival curves and log rank tests were used to assess differences in survival for BMI groups. We found that increased BMI was generally predictive of faster time to recurrence and decreased survival, but that the relationship was stronger for younger women, those with progesterone receptor negative disease and those with a greater number of lymph nodes that were positive. PMID:18540954

  9. Loss of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated protein expression correlates with poor prognosis but benefits from anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Suh, Koung Jin; Ryu, Han Suk; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Hyojin; Min, Ahrum; Kim, Tae-Yong; Yang, Yaewon; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Han, Wonshik; Park, In Ae; Noh, Dong-Young; Im, Seock-Ah

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the correlation of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis in patients with breast cancer. ATM expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in 420 surgically resected breast tumors. ATM loss was observed in 126/407 evaluable cases (31.0 %), and was significantly associated with larger tumor size, lymph node metastasis, higher tumor grade, and ER- and/or PR-negative status. ATM loss was also associated with significantly lower disease-free survival rates than those in patients with intact ATM (5-year disease-free survival rate 81.2 vs. 90.7 %, p = 0.015). In multivariate analysis, ATM loss combined with abnormal p53 expression was an independent predictor of shorter disease-free survival [hazard ratio (HR) 3.48; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.48-8.17, p = 0.004]. A tendency towards a poorer prognosis was observed for tumoral ATM loss alone, although statistical significance was not reached (HR 1.74; 95 % CI 0.95-3.20; p = 0.075). In subgroup analysis, ATM loss was associated with shorter disease-free survival in patients who did not receive adjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy (5-year disease-free survival rate 92.7 % in intact ATM group vs. 68.1 % in ATM loss group, p = 0.002), but this poor prognosis was overcome in patients who did (5-year disease-free survival rate 89.8 vs. 84.4 %, p = 0.243), suggesting more benefit from anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Tumors with loss of ATM expression have a poor prognosis and their prognoses are dependent on the use of adjuvant anthracycline. ATM loss might be a practical tool for predicting benefits from anthracycline-based adjuvant therapy. PMID:27329169

  10. Splenomegaly and Its Associations with Genetic Polymorphisms and Treatment Outcome in Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with Adjuvant FOLFOX

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Jung; Han, Sae-Won; Lee, Dae-Won; Cha, Yongjun; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Tae-Yong; Oh, Do-Youn; Kim, Se Hyung; Im, Seock-Ah; Bang, Yung-Jue; Kim, Tae-You

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Splenomegaly is a clinical surrogate of oxaliplatin-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). We investigated development of splenomegaly and its association with treatment outcome and genetic polymorphisms following adjuvant 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Materials and Methods Splenomegaly was determined by spleen volumetry using computed tomography images obtained before initiation of chemotherapy and after completion of adjuvant FOLFOX in CRC patients. Ten genetic polymorphisms in 4 SOS-related genes (VEGFA, MMP9, NOS3, and GSTP1) were analyzed using DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results Of 124 patients included, increase in spleen size was observed in 109 (87.9%). Median change was 31% (range, –42% to 168%). Patients with splenomegaly had more severe thrombocytopenia compared to patients without splenomegaly during the chemotherapy period (p < 0.0001). The cumulative dose of oxaliplatin and the lowest platelet count during the chemotherapy period were clinical factors associated with splenomegaly. However, no significant associations were found between genetic polymorphisms and development of splenomegaly. Disease-free survival was similar regardless of the development of splenomegaly. Conclusion Splenomegaly was frequently observed in patients receiving adjuvant FOLFOX and resulted in more severe thrombocytopenia but did not influence treatment outcome. Examined genetic polymorphisms did not predict development of splenomegaly. PMID:26790967

  11. A Phase II Clinical Trial of Concurrent Helical Tomotherapy plus Cetuximab Followed by Adjuvant Chemotherapy with Cisplatin and Docetaxel for Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinxin; Du, Lei; Zhao, Feifang; Wang, Qiuju; Yang, Shiming; Ma, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of concurrent helical tomotherapy (HT) with cetuximab followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and cisplatin (TP) in the treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: This phase II clinical trial included 43 patients with Stage III/IV LANC (33 Stage III and 10 Stage IV). The treatment consisted of concurrent HT with cetuximab (400 mg/m2 loading dose and weekly 250mg/m2), followed by four cycles of chemotherapy [docetaxel (70 mg/m2 on Day 1) and cisplatin (40 mg/m2 on Days 1 and 2 every 3 weeks). Side effects were evaluated with CTCAE criteria (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0). Results: The median follow-up duration was 48.0 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 41.7-58.0 months], the 2-year locoregional failure-free rate (LFFR), progression-free survival (PFS), distant failure-free rate (DFFR) and overall survival (OS) were 95.2%, 79.1%, 88.1% and 93.0% respectively; the 3-year LFFR, DFFR, PFS and OS were 92.7%, 85.6%, 72.0% and 85.7% respectively. The most common grade 3 toxicities were oropharyngeal mucositis (81.4%) and RT-related dermatitis (7.0%). No patients had more than grade 3 radiation related toxicities and no patients required nasogastric feeding. One patient experienced grade 3 osteonecrosis at 18 months after treatment. Conclusions: Concurrent HT with cetuximab followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with TP is an effective strategy for the treatment of LANC with encouraging survival rates and minimal side effects. PMID:27019628

  12. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Farias, I L G; Araújo, M C S; Farias, J G; Rossato, L V; Elsenbach, L I; Dalmora, S L; Flores, N M P; Durigon, M; Cruz, I B M; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43) undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed. PMID:21869902

  13. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Farias, I. L. G.; Araújo, M. C. S.; Farias, J. G.; Rossato, L. V.; Elsenbach, L. I.; Dalmora, S. L.; Flores, N. M. P.; Durigon, M.; Cruz, I. B. M.; Morsch, V. M.; Schetinger, M. R. C.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43) undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed. PMID:21869902

  14. Robotic Stereotactic Radioablation Concomitant With Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Bahadoran, Phillipe; Lallement, Michel; Birtwisle-Peyrottes, Isabelle; Chapellier, Claire; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Courdi, Adel; Quielle-Roussel, Catherine; Thariat, Juliette; Ferrero, Jean-Marc

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Robotic stereotactic radioablation (RSR) allows stereotactic irradiation of thoracic tumors; however, it has never been used for breast tumors and may have a real potential. We conducted a Phase I study, including neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), a two-level dose-escalation study (6.5 Gy x 3 fractions and 7.5 Gy x 3 fractions) using RSR and breast-conserving surgery followed by conventional radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: To define toxicity, we performed a dermatologic exam (DE) including clinical examination by two independent observers and technical examination by colorimetry, dermoscopy, and skin ultrasound. DE was performed before NACT (DE0), at 36 days (DE1), at 56 days (DE2), after the NACT treatment onset, and before surgery (DE3). Surgery was performed 4-8 weeks after the last chemotherapy session. A pathologic examination was also performed. Results: There were two clinical complete responses and four clinical partial responses at D56 and D85. Maximum tolerable dose was not reached. All patients tolerated RSR with no fatigue; 2 patients presented with mild pain after the third fraction of the treatment. There was no significant toxicity measured with ultrasound and dermoscopy tests. Postoperative irradiation (50 Gy) has been delivered without toxicity. Conclusion: The study showed the feasibility of irradiation with RSR combined with chemotherapy and surgery for breast tumors. There was no skin toxicity at a dose of 19.5 Gy or 22.5 Gy delivered in three fractions combined with chemotherapy. Lack of toxicity suggested that the dose could be increased further. Pathologic response was acceptable.

  15. Cardiac Tolerability of Concurrent Administration of Trastuzumab and Anthracycline-Based Regimen as Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Naoki; Otsuka, Shoko; Sasaki, Yoko; Shimojima, Reiko; Wani, Yoji; Uchino, Kaori

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Retrospective analysis suggests that anthracycline-containing regimens may be superior to non-anthracycline-containing regimens in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. However, both trastuzumab and anthracycline have cardiotoxicity, and it remains unclear how to use trastuzumab in combination with an anthracycline to curtail their cardiotoxicity. Patients and Methods From 2010 to 2013, we administered weekly (q1w) paclitaxel (wP) followed by 75 mg/m2 epirubicin, fluorouracil, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) every third week (q3w) and concurrent q1w trastuzumab (H) to 41 patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (H+ group), and wP followed by FEC100 without trastuzumab to 57 patients who were HER2-negative (H– group). We routinely assessed the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by echocardiography, at the time of initiation, after wP, and after FEC, and compared them between these 2 groups. Results LVEF decreased from 63.2 to 60.9% (p = 0.030) in the H+ group and from 63.9 to 61.9% (p = 0.009) in the H– group. These 2 groups showed no significant difference in the reduction rate of LVEF over the period of chemotherapy (0.968 vs. 0.978: NS, p = 0.6457). There was no severe cardiotoxicity or congestive heart failure in either group. Conclusion Concurrent administration of epirubicin (q3w, 75 mg/m2) and trastuzumab showed no less cardiac tolerability in an adjuvant setting. PMID:24803887

  16. Efficacy of Adjuvant 5-Fluorouracil Therapy for Patients with EMAST-Positive Stage II/III Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hamaya, Yasushi; Guarinos, Carla; Tseng-Rogenski, Stephanie S.; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Das, Ritabrata; Jover, Rodrigo; Castells, Antoni; Llor, Xavier; Andreu, Montserrat; Carethers, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated Microsatellite Alterations at Selected Tetranucleotide repeats (EMAST) is a genetic signature found in up to 60% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) that is caused by somatic dysfunction of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein hMSH3. We have previously shown in vitro that recognition of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) within DNA and subsequent cytotoxicity was most effective when both hMutSα (hMSH2-hMSH6 heterodimer) and hMutSβ (hMSH2-hMSH3 heterodimer) MMR complexes were present, compared to hMutSα > hMutSβ alone. We tested if patients with EMAST CRCs (hMutSβ defective) had diminished response to adjuvant 5-FU chemotherapy, paralleling in vitro findings. We analyzed 230 patients with stage II/III sporadic colorectal cancers for which we had 5-FU treatment and survival data. Archival DNA was analyzed for EMAST (>2 of 5 markers mutated among UT5037, D8S321, D9S242, D20S82, D20S85 tetranucleotide loci). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and multivariate analysis was used to determine contribution to risk. We identified 102 (44%) EMAST cancers. Ninety-four patients (41%) received adjuvant 5-FU chemotherapy, and median follow-up for all patients was 51 months. Patients with EMAST CRCs demonstrated improved survival with adjuvant 5FU to the same extent as patients with non-EMAST CRCs (P<0.05). We observed no difference in survival between patients with stage II/III EMAST and non-EMAST cancers (P = 0.36). There is improved survival for stage II/III CRC patients after adjuvant 5-FU-based chemotherapy regardless of EMAST status. The loss of contribution of hMSH3 for 5-FU cytotoxicity may not adversely affect patient outcome, contrasting patients whose tumors completely lack DNA MMR function (MSI-H). PMID:25996601

  17. High Id1 expression, a generally negative prognostic factor, paradoxically predicts a favorable prognosis for adjuvant paclitaxel plus cisplatin therapy in surgically treated lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu-Jen; Lee, Yi-Chen; Chiu, Wen-Chin; Tsai, Jen-Wei; Su, Yu-Han; Hung, Amos C.; Chang, Po-Chih; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chai, Chee-Yin; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F.

    2014-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly given to surgically treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, the prerequisite for chemotherapy needs to be scrutinized in order to maximize the benefits to patients. In this study, we observed that NSCLC cells with high Id1 protein expression were vulnerable to the treatment of paclitaxel and cisplatin. In addition, paclitaxel and cisplatin caused Id1 protein degradation through ubiquitination. In the nude mice xenograft model, the tumor growth was reduced to a large degree in the Id1-overexpressing group upon treatment with paclitaxel and cisplatin. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining for Id1 followed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that surgically treated NSCLC patients with high Id1 expression in primary tumor tissues had better disease-free and overall survivals after adjuvant paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy. In summary, our current data suggest that Id1, a generally negative prognostic factor, predicts a favorable prognosis in the case of surgically treated NSCLC patients receiving the definitive adjuvant chemotherapy. The distinct role of Id1 reported in this study may arise from the phenomenon of Id1 dependence of NSCLC cells for survival, which renders the cancer cells additionally susceptive to the adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin. PMID:25344919

  18. A Comparison of Proposed Biosimilar LA-EP2006 and Reference Pegfilgrastim for the Prevention of Neutropenia in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Receiving Myelosuppressive Adjuvant or Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Pegfilgrastim Randomized Oncology (Supportive Care) Trial to Evaluate Comparative Treatment (PROTECT-2), a Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Donskih, Roman; Jones, C. Michael; Nixon, Allen; Vidal, Maria J.; Nakov, Roumen; Singh, Pritibha; Schaffar, Gregor; Gascón, Pere; Harbeck, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pegfilgrastim is widely used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. In highly regulated markets, there are currently no approved biosimilars of pegfilgrastim. Pegfilgrastim Randomized Oncology (Supportive Care) Trial to Evaluate Comparative Treatment (PROTECT-2) was a confirmatory efficacy and safety study designed to compare proposed biosimilar LA-EP2006 with reference pegfilgrastim (Neulasta, Amgen) in early-stage breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant or neoadjuvant myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Methods. A total of 308 patients were randomized to LA-EP2006 or reference pegfilgrastim. Each patient received TAC (intravenous docetaxel 75 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2) on day 1 of each cycle, for six or more cycles. Pegfilgrastim (LA-EP2006 or reference) was given subcutaneously (6 mg in 0.6 mL) on day 2 of each cycle. The primary endpoint was duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) during cycle 1 (number of consecutive days with an absolute neutrophil count <0.5 × 109/L), with equivalence confirmed if 90% and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were within a 1-day margin. Results. Baseline characteristics were well balanced. DSN was equivalent between groups at mean ± SD 1.36 ± 1.13 (LA-EP2006, n = 155) and 1.19 ± 0.98 (reference, n = 153) in cycle 1. With a treatment difference (reference minus LA-EP2006) of −0.16 days (90% CI −0.36 to 0.04; 95% CI −0.40 to 0.08), LA-EP2006 was equivalent to reference pegfilgrastim. Secondary efficacy parameters were similar between groups during cycle 1 and across cycles. Safety profiles were also similar between groups. No neutralizing antibodies against pegfilgrastim, filgrastim, or polyethylene glycol were detected. Conclusion. LA-EP2006 and reference pegfilgrastim were therapeutically equivalent and comparable regarding efficacy and safety in the prevention of neutropenia in patients with early-stage breast cancer receiving TAC. Implications for Practice: The

  19. Goserelin, as an ovarian protector during (neo)adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy, prevents long term altered bone turnover

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Caroline; Gossiel, Fatma; Leonard, Robert; Anderson, Richard A; Adamson, Douglas J A; Thomas, Geraldine; Coleman, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Background The Ovarian Protection Trial In Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patients “OPTION” trial (NCT00427245) was a prospective, multicenter, randomised, open label study evaluating the frequency of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) at 12 months in women randomised to 6–8 cycles of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) +/− goserelin (G). Here we report the results of a secondary endpoint analysis of the effects of CT+/-G on markers of bone turnover. Methods Serum for bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and urine for N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) were collected at baseline, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months. Changes in median levels of bone turnover markers were evaluated for the overall population, according to age stratification at randomisation (≤40 vs >40 years) and with exploratory analysis according to POI rates at 12 months. Results In the overall population, there was a significant increase in NTX at 6 months compared to baseline in patients treated with CT+G (40.81 vs 57.82 p=0.0074) with normalisation of levels thereafter. BALP was significantly increased compared to baseline at 6 months and 12 months in those receiving CT+G, but normalised thereafter. BALP remained significantly higher compared to baseline at 12, 24 and 36 months in patients receiving CT, resulting in a significant difference between treatment groups at 36 months (CT+G 5.845 vs CT 8.5 p=0.0006). These changes were predominantly seen in women >40 years. Women with POI at 12 months showed altered bone formation compared to baseline levels for a longer duration than women who maintained menses. Conclusion Addition of G to CT increases bone turnover during treatment with normalisation after cessation of treatment suggesting G may offer sufficient ovarian protection against CT induced POI to negate longstanding altered bone turnover associated with POI. PMID:26998426

  20. A prospective evaluation of the combined helical tomotherapy and chemotherapy in pediatric patients with unresectable rhabdomyosarcoma of the temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinxin; Ma, Kun; Wang, Jaling; Wu, Wenming; Ma, Lin; Huang, Deliang

    2014-09-01

    We determined the efficacy of combined helical tomotherapy (HT) and chemotherapy in primary/recurrent unresectable rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of temporal bone. For this purpose, 9 patients (7 males/2 females), aged 4-9 (average: 6.89) years, with unresectable embryonal RMS of the temporal bone were treated at our hospital. The tumors had either invaded the carotid artery in the cavernous sinus (7/9) or both the cavernous sinus and the skull base foramen (2/9); 7 patients had primary and 2 had recurrent RMS. All patients underwent 2 cycles of induction chemotherapy with VIE (vincristine, ifosfamide, and etoposide), followed by concurrent HT (50-70 Gy) and chemotherapy with VE (vincristine and etoposide for 2 cycles), and 11 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with VIE. As a result, all patients achieved complete response, and the 2-year tumor-free survival rate was 100 %. During a follow-up of 3-51 months, all 9 patients were alive. We, therefore, conclude that the induction chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy with VIE and concurrent HT and chemotherapy with VE regimen is effective in treating unresectable embryonal RMS of the temporal bone. The combined modality treatment may achieve the best chance of cure for these patients, thereby changing the therapeutic strategy from palliative to possibly curative. PMID:24619819

  1. Long-term quality of life after intensified multi-modality treatment of oral cancer including intra-arterial induction chemotherapy and adjuvant chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Adorján F.; Stefenelli, Ulrich; Thorn, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QoL) studies are well established when accompanying trials in head and neck cancer, but studies on long-term survivors are rare. Aims: The aim was to evaluate long-term follow-up patients treated with an intensified multi-modality therapy. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study, tertiary care center. Patients and Methods: A total of 135 oral/oropharyngeal cancer survivors having been treated with an effective four modality treatment (intra-arterial induction chemotherapy, radical surgery, adjuvant radiation, concurrent systemic chemotherapy) filled European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and HN35 questionnaires. Mean distance to treatment was 6.1 (1.3–16.6) years. Results were compared with a reference patient population (EORTC reference manual). In-study group comparison was also carried out. Statistical Analysis: One-sample t-test, Mann–Whitney-test, Kruskal–Wallis analysis. Results: QoL scores of both populations were well comparable. Global health status, cognitive and social functioning, fatigue, social eating, status of teeth, mouth opening and dryness, and sticky saliva were significantly worse in the study population; pain and need for pain killers, cough, need for nutritional support, problems with weight loss and gain were judged to be significantly less. Patients 1-year posttreatment had generally worse scores as compared to patients with two or more years distance to treatment. Complex reconstructive measures and adjuvant (chemo) radiation were main reasons for significant impairment of QoL. Conclusion Subjective disease status of patients following a maximized multi-modality treatment showed an expectable high degree of limitations, but was generally comparable to a reference group treated less intensively, suggesting that the administration of an intensified multi-modality treatment is feasible in terms of QoL/effectivity ratio. PMID:26389030

  2. Survival Benefits and Trends in Use of Adjuvant Therapy Among Elderly Stage II and III Rectal Cancer Patients in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Dobie, Sharon A.; Warren, Joan L.; Matthews, Barbara; Schwartz, David; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Billingsley, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study examined elderly stage II and III rectal cancer patients’ adjuvant chemoradiation therapy adherence, trends in adherence over time, and the relation of levels of adherence to mortality. METHODS The authors studied 2886 stage II and III rectal cancer patients who had surgical resection and who appeared in 1992–1999 linked SEER-Medicare claims data. The authors compared measures of adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy receipt and completion between stage II and III patients. Adjusted risk of cancer-related 5-year mortality was calculated by multivariate logistic regression for different levels of chemoradiation adherence among stage II and III patients. RESULTS Of the 2886 patients, 45.4% received both adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Stage III patients were more likely to receive chemoradiation than stage II patients. The receipt of chemoradiation by stage II patients increased significantly from 1992 to 1999. Stage III patients were more likely to complete radiation therapy (96.6%), chemotherapy (68.2%), and both modalities (67.5%) than stage II patients (91.5%, 49.8%, 47.6%, respectively). Only a complete course of both radiation and chemotherapy for both stage II (relative risk [RR] 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54, 0.97) and III (RR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65, 0.96) decreased the adjusted 5-year cancer mortality risk compared with counterparts with no adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSIONS Even though stage II rectal cancer patients were less likely than stage III patients to receive and complete adjuvant chemoradiation, both patient groups in the general population had lower cancer-related mortality if they completed chemoradiation. These patients deserve support and encouragement to complete treatment. PMID:18189291

  3. Predictive role of HER2/neu, topoisomerase-II-alpha, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) for response to adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy in patients with intermediate-risk breast cancer: results from the WSG-AGO EC-Doc trial.

    PubMed

    Erber, Ramona; Gluz, Oleg; Brünner, Nils; Kreipe, Hans Heinrich; Pelz, Enrico; Kates, Ronald; Bartels, Annette; Huober, Jens; Mohrmann, Svjetlana; Moustafa, Zehra; Liedtke, Cornelia; Möbus, Volker; Augustin, Doris; Thomssen, Christoph; Jänicke, Fritz; Kiechle, Marion; Kuhn, Walther; Nitz, Ulrike; Harbeck, Nadia; Hartmann, Arndt

    2015-04-01

    Taxane-anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy is standard of care in patients with node-positive breast cancer (BC) but is also associated with severe side effects and significant costs. It is yet unclear, which biomarkers would predict benefit from taxanes and/or general chemoresistance. In this study, we investigate a large cohort of patients with intermediate-risk BC treated within the WSG EC-DOC Trial for the predictive impact of topoisomerase-II-alpha, HER2/neu, and TIMP-1. Tumor tissue was available in a representative cohort of 772 cases of the WSG EC-DOC Trial collective which compared 4xEC-4xDoc versus 6xCEF/CMF. In addition to hormone receptor status and Ki-67, HER2/neu+ and topoisomerase-II-alpha status using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and immunohistochemistry, TIMP-1 using immunohistochemistry, and aneuploidy of chromosome 17 using FISH were evaluated and correlated with outcome and taxane benefit. There was significant superiority of EC-Doc over CEF regarding 5-year DFS (90 vs. 80 %, respectively, p = 0.006) particularly in patient subgroups defined by HR+, HER2/neu+, high proliferation (i.e., Ki-67 ≥ 20 %), patient age >50 years old and normal chromosome 17 status, high TIMP-1 and low topoisomerase-II-alpha protein expression. Significant prognostic factors in multivariate analysis were EC-Doc therapy (HR = 0.61; 95 %CI 0.38-0.986), age <50 years old (HR = 1.682; 95 %CI 1.025-2.579), centrally assessed grade 3 (HR = 4.657; 95 %CI 1.809-11.989), and high Ki-67 (HR = 2.232; 95 %CI 1.209-4.121). Interestingly, we observed a significant interaction between treatment arm (EC-Doc vs. CEF) and high topoisomerase-II-alpha protein expression (HR = 0.427; 95 %CI 0.203-0.900) in multivariate interaction analysis. Despite of univariate predictive effect of HER2/neu status among other factors only topoisomerase-II-alpha protein expression was associated with significant benefit from EC-Doc compared to CEF by multivariate interaction analysis

  4. Trial on Refinement of Early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy with pemetrexed and cisplatin versus vinorelbine and cisplatin: The TREAT protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kreuter, Michael; Vansteenkiste, Johan; Griesinger, Frank; Hoffmann, Hans; Dienemann, Hendrik; De Leyn, Paul; Thomas, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background Adjuvant chemotherapy has been proven to be beneficial for patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer. However, toxicity and insufficient dose delivery have been critical issues with the chemotherapy used. Doublet regimens with pemetrexed, a multi-target folate inhibitor, and platin show clear activity in non-small cell lung cancer and are well tolerated with low toxicity rates and excellent delivery. Methods/Design In this prospective, multi-center, open label randomized phase II study, patients with pathologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer, stage IB, IIA, IIB, T3N1 will be randomized after complete tumor resection either to 4 cycles of the standard adjuvant vinorelbine and cisplatin regimen from the published phase III data, or to 4 cycles of pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 d1 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 d1, q 3 weeks. Primary objective is to compare the clinical feasibility of these cisplatin doublets defined as non-occurrence of grade 4 neutropenia and/or thrombocytopenia > 7 days or bleeding, grade 3/4 febrile neutropenia and/or infection, grade 3/4 non-hematological toxicity, non-acceptance leading to premature withdrawal and no cancer or therapy related death. Secondary parameters are efficacy (time to relapse, overall survival) and drug delivery. Parameters of safety are hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity of both arms. Discussion The TREAT trial was designed to evaluate the clinical feasibility, i.e. rate of patients without dose limiting toxicities or premature treatment withdrawal or death of the combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed as well as the published phase III regimen of cisplatin and vinorelbine. Hypothesis of the study is that reduced toxicities might improve the feasibility of drug delivery, compliance and the convenience of treatment for the patient and perhaps survival. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00349089 PMID:17488518

  5. Adjuvant High-Dose Interferon-α for Resected Melanoma in a Patient with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Nakhle S.; George, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Adjuvant interferon (IFN)-α remains the standard adjuvant therapy for intermediate and high-risk melanoma after definitive surgical resection. Data addressing the role and safety of adjuvant immunotherapy in HIV-infected patients with melanoma are lacking. We report on an HIV+ patient who received IFN-α as adjuvant treatment for high-risk melanoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of such an approach. PMID:20555019

  6. Comparison of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small-lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Wang, Zhehai

    2016-01-01

    Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a first-line treatment for advanced nonsquamous, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2006. This study retrospectively compared the efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone as the first-line and second-line treatment as well as the maintenance treatment for advanced NSCLC patients. A total of 1,352 patients were included and we analyzed the efficacy evaluation according to the criteria of the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST), survival, and adverse reactions. The data showed that for bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as the first-line treatment, the median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were 11.5 and 17.0 months, respectively, compared to 7.0 and 14 months, respectively, in patients who received chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). With bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as maintenance treatment, the mPFS and mOS were 6.0 and 17.4 months, respectively, compared to 3.0 and 15.0 months, respectively, with chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). With bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as the second-line treatment, the mPFS was 3.0 months compared to only 2.0 months with chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). The overall responses to the different regimens showed that the remission rate with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy was higher than that with chemotherapy alone (31.8% vs 25.5%, P<0.05), although there was no statistical difference in the disease control rate with either first- or second-line treatment. In conclusion, chemotherapy plus bevacizumab as the first-line and maintenance treatment, led to better curative rates and tolerable adverse reactions compared with chemotherapy alone in advanced NSCLC patients. Bevacizumab combined with cytotoxic drugs was suitable as the second-line treatment for such patients. PMID:27536131

  7. Comparison of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone in advanced non-small-lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ning; Wang, Zhehai

    2016-01-01

    Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a first-line treatment for advanced nonsquamous, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2006. This study retrospectively compared the efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone as the first-line and second-line treatment as well as the maintenance treatment for advanced NSCLC patients. A total of 1,352 patients were included and we analyzed the efficacy evaluation according to the criteria of the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST), survival, and adverse reactions. The data showed that for bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as the first-line treatment, the median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) were 11.5 and 17.0 months, respectively, compared to 7.0 and 14 months, respectively, in patients who received chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). With bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as maintenance treatment, the mPFS and mOS were 6.0 and 17.4 months, respectively, compared to 3.0 and 15.0 months, respectively, with chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). With bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as the second-line treatment, the mPFS was 3.0 months compared to only 2.0 months with chemotherapy alone (P<0.01). The overall responses to the different regimens showed that the remission rate with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy was higher than that with chemotherapy alone (31.8% vs 25.5%, P<0.05), although there was no statistical difference in the disease control rate with either first- or second-line treatment. In conclusion, chemotherapy plus bevacizumab as the first-line and maintenance treatment, led to better curative rates and tolerable adverse reactions compared with chemotherapy alone in advanced NSCLC patients. Bevacizumab combined with cytotoxic drugs was suitable as the second-line treatment for such patients. PMID:27536131

  8. The impact of patient compliance with adjuvant radiotherapy: a comprehensive cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Badakhshi, Harun; Gruen, Arne; Sehouli, Jalid; Budach, Volker; Boehmer, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative radiotherapy (RT) is the standard of care for early stage breast cancer. It reduces the risk for local recurrence and prolongs survival. We assessed whether, the omission of RT because of patient's preference may influence the prognosis and, thus, the quality of cancer care. Detailed information from a prospectively collected database of a breast cancer center was analyzed. Multiple regression analysis and univariate and multivariate analysis for risk factors for recurrence were performed. The entire cohort of primary breast cancer patients in a given time period was analyzed. Data from 1903 patients undergoing treatment at breast cancer center between 2003 and 2008 were used. All patient underwent breast conserving surgery and RT was performed for all patients of the cohort. Local tumor control and disease-free survival were calculated. After a median follow-up of 2.18 years (maximum 6.39 years), 5.5% of patients did not follow guideline-based recommendations for RT. There was a significant correlation between noncompliance and patient's age, adjuvant hormonal therapy (97.0%), and adjuvant chemotherapy (96.8%). Seventy local recurrences occurred that corresponds to a local recurrence rate of 3.9%. The difference in regard to local recurrence-free 5-year survival between the compliant patients and the noncompliant patients is absolute 17.9 (93.3% and 75.4%). Noncompliant patients had suffered a 5.02-fold increased risk of local recurrence than compliant patients. The omission of RT after breast-conserving surgery results in a higher local failure rate and significantly worsens clinical outcome. Age may play an important role because of the comorbidities of aged patients or the assumed low RT tolerance in this group. On a clinical level, this data suggests that improvement is needed to correct this situation, and the question remains as to how best to improve RT compliance. PMID:24403236

  9. An individual patient data meta-analysis of adjuvant therapy with uracil–tegafur (UFT) in patients with curatively resected rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, J; Hamada, C; Yoshida, S; Kodaira, S; Yasutomi, M; Kato, T; Oba, K; Nakazato, H; Saji, S; Ohashi, Y

    2007-01-01

    Uracil–Tegafur (UFT), an oral fluorinated pyrimidine chemotherapeutic agent, has been used for adjuvant chemotherapy in curatively resected colorectal cancer patients. Past trials and meta-analyses indicate that it is somewhat effective in extending survival of patients with rectal cancer. The objective of this study was to perform a reappraisal of randomised clinical trials conducted in this field. We designed an individual patient-based meta-analysis of relevant clinical trials to examine the benefit of UFT for curatively resected rectal cancer in terms of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and local relapse-free survival (LRFS). We analysed individual patient data of five adjuvant therapy randomised clinical trials for rectal cancer, which met the predetermined inclusion criteria. These five trials had a combined total of 2091 patients, UFT as adjuvant chemotherapy compared to surgery-alone, 5-year follow-up, intention-to-treat-based analytic strategy, and similar endpoints (OS and DFS). In a pooled analysis, UFT had significant advantage over surgery-alone in terms of both OS (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70–0.97; P=0.02) and DFS (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95%CI, 0.63–0.84; P<0.0001). This individual patient-based meta-analysis demonstrated that oral UFT significantly improves both OS and DFS in patients with curatively resected rectal cancer. PMID:17375049

  10. Chemotherapy for patients with gastric cancer after complete resection: A network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Wu; Zhang, Yu-Long; Pan, Hui; Wei, Feng-Xian; Zhang, You-Cheng; Shao, Yuan; Han, Wei; Liu, Hai-Peng; Wang, Zhe-Yuan; Yang, Sun-Hu

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a network meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of different chemotherapy regimens for patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: PubMed (1966-2011.12), the Cochrane Library (2011 Issue 2) and EMBASE (1974-2011.12) were searched with the terms “gastric cancer” and “chemotherapy”, as well as the medical subject headings. References from relevant articles and conferences were also included. Patients who had previous gastric surgery, radiation before or after surgery or chemotherapy before surgery were excluded. In this study, only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were considered, and the end-point was the overall mortality. Direct comparisons were performed using traditional meta-analysis whereas indirect comparisons were performed using network meta-analysis. RESULTS: In total, 31 RCTs with 7120 patients were included. Five chemotherapy regimens, fluorouracil (FU) + BCNU, FU + methyl-CCNU (mCCNU), FU + cisplatin, FU + anthracyclines and FU + mitomycin c (MMC) + cytarabine (Ara-c), were found to be less beneficial in terms of overall mortality. In contrast, four chemotherapy regimens were effective for the patients after surgery, including FU + MMC + adriamycin (FMA), FU + MMC (FM), Tegafur and MMC, There was no significant difference in terms of overall mortality among these regimens. The evidence for the FM regimen and MMC regimen was poor. Additionally, the FMA regimen, which includes a variety of chemotherapy drugs and causes many side effects, was not better than the Tegafur regimen. CONCLUSION: Although the four chemotherapy regimens were effective in patients with gastric cancer after surgery and the overall mortality revealed no significant difference among them in the network meta-analysis, thorough analysis of the results recommends Tegafur as the first-line adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients after complete resection. PMID:24574729

  11. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Chemotherapy Chemotherapy (chemo) usually refers to the use of ... better sense of control over your cancer treatment. Chemotherapy Basics How Is Chemotherapy Used to Treat Cancer? ...

  12. Design of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effectiveness Study (PACES):A randomized controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise in improving physical fitness and reducing fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer chemotherapy is frequently associated with a decline in general physical condition, exercise tolerance, and muscle strength and with an increase in fatigue. While accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise interventions during chemotherapy treatment may contribute to maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and strength, the results of studies conducted to date have not been consistent. Additional research is needed to determine the optimal intensity of exercise training programs in general and in particular the relative effectiveness of supervised, outpatient (hospital- or physical therapy practice-based) versus home-based programs. Methods This multicenter, prospective, randomized trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a low to moderate intensity, home-based, self-management physical activity program, and a high intensity, structured, supervised exercise program, in maintaining or enhancing physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength), in minimizing fatigue and in enhancing the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast or colon cancer (n = 360) are being recruited from twelve hospitals in the Netherlands, and randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups or to a 'usual care' control group. Performance-based and self-reported outcomes are assessed at baseline, at the end of chemotherapy and at six month follow-up. Discussion This large, multicenter, randomized clinical trial will provide additional empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy in enhancing physical fitness, minimizing fatigue, and maintaining or enhancing patients' quality of life. If demonstrated to be effective, exercise intervention programs will be a welcome addition to the standard program of care offered to patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Trial registration This study is registered at the Netherlands Trial

  13. Adjuvant chemotherapy for ypT0N0M0 rectal cancer following chemoradiotherapy and total mesorectal excision.

    PubMed

    Kainthla, Radhika; Huerta, Sergio

    2016-10-01

    The management of adenocarcinoma of the rectum is a dynamic field in oncology. The multidisciplinary approach to the management of this disease continues to evolve in each segment of its trimodality treatment. New scheduling regimens and radiosensitizing agents continue to emerge. Although total mesorectal excision continues to be the operation of choice for rectal cancers, what is done before and after surgery continues to evolve to maximize an ideal oncologic outcome with minimal morbidity. The achievement of a pathological complete response [pCR (i.e. ypT0N0)] in a fraction of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiation poses an interesting management dilemma. The cohort of patients who can achieve a pCR have superior oncologic outcomes compared to nonresponders. The present review addresses the need for adjuvant therapy in patients with a pCR. We discuss the evolution of the role of adjuvant therapy in patients with rectal cancer and the studies addressing the elimination of this strategy in all patients with rectal cancer with a goal of determining the current evidence that might result in the omission of adjuvant therapy for patients with ypT0N0 rectal cancer after chemoradiation and total mesorectal excision. PMID:27387144

  14. Phase II Study of Short-Course Radiotherapy Plus Concomitant and Adjuvant Temozolomide in Elderly Patients With Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Minniti, Giuseppe; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Scaringi, Claudia; Caporello, Paola; Salvati, Maurizio; Arcella, Antonella; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Giangaspero, Felice; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy may prolong survival in older patients (age {>=}70 years) with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), although the survival benefits remain poor. This Phase II multicenter study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an abbreviated course of RT plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) in older patients with GBM. Patients and Methods: Seventy-one eligible patients 70 years of age or older with newly diagnosed GBM and a Karnofsky performance status {>=}60 were treated with a short course of RT (40 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks) plus TMZ at the dosage of 75 mg/m{sup 2} per day followed by 12 cycles of adjuvant TMZ (150-200 mg/m{sup 2} for 5 days during each 28-day cycle). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival and toxicity. Results: The Median OS was 12.4 months, and the 1-year and 2-year OS rates were 58% and 20%, respectively. The median and 1-year rates of progression-free survival were 6 months and 20%, respectively. All patients completed the planned programme of RT. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 16 patients (22%). Grade 3 and 4 neutropenia and/or thrombocytopenia occurred in 10 patients (15%), leading to the interruption of treatment in 6 patients (8%). Nonhematologic Grade 3 toxicity was rare, and included fatigue in 4 patients and cognitive disability in 1 patient. Conclusions: A combination of an abbreviated course of RT plus concomitant and adjuvant TMZ is well tolerated and may prolong survival in elderly patients with GBM. Future randomized studies need to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of different schedules of RT in association with chemotherapy.

  15. Feasibility of oral administration of S-1 as adjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer: 4-week S-1 administration followed by 2-week rest vs. 2-week administration followed by 1-week rest

    PubMed Central

    YAMATSUJI, TOMOKI; FUJIWARA, YASUHIRO; MATSUMOTO, HIDEO; HATO, SHINJI; NAMIKAWA, TSUTOMU; HANAZAKI, KAZUHIRO; TAKAOKA, MUNENORI; HAYASHI, JIRO; SHIGEMITSU, KAORI; YOSHIDA, KAZUHIRO; URAKAMI, ATSUSHI; UNO, FUTOSHI; NISHIZAKI, MASAHIKO; KAGAWA, SHUNSUKE; NINOMIYA, MOTOKI; FUJIWARA, TOSHIYOSHI; HIRAI, TOSHIHIRO; NAKAMURA, MASAFUMI; HAISA, MINORU; NAOMOTO, YOSHIO

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, the Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer (ACTS-GC) demonstrated that S-1 is an effective adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer. Following that study, S-1 has been used as the standard adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer in Japan. However, the 1-year completion rate was only 65.8% in the ACTS-GC study and feasibility remains a critical issue. We conducted a study to evaluate the feasibility of 2 weekly administration regimens of S-1 as adjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer. The criteria for eligibility included histologically proven stage II (excluding T1), IIIA or IIIB gastric cancer with D2 lymph-node dissection. The patients were randomly assigned to either arm A (S-1 administration for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks of rest) or arm B (S-1 administration for 2 weeks followed by 1 week of rest). In each arm, treatment was continued for 12 months unless recurrence or severe adverse events were observed. The primary endpoint was feasibility (protocol treatment completion rate). The secondary endpoints were safety, relapse-free survival and overall survival. A total of 47 patients were assigned to arms A or B between May, 2008 and February, 2010. During the first interim analysis, the protocol treatment completion rates in arms A and B were 83 and 100%, respectively at 6 months and 49 and 89%, respectively, at 12 months (P=0.0046). Therefore, S-1 administration for 2 weeks followed by 1 week rest was more feasible as adjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer. Grade 3 adverse events in arm A included fatigue (8.0%), anorexia (8.0%), nausea (4.0%), vomiting (4.0%) and hand-foot syndrome (4.0%), whereas none were observed in arm B. There were no reported grade 4 adverse events in either arm. In conclusion, the 2-week S-1 administration followed by 1-week rest regimen appears to be a more feasible oral administration regimen for S-1 as adjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer. PMID:26137261

  16. [The chemotherapy of patients with prostatic tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Kamyshan, I S; Biazrov, S T; Pogrebinskiĭ, V I

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined the efficacy of various chemotherapeutic regimes in the management of patients with tuberculosis of the prostate. The data of bacteriostatic secretion activity of the prostate showed that the most effective regimes were as follows: 1) isoniazid and ethambutol followed by galvanization of the prostatic region, then rifampicin suppository containing dimexid; 2) isoniazid and rifampicin suppository containing dimexid; oral ethambutol. Proper curative measures depending on the clinicomorphological types of the tuberculous prostate and their duration are also given. Using the proposed regimes in 68 patients provided 80.7-96.6% positive responses. The authors advise to carry out seasonal courses of chemotherapy using mainly the method of rectal administration of anti-tuberculous agents, dimexid and tissue electrophoresis. PMID:1871918

  17. Management of hepatitis B reactivation in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is well documented in previously resolved or inactive HBV carriers who receive cancer chemotherapy. The consequences of HBV reactivation range from self-limited conditions to fulminant hepatic failure and death. HBV reactivation also leads to premature termination of chemotherapy or delay in treatment schedules. This review summarizes current knowledge of management of HBV reactivation in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) testing should be performed in patients who require cancer chemotherapy. Four meta-analyses support lamivudine prophylaxis for HBV reactivation during chemotherapy in HBsAg-positive patients. Randomized controlled trials to compare different HBV antiviral agents are needed to define optimal regimens for the prevention and treatment of HBV reactivation in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22973419

  18. Methylation status at HYAL2 predicts overall and progression-free survival of colon cancer patients under 5-FU chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pfütze, Katrin; Benner, Axel; Hoffmeister, Michael; Jansen, Lina; Yang, Rongxi; Bläker, Hendrik; Herpel, Esther; Ulrich, Alexis; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Brenner, Hermann; Burwinkel, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    DNA methylation variations in gene promoter regions are well documented tumor-specific alterations in human malignancies including colon cancer, which may influence tumor behavior and clinical outcome. As a subset of colon cancer patients does not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, predictive biomarkers are desirable. Here, we describe that DNA methylation levels at CpG loci of hyaluronoglucosaminidase 2 (HYLA2) could be used to identify stage II and III colon cancer patients who are most likely to benefit from 5-flourouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy with respect to overall survival and progression-free survival. PMID:26453961

  19. Feasibility and toxicity of adjuvant chemotherapy using S-1 granules for local advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Honda, Kohei; Sato, Teruyuki; Yamazaki, Kazuharu; Ishikawa, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    S-1 granulated powder has recently been released to the market as an additional format to that of the capsule. Patients who previously found it difficult to swallow the capsules are now able to take S-1 in powder form. This study evaluated the feasibility of S-1 granulated powder as adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer. S-1 was orally administered for 2  weeks, followed by 1  week of rest (one course) for 12  months (16 courses). Twenty-four stage III and IV head and neck cancer patients were enrolled in this study. In total, 10 (47.6%) of the patients follow the planned schedule and dose. Severe adverse events were observed in 22 patients (91.7%), whereas no grade 4 adverse events were observed. S-1 granulated powder should be presented as an additional option for the treatment of head and neck cancer, especially for patients experiencing difficulty in swallowing oral medications. PMID:25971448

  20. Chemotherapy treatment decision making by professionals and older patients with cancer: a narrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M

    2012-01-01

    This narrative review of the literature examines the issues influencing chemotherapy treatment of older patients with cancer. Increasing age is associated with physical, social and psychological changes, but the rate of change differs widely between people, such that chronological age is not a good determinant of fitness for treatment. Changes in old age can affect disease processes and treatments that are offered. Clinical trials suggest that older patients gain benefits from chemotherapy, but with increased toxicity profile. Dose reductions may be required, but the effect on outcome is not known. Adjuvant chemotherapy is likely to benefit patients with a life expectancy over 5 years, although mortality benefits become less pronounced with increasing age. Older patients want chemotherapy, as long as side effects do not reduce quality of life or ability to function independently. Older patients face barriers to communication with professionals, including sensory and memory problems and poorer health literacy. Patients should be assessed covering functional, physiological and socio-economic domains that identify significant comorbid disease and frailty, to ensure that planned chemotherapy is appropriate. Successful treatment of older patients with chemotherapy may require interventions to support them to ensure all patients who may derive benefit can undergo treatment, if they so wish. PMID:21955060

  1. Effects of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy on ovarian function in women undergoing treatment for soft tissue sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shamberger, R.C.; Sherins, R.J.; Ziegler, J.L.; Glatstein, E.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Ovarian function was evaluated in 11 women 16 to 43 years of age at treatment who received doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high doses of methotrexate with or without radiotherapy in adjuvant therapy of soft tissue sarcoma. Five women (16-33 yr old) who received chemotherapy alone or combined with radiotherapy only at sites distant from the ovaries (chest wall, thigh, and leg) had minimal menstrual irregularities or temporary cessation of menses during therapy; cyclic menses returned promptly after therapy. Gonadotropin levels (expressed as means +/- SD (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 10 +/- 5 mlU/ml; luteinizing hormone (LH), 10 +/- 4 mlU/ml) and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) levels (means +/- SD, 208 +/- 147 pg/ml) were normal. By contrast, 4 older women (ages 36-43 yr) who received similar treatment developed persistent amenorrhea with postmenopausal levels of gonadotropin (FSH, 108 +/- 29 mlU/ml; LH, 72 +/- 19 mlU/ml) and E2 (19 +/- 8 pg/ml). Two additional women (ages 21 and 39 yr) who received radiation (7,000 rad) to the pelvis plus chemotherapy developed prompt cessation of menses and became functional castrates (FSH, 77 and 80 mlU/ml; LH, 40 and 58 mlU/ml; E2, 10 and 19 pg/ml). However, this result would be expected from the radiation dose alone. The data demonstrated that ovarian dysfunction may follow the use of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high doses of methotrexate and that the injury is age related.

  2. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy combined with anatomical resection of feline injection-site sarcoma: results in 21 cats.

    PubMed

    Bray, J; Polton, G

    2016-06-01

    This study assesses the outcome of two combined treatment strategies for the treatment of feline injection-site sarcoma (FISS). Twenty-one cats with primary or recurrent FISS received 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin (25 mg m(-2) ), then an anatomical resection of the entire muscle compartment containing the tumour was performed based on the findings of co-axial imaging. Cats then received a further 3 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Follow-up was performed by telephone contact with a median follow-up time of 1072 days. Three cats (14%) developed local tumour recurrence at days 264, 664 and 1573 after surgery. A median survival time could not be calculated as over 80% of the study population remained alive or were censored due to death from other causes. When compared to historical controls, the results of this study demonstrate superior rates of tumour-free survival and disease-free interval. PMID:24502401

  3. Curative effect of the recent photofrin photodynamic adjuvant treatment on young patients with advanced colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    SUN, BO; LI, WEI; LIU, NING

    2016-01-01

    Advanced colorectal cancer has a high mortality rate and conventional treatments have poor therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to analyze the recent curative effect and adverse reaction of photofrin photodynamic adjuvant treatment on young patients with advanced colorectal cancer. A total of 23 patients with advanced colorectal cancer who had accepted semiconductor laser photodynamic adjuvant treatment were selected as the observation group. In addition, 30 patients who had accepted concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy during the same period served as the control group. The observation group received photofrin (2 mg/kg) intravenously in 100 ml of 5% glucose, followed by the introduction of the endoscopic optical fiber to deliver laser radiation with an intensity of 630 nm wavelength pulse power. After 2 days, necrotic tissues were removed and irradiation of the original or new tumor lesions was performed and necrotic tissues were removed. The total effective rate and survival time was higher and the length of hospital stay was shorter in the observation group in comparison with the control group. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The number of patients in the control and observation groups with symptoms of hematochezia, change in bowel habit, intestinal stimulation and incomplete intestinal obstruction were reduced. Additionally, the reduced ratio of the observation group was significantly increased in comparison with the control group (P<0.05). The adverse reaction rate of the observation group was lower than that of the control group and this difference was also statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, use of photodynamic treatment for young patients with advanced colorectal cancer can effectively improve the clinical symptoms and reduce complications. PMID:26998124

  4. Adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell support for high-risk primary breast cancer: results from the Italian national registry.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Gianni, Alessandro Massimo; Da Prada, Gian Antonio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Rosti, Giovanni; Frassineti, Giovanni Luca; Aieta, Michele; Secondino, Simona; Cinieri, Saverio; Fedele, Roberta; Bengala, Carmelo; Bregni, Marco; Grasso, Donatella; De Giorgi, Ugo; Lanza, Francesco; Castagna, Luca; Bruno, Barbara; Martino, Massimo

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous hemopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (AHPCT) for breast cancer (BC) patients has been an area of intense controversy among the medical oncology community. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity and efficacy of this procedure in a large cohort of high-risk primary BC patients who underwent AHPCT in Italy. A total of 1183 patients receiving HDC for high-risk BC (HRBC) (>3 positive nodes) were identified in the Italian registry. The median age was 46 years, 62% of patients were premenopausal at treatment, 60.1% had endocrine-responsive tumors, and 20.7% had a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumor. The median number of positive lymph nodes (LN) at surgery was 15, with 71.5% of patients having ≥ 10 positive nodes. Seventy-three percent received an alkylating agent-based HDC as a single procedure, whereas 27% received epirubicin or mitoxantrone-containing HDC, usually within a multitransplantation program. The source of stem cells was peripheral blood in the vast majority of patients. Transplantation-related mortality was .8%, whereas late cardiac and secondary tumor-related mortality were around 1%, overall. With a median follow-up of 79 months, median disease-free and overall survival (OS) in the entire population were 101 and 134 months, respectively. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that OS was significantly better in patients with endocrine-responsive tumors and in patients receiving multiple transplantation procedures. HER2 status did not affect survival probability. The size of the primary tumor and number of involved LN negatively affected OS. Adjuvant HDC with AHPCT has a low mortality rate and provides impressive long-term survival rates in patients with high-risk primary BC. Our results suggest that this treatment modality should be proposed in selected HRBC patients and further investigated in clinical trials. PMID:24374214

  5. Impact of age on efficacy of postoperative oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yong-xi; Sun, Jing-xu; Chen, Xiao-wan; Zhao, Jun-hua; Ma, Bin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Zhen-ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines focusing on age-related adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer are currently limited. The present study aimed to explore the impact of age on the efficacy of adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort analysis using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare-linked database from 1992–2009. We enrolled patients with yp stages I–III rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and underwent curative resection. The age-related survival benefit of adding oxaliplatin to adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis with propensity score-matching and Cox proportional hazards models. Results Comparing the oxaliplatin group with the 5-FU group, there were significant interactions between age and chemotherapy efficacy in terms of overall survival (OS) (p for interaction = 0.017) among patients with positive lymph nodes (ypN+). Adding oxaliplatin to 5-FU could prolong survival in patients aged < 73 years and ypN+ category, and but did not translate into survival benefits in patients aged ≥ 73 years and ypN+ category. No significant interactions were observed among ypN− patients, and oxaliplatin did not significantly improve OS, regardless of age. Conclusions In patients with rectal cancer who have already received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and undergone curative resection, adding oxaliplatin to 5-FU could prolong OS in patients aged < 73 years and ypN+ category. However, adding oxaliplatin did not translate into survival benefits in patients age ≥ 73 years and ypN+ category, or in ypN− patients. PMID:26910371

  6. Adjuvant antiarrhythmic therapy in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Bunch, T Jared; Anderson, Jeffrey L

    2014-04-01

    The risk of sudden cardiac death from ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia in patients with cardiomyopathy related to structural heart disease has been favorably impacted by the wide adaptation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) for both primary and secondary prevention. Unfortunately, after ICD implantation both appropriate and inappropriate ICD therapies are common. ICD shocks in particular can have significant effects on quality of life and disease-related morbidity and mortality. While not indicated for primary prevention of ICD therapies, beta-blockers and antiarrhythmic drugs are a cornerstone for secondary prevention of them. This review will summarize our current understanding of adjuvant antiarrhythmic drug therapy in ICD patients. The review will also discuss the roles of nonantiarrhythmic drug approaches that are used in isolation and in combination with antiarrhythmic drugs to reduce subsequent risk of ICD shocks. PMID:24288157

  7. Prognostic significance of S100A4 expression in stage II and III colorectal cancer: results from a population-based series and a randomized phase III study on adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Boye, Kjetil; Jacob, Havjin; Frikstad, Kari-Anne M; Nesland, Jahn M; Maelandsmo, Gunhild M; Dahl, Olav; Nesbakken, Arild; Flatmark, Kjersti

    2016-08-01

    Current clinical algorithms are unable to precisely predict which colorectal cancer patients would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, and there is a need for novel biomarkers to improve the selection of patients. The metastasis-promoting protein S100A4 predicts poor outcome in colorectal cancer, but whether it could be used to guide clinical decision making remains to be resolved. S100A4 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in primary colorectal carcinomas from a consecutively collected, population-representative cohort and a randomized phase III study on adjuvant 5-fluorouracil/levamisole. Sensitivity to treatment with 5-fluorouracil in S100A4 knockdown cells was investigated using 2D and 3D cell culture assays. Strong nuclear expression of S100A4 was detected in 19% and 23% of the tumors in the two study cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, nuclear immunoreactivity was associated with reduced relapse-free (P < 0.001 and P = 0.010) and overall survival (P = 0.046 and P = 0.006) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, nuclear S100A4 was a predictor of poor relapse-free survival in the consecutive series (P = 0.002; HR 1.9), but not in the randomized study. Sensitivity to treatment with 5-fluorouracil was not affected by S100A4 expression in in vitro cell culture assays, and there was no indication from subgroup analyses in the randomized study that S100A4 expression was associated with increased benefit of adjuvant treatment with 5-fluorouracil/levamisole. The present study confirms that nuclear S100A4 expression is a negative prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer, but the clinical utility in selection of patients for adjuvant fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy is limited. PMID:27273130

  8. Systemic capillary leak syndrome in a patient receiving adjuvant oxaliplatin for locally advanced colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brandon J; Peterson, Lindsay L

    2016-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in the USA each year. Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapy agent, is part of the standard adjuvant chemotherapy regimen FOLFOX (oxaliplatin with 5-fluorouracil [5-FU] and leucovorin [LV]) for the treatment of stage III and some high-risk stage II colorectal cancers. Although oxaliplatin is generally well tolerated, certain side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and peripheral neuropathy are common. We report a case of oxaliplatin-induced capillary-leak syndrome in a 63-year-old man undergoing his 12th and final cycle of FOLFOX for stage III colorectal cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first case of systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) reported in association with oxaliplatin. Currently, there is no prevention for SCLS. Documenting future cases of SCLS attributed to oxaliplatin is vital, as SCLS is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and no standard treatments beyond supportive care measures exist. Early recognition and diagnosis are therefore essential to improving patient outcomes. PMID:26071595

  9. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Housholder, D.F.; Hynes, H.E.; Dakhil, S.R.; Marymont, J.V.

    1985-05-01

    Hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy is used in the treatment of certain selected hepatic tumors, especially metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colon. Chemical cholecystitis has been recognized recently as a complication of hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy. The authors performed hepatobiliary scans on ten patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy. All ten patients had abnormal hepatobiliary scintigraphy. They present case reports of three patients with abnormal hepatobiliary scans who have required cholecystectomy for symptoms of chemical cholecystitis to illustrate the clinical, scintigraphic, and pathologic findings in these patients.

  10. Influence of chemotherapy on endosteal implant survival and success in oral cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kovács, A F

    2001-04-01

    Little is known about the effect of chemotherapy on the osseointegration and survival of endosteal dental implants. In a retrospective study, two groups of patients were compared: one group consisting of 30 oral cancer patients received postsurgical adjuvant chemotherapy with either cis- or carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil in three cycles and were treated subsequently with 106 dental implants placed in the mandible; the other group consisting of 17 patents suffering from oral cancer was prescribed with 54 dental implants placed in the mandible after oncological surgery. No patient was treated with radiotherapy. Twenty patients in the first group were successfully provided with a prosthetic superstructure (mean time of function: 35.8 months) compared to 16 patients in the second group (mean time of function: 36.2 months). The observation time was 10 years. A life-table analysis based on defined success parameters demonstrated no significant difference between implant survival in either group. It was concluded that chemotherapy with cis- or carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil was not detrimental to the survival and success of dental implants in the mandible. PMID:11405450

  11. Complications associated with intraventricular chemotherapy in patients with leptomeningeal metastases.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, M C; Kormanik, P A; Barba, D

    1997-11-01

    The authors studied complications associated with intraventricular chemotherapy in patients with leptomeningeal metastases (LM). One hundred twenty consecutive patients with LM (71 females and 49 males) ranging in age from 10 to 72 years (median 42 years) were treated with involved-field radiotherapy and intraventricular chemotherapy using an Ommaya reservoir and intraventricular catheter system. The diagnosis of LM was determined by a combination of clinical presentation (114 patients); cerebrospinal fluid cytological studies (100); or neuroradiographic studies (42). Systemic tumor histological findings included breast (34 patients); non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (22); melanoma (16); primitive neuroectodermal tumors including medulloblastoma (10); glial neoplasms, leukemia, small cell lung, nonsmall cell lung, and colon (six each); prostate and kidney (three each); and gastric cancers (two). Sixteen patients, all with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, also had acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Patients received one to four (median two) chemotherapeutic drugs and underwent a total of 1110 cycles of intraventricular chemotherapy (median 10). Intraventricular chemotherapy administration and diagnostic Ommaya reservoir punctures totaled 4400, with a median of 46 per patient. Complications included aseptic/chemical meningitis (52 patients); myelosuppression due to intraventricular chemotherapy (21); catheter-related infections (nine); unidirectional catheter obstruction (six); intraventricular catheter malpositioning (two); Ommaya reservoir exposure (two); leukoencephalopathy (two); and chemotherapy-related myelopathy (one). There were no treatment-related deaths; however, seven patients (6%) required additional surgery for either catheter repositioning (two) or reservoir removal (five). Seven patients with catheter-related infections were treated successfully with intraventricular and systemic antibiotic drugs, thereby preserving the Ommaya system. The authors conclude that Ommaya

  12. Improved Survival Endpoints With Adjuvant Radiation Treatment in Patients With High-Risk Early-Stage Endometrial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Elshaikh, Mohamed A.; Vance, Sean; Suri, Jaipreet S.; Mahan, Meredith; Munkarah, Adnan

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To determine the impact of adjuvant radiation treatment (RT) on recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with high-risk 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I-II endometrial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We identified 382 patients with high-risk EC who underwent hysterectomy. RFS, DSS, and OS were calculated from the date of hysterectomy by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression modeling was used to explore the risks associated with various factors on survival endpoints. Results: The median follow-up time for the study cohort was 5.4 years. The median age was 71 years. All patients underwent hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, 93% had peritoneal cytology, and 85% underwent lymphadenectomy. Patients with endometrioid histology constituted 72% of the study cohort, serous in 16%, clear cell in 7%, and mixed histology in 4%. Twenty-three percent of patients had stage II disease. Adjuvant management included RT alone in 220 patients (57%), chemotherapy alone in 25 patients (7%), and chemoradiation therapy in 27 patients (7%); 110 patients (29%) were treated with close surveillance. The 5-year RFS, DSS, and OS were 76%, 88%, and 73%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, adjuvant RT was a significant predictor of RFS (P<.001) DSS (P<.001), and OS (P=.017). Lymphovascular space involvement was a significant predictor of RFS and DSS (P<.001). High tumor grade was a significant predictor for RFS (P=.038) and DSS (P=.025). Involvement of the lower uterine segment was also a predictor of RFS (P=.049). Age at diagnosis and lymphovascular space involvement were significant predictors of OS: P<.001 and P=.002, respectively. Conclusion: In the treatment of patients with high-risk features, our study suggests that adjuvant RT significantly improves recurrence-free, disease-specific, and overall survival in patients with early-stage endometrial carcinoma

  13. Effects of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy on ovarian function in women undergoing treatment for soft tissue sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shamberger, R.C.; Sherins, R.J.; Ziegler, J.L.; Glatstein, E.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Ovarian function was evaluated in 11 women 16 to 43 years of age at treatment who received doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high doses of methotrexate with or without radiotherapy in adjuvant therapy of soft tissue sarcoma. Five women (16-33 yr old) who received chemotherapy alone or combined with radiotherapy only at sites distant from the ovaries (chest wall, thigh, and leg) had minimal menstrual irregularities or temporary cessation of menses during therapy; cyclic menses returned promptly after therapy. Gonadotropin levels (expressed as means +/- SD) (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 10 +/- 15 mlU/ml; luteinizing hormone (LH), 10 +/- 4 mlU/ml) and 17 ..beta..-estradiol (E/sub 2/) levels (means +/- SD, 208 +/- 147 pg/ml) were normal. By contrast, 4 older women (ages 36-43 yr) who received similar treatment developd persistent amenorrhea with postmenopausal levels of gonadotropin (FSH, 109 +/- 29 mlU/ml; LH, 72 +/- 19 mlU/ml) and E/sub 2/ (19 +/- 8 pg/ml). Two additional women (ages 21 and 39 yr) who received radiation (7000 rad) to the pelvis plus chemotherapy developed prompt cessation of menses and became functional castrates (FSH, 77 and 80mlU/ml; LH, 40 and 58 mlU/ml; E/sub 2/, 10 and 19 pg/ml). However, this result would be expected from the radiation dose alone. The data demonstrated that ovarian dysfunction may follow the use of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and high doses of methotrexate and that the injury is age related.

  14. Chemotherapy and prognosis in advanced thymic carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhengbo; Yu, Xinmin; Zhang, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The role of chemotherapy in treating advanced thymic carcinoma is unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of chemotherapy and the prognostic factors for patients with advanced thymic carcinoma. METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records of 86 patients treated with chemotherapy for advanced thymic carcinoma was conducted between 2000 and 2012 at our institution. The clinical characteristics, chemotherapy regimens and prognostic factors were analyzed. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan–Meier method and the Cox proportional hazard model was used for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Of the 86 patients, 56 were male and 30 were female. The median survival time was 24.5 months. For the first-line chemotherapy treatment, the objective response rate was 47.7% and the disease control rate was 80.2%. The median progression-free survival for all patients was 6.5 months for first-line chemotherapy. No significant differences in progression-free survival were observed among the different chemotherapy regimens. Multivariate analyses revealed that the prognostic factors for overall survival included performance status (p=0.043), histology grade (p=0.048), and liver metastasis (p=0.047). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that there is no difference in efficacy between multiagent and doublet regimens. The prognosis of patients with advanced thymic carcinoma can be predicted based on histological grade, liver metastasis and performance status. PMID:26735216

  15. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer: a consensus statement of the Hellenic and Cypriot Colorectal Cancer Study Group by the HeSMO.

    PubMed

    Kountourakis, Panteleimon; Souglakos, John; Gouvas, Nikolaos; Androulakis, Nikolaos; Athanasiadis, Athanasios; Boukovinas, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Christos; Chrysou, Evangelia; Dervenis, Christos; Emmanouilidis, Christos; Georgiou, Panagiotis; Karachaliou, Niki; Katopodi, Ourania; Makatsoris, Thomas; Papakostas, Pavlos; Pentheroudakis, Georgios; Pilpilidis, Ioannis; Sgouros, Joseph; Tekkis, Paris; Triantopoulou, Charina; Tzardi, Maria; Vassiliou, Vassilios; Vini, Louiza; Xynogalos, Spyridon; Xynos, Evaghelos; Ziras, Nikolaos; Papamichael, Demetris

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality in the Western world both in men and women. In this manuscript a concise overview and recommendations on adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer are presented. An executive team from the Hellenic Society of Medical Oncology was assigned to develop a consensus statement and guidelines on the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer. Fourteen statements on adjuvant treatment were subjected to the Delphi methodology. Voting experts were 68. All statements achieved a rate of consensus above than 80% (>87%) and none revised and entered to a second round of voting. Three and 8 of them achieved a 100 and an over than 90% consensus, respectively. These statements describe evaluations of therapies in clinical practice. They could be considered as general guidelines based on best available evidence for assistance in treatment decision-making. Furthermore, they serve to identify questions and targets for further research and the settings in which investigational therapy could be considered. PMID:26751386

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer: a consensus statement of the Hellenic and Cypriot Colorectal Cancer Study Group by the HeSMO*

    PubMed Central

    Kountourakis, Panteleimon; Souglakos, John; Gouvas, Nikolaos; Androulakis, Nikolaos; Athanasiadis, Athanasios; Boukovinas, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Christos; Chrysou, Evangelia; Dervenis, Christos; Emmanouilidis, Christos; Georgiou, Panagiotis; Karachaliou, Niki; Katopodi, Ourania; Makatsoris, Thomas; Papakostas, Pavlos; Pentheroudakis, Georgios; Pilpilidis, Ioannis; Sgouros, Joseph; Tekkis, Paris; Triantopoulou, Charina; Tzardi, Maria; Vassiliou, Vassilios; Vini, Louiza; Xynogalos, Spyridon; Xynos, Evaghelos; Ziras, Nikolaos; Papamichael, Demetris

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality in the Western world both in men and women. In this manuscript a concise overview and recommendations on adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer are presented. An executive team from the Hellenic Society of Medical Oncology was assigned to develop a consensus statement and guidelines on the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer. Fourteen statements on adjuvant treatment were subjected to the Delphi methodology. Voting experts were 68. All statements achieved a rate of consensus above than 80% (>87%) and none revised and entered to a second round of voting. Three and 8 of them achieved a 100 and an over than 90% consensus, respectively. These statements describe evaluations of therapies in clinical practice. They could be considered as general guidelines based on best available evidence for assistance in treatment decision-making. Furthermore, they serve to identify questions and targets for further research and the settings in which investigational therapy could be considered. PMID:26751386

  17. Hospice management of patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy: problems and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hicks, F; Corcoran, G

    1993-12-01

    In Britain, the specialty of palliative medicine continues to develop, encouraging the referral of patients early in the palliative phase of their illness. This had led to an increased number of patients receiving palliative chemotherapy and hospice care concurrently, posing special problems to the professionals involved. In this retrospective study, 52 patients were identified who received chemotherapy and hospice care simultaneously. Case notes were reviewed to reveal problems arising from sharing the duty of care. The poor quality of communication between professionals, perhaps reflecting a limited understanding of the various roles in patient care, we found to cause significant difficulties. The duration and discontinuation of cytotoxic therapy seems to be a particularly difficult matter. Hospice admission often signalled the end of this treatment. In a third of the patients, no decision was taken to stop chemotherapy despite the last dose being an average of just 1 week before death. The value of chemotherapy for patients who are too ill to return home is questioned. Seven patients were diagnosed as suffering from chemotherapy-induced sepsis and neutropenia either by hospice inpatient or home care teams, and were admitted to their acute centres accordingly. Most patients who died during the study period received terminal care in the hospice. Suggestions are made on improving professional education and communication, including the use of a 'chemotherapy card'. PMID:7505105

  18. Sprouty2 protein in prediction of post-treatment ascites in epithelial ovarian cancer treated with adjuvant carbotaxol chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi-Moghaddam, Samar; Amini, Afshin; Wei, Ai-Qun; Robertson, Gregory; Morris, David L

    2015-01-01

    Ascites development and resistance to chemotherapy with carbotaxol are common clinical problems in epithelial ovarian cancer, partly due to the activation of MAPK/ERK signaling. Sprouty proteins are negative modulators of MAPK/ERK pathway, but their role in predicting resistance to carbotaxol chemotherapy and ascites development is unknown. In this study, we evaluated the expression of Sprouty protein isoforms by immunohistochemistry. The associations between the Sprouty expression and the clinicopathological features, including chemoresistance and the presence of ascites, were then explored. We found that the decreased expression of Spry2 was correlated with the post-treatment development of ascites and represented an independent predictor of this condition in carbotaxol-treated patients. However, no association was observed between the Sprouty expression and chemoresistance. In conclusion, our results suggest that Spry2 may be useful for patient follow-up and monitoring as it predicts the development of ascites in epithelial ovarian cancer cases treated with carbotaxol. PMID:26396926

  19. Outcomes of Induction Chemotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin-Hua; Yen, Yu-Chun; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Yuan, Sheng-Po; Wu, Li-Li; Lee, Fei-Peng; Lin, Kuan-Chou; Lai, Ming-Tang; Wu, Chia-Che; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Chia-Lun; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Ding, Yi-Fang; Lin, Ming-Chin; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of induction chemotherapy (CT) is controversial. We compared the survival of head and neck cancer patients receiving docetaxel- or platinum-based induction CT before concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with the survival of those receiving upfront CCRT alone. Data from the National Health Insurance and cancer registry databases in Taiwan were linked and analyzed. We enrolled patients who had head and neck cancer between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2011. Follow-up was from the index date to December 31, 2013. We included head and neck patients diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 140.0–148.9 who were aged >20 years, at American Joint Committee on Cancer clinical cancer stage III or IV, and receiving induction CT or platinum-based CCRT. The exclusion criteria were a cancer history before head and neck cancer diagnosis, distant metastasis, AJCC clinical cancer stage I or II, receipt of platinum and docetaxel before radiotherapy, an age <20 years, missing sex data, docetaxel use during or after RT, induction CT for >8 weeks before RT, induction CT alone before RT, cetuximab use, adjuvant CT within 90 days after RT completion, an RT dose <7000 cGy, curative head and neck cancer surgery before RT, nasopharyngeal cancer, in situ carcinoma, sarcoma, and head and neck cancer recurrence. We enrolled 10,721 stage III–IV head and neck cancer patients, with a median follow-up of 4.18 years (interquartile range, 3.25 years). The CCRT (arm 1), docetaxel-based induction CT (arm 2), and platinum-based CCRT (arm 3; control arm) groups comprised 7968, 503, and 2232 patients, respectively. Arm 3 was used to investigate mortality risk after induction CT. After adjustment for age, sex, clinical stage, and comorbidities, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for overall death were 1.37 (1.22–1.53) and 1.44 (1.36–1.52) in arms 2 and 3, respectively. In a

  20. Concurrent administration of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery enhances late toxicities: Long-term results of the ARCOSEIN multicenter randomized study

    SciTech Connect

    Toledano, Alain . E-mail: alain.toledano@gmail.com; Garaud, Pascal; Serin, Daniel; Fourquet, Alain; Bosset, Jean-Francois; Breteau, Noel; Body, Gilles; Azria, David; Le Floch, Olivier; Calais, Gilles

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: In 1996, a multicenter randomized study was initiated that compared sequential vs. concurrent adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) with radiation therapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (ARCOSEIN study). After a median follow-up of 6.7 years (range, 4.3-9 years), we decided to prospectively evaluate the late effects of these 2 strategies. Methods and Materials: A total of 297 patients from the 5 larger participating institutions were asked to report for a follow-up examination. Seventy-two percent (214 patients) were eligible for evaluation of late toxicity. After breast-conserving surgery, patients were treated either with sequential treatment with CT first followed by RT (Arm A) or CT administered concurrently with RT (Arm B). In all patients, CT regimen consisted of mitoxantrone (12 mg/m{sup 2}), 5-FU (500 mg/m{sup 2}), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m{sup 2}), 6 cycles (Day 1 to Day 21). Conventional RT was delivered to the whole breast by administration of a 2 Gy per fraction protocol to a total dose of 50 Gy ({+-} boost to the primary tumor bed). The assessment of toxicity was blinded to treatment and was graded by the radiation oncologist, according to the LENT/SOMA scale. Skin pigmentation was also evaluated according to a personal 5-points scoring system (excellent, good, moderate, poor, very poor). Results: Among the 214 evaluable patients, 107 were treated in each arm. The 2 populations were homogeneous for patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Subcutaneous fibrosis (SF), telangectasia (T), skin pigmentation (SP), and breast atrophy (BA) were significantly increased in Arm B. No statistical difference was observed between the 2 arms of the study concerning Grade 2 or higher pain, breast edema, or lymphedema. No deaths were caused by late toxicity. Conclusion: After breast-conserving surgery, the concurrent use of CT with RT is significantly associated with an increase incidence of Grade 2 or greater late side effects.

  1. Treatment of Aggressive Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy: A Review.

    PubMed

    Moisi, Marc; Cruz, Aurora S; Benkers, Tara; Rostad, Steven; Broyles, Frances Broyles; Yuen, Kevin; Mayberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas demonstrate slow growth and are effectively managed with medical/surgical therapy. Rarely, these tumors can behave aggressively with rapid growth and invasion of local tissues, and are refractory to medical, surgical, or radio-surgical therapies. We report a case of a prolactin-secreting adenoma in a young woman, which became progressively aggressive and refractory to usual treatment modalities, but responded to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. In addition, we review the literature for treatment of refractory adenomas with temozolomide. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of aggressive prolactin-secreting adenomas are reviewed, as well as their response to dopamine agonists, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. PMID:27489751

  2. Treatment of Aggressive Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas with Adjuvant Temozolomide Chemotherapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Aurora S; Benkers, Tara; Rostad, Steven; Broyles, Frances Broyles; Yuen, Kevin; Mayberg, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas demonstrate slow growth and are effectively managed with medical/surgical therapy. Rarely, these tumors can behave aggressively with rapid growth and invasion of local tissues, and are refractory to medical, surgical, or radio-surgical therapies. We report a case of a prolactin-secreting adenoma in a young woman, which became progressively aggressive and refractory to usual treatment modalities, but responded to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. In addition, we review the literature for treatment of refractory adenomas with temozolomide. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of aggressive prolactin-secreting adenomas are reviewed, as well as their response to dopamine agonists, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. PMID:27489751

  3. Protective effect of rPb40 as an adjuvant for chemotherapy in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, V C; Martins, E M N; Boeloni, J N; Serakides, R; Goes, A M

    2012-08-01

    The conventional treatment for the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), involves long periods of therapy that results in side effects and a high frequency of relapses. The search for a new, alternative treatment is necessary. Pb40 is an antigenic protein from P. brasiliensis fraction F0. This fraction has already been shown to have significant protective activity when used as a PCM vaccine in experimental models. The complete cDNA sequence corresponding to Pb40 was cloned into a pET-21a plasmid, expressed in E. coli with a his-tag and purified by affinity chromatography. The predicted protein sequence exhibited nearly 100% homology to a fragment of the hypothetical EF-hand domain containing protein of P. brasiliensis. Immunization with this recombinant protein was used together with chemotherapy in an attempt to improve PCM treatment. The combined drug/rPb40 treatment exhibited long-lasting control of PCM in the liver and spleen and largely preserved the tissue structures of these organs. Despite the lack of a reduction in CFUs in the group that received the combined treatment, there was a significant reduction in the size of the lesions in the lungs after 70 days of infection. At the same time, the IL-10 levels were higher in the treated mice than in the infected-only mice. Moreover, significant levels of rPb40-specific IgG antibodies were detected in the sera of immunized mice. Thus, the treatment protocol consisting of rPb40 immunization in addition to fluconazole chemotherapy showed an additive protective effect after intratracheal challenge, preventing fungal dissemination to other sites of infection and preventing relapses. These results provide new prospects for PCM immunotherapy. PMID:22391822

  4. Chemotherapy Regimen Extends Survival in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    Cancer.gov

    A four-drug chemotherapy regimen has produced the longest improvement in survival ever seen in a phase III clinical trial of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest types of cancer.

  5. Combining Chemotherapy with Bevacizumab Improves Outcomes for Ovarian Cancer Patients

    Cancer.gov

    Results from two phase III randomized clinical trials suggest that, at least for some patients with ovarian cancer, adding the antiangiogenesis agent bevacizumab to chemotherapy increases the time to disease progression and may improve survival.

  6. The role of induction and adjuvant chemotherapy in combination with concurrent chemoradiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer: a Bayesian network meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongliang; Gu, Dayong; He, Xia; Gao, Xianshu; Bian, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Whether the addition of induction chemotherapy (IC) or adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is superior to CCRT alone for locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer is unknown. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed to investigate the efficacy of CCRT, IC + CCRT, and CCRT + AC on locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer. The overall survival (OS) with hazard ratios (HRs) and locoregional recurrence rates (LRRs) and distant metastasis rates (DMRs) with risk ratios (RRs) were investigated. After a comprehensive database search, eleven studies involving 2,626 assigned patients were included in this network meta-analysis. Compared with CCRT alone, IC + CCRT resulted in no significant improvement in OS or LRR and a marginal improvement in DMR (OS: HR =0.67, 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.32–1.18; LRR: RR =1.79, 95% CrI 0.80–3.51; DMR: RR =1.79, 95% CrI 0.24–1.04) and CCRT + AC exhibited no beneficial effects on any of the endpoints of OS, LRR, or DMR (OS: HR =0.99, 95% CrI 0.64–1.43; LRR: RR =0.78, 95% CrI 0.43–1.32; DMR: RR =0.85, 95% CrI 0.57–1.24). As a conclusion, for locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer, no significant differences in the treatment efficacies of CCRT, IC + CCRT, and CCRT + AC were found, with the exception of a marginally significant improvement in distant control observed following IC + CCRT compared with CCRT alone. PMID:26793000

  7. A study of donepezil in female breast cancer survivors with self-reported cognitive dysfunction 1 to 5 years following adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, L.; Balcueva, E. P.; Groteluschen, D. L.; Samuel, T. A.; Lesser, G. J.; Naughton, M. J.; Case, L. D.; Shaw, E. G.; Rapp, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Some breast cancer survivors report cognitive difficulties greater than 1 year after chemotherapy. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) may improve cognitive impairment. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study to assess the feasibility of using the AChEI, donepezil, to improve subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in breast cancer survivors. Methods Women who received adjuvant chemotherapy 1–5 years prior with current cognitive dysfunction symptoms were randomized to 5 mg of donepezil/day vs placebo for 6 weeks and if tolerated 10 mg/day for 18 weeks for a total of 24 weeks. A battery of validated measures of attention, memory, language, visuomotor skills, processing speed, executive function, and motor dexterity and speed was administered at baseline and at 24 and 36 weeks. Subjective cognitive function, fatigue, sleep, mood, and health-related quality of life were evaluated at baseline and at 12, 24, and 36 weeks. Results Sixty-two patients were enrolled, 76 % completed the study, self-reported compliance was 98 %, and toxicities were minimal. At the end of treatment, the donepezil group performed significantly better than the control group on two parameters of memory—the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test -Revised (HVLT-R) Total Recall (p=0.033) and HVLT-R Discrimination (p=0.036). There were no significant differences on other cognitive variables or in subjective cognitive function or quality of life. Conclusion Accrual to this feasibility trial was robust, retention was good, compliance was excellent, and toxicities were minimal. Implications for Cancer Survivors Randomized clinical trials in breast cancer survivors to improve cognitive dysfunction are feasible. A phase III trial testing the efficacy of donepezil is warranted given these pilot results. PMID:26130292

  8. Hypothyroid cardiomyopathy in a patient post-doxorubicin chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Silver, Adam Jeffrey; Patel, Hena N; Okwuosa, Tochi

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism may cause decreased cardiac output and heart failure-and when severe, bradycardia and pericardial effusions may develop. Chemotherapies, particularly doxorubicin, are known and often irreversible causes of cardiomyopathy. As such, when cardiomyopathy develops in patients who have been exposed to anthracycline chemotherapy, the importance of ruling out other reversible causes such as hypothyroidism cannot be overstated. We present a case of acute systolic heart failure in a patient post-doxorubicin chemotherapy and radiation therapy for alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, found to have severe hypothyroidism as a reversible cause of cardiomyopathy. PMID:27053539

  9. Is TIMP-1 immunoreactivity alone or in combination with other markers a predictor of benefit from anthracyclines in the BR9601 adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy trial?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Predictive cancer biomarkers to guide the right treatment to the right patient at the right time are strongly needed. The purpose of the present study was to validate prior results that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) alone or in combination with either HER2 or TOP2A copy number can be used to predict benefit from epirubicin (E) containing chemotherapy compared with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF) treatment. Methods For the purpose of this study, formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor tissue from women recruited into the BR9601 clinical trial, which randomized patients to E-CMF versus CMF, were analyzed for TIMP-1 immunoreactivity. Using previously collected data for HER2 amplification and TOP2A gene aberrations, we defined patients as "anthracycline non-responsive", that is, 2T (TIMP-1 immunoreactive and TOP2A normal) and HT (TIMP-1 immunoreactive and HER2 negative) and anthracycline responsive (all other cases). Results In total, 288 tumors were available for TIMP-1 analysis with (183/274) 66.8%, and (181/274) 66.0% being classed as 2T and HT responsive, respectively. TIMP-1 was neither associated with patient prognosis (relapse free survival or overall survival) nor with a differential effect of E-CMF and CMF. Also, TIMP-1 did not add to the predictive value of HER2, TOP2A gene aberrations, or to Ki67 immunoreactivity. Conclusion This study could not confirm the predictive value of TIMP-1 immunoreactivity in patients randomized to receive E-CMF versus CMF as adjuvant treatment for primary breast cancer. PMID:23570501

  10. Expression of Folate Pathway Genes in Stage III Colorectal Cancer Correlates with Recurrence Status Following Adjuvant Bolus 5-FU-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Odin, Elisabeth; Sondén, Arvid; Gustavsson, Bengt; Carlsson, Göran; Wettergren, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is commonly treated with 5-fluorouracil and 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (leucovorin). Metabolic action of leucovorin requires several enzymatic steps that are dependent on expression of corresponding coding genes. To identify folate pathway genes with possible impact on leucovorin metabolism, a retrospective study was performed on 193 patients with stage III colorectal cancer. Relative expression of 22 genes putatively involved in leucovorin transport, polyglutamation and metabolism was determined in tumor and mucosa samples using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. After surgery, patients received adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based bolus chemotherapy with leucovorin during six months, and were followed for 3 to 5 years. Cox regression analysis showed that high tumoral expression of the genes SLC46A1/PCFT (proton-coupled folate transporter) and SLC19A1/RFC-1 (reduced folate carrier 1) correlated significantly (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively) with a decreased risk of recurrent disease, measured as disease-free survival (DFS). These two genes are involved in the transport of folates into the cells and each functions optimally at a different pH. We conclude that SLC46A1/PCFT and SLC19A1/RFC-1 are associated with DFS of patients with colorectal cancer and hypothesize that poor response to 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin therapy in some patients may be linked to low expression of these genes. Such patients might need a more intensified therapeutic approach than those with high gene expression. Future prospective studies will determine if the expression of any of these genes can be used to predict response to leucovorin. PMID:26193446

  11. Expression of Folate Pathway Genes in Stage III Colorectal Cancer Correlates with Recurrence Status Following Adjuvant Bolus 5-FU-Based Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Odin, Elisabeth; Sondén, Arvid; Gustavsson, Bengt; Carlsson, Göran; Wettergren, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is commonly treated with 5-fluorouracil and 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (leucovorin). Metabolic action of leucovorin requires several enzymatic steps that are dependent on expression of corresponding coding genes. To identify folate pathway genes with possible impact on leucovorin metabolism, a retrospective study was performed on 193 patients with stage III colorectal cancer. Relative expression of 22 genes putatively involved in leucovorin transport, polyglutamation and metabolism was determined in tumor and mucosa samples using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. After surgery, patients received adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based bolus chemotherapy with leucovorin during six months, and were followed for 3 to 5 years. Cox regression analysis showed that high tumoral expression of the genes SLC46A1/PCFT (proton-coupled folate transporter) and SLC19A1/RFC-1 (reduced folate carrier 1) correlated significantly (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively) with a decreased risk of recurrent disease, measured as disease-free survival (DFS). These two genes are involved in the transport of folates into the cells and each functions optimally at a different pH. We conclude that SLC46A1/PCFT and SLC19A1/RFC-1 are associated with DFS of patients with colorectal cancer and hypothesize that poor response to 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin therapy in some patients may be linked to low expression of these genes. Such patients might need a more intensified therapeutic approach than those with high gene expression. Future prospective studies will determine if the expression of any of these genes can be used to predict response to leucovorin. PMID:26193446

  12. New Horizon in Life: Experiences of Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Mohammadpour, Ali; Fathi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The treatment quality of diseases can affect the patient's experience. Due to its different complications among cancer patients, the experience of chemotherapy is unique. The present study was conducted to explore the lived experience among cancer patients who had received chemotherapy. Methods: The study was conducted by a qualitative approach and a phenomenological method. In so doing, 12 cancer patients who had received chemotherapy were purposefully selected were interviewed using an in-depth method. After the required data were collected, they were analyzed by Tanner, Allen, Diekelmann method. Results: Analysis of the collected data indicated that the experience of chemotherapy appeared as “a new horizon in life” for the patients. Secondary themes of the new horizon in life included rebirth, understanding of life values, dependence, and need. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it was concluded that in addition to taking into providing mental-spiritual support and reducing the complications of the treatment, nurses in chemotherapy wards should pay attention to the experiences of the patients receiving chemotherapy and enhance hope and positive attitude among them. PMID:26573050

  13. Role of chemotherapy in patients with soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Maki, Robert G

    2004-04-01

    The management of soft tissue sarcomas has been highlighted in the last few years by the responsiveness of gastrointestinal stromal tumors to imatinib (Gleevec, Novartis). In this article, the use of chemotherapeutic agents in the management of this and some of the 50 or more subtypes of sarcomas are discussed, and a brief review of the use of chemotherapy in the adjuvant or neoadjuvant setting for people with large extremity sarcomas is provided. Doxorubicin and ifosfamide (Mitoxana, Bristol-Myers Squibb) remain the best individual drugs for sarcomas overall, although dacarbazine and gemcitabine (Gemzar, Eli Lilly) with or without a taxane has activity in at least a subset of sarcomas. The data regarding adjuvant chemotherapy for extremity soft tissue sarcomas is still quite mixed, with little if any overall survival advantage found to support its incorporation into disease management. The finding of tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib with demonstrated activity in gastrointestinal stromal tumors and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, as well as the finding of new agents such as ecteinascidin-743 (Yondelis, PharmaMar) with at least some activity against soft tissue sarcomas, reinforces the idea that we should target individual subtypes of sarcoma, just as treatment varies by subtype for the hematological malignancies. PMID:15056053

  14. Safety Results of Docetaxel-(Taxotere®)-Based Chemotherapy in Early Breast Cancer Patients of Asia-Pacific Region: Asia-Pacific Breast Initiative II

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Yau Tsz; Thuan, Tran Van; Chao, Tsu-Yi; Shen, Zhen Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this registry was to collect patient characteristics and safety data from patients from the Asia-Pacific region with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy containing docetaxel (Taxotere®). Methods This registry was open-label, international, longitudinal, multicenter, and observational in design and included a prospective group of consecutive early breast cancer patients with an intermediate-to-high risk of recurrence being treated with various docetaxel-based (anthracycline and non-anthracycline) adjuvant chemotherapy regimens during 2009-2013 in real-world clinical settings. Results The analysis included 1,712 patients, 79% of whom received docetaxel-based, anthracycline-containing regimens, while 21% received non-anthracycline-containing regimens. Patients receiving adjuvant docetaxel-based chemotherapy were followed for 1.5 years. Chemotherapy-related adverse events (AEs) were reported by 76.2% of patients (anthracycline-containing vs. non-anthracycline-containing regimens: 76.8% vs. 74.1%). Serious AEs were reported in 12% of patients (12.3% vs. 10%). National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3 or higher neutropenia was reported in 20% of patients (21.6% vs. 13.9%), leukopenia in 7.4% of patients (5.4% vs. 14.8%), and vomiting in 1.6% of patients (1.8% vs. 0.6%). Treatment-related death was reported in 27 patients (1.6%), while only 3% of patients had a relapse. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratios increased after chemotherapy. A clinically insignificant reduction of 1.9% in left ventricular ejection fraction, from 66.43 to 64.53, was observed 1.5 years after therapy was completed. Conclusion The Asia-Pacific Breast initiative II registry identified a variety of important facts regarding patient population characteristics, disease epidemiology and treatment response for early breast cancer patients of the Asia

  15. Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Anna

    2015-12-01

    The adjuvant treatment of patients with stage II colon cancer is an area of controversy in medical oncology. Adjuvant chemotherapy aims to eradicate micrometastatic disease present at the time of surgery, preventing the development of distant metastatic disease and thereby curing those patients of their cancer. National and international guidelines for the adjuvant treatment of stage II colon cancer recommend a range of treatment options from observation to chemotherapy with single-agent or combination regimens, depending on the presence or absence of high-risk features (poorly differentiated histology, presence of lymphovascular invasion, presence of perineural invasion, report of < 12 lymph nodes, bowel obstruction, localized perforation, or positive margins). In the one prospective study designed to address the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II colon cancer, a small but statistically significant benefit in overall survival was seen for those patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy; however, multiple meta-analyses and retrospective subgroup analyses have called these findings into question. Though there may be a role for adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with stage II colon cancer, its incremental benefit is small, at best, and comes with the risks of real and rarely fatal complications of chemotherapy. PMID:26648796

  16. The role of palliative chemotherapy in hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley–Price, P.; Ali, M.; Balchin, K.; Spencer, J.; Fitzgibbon, E.; Cripps, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospitalized patients with advanced cancer often have a poor performance status, which is considered a relative contraindication to cytotoxic chemotherapy. We investigated outcomes in hospitalized solid tumour oncology patients who received palliative chemotherapy (pct). Methods With ethics approval, we performed a single-institution chart review of all patients hospitalized on our oncology unit who received pct between April 2008 and January 2010. Patient demographics, reasons for admission, cancer type, prior therapy, and administered chemotherapy were recorded. The primary endpoint was median survival from date of inpatient chemotherapy until death or last known follow up. We also investigated place of discharge and whether patients received additional therapy. Results During the study period, 199 inpatients received pct. Median age was 61 years; 59% of the patients were women. Most had been admitted with dyspnea (31%) or pain (29%) as the dominant symptom. Common cancers represented were breast (23%), small-cell lung cancer (sclc, 22%), non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc, 16%), and colorectal cancer (9%). Most patients (67%) were receiving first-line chemotherapy. Median overall survival duration was 4.5 months, and the 6-month survival rate was 41%. The longest and shortest survivals were seen in the sclc and nsclc groups (7.3 and 2.5 months respectively). Factors significantly associated with shorter survival were baseline hypoalbuminemia and therapy beyond the first line. In this cohort, 77% of patients were discharged home, and 72% received further chemotherapy. Conclusions Despite a short median survival, many patients are well enough to be discharged home and to receive further chemotherapy. The development of risk models to predict a higher chance of efficacy will have practical clinical utility. PMID:25089101

  17. Outcome of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer treated with or without adjuvant trastuzumab in the Finland Capecitabine Trial (FinXX)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. Little information is available about survival outcomes of patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer treated with adjuvant capecitabine-containing chemotherapy with or without trastuzumab. Patients and methods. One thousand and five hundred patients with early breast cancer were entered to the Finland Capecitabine trial (FinXX) between January 2004 and May 2007, and were randomly assigned to receive either three cycles of adjuvant TX (docetaxel, capecitabine) followed by three cycles of CEX (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, capecitabine; TX-CEX) or three cycles of docetaxel followed by three cycles of CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, fluorouracil; T-CEF). The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). The study protocol was amended in May 2005 while study accrual was ongoing to allow adjuvant trastuzumab for patients with HER2-positive cancer. Of the 284 patients with HER2-positive cancer accrued to FinXX, 176 (62.0%) received trastuzumab after amending the study protocol, 131 for 12 months and 45 for nine weeks. The median follow-up time was 6.7 years. Results. Patients with HER2-positive cancer who received trastuzumab had better RFS than those who did not (five-year RFS 89.2% vs. 75.9%; HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.23–0.72; p = 0.001). Patients treated with trastuzumab for 12 months or nine weeks had similar RFS. There was no significant interaction between trastuzumab administration and the type of chemotherapy. Four (2.3%) patients treated with trastuzumab had heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction, three of these received capecitabine. Conclusion. Adjuvant trastuzumab improves RFS of patients treated with TX-CEX or T-CEF. Few patients had cardiac failure. PMID:23957715

  18. Five-Year Results From a Scandinavian Sarcoma Group Study (SSG XIII) of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Combined With Accelerated Radiotherapy in High-Risk Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremities and Trunk Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Jebsen, Nina L.; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Eriksson, Mikael; Engellau, Jacob; Turesson, Ingela; Folin, Annika; Trovik, Clement S.; Hall, Kirsten Sundby

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate adjuvant chemotherapy and interpolated accelerated radiotherapy (RT) for adult patients with high-risk soft tissue sarcoma in the extremities or trunk wall. Methods and Materials: High-risk soft tissue sarcoma was defined as high-grade malignancy and at least two of the following criteria: size {>=}8 cm, vascular invasion, or necrosis. Six cycles of doxorubicin and ifosfamide were prescribed for all patients. RT to a total dose of 36 Gy (1.8 Gy twice daily) was inserted between two chemotherapy cycles after marginal margin resection regardless of tumor depth or after wide-margin resection for deep-seated tumors. RT was boosted to 45 Gy in a split-course design in the case of intralesional margin resection. Results: A total of 119 patients were eligible, with a median follow-up of 5 years. The 5-year estimate of the local recurrence, metastasis-free survival, and overall survival rate was 12%, 59%, and 68%, respectively. The group receiving RT to 36 Gy had a local recurrence rate of 10%. In contrast, the local recurrence rate was 29% in the group treated with RT to 45 Gy. The presence of vascular invasion and low chemotherapy dose intensity had a negative effect on metastasis-free and overall survival. Toxicity was moderate after both the chemotherapy and the RT. Conclusions: Accelerated RT interposed between chemotherapy cycles in a selected population of patients with high-risk soft tissue sarcoma resulted in good local and distant disease control, with acceptable treatment-related morbidity. The greater radiation dose administered after intralesional surgery was not sufficient to compensate for the poorer surgical margin. Vascular invasion was the most important prognostic factor for metastasis-free and overall survival.

  19. The significance of relative dose intensity in adjuvant chemotherapy of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma-including the analysis of clinicopathological factors influencing relative dose intensity.

    PubMed

    Yabusaki, Norimitsu; Fujii, Tsutomu; Yamada, Suguru; Murotani, Kenta; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Kanda, Mitsuro; Nakayama, Goro; Koike, Masahiko; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Recently, it has been reported that the relative dose intensity (RDI) of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) influences survival in various cancers, but there are very few reports about RDI in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The optimal timing for initiation of AC for PDAC also remains unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the significance of RDI and the time interval between surgery and initiation of AC on survival of patients with PDAC. Clinicopathological factors that affect RDI were also investigated.A total of 311 consecutive PDAC patients who underwent curative resection between May 2005 and January 2015 were enrolled. Patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation, had UICC stage IV disease, or had early recurrences within 6 months were excluded, and the remaining 168 cases were analyzed.Patients with RDIs ≥80% (n = 79) showed significantly better overall survival (OS) compared to patients with RDIs <80% (n = 55) (median survival time (MST): 45.6 months, 26.0 months, P < 0.001). Patients with no AC (n = 34) showed the worst OS (MST: 20.8 months). Whether the AC was initiated earlier or later than 8 weeks after surgery did not influence survival, either in patients with RDIs ≥80% (P = 0.79) or in those with <80% (P = 0.73). Patients in the S-1 monotherapy group (n = 49) showed significantly better OS than patients in the gemcitabine monotherapy group (n = 51) (MST: 95.0 months, 26.0 months, respectively; P = 0.001). Univariate analysis conducted after adjusting for the chemotherapeutic drug used identified several prognostic factors; male gender (P = 0.01), intraoperative blood transfusion (P = 0.005), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.03), and postoperative WBC count (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis identified intra-plus postoperative blood transfusion (P = 0.002) and high postoperative platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios (PLR) (P = 0.04) as independent predictors of poor RDI.Efforts to

  20. Tailored chemotherapy based on tumour gene expression analysis: breast cancer patients' misinterpretations and positive attitudes.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, I; Rapti, M; Extra, J-M; Petri-Cal, A; Apostolidis, T; Ferrero, J-M; Bachelot, T; Viens, P; Julian-Reynier, C; Bertucci, F

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to document how breast cancer patients perceive their prognosis and a tailored treatment based on tumour gene expression analysis, and to identify the features of this approach that may impact its clinical application. In-depth interviews were conducted at three French cancer centres with 37 women (35-69 years of age) with node-positive breast cancer undergoing an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen defined on the basis of the genomic signature predicting the outcome after chemotherapy. Several concerns were identified. First, some misconceptions about these methods were identified due to semantic confusions between the terms 'genomic' and 'genetic', which generated anxiety and uncertainty about the future. Second, the 'not done' and 'not interpretable' signatures were misinterpreted by the women and associated with highly negative connotations. However, the use of tumour genomic analysis to adapt the treatment to each patient received most of the patients' approval because it was perceived as an approach facilitating personalised medicine. In conclusion, improving the quality of provider/patient communications should enable patients to play a more active part in the decision making about their treatment. This will ensure that those who agree to have tumour gene analysis have realistic expectations and sound deductions about the final result disclosure process. PMID:22070677

  1. The treatment of soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremities - prospective randomized evaluations of (1) limb-sparing surgery plus radiation therapy compared with amputation and (2) the role of adjuvant chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, S.A.; Tepper, J.; Glatstein, E.

    1982-09-01

    Between May 1975 and April 1981, 43 adult patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities were prospectively randomized to receive either amputation at or above the joint proximal to the tumor, including all involved muscle groups, or to receive a limb-sparing resection plus adjuvant radiation therapy. The limb-sparing resection group received wide local excision followed by 5000 rads to the entire anatomic area at risk for local spread and 6000 to 7000 rads to the tumor bed. Both randomization groups received postoperative chemotherapy with doxorubicin (maximum cumulative dose 550 mg/m/sup 2/), cyclophosphamide, and high-dose methotrexate. Twenty-seven patients randomized to receive limb-sparing resection and radiotherapy, and 16 received amputation (randomization was 2:1). There were four local recurrences in the limb-sparing group and none in the amputation group (p/sub 1/ = 0.06 generalized Wilcoxon test). However, there were no differences in disease-free survival rates (83% and 88% at five years; p/sub 2/ = 0.99) between the limb-sparing group and the amputation treatment groups. Multivariate analysis indicated that the only correlate of local recurrence was the final margin of resection. Patients with positive margins of resection had a higher likelihood of local recurrence compared with those with negative margins (p/sub 1/ < 0.00001) even when postoperative radiotherapy was used. A simultaneous prospective randomized study of postoperative chemotherapy in 65 patients with high-grade soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremities revealed a marked advantage in patients receiving chemotherapy compared with those without chemotherapy in three-year continuous disease-free (92% vs. 60%; p/sub 1/ = 0.00008) and overall survival (95% vs. 74%; p/sub 1/ = 0.04).

  2. Gemcitabine and cisplatin as neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Aydiner, Adnan; Kiyik, Murat; Cikrikcioglu, Saadettin; Kosar, Filiz; Gurses, Atilla; Turna, Akif; Yazar, Aziz; Dilege, Sukru; Goksel, Tuncay; Cakan, Alpaslan

    2007-11-01

    The combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin is one of the most active chemotherapy regimens against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine combined with cisplatin in a 3-week cycle regimen for patients with operable, early stage NSCLC. Gemcitabine at a dose of 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle for 3 cycles, followed by cisplatin at a dose of 75 mg/m(2) on day 1 was administered to patients with previously untreated, operable, early stage (IB-IIIA) NSCLC. A total of 47 patients (46 male, mean age 56.0+/-8.0 years) who met the eligibility criteria were enrolled. The pathological complete response rate was 5.3% of operated patients and 4.3% of total patients. At visit 4, 57.1% of the patients had partial response, 38.1%, stable disease and 4.8%, progressive disease. The main toxicities - leukopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia - were usually clinically asymptomatic and did not require hospitalization. Non-hematological toxicities were minimal and manageable. Disease free and 12-month overall survival rates were over 70% and 80%, respectively. This study demonstrates that the administration of gemcitabine and cisplatin combination for 3 cycles is effective and tolerable for patients with operable, early stage NSCLC. Low toxicity profile and promising survival outcome suggest that this regimen has an encouraging activity in this subset of patients. PMID:17683827

  3. Adjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy After Pancreaticoduodenectomy in Elderly Patients With Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, David P.; Hsu, Charles C.; Wang Jingya; Makary, Martin A.; Winter, Jordan M.; Robinson, Ray; Schulick, Richard D.; Cameron, John L.; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Herman, Joseph M.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients {>=}75 years of age. Methods: The study group of 655 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma at the Johns Hopkins Hospital over a 12-year period (8/30/1993 to 2/28/2005). Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, intraoperative data, pathology data, and patient outcomes were collected and analyzed by adjuvant treatment status and age {>=}75 years. Cox proportional hazards analysis determined clinical predictors of mortality and morbidity. Results: We identified 166 of 655 (25.3%) patients were {>=}75 years of age and 489 of 655 patients (74.7%) were <75 years of age. Forty-nine patients in the elderly group (29.5%) received adjuvant CRT. For elderly patients, node-positive metastases (p = 0.008), poor/anaplastic differentiation (p = 0.012), and undergoing a total pancreatectomy (p = 0.010) predicted poor survival. The 2-year survival for elderly patients receiving adjuvant therapy was improved compared with surgery alone (49.0% vs. 31.6%, p = 0.013); however, 5-year survival was similar (11.7% vs. 19.8%, respectively, p = 0.310). After adjusting for major confounders, adjuvant therapy in elderly patients had a protective effect with respect to 2-year survival (relative risk [RR] 0.58, p = 0.044), but not 5-year survival (RR 0.80, p = 0.258). Among the nonelderly, CRT was significantly associated with 2-year survival (RR 0.60, p < 0.001) and 5-year survival (RR 0.69, p < 0.001), after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions: Adjuvant therapy after PD is significantly associated with increased 2-year but not 5-year survival in elderly patients. Additional studies are needed to select which elderly patients are likely to benefit from adjuvant CRT.

  4. Stress Encountered by Significant Others of Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kay

    1987-01-01

    Attempts to identify and describe perceived stress and coping responses of family and nonfamily significant others of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Significant others were asked to identify stressful events related to treatment factors, relationship factors, and perception of the patient's condition. Coping responses were categorized in…

  5. Internet chemotherapy information: impact on patients and health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E; Yeoh, K-W

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reliable information can improve patients' knowledge of chemotherapy. As internet chemotherapy information (ICI) is increasingly viewed as a valuable patient education tool, we investigated the impact of ICI on patient care and analysed health professionals' (HPs') attitudes towards ICI. Methods: The following questionnaires were distributed: (1) self-administered questionnaire randomly given to 261 patients receiving chemotherapy (80% returned); and (2) separate questionnaire given to 58 HPs at the same UK Oncology Centre (83% returned). Results: Just over half of the patient respondents accessed the internet regularly. They were younger, with higher incomes and qualifications. Key search topics included chemotherapy modes of action, symptom management and treatment success, and most considered ICI useful. More than half wanted to discuss ICI with HPs but most did not get the opportunity. Although the majority of HP respondents supported the need for patients to retrieve ICI, most questioned the accuracy of ICI and did not routinely recommend its use. Conclusion: This study has shown that ICI is generally perceived by patients to be a valuable information resource. Given the potential impact of ICI, the following should be addressed in future studies: (1) inequalities in accessing ICI; (2) maintaining the quality of ICI (with clear guidance on recommended websites); (3) bridging the gap between the perception of ICI by patients and HPs; (4) integration of ICI with traditional consultation models. PMID:22262319

  6. Current adjuvant treatment modalities for gastric cancer: From history to the future.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Leyla; Ordu, Cetin; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Sen, Fatma; Keskin, Serkan; Ciftci, Rumeysa; Pilanci, Kezban Nur

    2016-05-15

    The discrepancy between the surgical technique and the type of adjuvant chemotherapy used in clinical trials and patient outcomes in terms of overall survival rates has led to the generation of different adjuvant treatment protocols in distinct parts of the world. The adjuvant treatment recommendation is generally chemoradiotherapy in the United States, perioperative chemotherapy in the United Kingdom and parts of Europe, and chemotherapy in Asia. These options mainly rely on the United States Intergroup-0116, United Kingdom British Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy, and the Asian Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer and Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin Adjuvant Study in Stomach Cancer trials. However, the benefits were evident for only certain patients, which were not very homogeneous regarding the type of surgery, chemotherapy regimens, and stage of disease. Whether the dissimilarities in survival are attributable to surgical technique or intrinsic biological differences is a subject of debate. Regardless of the extent of surgery, multimodal therapy may offer modest survival advantage at least for diseases with lymph node involvement. Moreover, in the era of individualized treatment for most of the other cancer types, identification of special subgroups comprising those who will derive more or no benefit from adjuvant therapy merits further investigation. The aim of this review is to reveal the historical evolution and future reflections of adjuvant treatment modalities for resected gastric cancer patients. PMID:27190583

  7. Current adjuvant treatment modalities for gastric cancer: From history to the future

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Leyla; Ordu, Cetin; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Sen, Fatma; Keskin, Serkan; Ciftci, Rumeysa; Pilanci, Kezban Nur

    2016-01-01

    The discrepancy between the surgical technique and the type of adjuvant chemotherapy used in clinical trials and patient outcomes in terms of overall survival rates has led to the generation of different adjuvant treatment protocols in distinct parts of the world. The adjuvant treatment recommendation is generally chemoradiotherapy in the United States, perioperative chemotherapy in the United Kingdom and parts of Europe, and chemotherapy in Asia. These options mainly rely on the United States Intergroup-0116, United Kingdom British Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy, and the Asian Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer and Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin Adjuvant Study in Stomach Cancer trials. However, the benefits were evident for only certain patients, which were not very homogeneous regarding the type of surgery, chemotherapy regimens, and stage of disease. Whether the dissimilarities in survival are attributable to surgical technique or intrinsic biological differences is a subject of debate. Regardless of the extent of surgery, multimodal therapy may offer modest survival advantage at least for diseases with lymph node involvement. Moreover, in the era of individualized treatment for most of the other cancer types, identification of special subgroups comprising those who will derive more or no benefit from adjuvant therapy merits further investigation. The aim of this review is to reveal the historical evolution and future reflections of adjuvant treatment modalities for resected gastric cancer patients. PMID:27190583

  8. Comparison of Survival Rate in Primary Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Among Elderly Patients Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation, Surgery, or Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Heon; Jin, Gong Yong Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Yong Chul; Kwon, Keun Sang; Lynch, David

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: We retrospectively compared the survival rate in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgery, or chemotherapy according to lung cancer staging. Materials and Methods: From 2000 to 2004, 77 NSCLC patients, all of whom had WHO performance status 0-2 and were >60 years old, were enrolled in a cancer registry and retrospectively evaluated. RFA was performed on patients who had medical contraindications to surgery/unsuitability for surgery, such as advanced lung cancer or refusal of surgery. In the RFA group, 40 patients with inoperable NSCLC underwent RFA under computed tomography (CT) guidance. These included 16 patients with stage I to II cancer and 24 patients with stage III to IV cancer who underwent RFA in an adjuvant setting. In the comparison group (n = 37), 13 patients with stage I to II cancer underwent surgery; 18 patients with stage III to IV cancer underwent chemotherapy; and 6 patients with stage III to IV cancer were not actively treated. The survival curves for RFA, surgery, and chemotherapy in these patients were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median survival times for patients treated with (1) surgery alone and (2) RFA alone for stage I to II lung cancer were 33.8 and 28.2 months, respectively (P = 0.426). Median survival times for patients treated with (1) chemotherapy alone and (2) RFA with chemotherapy for stage III to IV cancer were 29 and 42 months, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: RFA can be used as an alternative treatment to surgery for older NSCLC patients with stage I to II inoperable cancer and can play a role as adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy for patients with stage III to IV lung cancer.

  9. Fibroblastic growth factor receptor 1 amplification in osteosarcoma is associated with poor response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fernanda Amary, M; Ye, Hongtao; Berisha, Fitim; Khatri, Bhavisha; Forbes, Georgina; Lehovsky, Katie; Frezza, Anna M; Behjati, Sam; Tarpey, Patrick; Pillay, Nischalan; Campbell, Peter J; Tirabosco, Roberto; Presneau, Nadège; Strauss, Sandra J; Flanagan, Adrienne M

    2014-08-01

    Osteosarcoma, the most common primary bone sarcoma, is a genetically complex disease with no widely accepted biomarker to allow stratification of patients for treatment. After a recent report of one osteosarcoma cell line and one tumor exhibiting fibroblastic growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene amplification, the aim of this work was to assess the frequency of FGFR1 amplification in a larger cohort of osteosarcoma and to determine if this biomarker could be used for stratification of patients for treatment. About 352 osteosarcoma samples from 288 patients were analyzed for FGFR1 amplification by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. FGFR1 amplification was detected in 18.5% of patients whose tumors revealed a poor response to chemotherapy, and no patients whose tumors responded well to therapy harbored this genetic alteration. FGFR1 amplification is present disproportionately in the rarer histological variants of osteosarcoma. This study provides a rationale for inclusion of patients with osteosarcoma in clinical trials using FGFR kinase inhibitors. PMID:24861215

  10. Fibroblastic growth factor receptor 1 amplification in osteosarcoma is associated with poor response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fernanda Amary, M; Ye, Hongtao; Berisha, Fitim; Khatri, Bhavisha; Forbes, Georgina; Lehovsky, Katie; Frezza, Anna M; Behjati, Sam; Tarpey, Patrick; Pillay, Nischalan; Campbell, Peter J; Tirabosco, Roberto; Presneau, Nadège; Strauss, Sandra J; Flanagan, Adrienne M

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma, the most common primary bone sarcoma, is a genetically complex disease with no widely accepted biomarker to allow stratification of patients for treatment. After a recent report of one osteosarcoma cell line and one tumor exhibiting fibroblastic growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene amplification, the aim of this work was to assess the frequency of FGFR1 amplification in a larger cohort of osteosarcoma and to determine if this biomarker could be used for stratification of patients for treatment. About 352 osteosarcoma samples from 288 patients were analyzed for FGFR1 amplification by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. FGFR1 amplification was detected in 18.5% of patients whose tumors revealed a poor response to chemotherapy, and no patients whose tumors responded well to therapy harbored this genetic alteration. FGFR1 amplification is present disproportionately in the rarer histological variants of osteosarcoma. This study provides a rationale for inclusion of patients with osteosarcoma in clinical trials using FGFR kinase inhibitors. PMID:24861215

  11. Phase II study of trastuzumab plus gemcitabine in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Joyce A; Vukelja, Sasha; Marsland, Thomas; Kimmel, Gary; Ratnam, Suresh; Pippen, John E

    2004-06-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of trastuzumab plus gemcitabine in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Sixty-four patients were enrolled, the majority of whom (95%) had been treated with an anthracycline and a taxane before study enrollment. Eligible women were treated with gemcitabine (1200 mg/m(2) weekly for 2 weeks with the third week off on a 21-day cycle) plus weekly doses of trastuzumab (4-mg/kg loading dose; 2 mg/kg thereafter) until disease progression. The median patient age was 55 years, and the median number of previously administered (including adjuvant) chemotherapy regimens was 3. Twenty-two patients were scored as 2+ for HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry; 39 patients scored 3+. Three patients were assessed as HER2-negative on central pathology review and were ineligible for evaluation. Fifty-nine of the 61 patients remained evaluable for response. The objective response rates were 38% in the intent-to-treat population (23 of 61) and 44% among the 39 patients with HER2 3+ expression. The median response duration was 5.8 months, median overall survival was 14.7 months, and median time to disease progression was 5.8 months. Trastuzumab plus gemcitabine was well tolerated. No cases of clinical congestive heart failure occurred. Grade 3/4 toxicities included asthenia in 4 patients, fever in 4, neutropenia in 18, dyspnea in 6, abdominal or back pain in 3, and edema and nausea in 1 patient each. The combination of trastuzumab plus gemcitabine appears to be well tolerated and effective for patients with HER2-positive MBC previously treated with chemotherapy. PMID:15245619

  12. Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment in older patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Kah Poh; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Mohile, Supriya G.; Holmes, Holly M.; Hsu, Tina; Inouye, Sharon K.; Karuturi, Meghan S.; Kimmick, Gretchen G.; Lichtman, Stuart M.; Magnuson, Allison; Whitehead, Mary I.; Wong, Melisa L.; Ahles, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) can occur during or after chemotherapy and represents a concern for many patients with cancer. Among older patients with cancer, in whom there is little clinical trial evidence examining side effects like CRCI, many unanswered questions remain regarding risk for and resulting adverse outcomes from CRCI. Given the rising incidence of cancer with age, CRCI is of particular concern for older patients with cancer who receive treatment. Therefore, research related to CRCI in older patients with cancers is a high priority. In this manuscript, we discuss current gaps in research highlighting the lack of clinical studies of CRCI in older adults, the complex mechanisms of CRCI, and the challenges in measuring cognitive impairment in older patients with cancer. Although we focus on CRCI, we also discuss cognitive impairment related to cancer itself and other treatment modalities. We highlight several research priorities to improve the study of CRCI in older patients with cancer. PMID:27197918

  13. Definitive Results of a Phase III Adjuvant Trial Comparing Three Chemotherapy Regimens in Women With Operable, Node-Positive Breast Cancer: The NSABP B-38 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Sandra M.; Tang, Gong; Geyer, Charles E.; Rastogi, Priya; Atkins, James N.; Donnellan, Paul P.; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Azar, Catherine A.; Robidoux, André; Polikoff, Jonathan A.; Brufsky, Adam M.; Biggs, David D.; Levine, Edward A.; Zapas, John L.; Provencher, Louise; Northfelt, Donald W.; Paik, Soonmyung; Costantino, Joseph P.; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Wolmark, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Anthracycline- and taxane-based three-drug chemotherapy regimens have proven benefit as adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer. This trial (NSABP B-38; Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Women Who Have Undergone Surgery for Node-Positive Breast Cancer) asked whether the incorporation of a fourth drug could improve outcomes relative to two standard regimens and provided a direct comparison of those two regimens. Patients and Methods We randomly assigned 4,894 women with node-positive early-stage breast cancer to six cycles of docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC), four cycles of dose-dense (DD) doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of DD paclitaxel (P; DD AC→P), or DD AC→P with four cycles of gemcitabine (G) added to the DD paclitaxel (DD AC→PG). Primary granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support was required; erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were used at the investigator's discretion. Results There were no significant differences in 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) between DD AC→PG and DD AC→P (80.6% v 82.2%; HR, 1.07; P = .41), between DD AC→PG and TAC (80.6% v 80.1%; HR, 0.93; P = .39), in 5-year overall survival (OS) between DD AC→PG and DD AC→P (90.8% v 89.1%; HR, 0.85; P = .13), between DD AC→PG and TAC (90.8% v 89.6%; HR, 0.86; P = .17), or between DD AC→P versus TAC for DFS (HR, 0.87; P = .07) and OS (HR, 1.01; P = .96). Grade 3 to 4 toxicities for TAC, DD AC→P, and DD AC→PG, respectively, were febrile neutropenia (9%, 3%, 3%; P < .001), sensory neuropathy (< 1%, 7%, 6%; P < .001), and diarrhea (7%, 2%, 2%; P < .001). Exploratory analyses for ESAs showed no association with DFS events (HR, 1.02; P = .95). Conclusion Adding G to DD AC→P did not improve outcomes. No significant differences in efficacy were identified between DD AC→P and TAC, although toxicity profiles differed. PMID:23940225

  14. Adjuvant treatment for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Vladimir; Saif, Muhammad Wasif; Goodman, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women. Surgical resection has been shown to be the only curable treatment available. Unfortunately only 20% of all patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer are surgical candidates due to the aggressive biology of this disease. There is no clear consensus on what type of adjuvant therapy should be used for patients with pancreatic cancer. Chemoradiation is the favored treatment modality by many in the United States while gemcitabine based chemotherapy is favored in Europe. Both of these approaches have been shown by large prospective, randomized trials to improve disease free intervals and in some studies overall survival. The survival of these patients, even status post resection and adjuvant therapy, remains poor and therefore the need for alternative adjuvant therapies is needed. We will therefore discuss Abstracts #4124, #TPS4162, #4120 and #E15191 in this paper which are relevant to the issues described above. PMID:25076340

  15. Effectiveness of electrochemotherapy after IFN-α adjuvant therapy of melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Hribernik, Andrejc; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor; Bosnjak, Maša

    2016-01-01

    Background The combination of electrochemotherapy with immuno-modulatory treatments has already been explored and proven effective. However, the role of interferon alpha (IFN-α) adjuvant therapy of melanoma patients and implication on electrochemotherapy effectiveness has not been explored yet. Therefore, the aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of electrochemotherapy after the previous adjuvant treatment with IFN-α in melanoma patients. Patients and methods The study was a retrospective single-center observational analysis of the patients with advanced melanoma, treated with electrochemotherapy after previous IFN-α adjuvant therapy. Five patients, treated between January 2008 and December 2014, were included into the study, regardless of the time point of IFN-α adjuvant therapy. Results Electrochemotherapy of recurrent melanoma after the IFN-α adjuvant therapy proved to be a safe and effective treatment. Patients with one or two metastases responded completely. Among patients with multiple metastases, there was a variable response rate. In one patient all 23 metastases responded completely, in second patient more than 85% of all together 80 metastases responded completely and in third patient all 5 metastases had partial response. Taking into account all metastases from all patients together there was an 85% complete response rate. Conclusions The study showed that electrochemotherapy of recurrent melanoma after the IFN-α adjuvant therapy is a safe and effective treatment modality, which results in a high complete response rate, not only in single metastasis, but also in multiple metastases. The high complete response rate might be due to an IFN-α immune-editing effect, however, further studies with a larger number of patients are needed to support this presumption. PMID:27069446

  16. Adjuvant therapy for ampullary carcinomas: The Mayo Clinic experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Sumita; Miller, Robert C. . E-mail: miller.robert@mayo.edu; Haddock, Michael G.; Donohue, John H.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 125 patients who underwent definitive surgery for carcinomas involving the ampulla of Vater between April 1977 and February 2005 and who survived more than 50 days after surgery. Twenty-nine of the patients also received adjuvant radiotherapy (median dose, 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions) with concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Adverse prognostic factors were investigated, and overall survival (OS) and local and distant failure were estimated. Results: Adverse prognostic factors for decreased OS by univariate analysis included lymph node (LN) involvement, locally advanced tumors (T3/T4), and poor histologic grade. By multivariate analysis, positive LN status (p = 0.02) alone was associated with decreased OS. The addition of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy improved OS for patients with positive LN (p = 0.01). Median survival for positive LN patients receiving adjuvant therapy was 3.4 years, vs. 1.6 years for those with surgery alone. Conclusions: The addition of adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy may improve OS in patients with LN involvement. The effect of adjuvant therapy on outcomes for patients with poor histologic grade or T3/T4 tumors without LN involvement could not be assessed.

  17. Investigation of Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lavdaniti, Maria; Tsitsis, Nikolaos

    2014-11-01

    Nausea and vomiting are the most important problems in patients undergoing chemotherapy, despite the recent improvements in the administration of antiemetic drugs. Through a review of the literature, we found that there are several nursing researches focusing on the effectiveness of interventions for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the symptom of nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing chemotherapy. The study also investigated the impact of nausea and vomiting on patients' ability to respond to daily activities. The study is descriptive; the sample included patients with different types of cancer and receiving chemotherapy. The inclusion criteria were: the histological diagnosis of cancer, the administration of chemotherapy and the knowledge of the Greek language. The questionnaires used were: the MASCC (vomiting questionnaire), the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale and the scale of functional assessment of cancer therapy. Data collection took place in oncological hospitals of Thessaloniki and Athens in Greece. For statistical analysis we used the statistical package SPSS 15.0. PMID:26973943

  18. Pathological complete response after neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer and the role of adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Valerie M; Benson, Al B

    2013-04-01

    Both the addition of neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy and improvements in surgical techniques have improved local control and overall survival for locally advanced rectal cancer patients over the past few decades. The addition of adjuvant chemotherapy has likely improved outcomes as well, though the contribution has been more difficult to quantify. At present, the majority of resected locally advanced rectal cancer patients receive adjuvant chemotherapy, though there is great variability in this practice based on both patient and institution characteristics. Recently, questions have been raised regarding which sub-groups of patients benefit most from adjuvant chemotherapy. As pathologic complete response (pCR) is increasingly found to be a reasonable surrogate for long-term favorable outcomes, some have questioned the need for adjuvant therapy in this select group of patients. Multiple retrospective analyses have shown minimal to no benefit for adjuvant chemotherapy in this group. Indeed, the patients most consistently shown to benefit from adjuvant therapy both in terms of disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) are those who achieve an intermediate pathologic response to neoadjuvant treatment. Tumors that have high expression of thymidylate synthetase have also shown to benefit from adjuvant therapy. More study is needed into clinical and molecular features that predict patient benefit from adjuvant therapy. PMID:23381584

  19. Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (S-PNET) in children: A prospective experience with adjuvant intensive chemotherapy and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Massimino, Maura . E-mail: maura.massimino@istitutotumori.mi.it; Gandola, Lorenza; Spreafico, Filippo; Luksch, Roberto; Collini, Paola; Giangaspero, Felice; Simonetti, Fabio; Casanova, Michela; Cefalo, Graziella; Pignoli, Emanuele; Ferrari, Andrea; Terenziani, Monica; Podda, Marta; Meazza, Cristina; Polastri, Daniela; Poggi, Geraldina; Ravagnani, Fernando; Fossati-Bellani, Franca

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (S-PNET) are rare and have a grim prognosis, frequently taking an aggressive course with local relapse and metastatic spread. We report the results of a mono-institutional therapeutic trial. Methods and Materials: We enrolled 15 consecutive patients to preradiation chemotherapy (CT) consisting of high-dose methotrexate, high-dose etoposide, high-dose cyclophosphamide, and high-dose carboplatin, craniospinal irradiation (CSI) with hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (HART) plus focal boost, maintenance with vincristine/lomustine or consolidation with high-dose thiotepa followed by autologous stem-cell rescue. Results: Median age was 9 years; 7 were male, 8 female. Site of disease was pineal in 3, elsewhere in 12. Six patients were had no evidence of disease after surgery (NED). Of those with evidence of disease after surgery (ED), 2 had central nervous system spread. Of the 9 ED patients, 2 had complete response (CR) and 2 partial response (PR) after CT, 4 stable disease, and 1 progressive disease. Of the 7 ED patients before radiotherapy, 1 had CR, 4 PR, and 2 minor response, thus obtaining a 44% CR + PR after CT and 71% after HART. Because of rapid progression in 2 of the first 5 patients, high-dose thiotepa was systematically adopted after HART in the subsequent 10 patients. Six of 15 patients relapsed (4 locally, 1 locally with dissemination, 1 with dissemination) a mean of 6 months after starting CT, 2 developed second tumors; 5 of 6 relapsers died at a median of 13 months. Three-year progression-free survival, event-free survival, and overall survival were 54%, 34%, and 61%, respectively. Conclusion: Hyperfractionated accelerated RT was the main tool in obtaining responses in S-PNET; introducing the myeloablative phase improved the prognosis (3/10 vs. 3/5 relapses), though the outcome remained unsatisfactory despite the adoption of this intensive treatment.

  20. The relationship between nuclear factor (NF)-κB family gene expression and prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients receiving adjuvant doxorubicin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Yeon; Jung, Hae Hyun; Ahn, Soomin; Bae, SooYoun; Lee, Se Kyung; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee

    2016-01-01

    We investigated gene expression profiles of the NF-κB pathway in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) receiving adjuvant chemotherapy to determine the prognostic value of NF-κB pathway genes according to chemotherapeutic regimen. We used the nCounter expression assay to measure expression of 11 genes (NFKB1, NFKB2, RELA, RELB, REL, TP53, FOXC1, TBP, SP1, STAT3 and IRF1 genes) belonging to the NF-κB pathway using mRNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 203 patients diagnosed with TNBC. Of the 203 patients, 116 were treated with a chemotherapeutic regimen containing doxorubicin. As revealed by the expression profiles of the 11 genes, increased expression of SP1 was associated with poor prognosis in TNBC patients treated with adjuvant doxorubicin chemotherapy (5-year distant recurrence-free survival [5Y DRFS], low vs. high expression [cut-off: median]: 92.3% vs. 71.6%, P = 0.001). In a multivariate Cox regression model, SP1 expression was a useful marker for predicting long-term prognosis in TNBC patients receiving doxorubicin treatment, and we thus suggest that SP1 expression could serve as a prognostic marker in these patients. PMID:27545642

  1. The relationship between nuclear factor (NF)-κB family gene expression and prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients receiving adjuvant doxorubicin treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Yeon; Jung, Hae Hyun; Ahn, Soomin; Bae, SooYoun; Lee, Se Kyung; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee

    2016-01-01

    We investigated gene expression profiles of the NF-κB pathway in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) receiving adjuvant chemotherapy to determine the prognostic value of NF-κB pathway genes according to chemotherapeutic regimen. We used the nCounter expression assay to measure expression of 11 genes (NFKB1, NFKB2, RELA, RELB, REL, TP53, FOXC1, TBP, SP1, STAT3 and IRF1 genes) belonging to the NF-κB pathway using mRNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 203 patients diagnosed with TNBC. Of the 203 patients, 116 were treated with a chemotherapeutic regimen containing doxorubicin. As revealed by the expression profiles of the 11 genes, increased expression of SP1 was associated with poor prognosis in TNBC patients treated with adjuvant doxorubicin chemotherapy (5-year distant recurrence-free survival [5Y DRFS], low vs. high expression [cut-off: median]: 92.3% vs. 71.6%, P = 0.001). In a multivariate Cox regression model, SP1 expression was a useful marker for predicting long-term prognosis in TNBC patients receiving doxorubicin treatment, and we thus suggest that SP1 expression could serve as a prognostic marker in these patients. PMID:27545642

  2. Tissue and Serum miRNA Profile in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer (LABC) in Response to Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy (NAC) Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khanbashi, Manal; Caramuta, Stefano; Alajmi, Adil M.; Al-Haddabi, Ibrahim; Al-Riyami, Marwa; Lui, Weng-Onn; Al-Moundhri, Mansour S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA that plays a vital role in cancer progression. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has become the standard of care for locally advanced breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate miRNA alterations during NAC using multiple samples of tissue and serum to correlate miRNA expression with clinico-pathological features and patient outcomes. Methods Tissue and serum samples were collected from patients with locally advanced breast cancer undergoing NAC at four time points: time of diagnosis, after the first and fourth cycle of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide treatment, and after the fourth cycle of docetaxel administration. First, we evaluated the miRNA expression profiles in tissue and correlated expression with clinico-pathological features. Then, a panel of four miRNAs (miR-451, miR-3200, miR-21, and miR-205) in serum samples was further validated using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The alterations in serum levels of miRNA, associations with clinical and pathological responses, correlation with clinico-pathological features, and survival outcomes were studied using Friedman, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman, Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results We analyzed 72 tissue samples and 108 serum samples from 9 patients and 27 patients, respectively. MicroRNA expression profiling of tumor versus normal tissue revealed more than 100 differentially expressed miRNAs. Serum miR-451 levels were significantly decreased during treatment, and higher serum levels were associated with improved clinical and pathological responses and disease-free survival. This is one of the early reports on miR-3200 in response to treatment in breast cancer, as serum levels of miR-3200 found to decline during NAC, and higher serum levels were associated with lower residual breast cancer burden and relapse rates at time of diagnosis. Conclusion Variations in

  3. Late toxicities and outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy combined with concurrent bevacizumab in patients with triple-negative non-metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pernin, V; Belin, L; Cottu, P; Bontemps, P; Lemanski, C; De La Lande, B; Baumann, P; Missohou, F; Levy, C; Peignaux, K; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A; Denis, F; Gobillion, A; Bollet, M; Vago, N A; Dendale, R; Campana, F; Fourquet, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety of the concurrent combination of bevacizumab with adjuvant radiotherapy (B-RT) in breast cancer (BC). Methods: Multicentre, prospective study, of the toxicity of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) alone or B-RT in patients with non-metastatic BC enrolled in randomized Phase 3 BEATRICE trial. Early and late toxicities were assessed by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v. 3.0 during and 12 months after the completion of RT. Results: From 2007 to 2012, 39 females received adjuvant B-RT and 45 received adjuvant RT alone. Median follow-up was 21.5 months. All patients had triple-negative non-metastatic BC and received adjuvant chemotherapy followed by RT. 90% of the 39 females treated by concurrent B-RT received whole breast irradiation (WBI) with a boost and 4 (10%) received post-mastectomy RT. Lymph node RT was delivered in 49% of the females with internal mammary chain irradiation. The mean duration of bevacizumab was 11.7 months. 38 (84%) females treated by RT alone received WBI with a boost and 16% of the females received post-mastectomy RT. Lymph node RT was delivered in 47% of the females with internal mammary chain RT in 31%. Grade 3 acute dermatitis was observed in 9% of patients receiving B-RT and 5% of patients receiving RT alone with no significant difference. 1 year after the completion of RT, the most common late grade 1–2 toxicities in the B-RT group were pain (18%), fibrosis (8%) and telangiectasia (5%). Conclusion: The concurrent bevacizumab with locoregional RT is associated with acceptable early and late 1-year toxicities in patients with BC. Advances in knowledge: The largest series of this association. PMID:25645108

  4. Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients Receiving Radio-Chemotherapy: A Novel Clinical-Pathologic Score Correlates With Global Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Berardi, Rossana; Mantello, Giovanna; Scartozzi, Mario; Del Prete, Stefano; Luppi, Gabriele; Martinelli, Roberto; Fumagalli, Marco; Grillo-Ruggieri, Filippo; Bearzi, Italo; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Marmorale, Cristina; Cascinu, Stefano

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the importance of downstaging of locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant treatment. Methods and Materials: The study included all consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent neoadjuvant treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy) in different Italian centers from June 1996 to December 2003. A novel score was used, calculated as the sum of numbers obtained by giving a negative or positive point, respectively, to each degree of increase or decrease in clinical to pathologic T and N status. Results: A total of 317 patients were eligible for analysis. Neoadjuvant treatments performed were as follows: radiotherapy alone in 75 of 317 patients (23.7%), radiotherapy plus chemotherapy in 242 of 317 patients (76.3%). Worse disease-free survival was observed in patients with a lower score (Score 1 = -3 to +3 vs. Score 2 = +4 to +7; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our results suggest that a novel score, calculated from preoperative and pathologic tumor and lymph node status, could represent an important parameter to predict outcome in patients receiving neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer. The score could be useful to select patients for adjuvant chemotherapy after neoadjuvant treatment and surgery.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy with uracil–tegafur for curatively resected stage III rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hisashige, A; Yoshida, S; Kodaira, S

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the National Surgical Adjuvant Study of Colorectal Cancer in Japan, a randomised controlled trial of oral uracil–tegafur (UFT) adjuvant therapy for stage III rectal cancer, showed remarkable survival gains, compared with surgery alone. To evaluate value for money of adjuvant UFT therapy, cost-effective analysis was carried out. Cost-effectiveness analysis of adjuvant UFT therapy was carried out from a payer's perspective, compared with surgery alone. Overall survival and relapse-free survival were estimated by Kaplan–Meier method, up to 5.6 years from randomisation. Costs were estimated from trial data during observation. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were calculated using utility score from literature. Beyond observation period, they were simulated by the Boag model combined with the competing risk model. For 5.6-year observation, 10-year follow-up and over lifetime, adjuvant UFT therapy gained 0.50, 0.96 and 2.28 QALYs, and reduced costs by $2457, $1771 and $1843 per person compared with surgery alone, respectively (3% discount rate for both effect and costs). Cost-effectiveness acceptability and net monetary benefit analyses showed the robustness of these results. Economic evaluation of adjuvant UFT therapy showed that this therapy is cost saving and can be considered as a cost-effective treatment universally accepted for wide use in Japan. PMID:18797469

  6. Multimodal MRI and cognitive function in patients with breast cancer prior to adjuvant treatment--the role of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Menning, Sanne; de Ruiter, Michiel B; Veltman, Dick J; Koppelmans, V; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Boogerd, Willem; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schagen, Sanne B

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of literature indicates that chemotherapy (ChT) for breast cancer (BC) is associated with adverse effects on the brain. Recent research suggests that cognitive and brain function in patients with BC may already be compromised before the start of chemotherapy. This is the first study combining neuropsychological testing, patient-reported outcomes, and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine pretreatment cognition and various aspects of brain function and structure in a large sample. Thirty-two patients with BC scheduled to receive ChT (pre-ChT+), 33 patients with BC not indicated to undergo ChT (pre-ChT-), and 38 no-cancer controls (NCs) were included. The examination consisted of a neuropsychological test battery, self-reported aspects of psychosocial functioning, and multimodal MRI. Patients with BC reported worse scores on several aspects of quality of life, such as higher levels of fatigue and stress. However, cortisol levels were not elevated in the patient groups compared to the control group. Overall cognitive performance was lower in the pre-ChT+ and the pre-ChT- groups compared to NC. Further, patients demonstrated prefrontal hyperactivation with increasing task difficulty on a planning task compared to NC, but not during a memory task. White matter integrity was lower in both patient groups. No differences in regional brain volume and brain metabolites were found. The cognitive and imaging data converged to show that symptoms of fatigue were associated with the observed abnormalities; the observed differences were no longer significant when fatigue was accounted for. This study suggests that cancer-related psychological or biological processes may adversely impact cognitive functioning and associated aspects of brain structure and function before the start of adjuvant treatment. Our findings stress the importance to further explore the processes underlying the expression of fatigue and to study whether it has a

  7. Multimodal MRI and cognitive function in patients with breast cancer prior to adjuvant treatment — The role of fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Menning, Sanne; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Veltman, Dick J.; Koppelmans, V.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Boogerd, Willem; Reneman, Liesbeth; Schagen, Sanne B.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of literature indicates that chemotherapy (ChT) for breast cancer (BC) is associated with adverse effects on the brain. Recent research suggests that cognitive and brain function in patients with BC may already be compromised before the start of chemotherapy. This is the first study combining neuropsychological testing, patient-reported outcomes, and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine pretreatment cognition and various aspects of brain function and structure in a large sample. Thirty-two patients with BC scheduled to receive ChT (pre-ChT+), 33 patients with BC not indicated to undergo ChT (pre-ChT−), and 38 no-cancer controls (NCs) were included. The examination consisted of a neuropsychological test battery, self-reported aspects of psychosocial functioning, and multimodal MRI. Patients with BC reported worse scores on several aspects of quality of life, such as higher levels of fatigue and stress. However, cortisol levels were not elevated in the patient groups compared to the control group. Overall cognitive performance was lower in the pre-ChT+ and the pre-ChT− groups compared to NC. Further, patients demonstrated prefrontal hyperactivation with increasing task difficulty on a planning task compared to NC, but not during a memory task. White matter integrity was lower in both patient groups. No differences in regional brain volume and brain metabolites were found. The cognitive and imaging data converged to show that symptoms of fatigue were associated with the observed abnormalities; the observed differences were no longer significant when fatigue was accounted for. This study suggests that cancer-related psychological or biological processes may adversely impact cognitive functioning and associated aspects of brain structure and function before the start of adjuvant treatment. Our findings stress the importance to further explore the processes underlying the expression of fatigue and to study whether it has a

  8. The SNP rs6500843 in 16p13.3 is associated with survival specifically among chemotherapy-treated breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fagerholm, Rainer; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Khan, Sofia; Rafiq, Sajjad; Tapper, William; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Muranen, Taru A; Fasching, Peter A; Janni, Wolfgang; Weinshilboum, Richard; Loehberg, Christian R; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Keeman, Renske; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Lambrechts, Diether; Wildiers, Hans; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Seibold, Petra; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Hooning, Maartje J; Jager, Agnes; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J; Luben, Robert; Hamann, Ute; Kabisch, Maria; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Pharoah, Paul D P; Liu, Jianjun; Eccles, Diana; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2015-04-10

    We have utilized a two-stage study design to search for SNPs associated with the survival of breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Our initial GWS data set consisted of 805 Finnish breast cancer cases (360 treated with adjuvant chemotherapy). The top 39 SNPs from this stage were analyzed in three independent data sets: iCOGS (n=6720 chemotherapy-treated cases), SUCCESS-A (n=3596), and POSH (n=518). Two SNPs were successfully validated: rs6500843 (any chemotherapy; per-allele HR 1.16, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.26, p=0.0001, p(adjusted)=0.0091), and rs11155012 (anthracycline therapy; per-allele HR 1.21, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.35, p=0.0010, p(adjusted)=0.0270). The SNP rs6500843 was found to specifically interact with adjuvant chemotherapy, independently of standard prognostic markers (p(interaction)=0.0009), with the rs6500843-GG genotype corresponding to the highest hazard among chemotherapy-treated cases (HR 1.47, 95% C.I. 1.20-1.80). Upon trans-eQTL analysis of public microarray data, the rs6500843 locus was found to associate with the expression of a group of genes involved in cell cycle control, notably AURKA, the expression of which also exhibited differential prognostic value between chemotherapy-treated and untreated cases in our analysis of microarray data. Based on previously published information, we propose that the eQTL genes may be connected to the rs6500843 locus via a RBFOX1-FOXM1 -mediated regulatory pathway. PMID:25823661

  9. The SNP rs6500843 in 16p13.3 is associated with survival specifically among chemotherapy-treated breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Fagerholm, Rainer; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Khan, Sofia; Rafiq, Sajjad; Tapper, William; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Muranen, Taru A.; Fasching, Peter A.; Janni, Wolfgang; Weinshilboum, Richard; Loehberg, Christian R.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Keeman, Renske; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Investigators, kConFab; Lambrechts, Diether; Wildiers, Hans; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Seibold, Petra; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Hooning, Maartje J.; Jager, Agnes; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J.; Luben, Robert; Hamann, Ute; Kabisch, Maria; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Liu, Jianjun; Eccles, Diana; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2015-01-01

    We have utilized a two-stage study design to search for SNPs associated with the survival of breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Our initial GWS data set consisted of 805 Finnish breast cancer cases (360 treated with adjuvant chemotherapy). The top 39 SNPs from this stage were analyzed in three independent data sets: iCOGS (n=6720 chemotherapy-treated cases), SUCCESS-A (n=3596), and POSH (n=518). Two SNPs were successfully validated: rs6500843 (any chemotherapy; per-allele HR 1.16, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.26, p=0.0001, p(adjusted)=0.0091), and rs11155012 (anthracycline therapy; per-allele HR 1.21, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.35, p=0.0010, p(adjusted)=0.0270). The SNP rs6500843 was found to specifically interact with adjuvant chemotherapy, independently of standard prognostic markers (p(interaction)=0.0009), with the rs6500843-GG genotype corresponding to the highest hazard among chemotherapy-treated cases (HR 1.47, 95% C.I. 1.20-1.80). Upon trans-eQTL analysis of public microarray data, the rs6500843 locus was found to associate with the expression of a group of genes involved in cell cycle control, notably AURKA, the expression of which also exhibited differential prognostic value between chemotherapy-treated and untreated cases in our analysis of microarray data. Based on previously published information, we propose that the eQTL genes may be connected to the rs6500843 locus via a RBFOX1-FOXM1-mediated regulatory pathway. PMID:25823661

  10. Recurrence 11 years after complete response to gemcitabine, 5-Fluorouracil, and Cisplatin chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy in a patient with advanced pancreatic cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Uchihara, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Hualin, Wang; Takeishi, Kazuki; Itoh, Shinji; Harimoto, Norihumi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Aishima, Shinichi; Shirabe, Ken; Baba, Hideo; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2015-05-01

    A 63-year-old man diagnosed with locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC; stage IIa) was treated with chemotherapy (gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin) followed by radiotherapy. He had complete response by imaging and relapse-free survival for 11 years. However, he subsequently presented with local tumor recurrence and underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy followed by chemotherapy; a partial response was achieved. As in liver metastasis of colonic cancer, complete response by imaging in PDAC may not mean pathological complete response. We would propose the importance of adjuvant surgery for a patient with PDAC with complete response by imaging after chemoradiotherapy. PMID:25964569

  11. The Efficacy of Adjuvant FOLFOX6 for Patients With Gastric Cancer after D2 Lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-Xian; Yang, Xu-Long; He, Ming-Ming; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Li, Yu-Hong; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Zhan, You-Qing; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adjuvant 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX6) are widely used for treating resected gastric cancer in clinics in China, but only few clinical trials have investigated its efficacy. Using propensity score matching, we evaluated the efficacy of adjuvant FOLFOX6 following D2 lymphadenectomy. Patients who received adjuvant FOLFOX6 following D2 lymphadenectomy (FOLFOX6, n = 113) or D2 lymphadenectomy only (surgery-only, n = 512) between 1998 and 2007 at our center were propensity score-matched; we identified a balanced 1:2 cohort, with 96 patients in the FOLFOX6 group and 192 patients in the surgery-only group. The overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method; factors affecting survival were identified by Cox regression models. A nomogram incorporating independent prognosticators was constructed for predicting the 3-, 5-, and 7-year OS, and bootstrap validation was performed. The median follow-up was 9.3 years, and the 7-year OS was 52.1% in the FOLFOX6 group and 43.8% in the surgery-only group (P = 0.04), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.69 (95% confidence interval = 0.49–0.98). A prognostic nomogram was generated with the identified significant prognosticators (adjuvant FOLFOX6, number of total harvested nodes, the interaction effect between these two variables, tumor size, T and N stage). Internal validation of the nomogram revealed good predictive abilities, with a bootstrap-corrected concordance index of 0.70. Adjuvant FOLFOX6 following D2 lymphadenectomy is associated with survival benefit in resected gastric cancer. Receiving adjuvant FOLFOX6 can be developed into a nomogram with other independent prognosticators to refine OS prediction and estimation of benefit from adjuvant FOLFOX6 for resected gastric cancer. PMID:27100411

  12. Trastuzumab mediates antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and phagocytosis to the same extent in both adjuvant and metastatic HER2/neu breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Monoclonal antibodies (mAb), such as trastuzumab are a valuable addition to breast cancer therapy. Data obtained from neoadjuvant settings revealed that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a major mechanism of action for the mAb trastuzumab. Conflicting results still call into question whether disease progression, prolonged treatment or concomitant chemotherapy influences ADCC and related immunological phenomena. Methods We analyzed the activity of ADCC and antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) positive breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab therapy either in an adjuvant (n = 13) or metastatic (n = 15) setting as well as from trastuzumab treatment-naive (t-naive) HER2/neu negative patients (n = 15). PBMCs from healthy volunteers (n = 24) were used as controls. ADCC and ADCP activity was correlated with the expression of antibody binding Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR)I (CD64), FcγRII (CD32) and FcγRIII (CD16) on CD14+ (monocytes) and CD56+ (NK) cells, as well as the expression of CD107a+ (LAMP-1) on CD56+ cells and the total amount of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ (Treg) cells. In metastatic patients, markers were correlated with progression-free survival (PFS). Results ADCC activity was significantly down regulated in metastatic, adjuvant and t-naive patient cohorts as compared to healthy controls. Reduced ADCC activity was inversely correlated with the expression of CD107a on CD56+ cells in adjuvant patients. ADCC and ADCP activity of the patient cohorts were similar, regardless of treatment duration or additional chemotherapy. PFS in metastatic patients inversely correlated with the number of peripheral Treg cells. Conclusion The reduction of ADCC in patients as compared to healthy controls calls for adjuvant strategies, such as immune-enhancing agents, to improve the activity of trastuzumab. However, efficacy of trastuzumab

  13. High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation as Adjuvant Treatment in High-Risk Breast Cancer: Data from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry.

    PubMed

    Martino, Massimo; Lanza, Francesco; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Öztürk, Mustafa; Blaise, Didier; Leno Núñez, Rubén; Schouten, Harry C; Bosi, Alberto; De Giorgi, Ugo; Generali, Daniele; Rosti, Giovanni; Necchi, Andrea; Ravelli, Andrea; Bengala, Carmelo; Badoglio, Manuela; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Bregni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess toxicity and efficacy of adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) in 583 high-risk breast cancer (BC) patients (>3 positive nodes) who were transplanted between 1995 and 2005 in Europe. All patients received surgery before transplant, and 55 patients (9.5%) received neoadjuvant treatment before surgery. Median age was 47.1 years, 57.3% of patients were premenopausal at treatment, 56.5% had endocrine-responsive tumors, 19.5% had a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumor, and 72.4% had ≥10 positive lymph nodes at surgery. Seventy-nine percent received a single HDC procedure. Overall transplant-related mortality was 1.9%, at .9% between 2001 and 2005, whereas secondary tumor-related mortality was .9%. With a median follow-up of 120 months, overall survival and disease-free survival rates at 5 and 10 years in the whole population were 75% and 64% and 58% and 44%, respectively. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that rates of overall survival were significantly better in patients with endocrine-responsive tumors, <10 positive lymph nodes, and smaller tumor size. HER2 status did not affect survival probability. Adjuvant HDC with AHSCT has a low mortality rate and provides impressive long-term survival rates in patients with high-risk BC. Our results suggest that this treatment modality should be considered in selected high-risk BC patients and further investigated in clinical trials. PMID:26723932

  14. A Model to Estimate the Risk of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Combinations of Treatment-Related Factors of the Number of Dissected Axillary Nodes, Adjuvant Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Myungsoo; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Sung Uk; Lee, Nam Kwon; Jung, So-Youn; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Eun Sook; Kang, Han-Sung; Shin, Kyung Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: The development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is closely related to the number of dissected axillary lymph nodes (N-ALNs), chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. In this study, we attempted to estimate the risk of LE based on combinations of these treatment-related factors. Methods and Materials: A total of 772 patients with breast cancer, who underwent primary surgery with axillary lymph node dissection from 2004 to 2009, were retrospectively analyzed. Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) was performed in 677 patients (88%). Among patients who received radiation therapy (n=675), 274 (35%) received supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCRT). Results: At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 3.0-8.3 years), 127 patients had developed LE. The overall 5-year cumulative incidence of LE was 17%. Among the 127 affected patients, LE occurred within 2 years after surgery in 97 (76%) and within 3 years in 115 (91%) patients. Multivariate analysis showed that N-ALN (hazard ratio [HR], 2.81; P<.001), ACT (HR, 4.14; P=.048), and SCRT (HR, 3.24; P<.001) were independent risk factors for LE. The total number of risk factors correlated well with the incidence of LE. Patients with no risk or 1 risk factor showed a significantly lower 5-year probability of LE (3%) than patients with 2 (19%) or 3 risk factors (38%) (P<.001). Conclusions: The risk factors associated with LE were N-ALN, ACT, and SCRT. A simple model using combinations of these factors may help clinicians predict the risk of LE.

  15. Texture analysis for survival prediction of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayasree; Langdon-Embry, Liana; Escalon, Joanna G.; Allen, Peter J.; Lowery, Maeve A.; O'Reilly, Eileen M.; Do, Richard K. G.; Simpson, Amber L.

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. The five-year survival rate for all stages is approximately 6%, and approximately 2% when presenting with distant disease.1 Only 10-20% of all patients present with resectable disease, but recurrence rates are high with only 5 to 15% remaining free of disease at 5 years. At this time, we are unable to distinguish between resectable PDAC patients with occult metastatic disease from those with potentially curable disease. Early classification of these tumor types may eventually lead to changes in initial management including the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiation, or in the choice of postoperative adjuvant treatments. Texture analysis is an emerging methodology in oncologic imaging for quantitatively assessing tumor heterogeneity that could potentially aid in the stratification of these patients. The present study derives several texture-based features from CT images of PDAC patients, acquired prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and analyzes their performance, individually as well as in combination, as prognostic markers. A fuzzy minimum redundancy maximum relevance method with leave-one-image-out technique is included to select discriminating features from the set of extracted features. With a naive Bayes classifier, the proposed method predicts the 5-year overall survival of PDAC patients prior to neoadjuvant therapy and achieves the best results in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0:858 and accuracy of 83:0% with four-fold cross-validation techniques.

  16. Occurrence and severity of alopecia in patients on combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pai, G S; Vimala, A M; Dinesh, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence and severity of alopecia resulting from combination chemotherapy on cancer patients. The study was conducted during the period 1994-1996 on 58 confirmed cases of malignancies attending the Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Mangalore, South India. The treatment regimens followed were standard protocols recommended for those malignancies and which are widely adopted. Specific drug combinations, their dosage and routes and schedules of administration were studied. The influence of 20 different treatment regimens, most of them in combination chemotherapy, were studied. The patients studied were not receiving any other medication which could have caused alopecia as observed in the present study. The pathophysiology of the hair, as influenced by the treatment regimens, were studied by examination of samples of the affected hairs under a Leica compound microscope. Alopecia was the most dominant side effect influencing 35 of the 58 patients undergoing the treatment (60%). The severity of alopecia was assessed by grouping them in four distinct grades. Specific drugs and their combinations causing varying degrees of severity were identified. The initiation of hair loss in different treatment regimens were analysed. It is seen that alopecia is an early manifestation of cutaneous side effects of cancer chemotherapy. In a majority of patients, the manifestation initiated after the first or the second cycle of administration of the rapeutic regimen, indicating a time interval of 1 to 8 weeks after the start of chemotherapy. Single agent drugs, when used alone or in combination with immunomodulator drugs seem to cause much less side effects, including alopecia, when compared to multiple drug regimens. Microscopic examination of the affected hair showed trichorrhexis, fragmentation, decrease in diameter and depigmentation of the hair shaft. PMID:11876617

  17. Incidence of Febrile Neutropenia in Korean Female Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Preoperative or Postoperative Doxorubicin/Cyclophosphamide Followed by Docetaxel Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Gon; Sohn, Joohyuk; Chon, Hongjae; Kim, Joo Hoon; Heo, Su Jin; Cho, Hyunsoo; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel chemotherapy (AC-D) is an intermediate risk factor (incidence of 10%–20%) for febrile neutropenia (FN) in breast cancer. However, the reported incidence of FN while using this regimen was obtained mostly from Western breast cancer patients, with little data available from Asian patients. This study aimed to assess the incidence of FN in Korean breast cancer patients and to describe clinical variables related to FN. Methods From September 2010 to February 2013, data from the Yonsei Cancer Center registry of breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with four cycles of AC-D (60 mg/m2 doxorubicin, 600 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks for four cycles followed by 75 mg/m2 or 100 mg/m2 docetaxel every 3 weeks for four cycles) were analyzed. The incidence of FN, FN associated complications, dose reduction/delays, and relative dose intensity (RDI) were investigated. Results Among the 254 patients reported to the registry, the FN incidence after AC-D chemotherapy was 29.5% (75/254), consisting of 25.2% (64/254) events during AC and 4.7% (12/254) during docetaxel chemotherapy. Dose reductions, delays, and RDI less than 85.0% during AC were observed in 16.5% (42/254), 19.5% (47/254), and 11.0% (28/254) of patients, respectively. Patients with FN events frequently experienced dose reduction/delays, which eventually led to a decreased RDI. Conclusion The incidence of FN during AC-D neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was higher than expected in Korean breast cancer patients. Whether these patients should be classified as a high-risk group for FN warrants future prospective studies. PMID:27064666

  18. Trastuzumab improves locoregional control in HER2-positive breast cancer patients following adjuvant radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lu; Cai, Gang; Xu, Fei; Yang, Zhao-Zhi; Yu, Xiao-Li; Ma, Jin-Li; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Jiong; Guo, Xiao-Mao; Chen, Jia-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The benefit of adjuvant trastuzumab in disease-free and overall survival for human epidermal receptor 2–positive (HER2+) breast cancer patients is well established. However, the effect of trastuzumab on locoregional control remains unclear, particularly in patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). In this study, we investigated the locoregional benefit of trastuzumab in patients with HER2+ breast cancer after adjuvant RT. Using a single institutional database, we identified 278 patients with stage II/III invasive HER2+ breast tumors receiving adjuvant RT between January 2008 and July 2011. We compared the locoregional outcomes of 134 patients who received trastuzumab to 144 patients without trastuzumab within the same period. Clinical and biological factors that might impact on the locoregional benefit of trastuzumab were also assessed. At the median follow-up of 45 months, trastuzumab significantly lowered the risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) with a 3-year LRR rate of 2.4% versus 7.5% for the cohort with and without trastuzumab (P = 0.019). Trastuzumab was associated with a more significant locoregional benefit in the hormone receptor–positive (HR+)/HER2+ subgroup, with a 3-year LRR of 0% versus 6.7% in the cohort with and without trastuzumab (P = 0.027). For HR−/HER2+ breast tumor patients, the 3-year LRR rate was still lower for the cohort with trastuzumab (4.7% vs 8.6%). However, statistical significance was not found (P = 0.179). Both univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed that trastuzumab treatment was the only significant predictive factor for LRR (hazard ratio, 4.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–15.35; P = 0.039). Adjuvant trastuzumab in addition to RT is associated with significant reduced LRR risk in HER2+ breast cancer. PMID:27512838

  19. Pooled analyses of eribulin in metastatic breast cancer patients with at least one prior chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Pivot, X.; Marmé, F.; Koenigsberg, R.; Guo, M.; Berrak, E.; Wolfer, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Based on data from two multicenter, phase III clinical trials (Studies 301 and 305), eribulin (a microtubule dynamics inhibitor) is indicated in the European Union (EU) for patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) after ≥1 prior chemotherapy for advanced disease, including an anthracycline and a taxane in either the adjuvant or metastatic setting. Data from Studies 305 and 301 were pooled to investigate the efficacy of eribulin in various subgroups of patients who matched the EU label, including those with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative and triple-negative disease. Patients and methods In Study 305 (NCT00388726), patients were randomized 2:1 to eribulin mesylate 1.4 mg/m2 (equivalent to eribulin 1.23 mg/m2 [expressed as free base]) intravenously on days 1 and 8 every 21 days] or treatment of physician's choice after 2–5 prior chemotherapies (≥2 for advanced disease), including an anthracycline and a taxane (in early/advanced setting). In Study 301 (NCT00337103), patients were randomized 1:1 to eribulin (as above) or capecitabine (1.25 g/m2 orally twice daily on days 1–14 every 21 days) following ≤3 prior chemotherapies (≤2 for advanced disease), including an anthracycline and a taxane. Efficacy end points were investigated in the intent-to-treat population and subgroups, pooled as discussed above. Results Overall, 1644 patients were included (eribulin: 946; control: 698); baseline characteristics were well matched. Overall survival was significantly longer with eribulin versus control (P < 0.01), as were progression-free survival and clinical benefit rate (both P < 0.05). Significant survival benefits with eribulin versus control were observed in a wide range of patient subgroups, including HER2-negative or triple-negative disease (all P < 0.05). Conclusion Our findings underline the survival benefit achieved by eribulin used according to EU label in the overall MBC population and in various

  20. Efficacy of IP6 + inositol in the treatment of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: prospective, randomized, pilot clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prospective, randomized, pilot clinical study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) + Inositol in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant therapy. Patients and methods Patients with invasive ductal breast cancer where polychemotherapy was indicated were monitored in the period from 2005-2007. Fourteen patients in the same stage of ductal invasive breast cancer were involved in the study, divided in two randomized groups. One group was subjected to take IP6 + Inositol while the other group was taking placebo. In both groups of patients the same laboratory parameters were monitored. When the treatment was finished, all patients have filled questionnaires QLQ C30 and QLQ-BR23 to determine the quality of life. Results Patients receiving chemotherapy, along with IP6 + Inositol did not have cytopenia, drop in leukocyte and platelet counts. Red blood cell counts and tumor markers were unaltered in both groups. However, patients who took IP6 + Inositol had significantly better quality of life (p = 0.05) and functional status (p = 0.0003) and were able to perform their daily activities. Conclusion IP6 + Inositol as an adjunctive therapy is valuable help in ameliorating the side effects and preserving quality of life among the patients treated with chemotherapy. PMID:20152024

  1. Gene therapy enhances chemotherapy tolerance and efficacy in glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Jennifer E.; Johnston, Sandra K.; Mrugala, Maciej M.; Beard, Brian C.; Guyman, Laura A.; Baldock, Anne L.; Bridge, Carly A.; Hawkins-Daarud, Andrea; Gori, Jennifer L.; Born, Donald E.; Gonzalez-Cuyar, Luis F.; Silbergeld, Daniel L.; Rockne, Russell C.; Storer, Barry E.; Rockhill, Jason K.; Swanson, Kristin R.; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Temozolomide (TMZ) is one of the most potent chemotherapy agents for the treatment of glioblastoma. Unfortunately, almost half of glioblastoma tumors are TMZ resistant due to overexpression of methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMThi). Coadministration of O6-benzylguanine (O6BG) can restore TMZ sensitivity, but causes off-target myelosuppression. Here, we conducted a prospective clinical trial to test whether gene therapy to confer O6BG resistance in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) improves chemotherapy tolerance and outcome. METHODS. We enrolled 7 newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients with MGMThi tumors. Patients received autologous gene-modified HSCs following single-agent carmustine administration. After hematopoietic recovery, patients underwent O6BG/TMZ chemotherapy in 28-day cycles. Serial blood samples and tumor images were collected throughout the study. Chemotherapy tolerance was determined by the observed myelosuppression and recovery following each cycle. Patient-specific biomathematical modeling of tumor growth was performed. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were also evaluated. RESULTS. Gene therapy permitted a significant increase in the mean number of tolerated O6BG/TMZ cycles (4.4 cycles per patient, P < 0.05) compared with historical controls without gene therapy (n = 7 patients, 1.7 cycles per patient). One patient tolerated an unprecedented 9 cycles and demonstrated long-term PFS without additional therapy. Overall, we observed a median PFS of 9 (range 3.5–57+) months and OS of 20 (range 13–57+) months. Furthermore, biomathematical modeling revealed markedly delayed tumor growth at lower cumulative TMZ doses in study patients compared with patients that received standard TMZ regimens without O6BG. CONCLUSION. These data support further development of chemoprotective gene therapy in combination with O6BG and TMZ for the treatment of glioblastoma and potentially other tumors with overexpression of MGMT. TRIAL

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Adjuvant Bevacizumab in Patients With Recurrent Malignant Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, Kyle C.; Vredenburgh, James J.; Sampson, John H.; Reardon, David A.; Desjardins, Annick; Peters, Katherine B.; Friedman, Henry S.; Willett, Christopher G.; Kirkpatrick, John P.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Patients with recurrent malignant gliomas treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and multiagent systemic therapies were reviewed to determine the effects of patient- and treatment-related factors on survival and toxicity. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with recurrent malignant gliomas treated with salvage SRS from September 2002 to March 2010. All patients had experienced progression after treatment with temozolomide and radiotherapy. Salvage SRS was typically administered only after multiple postchemoradiation salvage systemic therapies had failed. Results: 63 patients were treated with SRS for recurrent high-grade glioma; 49 patients had World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 4 disease. Median follow-up was 31 months from primary diagnosis and 7 months from SRS. Median overall survival from primary diagnosis was 41 months for all patients. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival from SRS (OS-SRS) were 6 and 10 months for all patients, respectively. The 1-year OS-SRS for patients with Grade 4 glioma who received adjuvant (concurrent with or after SRS) bevacizumab was 50% vs. 22% for patients not receiving adjuvant bevacizumab (p = 0.005). Median PFS for patients with a WHO Grade 4 glioma who received adjuvant bevacizumab was 5.2 months vs. 2.1 months for patients who did not receive adjuvant bevacizumab (p = 0.014). Karnofsky performance status (KPS) and age were not significantly different between treatment groups. Treatment-related Grade 3/4 toxicity for patients receiving and not receiving adjuvant BVZ was 10% and 14%, respectively (p = 0.58).On multivariate analysis, the relative risk of death and progression with adjuvant bevacizumab was 0.37 (confidence interval [CI] 0.17-0.82) and 0.45 (CI 0.21-0.97). KPS >70 and age <50 years were significantly associated with improved survival. Conclusions: The combination of salvage radiosurgery and bevacizumab to treat recurrent malignant

  3. Evaluation of MR markers that predict survival in patients with newly diagnosed GBM prior to adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Saraswathy, Suja; Crawford, Forrest W; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Pirzkall, Andrea; Chang, Susan; Cha, Soonmee; Nelson, Sarah J

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults. The goal of this study was to test the predictive value of MR parameters in relation to the survival of patients with newly diagnosed GBM who were scanned prior to receiving adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Methods The study population comprised 68 patients who had surgical resection and were to be treated with fractionated external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Imaging scans included anatomical MRI, diffusion and perfusion weighted imaging and (1)H MRSI. The MR data were acquired 3-5 weeks after surgery and approximately 1 week before treatment with radiation therapy. The diffusion, perfusion and spectroscopic parameter values were quantified and subjected to proportional hazards analysis that was adjusted for age and scanner field strength. Results The patients with larger lesion burden based upon volumes of anatomic lesions, volume of CNI2 (number of voxels within the T2 lesion having choline to NAA index >2), volume of CBV3 (number of pixels within the T2 lesion having relative cerebral blood volume >3), and volume of nADC1.5 (number of pixels within the T2 lesion having normalized apparent diffusion coefficient <1.5) had a higher risk for poor outcome. High intensities of combined measures of lactate and lipid in the T2 and CNI2 regions were also associated with poor survival. Conclusions Our study indicated that several pre-treatment anatomic, physiological and metabolic MR parameters are predictive of survival. This information may be important for stratifying patients to specific treatment protocols and for planning focal therapy. PMID:18810326

  4. Evaluation of MR markers that predict survival in patients with newly diagnosed GBM prior to adjuvant therapy

    PubMed Central

    Saraswathy, Suja; Crawford, Forrest W.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Pirzkal, Andrea; Chang, Susan; Cha, Soonmee

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults. The goal of this study was to test the predictive value of MR parameters in relation to the survival of patients with newly diagnosed GBM who were scanned prior to receiving adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. Methods The study population comprised 68 patients who had surgical resection and were to be treated with fractionated external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Imaging scans included anatomical MRI, diffusion and perfusion weighted imaging and 1H MRSI. The MR data were acquired 3–5 weeks after surgery and approximately 1 week before treatment with radiation therapy. The diffusion, perfusion and spectroscopic parameter values were quantified and subjected to proportional hazards analysis that was adjusted for age and scanner field strength. Results The patients with larger lesion burden based upon volumes of anatomic lesions, volume of CNI2 (number of voxels within the T2 lesion having choline to NAA index >2), volume of CBV3 (number of pixels within the T2 lesion having relative cerebral blood volume >3), and volume of nADC1.5 (number of pixels within the T2 lesion having normalized apparent diffusion coefficient <1.5) had a higher risk for poor outcome. High intensities of combined measures of lactate and lipid in the T2 and CNI2 regions were also associated with poor survival. Conclusions Our study indicated that several pre-treatment anatomic, physiological and metabolic MR parameters are predictive of survival. This information may be important for stratifying patients to specific treatment protocols and for planning focal therapy. PMID:18810326

  5. Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Pediatric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Groninger, Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies (CIPNs) are an increasingly common neuropathic and pain syndrome in adult and pediatric cancer patients and survivors [1–69]. However, symptoms associated with CIPNs are often undiagnosed, under-assessed, and communications problems between clinicians, family members, and patients have been observed [70–73]. Less is known about the prevalence and impact of CIPNs on pediatric cancer populations [70–71]. This article aims to provide a brief understanding of CIPNs in pediatric populations, and to review the evidence for both its prevention and treatment. PMID:25144779

  6. Comparison of outcomes in mixed phenotype acute leukemia patients treated with chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation versus chemotherapy alone.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong; Xu, Yang; Liu, Liming; Yan, Lingzhi; Jin, Zhengming; Tang, Xiaowen; Han, Yue; Fu, Zhengzheng; Qiu, Huiying; Sun, Aining; Wu, Depei

    2016-06-01

    The optimal treatment approach for mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) remains unknown, and prognostic factors for treatment outcomes need to be identified. In this study, 66 patients diagnosed with MPAL according to criteria published by the WHO in 2008 were retrospectively assessed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment and identify predictive variables. Five patients died of severe infection after the first induction chemotherapy, 29 received alloHSCT after induction (HSCT group), and 32 received only chemotherapy (chemotherapy group). The 3-year OS and DFS estimates for the entire cohort were 45% and 38%, respectively, and the 3-year OS differed significantly between the HSCT and chemotherapy-only groups (77% versus 16%). Using multivariate analyses, we identified disease burden as a prognostic factor for transplantation outcome, with the 3-year OS being 80% among patients who achieved remission and only 45% among patients in cases of nonremission. Our results indicate that alloHSCT after chemotherapy offers a survival advantage compared with chemotherapy only, and patients in remission before transplantation may experience a better outcome. PMID:27088964

  7. Is epirubicin effective in first-line chemotherapy of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) after an epirubicin-containing adjuvant treatment? A single centre phase III trial

    PubMed Central

    Pacilio, C; Morabito, A; Nuzzo, F; Gravina, A; Labonia, V; Landi, G; Rossi, E; De Maio, E; Di Maio, M; D'aiuto, G; Botti, G; Normanno, N; Chiodini, P; Gallo, C; Perrone, F; de Matteis, A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the superiority of docetaxel and epirubicin vs docetaxel alone as first-line therapy in metastatic breast cancer patients pretreated with adjuvant or neoadjuvant epirubicin. We compared single agent docetaxel 100 mg m−2 (D) with the combination of docetaxel 80 mg m−2 and epirubicin 75 mg m−2 (ED). The response rate (72 vs 79%), the progression-free survival (median 9 vs 11 months) and the overall survival (median 18 vs 21 months) were not significantly different between the ED (n=26) and D arms (n=25), respectively. Leucopaenia, nausea and stomatitis were significantly worse with ED. In conclusion, epirubicin should not be administered in combination with taxanes in metastatic breast cancer patients relapsed after an anthracycline-based adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy. PMID:16622454

  8. Locoregional Recurrence Risk in Breast Cancer Patients with Estrogen Receptor Positive Tumors and Residual Nodal Disease following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Mastectomy without Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kandula, Shravan; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Harari, Saul; Fasola, Carolina; Mister, Donna; Yu, David S.; Zelnak, Amelia B.; Torres, Mylin A.

    2015-01-01

    Among breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and mastectomy, locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates are unclear in women with ER+ tumors treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy without postmastectomy radiation (PMRT). To determine if PMRT is needed in these patients, we compared LRR rates of patients with ER+ tumors (treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy) with women who have non-ER+ tumors. 85 consecutive breast cancer patients (87 breast tumors) treated with NAC and mastectomy without PMRT were reviewed. Patients were divided by residual nodal disease (ypN) status (ypN+ versus ypN0) and then stratified by receptor subtype. Among ypN+ patients (n = 35), five-year LRR risk in patients with ER+, Her2+, and triple negative tumors was 5%, 33%, and 37%, respectively (p = 0.02). Among ypN+/ER+ patients, lymphovascular invasion and grade three disease increased the five-year LRR risk to 13% and 11%, respectively. Among ypN0 patients (n = 52), five-year LRR risk in patients with ER+, Her2+, and triple negative tumors was 7%, 22%, and 6%, respectively (p = 0.71). In women with ER+ tumors and residual nodal disease, endocrine therapy may be sufficient adjuvant treatment, except in patients with lymphovascular invasion or grade three tumors where PMRT may still be indicated. PMID:26266050

  9. A retrospective study of the safety of BCNU wafers with concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Pan, Edward; Mitchell, Susan B; Tsai, Jerry S

    2008-07-01

    Despite aggressive therapy, most patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) die within 2 years of diagnosis. The efficacy and safety of carmustine (BCNU) wafers followed by radiotherapy have been demonstrated in patients with malignant glioma. However, there is a reluctance to recommend them for newly diagnosed GBM patients due to the potential toxicity of BCNU wafers combined with temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of BCNU wafers implanted at initial surgery, followed by concurrent TMZ and radiotherapy, and then adjuvant TMZ for the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM. We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinic and hospital records of 21 newly diagnosed GBM patients who received multimodal therapy at Florida Hospital Cancer Institute from January 2003 to December 2005. Three of 21 patients had grade 3 toxicities (two with cerebritis, one with psychosis). Grade 4 toxicities were not observed. Median overall survival was 17 months, median progression-free survival was 8.5 months, and 2-year survival was 39%. Multimodal treatment with surgery, BCNU wafers, radiotherapy, and TMZ did not result in a notable increase in significant toxicities. Survival outcomes were comparable to those in other studies in which patients were treated with concurrent TMZ and radiotherapy followed by adjuvant TMZ. Thus, the implantation of BCNU wafers prior to TMZ and radiotherapy appears safe in newly diagnosed GBM patients. PMID:18389176

  10. Chemotherapy-Related Amenorrhea and Menopause in Young Chinese Breast Cancer Patients: Analysis on Incidence, Risk Factors and Serum Hormone Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Giok S.; Mo, Frankie K. F.; Pang, Elizabeth; Suen, Joyce J. S.; Tang, Nelson L. S.; Lee, Kun M.; Yip, Claudia H. W.; Tam, Wing H.; Ng, Rita; Koh, Jane; Yip, Christopher C. H.; Kong, Grace W. S.; Yeo, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In this prospective cross-sectional study on young premenopausal breast cancer patients, the objectives were to: determine the incidences of chemotherapy-related amenorrhea (CRA) and menopause (CRM); identify associated factors; and assess plasma levels of estradiol (E2) and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) among patients who developed menopause. Methods Eligibility criteria include Chinese stage I-III breast cancer patients, premenopausal, age ≤45 at breast cancer diagnosis, having received adjuvant chemotherapy, within 3–10 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Detailed menstrual history prior to and after adjuvant treatment was taken at study entry. Patients’ background demographics, tumor characteristics and anti-cancer treatments were collected. The rates of CRA and CRM were determined. Analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with CRM. For postmenopausal patients, levels of E2 and FSH were analyzed. Results 286 patients were recruited; the median time from breast cancer diagnosis to study entry was 5.0 years. 255 patients (91.1%) developed CRA. Of these, 66.7% regained menstruation. At the time of study entry, 137 (48.9%) had developed CRM, amongst whom 84 were age ≤45. On multivariate analysis, age was the only associated factor. Among patients with CRM, the median FSH was 41.0 IU/L; this was significantly lower in those who were taking tamoxifen compared to those who were not (20.1 vs. 59.7 IU/L, p<0.0001). The E2 level was <40 pmol/L; there was no difference between those who were still on tamoxifen or not. Conclusion After adjuvant chemotherapy, the majority of young Chinese breast cancer patients developed CRA; ~50% developed CRM, with 61% at age ≤45. Age at diagnosis is the only factor associated with CRM. FSH level may be affected by tamoxifen intake. PMID:26485568

  11. Oral single-agent chemotherapy in older patients with solid tumours: A position paper from the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG).

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, L; Lichtman, S; Michel, J-P; Papamichael, D; Quoix, E; Walko, C; Aapro, M

    2015-11-01

    Compared with intravenous (i.v.) chemotherapy, oral administration is convenient, requires fewer healthcare resources, is generally preferred by patients, and may be appropriate in older people with breast, colorectal and lung cancers. The effects of organ dysfunction on drug metabolism and drug interactions in patients with multiple comorbidities must be considered but are not specific to oral chemotherapy. Single-agent oral chemotherapy with capecitabine or vinorelbine is active in older patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Choice of treatment is based mainly on different safety profiles. In the adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), single-agent oral capecitabine is an effective alternative to i.v. fluorouracil (5-FU) regimens. In metastatic CRC, oral, single-agent capecitabine has recently shown encouraging median overall survival in combination with bevacizumab. In non-small cell lung cancer, fit older patients, like their younger counterparts, benefit from platinum-based doublets, with carboplatin preferred to cisplatin. Single agent vinorelbine is an option for those less suited to combination chemotherapy, and oral may be an alternative to i.v. administration. For elderly cancer patients in general, metronomic chemotherapy combines good tolerability with acceptable activity. PMID:26340809

  12. Adjuvant interferon gamma in patients with pulmonary atypical Mycobacteriosis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Milanés-Virelles, María T; García-García, Idrian; Santos-Herrera, Yamilet; Valdés-Quintana, Magalys; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen M; Jiménez-Madrigal, Gaspar; Ramos-Gómez, Thelvia I; Bello-Rivero, Iraldo; Fernández-Olivera, Norma; Sánchez-de la Osa, Reinaldo B; Rodríguez-Acosta, Carmen; González-Méndez, Lidia; Martínez-Sánchez, Gregorio; López-Saura, Pedro A

    2008-01-01

    Background High antibiotic resistance is described in atypical Mycobacteriosis, mainly by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in two hospitals to evaluate the effect of interferon (IFN) gamma as immunoadjuvant to chemotherapy on patients with atypical mycobacteria lung disease. Patients received placebo or 1 × 106 IU recombinant human IFN gamma intramuscularly, daily for one month and then three times per week up to 6 months as adjuvant to daily oral azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ethambutol and rifampin. Sputum samples collection for direct smear observation and culture as well as clinical and thorax radiography assessments were done during treatment and one year after. Cytokines and oxidative stress determinations were carried out in peripheral blood before and after treatment. Results Eighteen patients were included in the IFN group and 14 received placebo. Groups were homogeneous at entry; average age was 60 years, 75% men, 84% white; MAC infection prevailed (94%). At the end of treatment, 72% of patients treated with IFN gamma were evaluated as complete responders, but only 36% in the placebo group. The difference was maintained during follow-up. A more rapid complete response was obtained in the IFN group (5 months before), with a significantly earlier improvement in respiratory symptoms and pulmonary lesions reduction. Disease-related deaths were 35.7% of the patients in the placebo group and only 11.1% in the IFN group. Three patients in the IFN group normalized their globular sedimentation rate values. Although differences in bacteriology were not significant during the treatment period, some patients in the placebo group converted again to positive during follow-up. Significant increments in serum TGF-beta and advanced oxidation protein products were observed in the placebo group but not among IFN receiving patients. Treatments were well tolerated. Flu-like symptoms

  13. Determining Chemotherapy Tolerance in Older Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jerome; Hurria, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Older adults with cancer constitute a heterogeneous group of patients who pose unique challenges for oncology care. One major concern is how to identify patients who are at a higher risk for chemotherapy intolerance, because a standard oncology workup may not always be able to distinguish an older individual’s level of risk for treatment-related complications. Geriatric oncologists incorporate tools used in the field of geriatrics, and have developed the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment to enhance the standard oncology workup. This assessment pinpoints problems with daily activities, comorbidities, medications, nutritional status, cognitive function, psychological state, and social support systems, all of which are risk factors for treatment vulnerability in older adults with cancer. Additional tools that also serve to predict chemotherapy toxicity in older patients with cancer are now available to identify patients at higher risk for morbidity and mortality. Together, these instruments complement the standard oncology workup by providing a global assessment, thereby guiding therapeutic interventions that may improve a patient’s quality of life and clinical outcomes. PMID:24335684

  14. Does Concurrent Radiochemotherapy Affect Cosmetic Results in the Adjuvant Setting After Breast-Conserving Surgery? Results of the ARCOSEIN Multicenter, Phase III Study: Patients' and Doctors' Views

    SciTech Connect

    Toledano, Alain H. . E-mail: alain.toledano@gmail.com; Bollet, Marc A.; Fourquet, Alain; Azria, David; Gligorov, Joseph; Garaud, Pascal; Serin, Daniel; Bosset, Jean-Francois; Miny-Buffet, Joelle; Favre, Anne; Le Foch, Olivier; Calais, Gilles

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cosmetic results of sequential vs. concurrent adjuvant chemotherapy with radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer, and to compare ratings by patients and physicians. Methods and Materials: From 1996 to 2000, 716 patients with Stage I-II breast cancers were included in a multicenter, Phase III trial (the ARCOSEIN study) comparing, after breast-conserving surgery with axillary dissection, sequential treatment with chemotherapy first followed by radiotherapy vs. chemotherapy administered concurrently with radiotherapy. Cosmetic results with regard to both the overall aspect of the breast and specific changes (color, scar) were evaluated in a total of 214 patients (107 in each arm) by means of questionnaires to both the patient and a physician whose rating was blinded to treatment allocation. Results: Patients' overall satisfaction with cosmesis was not statistically different between the two arms, with approximately 92% with at least satisfactory results (p = 0.72), although differences between the treated and untreated breasts were greater after the concurrent regimen (29% vs. 14% with more than moderate differences; p 0.0015). Physician assessment of overall cosmesis was less favorable, with lower rates of at least satisfactory results in the concurrent arm (60% vs. 85%; p = 0.001). Consequently, the concordance for overall satisfaction with cosmesis between patients and doctors was only fair ({kappa} = 0.62). Conclusion: After breast-conserving surgery, the concurrent use of chemotherapy with radiotherapy is significantly associated with greater differences between the breasts. These differences do not translate into patients' lessened satisfaction with cosmesis.

  15. Adjuvant treatment in patients at high risk of recurrence of thymoma: efficacy and safety of a three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy regimen

    PubMed Central

    Perri, Francesco; Pisconti, Salvatore; Conson, Manuel; Pacelli, Roberto; Della Vittoria Scarpati, Giuseppina; Gnoni, Antonio; D’Aniello, Carmine; Cavaliere, Carla; Licchetta, Antonella; Cella, Laura; Giuliano, Mario; Schiavone, Concetta; Falivene, Sara; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Ravo, Vincenzo; Muto, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical benefits of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) for patients with thymoma are still controversial. In the absence of defined guidelines, prognostic factors such as stage, status of surgical margins, and histology are often considered to guide the choice of adjuvant treatment (radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy). In this study, we describe our single-institution experience of three-dimensional conformal PORT administered as adjuvant treatment to patients with thymoma. Methods Twenty-two consecutive thymoma patients (eleven male and eleven female) with a median age of 52 years and treated at our institution by PORT were analyzed. The patients were considered at high risk of recurrence, having at least one of the following features: stage IIB or III, involved resection margins, or thymic carcinoma histology. Three-dimensional conformal PORT with a median total dose on clinical target volume of 50 (range 44–60) Gy was delivered to the tumor bed by 6–20 MV X-ray of the linear accelerator. Follow-up after radiotherapy was done by computed tomography scan every 6 months for 2 years and yearly thereafter. Results Two of the 22 patients developed local recurrence and four developed distant metastases. Median overall survival was 100 months, and the 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 83% and 74%, respectively. Median disease-free survival was 90 months, and the 5-year recurrence rate was 32%. On univariate analysis, pathologic stage III and presence of positive surgical margins had a significant impact on patient prognosis. Radiation toxicity was mild in most patients and no severe toxicity was registered. Conclusion Adjuvant radiotherapy achieved good local control and showed an acceptable toxicity profile in patients with high-risk thymoma. PMID:26089683

  16. Antiemetic Therapy With or Without Olanzapine in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients With Cancer Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies antiemetic therapy with olanzapine to see how well they work compared to antiemetic therapy alone in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic (causes vomiting) chemotherapy. Antiemetic drugs, such as palonosetron hydrochloride, ondansetron, and granisetron hydrochloride, may help lessen or prevent nausea and vomiting in patients treated with chemotherapy. |

  17. Chemotherapy-free treatment in patients with follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Salles, Gilles; Bachy, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The outcome of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) has improved over the last two decades through the introduction of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, usually used in combination with chemotherapy. However, patients with FL still experience multiple relapses, requiring several lines of treatment. Early toxicity of chemotherapy is a significant concern and as the life expectancy of patients with FL is increasing, late toxicities become an increasingly important concern. Progress made in understanding the biology of FL, especially dysregulation of intracellular pathways and immunological antitumor responses, recently allowed for the development of innovative chemo-free therapeutic approaches. In this report, different options such as new anti-CD20 antibodies, antibodies targeting other cell surface antigens, bi-specific antibodies, immunomodulation, idiotype vaccine and other targeted therapies are presented. The article also highlights how, although promising in early phase studies, the cost-effectiveness of new agents will have to be justified in Phase III trials. Furthermore, chemo-free regimen might not mean toxicity-free treatment and monitoring of early and late toxicities is required. PMID:25585961

  18. Phase I Trial of Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy With Temozolomide Chemotherapy for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Changhu; Damek, Denise; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Waziri, Allen; Lillehei, Kevin; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B.K.; Robischon, Monica; Stuhr, Kelly; Rusthoven, Kyle E.; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the maximal tolerated biologic dose intensification of radiotherapy using fractional dose escalation with temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme after biopsy or resection and with adequate performance status, bone marrow, and organ function were eligible. The patients underwent postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concurrent and adjuvant TMZ. All patients received a total dose of 60 Gy to the surgical cavity and residual tumor, with a 5-mm margin. IMRT biologic dose intensification was achieved by escalating from 3 Gy/fraction (Level 1) to 6 Gy/fraction (Level 4) in 1-Gy increments. Concurrent TMZ was given at 75 mg/m{sup 2}/d for 28 consecutive days. Adjuvant TMZ was given at 150-200 mg/m{sup 2}/d for 5 days every 28 days. Dose-limiting toxicity was defined as any Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, Grade 3-4 nonhematologic toxicity, excluding Grade 3 fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. A standard 3+3 Phase I design was used. Results: A total of 16 patients were accrued (12 men and 4 women, median age, 69 years; range, 34-84. The median Karnofsky performance status was 80 (range, 60-90). Of the 16 patients, 3 each were treated at Levels 1 and 2, 4 at Level 3, and 6 at Level 4. All patients received IMRT and concurrent TMZ according to the protocol, except for 1 patient, who received 14 days of concurrent TMZ. The median number of adjuvant TMZ cycles was 7.5 (range, 0-12). The median survival was 16.2 months (range, 3-33). One patient experienced vision loss in the left eye 7 months after IMRT. Four patients underwent repeat surgery for suspected tumor recurrence 6-12 months after IMRT; 3 had radionecrosis. Conclusions: The maximal tolerated IMRT fraction size was not reached in our study. Our results have shown that 60 Gy IMRT delivered in 6-Gy fractions within 2 weeks with

  19. Capecitabine in patients with breast cancer relapsing after high-dose chemotherapy plus autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation--a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Jakob, A; Bokemeyer, C; Knop, S; Schupp, M; Mayer, F; Kanz, L

    2002-04-01

    Capecitabine, a tumor-selective, oral fluoropyrimidine, has demonstrated significant antitumor activity in patients with metastatic breast cancer. In this open-label monocenter phase II study the efficacy and safety of capecitabine in patients with metastatic breast cancer who relapsed after high-dose chemotherapy was examined. Female patients 18-65 years of age, with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, who relapsed after high-dose chemotherapy (adjuvant and/or metastatic) followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) and who had been treated in their course of the disease with an anthracycline and/or an anthracycline/taxane containing regimen were included into this clinical study. Capecitabine was applied as the first salvage chemotherapy at relapse after high-dose chemotherapy (1250 mg/m(2) b.i.d. p.o. for 14 days followed by 7 days rest period). Responding patients or those with stable disease after two treatment cycles were offered to continue treatment until tumor progression. Response rate, time to disease progression, survival, toxicity and quality of life were assessed. Fourteen patients between 35 and 60 years (median 45.5 years) entered this study and received a median number of 5 cycles (range 1-19) of capecitabine. All patients were evaluable for response. All patients had been pretreated with 1-2 cycles of high-dose chemotherapy plus PBSCT. Furthermore, 13 patients had additionally received local radiotherapy. On average, the patients showed metastatic disease in two organ sites (range 1-4 sites). One patient obtained a complete response and five patients a partial response, accounting for a response rate of 42.9% [95% confidence interval (17.7%; 71.1%)]. All responses were already achieved at the first observation time point 6 weeks after treatment initiation. Two further patients obtained stable disease for at least 12 weeks. At the time of final analysis all patients have progressed. Median

  20. Adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer: Current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Marcus; Leong, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    The management of gastric cancer continues to evolve. Whilst surgery alone is effective when tumours present early, a large proportion of patients are diagnosed with loco-regionally advanced disease, resulting in high loco-regional and distant relapse rates, with subsequent poor survival. Early attempts at improving outcomes following resection were disappointing; however, randomized trials have now established either post-operative chemoradiotherapy (INT0116) or peri-operative chemotherapy as standard adjuvant therapies in the Western world. There remain, however, significant differences in the approach to management between the West and East. In Asia, where there is the highest incidence of gastric cancer, extended resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy represents the standard of care. This review discusses current standard adjuvant therapy in gastric adenocarcinoma, as well as recent and ongoing trials investigating novel (neo)adjuvant approaches, which hope to build on the successes of previous studies. PMID:25320509

  1. Morbidity and survival patterns in patients after radical hysterectomy and postoperative adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorica, J.V.; Roberts, W.S.; Greenberg, H.; Hoffman, M.S.; LaPolla, J.P.; Cavanagh, D. )

    1990-03-01

    Morbidity and survival patterns were reviewed in 50 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy, and adjuvant postoperative pelvic radiotherapy for invasive cervical cancer. Ninety percent of the patients were FIGO stage IB, and 10% were clinical stage IIA or IIB. Indications for adjuvant radiotherapy included pelvic lymph node metastasis, large volume, deep stromal penetration, lower uterine segment involvement, or capillary space involvement. Seventy-two percent of the patients had multiple high-risk factors. An average of 4700 cGy of whole-pelvis radiotherapy was administered. Ten percent of the patients suffered major gastrointestinal complications, 14% minor gastrointestinal morbidity, 12% minor genitourinary complications, one patient a lymphocyst, and one patient lymphedema. Of the five patients with major gastrointestinal morbidity, all occurred within 12 months of treatment. Three patients required intestinal bypass surgery for distal ileal obstructions and all are currently doing well and free of disease. All of the patients who developed recurrent disease had multiple, high-risk factors. The median time of recurrence was 12 months. All patients recurred within the radiated field. Actuarial survival was 90% and disease-free survival 87% at 70 months. It is our opinion that the morbidity of postoperative pelvic radiotherapy is acceptable, and benefit may be gained in such a high-risk patient population.

  2. Management of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients on Multiday Cisplatin Based Combination Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, Praveen; Einhorn, Lawrence; Albany, Costantine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of cisplatin based chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of germ cell tumors. A common side effect of multiday cisplatin chemotherapy is severe nausea and vomiting. Considerable progress has been made in the control of these side effects since the introduction of cisplatin based chemotherapy in the 1970s. Germ cell tumor which is a model for a curable neoplasm has also turned into an excellent testing ground to develop effective strategies to prevent chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in multiday cisplatin based regimens. The use of combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)3 receptor antagonist, a neurokinin-1 (NK1) antagonist, and dexamethasone has greatly improved our ability to prevent and control acute and delayed CINV. Mechanism and pattern of CINV with multiday chemotherapy may differ from those in single day chemotherapy and therefore efficacy of antiemetic drugs as observed in single day chemotherapy may not be applicable. There are only few randomized clinical trials with special emphasis on multiday chemotherapy. Further studies are essential to determine the efficacy, optimal dose, and duration of the newer agents and combinations in multiday cisplatin based chemotherapy. PMID:26425563

  3. Prophylactic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tuvin, Daniel; Berger, Yaniv; Aycart, Samantha N; Shtilbans, Tatiana; Hiotis, Spiros; Labow, Daniel M; Sarpel, Umut

    2016-05-01

    Background Prophylactic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a promising approach for preventing peritoneal carcinomatosis in high-risk patients. We report our initial experience with prophylactic HIPEC in a series of patients with appendiceal neoplasms. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively maintained database to identify patients who underwent HIPEC in the absence of peritoneal disease. Patients with previously documented peritoneal surface disease were excluded. Data regarding clinical, operative and pathological features were analysed. Results Out of 322 HIPEC procedures performed between March 2007and August 2015, we identified 16 patients who underwent surgery with prophylactic intent. Primary diagnoses included high-grade and low-grade appendiceal neoplasms. Most patients presented originally with appendiceal perforation; all patients underwent initial surgery during which the appendix or right colon were resected. Following a median time interval of 2.2 months, a second surgery performed at our institution consisted of completion of omentectomy, partial colectomy and oophorectomy, with administration of prophylactic HIPEC (using mitomycin C). A totally laparoscopic approach was attempted and achieved in 11 patients in whom the median duration of surgery, estimated intraoperative blood loss and length of hospitalisation were 251 min, 100 cm(3) and 4 days, respectively. There were no cases of major perioperative morbidity or mortality. Conclusions Prophylactic HIPEC for appendiceal neoplasms is feasible, safe and may be performed laparoscopically. Larger studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine whether a survival benefit is associated with this treatment. PMID:27050712

  4. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Housholder, D.F.; Hynes, H.E.; Dakhil, S.R.; Marymont, J.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Two patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) required cholecystectomy for both acute and chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis suggesting chemical cholecystitis. To evaluate the incidence of gall bladder dysfunction in patients receiving HAIC, the authors performed hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-99m DISIDA or PIPIDA on eight patients receiving HAIC through an indwelling hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid (trademark) pump. In 7 of 8 patients, there was non-visualization of the gall bladder throughout the hepatobiliary study. In the eighth patient, the gall bladder visualized at 2 hr. One patient with non-visualization of the gall bladder at 4 hr developed acute symptoms requiring cholecystectomy which showed acute and chronic cholecystitis with cholethiasis. There was prominent sclerosis which was thought to be due to chemical cholecystitis as well as cholelithiasis. In all 10 patients, no evidence of cholecystitis had been observed during the surgical placement of the hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid pump. The hepatobiliary scintigraphic finding of gall bladder dysfunction in all eight patients studied is most likely due to chemical cholecystitis from HAIC. This series suggests that chemical cholecystitis is common during HAIC and can be identified by hepatobiliary scintigraphy. The authors consider elective cholecystectomy during the operative placement of the hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid pump.

  5. Hypofractionated Radiotherapy and Stereotactic Boost with Concurrent and Adjuvant Temozolamide for Glioblastoma in Good Performance Status Elderly Patients – Early Results of a Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Scott R.; Kasper, Ekkehard M.; Uhlmann, Erik J.; Fonkem, Ekokobe; Wong, Eric T.; Mahadevan, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive primary brain neoplasm with dismal prognosis. Based on successful phase III trials, 60 Gy involved-field radiotherapy in 30 fractions over 6 weeks [Standard radiation therapy (RT)] with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide is currently the standard of care. In this disease, age and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) are the most important prognostic factors. For elderly patients, clinical trials comparing standard RT with radiotherapy abbreviated to 40 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks demonstrated similar outcomes, indicating shortened radiotherapy may be an appropriate option for elderly patients. However, these trials did not include temozolomide chemotherapy, and included patients with poor KPS, possibly obscuring benefits of more aggressive treatment for some elderly patients. We conducted a prospective Phase II trial to examine the efficacy of a hypofractionated radiation course followed by a stereotactic boost with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy in elderly patients with good performance status. In this study, patients 65 years and older with a KPS > 70 and histologically confirmed GBM received 40 Gy in 15 fractions with 3D conformal technique followed by a 1–3 fraction stereotactic boost to the enhancing tumor. All patients also received concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide. Patients were evaluated 1 month post-treatment and every 2 months thereafter. Between 2007 and 2010, 20 patients (9 males and 11 females) were enrolled in this study. The median age was 75.4 years (range 65–87 years). At a median follow-up of 11 months (range 7–32 months), 12 patients progressed and 5 are alive. The median progression free survival was 11 months and the median overall survival was 13 months. There was no additional toxicity. These results indicate that elderly patients with good KPS can achieve outcomes comparable to the current standard of care using an abbreviated

  6. E2F1/TS Immunophenotype and Survival of Patients with Colorectal Cancer Treated with 5FU-Based Adjuvant Therapy.

    PubMed

    Sulzyc-Bielicka, Violetta; Domagala, Pawel; Bielicki, Dariusz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rogowski, Wojciech; Domagala, Wenancjusz

    2016-07-01

    The predictive value of thymidylate synthase (TS) expression alone for 5FU-based treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been clinically confirmed. Little is known on the association of expression of E2F1, which controls the transcription of genes encoding proteins engaged in DNA synthesis including TS, and survival of patients with CRC. The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between expression of both E2F1 and TS in CRCs and survival of patients administered adjuvant 5FU-based chemotherapy, in order to find a better predictor of treatment outcome than expression of TS or E2F1 alone. Nuclear TS and E2F1 were detected by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays from 190 CRCs (Astler-Coller stage B2 or C). Multivariate analysis identified significant association of the combined E2F1+TS+ immunophenotype with worse OS (HR = 3,78, P = 0,009) and DFS (HR = 2,30, P = 0,03) of patients with colon cancer. There were significant differences between E2F1+TS+ and E2F1-TS- Kaplan-Meier survival curves in relation to DFS (P = 0.008) and OS (P = 0.01). About 37 and 31 % difference in 3-year DFS and OS respectively were seen between patients with E2F1+TS+ vs. E2F1-TS- colon cancer immunophenotype. The E2F1+TS+ immunophenotype may be a marker of poor prognosis (the worst DFS and OS) of patients with colon cancer treated with 5FU-based adjuvant therapy. A subgroup of patients with this immunophenotype may require different and perhaps more aggressive treatment than 5FU-based chemotherapy. Thus, the combined E2F1/TS immunophenotype could be a potential indicator of colon cancer sensitivity to 5FU. PMID:26831819

  7. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue in pediatric patients undergoing sterilizing chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chambon, Fanny; Brugnon, Florence; Grèze, Victoria; Grémeau, Anne-Sophie; Pereira, Bruno; Déchelotte, Pierre; Kanold, Justyna

    2016-04-01

    Significantly improved survival rates in children and adolescents with cancer have put fertility preservation high on the pediatric oncology agenda. Here we report a retrospective single-center study of 13 years experience of ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) before sterilizing treatment in order to define the safety/benefits of OTC and study clinical/hormonal outcomes in girls. From 2000 to 2013, OTC was performed in 36 girls: eight had non-malignant disease and 28 had malignant disease. Laparoscopy was used to collect a third of each ovary that was frozen by a slow cooling protocol. Indications for OTC were 13 auto-, 19 allo-stem-cell-transplantation and 4 sterilizing chemotherapy. Ovarian tissue harvested by intraumbilical laparoscopy led to no major postoperative complications and did not delay chemotherapy. Histological analysis of ovarian tissue showed an average of 9 primordial follicles/mm(2) [0-83] and no malignant cells were identified. Median post-harvest follow-up was 36 months [1-112]: 26 girls were alive in complete remission and 10 had died. Hormonal results were evaluable for 27 patients (median age 17 yrs [5-26]): 16 patients were in premature ovarian insufficiency. OTC sampling one third of each ovary appears to be an appropriate approach to preserve fertility in children without consequences on subsequent therapeutic program. PMID:27008573

  8. Is Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Overtreatment in Cervical Cancer Patients With Intermediate Risk Factors?

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Sang-Young; Park, Sang-Il; Nam, Byung-Ho; Cho, Chul-Koo; Kim, Kidong; Kim, Beob-Jong; Kim, Moon-Hong; Choi, Seok-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Don; Lee, Kyoung-Hee

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To determine whether adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves the outcome of cervical cancer patients with intermediate risk factors. Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and June 2006, the medical records of 735 patients who had undergone radical surgery for Stage IB-IIA cervical cancer were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 735 patients, 172 with two or more intermediate risk factors (i.e., lymphovascular space involvement, deep stromal invasion, and tumor size {>=}2 cm) were grouped as follows according to the adjuvant treatment received: 34 patients, no further treatment; 49 patients, RT; and 89 patients, CRT. The significance of the clinical parameters and recurrence-free survival of each group were analyzed. Results: Of the 172 patients with any of the intermediate risk factors, 137 (79.6%) had two or more intermediate risk factors. Of the 172 patients, 12 developed recurrences (6.4%)->(7.0%), with 6 in the pelvis and 6 in distant sites. All 12 recurrences occurred in those who had two or more intermediate risk factors (sensitivity, 100%); however, only six recurrences were detected in patients who met the Gynecologic Oncology Group criteria for the intermediate-risk group (sensitivity, 50%; Z test, p < .05). A statistically significant difference was found in the 3-year recurrence-free survival rate among the no further treatment, RT, and CRT groups (67.5%, 90.5%, and 97.5%, respectively; p < .05). The incidence of Grade 3-4 hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicities was not significantly different statistically between the RT and CRT groups (6.1% and 13.4%, respectively; p > .05). Conclusion: Postoperative adjuvant CRT can improve the outcome of cervical cancer patients with intermediate risk factors, with low increase in toxicity.

  9. Chemotherapy for patients with advanced lung cancer receiving long-term oxygen therapy

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Tamiya, Motohiro; Okamoto, Norio; Tanaka, Ayako; Morishita, Naoko; Nishida, Takuji; Nishihara, Takashi; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is sometimes prescribed for patients with advanced lung cancer who are potential candidates for chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of chemotherapy for patients with this disease who require LTOT. Methods The medical records of 40 patients with advanced lung cancer who received LTOT while undergoing systemic chemotherapy at our institution between January 2009 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Chemotherapy consisted of cytotoxic or molecular-targeted agents. Results Twenty-four patients had adenocarcinoma, 6 had squamous cell carcinoma, and 10 had small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The median survival time from the date of the first chemotherapy cycle performed in conjunction with LTOT was 194 days. In a multivariate analysis, the only factor significantly associated with better prognosis was the line (first or second) of the first chemotherapy with LTOT (hazard ratio =0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.94). Among the 40 patients, 10 (25%) received chemotherapy during the last 30 days of their lives, 2 of whom died of chemotherapy-related adverse events. Conclusions Chemotherapy for patients with advanced lung cancer who receive LTOT may be acceptable if it is the first- or second-line treatment. However, we should be mindful of the potential overuse of chemotherapy and its negative impact on quality of life. PMID:26904219

  10. Tattoo allergy in patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sewak, S; Graham, P; Nankervis, J

    1999-11-01

    Tattooing is routinely employed prior to radiotherapy treatment but allergies to tattoos are rare. New information on the incidence of tattoo allergy at St George Hospital is presented with details of two clinical cases. The literature on tattoo allergy has been unable to estimate the incidence of allergic reaction to tattoos because the total number of patients treated is unknown and not all patients were followed up. Our radiation oncology population for the first time has provided a known denominator, but wide confidence intervals prevent an accurate estimate of the incidence. Salient issues about tattoo allergy are highlighted based on a review of the published literature from 1966 to 1998. PMID:10901983

  11. Chemotherapy-induced B-cell depletion in hepatoblastoma patients undergoing ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Akinari; Mali, Vidyadhar Padmakar; Rahayatri, Tri Hening; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Kengo; Uchida, Hajime; Shigeta, Takanobu; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Kasahara, Mureo

    2016-05-01

    LT from ABO-I donors requires preconditioning regimens to prevent postoperative catastrophic AMR. NAC for HBL is known to cause myelosuppression leading to a reduction in the number and function of lymphocytes. We investigated this chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression in HBL patients listed for LT from ABO-I donors with reference to the kinetics of B, T cells, and anti-ABO blood type isoagglutinin titers. Between 2005 and 2015, of the 319 patients who underwent LDLT at our institute, 12 were indicated for unresectable HBL. Three patients with unresectable HBL who underwent LDLT from ABO-I donors are included in this study. Immunosuppression consisted of a standard regime of tacrolimus and low-dose steroids as in ABO compatible/identical LDLT. No additional preoperative therapies for B-cell depletion were used. Absolute lymphocyte counts, lymphocyte subsets (including CD20+ B cells, CD3+CD4+ T cells and CD3+CD8+ T cells), and anti-ABO blood type isoagglutinin titers were measured before LDLT and postoperatively. The median age at diagnosis was 19 months (range, 3-31 months). The median follow-up was seven months (range, 6-15 months). The median interval from the last NAC to LDLT was 33 days (range, 25-52 days). The median interval from LDLT to adjuvant chemotherapy was 28 days (range, 22-36 days). The counts of CD20+ B cells before LDLT were depleted to median 5 cells/mm(3) (range, 0-6 cells/mm(3) ). There was a transient rebound in the CD20+ B cell counts on day seven (maximum of 82 cells/mm(3) ) followed by a decline starting at 14 days after LDLT that was sustained for the duration of adjuvant chemotherapy. Anti-ABO blood type isoagglutinin titers were lowered to between 1:1 and 1:16 before LDLT and remained low for the duration of follow-up in this study. All of the three patients remained in good health without either acute cellular or AMR after LDLT. The B-cell depletion that occurs after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for HBL may help accomplish safe ABO

  12. Adjuvant treatment modalities to control macular edema in diabetic patients undergoing cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Ebru Nevin; Yıldırım, Cem

    2013-10-01

    Cataract surgical outcomes in diabetic patients has been subject to changes with the advances in the surgical techniques. Recent studies suggest that cataract surgery does not cause the progression of diabetic retinopathy and intravitreal bevacizumab and/or triamcinolone injections combined with cataract surgery may contribute in short term improvement of macular edema in diabetic patients. This article reviews the progression of diabetic retinopathy after cataract surgery with phacoemulsification and the use of adjuvant intravitreal treatments combined with phacoemusification in diabetic patients undergoing cataract surgery. PMID:23248073

  13. Clinical Predictive Models for Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia in Breast Cancer Patients: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liling; Su, Fengxi; Jia, Weijuan; Deng, Xiaogeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Predictive models for febrile neutropenia (FN) would be informative for physicians in clinical decision making. This study aims to validate a predictive model (Jenkin’s model) that comprises pretreatment hematological parameters in early-stage breast cancer patients. Patients and Methods A total of 428 breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy without any prophylactic use of colony-stimulating factor were included. Pretreatment absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) and absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) were used by the Jenkin’s model to assess the risk of FN. In addition, we modified the threshold of Jenkin’s model and generated Model-A and B. We also developed Model-C by incorporating the absolute monocyte count (AMC) as a predictor into Model-A. The rates of FN in the 1st chemotherapy cycle were calculated. A valid model should be able to significantly identify high-risk subgroup of patients with FN rate >20%. Results Jenkin’s model (Predicted as high-risk when ANC≦3.1*10∧9/L;ALC≦1.5*10∧9/L) did not identify any subgroups with significantly high risk (>20%) of FN in our population, even if we used different thresholds in Model-A(ANC≦4.4*10∧9/L;ALC≦2.1*10∧9/L) or B(ANC≦3.8*10∧9/L;ALC≦1.8*10∧9/L). However, with AMC added as an additional predictor, Model-C(ANC≦4.4*10∧9/L;ALC≦2.1*10∧9/L; AMC≦0.28*10∧9/L) identified a subgroup of patients with a significantly high risk of FN (23.1%). Conclusions In our population, Jenkin’s model, cannot accurately identify patients with a significant risk of FN. The threshold should be changed and the AMC should be incorporated as a predictor, to have excellent predictive ability. PMID:24945817

  14. Radiofrequency Ablation–Induced Upregulation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Can Be Suppressed with Adjuvant Bortezomib or Liposomal Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Marwan; Goldberg, S. Nahum; Kumar, Gaurav; Sawant, Rupa R.; Levchenko, Tatyana; Torchilin, Vladimir; Ahmed, Muneeb

    2014-01-01

    successfully suppressed with an adjuvant HIF-1α-specific inhibitor, bortezomib, or non–HIF-1α-specific liposomal chemotherapy. PMID:25439675

  15. Induction chemotherapy in patients with resectable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Induction chemotherapy has been investigated as a possible strategy to shrink or downstage locally advanced head and neck cancers, providing opportunity to remove the lesions completely after induction chemotherapy, especially in the patients with resectable advanced disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the definitive effect of induction chemotherapy in patients with resectable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Methods A meta-analysis of randomized trials (1965–2011) was performed on the impact of induction chemotherapy on survival, disease control, and toxicity in this population of patients. Kaplan-Meier curves were read by Engauge-Digitizer. Data combining was performed using RevMan. Results Fourteen trials (2099 patients) were involved in this analysis. There was no significant difference on overall survival, disease free survival, or locoregional recurrence between the patients treated with and without induction chemotherapy (P >0.05). However, the patients treated with induction chemotherapy had a lower rate of distant metastasis by 8% (95% confidence interval 1%–16%, P = 0.02) than those treated without induction chemotherapy. In patients with laryngeal cancer, comparing to radical surgery, the larynx could be preserved in responders to induction chemotherapy without survival decease (P >0.05). Induction chemotherapy-associated death was 0%–5%. Conclusions Based on the results above, there is a significant benefit of induction chemotherapy on decreasing distant metastasis in patients with resectable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In patients with laryngeal cancer, induction chemotherapy provides larynx preservation in responders to induction chemotherapy. PMID:23497185

  16. Therapeutic moisturizers as adjuvant therapy for psoriasis patients.

    PubMed

    Gelmetti, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    At any point in time, psoriasis affects 2-3% of the world's population and has one of the biggest impacts on quality of life of any dermatological disorder. Treatment is extremely costly and prevention of disease progression in severity and extent is crucial. Psoriasis treatment should include skin hydration (regular use of moisturizers and emollients), careful, gentle skin cleansing, and identification and avoidance of Koebner phenomenon triggers (excoriation, maceration) and infectious foci (Streptococcus pyogenes). Moisturizers have been shown to significantly improve skin conditions and quality of life for psoriasis patients. They are a valuable first-line treatment, as dry skin is common and adds to the irritability of the diseased skin. Most patients respond well to topical treatment with topical corticosteroids, emollients, coal tar, anthralin (dithranol) or calcipotriol. Emollients are the most prescribed products, providing transient relief from irritation and some possessing anti-inflammatory properties. Moisturizers and emollients should be used in the following cases: minimal psoriasis, napkin psoriasis, psoriasis of the folds, psoriatic skin damaged by previous local treatments, and in pregnancy or women of childbearing age. PMID:19209948

  17. Adjuvant sorafenib therapy in patients with resected hepatocellular carcinoma: evaluation of predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Gang; Wei, Kai; Zhang, Qingxiang; Ma, Weiwei; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Ti; Kong, Dalu; Li, Qiang; Song, Tianqiang

    2015-04-01

    Currently there is no predictor for survival after adjuvant sorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have undergone curative resection. Thirty-eight patients who underwent curative resection of HCC received adjuvant sorafenib therapy between August 2009 and March 2012. Clinicopathological parameters including patient factors, tumor factors, liver background, and inflammatory factors (before surgery and dynamic changes after sorafenib therapy) were evaluated to identify predictors for overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The recurrence rate, mortality rate, and clinicopathological data were also compared. Increased NLR after sorafenib (HR = 3.199, 95 % CI 1.365-7.545, P = 0.008), increased GGT after sorafenib (HR = 3.204, 95 % CI 1.333-7.700, P = 0.009), and the presence of portal vein thrombosis (HR = 2.381, 95 % CI 1.064-5.328, P = 0.035) were risk factors related to RFS. By contrast, increased NLR after sorafenib was the only independent risk factor related to OS (HR = 4.647, 95 % CI 1.266-17.053, P = 0.021). Patients with increased NLR or increased GGT after sorafenib had a higher incidence of recurrence and death. Patients who had increased NLR tended to have higher preoperative levels of NLR and GGT. There were no differences in clinicopathological factors in patients with increased GGT and decreased GGT. In conclusion, increased NLR predicted a worse OS and RFS in patients with HCC who underwent curative resection with adjuvant sorafenib therapy. Increased GGT predicted a worse OS. NLR and GGT can be monitored dynamically before and after sorafenib therapy. PMID:25750040

  18. Outcomes for patients with anaplastic astrocytoma treated with chemoradiation, radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy: a retrospective review within the era of temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Shonka, Nicole A; Theeler, Brett; Cahill, Daniel; Yung, Alfred; Smith, Lynette; Lei, Xiudong; Gilbert, Mark R

    2013-06-01

    Treatment for anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) is controversial. To assess three primary treatment approaches, patients from a single institution were retrospectively evaluated. To represent modern treatment selection, patients diagnosed with AA from December 2003 to December 2009 were selected. Those with insufficient data, incomplete pathology, and transformation or reclassification to glioblastoma in fewer than 6 months were excluded. A total of 163 patients were included in the final analyses. Median follow-up time was 4.2 years (range 0.5-7.8 years). Median age and Karnofsky performance status at diagnosis were 39.2 years and 90, respectively. 23.6 % of patients underwent biopsy, and 72.2 % underwent resection. Approximately 31 % received concurrent chemoradiation (CRT), 26.1 % had radiation therapy alone (RT), 38.2 % had radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy (RT-C), and 3 % were treated only with chemotherapy. Temozolomide was used almost exclusively during CRT (94.2 %) and adjuvantly. A median of 9.5 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy was given. The combination of radiation and chemotherapy, either concurrent or sequential trended toward a higher rate of radiation necrosis. Median progression free survival (PFS) favored RT (not reached) over CRT (1.5 years) and RT-C (3.6 years) adjusted for pairwise comparison (p = 0.033, p = 0.050). Median overall survival (OS) was 5.7 years, and did not differ significantly by treatment group. OS for patients with AA did not vary by initial treatment selection. Although the longer PFS in those receiving RT versus CRT may be confounded by pseudoprogression, the equivalent OS among groups supports RT. PMID:23526410

  19. Cytoreductive Surgery plus Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Improves Survival for Patients with Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Colorectal Cancer: A Phase II Study from a Chinese Center

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Wu, Hai-Tao; Liu, Yang; Yonemura, Yutaka; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a difficult clinical challenge in colorectal cancer (CRC) because conventional treatment modalities could not produce significant survival benefit, which highlights the acute need for new treatment strategies. Our previous case-control study demonstrated the potential survival advantage of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) over CRS alone. This phase II study was to further investigate the efficacy and adverse events of CRS+HIPEC for Chinese patients with CRC PC. Methods A total of 60 consecutive CRC PC patients underwent 63 procedures consisting of CRS+HIPEC and postoperative chemotherapy, all by a designated team focusing on this combined treatment modality. All the clinico-pathological information was systematically integrated into a prospective database. The primary end point was disease-specific overall survival (OS), and the secondary end points were perioperative safety profiles. Results By the most recent database update, the median follow-up was 29.9 (range 3.5–108.9) months. The peritoneal cancer index (PCI) ≤20 was in 47.0% of patients, complete cytoreductive surgery (CC0-1) was performed in 53.0% of patients. The median OS was 16.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.2–19.8) months, and the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 70.5%, 34.2%, 22.0% and 22.0%, respectively. Mortality and grades 3 to 5 morbidity rates in postoperative 30 days were 0.0% and 30.2%, respectively. Univariate analysis identified 3 parameters with significant effects on OS: PCI ≤20, CC0-1 and adjuvant chemotherapy over 6 cycles. On multivariate analysis, however, only CC0-1 and adjuvant chemotherapy ≥6 cycles were found to be independent factors for OS benefit. Discussion CRS+HIPEC at a specialized treatment center could improve OS for selected CRC PC patients from China, with acceptable perioperative safety. PMID:25259574

  20. Effect of GSTP1 and ABCC4 gene polymorphisms on response and toxicity of cyclophosphamide-epirubicin-5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in Bangladeshi breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Siddiqul; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Parvin, Salma; Ahmed, Maizbah Uddin; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Hussain, Syed Md Akram; Hasnat, Abul

    2015-07-01

    The most important cytotoxic drug namely, cyclophosphamide used in breast cancer along with epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil, is transported by ABCC transporters and detoxified by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). The activities of these enzymes and transporters may vary in different population due to the presence of genetic polymorphisms. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of GSTP1rs1695 and ABCC4rs9561778 polymorphisms on the response and toxicities produced by chemotherapy used in the treatment of Bangladeshi breast cancer patients. A total of 200 and 56 patients with invasive breast cancers were recruited from different public and private hospitals of Bangladesh of which 117 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy to examine the response as well as the toxicity, and another 139 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy to evaluate only the toxicity. Genetic polymorphisms of the mentioned genes were detected by using Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR RFLP). Patients carrying AG and AG plus GG genotype of GSTP1rs1695 were more likely to have a good response, whereas no association of ABCC4rs9561778 was found with the chemotherapy response. Patients carrying GT and GT plus TT genotypes of ABCC4rs9561778 were found to be associated with anemia, neutropenia, leukopenia, and gastrointestinal toxicities when compared with GG genotype whereas no association was found with thrombocytopenia. GSTP1rs1695 was not associated with any type of toxicities investigated. Our result indicates that GSTP1rs1695 polymorphism was strongly associated with the response of chemotherapy, whereas ABCC4rs9561778 polymorphism was significantly related with chemotherapy-induced toxicities. PMID:25677905

  1. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in patients with gynecologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Yasunori; Kasai, Mari; Fukuda, Takeshi; Ichimura, Tomoyuki; Yasui, Tomoyo; Sumi, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a common complication in cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated chemotherapy-induced neutropenia that was recently detected in all patients with gynecologic malignancy. Between January 2009 and December 2011, we examined cases of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia reported in our hospital. We analyzed the incidence and clinical features of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in patients with gynecologic malignancy. During the study period, we administered over 1614 infusions (29 regimens) to 291 patients. The median age of the patients was 60 years (range 24-84 years). Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia occurred in 147 (50.5%) patients over 378 (23.4%) chemotherapy cycles. Febrile neutropenia occurred in 20 (6.9%) patients over 25 (1.5%) cycles. The mean duration of neutropenia and fever was 3.6 days (range 1-12 days) and 3.4 days (range 1-9 days), respectively. The source of fever was unexplained by examination or cultures in 14 (56.0%) cycles. There were two cases of neutropenia-related death. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia was associated with older age (over 70 years) (P<0.0001), less than five previous chemotherapy cycles (P=0.02), disseminated disease (P=0.03), platinum-based regimens (P<0.0001), taxane-containing regimens (P<0.0001), and combined therapy (P<0.0001). Febrile neutropenia was associated with poor performance status (P<0.0001), no previous chemotherapy (P<0.05), disseminated disease (P<0.0001), and distant metastatic disease (P=0.03). Neither chemotherapy-induced neutropenia nor febrile neutropenia was associated with bone marrow metastases or previous radiotherapy. By identifying risk factors for febrile neutropenia, such as performance status, no previous chemotherapy, disseminated disease, and distant metastatic disease, the safe management of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia may be possible in patients with gynecologic malignancy. PMID:26267078

  2. Longitudinal Assessments of Quality of Life in Endometrial Cancer Patients: Effect of Surgical Approach and Adjuvant Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Tien; Menard, Chantal; Samant, Rajiv; Choan, E.; Hopkins, Laura; Faught, Wylam; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) is often considered for endometrial cancer. We studied the effect of RT and surgical treatment on patients' quality of life (QOL). Methods and Materials: All patients referred to the gynecologic oncology clinics with biopsy findings showing endometrial cancer were recruited. QOL assessments were performed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL questionnaire-C30, version 3. Assessments were obtained at study entry and at regular 3-month intervals for a maximum of 2 years. Open-ended telephone interviews were done every 6 months. Linear mixed regression models were built using QOL domain scores as dependent variables, with the predictors of surgical treatment and adjuvant RT type. Results: A total of 40 patients were recruited; 80% of the surgeries were performed by laparotomy. Significant improvements were seen in most QOL domains with increased time from treatment. Adjuvant RT resulted in significantly more severe bowel symptoms and improvement in insomnia compared with conservative follow-up. No significant adverse effect from adjuvant RT was seen on the overall QOL. Bowel symptoms were significantly increased in patients treated with laparotomy compared with laparoscopy in the patients treated with whole pelvic RT. Qualitatively, about one-half of the patients noted improvements in their overall QOL during follow-up, with easy fatigability the most prevalent. Conclusion: No significant adverse effect was seen on patients' overall QOL with adjuvant pelvic RT after the recovery period. The acute adverse effects on patients' QOL significantly improved with an increasing interval from diagnosis.

  3. Standardizing of Pathology in Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, Veerle; Symmans, W Fraser

    2016-10-01

    The use of neoadjuvant systemic therapy for the treatment of breast cancer patients is increasing. Pathologic response in the form of pathologic complete response (pCR) and grading systems of partial response, such as the residual cancer burden (RCB) system, gives valuable prognostic information for patients and is used as a primary endpoint in clinical trials. The breast cancer and pathology communities are responding with efforts to standardize pathology in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize the challenges that postneoadjuvant systemic therapy surgical specimens pose and how pathologists and the multidisciplinary team can work together to optimize handling of these specimens. Multidisciplinary communication is essential. A single, standardized approach to macroscopic and microscopic pathologic examination makes it possible to provide reliable response information. This approach employs a map of tissue sections to correlate clinical, gross, microscopic, and imaging findings in order to report the presence of pCR (ypT0 ypN0 and ypT0/is ypN0) versus residual disease, the ypT and ypN stage using the current AJCC/UICC staging system, and the RCB. PMID:27380637

  4. Adjuvant sorafenib after heptectomy for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer-stage C hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Feng; Wu, Li-Li; Lau, Wan-Yee; Huan, Hong-Bo; Wen, Xu-Dong; Ma, Kuan-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Wu; Bie, Ping

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant sorafenib after curative resection for patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC)-stage C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Thirty-four HCC patients, classified as BCLC-stage C, received adjuvant sorafenib for high-risk of tumor recurrence after curative hepatectomy at a tertiary care university hospital. The study group was compared with a case-matched control group of 68 patients who received curative hepatectomy for HCC during the study period in a 1:2 ratio. RESULTS: The tumor recurrence rate was markedly lower in the sorafenib group (15/34, 44.1%) than in the control group (51/68, 75%, P = 0.002). The median disease-free survival was 12 mo in the study group and 10 mo in the control group. Tumor number more than 3, macrovascular invasion, hilar lymph nodes metastasis, and treatment with sorafenib were significant factors of disease-free survival by univariate analysis. Tumor number more than 3 and treatment with sorafenib were significant risk factors of disease-free survival by multivariate analysis in the Cox proportional hazards model. The disease-free survival and cumulative overall survival in the study group were significantly better than in the control group (P = 0.034 and 0.016, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our study verifies the potential benefit and safety of adjuvant sorafenib for both decreasing HCC recurrence and extending disease-free and overall survival rates for patients with BCLC-stage C HCC after curative resection. PMID:27340354

  5. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive human malignancies, ranking 4th among causes for cancer-related death in the Western world including the United States. Surgical resection offers the only chance of cure, but only 15 to 20 percent of cases are potentially resectable at presentation. Different studies demonstrate and confirm that advanced pancreatic cancer is among the most complex cancers to treat and that these tumors are relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Currently there is no consensus around the world on what constitutes “standard” adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer. This controversy derives from several studies, each fraught with its own limitations. Standards of care also vary somewhat with regard to geography and economy, for instance chemo-radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy or vice versa is considered the optimal therapy in North America while chemotherapy alone is the current standard in Europe. Regardless of the efforts in adjuvant and neoadjuvant improved therapy, the major goal to combat pancreatic cancer is to find diagnostic markers, identifying the disease in a pre-metastatic stage and making a curative treatment accessible to more patients. In this review, authors examined the different therapy options for advanced pancreatic patients in recent years and the future directions in adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatments for these patients. PMID:22529684

  6. Esophageal Metastasis to the Iris Effectively Palliated Using Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Adjuvant Intravitreal Chemotherapy: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Sughosh; Lema, Gareth M.C.; DiLoreto, David A.; Katz, Alan W.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of isolated iris metastasis from esophageal adenocarcinoma that was successfully managed with local application of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and adjunctive intravitreal therapy. A 53-year-old man with locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma achieved a complete clinical and radiographic response after surgery and chemotherapy. Four months later, he developed headache and decreased vision and was diagnosed with metastasis to the iris by slit-lamp examination. The decrease in vision was secondary to cystoid macular edema. The metastatic tumor and the patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with SBRT and intravitreal injections of bevacizumab and triamcinolone. We conclude that SBRT combined with intravitreal chemotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated palliative treatment for metastasis of esophageal adenocarcinoma to the iris. PMID:23275779

  7. Sequential addition of aprepitant in patients receiving carboplatin-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Seiichiro; Karayama, Masato; Inui, Naoki; Kuroishi, Shigeki; Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Yutaro; Yokomura, Koshi; Toyoshima, Mikio; Imokawa, Shiro; Asada, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Masafumi; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2016-07-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is a challenging issue. Although aprepitant is sometimes used as a therapeutic option in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, the potential benefit of sequential addition of aprepitant to dexamethasone and a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist during the second cycle of carboplatin-based chemotherapy remains unclear. Chemo-naïve patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received carboplatin-based chemotherapy were treated with doublet antiemetic therapy with dexamethasone and a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist during the first cycle of chemotherapy. Aprepitant was then added during the second cycle of chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was overall complete response rate, defined as no vomiting and no rescue therapy during the 120 h after administration of chemotherapy. Sixty-seven patients were enrolled, 63 of whom were eligible after two cycles of chemotherapy. The overall complete response rate was significantly improved in the second cycle [87.3 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 76.5-94.4 %] compared with the first cycle (65.1 %, 95 % CI 52.0-76.7 %; p < 0.001). Improvement was observed in the delayed phase, but not in the acute phase. Subsequent addition of aprepitant significantly improved the overall complete response rate in NSCLC patients receiving a second cycle of carboplatin-based chemotherapy. PMID:27235141

  8. MCL-1 is the key target of adjuvant chemotherapy to reverse the cisplatin-resistance in NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Zhenxian; Wu, Kaiming; Xu, Zhe; Liu, Kuanzhi

    2016-08-10

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of lung cancer. However, the acquired resistance occurred in cancer cells limits the clinical application of cisplatin. MCL-1, which is an important member in the pro-survival Bcl-2 family, plays a critical role in multidrug resistance (MDR). The aim of the present study is to investigate the value of Pan-Bcl-2 inhibitor as sensitizer for the chemotherapy of cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We found the obatoclax but not the ABT-737 significantly decreased the IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of cisplatin in cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mechanism of obatoclax-promoted cell death induced by cisplatin was dependent on the inhibition of MCL-1, which couldn't be inhibited by ABT-737 but is the target of obatoclax. Moreover, inhibition of MCL-1 recovered the function of NOXA and BAK in cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells, leading to the promotion of mitochondrial apoptosis induced by cisplatin. Interestingly, our date indicated the obatoclax also reversed the cross-resistance in cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells. Therefore, we demonstrated that the targeted therapy with MCL-1 inhibitors, such as obatoclax, may represent a novel strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:27138804

  9. Who Benefits From Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer? A Meta-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohri, Nitin; Garg, Madhur K.; Aparo, Santiago; Kaubisch, Andreas; Tome, Wolfgang; Kennedy, Timothy J.; Kalnicki, Shalom; Guha, Chandan

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Large randomized trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy for gastric cancer. The importance of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) remains unclear. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis of randomized trials testing the use of RT for resectable gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials testing adjuvant (including neoadjuvant) RT for resectable gastric cancer. Hazard ratios describing the impact of adjuvant RT on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Pooled estimates were obtained using the inverse variance method. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether the efficacy of RT varies with chemotherapy use, RT timing, geographic region, type of nodal dissection performed, or lymph node status. Results: Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were used for this analysis. Adjuvant RT was associated with a significant improvement in both OS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.86, P<.001) and DFS (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63-0.80, P<.001). In the 5 studies that tested adjuvant chemoradiation therapy against adjuvant chemotherapy, similar effects were seen for OS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, P=.087) and DFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.91-0.65, P=.002). Available data did not reveal any subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Conclusion: In randomized trials for resectable gastric cancer, adjuvant RT provides an approximately 20% improvement in both DFS and OS. Available data do not reveal a subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Further study is required to optimize the implementation of adjuvant RT for gastric cancer with regard to patient selection and integration with systemic therapy.

  10. Uncaria tomentosa-Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Santos Araújo, Maria do Carmo; Farias, Iria Luiza; Gutierres, Jessie; Dalmora, Sergio L; Flores, Nélia; Farias, Julia; de Cruz, Ivana; Chiesa, Juarez; Morsch, Vera Maria; Chitolina Schetinger, Maria Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplasm affecting women worldwide. Some of the recommended treatments involve chemotherapy whose toxic effects include leukopenia and neutropenia. This study assessed the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa (Ut) in reducing the adverse effects of chemotherapy through a randomized clinical trial. Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma-Stage II, who underwent a treatment regimen known as FAC (Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide), were divided into two groups: the UtCa received chemotherapy plus 300 mg dry Ut extract per day and the Ca group that only received chemotherapy and served as the control experiment. Blood samples were collected before each one of the six chemotherapy cycles and blood counts, immunological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress were analyzed. Uncaria tomentosa reduced the neutropenia caused by chemotherapy and was also able to restore cellular DNA damage. We concluded that Ut is an effective adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. PMID:22811748

  11. Uncaria tomentosa—Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Santos Araújo, Maria do Carmo; Farias, Iria Luiza; Gutierres, Jessie; Dalmora, Sergio L.; Flores, Nélia; Farias, Julia; de Cruz, Ivana; Chiesa, Juarez; Morsch, Vera Maria; Chitolina Schetinger, Maria Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplasm affecting women worldwide. Some of the recommended treatments involve chemotherapy whose toxic effects include leukopenia and neutropenia. This study assessed the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa (Ut) in reducing the adverse effects of chemotherapy through a randomized clinical trial. Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma—Stage II, who underwent a treatment regimen known as FAC (Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide), were divided into two groups: the UtCa received chemotherapy plus 300 mg dry Ut extract per day and the Ca group that only received chemotherapy and served as the control experiment. Blood samples were collected before each one of the six chemotherapy cycles and blood counts, immunological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress were analyzed. Uncaria tomentosa reduced the neutropenia caused by chemotherapy and was also able to restore cellular DNA damage. We concluded that Ut is an effective adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. PMID:22811748

  12. Association between adjuvant regional radiotherapy and cognitive function in breast cancer patients treated with conservation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shibayama, Osamu; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Eisho; Sugawara, Yuriko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Wada, Noriaki; Imoto, Shigeru; Murakami, Koji; Ogawa, Asao; Akabayashi, Akira; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2014-01-01

    Although protracted cognitive impairment has been reported to occur after radiotherapy even when such therapy is not directed to brain areas, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated whether breast cancer patients exposed to local radiotherapy showed lower cognitive function mediated by higher plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels than those unexposed. We performed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) and measured plasma IL-6 levels for 105 breast cancer surgical patients within 1 year after the initial therapy. The group differences in each of the indices of WMS-R were investigated between cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy (n = 51) and those unexposed (n = 54) using analysis of covariance. We further investigated a mediation effect by plasma IL-6 levels on the relationship between radiotherapy and the indices of WMS-R using the bootstrapping method. The radiotherapy group showed significantly lower Immediate Verbal Memory Index and Delayed Recall Index (P = 0.001, P = 0.008, respectively). Radiotherapy exerted an indirect effect on the lower Delayed Recall Index of WMS-R through elevation of plasma IL-6 levels (bootstrap 95% confidence interval = −2.6626 to −0.0402). This study showed that breast cancer patients exposed to adjuvant regional radiotherapy in conservation therapy might have cognitive impairment even several months after their treatment. The relationship between the therapy and the cognitive impairment could be partially mediated by elevation of plasma IL-6 levels. PMID:24756915

  13. Comprehensive treatment of malignant mesothelioma patients after the failure of systemic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jibing; Liang, Bing; Yuan, Yuanying; Liu, Chunyan; Li, Li; Li, Haibo; Mu, Feng; Zuo, Jiansheng; Xu, Kecheng

    2012-12-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive neoplasm usually arising from the mesothelial surfaces of the pleural or peritoneal cavity. Currently, no standard therapy is available. The most commonly used therapy is cytoreductive surgery combined with systematic chemotherapy, but the median overall survival (OS) is less than 12 months; moreover, treatments are lacking for patients in whom chemotherapy has failed and/or who cannot withstand surgery. We investigated multiple minimally invasive therapies (cryosurgery, photodynamic therapy and intracavity chemotherapy) for the treatment of MM patients in whom systemic chemotherapy had failed. Twenty-seven patients were divided into comprehensive (combination of the three therapies) and palliative (intracavity chemotherapy only) treatment groups. The OS of patients who received comprehensive treatment was significantly longer than that of those who received palliative treatment (median OS: 64 vs. 9 months, P<0.001). This interesting result was not associated with treatment timing, but was closely associated with repeated treatments. PMID:22939880

  14. Tumor regrowth between surgery and initiation of adjuvant therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pirzkall, Andrea; McGue, Colleen; Saraswathy, Suja; Cha, Soonmee; Liu, Raymond; Vandenberg, Scott; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Berger, Mitchel S; Chang, Susan M; Nelson, Sarah J

    2009-12-01

    To assess incidence and degree of regrowth in glioblastoma between surgery and radiation therapy (RT) and to correlate regrowth with presurgical imaging and survival, we examined images of 32 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who underwent MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) prior to surgery, after surgery, and prior to RT/temozolomide. Contrast enhancement (CE) in the pre-RT MR image was compared with postsurgical DWI to differentiate tumor growth from postsurgical infarct. MRSI and PWI parameters were analyzed prior to surgery and pre-RT. Postsurgical MRI indicated that 18 patients had gross total and 14 subtotal resections. Twenty-one patients showed reduced diffusion, and 25 patients showed new or increased CE. In eight patients (25%), the new CE was confined to areas of postsurgical reduced diffusion. In the other 17 patients (53%), new CE was found to be indicative of tumor growth or a combination of tumor growth and surgical injury. Higher perfusion and creatine within nonenhancing tumor in the presurgery MR were associated with subsequent tumor growth. High levels of choline and reduced diffusion in pre-RT CE suggested active metabolism and tumor cell proliferation. Median survival was 14.6 months in patients with interim tumor growth and 24 months in patients with no growth. Increased volume or new onset of CE between surgery and RT was attributed to tumor growth in 53% of patients and was associated with shorter survival. This suggests that reducing the time between surgery and adjuvant therapy may be important. The acquisition of metabolic and physiologic imaging data prior to adjuvant therapy may also be valuable in assessing regions of new CE and nonenhancing tumor. PMID:19229057

  15. Tumor regrowth between surgery and initiation of adjuvant therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Pirzkall, Andrea; McGue, Colleen; Saraswathy, Suja; Cha, Soonmee; Liu, Raymond; Vandenberg, Scott; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    To assess incidence and degree of regrowth in glioblastoma between surgery and radiation therapy (RT) and to correlate regrowth with presurgical imaging and survival, we examined images of 32 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who underwent MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) prior to surgery, after surgery, and prior to RT/temozolomide. Contrast enhancement (CE) in the pre-RT MR image was compared with postsurgical DWI to differentiate tumor growth from postsurgical infarct. MRSI and PWI parameters were analyzed prior to surgery and pre-RT. Postsurgical MRI indicated that 18 patients had gross total and 14 subtotal resections. Twenty-one patients showed reduced diffusion, and 25 patients showed new or increased CE. In eight patients (25%), the new CE was confined to areas of postsurgical reduced diffusion. In the other 17 patients (53%), new CE was found to be indicative of tumor growth or a combination of tumor growth and surgical injury. Higher perfusion and creatine within nonenhancing tumor in the presurgery MR were associated with subsequent tumor growth. High levels of choline and reduced diffusion in pre-RT CE suggested active metabolism and tumor cell proliferation. Median survival was 14.6 months in patients with interim tumor growth and 24 months in patients with no growth. Increased volume or new onset of CE between surgery and RT was attributed to tumor growth in 53% of patients and was associated with shorter survival. This suggests that reducing the time between surgery and adjuvant therapy may be important. The acquisition of metabolic and physiologic imaging data prior to adjuvant therapy may also be valuable in assessing regions of new CE and nonenhancing tumor. PMID:19229057

  16. Adjuvant selenium supplementation in the form of sodium selenite in postoperative critically ill patients with severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Plasma selenium (Se) concentrations are reduced in critically ill surgical patients, and lower plasma Se concentrations are associated with worse outcomes. We investigated whether adjuvant Se supplementation in the form of sodium selenite could improve outcomes in surgical patients with sepsis. Methods In this retrospective study, all adult patients admitted to a 50-bed surgical ICU with severe sepsis between January 2004 and April 2010 were included and analysed according to whether they had received adjuvant Se supplementation, which was given at the discretion of the attending physician. When prescribed, Se was administered in the form of sodium selenite pentahydrate (Na2SeO3∙5H2O), in which 100 μg of Se corresponds to 333 μg of sodium selenite. A bolus of sodium selenite corresponding to 1,000 μg of Se was injected intravenously through a central venous line for 30 minutes, followed by infusion of 1,000 μg/day for 24 hours for 14 days until ICU discharge or death. We performed logistic regression analysis to investigate the impact of adjuvant Se supplementation on hospital mortality. Results Adjuvant Se was administered to 413 (39.7%) of the 1,047 patients admitted with severe sepsis. Age and sex were similar between patients who received adjuvant Se and those who did not. Compared with patients who did not receive adjuvant Se supplementation, patients who did had higher scores on the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, a greater prevalence of cancer upon admission to the ICU and were more commonly admitted after abdominal surgery. Compared with patients who did not receive adjuvant Se, patients who did had higher hospital mortality rates (46% versus 39.1%; P = 0.027), and longer median (interquartile range (IQR)) ICU stays (15 days (6 to 24) versus 11 days (4 to 24); P = 0.01) and hospital lengths of stay (33 days (21 to 52) versus 28 days (17 to 46); P = 0.001). In multivariable analysis, adjuvant Se supplementation

  17. Dietary intake in patients with small cell lung cancer: the effect of aggressive chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ovesen, L; Hannibal, J; Allingstrup, L

    1992-07-01

    Energy and protein intake in 32 consecutive patients with small cell lung cancer was examined at initiation of cyclical chemotherapy and after 1 and 3 months. With each cycle intakes decreased in the first 2 days following chemotherapy, but were back to pretreatment levels on the third day. Eleven of the patients lost weight in the study period. Their energy and protein intakes were lower following chemotherapy compared to pretreatment intakes and to post-therapy intakes in weight-stable patients. Pretreatment intakes did not decrease over time, either in weight-losing or in weight-stable patients. PMID:1320568

  18. Adjuvant therapy for pancreas cancer in an era of value based cancer care

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Daniel H.; Williams, Terence M.; Goldstein, Daniel A.; El-Rayes, Bassel; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios

    2016-01-01

    In resected pancreas cancer, adjuvant therapy improves outcomes and is considered the standard of care for patients who recover sufficiently post operatively. Chemotherapy or combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy (chemoradiation; CRT) are strategies used in the adjuvant setting. However, there is a lack of evidence to suggest whether the addition of RT to chemotherapy translates to an improvement in clinical outcomes. This is true even when accounting for the subset of patients with a higher risk for recurrence, such as those with R1 and lymph node positive disease. When considering the direct and indirect costs, impact on quality of life and questionable added clinical benefit, the true “net health benefit” from added RT to chemotherapy becomes more uncertain. Future directions, including the utilization of modern RT, integration of novel therapies, and intensifying chemotherapy regimens may improve outcomes in resected pancreas cancer. PMID:26620819

  19. Adjuvant therapy for pancreas cancer in an era of value based cancer care.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Daniel H; Williams, Terence M; Goldstein, Daniel A; El-Rayes, Bassel; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios

    2016-01-01

    In resected pancreas cancer, adjuvant therapy improves outcomes and is considered the standard of care for patients who recover sufficiently post operatively. Chemotherapy or combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy (chemoradiation; CRT) are strategies used in the adjuvant setting. However, there is a lack of evidence to suggest whether the addition of RT to chemotherapy translates to an improvement in clinical outcomes. This is true even when accounting for the subset of patients with a higher risk for recurrence, such as those with R1 and lymph node positive disease. When considering the direct and indirect costs, impact on quality of life and questionable added clinical benefit, the true "net health benefit" from added RT to chemotherapy becomes more uncertain. Future directions, including the utilization of modern RT, integration of novel therapies, and intensifying chemotherapy regimens may improve outcomes in resected pancreas cancer. PMID:26620819

  20. Perioperative Outcomes of Laparoscopic Radical Nephroureterectomy and Regional Lymphadenectomy in Patients with Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, M. Zak; Kamat, Ashish M.; Clavell-Hernandez, Jonathan; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene O.; Grossman, H. Barton; Dinney, Colin P. N.; Matin, Surena F.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on surgical outcomes in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (LNUX) for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Methods We performed a retrospective review of all UTUC patients who underwent LNUX performed at our institution between January 2003 and June 2010. We compared differences in demographic, clinicopathological, and operative parameters, including estimated blood loss, duration of surgery, length of postoperative hospitalization, and number of complications, between patients who underwent LNUX after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and patients who underwent LNUX without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of complications. Results We identified 82 UTUC patients who underwent LNUX; 26 received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients who underwent LNUX after neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a higher body mass index, higher biopsy tumor grade, and longer operative time than patients who underwent LNUX without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy underwent regional lymphadenectomy more often, with more lymph nodes and lymphoadipose tissue removed, than patients who did not receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy resulted in a 15% complete remission rate. No differences in median estimated blood loss, intraoperative transfusions, and length of hospitalization between the two groups were found. Perioperative complication rates were similar in both groups. Conclusions We found no differences in surgical outcomes between patients who underwent LNUX after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and patients who underwent LNUX without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings support the use of LNUX in selected patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy for UTUC. PMID:21354598

  1. A Prospective Cohort Study on Cardiotoxicity of Adjuvant Trastuzumab Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Erika; Jug, Borut; Blagus, Rok; Zakotnik, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiotoxicity is an important side effect of trastuzumab therapy and cardiac surveillance is recommended. Objectives The aim of our study was to prospectively assess baseline patients' characteristics, level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and echocardiographic parameters as possible predictors of trastuzumab-related cardiac dysfunction. Methods In a prospective cohort study, clinical, echocardiographic and neurohumoral assessment was performed at baseline, after 4, 8 and 12 months in breast cancer patients undergoing post-anthracycline (3-4 cycles) adjuvant therapy with trastuzumab. Trastuzumab-related cardiac dysfunction was defined as a decline of ≥ 10% in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Results 92 patients (mean age, 53.6 ± 9.0 years) were included. Patients who developed trastuzumab-related LVEF decline ≥ 10% (20.6%) during treatment had significantly higher baseline LVEF (70.7 ± 4.4%) than those without (64.8 ± 5.5%) (p = 0.0035). All other measured baseline parameters (age, body mass index, arterial hypertension, level of NT-proBNP and other echocardiographic parameters) were not identified as significant. Conclusions Our findings suggest that baseline patient' characteristics, level of NT-proBNP and echocardiographic parameters, as long as they are within normal range, are not a reliable tool to predict early trastuzumab-related cardiac dysfunction in patients undergoing post-low dose anthracycline adjuvant trastuzumab therapy. A LVEF decline in patients with high-normal baseline level although statistically significant is not clinically relevant. PMID:27305108

  2. Acupressure in Controlling Nausea in Young Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    RATIONALE: Acupressure wristbands may prevent or reduce nausea and caused by chemotherapy. It is not yet known whether standard care is more effective with or without acupressure wristbands in controlling acute and delayed nausea. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying how well acupressure wristbands work with or without standard care in controlling nausea in young patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. |

  3. Adjuvant oestrogen therapy does not improve disease activity in postmenopausal patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    van den Brink, H R; van Everdingen, A A; van Wijk, M J; Jacobs, J W; Bijlsma, J W

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether oestrogens can be used as treatment to diminish disease activity in women with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS--Forty postmenopausal female patients with active rheumatoid arthritis participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study on the possible beneficial effect of adjuvant treatment of oestradiol on disease activity. RESULTS--Thirty three patients completed 52 weeks of treatment with 2 mg oestradiol-valerate or placebo. No statistically significant difference was found in and between both treatment groups with regard to articular indices, pain score by visual analogue scale, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and health questionnaire on daily activities before, during and at the end of the study. CONCLUSION--This first randomised prospective placebo-controlled study shows no beneficial effect of oestrogens on disease activity in postmenopausal female patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:8311536

  4. Sequencing postoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: unanswered questions on the not evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Kepka, Lucyna; Socha, Joanna; Rucinska, Monika; Wasilewska-Tesluk, Ewa; Komosinska, Katarzyna

    2016-07-01

    This editorial comments on the study by Lee et al. which reported on the use of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) as first strategy after resection of stage IIIA-pN2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). After completion of PORT, 41% of patients received postoperative chemotherapy (POCT). The five-year overall survival (OS) was significantly higher in patients treated with PORT and POCT than in patients treated with PORT alone. Authors concluded that PORT used as first postoperative strategy does not compromise a benefit of POCT and its implementation should be further studied. We discuss the pros and cons of using PORT before POCT for stage IIIA-pN2 NSCLC. Some radiobiological data support earlier use of PORT, however, caution should be paid to not to unnecessarily delay or omit POCT because of its demonstrated survival benefit. Concurrent postoperative radio-chemotherapy could be an attractive approach, but we still have very limited clinical data on its use in this indication. PMID:27501290

  5. Sequencing postoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer: unanswered questions on the not evidence-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Socha, Joanna; Rucinska, Monika; Wasilewska-Tesluk, Ewa; Komosinska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    This editorial comments on the study by Lee et al. which reported on the use of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) as first strategy after resection of stage IIIA-pN2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). After completion of PORT, 41% of patients received postoperative chemotherapy (POCT). The five-year overall survival (OS) was significantly higher in patients treated with PORT and POCT than in patients treated with PORT alone. Authors concluded that PORT used as first postoperative strategy does not compromise a benefit of POCT and its implementation should be further studied. We discuss the pros and cons of using PORT before POCT for stage IIIA-pN2 NSCLC. Some radiobiological data support earlier use of PORT, however, caution should be paid to not to unnecessarily delay or omit POCT because of its demonstrated survival benefit. Concurrent postoperative radio-chemotherapy could be an attractive approach, but we still have very limited clinical data on its use in this indication. PMID:27501290

  6. Concurrent Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Administration with Chemotherapy Improves Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Responses in Young Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jeong; Yoon, Tae-In; Chae, Hee Dong; Kim, Jeong Eun; Chae, Eun Young; Yu, Jong Han; Sohn, Guiyun; Ko, Beom Seok; Lee, Jong Won; Son, Byung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine the oncologic efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment concurrent with chemotherapy in a neoadjuvant setting. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 332 cases of invasive breast cancer in patients who were <40 years old at diagnosis and received GnRH agonists concurrent with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (GnRH agonist group) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone (neochemotherapy-alone group) from December 2010 to September 2014. Pathologic complete response rates (pCR) and Ki-67 changes were evaluated between the two groups. Results Median age was 32±3.9 and 36±3.0 years in the GnRH agonist group and neochemotherapy-alone group, respectively (p<0.001). After adjustment for tumor size, grade, lymph node metastasis, hormone receptor (HR) status, and chemotherapy regimen, the GnRH agonist group exhibited a higher pCR rate with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-6.34) and a greater decrease in Ki-67 expression after treatment (p=0.05) than the neochemotherapy-alone group. For HR-negative tumors, the GnRH agonist group showed a higher pCR rate (multivariate OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.37-8.95) and a greater decrease in Ki-67 expression (p=0.047). For HR-positive breast cancer, the pCR rate, change in Ki-67 index, and clinical response were higher, and preoperative endocrine prognostic index scores were lower, in the GnRH agonist group, but these did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion Concurrent administration of GnRH agonists during neoadjuvant chemotherapy improved pCR rates and suppressed Ki-67 expression, especially in HR-negative tumors. PMID:26770243

  7. Timing of Radiotherapy and Outcome in Patients Receiving Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Per; Cole, Bernard F.; Colleoni, Marco; Roncadin, Mario; Chua, Boon H.; Murray, Elizabeth; Price, Karen N.; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Goldhirsch, Aron; Gruber, Guenther

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between the interval from breast-conserving surgery (BCS) to radiotherapy (RT) and the clinical outcome among patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy. Patients and Methods: Patient information was obtained from three International Breast Cancer Study Group trials. The analysis was restricted to 964 patients treated with BCS and adjuvant endocrine therapy. The patients were divided into two groups according to the median number of days between BCS and RT and into four groups according to the quartile of time between BCS and RT. The endpoints were the interval to local recurrence, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Proportional hazards regression analysis was used to perform comparisons after adjustment for baseline factors. Results: The median interval between BCS and RT was 77 days. RT timing was significantly associated with age, menopausal status, and estrogen receptor status. After adjustment for these factors, no significant effect of a RT delay {<=}20 weeks was found. The adjusted hazard ratio for RT within 77 days vs. after 77 days was 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47-1.87) for the interval to local recurrence, 1.05 (95% CI, 0.82-1.34) for disease-free survival, and 1.07 (95% CI, 0.77-1.49) for overall survival. For the interval to local recurrence the adjusted hazard ratio for {<=}48, 49-77, and 78-112 days was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.34-2.37), 0.86 (95% CI, 0.33-2.25), and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.33-2.41), respectively, relative to {>=}113 days. Conclusion: A RT delay of {<=}20 weeks was significantly associated with baseline factors such as age, menopausal status, and estrogen-receptor status. After adjustment for these factors, the timing of RT was not significantly associated with the interval to local recurrence, disease-free survival, or overall survival.

  8. Adjuvant Chinese Herbal Products for Preventing Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chiu, Hsienhsueh Elley; Liu, Chun-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chinese herbal products (CHPs) are widely used for atrial fibrillation (AF) in Taiwan. We investigated the effect of adjuvant CHPs in preventing ischemic stroke in patients with AF. Methods Taiwanese patients in the Health Insurance Database newly diagnosed with AF during 2000–2011 were enrolled. Medication treatment with/without CHPs was administered within 7 days after the AF diagnosis. The clinical endpoint was an ischemic stroke. The Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and Student t test were used to examine differences between the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and non-TCM cohorts. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess the risk for ischemic stroke between two cohorts. Results Three hundred and eleven patients underwent TCM treatment and 1715 patients did not. Compared to non-TCM users, TCM users had a lower incidence of stroke (12.59% vs. 1.93%, respectively) and lower risk of stroke [CHA2DS2-VASc score = 0–2 (hazard ratio = 0.20; 95% confidence interval = 0.06–0.65)]. Compared to non-TCM users, the stroke risk was significantly lower in TCM users with AF who were female or younger than 65 years, but not in males, people more than 65 years old, or people with comorbidities. Compared to TCM users, non-TCM users who received conventional treatment had a higher ischemic stroke risk. The risk for AF-related hospitalization was significantly lower in TCM users (0.64%) than in non-TCM users (38.1%). Conclusions Users of TCM with AF have a lower risk of new-onset ischemic stroke. Therefore, adjuvant CHP therapy may have a protective effect and may be used in AF patients to prevent ischemic stroke. PMID:27428543

  9. Combination chemotherapy followed by surgery or radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, F; Atkinson, K H; Coppleson, J V; Elliott, P M; Green, D; Houghton, R; Murray, J C; Russell, P; Solomon, H J; Friedlander, M

    1987-06-01

    Forty-seven patients with locally advanced cervical cancer at high risk of relapse received three cycles of chemotherapy with PVB (cisplatin, vinblastine and bleomycin) before definitive local treatment with either radical surgery or radiotherapy. Thirty-one of the 47 patients (66%) responded to initial chemotherapy, and 11 of them have relapsed compared with 13 of the 16 non-responders. Median time to recurrence was 31 weeks for PVB non-responders but has not yet been reached for PVB responders. After a median follow-up of 128 weeks, 14 of the 31 responders (45%) are alive and disease free compared with 3 of the 16 non-responders (19%). There was a positive correlation between response to chemotherapy and subsequent response to radiotherapy. PVB was in general well tolerated although one death is probably attributable to chemotherapy. A randomized study comparing radiotherapy alone with initial PVB chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy is in progress. PMID:2441736

  10. Association Between Geographic Access to Cancer Care, Insurance, and Receipt of Chemotherapy: Geographic Distribution of Oncologists and Travel Distance

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun Chieh; Bruinooge, Suanna S.; Kirkwood, M. Kelsey; Olsen, Christine; Jemal, Ahmedin; Bajorin, Dean; Giordano, Sharon H.; Goldstein, Michael; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Kosty, Michael; Hopkins, Shane; Yu, James B.; Arnone, Anna; Hanley, Amy; Stevens, Stephanie; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Geographic access to care may be associated with receipt of chemotherapy but has not been fully examined. This study sought to evaluate the association between density of oncologists and travel distance and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer within 90 days of colectomy. Patients and Methods Patients in the National Cancer Data Base with stage III colon cancer, diagnosed between 2007 and 2010, and age 18 to 80 years were selected. Generalized estimating equation clustering by hospital service area was conducted to examine the association between geographic access and receipt of oncology services, controlling for patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results Of 34,694 patients in the study cohort, 75.7% received adjuvant chemotherapy within 90 days of colectomy. Compared with travel distance less than 12.5 miles, patients who traveled 50 to 249 miles (odds ratio [OR], 0.87; P = .009) or ≥ 250 miles (OR, 0.36; P < .001) had decreased likelihood of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Density level of oncologists was not statistically associated with receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy (low v high density: OR, 0.98; P = .77). When stratifying analyses by insurance status, non–privately insured patients who resided in areas with low density of oncologists were less likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy (OR, 0.85; P = .03). Conclusion Increased travel burden was associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, regardless of insurance status. Patients with nonprivate insurance who resided in low-density oncologist areas were less likely to receive adjuvant chemotherapy. If these findings are validated prospectively, interventions to decrease geographic barriers may improve the timeliness and quality of colon cancer treatment. PMID:26304878

  11. Brain metastasis in two patients with stage IA papillary serous carcinoma of the uterus.

    PubMed

    Narasimhulu, Deepa M; Khulpateea, Neekianund; Meritz, Keith; Xu, Yiquing

    2015-08-01

    We report two cases of brain metastasis in patients initially diagnosed with extremely early stage UPSC after extensive staging surgery. They did not receive either adjuvant chemotherapy or adjuvant pelvic or vaginal cuff radiation. At the same time that these patients were diagnosed with systemic metastasis, they both had a local "drop" metastasis in the vulva or the vaginal cuff. After the initial response to palliative chemotherapy, they both developed brain metastasis. The pattern of recurrence with the lack of adjuvant treatment underscores the urgent need in further evaluation of the potential benefits of adjuvant treatment, including chemotherapy and possibly in combination with radiation in this highly aggressive disease. PMID:26425708

  12. Brain metastasis in two patients with stage IA papillary serous carcinoma of the uterus

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhulu, Deepa M.; Khulpateea, Neekianund; Meritz, Keith; Xu, Yiquing

    2015-01-01

    We report two cases of brain metastasis in patients initially diagnosed with extremely early stage UPSC after extensive staging surgery. They did not receive either adjuvant chemotherapy or adjuvant pelvic or vaginal cuff radiation. At the same time that these patients were diagnosed with systemic metastasis, they both had a local “drop” metastasis in the vulva or the vaginal cuff. After the initial response to palliative chemotherapy, they both developed brain metastasis. The pattern of recurrence with the lack of adjuvant treatment underscores the urgent need in further evaluation of the potential benefits of adjuvant treatment, including chemotherapy and possibly in combination with radiation in this highly aggressive disease. PMID:26425708

  13. Relevance of breast cancer hormone receptors and other factors to the efficacy of adjuvant tamoxifen: patient-level meta-analysis of randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (EBCTCG)

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background As trials of 5 years of tamoxifen in early breast cancer mature, the relevance of hormone receptor measurements (and other patient characteristics) to long-term outcome can be assessed increasingly reliably. We report updated meta-analyses of the trials of 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. Methods We undertook a collaborative meta-analysis of individual patient data from 20 trials (n=21 457) in early breast cancer of about 5 years of tamoxifen versus no adjuvant tamoxifen, with about 80% compliance. Recurrence and death rate ratios (RRs) were from log-rank analyses by allocated treatment. Findings In oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease (n=10 645), allocation to about 5 years of tamoxifen substantially reduced recurrence rates throughout the first 10 years (RR 0·53 [SE 0·03] during years 0–4 and RR 0·68 [0·06] during years 5–9 [both 2p<0·00001]; but RR 0·97 [0·10] during years 10–14, suggesting no further gain or loss after year 10). Even in marginally ER-positive disease (10–19 fmol/mg cytosol protein) the recurrence reduction was substantial (RR 0·67 [0·08]). In ER-positive disease, the RR was approximately independent of progesterone receptor status (or level), age, nodal status, or use of chemotherapy. Breast cancer mortality was reduced by about a third throughout the first 15 years (RR 0·71 [0·05] during years 0–4, 0·66 [0·05] during years 5–9, and 0·68 [0·08] during years 10–14; p<0·0001 for extra mortality reduction during each separate time period). Overall non-breast-cancer mortality was little affected, despite small absolute increases in thromboembolic and uterine cancer mortality (both only in women older than 55 years), so all-cause mortality was substantially reduced. In ER-negative disease, tamoxifen had little or no effect on breast cancer recurrence or mortality. Interpretation 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen safely reduces 15-year risks of breast cancer recurrence and death. ER status was the

  14. Infusion site adverse events in breast cancer patients receiving highly emetic chemotherapy with prophylactic anti-emetic treatment with aprepitant and fosaprepitant: A retrospective comparison

    PubMed Central

    TSUDA, TAKASHI; KYOMORI, CHISATO; MIZUKAMI, TAKURO; TANIYAMA, TOMOKO; IZAWA, NAOKI; HORIE, YOSHIKI; HIRAKAWA, MAMI; OGURA, TAKASHI; NAKAJIMA, TAKAKO EGUCHI; TSUGAWA, KOICHIRO; BOKU, NARIKAZU

    2016-01-01

    The incidences of infusion site adverse events in chemotherapy regimens, including anthracyclines with either fosaprepitant or aprepitant as the anti-emetic, were not highlighted in the randomized trial comparing aprepitant and fosaprepitant. The present retrospective analysis was performed in breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-containing chemotherapy, a combination of epirubicin and cyclophosphamide with or without 5-fluorouracil as the adjuvant or neoadjuvant, at the outpatient infusion center of St. Marianna University Hospital (Kawasaki, Japan). Infusion site adverse events were retrospectively compared between the 3 months prior to and three months following switching from 3 day oral administration of aprepitant to intravenous infusion of fosaprepitant. A total of 62 patients were included in the aprepitant group and 38 in the fosaprepitant group. Of these patients, 26 (42%) in the aprepitant group and 36 patients (96%) in the fosaprepitant group experienced any grade of infusion site adverse events at least once (P<0.001). As an anti-emetic treatment for chemotherapy using anthracyclines, fosaprepitant may be associated with a higher risk of infusion site adverse events compared with aprepitant. PMID:27073673

  15. The clinical analysis of acute pancreatitis in colorectal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy after operation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yanlei; Han, Zhen; Shao, Limei; Li, Yunling; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Yuehuan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication in postoperative colorectal cancer patients after FOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin + calcium folinate +5-FU [5-fluorouracil]) chemotherapy. In this paper, a total of 62 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were observed after the burst of acute pancreatitis. Surgery of the 62 cases of colorectal cancer patients was completed successfully. But when they underwent FOLFOX6 chemotherapy, five patients got acute pancreatitis (8.06%), four (6.45%) had mild acute pancreatitis, and one (1.61%) had severe acute pancreatitis, of which two were males (3.23%) and three females (4.84%). No patients (0.00%) had acute pancreatitis on the 1st day after chemotherapy; one patient (1.61%) got it in the first 2 and 3 days after chemotherapy; and three others (4.83%) got it in the first 4 days after chemotherapy. In the 62 patients with malignant tumors, the body mass index (BMI) was less than 18 (underweight) in six of them, with two cases of acute pancreatitis (33.33%); the BMI was 18–25 (normal weight) in 34 cases, with one case (2.94%) of acute pancreatitis; the BMI was 25–30 (overweight) in 13 cases, with 0 cases (0.00%) of acute pancreatitis; and the BMI was ≥30 (obese) in nine patients, with two cases of acute pancreatitis (22.22%). After symptomatic treatment, four patients were cured and one died; the mortality rate was 1.61%. Most of them appeared in the first 4 days after chemotherapy; the probability of this complication is significantly higher in slim and obese patients than in normal weight patients. Postoperative colorectal cancer patients after FOLFOX6 chemotherapy have a sudden onset of acute pancreatitis occult, especially in patients with severe acute pancreatitis; the symptoms are difficult to control, there is high mortality and it is worthy of clinician’s attention. PMID:26392780

  16. The clinical analysis of acute pancreatitis in colorectal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy after operation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yanlei; Han, Zhen; Shao, Limei; Li, Yunling; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Yuehuan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication in postoperative colorectal cancer patients after FOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin + calcium folinate +5-FU [5-fluorouracil]) chemotherapy. In this paper, a total of 62 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were observed after the burst of acute pancreatitis. Surgery of the 62 cases of colorectal cancer patients was completed successfully. But when they underwent FOLFOX6 chemotherapy, five patients got acute pancreatitis (8.06%), four (6.45%) had mild acute pancreatitis, and one (1.61%) had severe acute pancreatitis, of which two were males (3.23%) and three females (4.84%). No patients (0.00%) had acute pancreatitis on the 1st day after chemotherapy; one patient (1.61%) got it in the first 2 and 3 days after chemotherapy; and three others (4.83%) got it in the first 4 days after chemotherapy. In the 62 patients with malignant tumors, the body mass index (BMI) was less than 18 (underweight) in six of them, with two cases of acute pancreatitis (33.33%); the BMI was 18-25 (normal weight) in 34 cases, with one case (2.94%) of acute pancreatitis; the BMI was 25-30 (overweight) in 13 cases, with 0 cases (0.00%) of acute pancreatitis; and the BMI was ≥30 (obese) in nine patients, with two cases of acute pancreatitis (22.22%). After symptomatic treatment, four patients were cured and one died; the mortality rate was 1.61%. Most of them appeared in the first 4 days after chemotherapy; the probability of this complication is significantly higher in slim and obese patients than in normal weight patients. Postoperative colorectal cancer patients after FOLFOX6 chemotherapy have a sudden onset of acute pancreatitis occult, especially in patients with severe acute pancreatitis; the symptoms are difficult to control, there is high mortality and it is worthy of clinician's attention. PMID:26392780

  17. Blood Transfusion Requirements for Patients With Sarcomas Undergoing Combined Radio- and Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Helena M.; Whitehead, Lynne; Jefferies, Sarah J.; Burnet, Neil G.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with bony and soft tissue sarcomas may require intensive treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which often leads to a fall in haemoglobin levels, requiring blood transfusion. There may be advantages in predicting which patients will require transfusion, partly because anaemia and hypoxia may worsen the response of tumours to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Between 1997 and 2003, a total of 26 patients who received intensive treatment with curative intent were identified. Transfusions were given to maintain the haemoglobin at 10g/dl or above during chemotherapy, and at 12 g/dl or above during radiotherapy. Eighteen (69%) required a transfusion, the majority as a result of both the chemotherapy and RT criteria. There were 78 transfusion episodes, and 181 units of blood given. In the 18 patients who required transfusion, the average number of units was 10.1, but seven patients required more blood than this. The most significant factor influencing blood transfusion was choice of intensive chemotherapy. Intensive chemotherapy and presenting Hb less than 11.6 g/dl identified 13 out of 18 patients who needed transfusion. Adding a drop in haemoglobin of greater than 1.7 g/dl after one cycle of chemotherapy identified 16 out of 18 patients who required transfusion. The seven patients who had heavy transfusion requirements were identified by age 32 or less, intensive chemotherapy and a presenting Hb of 12 g/dl or less. Erythropoietin might be a useful alternative to transfusion in selected patient groups, especially those with heavy transfusion requirements. PMID:18521418

  18. [Induction chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Morkhov, K Yu; Nechushkina, V M; Kuznetsov, V V

    2015-01-01

    The main methods of treatment for cervical cancer are surgery, radiotherapy or their combination. During past two decades chemotherapy are increasingly being used not only in patients with disseminated forms of this disease but also in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy or as induction therapy. Possibilities of adjuvant chemotherapy for cervical cancer are being studied. According to A.D.Kaprin and V.V. Starinskiy in 2013 in Russia, 32% of patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer underwent only radiation therapy, 32%--combined or complex treatment, 27.3%--only surgery, and just 8.7%--chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26087600

  19. Pooled Analysis of the Prognostic and Predictive Effects of KRAS Mutation Status and KRAS Mutation Subtype in Early-Stage Resected Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Four Trials of Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Frances A.; Domerg, Caroline; Hainaut, Pierre; Jänne, Pasi A.; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Graziano, Stephen; Douillard, Jean-Yves; Brambilla, Elizabeth; Le Chevalier, Thierry; Seymour, Lesley; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Teuff, Gwénaël Le; Pirker, Robert; Filipits, Martin; Rosell, Rafael; Kratzke, Robert; Bandarchi, Bizhan; Ma, Xiaoli; Capelletti, Marzia; Soria, Jean-Charles; Tsao, Ming-Sound

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We undertook this analysis of KRAS mutation in four trials of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) versus observation (OBS) to clarify the prognostic/predictive roles of KRAS in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods KRAS mutation was determined in blinded fashion. Exploratory analyses were performed to characterize relationships between mutation status and subtype and survival outcomes using a multivariable Cox model. Results Among 1,543 patients (763 OBS, 780 ACT), 300 had KRAS mutations (codon 12, n = 275; codon 13, n = 24; codon 14, n = 1). In OBS patients, there was no prognostic difference for overall survival for codon-12 (mutation v wild type [WT] hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.40) or codon-13 (HR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.47 to 2.17) mutations. No significant benefit from ACT was observed for WT-KRAS (ACT v OBS HR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.04; P = .15) or codon-12 mutations (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.35; P = .77); with codon-13 mutations, ACT was deleterious (HR = 5.78; 95% CI, 2.06 to 16.2; P < .001; interaction P = .002). There was no prognostic effect for specific codon-12 amino acid substitution. The effect of ACT was variable among patients with codon-12 mutations: G12A or G12R (HR = 0.66; P = .48), G12C or G12V (HR = 0.94; P = .77) and G12D or G12S (HR = 1.39; P = .48; comparison of four HRs, including WT, interaction P = .76). OBS patients with KRAS-mutated tumors were more likely to develop second primary cancers (HR = 2.76, 95% CI, 1.34 to 5.70; P = .005) but not ACT patients (HR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.25 to 1.75; P = .40; interaction, P = .02). Conclusion KRAS mutation status is not significantly prognostic. The potential interaction in patients with codon-13 mutations requires validation. At this time, KRAS status cannot be recommended to select patients with NSCLC for ACT. PMID:23630215

  20. Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about oral complications, such as mucositis and salivary gland dysfunction, that occur in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy to the head and neck.

  1. Adding Chemotherapy to Radiation Improves Survival for Some Patients with Rare Brain Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Long-term results from two clinical trials confirm that certain patients with anaplastic oligodendrogliomas live substantially longer if they are treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy rather than radiatiation alone.

  2. Early-onset brain metastases in a breast cancer patient after pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Ishikawa, Takashi; Yoneyama, Shuko; Kita, Kumiko; Narui, Kazutaka; Sugae, Sadayoshi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Tanabe, Mikiko; Sasaki, Takeshi; Chishima, Takashi; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Endo, Itaru

    2013-11-01

    Breast cancer patients who achieve a pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) usually have a favourable prognosis. We report on a patient with early metastases to the brain after achieving pCR. The primary tumour was 7.0 cm in diameter with axillary lymph node metastases, hormone receptor-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive (3+), and histological grade 2 with 60% of cells positive for Ki-67. The patient underwent NAC followed by surgery, and achieved pCR. Five months after surgery, during adjuvant treatment with trastuzumab, she developed headache and dizziness. Brain imaging revealed multiple metastatic brain tumours. She received whole-brain radiotherapy followed by lapatinib and capecitabine therapy. At 7 months after surgery, she remains alive with a persistent mild headache. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of early brain metastases, and consider new treatment strategies to prevent brain metastases in high-risk patients who achieve pCR. PMID:24222158

  3. Genetic polymorphisms in circadian negative feedback regulation genes predict overall survival and response to chemotherapy in gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Falin; Qiao, Qing; Wang, Nan; Ji, Gang; Zhao, Huadong; He, Li; Wang, Haichao; Bao, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Circadian negative feedback loop (CNFL) genes play important roles in cancer development and progression. To evaluate the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CNFL genes on the survival of GC patients, 13 functional SNPs from 5 CNFL genes were genotyped in a cohort of 1030 resected GC patients (704 in the training set, 326 in the validation set) to explore the association of SNPs with overall survival (OS). Among the 13 SNPs, three SNPs (rs1056560 in CRY1, rs3027178 in PER1 and rs228729 in PER3) were significantly associated with OS of GC in the training set, and verified in the validation set and pooled analysis. Furthermore, a dose-dependent cumulative effect of these SNPs on GC survival was observed, and survival tree analysis showed higher order interactions between these SNPs. In addition, protective effect conferred by adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) on GC was observed in patients with variant alleles (TG/GG) of rs1056560, but not in those with homozygous wild (TT) genotype. Functional assay suggested rs1056560 genotypes significantly affect CRY1 expression in cancer cells. Our study presents that SNPs in the CNFL genes may be associated with GC prognosis, and provides the guidance in selecting potential GC patients most likely responsive to ACT. PMID:26927666

  4. Locoregional Recurrence of Breast Cancer in Patients Treated With Breast Conservation Surgery and Radiotherapy Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Sun Young; Lee, Seung Ju; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Park, In Hae; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Keun Seok; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Seeyoun; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kang, Han-Sung; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Breast conservation surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (RT) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) have been linked with high locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rates. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical outcomes in patients who exhibited LRR and IBTR after being treated by BCS and RT following NCT. Methods and Materials: In total, 251 breast cancer patients treated with BCS and RT following NCT between 2001 and 2006 were included. All patients had been shown to be clinically node-positive. Clinical stage at diagnosis (2003 AJCC) was II in 68% of patients and III in 32% of patients. Of those, 50%, 35%, and 15% of patients received anthracycline-based, taxane-based, and combined anthracycline-taxane NCT, respectively. All patients received RT. Results: During follow-up (median, 55 months), 26 (10%) patients had LRR, 19 of these patients had IBTR. Five-year actuarial rates of IBTR-free and LRR-free survival were 91% and 89%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, lack of hormone suppression therapy was found to increase both LRR and IBTR rates. Hazard ratios were 7.99 (p < 0.0001) and 4.22 (p = 0.004), respectively. Additionally, pathology stage N2 to N3 increased LRR rate (hazard ratio, 4.22; p = 0.004), and clinical AJCC stage III IBTR rate (hazard ratio, 9.05; p = 0.034). Achievement of pathological complete response and presence of multifocal tumors did not affect LRR or IBTR. Conclusions: In patients with locally advanced disease, who were clinically node-positive at presentation, BCS after NCT resulted in acceptably low rates of IBTR and LRR. Mastectomy should be considered as an option in patients who present with clinical stage III tumors or who are not treated with adjuvant hormone suppression therapy, because they exhibit high IBTR rates after NCT and BCS.

  5. HuR mediated post-transcriptional regulation as a new potential adjuvant therapeutic target in chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jakstaite, Aldona; Maziukiene, Aurelija; Silkuniene, Giedre; Kmieliute, Kristina; Gulbinas, Antanas; Dambrauskas, Zilvinas

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of HuR in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and to assess the effects of HuR silencing on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and the in vitro response to gemcitabine (GEM) treatment in pancreatic cell lines. METHODS: We compared the expression of HuR, COX-2, and HO-1 in PDA and normal pancreatic tissue using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot. In addition, the HuR, COX-2 and HO-1 were analyzed in four types of cancer cell lines (MiaPaca2, Su.86.86, Capan-1, and Capan-2) with and without GEM treatment. Immunocytofluorescence analysis was used to investigate HuR localization in cells. Cell viability and response to GEM after HuR silencing were determined with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test and the crystal violet clonogenic assay, respectively. To measure apoptosis, activation of caspases 3/7 was evaluated using immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In PDA tissue obtained from patients not treated with GEM, HuR mRNA expression was 3.2 times lower (P < 0.05) and COX-2 and HO-1 mRNA expression was 2.3-fold and 7.2-fold higher (P < 0.05), respectively, than normal pancreatic tissue (from organ donor). qRT-PCR analysis showed that HuR, COX-2, and HO-1 mRNA were overexpressed in all cancer cell lines treated with the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) dose of GEM compared with control cells (P < 0.05). Western blot analysis revealed that COX-2 and HO-1 levels were significantly decreased in cancer cells after HuR silencing. Furthermore, HuR silencing increased the response to GEM treatment and decreased cell viability by 11.6%-53.7% compared to control cell lines. Caspases 3 and 7 were activated after HuR silencing and GEM treatment in all pancreatic cancer cell lines. In comparison, treatment with GEM alone did not activate caspases 3 and 7 in the same cell lines. CONCLUSION: HuR mediated post

  6. Predicting response to chemotherapy with early-stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Rafael; Taron, Miquel; Massuti, Bartomeu; Mederos, Nuria; Magri, Ignacio; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Sanchez, Jose Miguel

    2011-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 11,107 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who had undergone surgical resection showed that the 5-year survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy was 4%, and that of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was 5%. Two trials have shown a trend toward improved survival with adjuvant paclitaxel plus carboplatin. However, the benefit of adjuvant treatment remains suboptimal. We must distinguish between patients who will not relapse-and who can thus be spared adjuvant treatment-and those who will-for whom adjuvant treatment must be personalized. Several gene expression signatures, generally containing nonoverlapping genes, provide similar predictive information on clinical outcome, and a model combining several signatures did not perform better than did each of the signatures separately. The invasiveness gene signature, containing 186 genes, includes genes involved in the nuclear factor κB pathway, the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and epigenetic control of gene expression. A 15-gene signature has identified JBR.10 patients who are more sensitive to adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:21263267

  7. Adjuvant radiochemotherapy for gastric cancer: Should we use prognostic factors to select patients?

    PubMed

    Agolli, Linda; Maurizi Enrici, Riccardo; Osti, Mattia Falchetto

    2016-01-21

    Radiotherapy has a not well-established role in the pre-operative and in the post-operative setting in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Randomized trials report controversial outcomes and impact on survival. In the D2 loco-regional node resection era, after a well-performed radical surgery, local treatment using radiotherapy combined to chemotherapy should be considered for locally advanced GC. Prognostic factors could help the better selection of subgroups that present high risk of loco-regional recurrence. Then, the addition of radiotherapy could improve the disease-free survival and also quality of life. There are no large prospective studies that have assessed specific factors predicting for recurrence or survival, but only retrospective series, some of them including high number of patients with homogeneous characteristics. In locally advanced GC adding radiotherapy to the post-operative chemotherapy seems to improve outcomes and quality of life. Prognostic factors such as T-stage, N-status, nodal ratio, and other histological factors should be considered to submit patients to post-operative combined treatment. Larger prospective series are necessary to investigate the role of combined chemoradiation after radical D2-resection, especially in locally advanced GC. Further prospective investigations are needed to suggest prognostic factors that have significant impact on survival and recurrence, improving the management and outcomes, particularly in locally advanced GC patients. PMID:26811652

  8. Cost Effectiveness of Integrated Medicine in Patients With Cancer Receiving Anticancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Coriat, Romain; Boudou-Rouquette, Pascaline; Durand, Jean-Philippe; Forgeot d'Arc, Priscille; Martin, Idalie; Mir, Olivier; Ropert, Stanislas; Alexandre, Jérôme; Goldwasser, François

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Ambulatory chemotherapy is patient friendly but may result in toxicity-induced unscheduled hospitalizations (TIUHs). This emerging issue may increase health care costs. We studied the cost effectiveness of a hospital-home monitoring program based on systematic iterative telephone calls after chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the rates of chemotherapy-induced unscheduled hospitalizations in patients who were treated in August 2008. Patients were contacted by telephone 1 day before chemotherapy and on the second and eighth days after undergoing chemotherapy. Costs associated with TIUHs were calculated and compared with those of a cohort concomitantly treated using the standard follow-up procedure. Results: A total of 259 patients entered the hospital-home monitoring program. They were compared with 86 patients who had similar characteristics but underwent the standard treatment and follow-up procedure. Inclusion in the hospital-home monitoring program resulted in patients experiencing TIUHs approximately half as frequently as patients in the other group (2.4% v 4.9%; P < .01). Patients in the program experienced TIUHs for a median length of stay of 4 days, representing a nonsignificant reduction in duration of hospitalization (P not significant). Consequently, through a two-fold reduction in TIUH annual incidence, this program represents a reduction in unscheduled hospitalizations per year of 383 days, decreasing hospital costs by €201.468 ($292,468) per year. Conclusion: The hospital-home monitoring program is a cost-effective strategy for offering ambulatory chemotherapy treatment to patients with cancer. This program has become our standard procedure for ambulatory chemotherapy in patients with cancer. PMID:23180982

  9. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Improves Local Control After Surgical Resection in Patients With Localized Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sabolch, Aaron; Else, Tobias; Griffith, Kent A.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Williams, Andrew; Miller, Barbra S.; Worden, Francis; Jolly, Shruti

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy known for high rates of local recurrence, though the benefit of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has not been established. In this study of grossly resected ACC, we compare local control of patients treated with surgery followed by adjuvant RT to a matched cohort treated with surgery alone. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients with localized disease who underwent R0 or R1 resection followed by adjuvant RT. Only patients treated with RT at our institution were included. Matching to surgical controls was on the basis of stage, surgical margin status, tumor grade, and adjuvant mitotane. Results: From 1991 to 2011, 360 ACC patients were evaluated for ACC at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI). Twenty patients with localized disease received postoperative adjuvant RT. These were matched to 20 controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to stage, margins, grade, or mitotane. Median RT dose was 55 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy). Median follow-up was 34 months. Local recurrence occurred in 1 patient treated with RT, compared with 12 patients not treated with RT (P=.0005; hazard ratio [HR] 12.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-97.88). However, recurrence-free survival was no different between the groups (P=.17; HR 1.52; 95% CI 0.67-3.45). Overall survival was also not significantly different (P=.13; HR 1.97; 95% CI 0.57-6.77), with 4 deaths in the RT group compared with 9 in the control group. Conclusions: Postoperative RT significantly improved local control compared with the use of surgery alone in this case-matched cohort analysis of grossly resected ACC patients. Although this retrospective series represents the largest study to date on adjuvant RT for ACC, its findings need to be prospectively confirmed.

  10. The efficacy and safety of postoperative adjuvant transarterial embolization and radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with portal vein tumor thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Tao; Chen, Jie; Xie, Zhi-Bo; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Wang, Si-Da; Liu, Jun-Jie; Li, Le-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to find out the safety and efficiency of postoperative adjuvant transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radiotherapy (RT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). Methods From 2009 to 2010, a total of 92 HCC patients with PVTT were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into three groups according to their adjuvant therapies (conservative group, n=51; TACE group, n=31; RT group, n=10). Results In our analysis, median survival in patients with postoperative adjuvant TACE (21.91±3.60 months) or RT (14.53±1.61 months) was significantly longer than patients with hepatectomy alone (8.99±1.03 months). But the difference between adjuvant TACE and RT was of no significance (P=0.716). Also a similar result could be observed in median disease-free survival: conservative group (6.51±1.44 months), TACE group (13.98±3.38 months), and RT group (14.03±2.40 months). Treatment strategies (hazard ratio [HR] =0.411, P<0.001) and PVTT type (HR =4.636, P<0.001) were the independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Similarly, the risk factors were the same when multivariate analysis was conducted in disease-free survival (treatment strategies, HR =0.423, P<0.001; PVTT type, HR =4.351, P<0.001) and recurrence (treatment strategies, HR =0.459, P=0.030; PVTT type, HR =2.908, P=0.047). Patients with PVTT type I had longer overall survival than patients with PVTT type II (median survival: 18.43±2.88 months vs 11.59±1.45 months, P=0.035). Conclusion Postoperative adjuvant TACE and RT may be a choice for HCC patients with PVTT. PMID:27390524

  11. Improving Systemic Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rose, Tracy L; Milowsky, Matthew I

    2016-05-01

    Systemic chemotherapy is integral to the management of muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer (BCa). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been increasingly utilized for muscle-invasive BCa over the past several years, and several options for cisplatin-based regimens have emerged. Adjuvant chemotherapy may be considered for select patients who did not receive neoadjuvant therapy. Systemic chemotherapy added to radiotherapy is a critical component of a bladder-preserving approach and superior to radiotherapy alone. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has been the mainstay for metastatic BCa for more than three decades. Novel targeted agents are in development fueled by the recent molecular characterization of BCa. Recent trials of immunotherapy have demonstrated the possibility of a less toxic and potentially more effective treatment for metastatic disease. It is an extremely exciting time for BCa research, and much needed improvements in systemic treatment are most certainly on the horizon. PMID:26984414

  12. The evolving role of cytotoxic chemotherapy in the management of patients with metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Elan; Garcias, María del Carmen; Karir, Beerinder; Tagawa, Scott T

    2015-02-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer in men in the United States. Although outcomes are excellent for early-stage disease, survival for men with metastatic PC is limited. While older studies did not supported the use of chemotherapy in PC, the efficacy of taxane chemotherapy plus prednisone is now well established in men with metastatic castration resistant PC (CRPC). The results of CHAARTED trial have further expanded the use of chemotherapy to patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive disease. The clinical efficacy of taxanes over other chemotherapeutics may be a result of its ability to inhibit microtubule-dependent trafficking of proteins such as the androgen-receptor (AR). Ongoing research uses chemotherapy earlier in the disease course as well as explores the utility of combining cytotoxic chemotherapy with biologic agents. PMID:25762124

  13. Efficacy of Olanzapine Combined Therapy for Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy Resistant to Standard Antiemetic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Masakazu; Kasamatsu, Yuka; Kado, Nobuhiro; Kuji, Shiho; Tanaka, Aki; Takahashi, Nobutaka; Takekuma, Munetaka; Hirashima, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Olanzapine is proved to be effective for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). But its efficacy in combination with standard antiemetic therapy is unknown. The purpose of this study is to prove the preventive effect of olanzapine for the prevention of CINV caused by highly emetogenic chemotherapy when used with standard antiemetic therapy. Method. Gynecologic cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy who had grade 2 or 3 nausea in overall phase (0–120 h after chemotherapy) despite standard therapy were assigned to this study. From the next cycles to cycles in which patients developed grade 2 or 3 nausea, they received olanzapine with standard therapy. 5 mg oral olanzapine was administered for 7 days from the day before chemotherapy. The effectiveness of preventive administration of olanzapine was evaluated retrospectively. The primary endpoint was nausea control rate (grade 0 or 1) with olanzapine. Results. Fifty patients were evaluable. The nausea control rate with olanzapine was improved from 58% to 98% in acute phase (0–24 h after chemotherapy) and 2% to 94% in delayed phase (24–120 h after chemotherapy). In overall phase, the nausea control rate improved from 0% to 92%, and it was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Preventive use of olanzapine combined with standard antiemetic therapy showed improvement in control of refractory nausea. PMID:26425564

  14. The impact of recent chemotherapy innovation on the longevity of myeloma patients: US and international evidence.

    PubMed

    Hostenkamp, Gisela; Lichtenberg, Frank R

    2015-04-01

    The longevity of multiple myeloma patients increased sharply since the late 1990s. This increase coincided with the introduction of several important innovations in chemotherapy for myeloma. In this study, we aim to quantify the impact of recent chemotherapy innovation on the longevity of myeloma patients using both time-series US data and longitudinal data on 38 countries. We estimate that almost two-thirds (0.99 years) of the 1997-2005 increase in the life expectancy of American myeloma patients was due to an increase in the number of chemotherapy regimens now preferred by specialists. Based on a back-of-the-envelope calculation, this means that the cost per US life-year gained from post-1997 chemotherapy innovation is unlikely to have exceeded $46,000. We also investigate the impact of chemotherapy innovation on the myeloma mortality rate using longitudinal country-level data on 38 countries during the period 2002-2012. Countries that had larger increases in the number of chemotherapy regimens now preferred by specialists had larger subsequent declines in myeloma mortality rates, controlling for myeloma incidence. The (marginal) effect on the mortality rate of one additional preferred chemotherapy regimen is similar in other countries to its effect in the US. Non-US prices of two of the three new drugs were lower than US prices, so recent myeloma chemotherapy innovation may have been more cost-effective in other countries than it was in the US. Recent chemotherapy innovation has had a significant positive impact on the longevity of myeloma patients in the countries in which the drugs have been available. PMID:25703669

  15. Efficacy and safety analysis of chemotherapy for advanced colitis-associated colorectal cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nio, Kenta; Higashi, Daijiro; Kumagai, Hozumi; Arita, Shuji; Shirakawa, Tsuyoshi; Nakashima, Koji; Shibata, Yoshihiro; Esaki, Motohiro; Manabe, Tatsuya; Nagai, Shuntaro; Ueki, Takashi; Nakano, Michitaka; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Hirahashi, Minako; Oda, Yoshinao; Esaki, Taito; Mitsugi, Kenji; Futami, Kitaro; Akashi, Koichi; Baba, Eishi

    2016-06-01

    Chemotherapy for advanced colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) has been insufficiently evaluated. The goal of this study was to clarify the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy for CAC in Japan. CAC patients who were treated with chemotherapy between 2005 and 2015 were retrospectively examined. Twenty-nine patients (median age, 48 years; 23 men) were assessed. Eighteen patients had ulcerative colitis, and 11 had Crohn's disease. Three ulcerative colitis and four Crohn's disease patients were in the active disease phase. Primary tumors were located in the rectum/anus (n=16), the left colon (n=9), or the right colon (n=4). Palliative or adjuvant chemotherapy was performed in 13 and 16 patients, respectively. First-line palliative chemotherapy regimens were as follows: fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX; n=6), FOLFOX+bevacizumab (n=3), and others (n=4). Adjuvant chemotherapy regimens were S-1 (n=7), oxaliplatin-based (n=4) and others (n=5). In palliative chemotherapy, the objective response rate was 15%, and the median progression-free survival and overall survival were 182 and 315 days, respectively. In adjuvant chemotherapy, the 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 78%. Grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs) were observed in 16 patients (55%). Active and remission inflammatory bowel disease patients suffered grade 3/4 nonhematological AEs at an incidence of 71 and 23%, respectively (P<0.01). Dose reduction was required in 11 patients (38%), eight of whom required it for hematological AEs. Adjuvant chemotherapy for CAC exhibited sufficient efficacy, whereas modest efficacy was shown for palliative chemotherapy for CAC. AEs, particularly nonhematological AEs, were closely associated with disease activity of colitis. PMID:26771865

  16. Factors that affect response to chemotherapy and survival of patients with advanced head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Amer, M H; Al-Sarraf, M; Vaitkevicius, V K

    1979-06-01

    A review of 164 patients with far advanced head and neck cancer, treated by a cytotoxic chemotherapy over a ten year period, at WAyne State University, Detroit, Michigan, was done in an attempt to determine factors that may influence the response to chemotherapy and subsequent survival. Response rate to methotrexate was 28%, 5-FU 31%, and porfiromycin 13%. Improved responses were noted with combination chemotherapy. Patients who failed to first line therapy rarely responded to other single agent or combination chemotherapy. Those who did not have prior surgery and/or radiotherapy had better results from drug therapy. Patients with good performance status at the time of initial chemotherapy, had better response to treatment (32% vs. 13% PR & CR) and longer survival (28 weeks vs. 9 weeks, p = 0.01) when compared to those with poor status. Patients who responded to chemotherapy have better survival compared to nonresponders (29 weeks vs. 16 weeks, p = 0.002). This information may prove helpful in future planning of multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:455217

  17. Predictors of tolerance to chemotherapy in older cancer patients: a prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Extermann, M; Chen, H; Cantor, A B; Corcoran, M B; Meyer, J; Grendys, E; Cavanaugh, D; Antonek, S; Camarata, A; Haley, W E; Balducci, L

    2002-07-01

    Few data are available to help predict which older cancer patient is at risk of developing chemotherapy-related toxicity. This study was a pilot for a project designing a predictive risk score. Chemotherapy patients aged 70 years and older were prospectively enrolled. Chemotherapies were adjusted for their published toxicity. 60 patients were enrolled, 59 were evaluable. Mean dose-intensity was 90.3%, range 33.3-129.0%. 47% of the patients experienced grade 4 haematological and/or grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicity. Published toxicity (MAX2), diastolic blood pressure, marrow invasion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were all associated with toxicity (P<0.1); Body Mass Index, previous chemotherapy, red blood cells, platelets, polymedication with dose-intensity; and polymedication with FACT-G change. After adjustment for the published toxicity, the variables retained their significance, except for LDH and polymedication (for dose-intensity). Although the size of this pilot study imposes a cautious interpretation, patient-related and chemotherapy-related variables correlated independently with toxicity. Designing a composite predictive score to use in assessing the toxicity of multiple chemotherapy regimens therefore appears to be a valid undertaking. PMID:12110492

  18. Patient perceptions of the side-effects of chemotherapy: the influence of 5HT3 antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    de Boer-Dennert, M.; de Wit, R.; Schmitz, P. I.; Djontono, J.; v Beurden, V.; Stoter, G.; Verweij, J.

    1997-01-01

    In 1983, Coates conducted a survey that ranked the side-effects perceived by patients receiving chemotherapy in the order of their severity. Vomiting and nausea were found to be the two most distressing side-effects. They have an impact on quality of life and compliance with treatment. The development of 5HT3 antagonists has been a major step forward in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Presently, these antiemetics are routinely used as concomitant therapy in emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 5HT3 antagonists on patient perceptions of the side-effects of chemotherapy. Coates' survey was replicated in patients who received 5HT3 antagonists for acute nausea and vomiting resulting from emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients received the survey to identify those physical and non-physical side-effects that they attributed to chemotherapy and were asked to rank the five most distressing side-effects. Of the 197 patients who consented to take part in the study, 181 were evaluable. Nausea, hair loss and vomiting were described as the three most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy. Eighty per cent of all the patients actually experienced nausea and 57% experienced vomiting. Hair loss appeared to be more distressing to women (P < 0.001) but, in other aspects, gender, age and marital status did not influence the ranking of the three most distressing side-effects. Constipation was ranked as 6th and was not identified as a distressing side-effect in 1983. Nausea and vomiting remain to be the first and third most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy, even though the incidence and severity of acute nausea and vomiting are now significantly reduced. PMID:9376266

  19. Systemic adjuvant therapies in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buti, Sebastiano; Bersanelli, Melissa; Donini, Maddalena; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the ten most frequent solid tumors worldwide. Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic disease have led to new therapeutic approaches being investigated in the adjuvant setting. Observation is the only current standard of care after radical nephrectomy, although there is evidence of efficacy of adjuvant use of vaccine among all the strategies used. This article aims to collect published experiences with systemic adjuvant approaches in RCC and to describe the results of past and ongoing phase III clinical trials in this field. We explored all the systemic treatments, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted drugs while alternative approaches have also been described. Appropriate selection of patients who would benefit from adjuvant therapies remains a crucial dilemma. Although the international guidelines do not actually recommend any adjuvant treatment after radical surgery for RCC, no conclusions have yet been drawn pending the results of the promising ongoing clinical trials with the target therapies. The significant changes that these new drugs have made on advanced disease outcome could represent the key to innovation in terms of preventing recurrence, delaying relapse and prolonging survival after radical surgery for RCC. PMID:25992216

  20. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves survival of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Porten, Sima; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene O.; Xiao, Lianchun; Margulis, Vitaly; Kamat, Ashish M.; Wood, Christopher G.; Jonasch, Eric; Dinney, Colin P. N.; Matin, Surena F.

    2015-01-01

    Background High-grade upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is frequently upstaged after surgery and is associated with uniformly poor survival. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may offer a way to improve clinical outcomes. We compare the survival rates of UTUC patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to surgery with patients who did not. Methods Retrospective review of patients with high-risk UTUC who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery in 2004–2008 (study group), compared to a matched cohort who underwent initial surgery in 1993–2003 (control group). The Fisher exact, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Kaplan-Meier methods were used. The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model were used to evaluate association of these two outcomes with patient, treatment, and tumor characteristics in univariate and multivariate models. Results Of 112 patients, 31 were in the study group and 81 in the control group. Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy had improved OS and DSS with a 5-year DSS of 90.1% and 5-year OS rate 80.2%, versus a 5-year DSS and OS of 57.6% for those treated with initial surgery (p = 0.0204 and p = 0.0015, respectively). In multivariate analyses the neoadjuvant group had a lower risk of mortality (OS hazard ratio 0.42 [p = 0.035]; DSS hazard ratio 0.19 [p = 0.006]). Conclusions Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with UTUC compared with a matched historical cohort of patients treated with initial surgery. Patients with high-risk UTUC should be considered for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, in view of the limited opportunity to administer effective cisplatin-based chemotherapy after nephroureterectomy. PMID:24633966

  1. Adjuvant exemestane versus tamoxifen in premenopausal women with early breast cancer undergoing ovarian suppression: patient-reported outcomes in the TEXT and SOFT randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, Jürg; Luo, Weixiu; Ribi, Karin; Colleoni, Marco; Burstein, Harold J.; Tondini, Carlo; Pinotti, Graziella; Spazzapan, Simon; Ruhstaller, Thomas; Puglisi, Fabio; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Parmar, Vani; Regan, Meredith M.; Pagani, Olivia; Fleming, Gini F.; Francis, Prudence A.; Price, Karen N.; Coates, Alan S.; Gelber, Richard D.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Walley, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Efficacy analysis of the combined IBCSG TEXT and SOFT trials showed a significant disease-free survival benefit for exemestane plus ovarian function suppression (OFS) compared with tamoxifen +OFS. We present patient-reported outcomes from these trials. Methods Between 7 November 2003 and 7 April 2011, 4717 premenopausal patients with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer were enrolled in TEXT or SOFT to receive unblinded adjuvant treatment with 5 years of exemestane+OFS or tamoxifen+OFS. Chemotherapy use was optional. Randomization was performed via IBCSG’s internet-based system with the use of permuted blocks and was stratified by chemotherapy use and lymph nodes status. Patients completed a quality of life (QoL) form including several global and symptom-specific indicators at baseline, every 6 months for 24 months, then annually during years 3 to 6. Differences in change of QoL from baseline between the two treatments were tested at short-, mid-, and long-term using mixed-models for repeated measures, for each trial with and without chemotherapy and overall. The analysis was intention-to-treat using treatment as randomly assigned. At the time of analysis, the median follow-up was 5·7 years (IQR, 3·7 to 6·9 years), with treatment and follow-up of patients ongoing. Findings Patients reported considerable worsening from baseline in key endocrine symptoms. Those on tamoxifen+OFS were more affected by hot flushes and sweats over five years than those on exemestane+OFS, although these symptoms improved. Patients on exemestane+OFS reported more vaginal dryness, greater loss of sexual interest, and difficulties becoming aroused. These differences persisted over time. An increase in bone/joint pain was more pronounced, particularly in the short-term, in patients on exemestane+OFS. Changes of global QoL indicators from baseline were small and similar between treatments over the whole treatment period. Interpretation Overall, from a QoL perspective, there

  2. Neutrophil-guided dosing of anthracycline-cyclophosphamide-containing chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Drooger, Jan C; van Pelt-Sprangers, Johanna M; Leunis, Corry; Jager, Agnes; de Jongh, Felix E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether neutrophil-guided dose escalation of anthracycline-cyclophosphamide-containing chemotherapy (ACC) for breast cancer is feasible, in order to optimize outcome. Breast cancer patients planned for 3-weekly ACC were enrolled in this study. The first treatment cycle was administered in a standard BSA-adjusted dose. The absolute neutrophil count was measured at baseline and at day 8, 11 and 15 after administration of ACC. For patients with none or mild (CTC grade 0-2) neutropenia and no other dose-limiting toxicity, we performed a 10-25 % dose escalation of the second cycle with the opportunity to a further 10-25 % dose escalation of the third cycle. Thirty patients were treated in the adjuvant setting with either FE100C (n = 23) or AC (n = 4), or in the palliative setting with FAC (n = 3). Two out of 23 patients (9 %) treated with FEC did not develop grade 3-4 neutropenia after the first treatment cycle. Dose escalation was performed in these two patients (30 % in one and 15 % in the other patient). During dose escalation, there were no complications like febrile neutropenia. No patients treated with FAC or AC could be escalated, since all of them developed grade 3-4 neutropenia. We conclude that asymptomatic grade 3-4 neutropenia is likely to be achieved in the majority of patients with breast cancer treated with ACC according to presently advocated BSA-based dose levels. Escalation of currently advocated ACC doses without G-CSF, with a target of grade 3-4 neutropenia, is feasible, but only possible in a small proportion of patients. EudraCT 2010-020309-33. PMID:25772511

  3. A Nomogram for Predicting the Benefit of Adjuvant Cytokine-Induced Killer Cell Immunotherapy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qiu-Zhong; Wang, Qi-Jing; Dan, Jia-Qiang; Pan, Ke; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Weng, De-Sheng; Tang, Yan; Huang, Li-Xi; He, Jia; Chen, Shi-Ping; Ke, Miao-La; Chen, Min-Shan; Wicha, Max S.; Chang, Alfred E.; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Li, Qiao; Xia, Jian-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of adjuvant cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain mixed among patients. Here, we constructed a prognostic nomogram to enable individualized predictions of survival benefit of adjuvant CIK cell treatment for HCC patients. Survival analysis showed that the median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients in the hepatectomy/CIK combination group were 41 and 16 months, respectively, compared to 28 and 12 months for patients in the hepatectomy alone group (control). Based on multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, independent factors for OS were tumor size, tumor capsule, pathological grades, total bilirubin, albumin, prothrombin time, alpha-fetoprotein, and tumor number, which were incorporated into the nomogram. The survival prediction model performed well, as assessed by the c-index and calibration curve. Internal validation revealed a c-index of 0.698, which was significantly greater than the c-index value of the TNM (tumor–node–metastasis) staging systems of 0.634. The calibration curves fitted well. In conclusions, our developed nomogram resulted in more accurate individualized predictions of the survival benefit from adjuvant CIK cell treatment after hepatectomy. The model may provide valuable information to aid in the decision making regarding the application of adjuvant CIK cell immunotherapy. PMID:25776856

  4. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acalculous cholecystitis in a neutropenic patient after chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ejduk, Anna; Wróblewski, Tadeusz; Szczepanik, Andrzej B.

    2014-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (ACC) is most frequently reported in critically ill patients following sepsis, extensive injury or surgery. It is rather uncommon as a chemotherapy-induced complication, which is usually life-threatening in neutropenic patients subjected to myelosuppressive therapy. A 23-year-old patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia was subjected to myelosuppressive chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, pegaspargase). After the first chemotherapy cycle the patient was neutropenic and feverish; she presented with vomiting and pain in the right epigastrium. Ultrasound demonstrated an acalculous gallbladder with wall thickening up to 14 mm. The ACC was diagnosed. Medical therapy included a broad spectrum antibiotic regimen and granulocyte-colony stimulating factors. On the second day after ACC diagnosis the patient's general condition worsened. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. The resected gallbladder showed no signs of bacterial or leukemic infiltrates. The postoperative course was uneventful. In the management of neutropenic patients with ACC surgical treatment is as important as pharmacological therapy. PMID:25337176

  5. A metabolomics approach for predicting the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in cervical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan; Yin, Mingzhu; Sun, Fengyu; Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Xiaohua; Li, Huiyan; Zheng, Jian; Chen, Xiuwei; Li, Cong; Ning, Xiaoming; Lou, Ge; Li, Kang

    2014-08-01

    Cervical cancer is a clinical and pathological heterogeneity disease, which requires different types of treatments and leads to a variety of outcomes. In clinical practice, only some patients benefit from chemotherapy treatment. Identifying patients who will be responsive to chemotherapy could increase their survival time, which has important implications in personalized treatment and outcomes, while identifying non-responders may reduce the likelihood for these patients to receive ineffective treatment and thereby enable them to receive other potentially effective treatments. Plasma metabolite profiling was performed in this study to identify the potential biomarkers that could predict the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for cervical cancer patients. The metabolic profiles of plasma from 38 cervical cancer patients with a complete, partial and non-response to NACT were studied using a combination of liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and multivariate analysis methods. L-Valine and L-tryptophan were finally identified and verified as the potential biomarkers. A prediction model constructed with L-valine and L-tryptophan correctly identified approximately 80% of patients who were non-response to chemotherapy and 87% of patients who were had a pathologically complete response to chemotherapy. The model has an excellent discriminant performance with an AUC of 0.9407. These results show promise for larger studies that could produce more personalized treatment protocols for cervical cancer patients. PMID:24865370

  6. High Risk Stage 2 and Stage 3 Colon Cancer, Predictors of Recurrence and Effect of Adjuvant Therapy in a Nonselected Population

    PubMed Central

    van Eeghen, Elmer E.; Bakker, Sandra D.; van Bochove, Aart; Loffeld, Ruud J. L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with stage 2 and stage 3 colon cancer often are treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. However, patients seen in daily practice have more comorbidity than those enrolled in clinical trials. This study aims to evaluate prognostic factors for recurrence and to ascertain the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy on recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients in a nonselected population. Furthermore, the impact of relative dose intensity (RDI) of adjuvant therapy on RFS is examined. Chart review was performed for 243 consecutive patients diagnosed and treated at a single center for stage 2 and stage 3 colon cancer from 2002 to 2008. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 66 patients. Median overall survival (OS) was 5.84 years and median RFS was 5.37 years. For stage 2 disease, patients treated with or without adjuvant therapy had a median RFS of 5.49 and 5.73, respectively (p = ns). For stage 3 disease, median RFS rates were 5.08 and 1.19, respectively (p = 0.084). Overall RDI of oxaliplatin based chemotherapy higher than median was associated with increased RFS (p = 0.045). In conclusion, adjuvant therapy did not significantly increase recurrence-free survival. This could be the result of comorbidity in patients. Relative dose intensity of oxaliplatin based therapy is associated with RFS.

  7. Incidence of anemia in patients diagnosed with solid tumors receiving chemotherapy, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hairong; Xu, Lanfang; Page, John H; Cannavale, Kim; Sattayapiwat, Olivia; Rodriguez, Roberto; Chao, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate and characterize the risk of anemia during the course of chemotherapy among patients with five common types of solid tumors. Patients and methods Patients diagnosed with incident cancers of breast, lung, colon/rectum, stomach, and ovary who received chemotherapy were identified from Kaiser Permanente Southern California Health Plan (2010–2012). All clinical data were collected from the health plan’s electronic medical records. Incidence proportions of patients developing anemia and 95% confidence intervals were calculated overall and by anemia severity and type, as well as by stage at cancer diagnosis, and by chemotherapy regimen and cycle. Results A total of 4,426 patients who received chemotherapy were included. Across cancers, 3,962 (89.5%) patients developed anemia during the course of chemotherapy (normocytic 85%, macrocytic 10%, microcytic 5%; normochromic 47%, hyperchromic 44%, hypochromic 9%). The anemia grades were distributed as follows: 58% were grade 1, 34% grade 2, 8% grade 3, and <1% grade 4. The incidence of grade 2+ anemia ranged from 26.3% in colorectal cancer patients to 59.2% in ovarian cancer patients. Incidence of grade 2+ anemia increased from 29% in stage I to 49% in stage IV. Incidence of grade 2+ anemia varied from 18.2% in breast cancer patients treated with cyclophosphamide + docetaxel regimen to 59.7% in patients with ovarian cancer receiving carboplatin + paclitaxel regimen. Conclusion The incidence of moderate-to-severe anemia (hemoglobin <10 g/dL) remained considerably high in patients with solid tumors receiving chemotherapy. The risk of anemia was greater in patients with distant metastasis. PMID:27186078

  8. Effect of Herbal Therapy to Intensity Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients.

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Akram Sadat; Raei, Mehdi; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Dadgari, Ali; Montazeri, Azam Sadat; Hamidzadeh, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are the most important complications for cancer patients as its prevalence has been reported to be about 54-96 percent. ginger has been used for medicinal purposes including nausea and vomiting in traditional Persian, Chinese and Indian pharmacopoeia. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of complimentary ginger among cancer patients experiencing nausea and vomiting. Material and Methods: A randomized cross-over clinical trial was carried out on patients under chemotherapy treatment for at least 2 episodes of chemotherapy and at least 2 episodes of previous experience of nausea and vomiting. Subjects of this study received 2 different complementary regimes with 250mg ginger capsule in regime A and placebo capsule in regime B. subjects of the study were crossed over to receive the other regime during the two cycles of chemotherapy. Results: Findings of the study indicated that subjects receiving ginger showed significant reduction in frequency and intensity of nausea and vomiting compared to placebo receiving subjects. Conclusions: According to finding of this study, in accordance to most of other researches, ginger is an effective agent to reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, there are some researches supporting ginger as a moderate antiemetic agent among cancerous patients under chemotherapy. PMID:24693415

  9. The impact of combined radiation and chemotherapy on outcome in uterine papillary serous carcinoma compared to chemotherapy alone

    PubMed Central

    Nutter, Benjamin; Abdul-Karim, Fadi; Amarnath, Sudha; Rose, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of pelvic radiation on survival in patients with uterine serous carcinoma (USC) who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Patients with stage I-IV USC were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program 2000 to 2009. Patients were included if treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Patients were divided into two groups: those who received chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy (CT_RT) and those who received chemotherapy only (CT). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression proportional hazard models were used. Results Of the 1,838 included patients, 1,272 (69%) were CT and 566 (31%) were CT_RT. Adjuvant radiation was associated with significant improvement in overall survival (OS; p<0.001) and disease-specific survival (DSS; p<0.001) for entire cohort. These findings were consistent for the impact of radiation on OS (p<0.001) and DSS (p<0.001) in advanced stage (III-IV) disease but not for early stage (I–II) disease (p=0.21 for OS and p=0.82 for DSS). In multivariable analysis adjusting for age, stage, race and extent of lymphadenectomy, adjuvant radiation was a significant predictor of OS and DSS for entire cohort (p=0.003 and p=0.05) and in subset of patients with stage III (p=0.02 and p=0.07) but not for patients with stage I (p=0.59 and p=0.49), II (p=0.83 and p=0.82), and IV USC (p=0.50 and p=0.96). Other predictors were stage, positive cytology, African American race and extent of lymphadenectomy. Conclusion In USC patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiation was associated with significantly improved outcome in stage III disease but not for other stages. Positive cytology, extent of lymphadenectomy and African race were significant predictors of outcome. PMID:26463437

  10. Changing indications for bone scintigraphy in patients with osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.; McNeil, B.J.; Zufall, E.; Jaffe, N.; Treves, S.

    1980-04-01

    Fifty-six patients with osteosarcoma were studied to determine the onset of pulmonary and bone metastases. While pulmonary metastases were always detected prior to bone metastases in the era before adjuvant chemotherapy, in this study of patients on adjuvant therapy 16% of patients with metastases showed osseous metastases prior to or without pulmonary metastases.

  11. Geographic Variation in Oxaliplatin Chemotherapy and Survival in Patients With Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Janki M; Lairson, David R; Chan, Wenyaw; Du, Xianglin L

    2016-01-01

    Geographic disparity in colon cancer survival has received less attention, despite the fact that health care delivery varied across regions. To examine geographic variation in colon cancer survival and explore factors affecting this variation, including the use of oxaliplatin chemotherapy, we studied cases with resected stage-III colon cancer in 2004-2009, identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked database. Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effect of oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy on survival across regions. Propensity score adjustments were made to control for potential selection bias and confounding. Rural regions showed lowest 3-year survival, whereas big metro regions showed better 3-year survival rate than any other region (67.3% in rural regions vs. 69.5% in big metro regions). Hazard ratio for patients residing in metro region was comparable with those residing in big metro region (1.27, 95% confidence interval: 0.90-1.80). However, patients residing in urban area were exhibiting lower mortality than those in other regions, although not statistically significant. Patients who received oxaliplatin chemotherapy were 23% significantly less likely to die of cancer than those received 5-fluorouracil only chemotherapy (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.95). In conclusion, there were some differences in survival across geographic regions, which were not statistically significant after adjusting for sociodemographic, tumor, chemotherapy, and other treatment characteristics. Oxaliplatin chemotherapy was associated with improved survival outcomes compared with 5-fluorouracil only chemotherapy across regions. Further studies may evaluate other factors and newer chemotherapy regimens on mortality/survival of older patients. PMID:24368611

  12. [Prostate cancer and chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Gravis, Gwenaelle; Salem, Naji; Bladou, Franck; Viens, Patrice

    2007-07-01

    Androgen deprivation in patients with metastatic prostate cancer produces palliation of symptoms, PSA decrease and tumoral regression in most patients. After a brief period of disease regression lasting 18 to 24 months nearly all pts will progress to androgen independence disease (HRPC) with progressive clinical deterioration and ultimately death. Chemotherapy with mitoxantrone has been shown to palliate symptoms but did not extend survival. Two large randomized trials showed a survival benefit for pts with HRPC treated with docetaxel with a reduction risk of death by 21-24%, and significant improvement in palliation of symptoms and quality of life. New agents targeting angiogenesis, apoptosis, signal transduction pathway, used alone or in combination with docetaxel currently are under trial in an attempt to provide much needed improvements in outcome. Questions remains in suspend when and who need to be treated, earlier, in high risk as in adjuvant setting? Current data have demonstrated that neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy is relatively safe and feasible. Further investigation through prospective randomize trials is critical to define the precise role of this modality in high risk populations. PMID:17845990

  13. Management of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal breast cancer patients taking adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Derzko, C.; Elliott, S.; Lam, W.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment with aromatase inhibitors for postmenopausal women with breast cancer has been shown to reduce or obviate invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy or curettage associated with tamoxifen-induced endometrial abnormalities. The side effect of upfront aromatase inhibitors, diminished estrogen synthesis, is similar to that seen with the natural events of aging. The consequences often include vasomotor symptoms (hot flushes) and vaginal dryness and atrophy, which in turn may result in cystitis and vaginitis. Not surprisingly, painful intercourse (dyspareunia) and loss of sexual interest (decreased libido) frequently occur as well. Various interventions, both non-hormonal and hormonal, are currently available to manage these problems. The purpose of the present review is to provide the practitioner with a wide array of management options to assist in treating the sexual consequences of aromatase inhibitors. The suggestions in this review are based on recent literature and on the recommendations set forth both by the North American Menopause Association and in the clinical practice guidelines of the Society of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians of Canada. The complexity of female sexual dysfunction necessitates a biopsychosocial approach to assessment and management alike, with interventions ranging from education and lifestyle changes to sexual counselling, pelvic floor therapies, sexual aids, medications, and dietary supplements—all of which have been reported to have a variable, but often successful, effect on symptom amelioration. Although the use of specific hormone replacement—most commonly local estrogen, and less commonly, systemic estrogen with or without an androgen, progesterone, or the additional of an androgen in an estrogenized woman (or a combination)—may be highly effective, the concern remains that in patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancer, including those receiving anti-estrogenic adjuvant therapies, the use of these hormones may be

  14. Wound complications of adjuvant radiation therapy in patients with soft-tissue sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Ormsby, M.V.; Hilaris, B.S.; Nori, D.; Brennan, M.F.

    1989-07-01

    Adjuvant radiation therapy by the brachytherapy technique has been suggested by us to diminish local recurrence following resection of extremity and superficial truncal soft-tissue sarcoma. However, loading of the catheters with radioactive sources on the first through the fifth postoperative days results in a 48% significant wound-complication rate. Our previous animal experiments would suggest that delay of application of radiation to one week after wounding is accompanied by significant improvement in wound-breaking strength, new H3 hydroxyproline accumulation, and improved force-tension curves. As part of our ongoing prospective randomized trial of the effects of brachytherapy on local control, one change was made: the catheters were loaded five or more days after operation. Wound complications were then reviewed in 50 patients following this single change in brachytherapy delivery. Of the 21 patients receiving brachytherapy, 14% had significant wound complications; 10% of the 29 patients who did not receive radiation had wound complications of similar severity. This decrease in wound complications represents a major improvement over our prior experience and suggests that the timing of radioactive source loading in the postoperative period is a major factor in radiation-induced wound-healing delay.

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase P1 and M1 genes and overall survival of patients with ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma treated with chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    CONG, LAN-XIANG; ZHAI, XIANG-HONG; WU, FENG-XIA; ZHU, DONG-YI; WANG, AN-CONG

    2016-01-01

    possessed two copies of GSTM1 (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.22–2.28; P=0.56). Overall, the present results suggest that there are no associations between polymorphisms in the GSTP1 and GSTM1 genes and the OS of patients with ovarian cancer following administration of adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:27073511

  16. Compliance with adjuvant capecitabine in patients with stage II and III colon cancer: comparison of administrative versus medical record data.

    PubMed

    Amlani, Adam; Kumar, Aalok; Ruan, Jenny Y; Cheung, Winson Y

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to examine the frequency of treatment delays as well as the reasons and appropriateness of such delays in early stage colon cancer patients receiving adjuvant capecitabine by comparing data from pharmacy dispensing versus medical records. Patients diagnosed with stage II or III colon cancer from 2008 to 2012 and who received at least two cycle of adjuvant capecitabine were reviewed for treatment delays. Data from pharmacy dispensing and patient medical records were compared. Multivariate regression models were constructed to identify predictors of treatment delays. A total of 697 patients were analyzed: median age was 70 years (IQR 30-89), 394 (57%) were men, 598 (86%) reported Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0/1, and 191 (27%) had stage II disease. In this study cohort, 396 (57%) patients experienced at least 1 treatment delay during their adjuvant treatment. Upon medical record review, half of treatment delays identified using pharmacy administrative data were actually attributable to side effects, of which over 90% were considered clinically appropriate for patients to withhold rather than to continue the drug. The most prevalent side effects were hand-foot syndrome and diarrhea which occurred in 176 (44%) and 67 (17%) patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed a statistically significant association between stage and inappropriate treatment delays whereby patients with stage II disease were more likely to experience drug noncompliance (OR 1.79, 95% CI: 1.27-2.53, P < 0.001) than those with stage III disease. Compliance with adjuvant capecitabine was reasonable. Adherence ascertained from pharmacy administrative data differs significantly from that obtained from medical records. PMID:27228415

  17. Aprepitant as prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in anthracyclines and cyclophosphamide-based regimen for adjuvant breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Meattini, Icro; Francolini, Giulio; Scotti, Vieri; De Luca Cardillo, Carla; Cappelli, Sabrina; Meacci, Fiammetta; Furfaro, Ilaria Francesca; Muntoni, Cristina; Scoccianti, Silvia; Detti, Beatrice; Mangoni, Monica; Nori, Jacopo; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Fambrini, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Simonetta; Livi, Lorenzo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a three-drug antiemetic prophylaxis in a single-center series treated with anthracyclines and cyclophosphamide-based regimen for BC. We collected data from 92 consecutive patients treated with routine antiemetic prophylaxis consisted of aprepitant (oral 125 mg, on day 1; oral 80 mg, on days 2 and 3), a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (palonosetron iv 0.25 mg, on day 1), and dexamethasone (iv 12 mg, on day 1). Acute and delayed phases were defined as the first 24 h and days 2-5 after treatment, respectively. Therapy outcomes were defined as complete response (CR), in case of no vomiting, no rescue treatment; complete protection (CP), in case of no vomiting, no rescue treatment, no significant nausea; and total control (TC), in case of no vomiting, no rescue treatment, no nausea. Overall, 89.1 and 81.5% of patients showed CR in acute and delayed phase, respectively; 67.4 and 62% showed CP in acute and delayed phase, respectively; and 52.2 and 48.9% of patients showed TC in acute and delayed phase, respectively. 4.3% complained an episode of emesis during the first 24 h from treatment, while in delayed phase, only 2.2% of patients had vomiting. Our analysis confirmed that a three-drug prophylaxis is safe, effective, and consequently highly recommended in patients who undergo anthracyclines and cyclophosphamide-based regimens, though still not classified as highly emetogenic chemotherapy by all the international guidelines. PMID:25698536

  18. What make differences in the outcome of adjuvant treatments for resected gastric cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Toshifusa; Fujii, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    After a long history of Dark Age of adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer, definite evidences of survival benefit from adjuvant treatment have been reported since 2000s. These survival benefits are likely attributed to something new approach different from pervious studies. In 2001, South West Oncology Group INT0116 trial yielded survival benefit in curatively resected gastric cancer patients with postoperative chemoradiotherapy [5-fluorouracil (5-FU) + Leucovorin + radiotherapy], followed by positive result by MAGIC Trial, employing peri-operative(pre- and postoperative chemotherapy with Epirubicin, cisplatin (CDDP), 5-fluorouracil (ECF) regimen in patients with curative resection. A novel drug [S1: ACTS-GC (Adjuvant chemotherapy trial of TS-1 for gastric cancer) in 2007], or new drug combination chemotherapys [CDDP + 5-FU: FNCLCC/FFCD (Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte contre le cancer/Federation Francophone de Cancerologie Digestive) in 2011, Capecitabine + Oxaliplatin: CLASSIC in 2012] also produced positive results in terms of improved prognosis. Neoadjuvant or perioperative chemotherapy, novel anti-cancer drugs, and chemoradiotherapy might be the key words to develop further improvement in the adjuvant treatment of resectable gastric cancer. Moreover, it is not new but still true to stress the importance of D2 surgery as the baseline treatment in order to minimize the amount of residual tumor after surgery. PMID:25206264

  19. Modeling patient-centered communication: Oncologist relational communication and patient communication involvement in breast cancer adjuvant therapy decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Step, Mary M.; Rose, Julia Hannum; Albert, Jeffrey M.; Cheruvu, Vinay K.; Siminoff, Laura A

    2009-01-01

    Objective Relational communication refers to those messages communicators naturally express that carry meaning about the type and quality of relationship they share. It is expected that patients of oncologists who express positive relational communication will be more communicatively involved in their office visits, and regret their decision for adjuvant therapy following surgery less. Methods One hundred eighty (180) audio-recorded discussions between oncologists (n = 40) and early stage (I–III) breast cancer patients were coded with the Siminoff Communication Content and Affect Program (SCCAP). The data were used to test the relationships between patient demographics, oncologist relational communication, patient communication involvement and self-reported patient decision regret. Results After controlling for clinician clusters, oncologists’ verbal (i.e., confirming messages) and nonverbal (i.e., direct and inclusive speech) relational communication is indirectly associated with lower patient decision regret via the mediating effect of greater patient communication involvement. Conclusion Clinician relational communication provides an influential affective climate for decision-making that appears to have important effects on patients’ decision confidence. Practice Implications Clinicians should recognize the potential of their own relational messages to facilitate patients’ communication involvement in decision-making during cancer care. PMID:19811883

  20. Prognostic Factors and Patterns of Relapse in Ewing Sarcoma Patients Treated With Chemotherapy and R0 Resection

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hubert Y.; Morani, Ajaykumar; Wang, Wei-Lien; Hess, Kenneth R.; Paulino, Arnold C.; Ludwig, Joseph A.; Lin, Patrick P.; Daw, Najat C.; Mahajan, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To identify prognostic factors and patterns of relapse for patients with Ewing sarcoma who underwent chemotherapy and R0 resection without radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent surgical resection at our institution between 2000 and 2013 for an initial diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma. The associations of demographic and clinical factors with local control (LC) and patient outcome were determined by Cox regression. Time to events was measured from the time of surgery. Survival curves were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. Results: A total of 66 patients (median age 19 years, range 4-55 years) met the study criteria. The median follow-up was 5.6 years for living patients. In 43 patients (65%) for whom imaging studies were available, the median tumor volume reduction was 73%, and at least partial response by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors was achieved in 17 patients (40%). At 5 years, LC was 78%, progression-free survival (PFS) was 59%, and overall survival (OS) was 65%. Poor histologic response (necrosis ≤95%) was an independent predictor of LC (hazard ratio [HR] 6.8, P=.004), PFS (HR 5.2, P=.008), and OS (HR 5.0, P=.008). Metastasis on presentation was also an independent predictor of LC (HR 6.3, P=.011), PFS (HR 6.8, P=.002), and OS (HR 6.7, P=.002). Radiologic partial response was a predictor of PFS (HR 0.26, P=.012), and postchemotherapy tumor volume was associated with OS (HR 1.06, P=.015). All deaths were preceded by distant relapse. Of the 8 initial local-only relapses, 5 (63%) were soon followed by distant relapse. Predictors of poor postrecurrence survival were time to recurrence <1 year (HR 11.5, P=.002) and simultaneous local and distant relapse (HR 16.8, P=.001). Conclusions: Histologic and radiologic response to chemotherapy were independent predictors of outcome. Additional study is needed to determine the role of adjuvant

  1. Involved-field radiotherapy for patients in partial remission after chemotherapy for advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, Berthe M.P. . E-mail: b.aleman@nki.nl; Raemaekers, John M.M.; Tomisic, Radka; Baaijens, Margreet H.A.; Bortolus, Roberto; Lybeert, Marnix L.M.; Maazen, Richard W.M. van der; Girinsky, Theodore; Demeestere, Geertrui; Lugtenburg, Pieternella; Lievens, Yolande; Jong, Daphne de; Pinna, Antonella; Henry-Amar, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The use of radiotherapy in patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is controversial. The purpose of this study was to describe the role of radiotherapy in patients with advanced HL who were in partial remission (PR) after chemotherapy. Methods: In a prospective randomized trial, patients <70 years old with previously untreated Stage III-IV HL were treated with six to eight cycles of mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone/doxorubicin, bleomycine, vinblastine hybrid chemotherapy. Patients in complete remission (CR) after chemotherapy were randomized between no further treatment and involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT). Those in PR after six cycles received IF-RT (30 Gy to originally involved nodal areas and 18-24 Gy to extranodal sites with or without a boost). Results: Of 739 enrolled patients, 57% were in CR and 33% in PR after chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 7.8 years. Patients in PR had bulky mediastinal involvement significantly more often than did those in CR after chemotherapy. The 8-year event-free survival and overall survival rate for the 227 patients in PR who received IF-RT was 76% and 84%, respectively. These rates were not significantly different from those for CR patients who received IF-RT (73% and 78%) or for those in CR who did not receive IF-RT (77% and 85%). The incidence of second malignancies in patients in PR who were treated with IF-RT was similar to that in nonirradiated patients. Conclusion: Patients in PR after six cycles of mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone/doxorubicine, bleomycine, vinblastine treated with IF-RT had 8-year event-free survival and overall survival rates similar to those of patients in CR, suggesting a definite role for RT in these patients.

  2. Adjuvant Therapy for Thymic Carcinoma – A Decade of Experience in a Taiwan National Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yen-Han; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Tseng, Yen-Chiang; Lee, Yu-Chin; Wu, Yu-Chung; Hsu, Wen-Hu; Yen, Sang-Hue; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Chen, Yuh-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Thymic carcinomas are rare tumors for which surgical resection is the first treatment of choice. The role of adjuvant treatment after surgery is unknown because of limited available data. The present study evaluated the efficacy of post-surgery adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy in patients with thymic carcinoma. Methods To evaluate the role of adjuvant therapy in patients with thymic carcinoma, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with thymic carcinoma who were diagnosed and treated between 2004 and 2014. Results Among 78 patients with thymic carcinoma, 30 patients received surgical resection. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly longer among these patients than among patients who received other treatments (PFS: 88.4 months vs 9.1 months, p<0.001; OS: 134.9 months vs 60.9 months; p = 0.003). Patients with stage III thymic carcinoma who received surgery had a longer OS than patients who did not receive surgery (70.1 months vs 23.9 months; p = 0.017, n = 11). Among 47 patients with stage IV carcinoma, 12 patients who received an extended thymothymectomy had a longer PFS than 35 patients who did not receive surgery (18.9 months vs 8.7 months; p = 0.029). Among 30 patients (with stage I- IV carcinoma) who received primary lesion surgery, 19 patients received an R0 resection and 9 patients of the 19 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. These patients had longer PFS (50.3 months) than 2 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy (5.9 months) or 4 patients who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy (7.5 months) after surgery (p = 0.003). Conclusions Surgical resection should be considered for patients with thymic carcinoma, even for patients with locally advanced or stage IV carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy resulted in a better PFS after R0 resection. PMID:26757052

  3. Impact of obesity in favorable-risk AML patients receiving intensive chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tavitian, Suzanne; Denis, Amélia; Vergez, François; Berard, Emilie; Sarry, Audrey; Huynh, Anne; Delabesse, Eric; Luquet, Isabelle; Huguet, Françoise; Récher, Christian; Bertoli, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the influence of obesity on the characteristics and prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Indeed, safety of intensive chemotherapy and outcome of obese AML patients in a real-life setting are poorly described, and chemotherapy dosing remains challenging. We included 619 consecutive genetically-defined cases of AML treated with intensive chemotherapy between 2004 and 2012. In this cohort, 93 patients (15%) were classified in the obese category according to WHO classification; 59% of them received capped doses of chemotherapy because of a body surface area above 2 m(2) . Obese patients were older and presented more often with cardiovascular comorbidities. Although obese patients had more frequently de novo AML, main characteristics of AML including white blood cell count, karyotype and mutations were well-balanced between obese and non-obese patients. After induction chemotherapy, early death and complete remission rates were similar. Overall (OS), event-free (EFS) and disease-free (DFS) survival were not significantly different compared to non-obese patients. However, in the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) favorable subgroup, obese patients had lower median OS, EFS and DFS than non-obese patients (18.4, 16.8 and 17.2 vs. 43.6, 31.8 and 29.7 months, respectively) and obesity showed a significant impact on OS (OR 2.54; P = 0.02) in multivariate models. Although we did not find any significant impact of obesity on outcome in the whole series, this study suggests that special efforts for chemotherapy dose optimization are needed in the ELN favorable subgroup since dose capping may be deleterious. PMID:26509505

  4. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by post-operative trastuzumab for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Carlo; Macpherson, Iain RJ; Yan, Kelvin; Ades, Felipe; Riddle, Pippa; Ahmed, Riz; Owadally, Waheeda; Stanley, Barbara; Shah, Deep; Gojis, Ondrej; Januszewski, Adam; Lewanski, Conrad; Asher, Rebecca; Lythgoe, Daniel; de Azambuja, Evandro; Beresford, Mark; Howell, Sacha J.

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab (NCT) increases the rate of pathological complete response (pCR) and event-free survival (EFS) compared to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) alone in women with HER2 positive breast cancer (BC). pCR in this setting is associated with improved EFS. Whether NCT preferentially improves EFS in comparison to NC followed by adjuvant trastuzumab initiated postoperatively (NCAT) has not been addressed. Using clinical data from women with HER2 positive BC treated at 7 European institutions between 2007 and 2010 we sought to investigate the impact on breast cancer outcomes of concomitant (NCT) versus sequential (NCAT) treatment in HER2 positive early BC. The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for event free survival with NCT compared with NCAT was 0.63 (95% CI 0.37–1.08; p = 0.091). Multivariable analysis revealed that treatment group, tumour size and ER status were significantly associated with EFS from diagnosis. In the whole group NCT was associated with a reduced risk of an event relative to NCAT, an effect that was confined to ER negative (HR: 0.25; 95% CI, 0.10–0.62; p = 0.003) as opposed to ER positive tumours (HR: 1.07; 95% CI, 0.46–2.52; p = 0.869). HER2 positive/ER negative BC treated with NC gain greatest survival benefit when trastuzumab is administered in both the neoadjuvant and adjuvant period rather than in the adjuvant period alone. These data support the early introduction of targeted combination therapy in HER2 positive/ER negative BC. PMID:26334099

  5. The Impact of Skin-Sparing Mastectomy With Immediate Reconstruction in Patients With Stage III Breast Cancer Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Postmastectomy Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhu, Roshan; Godette, Karen; Carlson, Grant; Losken, Albert; Gabram, Sheryl; Fasola, Carolina; O'Regan, Ruth; Zelnak, Amelia; Torres, Mylin

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: The safety and efficacy of skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) with immediate reconstruction (IR) in patients with locally advanced breast cancer are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare the outcomes of women with noninflammatory Stage III SSM with IR vs. non-SSM-treated women who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiation therapy (XRT). Methods and Materials: Between October 1997 and March 2010, 100 consecutive patients (40 SSM with IR vs. 60 non-SSM) with Stage III breast cancer received anthracycline- and/or taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, mastectomy, and adjuvant XRT. Clinical stage (SSM with IR vs. for non-SSM) was IIIA (75% vs. 67%), IIIB (8% vs. 18%), and IIIC (8% vs. 8%). Tumors greater than 5 cm were found in 74% vs. 69%; 97% of patients in both groups were clinically node positive; and 8% vs. 18% had T4b disease. Results: The time from initial biopsy to XRT was prolonged for SSM-IR patients (274 vs. 254 days, p = 0.04), and there was a trend toward XRT delay of more than 8 weeks (52% vs. 31%, p = 0.07) after surgery. The rate of complications requiring surgical intervention was higher in the SSM-IR group (37.5% vs. 5%, p < 0.001). The 2-year actuarial locoregional control, breast cancer-specific survival, and overall survival rates for SSM with IR vs. non-SSM were 94.7% vs. 97.4%, 91.5% vs. 86.3%, and 87.4% vs. 84.8%, respectively (p = not significant). Conclusions: In our small study with limited follow-up, SSM with IR prolonged overall cancer treatment time and trended toward delaying XRT but did not impair oncologic outcomes. Complication rates were significantly higher in this group. Longer follow-up is needed.

  6. Identification of High-Risk Subgroups of Patients With Oral Cavity Cancer in Need of Postoperative Adjuvant Radiotherapy or Chemo-Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Lai, Chia-Hsuan; Fang, Chiung-Cheng; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lee, Chuan-Pin; Chen, Miao-Fen

    2016-05-01

    Patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) undergoing surgery are recommended to receive adjuvant radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy if there are unfavorable prognostic factors. A positive resection margin (PRM) and extra-capsular extension (ECE) of lymph nodes are well-known major prognostic factors. However, there is no agreement on whether oral cavity cancer patients should receive postoperative chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) if they present with other risk factors or a combination of 2 or more risk factors. In this study, we investigated this issue and provide suggestions for adjuvant treatments.From January 2002 to December 2013, 567 OSCC patients who had undergone radical surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The 5-year loco-regional control (LRC), distant metastasis-free (DMF), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed.In univariate analysis, pathological T classification, positive node, tumor depth, ECE, lymphatic or vascular or perineural invasion and histology grade are significant prognostic factors for LRC, DMF, DFS, or OS. By multivariate analysis, pathological T4 (pT4), positive node, positive surgical margin are prognostic factors for LRC. pT4, positive node and lymphatic invasion predicted for higher rate of distant metastasis. pT4, positive node, and poor differentiation tumor were prognostic factors for DFS. pT4, positive nodes, and ECE were prognostic factors for OS. These factors were used to define risk groups. We proposed PRM and ECE as major risk factors and pT4, positive nodes, close margin (≤ 5 mm, > 1 mm), tumor depth ≥ 1 cm, lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, and poor differentiation as minor risk factors. By subgroups analysis, 192 patients with at least 2 minor prognostic factors and no other major risk factors, postoperative radiotherapy (RT), or CCRT yielded significantly better 5-year LRC, DFS, and OS compared to surgery only group. For 179

  7. Identification of High-Risk Subgroups of Patients With Oral Cavity Cancer in Need of Postoperative Adjuvant Radiotherapy or Chemo-Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Lai, Chia-Hsuan; Fang, Chiung-Cheng; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lee, Chuan-Pin; Chen, Miao-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) undergoing surgery are recommended to receive adjuvant radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy if there are unfavorable prognostic factors. A positive resection margin (PRM) and extra-capsular extension (ECE) of lymph nodes are well-known major prognostic factors. However, there is no agreement on whether oral cavity cancer patients should receive postoperative chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) if they present with other risk factors or a combination of 2 or more risk factors. In this study, we investigated this issue and provide suggestions for adjuvant treatments. From January 2002 to December 2013, 567 OSCC patients who had undergone radical surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The 5-year loco-regional control (LRC), distant metastasis-free (DMF), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. In univariate analysis, pathological T classification, positive node, tumor depth, ECE, lymphatic or vascular or perineural invasion and histology grade are significant prognostic factors for LRC, DMF, DFS, or OS. By multivariate analysis, pathological T4 (pT4), positive node, positive surgical margin are prognostic factors for LRC. pT4, positive node and lymphatic invasion predicted for higher rate of distant metastasis. pT4, positive node, and poor differentiation tumor were prognostic factors for DFS. pT4, positive nodes, and ECE were prognostic factors for OS. These factors were used to define risk groups. We proposed PRM and ECE as major risk factors and pT4, positive nodes, close margin (≤ 5 mm, > 1 mm), tumor depth ≥ 1 cm, lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, and poor differentiation as minor risk factors. By subgroups analysis, 192 patients with at least 2 minor prognostic factors and no other major risk factors, postoperative radiotherapy (RT), or CCRT yielded significantly better 5-year LRC, DFS, and OS compared to surgery only group. For