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Sample records for adjuvant cholera toxin

  1. Targeted vaccine adjuvants based on modified cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Lycke, Nils

    2005-09-01

    The present review describes immunomodulation with targeted adjuvants that will allow for the development of efficacious mucosal vaccines. We have studied cholera toxin (CT) and derivatives thereof, to rationally design vaccine adjuvant vectors that are both highly efficacious as well as safe and non-toxic. Two strategies were exploited; the first using CT or the enzymatically inactive receptor-binding B-subunit of CT (CTB) and the second, using CTA1 or an enzymatically inactive mutant CTA1R7K., that was linked, in a fusion protein, to the B-cell targeting moiety, DD, from Staphylococcus areus proteinA. Our studies provide compelling evidence that delivery of Ag in the absence of ADP-ribosylation can promote tolerance, whereas, ADP-ribosyltransferase-active conjugates, prevent tolerance but induce IgA immunity. Our analysis revealed unique subsets of mucosal and systemic DC that appeared to be responsible for the ADP-ribosyltransferase sensitive dichotomy between tolerance and IgA immunity. Whether targeting of B cells suffice for tolerance-induction or requires participation of DCs, is at present an unresolved issue. Nevertheless, enzymatic modulation differentiates and matures the DC to promote CD4 T cell help for IgA B cell development. Ag-presentation in the absence of enzyme, as seen with CTA1R7K-DD, expands specific T cells to a similar extent as enzymatically active CTA1-DD, but fails to recruit help for germinal center expansion of activated B cells. We have given special attention to the genes that adjuvants turn on using Affymetrix technology. In particular, modulation of the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on the targeted APC; CD80, CD86, CD83 and B7RP-1, play important roles for the effect of the ADP-ribosylating CTA1-based adjuvants for the development of tolerance or active IgA immunity.

  2. Antigen-Independent Restriction of Pneumococcal Density by Mucosal Adjuvant Cholera Toxin Subunit B.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Kirsten; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A; van Opzeeland, Fred; Simonetti, Elles; van den Kieboom, Corné H; Kerstholt, Mariska; Borczyk, Malgorzata; van IngenSchenau, D; Brandsma, Eelke T; Netea, Mihai G; de Jonge, Marien I

    2016-11-15

    For many bacterial respiratory infections, development of (severe) disease is preceded by asymptomatic colonization of the upper airways. For Streptococcus pneumoniae, the transition to severe lower respiratory tract infection is associated with an increase in nasopharyngeal colonization density. Insight into how the mucosal immune system restricts colonization may provide new strategies to prevent clinical symptoms. Several studies have provided indirect evidence that the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) may confer nonspecific protection against respiratory infections. Here, we show that CTB reduces the pneumococcal load in the nasopharynx, which required activation of the caspase-1/11 inflammasome, mucosal T cells, and macrophages. Our findings suggest that CTB-dependent activation of the local innate response synergizes with noncognate T cells to restrict bacterial load. Our study not only provides insight into the immunological components required for containment and clearance of pneumococcal carriage, but also highlights an important yet often understudied aspect of adjuvants.

  3. Nod2-mediated recognition of the microbiota is critical for mucosal adjuvant activity of cholera toxin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghyun; Kim, Yun-Gi; Seo, Sang-Uk; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kamada, Nobuhiko; Prescott, Dave; Philpott, Dana J.; Rosenstiel, Philip; Inohara, Naohiro; Núñez, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) is a potent adjuvant for inducing mucosal immune responses. However, the mechanism by which CT induces adjuvant activity remains unclear. Here we show that the microbiota is critical for inducing antigen-specific IgG production after intranasal immunization. After mucosal vaccination with CT, both antibiotic-treated mice and germ-free (GF) had reduced antigen-specific IgG, recall-stimulated cytokine responses, an impaired follicular helper T (TFH) response and reduced plasma cells. Recognition of symbiotic bacteria via Nod2 in CD11c+ cells was required for the adjuvanticity of CT. Reconstitution of GF mice with a Nod2 agonist or Staphylococcus sciuri having high Nod2-stimulatory activity was sufficient to promote robust CT adjuvant activity whereas bacteria with low Nod2-stimulatory activity did not. Mechanistically, CT enhanced Nod2-mediated cytokine production in DCs via intracellular cAMP. These results show an important role for the microbiota and the intracellular receptor Nod2 in promoting the mucosal adjuvant activity of CT. PMID:27064448

  4. Nasal Administration of Cholera Toxin as a Mucosal Adjuvant Damages the Olfactory System in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Okada, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) induces severe diarrhea in humans but acts as an adjuvant to enhance immune responses to vaccines when administered orally. Nasally administered CT also acts as an adjuvant, but CT and CT derivatives, including the B subunit of CT (CTB), are taken up from the olfactory epithelium and transported to the olfactory bulbs and therefore may be toxic to the central nervous system. To assess the toxicity, we investigated whether nasally administered CT or CT derivatives impair the olfactory system. In mice, nasal administration of CT, but not CTB or a non-toxic CT derivative, reduced the expression of olfactory marker protein (OMP) in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulbs and impaired odor responses, as determined with behavioral tests and optical imaging. Thus, nasally administered CT, like orally administered CT, is toxic and damages the olfactory system in mice. However, CTB and a non-toxic CT derivative, do not damage the olfactory system. The optical imaging we used here will be useful for assessing the safety of nasal vaccines and adjuvants during their development for human use and CT can be used as a positive control in this test. PMID:26422280

  5. Construction and preclinical evaluation of mmCT, a novel mutant cholera toxin adjuvant that can be efficiently produced in genetically manipulated Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Lebens, Michael; Terrinoni, Manuela; Karlsson, Stefan L; Larena, Maximilian; Gustafsson-Hedberg, Tobias; Källgård, Susanne; Nygren, Erik; Holmgren, Jan

    2016-04-19

    There is an urgent need for new adjuvants that are effective with mucosally administered vaccines. Cholera toxin (CT) is the most powerful known mucosal adjuvant but is much too toxic for human use. In an effort to develop a useful mucosal adjuvant we have generated a novel non-toxic mutant CT molecule that retains much of the adjuvant activity of native CT. This was achieved by making the enzymatically active A subunit (CTA) recalcitrant to the site-specific proteolytic cleavage ("nicking") required for toxicity, which was found to require mutations not only in the two residues rendering the molecule resistant to trypsin but also in neighboring sites protecting against cleavage by Vibrio cholerae proteases. This multiple-mutated CT (mmCT) adjuvant protein could be efficiently produced in and purified from the extracellular medium of CT-deleted V. cholerae. The mmCT completely lacked detectable enterotoxicity in an infant mouse model and had >1000-fold reduced cAMP inducing activity compared to native CT in a sensitive mammalian target cell system. It nonetheless proved to have potent adjuvant activity on mucosal and systemic antibody as well as cellular immune responses to mucosally co-administered antigens including oral cholera and intranasal influenza vaccines. We conclude that mmCT is an attractive novel non-toxic mucosal adjuvant for enhancing immune responses to co-administered mucosal vaccines.

  6. Proinflammatory responses in the murine brain after intranasal delivery of cholera toxin: implications for the use of AB toxins as adjuvants in intranasal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Michelle E; Lavelle, Ed C; Loscher, Christine E; Lynch, Marina A; Mills, Kingston H G

    2005-11-01

    Intranasal delivery of vaccines provides an attractive alternative to parenteral delivery, but it requires appropriate mucosal adjuvants. Cholera toxin (CT) is a powerful mucosal adjuvant, but it can undergo retrograde transport to the brain via the olfactory system after intranasal delivery. We demonstrate that intranasal delivery of CT increases the expression of interleukin-1 beta , cyclooxygenase-2, and chemokine messenger RNA in the murine hypothalamus, whereas parenterally delivered CT has little effect. Our findings suggest that CT can induce proinflammatory mediators in the brain when it is administered intranasally but not parenterally, and they raise concerns about the use of AB toxins as adjuvants in intranasal vaccines.

  7. Cholera toxin B subunit acts as a potent systemic adjuvant for HIV-1 DNA vaccination intramuscularly in mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jue; Liu, Ying; Hsi, Jenny; Wang, Hongzhi; Tao, Ran; Shao, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) was investigated as a classical mucosal adjuvant that can increase vaccine immunogenicity. In this study, we found out the in vitro efficacy of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) in activating mice bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) through Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. In vitro RNA and transcriptional level profiling arrays revealed that CTB guides high levels of Th1 and Th2 type cytokines, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. Based on the robustness of these profiling results, we examined the induction of HIV Env-specific immunity by CTB co-inoculated with HIV Env DNA vaccine intramuscularly in vivo. CTB enhanced HIV-Env specific cellular immune responses in Env-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT, compared with DNA vaccine alone. Moreover, CTB induced high levels of Env specific humoral response and promoted antibody maturation after the third round of vaccination. This combination immunization strategy induced a Th2-type bias response which is indicative of a high ratio of IgG1/IgG2a. This study reports that CTB as a classical mucosal adjuvant could enhance HIV-1 DNA-based vaccine immunogenicity intramuscularly; therefore, these findings suggest that CTB could serve as an effective candidate adjuvant for DNA vaccination.

  8. Generation of antibodies reactive with fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 by using cholera toxin as the carrier-adjuvant.

    PubMed Central

    Azcona-Olivera, J I; Abouzied, M M; Plattner, R D; Norred, W P; Pestka, J J

    1992-01-01

    Murine polyclonal antibodies reactive with fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 were produced after a novel immunization procedure with cholera toxin as both a hapten carrier protein and adjuvant. Immunization of mice with two 7.5-micrograms doses of fumonisin B1-cholera toxin conjugate without adjuvant resulted in the production of fumonisin B1-specific antibodies in all mice within 15 days when intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and intravenous routes were used. In contrast, conventional immunization procedures with fumonisin B1-bovine serum albumin conjugates with and without Freund's adjuvant were largely ineffective. Fumonisin antibodies could be readily mass-produced in ascites fluid by using cholera toxin as a carrier-adjuvant. A competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was devised whereby immobilized fumonisin B1-ovalbumin and free fumonisin B1 competed for antibody binding. The detection limit for fumonisin B1 in the ELISA was 100 ng/ml. The antiserum cross-reacted with fumonisins B2 and B3 but not with the hydrolyzed backbone of fumonisin B1 and tricarballylic acid. Concentrations of fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 required for 50% binding inhibition were 260, 300, and 650 ng/ml, respectively. These polyclonal antibodies should find wide usage in the ELISA for fumonisins in foods, feeds, and tissues. PMID:1539971

  9. Production of polyclonal antibodies to the trichothecene mycotoxin 4,15-diacetylnivalenol with the carrier-adjuvant cholera toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Abouzied, M M; Azcona-Olivera, J I; Yoshizawa, T; Pestka, J J

    1993-01-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin 4,15-diacetylnivalenol (DNIV) was conjugated to cholera toxin (DNIV-CT) for use as an immunogen and as an adjuvant for specific antibody production. Repeated intravenous injection of 7.5 micrograms of the conjugate was effective at generating specific antibodies to DNIV in rabbits as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). When small amounts (1 to 10 micrograms per animal) of DNIV-CT were used to immunize mice, polyclonal antibodies were observed as early as 4 weeks of immunization. The relative affinity of the antibodies to DNIV increased with the immunogen dose in mice. Antibodies were not detectable in either rabbits or mice that were injected with DNIV conjugated to the carrier protein bovine serum albumin or when DNIV-CT was blocked with glutaraldehyde. Competitive ELISA of mouse and rabbit serum revealed that the antibodies were most specific for DNIV but reacted to a small extent with fusarenone-X, deoxynivalenol, and nivalenol. No reactivity was observed with 3- or 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol. The results suggest that specific polyclonal antibodies can be prepared against a trichothecene when CT is used as an adjuvant and carrier protein. DNIV antibodies will be useful for monitoring the compound in food in conjunction with other trichothecene antibodies, detection of DNIV-producing cultures, and investigation of 8-ketotrichothecene biosynthesis. PMID:8517728

  10. Utilization of cholera toxin B as a mucosal adjuvant elicits antibody-mediated protection against S. pneumoniae infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wiedinger, Kari; Pinho, Daniel; Bitsaktsis, Constantine

    2017-01-01

    Backgound: The introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines have been valuable tools for combating invasive pneumococcal infection in children and healthy adults. Despite the available vaccination strategies, pneumococcal pneumonia and associated diseases continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly in individuals with chronic disease and ageing populations. Next-generation pneumococcal vaccines will need to be highly immunogenic across patient populations providing both mucosal and systemic protective immunity. Mucosal immunization is an effective strategy for stimulating the immune response at the site of pathogen entry while increasing systemic immunity. In this study we utilized intranasal immunization with pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), in combination with the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin B (CTB), to characterize the immune components providing protection against S. pneumoniae challenge. Methods: Mice were immunized intranasally with CTB and PspA individually, and in combination, followed by lethal bacterial challenge with S. pneumoniae, strain A66.1. Animals were monitored for survival and tested for lung bacterial burden, cytokine production as well as S. pneumoniae-specific antibody titer in mouse sera. The primary immunological contributor to the observed protection was confirmed by cytokine neutralization and serum passive transfer. Results: The combination of CTB and PspA provided complete protection against bacterial challenge, which coincided with a significant decrease in lung bacterial burden. Increases in the T-helper (Th) 1 cytokines, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 were observed in the lung 24 h post-challenge while decreases in proinflammatory mediators IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also recorded at the same time point. The adjuvanted PspA immunization induced significant titers of S. pneumoniae-specific antibody in the serum of mice prior to infection. Serum

  11. The catalytic A1 domains of cholera toxin and heat-labile enterotoxin are potent DNA adjuvants that evoke mixed Th1/Th17 cellular immune responses.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Kenneth; Xu, Rong; Ota-Setlik, Ayuko; Egan, Michael; Schwartz, Jennifer; Fouts, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    DNA encoded adjuvants are well known for increasing the magnitude of cellular and/or humoral immune responses directed against vaccine antigens. DNA adjuvants can also tune immune responses directed against vaccine antigens to better protect against infection of the target organism. Two potent DNA adjuvants that have unique abilities to tune immune responses are the catalytic A1 domains of Cholera Toxin (CTA1) and Heat-Labile Enterotoxin (LTA1). Here, we have characterized the adjuvant activities of CTA1 and LTA1 using HIV and SIV genes as model antigens. Both of these adjuvants enhanced the magnitude of antigen-specific cellular immune responses on par with those induced by the well-characterized cytokine adjuvants IL-12 and GM-CSF. CTA1 and LTA1 preferentially enhanced cellular responses to the intracellular antigen SIVmac239-gag over those for the secreted HIVBaL-gp120 antigen. IL-12, GM-CSF and electroporation did the opposite suggesting differences in the mechanisms of actions of these diverse adjuvants. Combinations of CTA1 or LTA1 with IL-12 or GM-CSF generated additive and better balanced cellular responses to both of these antigens. Consistent with observations made with the holotoxin and the CTA1-DD adjuvant, CTA1 and LTA1 evoked mixed Th1/Th17 cellular immune responses. Together, these results show that CTA1 and LTA1 are potent DNA vaccine adjuvants that favor the intracellular antigen gag over the secreted antigen gp120 and evoke mixed Th1/Th17 responses against both of these antigens. The results also indicate that achieving a balanced immune response to multiple intracellular and extracellular antigens delivered via DNA vaccination may require combining adjuvants that have different and complementary mechanisms of action.

  12. Use of flagellin and cholera toxin as adjuvants in intranasal vaccination of mice to enhance protective immune responses against uropathogenic Escherichia coli antigens.

    PubMed

    Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Mehri; Bouzari, Saeid

    2016-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are among the most common infections in human. Antibiotics are common therapy for UTIs, but increase in antibiotic resistance will complicate future treatment of the infections, making the development of an efficacious UTI vaccine more urgent. In this study, we have evaluated intranasally the efficacy of FliC and FimH antigens of UPEC in different vaccine formulations with and without cholera toxin (CT) adjuvant. Immunization of mice with FliC in fusion form or admixed with FimH elicited higher levels of serum, mucosal and cell-mediated responses than FimH alone. Furthermore, the use of CT in synergism with FliC resulted in the stimulation of a mixed Th1 and Th2 responses against FimH and FliC as antigen and maintained the antibody responses for at least 24 weeks following the last vaccine dose. Of the vaccine preparations, Fusion, Fusion + CT, and FimH admixed with FliC and CT showed the best protection against UPEC. These data indicated that intranasal administration of a FliC and CT adjuvant-based vaccine has the potential to provide protective responses against UPEC strains.

  13. Effect of neonatal sublingual vaccination with native or denatured ovalbumin and adjuvant CpG or cholera toxin on systemic and mucosal immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, C-F; Wu, T-C; Chu, Y-H; Hwang, K-S; Wang, C-C; Peng, H-J

    2008-11-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy has been applied for allergic diseases, but whether sublingual immunization in neonates can prevent sensitization has not been studied. In this study, we evaluate the effect of neonatal sublingual vaccination with native or denatured allergens alone or plus adjuvant on allergy prevention. Newborn BALB/c mice were sublingually vaccinated daily for the first 3 days with native or denatured ovalbumin (OVA) only, or combined adjuvant CpG or cholera toxin (CT). They were sensitized with OVA adsorbed onto alum 7 weeks after the last vaccination. Specific secretory IgA antibody responses were readily induced by neonatal vaccination with antigen plus CpG or CT, but not with antigen alone. Whereas vaccination with denatured OVA plus CpG markedly enhanced T helper 1 (Th1) responses and inhibited IgE production, vaccination with denatured OVA plus CT increased cervical lymph node cell production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-6, and serum IgG1 responses. These data demonstrate that neonatal sublingual vaccination with denatured OVA and CpG not only preferentially induces systemic Th1 responses and mucosal immunity, but also simultaneously abrogates IgE production. Neonatal sublingual vaccines may play a role for the strategy of allergy prevention.

  14. Comparison of Intranasal Outer Membrane Vesicles with Cholera Toxin and Injected MF59C.1 as Adjuvants for Malaria Transmission Blocking Antigens AnAPN1 and Pfs48/45

    PubMed Central

    Pritsch, Michael; Ben-Khaled, Najib; Chaloupka, Michael; Kobold, Sebastian; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Peter, Annabell; Liegl, Gabriele; Schubert, Sören; Hoelscher, Michael; Löscher, Thomas; Wieser, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Purified protein vaccines often require adjuvants for efficient stimulation of immune responses. There is no licensed mucosal adjuvant on the market to adequately boost the immune response to purified antigens for intranasal applications in humans. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are attractive candidates potentially combining antigenic and adjuvant properties in one substance. To more precisely characterize the potential of Escherichia coli OMV for intranasal vaccination with heterologous antigens, immune responses for AnAPN1 and Pfs48/45 as well as ovalbumin as a reference antigen were assessed in mice. The intranasal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) and parenteral adjuvant MF59C.1 were used in comparison. Vaccinations were administered intranasally or subcutaneously. Antibodies (total IgG and IgM as well as subclasses IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3) were measured by ELISA. T cell responses (cytotoxic T cells, Th1, Th17, and regulatory T cells) were determined by flow cytometry. When OMV were used as adjuvant for intranasal immunization, antibody and cellular responses against all three antigens could be induced, comparable to cholera toxin and MF59C.1. Antigen-specific IgG titres above 1 : 105 could be detected in all groups. This study provides the rationale for further development of OMV as a vaccination strategy in malaria and other diseases. PMID:27239480

  15. Mucosal and systemic antibody responses against an acellular pertussis vaccine in mice after intranasal co-administration with recombinant cholera toxin B subunit as an adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Isaka, Masanori; Yasuda, Yoko; Taniguchi, Tooru; Kozuka, Satoshi; Matano, Keiko; Maeyama, Jun-ichi; Morokuma, Kazunori; Ohkuma, Kunio; Goto, Norihisa; Tochikubo, Kunio

    2003-03-07

    To investigate the possibility of intranasal immunization with an acellular pertussis vaccine, groups of mice were administered intranasally with aluminium-non-adsorbed pertussis toxoid (PTd; 0.5 or 5 microg) and formalin-treated filamentous hemagglutinin (fFHA; 5 microg) with and without recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB; 10 microg) as a mucosal adjuvant. At a low concentration of PTd, the following things became clear: (1) earlier and higher elevation of serum anti-PTd and anti-FHA IgG antibody titres in the presence of rCTB than in its absence, (2) higher serum anti-PTd and anti-FHA IgG antibody titres than 200 and 100 ELISA units ml(-1) (EU ml(-1)) in all mice, respectively, in the presence of rCTB, which were obtained by calibration against a reference anti-pertussis mouse serum, and (3) in an intranasal challenge experiment with Bordetella pertussis, slightly more rapid elimination of the bacteria from the lungs of mice intranasally immunized in the presence of rCTB, suggesting the effectiveness of rCTB as a mucosal adjuvant. However, irrespective of rCTB and dose of PTd, mice which were immunized four times and sacrificed on day 35 developed high levels of anti-PTd serum IgG antibodies, high or moderate levels of anti-FHA serum IgG antibodies and mucosal anti-PTd IgA antibodies in the lungs; only a slight or no increase of anti-FHA mucosal IgA antibodies was observed in the lung. These facts suggested the immunogenicity and mucosal adjuvanticity of PTd, and therefore, the mucosal adjuvanticity of rCTB seemed to be inconspicuous. Moreover, the addition of rCTB induced higher anti-PTd serum IgE antibody responses than no addition of it depending on dose of PTd. These results show that dose of PTd included in an acellular pertussis vaccine had better be low as possible and the addition of rCTB may not be always necessary in case of this nasal vaccine alone unlike tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and hepatitis B virus vaccine reported before.

  16. Crystallization of isoelectrically homogeneous cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, B.D.; Westbrook, E.M. )

    1989-02-07

    Past difficulty in growing good crystals of cholera toxin has prevented the study of the crystal structure of this important protein. The authors have determined that failure of cholera toxin to crystallize well has been due to its heterogeneity. They have now succeeded in overcoming the problem by isolating a single isoelectric variant of this oligomeric protein (one A subunit and five B subunits). Cholera toxin purified by their procedure readily forms large single crystals. The crystal form has been described previously. They have recorded data from native crystals of cholera toxin to 3.0-{angstrom} resolution with our electronic area detectors. With these data, they have found the orientation of a 5-fold symmetry axis within these crystals, perpendicular to the screw dyad of the crystal. They are now determining the crystal structure of cholera toxin by a combination of multiple heavy-atom isomorphous replacement and density modification techniques, making use of rotational 5-fold averaging of the B subunits.

  17. Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB) as a mucosal adjuvant enhances induction of diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin antibodies in mice by intranasal administration with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) combination vaccine.

    PubMed

    Isaka, Masanori; Komiya, Takako; Takahashi, Motohide; Yasuda, Yoko; Taniguchi, Tooru; Zhao, Yanqiu; Matano, Keiko; Matsui, Hideyuki; Maeyama, Jun-Ichi; Morokuma, Kazunori; Ohkuma, Kunio; Goto, Norihisa; Tochikubo, Kunio

    2004-08-13

    Recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB) which is produced by Bacillus brevis carrying pNU212-CTB acts as a mucosal adjuvant capable of enhancing host immune responses specific to unrelated, mucosally co-administered vaccine antigens. When mice were administered intranasally with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) combination vaccine consisting of diphtheria toxoid (DTd), tetanus toxoid (TTd), pertussis toxoid (PTd), and formalin-treated filamentous hemagglutinin (fFHA), the presence of rCTB elevated constantly high values of DTd- and TTd-specific serum ELISA IgG antibody titres, and protective levels of diphtheria and tetanus toxin-neutralizing antibodies but the absence of rCTB did not. Moreover, the addition of rCTB protected all mice against tetanic symptoms and deaths. DPT combination vaccine raised high levels of serum anti-PT IgG antibody titres regardless of rCTB and protected mice from Bordetella pertussis challenge. These results suggest that co-administration of rCTB as an adjuvant is necessary for induction of diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin antibodies on the occasion of intranasal administration of DPT combination vaccine.

  18. B subunits of cholera toxin and thermolabile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli have similar adjuvant effect as whole molecules on rotavirus 2/6-VLP specific antibody responses and induce a Th17-like response after intrarectal immunization.

    PubMed

    Thiam, Fatou; Charpilienne, Annie; Poncet, Didier; Kohli, Evelyne; Basset, Christelle

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adjuvant effect of the B subunits of cholera toxin (CT) and the thermolabile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT) by the intrarectal route of immunization and compare them to the whole molecules CT and LT-R192G, a non toxic mutant of LT, using 2/6-VLP as an antigen, in mice. All molecules induced similar antigen specific antibody titers in serum and feces, whereas different T cell profiles were observed. CTB and LTB, conversely to CT and LT-R192G, did not induce detectable production of IL-2 by antigen specific T cells. Moreover, CTB, conversely to LT-R192G, CT and LTB, did not induce antigen specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3- and Foxp3+ T cells, thus showing different effects between the B subunits themselves. However, all molecules induced an antigen specific Th17 response. In conclusion, B subunits are potent adjuvants on B cell responses by the intrarectal route. Although their impact on T cell responses are different, all molecules induce a 2/6-VLP-specific Th17 T cell response that may play a major role in helping B cell responses and thus in adjuvanticity and protection.

  19. [A promoter responsible for over-expression of cholera toxin B subunit in cholera toxin A subunit structure gene].

    PubMed

    Cao, C; Shi, C; Li, P; Ma, Q

    1997-01-01

    A promoter sequence, which promotes the transcription of cholera toxin B subunit gene, was found in cholera toxin A subunit structure gene. The transcription starts at the adenine Located at +833, that is 456bp upstream to the A of the initiation codon ATG of cholera toxin B gene. Under the control of the promoter, cholera toxin B subunit was over-expressed as high as 200 mg/L at an optimized culture condition. The chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene and beta-galactosidase could also be efficiently expressed under the direction of the promoter. This promoter may be responsible for the 6 fold and 7 fold higher expression level of cholera toxin B subunit than cholera toxin A subunit in V. cholerae and Escheria coli respectively. The over-expression of CTB may be useful in preparing vaccine against cholera and facilitating the construction of peptide-bearing immunogenic hybrid proteins.

  20. Modulation of the humoral and cellular immune response in Abeta immunotherapy by the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and E. coli enterotoxin LT(R192G).

    PubMed

    Maier, Marcel; Seabrook, Timothy J; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2005-10-25

    Abeta vaccination or passive transfer of human-specific anti-Abeta antibodies are approaches under investigation to prevent and/or treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Successful active Abeta vaccination requires a strong and safe adjuvant to induce anti-Abeta antibody formation. We compared the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)/trehalose dicorynomycolate (TDM), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin LT(R192G) for their ability to induce a humoral and cellular immune reaction, using fibrillar Abeta1-40/42 as a common immunogen in wildtype B6D2F1 mice. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration with MPL/TDM resulted in anti-Abeta antibodies levels up to four times higher compared to s.c. LT(R192G). Using MPL/TDM, the anti-Abeta antibodies induced were mainly IgG2b, IgG1 and lower levels of IgG2a and IgM, with a moderate splenocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production in vitro upon stimulation with Abeta1-40/42. LT(R192G), previously shown by us to induce robust titers of anti-Abeta antibodies, generated predominantly IgG2b and IgG1 anti-Abeta antibodies with very low splenocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production. Weekly intranasal (i.n.) administration over 11 weeks of Abeta40/42 with CTB induced only moderate levels of antibodies. All immunogens generated antibodies that recognized mainly the Abeta1-7 epitope and specifically detected amyloid plaques on AD brain sections. In conclusion, MPL/TDM, in addition to LT(R192G), is an effective adjuvant when combined with Abeta40/42 and may aid in the design of Abeta immunotherapy.

  1. Molecular mechanism of acquisition of the cholera toxin genes.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhabatosh; Bischerour, Julien; Barre, Francois-Xavier

    2011-02-01

    One of the major pathogenic determinants of Vibrio cholerae, the cholera toxin, is encoded in the genome of a filamentous phage, CTXφ. CTXφ makes use of the chromosome dimer resolution system of V. cholerae to integrate its single stranded genome into one, the other, or both V. cholerae chromosomes. Here, we review current knowledge about this smart integration process.

  2. Gas phase characterization of the noncovalent quaternary structure of cholera toxin and the cholera toxin B subunit pentamer.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan P; Smith, Daniel C; Green, Brian N; Marsden, Brian D; Jennings, Keith R; Roberts, Lynne M; Scrivens, James H

    2006-05-01

    Cholera toxin (CTx) is an AB5 cytotonic protein that has medical relevance in cholera and as a novel mucosal adjuvant. Here, we report an analysis of the noncovalent homopentameric complex of CTx B chain (CTx B5) using electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry and the analysis of the noncovalent hexameric holotoxin usingelectrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry over a range of pH values that correlate with those encountered by this toxin after cellular uptake. We show that noncovalent interactions within the toxin assemblies were maintained under both acidic and neutral conditions in the gas phase. However, unlike the related Escherichia coli Shiga-like toxin B5 pentamer (SLTx B), the CTx B5 pentamer was stable at low pH, indicating that additional interactions must be present within the latter. Structural comparison of the CTx B monomer interface reveals an additional alpha-helix that is absent in the SLTx B monomer. In silico energy calculations support interactions between this helix and the adjacent monomer. These data provide insight into the apparent stabilization of CTx B relative to SLTx B.

  3. Cholera toxin structure, gene regulation and pathophysiological and immunological aspects.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Holmgren, J

    2008-05-01

    Many notions regarding the function, structure and regulation of cholera toxin expression have remained essentially unaltered in the last 15 years. At the same time, recent findings have generated additional perspectives. For example, the cholera toxin genes are now known to be carried by a non-lytic bacteriophage, a previously unsuspected condition. Understanding of how the expression of cholera toxin genes is controlled by the bacterium at the molecular level has advanced significantly and relationships with cell-density-associated (quorum-sensing) responses have recently been discovered. Regarding the cell intoxication process, the mode of entry and intracellular transport of cholera toxin are becoming clearer. In the immunological field, the strong oral immunogenicity of the non-toxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) has been exploited in the development of a now widely licensed oral cholera vaccine. Additionally, CTB has been shown to induce tolerance against co-administered (linked) foreign antigens in some autoimmune and allergic diseases.

  4. Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1982-06-01

    Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

  5. Actions of cholera toxin and the prevention and treatment of cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, Jan

    1981-07-01

    The drastic intestinal secretion of fluid and electrolytes that is characteristic of cholera is the result of reasonably well understood cellular and biochemical actions of the toxin secreted by Vibrio cholerae. Based on this understanding it is possible to devise new techniques for the treatment and prophylaxis of cholera to complement those based on fluid replacement therapy and sanitation.

  6. Synthesis of protein in intestinal cells exposed to cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.W.; Berg, W.D. Jr.; Coppenhaver, D.H.

    1987-11-01

    The mechanism by which cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), formed by intestinal epithelial cells in response to cholera toxin, ultimately results in alterations in water and electrolyte transport is poorly understood. Several studies have indicated that inhibitors of transcription or translation block much of the transport of ions and water in the intestine and edema formation in tissue elicited by cholera toxin. Data presented in this study confirmed the inhibitory effects of cycloheximide on cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation in the rabbit intestinal loop model. Neither cycloheximide nor actinomycin D altered the amount of cyclic AMP that accumulated in intestinal cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to cholera toxin. An increase in (/sup 3/H) leucine incorporation was readily demonstrable in intestinal epithelial cells from rabbits challenged with Vibrio cholerae. Similarly, intestinal epithelial cells incubated with cholera toxin for 4 hr synthesized substantially more protein than controls as determined by relative incorporation of (/sup 35/S) methionine. Most of the new protein synthesized in response to cholera toxin was membrane associated and of high molecular weight. The possible significance of the toxin-induced protein relative to cholera pathogenesis was discussed.

  7. Improved purification process for cholera toxin and its application to the quantification of residual toxin in cholera vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun; Kim, Hyo Seung; Kim, Jeong Ah; Seo, Jin Ho; Carbis, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    A simplified method for the purification of cholera toxin was developed. The 569B strain of Vibrio cholerae, a recognized hyper-producer of cholera toxin, was propagated in a bioreactor under conditions that promote the production of the toxin. The toxin was separated from the bacterial cells using 0.2-microm crossflow microfiltration, the clarified toxin was passed through the membrane into the permeate, and the bacterial cells were retained in the retentate. The 0.2-microm permeate was then concentrated 3-fold and diafiltered against 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.6, using 30-kDa crossflow ultrafiltration. The concentrated toxin was loaded onto a cation exchange column, the toxin was bound to the column, and most of the impurities were passed unimpeded through the column. The toxin was eluted with a salt gradient of phosphate buffer, pH7.0, containing 1.0M NaCl. The peak containing the toxin was assayed for cholera toxin and protein and the purity was determined to be 92%. The toxin peak had a low endotoxin level of 3.1 EU/microg of toxin. The purified toxin was used to prepare antiserum against whole toxin, which was used in a G(M1) ganglioside-binding ELISA to determine residual levels of toxin in an oral inactivated whole-cell cholera vaccine. The G(M1) ganglioside-binding ELISA was shown to be very sensitive and capable of detecting as little as 1 ng/ml of cholera toxin.

  8. Expression and secretion of cholera toxin B subunit in lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Takahiro; Kashige, Nobuhiro; Satho, Tomomitsu; Irie, Keiichi; Hiramatsu, Yukihiro; Sharmin, Tanjina; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Uyeda, Saori; Yamada, Seitaro; Harakuni, Tetsuya; Miyata, Takeshi; Arakawa, Takeshi; Imoto, Masumi; Toda, Akihisa; Nakashima, Yukihiko; Miake, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used in various fields, including in food and medical supplies. There has been a great deal of research into vaccine development using LAB as carriers due to their "generally recognized as safe" status. Cholera is an infectious disease that causes diarrhea due to cholera toxin (CT) produced by Vibrio cholerae. The pentameric cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit has no toxicity, and is used as an antigen in cholera vaccines and as a delivery molecule in vaccines to various diseases. In this study, we generated recombinant LAB expressing and secreting CTB. Here, we first report that CTB expressed and secreted from LAB bound to GM1 ganglioside. The secreted CTB was purified, and its immunogenicity was determined by intranasal administration into mice. The results of the present study suggested that it may be useful as the basis of a new oral cholera vaccine combining LAB and CTB.

  9. Protective role of autophagy against Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, a pore-forming toxin from V. cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel; Saka, Hector Alex; Chinen, Isabel; Zoppino, Felipe C. M.; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Bocco, Jose Luis; Colombo, María Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Autophagy is the unique, regulated mechanism for the degradation of organelles. This intracellular process acts as a prosurvival pathway during cell starvation or stress and is also involved in cellular response against specific bacterial infections. Vibrio cholerae is a noninvasive intestinal pathogen that has been studied extensively as the causative agent of the human disease cholera. V. cholerae illness is produced primarily through the expression of a potent toxin (cholera toxin) within the human intestine. Besides cholera toxin, this bacterium secretes a hemolytic exotoxin termed V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC) that causes extensive vacuolation in epithelial cells. In this work, we explored the relationship between the vacuolation caused by VCC and the autophagic pathway. Treatment of cells with VCC increased the punctate distribution of LC3, a feature indicative of autophagosome formation. Moreover, VCC-induced vacuoles colocalized with LC3 in several cell lines, including human intestinal Caco-2 cells, indicating the interaction of the large vacuoles with autophagic vesicles. Electron microscopy analysis confirmed that the vacuoles caused by VCC presented hallmarks of autophagosomes. Additionally, biochemical evidence demonstrated the degradative nature of the VCC-generated vacuoles. Interestingly, autophagy inhibition resulted in decreased survival of Caco-2 cells upon VCC intoxication. Also, VCC failed to induce vacuolization in Atg5−/− cells, and the survival response of these cells against the toxin was dramatically impaired. These results demonstrate that autophagy acts as a cellular defense pathway against secreted bacterial toxins. PMID:17267617

  10. Isolation of isoelectrically pure cholera toxin for crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Brenda D.; Westbrook, Edwin M.

    1991-03-01

    We have determined that the failure of cholera toxin to crystallize well results from its isoelectric heterogeneity, which is probably due to a post-translational process such as deamidation of its B subunit. Every sample of cholera toxin we have examined from commercial or academic suppliers has been heterogeneous; heterogeneous cholera toxin does not crystallize satisfactorily. We have overcome this problem by using ion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) to obtain an isoelectrically homogeneous species of cholera toxin. Homogeneous cholera toxin crystallizes readily, forming single, nonmosaic crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction studies. For this process, protein was applied to a MonoQ ion-exchange column, then eluted with an isocratic low salt buffer followed by a linear salt gradient (0-100 mM NaCl). Column fractions were analyzed on isoelectric focusing gels, and those fractions containing the desired homogeneous species were pooled and concentrated. Crystals formed within 24 to 48 h in a MOPS/PEG buffer, which made use of slow isoelectric precipitation to induce crystallization.

  11. Isolation of isoelectrically pure cholera toxin for crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, B.D.; Westbrook, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    We have determined that the failure of cholera toxin to crystallize well results from its isoelectric heterogeneity, which is probably due to a post-translational process such as deamidation of its B subunit. Every sample of cholera toxin we have examined from commercial or academic suppliers has been heterogeneous; heterogeneous cholera toxin does not crystallize satisfactorily. We have overcome this problem by using ion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) to obtain an isoelectrically homogeneous species of cholera toxin. Homogeneous cholera toxin crystallizes readily, forming single, nonmosaic crystals suitable for x-ray diffraction studies. For this process, protein was applied to a MonoQ ion-exchange column, then eluted with an isocratic low salt buffer followed by a linear salt gradient (0-100 mM NaCl). Column fractions were analyzed on isoelectric focusing gels, and those fractions containing the desired homogeneous species were pooled and concentrated. Crystals formed within 24 to 48 hours in a MOPS/PEG buffer, which made use of slow isoelectric precipitation to induce crystallization. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Cholera toxin can catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kaslow, H.R.; Groppi, V.E.; Abood, M.E.; Bourne, H.R.

    1981-11-01

    Cholera toxin catalyzes transfer of radiolabel from (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ to several peptides in particulate preparations of human foreskin fibroblasts. Resolution of these peptides by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed identification of two peptides of M/sub r/ = 42,000 and 52,000 as peptide subunits of a regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. The radiolabeling of another group of peptides (M/sub r/ = 50,000 to 65,000) suggested that cholera toxin could catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins. This suggestion was confirmed by showing that incubation with cholera toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ caused radiolabeling of purified microtubule and intermediate filament proteins.

  13. Cholera Toxin B: One Subunit with Many Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Baldauf, Keegan J.; Royal, Joshua M.; Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Cholera, a waterborne acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, remains prevalent in underdeveloped countries and is a serious health threat to those living in unsanitary conditions. The major virulence factor is cholera toxin (CT), which consists of two subunits: the A subunit (CTA) and the B subunit (CTB). CTB is a 55 kD homopentameric, non-toxic protein binding to the GM1 ganglioside on mammalian cells with high affinity. Currently, recombinantly produced CTB is used as a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine, as the protein induces potent humoral immunity that can neutralize CT in the gut. Additionally, recent studies have revealed that CTB administration leads to the induction of anti-inflammatory mechanisms in vivo. This review will cover the potential of CTB as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent. We will also summarize various recombinant expression systems available for recombinant CTB bioproduction. PMID:25802972

  14. Cholera toxin B: one subunit with many pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, Keegan J; Royal, Joshua M; Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2015-03-20

    Cholera, a waterborne acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, remains prevalent in underdeveloped countries and is a serious health threat to those living in unsanitary conditions. The major virulence factor is cholera toxin (CT), which consists of two subunits: the A subunit (CTA) and the B subunit (CTB). CTB is a 55 kD homopentameric, non-toxic protein binding to the GM1 ganglioside on mammalian cells with high affinity. Currently, recombinantly produced CTB is used as a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine, as the protein induces potent humoral immunity that can neutralize CT in the gut. Additionally, recent studies have revealed that CTB administration leads to the induction of anti-inflammatory mechanisms in vivo. This review will cover the potential of CTB as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent. We will also summarize various recombinant expression systems available for recombinant CTB bioproduction.

  15. Cholera Toxin Production Induced upon Anaerobic Respiration is Suppressed by Glucose Fermentation in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Kang-Mu; Bari, Wasimul; Kim, Hwa Young; Kim, Hye Jin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2016-03-01

    The causative agent of pandemic cholera, Vibrio cholerae, infects the anaerobic environment of the human intestine. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly induced during anaerobic respiration with trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. However, the molecular mechanism of TMAO-stimulated CT production is not fully understood. Herein, we reveal that CT production during anaerobic TMAO respiration is affected by glucose fermentation. When the seventh pandemic V. cholerae O1 strain N16961 was grown with TMAO and additional glucose, CT production was markedly reduced. Furthermore, an N16961 Δcrp mutant, devoid of cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), was defective in CT production during growth by anaerobic TMAO respiration, further suggesting a role of glucose metabolism in regulating TMAO-mediated CT production. TMAO reductase activity was noticeably decreased when grown together with glucose or by mutation of the crp gene. A CRP binding region was identified in the promoter region of the torD gene, which encodes a structural subunit of the TMAO reductase. Gel shift assays further confirmed the binding of purified CRP to the torD promoter sequence. Together, our results suggest that the bacterial ability to respire using TMAO is controlled by CRP, whose activity is dependent on glucose availability. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the regulation of major virulence factor production by V. cholerae under anaerobic growth conditions.

  16. Synthetic multivalent ligands for cholera & cholera-like toxins: Protected cyclic neoglycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vajinder; Yadav, Narender; Kartha, K P Ravindranathan

    2016-08-05

    Synthesis of a set of novel glycopeptide analogues as potential cholera/cholera-like toxin inhibitors in their protected form is described. They include di-, tri-, tetra- and pentavalent scaffolds. The synthetic steps were achieved using a combination of solvent-free mechanochemical as well as the conventional solution-phase reactions. During the conventional DIC-HOBt-mediated peptide coupling followed for the preparation of certain glycopeptide analogues an interesting in situ Fmoc deprotection was observed which has been demonstrated to hold potential for synthesiszing glycopeptides/neoglycopeptides with extended polyamide chains.

  17. Inhibition of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin by MDL 12330A and chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Bitonti, A J

    1984-04-30

    ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin of the guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein (Gs) of rat liver membrane adenylate cyclase was inhibited by 0.1-1 mM MDL 12330A or 0.1-1 mM chlorpromazine. Basal as well as cholera toxin activated adenylate cyclase activity in liver membranes was also inhibited by the two drugs. NAD glycohydrolase activity and self-ADP-ribosylation of cholera toxin were also inhibited by MDL 12330A and chlorpromazine. These effects of MDL 12330A and chlorpromazine may be related to their effects on cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion in vivo.

  18. Functional Characterization of Cholera Toxin Inhibitors Using Human Intestinal Organoids.

    PubMed

    Zomer-van Ommen, Domenique D; Pukin, Aliaksei V; Fu, Ou; Quarles van Ufford, Linda H C; Janssens, Hettie M; Beekman, Jeffrey M; Pieters, Roland J

    2016-07-28

    Preclinical drug testing in primary human cell models that recapitulate disease can significantly reduce animal experimentation and time-to-the-clinic. We used intestinal organoids to quantitatively study the potency of multivalent cholera toxin inhibitors. The method enabled the determination of IC50 values over a wide range of potencies (15 pM to 9 mM). The results indicate for the first time that an organoid-based swelling assay is a useful preclinical method to evaluate inhibitor potencies of drugs that target pathogen-derived toxins.

  19. Cholera Toxin Subunit B as Adjuvant––An Accelerator in Protective Immunity and a Break in Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) is the nontoxic portion of cholera toxin. Its affinity to the monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) that is broadly distributed in a variety of cell types including epithelial cells of the gut and antigen presenting cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells, allows its optimal access to the immune system. CTB can easily be expressed on its own in a variety of organisms, and several approaches can be used to couple it to antigens, either by genetic fusion or by chemical manipulation, leading to strongly enhanced immune responses to the antigens. In autoimmune diseases, CTB has the capacity to evoke regulatory responses and to thereby dampen autoimmune responses, in several but not all animal models. It remains to be seen whether the latter approach translates to success in the clinic, however, the versatility of CTB to manipulate immune responses in either direction makes this protein a promising adjuvant for vaccine development. PMID:26350596

  20. Transcutaneous immunization of healthy volunteers with an attenuated Listeria monocytogenes vaccine strain and cholera toxin adjuvant☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Eypper, Elizabeth H.; Johnson, Paul V.; Purro, Eva I.; Hohmann, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Attenuated Listeria monocytogenes vaccine strains have been administered intravenously (Le et al. [1], Maciag et al. [2]) and orally (Angelakopoulos et al. [3], Johnson et al. [4]) to humans. Here, one was given transcutaneously with cholera toxin adjuvant. Methods Eight healthy volunteers were studied (5 active, 3 placebo). Safety was assessed by physical exam and labs. Systemic immunological responses were measured by ELISA and IFN-gamma ELISpot. Results 4/5 active volunteers had cellular responses to listerial antigens. 5/5 active volunteers showed humoral responses to cholera toxin. Conclusions An attenuated L. monocytogenes vector was safely administered transcutaneously. Topical administration appeared at least as immunogenic as previously studied oral delivery. PMID:23707162

  1. Cholera toxin production by the El Tor variant of Vibrio cholerae O1 compared to prototype El Tor and classical biotypes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh-Banerjee, J; Senoh, M; Takahashi, T; Hamabata, T; Barman, S; Koley, H; Mukhopadhyay, A K; Ramamurthy, T; Chatterjee, S; Asakura, M; Yamasaki, S; Nair, G B; Takeda, Y

    2010-11-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains produced much more cholera toxin than did prototype El Tor strains. The amount of cholera toxin produced by El Tor variant strains both in vitro and in vivo was more or less equivalent to that produced by classical strains.

  2. Activation of cholera toxin production by anaerobic respiration of trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-Il; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2012-11-16

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor.

  3. Capsaicin, a potential inhibitor of cholera toxin production in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shruti; Asakura, Masahiro; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Sugimoto, Norihiko; Haldar, Soumya; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Aoki, Shunji; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2010-05-01

    The use of natural compounds as inhibitory agents for virulence factor production is a new approach to overcome increased antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we examined whether red chilli (Capsicum annuum) contains any such compound(s) that can repress the cholera toxin (CT) production in Vibrio cholerae. We found that the methanol extract of red chilli could inhibit CT production in recently emerged V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant strains without affecting their viability. Interestingly, capsaicin, a well-studied active component of red chilli, also drastically inhibited CT production in V. cholerae strains belonging to various serogroups including variants. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay revealed that capsaicin effectively repressed the transcription of ctxA, tcpA and toxT genes, but not of toxR and toxS genes. On the contrary, capsaicin significantly enhanced the transcription of the hns gene, the product of which is known to regulate negatively the transcription of ctxAB, tcpA and toxT genes. These results suggest that capsaicin might act as a potent repressor for CT production possibly by enhancing the transcription of hns.

  4. In vitro and in vivo cholera toxin production by classical and El Tor isolates of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, P C; Lee, J V; Miliotis, M D; Still, C S; Isaäcson, M; Ahmad, Q S

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the in vitro production of cholera toxin by 19 Vibrio cholerae El Tor isolates from patients with cholera in South Africa, one El Tor isolate from a patient in Malawi (a country approximately 1000 km north-northeast of South Africa), 6 El Tor and 12 classical type isolates from patients in Bangladesh, and 5 culture collection classical strains. Identical phage types and indistinguishable toxigenicities among the South African and Malawi V. cholerae, representing isolations obtained over a 10-year period, indicated that essentially a single strain was involved in the cholera of these regions. Similarly, phage typing and toxin profiles indicated that the 12 classical and 6 El Tor V. cholerae cultures in Bangladesh, all isolated in November 1983, represented just two strains. As assessed by titrations in Y-1 mouse adrenal and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, the general order of toxigenicities was Bangladesh and culture collection classical greater than Bangladesh El Tor greater than southern African El Tor. The African isolates consistently gave rise to very low titers. Their relative reluctance to produce the toxin in vitro compared with the culture collection classical strains, particularly strain 569B, was confirmed by rocket electrophoresis. In somewhat of a contrast, maximum in vivo titers in rice water stools from cholera patients in South Africa and from both classical and El Tor type cholera patients in Bangladesh were essentially equal. It is postulated that under the continuous culture conditions that occur in vivo, cholera toxin concentrations can accumulate to a maximum level, depending on the rate of purging by the diarrheal fluid rather than the toxigenicity of the infecting stain. The relevance of these findings to the relative severities of classical and El Tor types of cholera is discussed. Images PMID:4008618

  5. Action of cholera toxin in the intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    The primary event in the action of cholera toxin on the isolated chick intestinal epithelial cell is its interaction with the cell membrane. This involves a large number (17 million per cell) of high affinity binding sites which belong to a single class. Binding of biologically active /sup 125/I-labeled toxin is rapid, temperature-dependent, reversible, and saturable over a wide range of concentrations and includes only a small contribution from nonspecific sites. A characteristic lag phase of 10 min occurs following the complete binding of toxin before any increase in cellular cAMP levels can be detected in the isolated cells. The response (elevation of cellular cAMP) of the enterocytes to cholera toxin is linear with time for 40-50 min and causes a six- to eight-fold increase over control levels at steady stae. cAMP and agents that increase cAMP production inhibit Cl/sup -/-independent Na/sup +/ influx into the isolated enterocytes whereas chlorporomazine (CPZ) which completely abolishes toxin-induced elevation of cAMP both reverses and prevents the cAMP-mediated inhibition of Na/sup +/ entry. Correlation between cellular cAMP levels and the magnitude of Na/sup +/ influx into the enterocytes provides evidence for a cAMP-mediated control of intestinal Na/sup +/ uptake, which may represent the mechanistic basis for the antiabsorptive effect of CT and Na/sup +/ during induction of intestinal secretion. The effect of cAMP on Na/sup +/ but no Cl/sup -/ influx in our villus cell preparation can be partially explained in terms of a cAMP-regulated Na/sup +//H/sup +/ neutral exchange system.

  6. Microbes and microbial Toxins: paradigms for microbial-mucosal toxins. V. Cholera: invasion of the intestinal epithelial barrier by a stably folded protein toxin.

    PubMed

    Lencer, W I

    2001-05-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) produced by Vibrio cholerae is the virulence factor responsible for the massive secretory diarrhea seen in Asiatic cholera. To cause disease, CT enters the intestinal epithelial cell as a stably folded protein by co-opting a lipid-based membrane receptor, ganglioside G(M1). G(M1) sorts the toxin into lipid rafts and a retrograde trafficking pathway to the endoplasmic reticulum, where the toxin unfolds and transfers its enzymatic subunit to the cytosol, probably by dislocation through the translocon sec61p. The molecular determinants that drive entry of CT into this pathway are encoded entirely within the structure of the protein toxin itself.

  7. Hybrid microarray based on double biomolecular markers of DNA and carbohydrate for simultaneous genotypic and phenotypic detection of cholera toxin-producing Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hwa Hui; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Chang Sup; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2016-05-15

    Life-threatening diarrheal cholera is usually caused by water or food contaminated with cholera toxin-producing Vibrio cholerae. For the prevention and surveillance of cholera, it is crucial to rapidly and precisely detect and identify the etiological causes, such as V. cholerae and/or its toxin. In the present work, we propose the use of a hybrid double biomolecular marker (DBM) microarray containing 16S rRNA-based DNA capture probe to genotypically identify V. cholerae and GM1 pentasaccharide capture probe to phenotypically detect cholera toxin. We employed a simple sample preparation method to directly obtain genomic DNA and secreted cholera toxin as target materials from bacterial cells. By utilizing the constructed DBM microarray and prepared samples, V. cholerae and cholera toxin were detected successfully, selectively, and simultaneously; the DBM microarray was able to analyze the pathogenicity of the identified V. cholerae regardless of whether the bacteria produces toxin. Therefore, our proposed DBM microarray is a new effective platform for identifying bacteria and analyzing bacterial pathogenicity simultaneously.

  8. Microfluidic biosensor for cholera toxin detection in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Bunyakul, Natinan; Promptmas, Chamras; Baeumner, Antje J

    2015-01-01

    Sample preparation and processing steps are the most critical assay aspects that require our attention in the development of diagnostic devices for analytes present in complex matrices. In the best scenarios, diagnostic devices should use only simple sample processing. We have therefore investigated minimal preparation of stool samples and their effect on our sensitive microfluidic immunosensor for the detection of cholera toxin. This biosensor was previously developed and tested in buffer solutions only, using either fluorescence or electrochemical detection strategies. The microfluidic devices were made from polydimethylsiloxane using soft lithography and silicon templates. Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB)-specific antibodies immobilized onto superparamagnetic beads and ganglioside GM1-containing liposomes were used for CTB recognition in the detection system. Quantification of CTB was tested by spiking it in human stool samples. Here, optimal minimal sample processing steps, including filtration and centrifugation, were optimized using a microtiter plate assay owing to its high-throughput capabilities. Subsequently, it was transferred to the microfluidic systems, enhancing the diagnostic characteristic of the biosensor. It was found that the debris removal obtained through simple centrifugation resulted in an acceptable removal of matrix effects for the fluorescence format, reaching a limit of detection of only 9.0 ng/mL. However, the electron transfer in the electrochemical format was slightly negatively affected (limit of detection of 31.7 ng/mL). Subsequently, cross-reactivity using the heat-labile Escherichia coli toxin was investigated using the electrochemical microfluidic immunosensors and was determined to be negligible. With minimal sample preparation required, these microfluidic liposome-based systems have demonstrated excellent analytical performance in a complex matrix and will thus be applicable to other sample matrices.

  9. Cholera toxin expression by El Tor Vibrio cholerae in shallow culture growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Cobaxin, Mayra; Martínez, Haydee; Ayala, Guadalupe; Holmgren, Jan; Sjöling, Asa; Sánchez, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 classical, El Tor and O139 are the primary biotypes that cause epidemic cholera, and they also express cholera toxin (CT). Although classical V. cholerae produces CT in various settings, the El Tor and O139 strains require specific growth conditions for CT induction, such as the so-called AKI conditions, which consist of growth in static conditions followed by growth under aerobic shaking conditions. However, our group has demonstrated that CT production may also take place in shallow static cultures. How these type of cultures induce CT production has been unclear, but we now report that in shallow culture growth conditions, there is virtual depletion of dissolved oxygen after 2.5 h of growth. Concurrently, during the first three to 4 h, endogenous CO2 accumulates in the media and the pH decreases. These findings may explain CT expression at the molecular level because CT production relies on a regulatory cascade, in which the key regulator AphB may be activated by anaerobiosis and by low pH. AphB activation stimulates TcpP synthesis, which induces ToxT production, and ToxT directly stimulates ctxAB expression, which encodes CT. Importantly, ToxT activity is enhanced by bicarbonate. Therefore, we suggest that in shallow cultures, AphB is activated by initial decreases in oxygen and pH, and subsequently, ToxT is activated by intracellular bicarbonate that has been generated from endogenous CO2. This working model would explain CT production in shallow cultures and, possibly, also in other growth conditions.

  10. Fucosylation and protein glycosylation create functional receptors for cholera toxin

    PubMed Central

    Wands, Amberlyn M; Fujita, Akiko; McCombs, Janet E; Cervin, Jakob; Dedic, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Andrea C; Nischan, Nicole; Bond, Michelle R; Mettlen, Marcel; Trudgian, David C; Lemoff, Andrew; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Gustavsson, Bengt; Steentoft, Catharina; Clausen, Henrik; Mirzaei, Hamid; Teneberg, Susann; Yrlid, Ulf; Kohler, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) enters and intoxicates host cells after binding cell surface receptors using its B subunit (CTB). The ganglioside (glycolipid) GM1 is thought to be the sole CT receptor; however, the mechanism by which CTB binding to GM1 mediates internalization of CT remains enigmatic. Here we report that CTB binds cell surface glycoproteins. Relative contributions of gangliosides and glycoproteins to CTB binding depend on cell type, and CTB binds primarily to glycoproteins in colonic epithelial cell lines. Using a metabolically incorporated photocrosslinking sugar, we identified one CTB-binding glycoprotein and demonstrated that the glycan portion of the molecule, not the protein, provides the CTB interaction motif. We further show that fucosylated structures promote CTB entry into a colonic epithelial cell line and subsequent host cell intoxication. CTB-binding fucosylated glycoproteins are present in normal human intestinal epithelia and could play a role in cholera. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09545.001 PMID:26512888

  11. Endocytosis of cholera toxin by human enterocytes is developmentally regulated.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Khan, Sameer; Lencer, Wayne; Walker, W Allan

    2005-08-01

    Many secretory diarrheas including cholera are more prevalent and fulminant in young infants than in older children and adults. Cholera toxin (CT) elicits a cAMP-dependent chloride secretory response in intestinal epithelia, which accounts for the fundamental pathogenesis of this toxigenic diarrhea. We have previously reported that the action of this bacterial enterotoxin is excessive in immature enterocytes and under developmental regulation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced endocytosis by immature human enterocytes may, in part, account for the excessive secretory response to CT noted in the immature intestine and that enterocyte endocytosis of CT is developmentally regulated. To test this hypothesis, we used specific inhibitors to define endocytic pathways in mature and immature cell lines. We showed that internalization of CT in adult enterocytes is less and occurs via the caveolae/raft-mediated pathway in contrast to an enhanced immature human enterocyte CT uptake that occurs via a clathrin pathway. We also present evidence that this clathrin pathway is developmentally regulated as demonstrated by its response to corticosteroids, a known maturation factor that causes a decreased CT endocytosis by this pathway.

  12. Cholera toxin-induced tolerance to allografts in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuru, S; Taniguchi, M; Shinomiya, N; Fujisawa, H; Zinnaka, Y; Nomoto, K

    1987-01-01

    When C3H/HeN (C3H) mice were primed with viable C57BL/6 (B6) spleen cells and treated with cholera toxin (CT) on the same day, a profound tolerance to tumour allografts of B6 origin was induced. The tolerant state was sustained for as long as 6 weeks or more. Skin allografts of B6 were rejected by such tolerant C3H mice, although the survival times were prolonged very slightly. Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes was reduced markedly in the tolerant mice, whereas delayed footpad reaction to B6 cells was maintained at the normal immune level or higher. There is a possibility that a T-cell subset responsible for delayed footpad reaction is resistant to CT-induced tolerance and participates in the rejection of skin allografts in tolerant mice. PMID:2438209

  13. Promotion of colonization and virulence by cholera toxin is dependent on neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Queen, Jessica; Satchell, Karla J F

    2013-09-01

    The innate immune response to Vibrio cholerae infection is poorly understood, but this knowledge is critical for the design of safe, effective vaccines. Using an adult mouse intestinal infection model, this study examines the contribution of neutrophils to host immunity, as well as the effect of cholera toxin and other secreted factors on this response. Depletion of neutrophils from mice with anti-Ly6G IA8 monoclonal antibody led to similar survival rates of mice infected with low or moderate doses of toxigenic V. cholerae El Tor O1. At a high dose, neutropenic mice showed increased rates of survival compared to neutrophil-replete animals. Expression of cholera toxin was found to be protective to the neutropenic host, and this phenotype can be replicated by the administration of purified toxin. Neutrophils do not effectively clear colonizing bacteria from the small intestine, nor do they alter induction of early immune-modulating signals. In both neutropenic and neutrophil-replete animals, the local response to infection is characterized by expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 alpha (MIP-2). Overall, these data indicate that the innate immune response to toxigenic V. cholerae infection differs dramatically from the host response to nontoxigenic infection or vaccination, where neutrophils are protective to the host. In the absence of neutrophils, cholera toxin induces immunomodulatory effects that increase host survival. In cholera toxin-producing strains, similar to nontoxigenic infection, accessory toxins are critical to virulence, indicating that cholera toxin and the other secreted toxins modulate the host response by different mechanisms, with both contributing to bacterial persistence and virulence.

  14. Reinitiation of Growth in Senescent Mouse Mammary Epithelium in Response to Cholera Toxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Charles W.; Silberstein, Gary B.; Strickland, Phyllis

    1984-06-01

    Several lines of mouse mammary tissue that had been serially transplanted until mitotic senescence was reached were exposed in vivo to plastic implants that slowly released cholera toxin. Gland tissue surrounding the implants displayed new end buds, indicating reinitiation of growth and morphogenesis. The ability of cholera toxin, which elevates intracellular adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate, to temporarily reverse the senescent phenotype suggests that this mitotic dysfunction results not from generalized cellular deterioration but from specific changes in cell regulation.

  15. Suppression of Dendritic Cell Activation by Diabetes Autoantigens Linked to the Cholera Toxin B Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Odumosu, Oludare; Payne, Kimberly; Baez, Mavely; Jutzy, Jessica; Wall, Nathan; Langridge, William

    2010-01-01

    Antigen presenting cells, specifically dendritic cells (DCs) are a focal point in the delicate balance between T cell tolerance and immune responses contributing to the onset of type I diabetes (T1D). Weak adjuvant proteins like the cholera toxin B subunit when linked to autoantigens may sufficiently alter the balance of this initial immune response to suppress the development of autoimmunity. To assess adjuvant enhancement of autoantigen mediated immune suppression of Type 1 diabetes, we examined the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-proinsulin fusion protein (CTB-INS) activation of immature dendritic cells (iDC) at the earliest detectable stage of the human immune response. In this study, Incubation of human umbilical cord blood monocyte-derived immature DCs with CTB-INS autoantigen fusion protein increased the surface membrane expression of DC toll-like receptor (TLR-2) while no significant upregulation in TLR-4 expression was detected. Inoculation of iDCs with CTB stimulated the biosynthesis of both CD86 and CD83 co-stimulatory factors demonstrating an immunostimulatory role for CTB in both DC activation and maturation. In contrast, incubation of iDCs with proinsulin partially suppressed CD86 co-stimulatory factor mediated DC activation, while incubation of iDCs with CTB-INS fusion protein completely suppressed iDC biosynthesis of both CD86 and CD83 costimulatory factors. The incubation of iDCs with increasing amounts of insulin did not increase the level of immune suppression but rather activated DC maturation by stimulating increased biosynthesis of both CD86 and CD83 costimulatory factors. Inoculation of iDCs with CTB-INS fusion protein dramatically increased secretion of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 and suppressed synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL12/23 p40 subunit protein suggesting that linkage of CTB to insulin (INS) may play an important role in mediating DC guidance of cognate naïve Th0 cell development into immunosuppressive T

  16. Intranasal immunization with recombinant toxin-coregulated pilus and cholera toxin B subunit protects rabbits against Vibrio cholerae O1 challenge.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Juthika; Mazumder, Rupa; Srivastava, Ranjana; Srivastava, Brahm S

    2009-07-01

    Intranasal immunization, a noninvasive method of vaccination, has been found to be effective in inducing systemic and mucosal immune responses. The present study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of intranasal immunization in inducing mucosal immunity in experimental cholera by subunit recombinant protein vaccines from Vibrio cholerae O1. The structural genes encoding toxin-coregulated pilus A (TcpA) and B subunit of cholera toxin (CtxB) from V. cholerae O1 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Rabbits were immunized intranasally with purified TcpA and CtxB alone or a mixture of TcpA and CtxB. Immunization with TcpA and CtxB alone conferred, respectively, 41.1% and 70.5% protection against V. cholerae challenge, whereas immunization with a mixture of both antigens conferred complete (100%) protection, as assayed in the rabbit ileal loop model. Serum titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to TcpA and CtxB, and anti-TcpA- and anti-CtxB-specific sIgA in intestinal lavage of vaccinated animals were found to be significantly elevated compared with unimmunized controls. Vibriocidal antibodies were detected at remarkable levels in rabbits receiving TcpA antigen and their titers correlated with protection. Thus, mucosal codelivery of pertinent cholera toxoids provides enhanced protection against experimental cholera.

  17. Immunization with cholera toxin B subunit induces high-level protection in the suckling mouse model of cholera.

    PubMed

    Price, Gregory A; McFann, Kim; Holmes, Randall K

    2013-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) is the primary virulence factor responsible for severe cholera. Vibrio cholerae strains unable to produce CT show severe attenuation of virulence in animals and humans. The pentameric B subunit of CT (CTB) contains the immunodominant epitopes recognized by antibodies that neutralize CT. Although CTB is a potent immunogen and a promising protective vaccine antigen in animal models, immunization of humans with detoxified CT failed to protect against cholera. We recently demonstrated however that pups reared from mice immunized intraperitoneally (IP) with 3 doses of recombinant CTB were well protected against a highly lethal challenge dose of V. cholerae N16961. The present study investigated how the route and number of immunizations with CTB could influence protective efficacy in the suckling mouse model of cholera. To this end female mice were immunized with CTB intranasally (IN), IP, and subcutaneously (SC). Serum and fecal extracts were analyzed for anti-CTB antibodies by quantitative ELISA, and pups born to immunized mothers were challenged orogastrically with a lethal dose of V. cholerae. Pups from all immunized groups were highly protected from death by 48 hours (64-100% survival). Cox regression showed that percent body weight loss at 24 hours predicted death by 48 hours, but we were unable to validate a specific amount of weight loss as a surrogate marker for protection. Although CTB was highly protective in all regimens, three parenteral immunizations showed trends toward higher survival and less weight loss at 24 hours post infection. These results demonstrate that immunization with CTB by any of several routes and dosing regimens can provide protection against live V. cholerae challenge in the suckling mouse model of cholera. Our data extend the results of previous studies and provide additional support for the inclusion of CTB in the development of a subunit vaccine against V. cholerae.

  18. In Vitro Inhibition of Cholera Toxin Production in Vibrio cholerae by Methanol Extract of Sweet Fennel Seeds and Its Components.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Shruti; Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Asakura, Masahiro; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Ramamurthy, T; Iwaoka, Emiko; Aoki, Shunji; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-09-21

    A newly emerged Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain with multidrug resistance is considered a threat to public health. Recent strategies to suppress virulence factors production instead of bacterial growth may lead to less selective pressure for the emergence of resistant strains. The use of spices and their active constituents as the inhibitory agents against cholera toxin (CT) production in V. cholerae may be an alternative approach to treat cholera. In this study, we examined the potential of sweet fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. dulce) methanol extract to inhibit CT production in V. cholerae without affecting viability. The methanol extract of sweet fennel seeds significantly inhibited CT production in various V. cholerae strains, regardless of serogroup or biotype. Interestingly, trans-anethole and 4-allylanisole, essential oil components of sweet fennel seeds, also demonstrated similar effects. Here, we report that sub-bactericidal concentrations of sweet fennel seed methanol extract and its major components can drastically inhibit CT production in various V. cholerae strains.

  19. Inhibition of Cholera Toxin and Other AB Toxins by Polyphenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Cherubin, Patrick; Garcia, Maria Camila; Curtis, David; Britt, Christopher B T; Craft, John W; Burress, Helen; Berndt, Chris; Reddy, Srikar; Guyette, Jessica; Zheng, Tianyu; Huo, Qun; Quiñones, Beatriz; Briggs, James M; Teter, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) is an AB-type protein toxin that contains a catalytic A1 subunit, an A2 linker, and a cell-binding B homopentamer. The CT holotoxin is released into the extracellular environment, but CTA1 attacks a target within the cytosol of a host cell. We recently reported that grape extract confers substantial resistance to CT. Here, we used a cell culture system to identify twelve individual phenolic compounds from grape extract that inhibit CT. Additional studies determined the mechanism of inhibition for a subset of the compounds: two inhibited CT binding to the cell surface and even stripped CT from the plasma membrane of a target cell; two inhibited the enzymatic activity of CTA1; and four blocked cytosolic toxin activity without directly affecting the enzymatic function of CTA1. Individual polyphenolic compounds from grape extract could also generate cellular resistance to diphtheria toxin, exotoxin A, and ricin. We have thus identified individual toxin inhibitors from grape extract and some of their mechanisms of inhibition against CT.

  20. Inhibition of Cholera Toxin and Other AB Toxins by Polyphenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cherubin, Patrick; Garcia, Maria Camila; Curtis, David; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Craft, John W.; Burress, Helen; Berndt, Chris; Reddy, Srikar; Guyette, Jessica; Zheng, Tianyu; Huo, Qun; Quiñones, Beatriz; Briggs, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) is an AB-type protein toxin that contains a catalytic A1 subunit, an A2 linker, and a cell-binding B homopentamer. The CT holotoxin is released into the extracellular environment, but CTA1 attacks a target within the cytosol of a host cell. We recently reported that grape extract confers substantial resistance to CT. Here, we used a cell culture system to identify twelve individual phenolic compounds from grape extract that inhibit CT. Additional studies determined the mechanism of inhibition for a subset of the compounds: two inhibited CT binding to the cell surface and even stripped CT from the plasma membrane of a target cell; two inhibited the enzymatic activity of CTA1; and four blocked cytosolic toxin activity without directly affecting the enzymatic function of CTA1. Individual polyphenolic compounds from grape extract could also generate cellular resistance to diphtheria toxin, exotoxin A, and ricin. We have thus identified individual toxin inhibitors from grape extract and some of their mechanisms of inhibition against CT. PMID:27829022

  1. Identification of inhibitors against the potential ligandable sites in the active cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Aditi; Datta, Abhijit

    2015-04-01

    The active cholera toxin responsible for the massive loss of water and ions in cholera patients via its ADP ribosylation activity is a heterodimer of the A1 subunit of the bacterial holotoxin and the human cytosolic ARF6 (ADP Ribosylation Factor 6). The active toxin is a potential target for the design of inhibitors against cholera. In this study we identified the potential ligandable sites of the active cholera toxin which can serve as binding sites for drug-like molecules. By employing an energy-based approach to identify ligand binding sites, and comparison with the results of computational solvent mapping, we identified two potential ligandable sites in the active toxin which can be targeted during structure-based drug design against cholera. Based on the probe affinities of the identified ligandable regions, docking-based virtual screening was employed to identify probable inhibitors against these sites. Several indole-based alkaloids and phosphates showed strong interactions to the important residues of the ligandable region at the A1 active site. On the other hand, 26 top scoring hits were identified against the ligandable region at the A1 ARF6 interface which showed strong hydrogen bonding interactions, including guanidines, phosphates, Leucopterin and Aristolochic acid VIa. This study has important implications in the application of hybrid structure-based and ligand-based methods against the identified ligandable sites using the identified inhibitors as reference ligands, for drug design against the active cholera toxin.

  2. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Cholera Toxin Production In Vitro and In Vivo by Inhibiting Vibrio cholerae ToxT Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Drubhajyoti; Plecha, Sarah C.; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-01-01

    The severe diarrheal disease cholera is endemic in over 50 countries. Current therapies for cholera patients involve oral and/or intravenous rehydration, often combined with the use of antibiotics to shorten the duration and intensity of the disease. However, as antibiotic resistance increases, treatment options will become limited. Linoleic acid has been shown to be a potent negative effector of V. cholerae virulence that acts on the major virulence transcription regulator protein, ToxT, to inhibit virulence gene expression. ToxT activates transcription of the two major virulence factors required for disease, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). A conjugated form of linoleic acid (CLA) is currently sold over the counter as a dietary supplement and is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This study examined whether CLA could be used as a new therapy to reduce CT production, which, in turn, would decrease disease duration and intensity in cholera patients. CLA could be used in place of traditional antibiotics and would be very unlikely to generate resistance, as it affects only virulence factor production and not bacterial growth or survival. PMID:26392502

  3. Changing genotypes of cholera toxin (CT) of Vibrio cholerae O139 in Bangladesh and description of three new CT genotypes.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Nusrin, Suraia; Alam, Munirul; Morita, Masatomo; Watanabe, Haruo; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Cravioto, Alejandro; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish

    2009-11-01

    We determined the genotype of cholera toxin by amplifying and sequencing the B-subunit in a sequential collection of 90 strains of Vibrio cholerae O139 isolated over the past 13 years since its first description in 1992. Representative strains isolated during 1993-1997 harboured ctxB of El Tor type (genotype 3). Twenty-six strains isolated during 1999, 2001, 2005 and three strains isolated in 1998, 2000 and 2002 were identified to belong to new ctxB genotypes 4 and 5, respectively. Genotype 5 was similar to genotype 1 except at position 28 (D-->A). The genotype 6 was similar to genotype 4 except at position 34 (H-->P). The implication of switch in terms of function of the toxin and its impact on human disease is unclear. How this change has influenced their prevalence relative to that of V. cholerae O1 in human infection is also not clear. The other common virulence gene clusters including the Vibrio pathogenicity island-1, Vibrio seventh pandemic island (VSP)-I and VSP-II of V. cholerae O139 did not show any remarkable difference from that of the O1 El Tor strains. Overall, the majority of the O139 strains tested in this study were similar to the El Tor strains but had altered ctxB genotype. This change and the impact that it causes to the epidemiology of cholera caused by O139 should be closely monitored.

  4. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Cholera Toxin Production In Vitro and In Vivo by Inhibiting Vibrio cholerae ToxT Activity.

    PubMed

    Withey, Jeffrey H; Nag, Drubhajyoti; Plecha, Sarah C; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-12-01

    The severe diarrheal disease cholera is endemic in over 50 countries. Current therapies for cholera patients involve oral and/or intravenous rehydration, often combined with the use of antibiotics to shorten the duration and intensity of the disease. However, as antibiotic resistance increases, treatment options will become limited. Linoleic acid has been shown to be a potent negative effector of V. cholerae virulence that acts on the major virulence transcription regulator protein, ToxT, to inhibit virulence gene expression. ToxT activates transcription of the two major virulence factors required for disease, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). A conjugated form of linoleic acid (CLA) is currently sold over the counter as a dietary supplement and is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This study examined whether CLA could be used as a new therapy to reduce CT production, which, in turn, would decrease disease duration and intensity in cholera patients. CLA could be used in place of traditional antibiotics and would be very unlikely to generate resistance, as it affects only virulence factor production and not bacterial growth or survival.

  5. Induction of tolerance in macrophages by cholera toxin B chain.

    PubMed

    Burkart, V; Kim, Y; Kauer, M; Kolb, H

    1999-01-01

    Model systems of human type 1 diabetes have revealed an important role of cellular immune reactions involving macrophages and T cells in the destruction of autologous insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Recently, the cholera toxin B chain (CTB) was found to suppress T cell-dependent autoimmune diseases including autoimmune diabetes of nonobese diabetic mice. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that CTB exerts much of its immunomodulatory activity by targeting macrophages. These studies are reviewed here. Cells of the human monocyte line Mono Mac 6 were exposed to CTB and subsequently tested for proinflammatory immunoreactivity in response to challenge with endotoxin (LPS from Escherichia coli, 10 ng/ml for 5 h). Incubation of monocytes with CTB (10 microgram/ml) suppressed a later proinflammatory response to LPS as demonstrated by suppression of TNFalpha release from 6.7 +/- 0.7 ng/ml in cultures without CTB preexposure to 1.8 +/- 1.1 ng/ml in CTB-pretreated cells (p < 0.001). In contrast, the release of IL-10 remained inducible after CTB pretreatment. RT-PCR analysis showed that the suppression of TNFalpha production occurred at the level of mRNA formation. Control experiments excluded a role of possible contamination of CTB by endotoxin or the intact cholera toxin. Tolerance induction was maximal after 5 h of CTB exposure and persisted for 24 h. The suppressive effect of CTB was dose-dependent and no more recognizable at

  6. A large cholera outbreak due to a new cholera toxin variant of the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype in Orissa, Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Jain, M; Goel, A K; Bhadauria, S; Sharma, S K; Kamboj, D V; Singh, L; Ramamurthy, T; Nair, G B

    2009-02-01

    A total of 32 Vibrio cholerae isolates were collected during a recent large cholera outbreak in Eastern India. Biochemical and serological studies revealed that all of the isolates belonged to serogroup O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa. Two multiplex PCR assays confirmed the presence of various toxigenic and pathogenic genes - ace, ctxAB, hlyA, ompU, ompW, rfbO1, rtx, tcp, toxR and zot - in all of the isolates. Sequencing of the ctxB gene from the isolates revealed a novel mutation in the gene. Sequencing also confirmed the presence of altered cholera toxin B of the classical biotype in all of the El Tor isolates, suggesting infection of isolates by classical CTXPhi. The molecular diversity of V. cholerae isolates studied by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR, BOX-PCR and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis uniformly showed the clonal relationship among the outbreak V. cholerae O1 isolates. The results of this study suggest that cholera-causing V. cholerae strains are constantly evolving in epidemic areas, highlighting the potential of the emergence of more virulent strains.

  7. ADP-ribosylation of membrane components by pertussis and cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro-Neto, F.A.P.; Mattera, F.; Hildebrandt, J.D.; Codina, J.; Field, J.B.; Birnbaumer, L.; Sekura, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Pertussis and cholera toxins are important tools to investigate functional and structural aspects of the stimulatory (N/sub s/) and inhibitory (N/sub i/) regulatory components of adenylyl cyclase. Cholera toxin acts on N/sub s/ by ADP-ribosylating its ..cap alpha../sub s/ subunit; pertussis toxin acts on N/sub i/ by ADP-ribosylating its ..cap alpha..; subunit. By using (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and determining the transfer of its (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribose moiety to membrane components, it is possible to obtain information on N/sub s/ and N/sub i/. A set of protocols is presented that can be used to study simultaneously and comparatively the susceptibility of N/sub s/ and N/sub i/ to be ADP-ribosylated by cholera and pertussis toxin.

  8. Action of cholera toxin in the intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    The primary event in the action of cholera toxin on the isolated chick intestinal epithelial cell is its interaction with a large number of high affinity binding sites in the cell membrane. Binding of /sup 125/I-labeled toxin is rapid, temperature-dependent, reversible, and saturable over a wide range of concentrations and includes only a small contribution from nonspecific sites. A characteristic lag phase of 10 min occurs following the complete binding of toxin before any increase in cellular cAMP levels can be detected. The response (elevation of cellular cAMP) is linear with time for 40 to 50 min and causes a six- to eight-fold increase over control levels (10 to 15 picomole cAMP/mg cellular protein) at steady state. cAMP and agents that increase cAMP production inhibit Cl/sup -/-independent Na/sup +/ influx into the isolated enterocytes whereas chlorpromazine (CPZ) which completely abolishes toxin-induced elevation of cAMP both reverses and prevents the cAMP-mediated inhibition of Na/sup +/ entry. Correlation between cellular cAMP levels and the magnitude of Na/sup +/ influx provides evidence for a cAMP-mediated control of intestinal Na/sup +/ uptake, which may represent the mechanistic basis for the antiabsorptive effect of CT on Na/sup +/ during induction of intestinal secretion. The effect of cAMP on Na/sup +/ but not Cl/sup -/ influx preparations can be partially explained in terms of a cAMP-regulated Na/sup +//H/sup +/ neutral exchange system. Data on the coupling relationship between Na/sup +/ transport and the intra- and extracellular pH in the enterocytes show that an amiloride-sensitive electroneutral Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange process occurs. This coupling between Na/sup +/ and H/sup +/ is partially inhibited by CT and dbcAMP, suggesting that the Na/sup +//H/sup +/ exchange may be a cAMP-regulated process. 31 references, 32 figures, 5 tables.

  9. Rapid and sensitive detection of cholera toxin using gold nanoparticle-based simple colorimetric and dynamic light scattering assay.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sadia Afrin; DeGrasse, Jeffrey A; Yakes, Betsy Jean; Croley, Timothy R

    2015-09-10

    Herein, a rapid and simple gold nanoparticle based colorimetric and dynamic light scattering (DLS) assay for the sensitive detection of cholera toxin has been developed. The developed assay is based on the distance dependent properties of gold nanoparticles which cause aggregation of antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles in the presence of cholera toxin resulting discernible color change. This aggregation induced color change caused a red shift in the plasmon band of nanoparticles which was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. In addition, we employed DLS assay to monitor the extent of aggregation in the presence of different concentration of cholera toxin. Our assay can visually detect as low as 10 nM of cholera toxin which is lower than the previously reported colorimetric methods. The reported assay is very fast and showed an excellent specificity against other diarrhetic toxins. Moreover, we have demonstrated the feasibility of our method for cholera toxin detection in local lake water.

  10. Diversity and distribution of cholix toxin, a novel ADP-ribosylating factor from Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Alexandra E; Balch, Deborah; Lizárraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Islam, Mohammad Sirajul; Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2010-02-01

    Non-toxigenic non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from both environmental and clinical settings carry a suite of virulence factors aside from cholera toxin. Among V. cholerae strains isolated from coastal waters of southern California, this includes cholix toxin, an ADP-ribosylating factor that is capable of halting protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. The prevalence of the gene encoding cholix toxin, chxA, was assessed among a collection of 155 diverse V. cholerae strains originating from both clinical and environmental settings in Bangladesh and Mexico and other countries around the globe. The chxA gene was present in 47% of 83 non-O1, non-O139 strains and 16% of 72 O1/O139 strains screened as part of this study. A total of 86 chxA gene sequences were obtained, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that they fall into two distinct clades. These two clades were also observed in the phylogenies of several housekeeping genes, suggesting that the divergence observed in chxA extends to other regions of the V. cholerae genome, and most likely has arisen from vertical descent rather than horizontal transfer. Our results clearly indicate that ChxA is a major toxin of V. cholerae with a worldwide distribution that is preferentially associated with non-pandemic strains.

  11. Mechanisms of Cholera Toxin in the Modulation of TH17 Responses.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsing-Chuan; Wu, Reen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that TH17 cells and their signature cytokine IL-17A are critical to host defense against various bacterial and fungal infections. The protective responses mediated by TH17 cells and IL-17A include the recruitment of neutrophils, release of antimicrobial peptides and chemokines, and enhanced tight junction of epithelial cells. Due to the importance of TH17 cells in infections, efforts have been made to develop TH17-based vaccines. The goal of vaccination is to establish a protective immunological memory. Most currently approved vaccines are antibody-based and have limited protection against stereotypically different strains. Studies show that T-cell-based vaccines may overcome this limitation and protect hosts against infection of different strains. Two main strategies are used to develop TH17 vaccines: identification of TH17-specific antigens and TH17-skewing adjuvants. Studies have revealed that cholera toxin (CT) induces a potent Th17 response following vaccination. Antigen vaccination along with CT induces a robust TH17 response, which is sometimes accompanied by TH1 responses. Due to the toxicity of CT, it is hard to apply CT in a clinical setting. Thus, understanding how CT modulates TH17 responses may lead to the development of successful TH17-based vaccines.

  12. Effect of pressure on refolding of recombinant pentameric cholera toxin B.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, D; Farinha-Arcieri, L E; Ventura, A M; Chura-Chambi, R M; Malavasi, N V; Lemke, L S; Guimarães, J S; Ho, P L; Morganti, L

    2014-03-10

    The production of recombinant proteins is an essential tool for the expansion of modern biological research and biotechnology. The expression of heterologous proteins in Escherichia coli often results in an incomplete folding process that leads to the accumulation of inclusion bodies (IB), aggregates that hold a certain degree of native-like secondary structure. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) impairs intermolecular hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, leading to dissociation of aggregates under non-denaturing conditions and is therefore a useful tool to solubilize proteins for posterior refolding. Cholera toxin (CT) is composed of a non-toxic pentamer of B subunits (CTB), a useful adjuvant in vaccines, and a toxic subunit A (CTA). We studied the process of refolding of CTB using HHP. HHP was shown to be effective for dissociation of CTB monomers from IB. Posterior incubation at atmospheric pressure of concentrated CTB (1mg/ml) is necessary for the association of the monomers. Pentameric CTB was obtained when suspensions of CTB IB were compressed at 2.4kbar for 16h in the presence of Tween 20 and incubated at 1bar for 120h. Soluble and biologically active pentameric CTB was obtained, with a yield of 213mg CTB/liter of culture. The experience gained in this study can be important to improve the refolding of proteins with quaternary structure.

  13. Blood Group O-Dependent Cellular Responses to Cholera Toxin: Parallel Clinical and Epidemiological Links to Severe Cholera.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, F Matthew; Santhanam, Srikanth; Kumar, Pardeep; Luo, Qingwei; Ciorba, Matthew A; Fleckenstein, James M

    2016-08-03

    Because O blood group has been associated with more severe cholera infections, it has been hypothesized that cholera toxin (CT) may bind non-O blood group antigens of the intestinal mucosae, thereby preventing efficient interaction with target GM1 gangliosides required for uptake of the toxin and activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in target epithelia. Herein, we show that after exposure to CT, human enteroids expressing O blood group exhibited marked increase in cAMP relative to cells derived from blood group A individuals. Likewise, using CRISPR/Cas9 engineering, a functional group O line (HT-29-A(-/-)) was generated from a parent group A HT-29 line. CT stimulated robust cAMP responses in HT-29-A(-/-) cells relative to HT-29 cells. These findings provide a direct molecular link between blood group O expression and differential cellular responses to CT, recapitulating clinical and epidemiologic observations.

  14. Nanomechanical detection of cholera toxin using microcantilevers functionalized with ganglioside nanodiscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tark, Soo-Hyun; Das, Aditi; Sligar, Stephen; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2010-10-01

    The label-free detection of cholera toxin is demonstrated using microcantilevers functionalized with ganglioside nanodiscs. The cholera toxin molecules bind specifically to the active membrane protein encased in nanodiscs, nanoscale lipid bilayers surrounded by an amphipathic protein belt, immobilized on the cantilever surface. The specific molecular binding results in cantilever deflection via the formation of a surface stress-induced bending moment. The nanomechanical cantilever response is quantitatively monitored by optical interference. The consistent and reproducible nanomechanical detection of cholera toxin in nanomolar range concentrations is demonstrated. The results validated with such a model system suggest that the combination of a microcantilever platform with receptor nanodiscs is a promising approach for monitoring invasive pathogens and other types of biomolecular detection relevant to drug discovery.

  15. Single-mode tapered optical fiber loop immunosensor II: assay of anti-cholera toxin immunoglobulins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Robert S.; Hale, Zoe M.; Levine, Myron M.; Lowe, C. R.; Payne, Frank P.

    1994-07-01

    An evanescent wave immunoassay for cholera antitoxin immunoglobulins was performed using a single mode tapered optical fiber loop sensor. The transducer was silanized with 3- glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and chemically modified to link covalently either cholera toxin B subunit or a synthetic peptide derived from it, CTP3. The sensor was exposed to seral fluids, obtained from human volunteers having been exposed to live virulent Vibrio cholerae 01 and shown to produce rice-water stools. Other toxins of interest, such as Clostridium botulinum toxin A, have been tested on similar systems. The bound unlabelled immunoglobulins were then exposed to a mixture of FITC-anti-IgG and TRITC-anti-IgA, without requirement for a separation step. The emanating fluorescent emissions of fluorescein and rhodamine, excited by the input laser light, were coupled back into the guided mode of the tapered fiber, and used to determine the concentrations of the complementary antigens.

  16. Effects of cholera toxin and isobutylmethylxanthine on growth of human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, B.; Wharton, W.

    1986-08-01

    Cholera toxin produced a dose-dependent decrease in the restimulation of G0/G1 traverse in density-arrested human fibroblasts but did not inhibit the stimulation of cells arrested in G0 after serum starvation at low density. In addition, cholera toxin did not inhibit the proliferation of sparse logarithmically growing human fibroblasts, even when low concentrations of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) were also present. However, the final density to which sparse cells grew was limited by cholera toxin, when added either alone or together with low concentrations of IBMX. In contrast, high concentrations of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor alone produced a profound inhibition in the growth of sparse human fibrobasts. IBMX produced an inhibition both in the G1 and in the G2 phases of the cell cycle by a mechanism(s) that was not related to the magnitude of the increases in adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate concentrations.

  17. Cholix Toxin, a Novel ADP-ribosylating Factor from Vibrio cholerae

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Rene; Purdy, Alexandra E.; Fieldhouse, Robert J.; Kimber, Matthew S.; Bartlett, Douglas H.; Merrill, A. Rod

    2008-07-15

    The ADP-ribosyltransferases are a class of enzymes that display activity in a variety of bacterial pathogens responsible for causing diseases in plants and animals, including those affecting mankind, such as diphtheria, cholera, and whooping cough. We report the characterization of a novel toxin from Vibrio cholerae, which we call cholix toxin. The toxin is active against mammalian cells (IC50 = 4.6 {+-} 0.4 ng/ml) and crustaceans (Artemia nauplii LD50 = 10 {+-} 2 {mu}g/ml). Here we show that this toxin is the third member of the diphthamide-specific class of ADP-ribose transferases and that it possesses specific ADP-ribose transferase activity against ribosomal eukaryotic elongation factor 2. We also describe the high resolution crystal structures of the multidomain toxin and its catalytic domain at 2.1- and 1.25-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The new structural data show that cholix toxin possesses the necessary molecular features required for infection of eukaryotes by receptor-mediated endocytosis, translocation to the host cytoplasm, and inhibition of protein synthesis by specific modification of elongation factor 2. The crystal structures also provide important insight into the structural basis for activation of toxin ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. These results indicate that cholix toxin may be an important virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae that likely plays a significant role in the survival of the organism in an aquatic environment.

  18. ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin: functional analysis of a cellular system that stimulates the enzymic activity of cholera toxin fragment A/sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, D.M.; Coburn, J.

    1987-10-06

    The authors have clarified relationships between cholera toxin, cholera toxin substrates, a membrane protein S that is required for toxin activity, and a soluble protein CF that is needed for the function of S. The toxin has little intrinsic ability to catalyze ADP-ribosylations unless it encounters the active form of the S protein, which is S liganded to GTP or to a GTP analogue. In the presence of CF, S x GTP forms readily, though reversibly, but a more permanent active species, S-guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (S x GTP..gamma..S), forms over a period of 10-15 min at 37/sup 0/C. Both guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) and GTP block this quasi-permanent activation. Some S x GTP..gamma..S forms in membranes that are exposed to CF alone and then to GTP..gamma..S, with a wash in between, and it is possible that CF facilitates a G nucleotide exchange. S x GTP..gamma..S dissolved by nonionic detergents persists in solution and can be used to support the ADP-ribosylation of nucleotide-free substrates. In this circumstance, added guanyl nucleotides have no further effect. This active form of S is unstable, especially when heated, but the thermal inactivation above 45/sup 0/C is decreased by GTP..gamma..S. Active S is required equally for the ADP-ribosylation of all of cholera toxin's protein substrates, regardless of whether they bind GTP or not. They suggest that active S interacts directly with the enzymic A/sub 1/ fragments of cholera toxin and not with any toxin substrate. The activation and activity of S are independent of the state, or even the presence, of adenylate cyclase and seem to be involved with the cyclase system only via cholera toxin. S is apparently not related by function to certain other GTP binding proteins, including p21/sup ras/, and appears to be a new GTP binding protein whose physiologic role remains to be identified.

  19. Cholera toxin subunit B detection in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Bunyakul, Natinan; Edwards, Katie A; Promptmas, Chamras; Baeumner, Antje J

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence and electrochemical microfluidic biosensors were developed for the detection of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) as a model analyte. The microfluidic devices were made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using soft lithography from silicon templates. The polymer channels were sealed with a glass plate and packaged in a polymethylmethacrylate housing that provided leakproof sealing and a connection to a syringe pump. In the electrochemical format, an interdigitated ultramicroelectrode array (IDUA) was patterned onto the glass slide using photolithography, gold evaporation and lift-off processes. For CTB recognition, CTB-specific antibodies were immobilized onto superparamagnetic beads and ganglioside GM(1) was incorporated into liposomes. The fluorescence dye sulforhodamine B (SRB) and the electroactive compounds potassium hexacyanoferrate (II)/hexacyanoferrate (III) were used as detection markers that were encapsulated inside the liposomes for the fluorescence and electrochemical detection formats, respectively. Initial optimization experiments were carried out by applying the superparamagnetic beads in microtiter plate assays and SRB liposomes before they were transferred to the microfluidic systems. The limits of detection (LoD) of both assay formats for CTB were found to be 6.6 and 1.0 ng mL(-1) for the fluorescence and electrochemical formats, respectively. Changing the detection system was very easy, requiring only the synthesis of different marker-encapsulating liposomes, as well as the exchange of the detection unit. It was found that, in addition to a lower LoD, the electrochemical format assay showed advantages over the fluorescence format in terms of flexibility and reliability of signal recording.

  20. Lack of immunological analogy between the beta-subunits of cholera toxin and human choriogonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, H F; Kellen, J A

    1986-01-01

    A chemical relatedness has been described between the beta-subunit of cholera toxin and that of the four dimeric glycoprotein hormones (hCG, hLH, hFSH and hTSH). However, antibodies induced by cholera toxin did not crossreact, when tested by labeled hCG binding and immunocytochemistry, with the beta-subunit of hCG. It appears that differences in the tertiary structures, as shown in this study, account for distinct epitopes. Similarities in biological activity between these two compounds, such as induction of adenyl cyclase or a protective effect against some tumors, are not based on immunological mechanisms.

  1. A Single Point Mutation within the Coding Sequence of Cholera Toxin B Subunit Will Increase Its Expression Yield

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Bita; Boustanshenas, Mina; Ghorbani, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) has been extensively considered as an immunogenic and adjuvant protein, but its yield of expression is not satisfactory in many studies. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of native and mutant recombinant CTB (rCTB) in pQE vector. Methods: ctxB fragment from Vibrio cholerae O1 ATCC14035 containing the substitution of mutant ctxB for amino acid S128T was amplified by PCR and cloned in pGETM-T easy vector. It was then transformed to E. coli Top 10F' and cultured on LB agar plate containing ampicillin. Sequence analysis confirmed the mature ctxB gene sequence and the mutant one in both constructs which were further subcloned to pQE-30 vector. Both constructs were subsequently transformed to E. coli M15 (pREP4) for expression of mature and mutant rCTB. Results: SDS-PAGE analysis showed the maximum expression of rCTB in both systems at 5 hours after induction and Western-blot analysis confirmed the presence of rCTB in blotting membranes. The expression of mutant rCTB was much higher than mature rCTB, which may be the result of serine-to-threonine substitution at position 128 of mature rCTB amino acid sequence created by PCR mutagenesis. The mutant rCTB retained pentameric stability and its ability to bind to anti- cholera toxin IgG antibodies. Conclusion: Point mutation in ctxB sequence resulted in over-expression of rCTB, probably due to the increase of solubility of produced rCTB. Consequently, this expression system can be used to produce rCTB in high yield. PMID:24842138

  2. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rotavirus VP8* fused to cholera toxin B subunit in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Xue, Miaoge; Yu, Linqi; Jia, Lianzhi; Li, Yijian; Zeng, Yuanjun; Li, Tingdong; Ge, Shengxiang; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-11-01

    In attempts to develop recombinant subunit vaccines against rotavirus disease, it was previously shown that the N-terminal truncated VP8* protein, VP8-1 (aa26-231), is a good vaccine candidate when used for immunization in combination with Freund's adjuvant. However, this protein stimulated only weak immune response when aluminum hydroxide was used as an adjuvant. In this study, the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) was employed as intra-molecular adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of VP8-1. Both, the N-terminal and C-terminal fusion proteins, were purified to homogeneity, at which stage they formed pentamers, and showed significantly higher immunogenicity and protective efficacy than a VP8-1/aluminum hydroxide mixture in a mouse model. Compared to VP8-1-CTB, CTB-VP8-1 showed higher binding activity to both, GM1 and the conformation sensitive neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific to VP8. More importantly, CTB-VP8-1 elicited higher titers of neutralizing antibodies and conferred higher protective efficacy than VP8-1-CTB. Therefore, the protein CTB-VP8-1, with enhanced immunogenicity and immunoprotectivity, could be considered as a viable candidate for further development of an alternative, replication-incompetent, parenterally administered vaccine against rotavirus disease.

  3. A Therapeutic Chemical Chaperone Inhibits Cholera Intoxication and Unfolding/Translocation of the Cholera Toxin A1 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Huerta, Jazmin; Massey, Shane; Burlingame, Mansfield; Pande, Abhay H.; Tatulian, Suren A.; Teter, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) travels as an intact AB5 protein toxin from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of an intoxicated cell. In the ER, the catalytic A1 subunit dissociates from the rest of the toxin. Translocation of CTA1 from the ER to the cytosol is then facilitated by the quality control mechanism of ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Thermal instability in the isolated CTA1 subunit generates an unfolded toxin conformation that acts as the trigger for ERAD-mediated translocation to the cytosol. In this work, we show by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy that exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) inhibited the thermal unfolding of CTA1. This, in turn, blocked the ER-to-cytosol export of CTA1 and productive intoxication of either cultured cells or rat ileal loops. In cell culture studies PBA did not affect CT trafficking to the ER, CTA1 dissociation from the holotoxin, or functioning of the ERAD system. PBA is currently used as a therapeutic agent to treat urea cycle disorders. Our data suggest PBA could also be used in a new application to prevent or possibly treat cholera. PMID:21526142

  4. A therapeutic chemical chaperone inhibits cholera intoxication and unfolding/translocation of the cholera toxin A1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael; Banerjee, Tuhina; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Huerta, Jazmin; Massey, Shane; Burlingame, Mansfield; Pande, Abhay H; Tatulian, Suren A; Teter, Ken

    2011-04-19

    Cholera toxin (CT) travels as an intact AB(5) protein toxin from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of an intoxicated cell. In the ER, the catalytic A1 subunit dissociates from the rest of the toxin. Translocation of CTA1 from the ER to the cytosol is then facilitated by the quality control mechanism of ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Thermal instability in the isolated CTA1 subunit generates an unfolded toxin conformation that acts as the trigger for ERAD-mediated translocation to the cytosol. In this work, we show by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy that exposure to 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) inhibited the thermal unfolding of CTA1. This, in turn, blocked the ER-to-cytosol export of CTA1 and productive intoxication of either cultured cells or rat ileal loops. In cell culture studies PBA did not affect CT trafficking to the ER, CTA1 dissociation from the holotoxin, or functioning of the ERAD system. PBA is currently used as a therapeutic agent to treat urea cycle disorders. Our data suggest PBA could also be used in a new application to prevent or possibly treat cholera.

  5. Cholera Toxin B Subunit Linked to Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Suppresses Dendritic Cell Maturation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Odumosu, Oludare; Nicholas, Dequina; Payne, Kimberly; Langridge, William

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells are the largest population of antigen presenting cells in the body. One of their main functions is to regulate the delicate balance between immunity and tolerance responsible for maintenance of immunological homeostasis. Disruption of this delicate balance often results in chronic inflammation responsible for initiation of organ specific autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes. The cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) is a weak mucosal adjuvant known for its ability to stimulate immunity to antigenic proteins. However, conjugation of CTB to many autoantigens can induce immunological tolerance resulting in suppression of autoimmunity. In this study, we examined whether linkage of CTB to a 5 kDa C-terminal protein fragment of the major diabetes autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD35), can block dendritic cell (DC) functions such as biosynthesis of co-stimulatory factor proteins CD86, CD83, CD80 and CD40 and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The results of human umbilical cord blood monocyte-derived DC - GAD35 autoantigen incubation experiments showed that inoculation of immature DCs (iDCs), with CTB-GAD35 protein dramatically suppressed levels of CD86, CD83, CD80 and CD40 co-stimulatory factor protein biosynthesis in comparison with GAD35 alone inoculated iDCs. Surprisingly, incubation of iDCs in the presence of the CTB-autoantigen and the strong immunostimulatory molecules PMA and Ionomycin revealed that CTB-GAD35 was capable of arresting PMA + Ionomycin induced DC maturation. Consistant with this finding, CTB-GAD35 mediated suppression of DC maturation was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12/23p40 and IL-6 and a significant increase in secretion of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. Taken together, our experimental data suggest that linkage of the weak adjuvant CTB to the dominant type 1 diabetes autoantigen GAD strongly inhibits DC

  6. Multivalent drug design and inhibition of cholera toxin by specific and transient protein-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiyun; Begley, Darren; Mitchell, Daniel D; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Varani, Gabriele; Fan, Erkang

    2008-05-01

    Multivalent inhibitors of the cholera toxin B pentamer are potential therapeutic drugs for treating cholera and serve as models for demonstrating multivalent ligand effects through a structure-based approach. A crucial yet often overlooked aspect of multivalent drug design is the length, rigidity and chemical composition of the linker used to connect multiple binding moieties. To specifically study the role of chemical linkers in multivalent ligand design, we have synthesized a series of compounds with one and two binding motifs connected by several different linkers. These compounds have affinity for and potency against the cholera toxin B pentamer despite the fact that none can simultaneously bind two toxin receptor sites. Results from saturation transfer difference NMR reveal transient, non-specific interactions between the cholera toxin and linker groups contribute significantly to overall binding affinity of monovalent compounds. However, the same random protein-ligand interactions do not appear to affect binding of bivalent molecules. Moreover, the binding affinities and potencies of these 'non-spanning' bivalent ligands appear to be wholly independent of linker length. Our detailed analysis identifies multiple effects that account for the improved inhibitory potencies of bivalent ligands and suggest approaches to further improve the activity of this class of compounds.

  7. Radioimmune assay of ganglioside GM/sub 1/ synthase using cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Honke, K.; Taniguchi, N.; Makita, A.

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmune assay for uridine 5'-diphosphate-galactose (UDP-Gal):GM/sub 2/ galactosyltransferase, which synthesizes GM/sub 1/, has been developed utilizing cholera toxin. This assay is more sensitive and simpler than previously used assays. Radioactive nucleotide substrate and GM/sub 2/ were incubated with an enzyme sample, and a radiolabeled product, GM/sub 1/, was reacted with cholera toxin. The GM/sub 1/-cholera toxin complex was further reacted with anti-cholera toxin and Staphylococcus aureus cell suspension. The resulting complex was transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane and quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. This assay was found to be sensitive for the detection of 100 pmol of the reaction product, GM/sub 1/. With this assay method, some properties of the crude enzyme extracts from rat liver were studied. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 6.5-7.0 and required Mn/sup 2 +/. The K/sub m/ values for UDP-Gal and GM/sub 2/ were 0.12 mM and 6 ..mu..M, respectively.

  8. Cholera toxin binding affinity and specificity for gangliosides determined by surface plasmon resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kuziemko, G.M.; Stroh, M.; Stevens, R.C. |

    1996-05-21

    The present study determines the affinity of cholera toxin for the ganglioside series GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1A, GD1B, GT1B, asialo GM1, globotriosyl ceramide, and lactosyl ceramide using real time biospecific interaction analysis (surface plasmon resonance, SPR). SPR shows that cholera toxin preferably binds to gangliosides in the following sequence: GM1 > GM2 > GD1A > GM3 > GT1B > GD1B > asialo-GM1. The measured binding affinity of cholera toxin for the ganglioside sequence ranges from 4.61 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} M for GM1 to 1.88 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} M for asialo GM1. The picomolar values obtained by surface plasmon resonance are similar to K{sub d} values determined with whole-cell binding assays. Both whole-cell assays ans SPR measurements on synthetic membranes are higher than free solution measurements by several orders of magnitude. This difference may be caused by the effects of avidity and charged lipid head-groups, which may play a major role in the binding between cholera toxin, the receptor, and the membrane surface. The primary difference between free solution binding studies and surface plasmon resonance studies is that the latter technique is performed on surfaces resembling the cell membrane. Surface plasmon resonance has the further advantage of measuring apparent kinetic association and dissociation rates in real time, providing direct information about binding events at the membrane surface. 34 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Cholera toxin, a potent inducer of epidermal hyperplasia but with no tumor promoting activity in mouse skin carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroki, T.; Chida, K.; Munakata, K.; Murakami, Y.

    1986-05-29

    Intracutaneous injection of cholera toxin into mice induced epidermal hyperplasia to a greater extent than 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate. It also induced adenylate cyclase and through weakly, ornithine decarboxylase of the epidermis. Cholera toxin, however, showed no tumor promoting activity in mouse skin carcinogenesis. In the single stage promotion, cholera toxin (50 ng) was injected once a week for 10 weeks into the skin of SENCAR mice initiated with 25 ..mu..g 7,12-dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene, but no tumors developed. In the two-stage promotion test, cholera toxin (10-100 ng) was injected for one or two weeks into the initiated skin and then mezerein (4 ..mu..g) was applied twice a week for 18 weeks, but the toxin did not increase incidence or numbers of papillomas.

  10. Cholera toxin production during anaerobic trimethylamine N-oxide respiration is mediated by stringent response in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Mi Young; Bari, Wasimul; Go, Junhyeok; Min, Kyung Bae; Raskin, David M; Lee, Kang-Mu; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2014-05-09

    As a facultative anaerobe, Vibrio cholerae can grow by anaerobic respiration. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly promoted during anaerobic growth using trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of TMAO-stimulated CT production and uncovered the crucial involvement of stringent response in this process. V. cholerae 7th pandemic strain N16961 produced a significantly elevated level of ppGpp, the bacterial stringent response alarmone, during anaerobic TMAO respiration. Bacterial viability was impaired, and DNA replication was also affected under the same growth condition, further suggesting that stringent response is induced. A ΔrelA ΔspoT ppGpp overproducer strain produced an enhanced level of CT, whereas anaerobic growth via TMAO respiration was severely inhibited. In contrast, a ppGpp-null strain (ΔrelA ΔspoT ΔrelV) grew substantially better, but produced no CT, suggesting that CT production and bacterial growth are inversely regulated in response to ppGpp accumulation. Bacterial capability to produce CT was completely lost when the dksA gene, which encodes a protein that works cooperatively with ppGpp, was deleted. In the ΔdksA mutant, stringent response growth inhibition was alleviated, further supporting the inverse regulation of CT production and anaerobic growth. In vivo virulence of ΔrelA ΔspoT ΔrelV or ΔdksA mutants was significantly attenuated. The ΔrelA ΔspoT mutant maintained virulence when infected with exogenous TMAO despite its defective growth. Together, our results reveal that stringent response is activated under TMAO-stimulated anaerobic growth, and it regulates CT production in a growth-dependent manner in V. cholerae.

  11. Structure and function of cholera toxin and the related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, B D

    1992-01-01

    Cholera and the related Escherichia coli-associated diarrheal disease are important problems confronting Third World nations and any area where water supplies can become contaminated. The disease is extremely debilitating and may be fatal in the absence of treatment. Symptoms are caused by the action of cholera toxin, secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, or by a closely related heat-labile enterotoxin, produced by Escherichia coli, that causes a milder, more common traveler's diarrhea. Both toxins bind receptors in intestinal epithelial cells and insert an enzymatic subunit that modifies a G protein associated with the adenylate cyclase complex. The consequent stimulated production of cyclic AMP, or other factors such as increased synthesis of prostaglandins by intoxicated cells, initiates a metabolic cascade that results in the excessive secretion of fluid and electrolytes characteristic of the disease. The toxins have a very high degree of structural and functional homology and may be evolutionarily related. Several effective new vaccine formulations have been developed and tested, and a growing family of endogenous cofactors is being discovered in eukaryotic cells. The recent elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of the heat-labile enterotoxin has provided an opportunity to examine and compare the correlations between structure and function of the two toxins. This information may improve our understanding of the disease process itself, as well as illuminate the role of the toxin in studies of signal transduction and G-protein function. Images PMID:1480112

  12. Neoglycolipid analogues of ganglioside G sub M1 as functional receptors of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Pacuszka, T.; Bradley, R.M.; Fishman, P.H. )

    1991-03-12

    The authors synthesized several lipid analogues of ganglioside G{sub M1} by attaching its oligosaccharide moiety (G{sub M1}OS) to aminophospholipids, aliphatic amines, and cholesteryl hemisuccinate. They incubated G{sub M1}-deficient rat glioma C6 cells with each of the derivatives as well as native G{sub M1} and assayed the cells for their ability to bind and respond to cholera toxin. On the basis of the observed increase in binding of {sup 125}I-labeled cholera toxin, it was apparent that the cells took up and initially incorporated most of the derivatives into the plasma membrane. In the case of the aliphatic amine derivatives, the ability to generate new toxin binding sites was dependent on chain length; whereas the C{sub 10} derivative was ineffective, C{sub 12} and higher analogues were effective. Increased binding was dependent on both the concentration of the neoglycolipid in the medium and the time of exposure. Cells pretreated with the various derivatives accumulated cyclic AMP in response to cholera toxin, but there were differences in their effectiveness. The cholesterol and long-chain aliphatic amine derivatives were more effective than native G{sub M1}, whereas the phospholipid derivatives were less effective. The distance between G{sub M1}OS and the phospholipid also appeared to influence its functional activity. The results indicate that although G{sub M1}OS provides the recognition site for the binding of cholera toxin, the nature of the lipid moiety plays an important role in the action of the toxin.

  13. Role of 6-Gingerol in Reduction of Cholera Toxin Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Pallashri; Das, Bornita

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is one of the major bacterial pathogens responsible for the devastating diarrheal disease called cholera. Chemotherapy is often used against V. cholerae infections; however, the emergence of V. cholerae with multidrug resistance (MDR) toward the chemotherapeutic agents is a serious clinical problem. This scenario has provided us with the impetus to look into herbal remediation, especially toward blocking the action of cholera toxin (CT). Our studies were undertaken to determine the antidiarrheal potential of 6-gingerol (6G) on the basis of its effect on CT, the virulence factor secreted by V. cholerae. We report here that 6G binds to CT, hindering its interaction with the GM1 receptor present on the intestinal epithelial cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined to be 10 μg/ml. The detailed mechanistic study was conducted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescence spectroscopy, and isoelectric focusing. These results were validated with in vitro studies performed with the CHO, HeLa, and HT-29 cell lines, whereas a rabbit ileal loop assay was done to estimate the in vivo action, which confirms the efficacy of 6G in remediation of the choleragenic effects of CT. Thus, 6G can be an effective adjunctive therapy with oral rehydration solution for severe CT-mediated diarrhea. PMID:23817372

  14. Role of 6-gingerol in reduction of cholera toxin activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Saha, Pallashri; Das, Bornita; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2013-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae is one of the major bacterial pathogens responsible for the devastating diarrheal disease called cholera. Chemotherapy is often used against V. cholerae infections; however, the emergence of V. cholerae with multidrug resistance (MDR) toward the chemotherapeutic agents is a serious clinical problem. This scenario has provided us with the impetus to look into herbal remediation, especially toward blocking the action of cholera toxin (CT). Our studies were undertaken to determine the antidiarrheal potential of 6-gingerol (6G) on the basis of its effect on CT, the virulence factor secreted by V. cholerae. We report here that 6G binds to CT, hindering its interaction with the GM1 receptor present on the intestinal epithelial cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined to be 10 μg/ml. The detailed mechanistic study was conducted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescence spectroscopy, and isoelectric focusing. These results were validated with in vitro studies performed with the CHO, HeLa, and HT-29 cell lines, whereas a rabbit ileal loop assay was done to estimate the in vivo action, which confirms the efficacy of 6G in remediation of the choleragenic effects of CT. Thus, 6G can be an effective adjunctive therapy with oral rehydration solution for severe CT-mediated diarrhea.

  15. Determination of tolerable fatty acids and cholera toxin concentrations using human intestinal epithelial cells and BALB/c mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tamari, Farshad; Tychowski, Joanna; Lorentzen, Laura

    2013-05-30

    The positive role of fatty acids in the prevention and alleviation of non-human and human diseases have been and continue to be extensively documented. These roles include influences on infectious and non-infectious diseases including prevention of inflammation as well as mucosal immunity to infectious diseases. Cholera is an acute intestinal illness caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It occurs in developing nations and if left untreated, can result in death. While vaccines for cholera exist, they are not always effective and other preventative methods are needed. We set out to determine tolerable concentrations of three fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and cholera toxin using mouse BALB/C macrophages and human intestinal epithelial cells, respectively. We solubilized the above fatty acids and used cell proliferation assays to determine the concentration ranges and specific concentrations of the fatty acids that are not detrimental to human intestinal epithelial cell viability. We solubilized cholera toxin and used it in an assay to determine the concentration ranges and specific concentrations of cholera toxin that do not statistically decrease cell viability in BALB/C macrophages. We found the optimum fatty acid concentrations to be between 1-5 ng/μl, and that for cholera toxin to be < 30 ng per treatment. This data may aid future studies that aim to find a protective mucosal role for fatty acids in prevention or alleviation of cholera infections.

  16. Cystic Fibrosis Heterozygote Resistance to Cholera Toxin in the Cystic Fibrosis Mouse Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Sherif E.; Brigman, Kristen N.; Koller, Beverly H.; Boucher, Richard C.; Stutts, M. Jackson

    1994-10-01

    The effect of the number of cystic fibrosis (CF) alleles on cholera toxin (CT)-induced intestinal secretion was examined in the CF mouse model. CF mice that expressed no CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein did not secrete fluid in response to CT. Heterozygotes expressed 50 percent of the normal amount of CFTR protein in the intestinal epithelium and secreted 50 percent of the normal fluid and chloride ion in response to CT. This correlation between CFTR protein and CT-induced chloride ion and fluid secretion suggests that CF heterozygotes might possess a selective advantage of resistance to cholera.

  17. Cholera Toxin Inhibits the T-Cell Antigen Receptor-Mediated Increases in Inositol Trisphosphate and Cytoplasmic Free Calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imboden, John B.; Shoback, Dolores M.; Pattison, Gregory; Stobo, John D.

    1986-08-01

    The addition of monoclonal antibodies to the antigen receptor complex on the malignant human T-cell line Jurkat generates increases in inositol trisphosphate and in the concentration of cytoplasmic free calcium. Exposure of Jurkat cells to cholera toxin for 3 hr inhibited these receptor-mediated events and led to a selective, partial loss of the antigen receptor complex from the cellular surface. None of the effects of cholera toxin on the antigen receptor complex were mimicked by the B subunit of cholera toxin or by increasing intracellular cAMP levels with either forskolin or 8-bromo cAMP. These results suggest that a cholera toxin substrate can regulate signal transduction by the T-cell antigen receptor.

  18. Rafting with cholera toxin: endocytosis and trafficking from plasma membrane to ER.

    PubMed

    Chinnapen, Daniel J-F; Chinnapen, Himani; Saslowsky, David; Lencer, Wayne I

    2007-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT), and members of the AB(5) family of toxins enter host cells and hijack the cell's endogenous pathways to induce toxicity. CT binds to a lipid receptor on the plasma membrane (PM), ganglioside GM1, which has the ability to associate with lipid rafts. The toxin can then enter the cell by various modes of receptor-mediated endocytosis and traffic in a retrograde manner from the PM to the Golgi and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Once in the ER, a portion of the toxin is unfolded and retro-translocated to the cytosol so as to induce disease. GM1 is the vehicle that carries CT from PM to ER. Thus, the toxin pathway from PM to ER is a lipid-based sorting pathway, which is potentially meditated by the determinants of the GM1 ganglioside structure itself.

  19. Comparative analysis of theophylline and cholera toxin in rat colon reveals an induction of sealing tight junction proteins.

    PubMed

    Markov, Alexander G; Falchuk, Evgeny L; Kruglova, Natalia M; Rybalchenko, Oksana V; Fromm, Michael; Amasheh, Salah

    2014-11-01

    Claudin tight junction proteins have been identified to primarily determine intestinal epithelial barrier properties. While functional contribution of single claudins has been characterized in detail, information on the interplay with secretory mechanisms in native intestinal epithelium is scarce. Therefore, effects of cholera toxin and theophylline on rat colon were analyzed, including detection of sealing claudins. Tissue specimens were stripped off submucosal tissue layers and mounted in Ussing chambers, and short-circuit current (ISC) and transepithelial resistance (TER) were recorded. In parallel, expression and localization of claudins was analyzed and histological studies were performed employing hematoxylin-eosin staining and light and electron microscopy. Theophylline induced a strong increase of ISC in colon tissue specimens. In parallel, a decrease of TER was observed. In contrast, cholera toxin did not induce a significant increase of ISC, whereas an increase of TER was detected after 120 min. Western blots of membrane fractions revealed an increase of claudin-3 and -4 after incubation with cholera toxin, and theophylline induced an increase of claudin-4. In accordance, confocal laser-scanning microscopy exhibited increased signals of claudin-3 and -4 after incubation with cholera toxin, and increased signals of claudin-4 after incubation with theophylline, within tight junction complexes. Morphological analyses revealed no general changes of tight junction complexes, but intercellular spaces were markedly widened after incubation with cholera toxin and theophylline. We conclude that cholera toxin and theophylline have different effects on sealing tight junction proteins in native colon preparations, which may synergistically contribute to transport functions, in vitro.

  20. Vibrio cholerae O139 Conjugate Vaccines: Synthesis and Immunogenicity of V. cholerae O139 Capsular Polysaccharide Conjugates with Recombinant Diphtheria Toxin Mutant in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kossaczka, Zuzana; Shiloach, Joseph; Johnson, Virginia; Taylor, David N.; Finkelstein, Richard A.; Robbins, John B.; Szu, Shousun C.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental data provide evidence that a critical level of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the surface polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O1 (lipopolysaccharide) and of Vibrio cholerae O139 (capsular polysaccharide [CPS]) is associated with immunity to the homologous pathogen. The immunogenicity of polysaccharides, especially in infants, may be enhanced by their covalent attachment to proteins (conjugates). Two synthetic schemes, involving 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and 1-cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridinium tetrafluoroborate (CDAP) as activating agents, were adapted to prepare four conjugates of V. cholerae O139 CPS with the recombinant diphtheria toxin mutant, CRMH21G. Adipic acid dihydrazide was used as a linker. When injected subcutaneously into young outbred mice by a clinically relevant dose and schedule, these conjugates elicited serum CPS antibodies of the IgG and IgM classes with vibriocidal activity to strains of capsulated V. cholerae O139. Treatment of these sera with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) reduced, but did not eliminate, their vibriocidal activity. These results indicate that the conjugates elicited IgG with vibriocidal activity. Conjugates also elicited high levels of serum diphtheria toxin IgG. Convalescent sera from 20 cholera patients infected with V. cholerae O139 had vibriocidal titers ranging from 100 to 3,200: absorption with the CPS reduced the vibriocidal titer of all sera to ≤50. Treatment with 2-ME reduced the titers of 17 of 20 patients to ≤50. These data show that, like infection with V. cholerae O1, infection with V. cholerae O139 induces vibriocidal antibodies specific to the surface polysaccharide of this bacterium (CPS) that are mostly of IgM class. Based on these data, clinical trials with the V. cholerae O139 CPS conjugates with recombinant diphtheria toxin are planned. PMID:10948122

  1. Ganglioside embedded in reconstituted lipoprotein binds cholera toxin with elevated affinity.

    PubMed

    Bricarello, Daniel A; Mills, Emily J; Petrlova, Jitka; Voss, John C; Parikh, Atul N

    2010-09-01

    The ability to exogenously present cell-surface receptors in high-affinity conformations in a synthetic system offers an opportunity to provide host cells with protection from pathogenic toxins. This strategy requires improvement of the synthetic receptor binding affinity against its native counterpart, particularly with polyvalent toxins where clustering of membrane receptors can hinder binding. Here we demonstrate that reconstituted lipoprotein, nanometer-sized discoidal lipid bilayers bounded by apolipoprotein and functionalized by incorporation of pathogen receptors, provides a means to enhance toxin-receptor binding through molecular-level control over the receptor microenvironment (specifically, its rigidity, composition, and heterogeneity). Using a Foerster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based assay, we found that reconstituted lipoprotein incorporating low concentrations of ganglioside monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) binds polymeric cholera toxin with significantly higher affinity than liposomes or supported lipid bilayers, most likely a result of the enhanced control over receptor clustering provided by the lipoprotein platform. Using wide-area epifluorescence, we found that this enhanced binding capacity can be effectively utilized to divert cholera toxin away from populations of healthy mammalian cells. In summary, we found that reconstitutions of high-density lipoprotein can be engineered to include specific pathogen receptors; that their pathogen binding affinity is altered, presumably due to attenuation of receptor aggregation; and that these assemblies are effective at protecting cells from biological toxins.

  2. A satellite phage-encoded antirepressor induces repressor aggregation and cholera toxin gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brigid M; Kimsey, Harvey H; Kane, Anne V; Waldor, Matthew K

    2002-08-15

    CTXphi is a filamentous bacteriophage whose genome encodes cholera toxin, the principal virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae. We have found that the CTXphi-related element RS1 is a satellite phage whose transmission depends upon proteins produced from a CTX prophage (its helper phage). However, unlike other satellite phages and satellite animal viruses, RS1 can aid the CTX prophage as well as exploit it, due to the RS1-encoded protein RstC. RstC, whose function previously was unknown, is an antirepressor that counteracts the activity of the phage repressor RstR. RstC promotes transcription of genes required for phage production and thereby promotes transmission of both RS1 and CTXphi. Antirepression by RstC also induces expression of the cholera toxin genes, ctxAB, and thus may contribute to the virulence of V.cholerae. In vitro, RstC binds directly to RstR, producing unusual, insoluble aggregates containing both proteins. In vivo, RstC and RstR are both found at the cell pole, where they again appear to form stable complexes. The sequestration/inactivation process induced by RstC resembles those induced by mutant polyglutamine-containing proteins implicated in human neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Cholera

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cholera occurs in places with a lack of water treatment or sewage treatment, or crowding, war, and famine. Common locations for cholera include: Africa Some parts of Asia India Bangladesh Mexico South and Central America

  4. Prolonged pretreatment of mice with cholera toxin, but not isoproterenol, alleviates acute lethal systemic inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyang; Guo, Xiangrui; Cao, Junxia; Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Jiyan; Sun, Dejun; Wang, Qingyang

    2014-11-01

    Isoproterenol, a synthetic non-selective β-adrenergic agonist, is often used during the immediate postoperative period after open heart surgery for its chronotropic and vasodilatory effects. It has been demonstrated that isoproterenol pretreatment followed by immediate LPS administration leads to reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) response in vivo. However, sepsis never happens immediately after the surgery, but rather severe immune dysfunction occurs at least 24h later. It remains elusive what effects isoproterenol might exert to innate immunity during the period. In this scenario, we investigated the effects of 24-h isoproterenol pretreatment on septic shock induced by experimental endotoxemia and bacterial peritonitis, with cholera toxin as another cAMP elevator. Unexpectedly, we found that isoproterenol and cholera toxin exhibited distinct effects in acute lethal systemic inflammatory response. Isoproterenol worsened liver injury without enhancing NK/NKT activity. Meanwhile, cholera toxin but not isoproterenol showed dramatically reduced TNF-α response in LPS induced septic shock. Our data provide a caution for the clinical use of isoproterenol and suggest that isoproterenol has cAMP-independent functions.

  5. Construction of a Vibrio cholerae prototype vaccine strain O395-N1-E1 which accumulates cell-associated cholera toxin B subunit.

    PubMed

    Rhie, Gi-eun; Jung, Hae-Mi; Kim, Bong Su; Mekalanos, John J

    2008-10-09

    Because of its production and use in Vietnam, the most widely used oral cholera vaccine consists of heat- or formalin-killed Vibrio cholerae whole cells (WC). An earlier version of this type of vaccine called whole cell-recombinant B subunit vaccine (BS-WC) produced in Sweden also contained the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB). Both WC and BS-WC vaccines produced moderate levels of protection in field trials designed to evaluate their cholera efficacy. V. cholerae cells in these vaccines induce antibacterial immunity, and CTB contributes to the vaccine's efficacy presumably by stimulating production of anti-toxin neutralizing antibody. Although more effective than the WC vaccine, the BS-WC vaccine has not been adopted for manufacture by developing world countries primarily because the CTB component is difficult to manufacture and include in the vaccine in the doses needed to induce significant immune responses. We reasoned this was a technical problem that might be solved by engineering strains of V. cholerae that express cell-associated CTB that would co-purify with the bacterial cell fraction during the manufacture of WC vaccine. Here we report that construction of a V. cholerae O1 classical strain, O395-N1-E1, that has been engineered to accumulate CTB in the periplasmic fraction by disrupting the epsE gene of type II secretion pathway. O395-N1-E1 induces anti-CTB IgG and vibriocidal antibodies in mice immunized with two doses of formalin killed whole cells. Intraperitoneal immunization of mice with O395-N1-E1 induced a significantly higher anti-CTB antibody response compared to that of the parental strain, O395-N1. Our results suggest that this prototype cholera vaccine candidate strain may assist in preparing improved and inexpensive oral BS-WC cholera vaccine without the need to purify CTB separately.

  6. The three-dimensional crystal structure of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L.; Nance, S.; Spangler, B.D.; Scott, D.L.; Westbrook, E.M.

    1996-02-01

    The clinical manifestations of cholera are largely attributable to the actions of a secreted hexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin (choleragen). We have solved the three-dimensional structure of choleragen at 2.5 {Angstrom} resolution and compared the refined coordinates with those of choleragenoid (isolated B pentamer) and the heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli (LT). The crystalline coordinates provide a detailed view of the stereochemistry implicated in binding to GM1 gangliosides and in carrying out ADP-ribosylation. The A2 chain of choleragen, in contrast to that of LT, is a nearly continuous {alpha}-helix with an interpretable carboxyl tail.

  7. A Conformational Shift in the Dissociated Cholera Toxin A1 Subunit Prevents Reassembly of the Cholera Holotoxin.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael; Curtis, David; Teter, Ken

    2015-07-20

    Cholera toxin (CT) consists of a catalytic A1 subunit, an A2 linker, and a homopentameric cell-binding B subunit. The intact holotoxin moves by vesicle carriers from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where CTA1 is released from the rest of the toxin. The dissociated CTA1 subunit then shifts to an unfolded conformation, which triggers its export to the cytosol by a process involving the quality control system of ER-associated degradation (ERAD). We hypothesized that the unfolding of dissociated CTA1 would prevent its non-productive reassociation with CTA2/CTB5. To test this prediction, we monitored the real-time reassociation of CTA1 with CTA2/CTB5 by surface plasmon resonance. Folded but not disordered CTA1 could interact with CTA2/CTB5 to form a stable, functional holotoxin. Our data, thus, identified another role for the intrinsic instability of the isolated CTA1 polypeptide in host-toxin interactions: in addition to activating the ERAD translocation mechanism, the spontaneous unfolding of free CTA1 at 37 °C prevents the non-productive reassembly of a CT holotoxin in the ER.

  8. Inhibition of cholera toxin and other AB toxins by polyphenolic compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All AB-type protein toxins have intracellular targets despite an initial extracellular location. These toxins use different methods to reach the cytosol and have different effects on the target cell. Broad-spectrum inhibitors against AB toxins are therefore hard to develop because the toxins use dif...

  9. Inhibition of the sodium-translocating NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase [Na+-NQR] decreases cholera toxin production in Vibrio cholerae O1 at the late exponential growth phase.

    PubMed

    Minato, Yusuke; Fassio, Sara R; Reddekopp, Rylan L; Häse, Claudia C

    2014-01-01

    Two virulence factors produced by Vibrio cholerae, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-corregulated pilus (TCP), are indispensable for cholera infection. ToxT is the central regulatory protein involved in activation of CT and TCP expression. We previously reported that lack of a respiration-linked sodium-translocating NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR) significantly increases toxT transcription. In this study, we further characterized this link and found that Na(+)-NQR affects toxT expression only at the early-log growth phase, whereas lack of Na(+)-NQR decreases CT production after the mid-log growth phase. Such decreased CT production was independent of toxT and ctxB transcription. Supplementing a respiratory substrate, l-lactate, into the growth media restored CT production in the nqrA-F mutant, suggesting that decreased CT production in the Na(+)-NQR mutant is dependent on electron transport chain (ETC) activity. This notion was supported by the observations that two chemical inhibitors, a Na(+)-NQR specific inhibitor 2-n-Heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) and a succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) inhibitor, thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), strongly inhibited CT production in both classical and El Tor biotype strains of V. cholerae. Accordingly, we propose the main respiratory enzyme of V. cholerae, as a potential drug target to treat cholera because human mitochondria do not contain Na(+)-NQR orthologs.

  10. Impaired mucosal antibody response to cholera toxin in vitamin A-deficient rats immunized with oral cholera vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Wiedermann, U; Hanson, L A; Holmgren, J; Kahu, H; Dahlgren, U I

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the importance of vitamin A in the ability to respond to oral antigen administration, rats were fed a vitamin A-free diet. The animals were immunized perorally three times with a mixture of cholera toxin (CT) and a commercial cholera vaccine. The total immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentration as well as the specific IgA anti-CT antibody levels in serum and bile was significantly lower in the vitamin A-deficient animals than in the paired fed controls (animals that were fed a normal commercial diet in an amount equal to the amount the deficient animals consumed), while the levels of total and specific anti-CT IgG were not affected to the same extent by the vitamin A deficiency. The number of IgA anti-CT antibody-producing cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes after immunization was also significantly lower in the vitamin A-deficient rats than in the control rats. Supplementation of the diet with retinyl palmitate restored the ability to mount an IgA antibody response to the antigen, since the level of specific IgA anti-CT antibodies in relation to the total IgA concentration was as high in the vitamin A-supplemented group as in the paired fed control group. Restricted diet intake by itself did not affect the ability to respond adequately to the antigen since there was no difference in IgA anti-CT antibody level between paired fed rats and those being fed ad libitum. Assessment of transforming growth factor beta in cell cultures revealed no difference between vitamin A-deficient and paired fed animals. In summary, vitamin A deficiency resulted in a decreased number of IgA-producing cells, decreased IgA production, and a reduced ability to respond with IgA antibodies to the oral cholera vaccine. PMID:8359917

  11. Endocytosis of cholera toxin in GERL-like structures of murine neuroblastoma cells pretreated with GM1 ganglioside. Cholera toxin internalization into Neuroblastoma GERL

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT), covalently attached to horseradish peroxidase (HRP), is a specific cytochemical marker for GM1 ganglioside (GM1) and retains the ability of the native toxin to raise levels of cyclic AMP in avian erythrocytes. Using a cytochemical stain for HRP, we found that 9% of control cultured murine neuroblastoma cells bound cholera toxin-horseradish peroxidase conjugates (CT-HRP) on their surfaces after incubations for 1 h at 4 degrees C. Exogenous GM1, the natural receptor of CT, becomes associated in the culture medium with the plasma membranes of these cells so that 96% of cells are stained. Cells preincubated with GM1 at 4 degrees C were exposed to CT-HRP for 1 h at 4 degrees C. After washing, cells were incubated at 37 degrees C for 30 min-24 h. Endocytosis of CT-HRP occurred within 30 min and CT-HRP remained, throughout the 24-h period, in tubules, vesicles, and cisternae often found near the Golgi apparatus; this aggregate of peroxidase-positive elements probably corresponds to Golgi apparatus- endoplasmic reticulum-lysosomes (GERL) of neurons. In metaphase cells, CT-HRP was observed in aggregates of vesicles and tubules clustered near the centriole. Conjugates of HRP with subunit B, the GM1 binding component of CT, were internalized by cells pretreated with GM1 as was CT-HRP. The 9% of neuroblastoma cells binding CT-HRP in the absence of exogenous GM1 internalized the ligand in a manner indistinguishable from that of the treated cells. These findings indicate that, in neuroblastoma cells, a system of vesicles, tubules, and cisternae, analogous to GERL of neurons, is the primary recipient of adsorptive endocytosis of CT bound to endogenous or exogenously introduced GM1. PMID:457774

  12. Comprehensive analysis of blood group antigen binding to classical and El Tor cholera toxin B-pentamers by NMR.

    PubMed

    Vasile, Francesca; Reina, José J; Potenza, Donatella; Heggelund, Julie E; Mackenzie, Alasdair; Krengel, Ute; Bernardi, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease responsible for the deaths of thousands, possibly even hundreds of thousands of people every year, and its impact is predicted to further increase with climate change. It has been known for decades that blood group O individuals suffer more severe symptoms of cholera compared with individuals with other blood groups (A, B and AB). The observed blood group dependence is likely to be caused by the major virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae, the cholera toxin (CT). Here, we investigate the binding of ABH blood group determinants to both classical and El Tor CTB-pentamers using saturation transfer difference NMR and show that all three blood group determinants bind to both toxin variants. Although the details of the interactions differ, we see no large differences between the two toxin genotypes and observe very similar binding constants. We also show that the blood group determinants bind to a site distinct from that of the primary receptor, GM1. Transferred NOESY data confirm that the conformations of the blood group determinants in complex with both toxin variants are similar to those of reported X-ray and solution structures. Taken together, this detailed analysis provides a framework for the interpretation of the epidemiological data linking the severity of cholera infection and an individual's blood group, and brings us one step closer to understanding the molecular basis of cholera blood group dependence.

  13. Quantitative detection of Vibrio cholera toxin by real-time and dynamic cytotoxicity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dazhi; Luo, Yun; Zheng, Min; Li, Haijing; Zhang, Jing; Stampfl, Melinda; Xu, Xiao; Ding, Gangqiang; Zhang, Yanjun; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-12-01

    We report here the quantitative detection of Vibrio cholerae toxin (CT) in isolates and stool specimens by dynamic monitoring of the full course of CT-mediated cytotoxicity in a real-time cell analysis (RTCA) system. Four cell lines, including Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cells, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, small intestine epithelial (FHs74Int) cells, and mouse adrenal gland (PC12-Adh) cells, were evaluated for their suitability for CT-induced cytotoxicity testing. Among them, the Y-1 line was demonstrated to be the most sensitive for CT-mediated cytotoxicity, with limits of detection of 7.0 pg/ml for purified CT and 0.11 ng/ml for spiked CT in pooled negative stool specimens. No CT-mediated cytotoxicity was observed for nontoxigenic V. cholerae, non-V. cholerae species, or non-V. cholerae enterotoxins. The CT-RTCA assay was further validated with 100 stool specimens consecutively collected from patients with diarrhea and 200 V. cholerae isolates recovered from patients and the environment, in comparison to a reference using three detection methods. The CT-RTCA assay had sensitivities and specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%, respectively, for V. cholerae isolates and 90.0% and 97.2% for stool specimens. For stool specimens spiked with CT concentrations ranging from 3.5 pg/ml to 1.8 ng/ml, the inoculation-to-detection time was 1.12 ± 0.38 h, and the values were inversely correlated with CT concentrations (ρ = -1; P = 0.01). The results indicate that the CT-RTCA assay with the Y-1 cell line provides a rapid and sensitive tool for the quantitative detection of CT activities in clinical specimens.

  14. Functions of cholera toxin B-subunit as a raft cross-linker.

    PubMed

    Day, Charles A; Kenworthy, Anne K

    2015-01-01

    Lipid rafts are putative complexes of lipids and proteins in cellular membranes that are proposed to function in trafficking and signalling events. CTxB (cholera toxin B-subunit) has emerged as one of the most studied examples of a raft-associated protein. Consisting of the membrane-binding domain of cholera toxin, CTxB binds up to five copies of its lipid receptor on the plasma membrane of the host cell. This multivalency of binding gives the toxin the ability to reorganize underlying membrane structure by cross-linking otherwise small and transient lipid rafts. CTxB thus serves as a useful model for understanding the properties and functions of protein-stabilized domains. In the present chapter, we summarize current evidence that CTxB associates with and cross-links lipid rafts, discuss how CTxB binding modulates the architecture and dynamics of membrane domains, and describe the functional consequences of this cross-linking behaviour on toxin uptake into cells via endocytosis.

  15. Insights into binding of cholera toxin to GM1 containing membrane.

    PubMed

    Basu, Ipsita; Mukhopadhyay, Chaitali

    2014-12-23

    Interactions of cholera toxin (CT) with membrane are associated with the massive secretory diarrhea seen in Asiatic cholera. Ganglioside GM1 has been shown to be responsible for the binding of the B subunit of cholera toxin (CT-B), which then helps CT to pass through the membrane, but the exact mechanism remains to be explored. In this work, we have carried out atomistic scale molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the structural changes of CT upon membrane binding and alteration in membrane structure and dynamics. Starting from the initial structure where the five units of B subunit bind with five GM1, only three of five units remain bound and the whole CT is tilted such that the three binding units are deeper in the membrane. The lipids that are in contact with those units of the CT-B behave differently from the rest of the lipids. Altogether, our results demonstrate the atomistic interaction of CT with GM1 containing lipid membrane and provide a probable mechanism of the early stage alteration of lipid structure and dynamics, which can make a passage for penetration of CT on membrane surface.

  16. The 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of cholera toxin B subunit pentamer: Choleragenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L.; Maulik, P.R.; Reed, R.A.; Shipley, G.; Westbrook, E.M. |; Scott, D.L.; Otwinowski, Z.

    1996-02-01

    Cholera toxin, a heterohexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin released by Vibrio cholera, induces a profuse secretory diarrhea in susceptible hosts. Choleragenoid, the B subunit pentamer of cholera toxin, directs the enzymatic A subunit to its target by binding to GM{sub 1} gangliosides exposed on the luminal surface of intestinal epithelial cells. We have solved the crystal structure of choleragenoid at 2.3 {Angstrom} resolution by combining single isomorphous replacement with non-crystallographic symmetry averaging. The structure of the B subunits, and their pentameric arrangement, closely resembles that reported for the intact holotoxin (choleragen), the heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli, and for a choleragenoid-GM{sub 1} pentasaccharide complex. In the absence of the A subunit the central cavity of the B pentamer is a highly solvated channel. The binding of the A subunit or the receptor pentasaccharide to choleragenoid has only a modest effect on the local stereochemistry and does not perceptibly alter the subunit interface.

  17. Cholera.

    PubMed

    Parsi, V K.

    2001-05-01

    Cholera, an infectious disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, is primarily transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food or water. In severe cases, cholera may lead to severe dehydration, metabolic acidosis, and ultimately, hypovolemic shock and death. The diagnosis is confirmed by identification of V. cholerae in a stool specimen. Treatment should be started immediately by rapid replacement of fluid and electrolytes. Antibiotics such as tetracycline and doxycycline shorten the duration of illness but do not significantly affect overall mortality. Cholera can be prevented by limiting spread, survival, and growth of the organism. The current parenteral cholera vaccine is not recommended by the Public Health Service or the World Health Organization because of its limited protection. A number of oral vaccines are currently being tested in clinical trials.

  18. Analysis of a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and human mucin 1 (MUC1) conjugate protein in a MUC1-tolerant mouse model.

    PubMed

    Pinkhasov, Julia; Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Mason, Hugh S; Walmsley, Amanda M; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2010-12-01

    Since epithelial mucin 1 (MUC1) is associated with several adenocarcinomas at the mucosal sites, it is pertinent to test the efficacy of a mucosally targeted vaccine formulation. The B subunit of the Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin (CTB) has great potential to act as a mucosal carrier for subunit vaccines. In the present study we evaluated whether a MUC1 tandem repeat (TR) peptide chemically linked to CTB would break self-antigen tolerance in the transgenic MUC1-tolerant mouse model (MUC1.Tg) through oral or parenteral immunizations. We report that oral immunization with the CTB-MUC1 conjugate along with mucosal adjuvant, unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) did not break self-antigen tolerance in MUC1.Tg mice, but induced a strong humoral response in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. However, self-antigen tolerance in the MUC1.Tg mouse model was broken after parenteral immunizations with different doses of the CTB-MUC1 conjugate protein and with the adjuvant CpG ODN co-delivered with CTB-MUC1. Importantly, mice immunized systemically with CpG ODN alone and with CTB-MUC1 exhibited decreased tumor burden when challenged with a mammary gland tumor cell line that expresses human MUC1.

  19. Analysis of a Cholera Toxin B Subunit (CTB) and Human Mucin 1 (MUC1) Conjugate Protein in a MUC1 Tolerant Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Pinkhasov, Julia; Alvarez, M. Lucrecia; Pathangey, Latha B.; Tinder, Teresa L.; Mason, Hugh S.; Walmsley, Amanda M.; Gendler, Sandra J.; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2011-01-01

    Since epithelial mucin 1 (MUC1) is associated with several adenocarcinomas at mucosal sites, it is pertinent to test the efficacy of a mucosally targeted vaccine formulation. The B subunit of the Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin (CTB) has great potential to act as a mucosal carrier for subunit vaccines. In the present study we evaluated whether a MUC1 tandem repeat (TR) peptide chemically linked to CTB would break self-antigen tolerance in the transgenic MUC1 tolerant mouse model (MUC1.Tg) through oral or parenteral immunizations. We report that oral immunization with the CTB-MUC1 conjugate along with mucosal adjuvant, unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and interleukin-12 (IL-12), did not break self-antigen tolerance in MUC1.Tg mice, but induced a strong humoral response in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. However, self-antigen tolerance in the MUC1.Tg mouse model was broken after parenteral immunizations with different doses of the CTB-MUC1 conjugate protein and with the adjuvant CpG ODN co-delivered with CTB-MUC1. Importantly, mice immunized systemically with CpG ODN alone and with CTB-MUC1 exhibited decreased tumor burden when challenged with a mammary gland tumor cell line that expresses human MUC1. PMID:20824430

  20. Anti-bacterial and anti-toxic immunity induced by a killed whole-cell-cholera toxin B subunit cholera vaccine is essential for protection against lethal bacterial infection in mouse pulmonary cholera model.

    PubMed

    Kang, S-S; Yang, J S; Kim, K W; Yun, C-H; Holmgren, J; Czerkinsky, C; Han, S H

    2013-07-01

    The lack of appropriate animal model for studying protective immunity has limited vaccine development against cholera. Here, we demonstrate a pulmonary cholera model conferred by intranasal administration of mice with live Vibrio cholerae. The bacterial components, but not cholera toxin, caused lethal and acute pneumonia by inducing massive inflammation. Intranasal immunization with Dukoral, comprising killed whole bacteria and recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB), developed both mucosal and systemic antibody responses with protection against the lethal challenge. Either rCTB-free Dukoral or rCTB alone partially protected the mice against the challenge. However, reconstitution of rCTB-free Dukoral with rCTB restored full protection. Parenteral immunization with Dukoral evoked strong systemic immunity without induction of mucosal immunity or protection from the challenge. These results suggest that both anti-bacterial and anti-toxic immunity are required for protection against V. cholerae-induced pneumonia, and this animal model is useful for pre-clinical evaluation of candidate cholera vaccines.

  1. Vibrio cholerae cytolysin is essential for high enterotoxicity and apoptosis induction produced by a cholera toxin gene-negative V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strain.

    PubMed

    Saka, Hector Alex; Bidinost, Carla; Sola, Claudia; Carranza, Pablo; Collino, Cesar; Ortiz, Susana; Echenique, Jose Ricardo; Bocco, José Luis

    2008-02-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) gene-negative Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strains may cause severe diarrhea though their pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a pore-forming exotoxin encoded in the hlyA gene of V. cholerae whose contribution to the pathogenesis is not fully understood. In this work, the virulence properties of a CT gene-negative V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strain causing a cholera-like syndrome were analyzed. Inoculation of rabbit ileal loops with the wild type strain induced extensive fluid accumulation, accompanied by severe histopathological damage characterized by villus shortening, lymphangiectasia and focal areas of necrosis. These pathogenic effects were abrogated by mutation of the hlyA gene thus pointing out the main role of VCC in the virulence of the strain. Interestingly, this toxin was capable of triggering apoptosis in human intestinal cell lines due to its anion channel activity. Moreover, the wild type strain also induced increased apoptosis of the intestinal epithelium cells which was not observed upon inoculation of the VCC null mutant strain, indicating that VCC may trigger apoptotic cell death during infection in vivo. Altogether, these results support a main role of VCC in the pathogenesis of the CT gene-negative V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strain and identify apoptosis as a previously unrecognized cell death pathway triggered by VCC.

  2. Detection of cholera toxin in seafood using a ganglioside-liposome immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Soohyoun; Durst, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    Microbiological contamination of foods continues to be a major concern in public health. Biological toxins are one class of important contaminants that can cause various human diseases. Outbreaks related to contamination by biological toxins or toxin-producing microorganisms have made it extremely important to develop rapid (approximately 20 min), sensitive and cost-effective analytical methods. This paper describes the development of a sensitive bioassay for the detection of cholera toxin (CT) in selected seafood samples, using ganglioside-incorporated liposomes. In this study, the assays were run with food samples spiked with various concentrations of CT. The limit of detection (LOD) increased by a factor of about 10-20 in most food samples, compared with the LOD in the buffer system previously reported. However, the LOD of toxins in food samples (8 × 10-3 × 10(3) fg/mL for CT) was still comparable to, or lower than, that previously reported for other assays. The results from this study demonstrate that the bioassays using ganglioside-liposomes can detect the toxin directly in the field screening of food samples rapidly, simply and reliably, without the need for complex instrumentation.

  3. Picomolar inhibition of cholera toxin by a pentavalent ganglioside GM1os-calix[5]arene.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Hartjes, Jaime; Bernardi, Silvia; Weijers, Carel A G M; Wennekes, Tom; Gilbert, Michel; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Zuilhof, Han

    2013-07-14

    Cholera toxin (CT), the causative agent of cholera, displays a pentavalent binding domain that targets the oligosaccharide of ganglioside GM1 (GM1os) on the periphery of human abdominal epithelial cells. Here, we report the first GM1os-based CT inhibitor that matches the valency of the CT binding domain (CTB). This pentavalent inhibitor contains five GM1os moieties linked to a calix[5]arene scaffold. When evaluated by an inhibition assay, it achieved a picomolar inhibition potency (IC50 = 450 pM) for CTB. This represents a significant multivalency effect, with a relative inhibitory potency of 100,000 compared to a monovalent GM1os derivative, making GM1os-calix[5]arene one of the most potent known CTB inhibitors.

  4. Cholera.

    PubMed Central

    Kaper, J B; Morris, J G; Levine, M M

    1995-01-01

    Despite more than a century of study, cholera still presents challenges and surprises to us. Throughout most of the 20th century, cholera was caused by Vibrio cholerae of the O1 serogroup and the disease was largely confined to Asia and Africa. However, the last decade of the 20th century has witnessed two major developments in the history of this disease. In 1991, a massive outbreak of cholera started in South America, the one continent previously untouched by cholera in this century. In 1992, an apparently new pandemic caused by a previously unknown serogroup of V. cholerae (O139) began in India and Bangladesh. The O139 epidemic has been occurring in populations assumed to be largely immune to V. cholerae O1 and has rapidly spread to many countries including the United States. In this review, we discuss all aspects of cholera, including the clinical microbiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of the disease. Special attention will be paid to the extraordinary advances that have been made in recent years in unravelling the molecular pathogenesis of this infection and in the development of new generations of vaccines to prevent it. PMID:7704895

  5. Molecular characterization of high-level-cholera-toxin-producing El Tor variant Vibrio cholerae strains in the Zanzibar Archipelago of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Naha, A; Chowdhury, G; Ghosh-Banerjee, J; Senoh, M; Takahashi, T; Ley, B; Thriemer, K; Deen, J; Seidlein, L V; Ali, S M; Khatib, A; Ramamurthy, T; Nandy, R K; Nair, G B; Takeda, Y; Mukhopadhyay, A K

    2013-03-01

    Analysis of 1,180 diarrheal stool samples in Zanzibar detected 247 Vibrio cholerae O1, Ogawa strains in 2009. Phenotypic traits and PCR-based detection of rstR, rtxC, and tcpA alleles showed that they belonged to the El Tor biotype. Genetic analysis of ctxB of these strains revealed that they were classical type, and production of classical cholera toxin B (CTB) was confirmed by Western blotting. These strains produced more CT than the prototype El Tor and formed a separate cluster by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis.

  6. Molecular Characterization of High-Level-Cholera-Toxin-Producing El Tor Variant Vibrio cholerae Strains in the Zanzibar Archipelago of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Naha, A.; Chowdhury, G.; Ghosh-Banerjee, J.; Senoh, M.; Takahashi, T.; Ley, B.; Thriemer, K.; Deen, J.; Seidlein, L. V.; Ali, S. M.; Khatib, A.; Ramamurthy, T.; Nandy, R. K.; Nair, G. B.; Takeda, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of 1,180 diarrheal stool samples in Zanzibar detected 247 Vibrio cholerae O1, Ogawa strains in 2009. Phenotypic traits and PCR-based detection of rstR, rtxC, and tcpA alleles showed that they belonged to the El Tor biotype. Genetic analysis of ctxB of these strains revealed that they were classical type, and production of classical cholera toxin B (CTB) was confirmed by Western blotting. These strains produced more CT than the prototype El Tor and formed a separate cluster by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. PMID:23325815

  7. Infrared and visible ellipsometric studies of cholera toxin in ELISA structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Daniel W.; Pfeiffer, Galen L.; Berberov, Emil; Castro, Leon; Woollam, John A.

    2003-07-01

    Ellipsometry is well known for its extreme sensitivity to the presence and properties of ultra-thin films. In the infrared, resonance response to chemical bonds allows chemical identification in monolayer-thick biological films. In this paper we show results of attachment repeatability for successive layers of monosialoganglioside, cholera toxin, and related antibodies using in situ visible spectroscopic ellipsometry. Several factors contributing to difficulty in obtaining reproducible results are discussed. Soecifically, these include freshness of reagents; surface type, cleaning, and preparation; temperature; birefringence of liquid cell windows; and cell design. Sensitivity and signal noise considerations for infrared spectra of molecular monolayers are discussed.

  8. Fighting Cholera One-on-One: The Development and Efficacy of Multivalent Cholera-Toxin-Binding Molecules.

    PubMed

    Zuilhof, Han

    2016-02-16

    A series of diseases, ranging from cholera via travelers' diarrhea to hamburger disease, are caused by bacterially produced toxic proteins. In particular, a toxic protein unit is brought into the host cell upon binding to specific membrane-bound oligosaccharides on the host cell membrane. For example, the protein that causes cholera, cholera toxin (CT), has five identical, symmetrically placed binding pockets (B proteins), on top of which the toxic A protein resides. A promising strategy to counteract the devastating biological effects of this AB5 protein involves the development of inhibitors that can act as mimics of membrane-bound GM1 molecules, i.e., that can bind CT strongly and selectively. To reach this goal, two features are essential: First of all, the inhibitor should display oligosaccharides that resemble as much as possible the naturally occurring cell-surface pentasaccharide onto which CT normally binds, the so-called GM1 sugar (the oligosaccharide part of which is then labeled GM1os). Second, the inhibitor should be able to bind CT via multivalent interactions so as to bind CT as strongly as possible to allow for a real competition with the cell-membrane-bound GM1 molecules. In this Account, we present elements of the path that leads to strong CT inhibition by outlining the roles of multivalency and the development and use of GM1 mimics. First, multivalency effects were investigated using "sugar-coated" platforms, ranging from dendritic structures with up to eight oligosaccharides to platforms that mimicked the fivefold symmetry of CT itself. The latter goal was reached either via synthetic scaffolds like corannulene or calix[5]arene or via the development of a neolectin CT mimic that itself carries five GM1os groups. Second, the effect of the nature of the oligosaccharide appended to this platform was investigated via the use of oligosaccharides of increasing complexity, from galactose and lactose to the tetrasaccharide GM2os and eventually to GM1os

  9. Cholera.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Donatella; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Caini, Saverio

    2016-08-01

    Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology. The germ responsible for cholera was discovered twice: first by the Italian physician Filippo Pacini during an outbreak in Florence, Italy, in 1854, and then independently by Robert Koch in India in 1883, thus favoring the germ theory over the miasma theory of disease. Unlike many other infectious diseases, such as plague, smallpox, and poliomyelitis, cholera persists as a huge public health problem worldwide, even though there are effective methods for its prevention and treatment. The main reasons for its persistence are socioeconomic rather than purely biological; cholera flourishes where there are unsatisfactory hygienic conditions and where a breakdown of already fragile sanitation and health infrastructure occurs because of natural disasters or humanitarian crises.

  10. Immune adjuvant effect of V. cholerae O1 derived Proteoliposome coadministered by intranasal route with Vi polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Reinaldo; Callicó, Adriana; Aranguren, Yisabel; Zayas, Caridad; Valdés, Yolanda; Pérez, Oliver; García, Luis; Ferro, Valerie A; Pérez, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    The proteoliposome derived from Vibrio cholerae O1 (PLc) is a nanoscaled structure obtained by a detergent extraction process. Intranasal (i.n) administration of PLc was immunogenic at mucosal and systemic level vs. V. cholerae; however the adjuvant potential of this structure for non-cholera antigens has not been proven yet. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of coadministering PLc with the Vi polysaccharide antigen (Poli Vi) of S. Typhi by the i.n route. The results showed that Poli Vi coadministered with PLc (PLc+Poli Vi) induce a higher IgA response in saliva (p<0.01) and faeces (p<0.01) than Poli Vi administered alone. Likewise, the IgG response in sera was higher in animals immunised with PLc+Poli Vi (p<0.01). Furthermore, IgG induced in sera of mice immunised with PLc+Poli Vi was similar (p>0.05) to that induced in a group of mice immunised by the parenteral route with the Cuban anti-typhoid vaccine vax-TyVi, although this vaccine did not induce a mucosal response. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that PLc can be used as a mucosal adjuvant to potentiate the immune response against a polysaccharide antigen like Poli Vi.

  11. Immune adjuvant effect of V. cholerae O1 derived Proteoliposome coadministered by intranasal route with Vi polysaccharide from Salmonella Typhi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The proteoliposome derived from Vibrio cholerae O1 (PLc) is a nanoscaled structure obtained by a detergent extraction process. Intranasal (i.n) administration of PLc was immunogenic at mucosal and systemic level vs. V. cholerae; however the adjuvant potential of this structure for non-cholera antigens has not been proven yet. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of coadministering PLc with the Vi polysaccharide antigen (Poli Vi) of S. Typhi by the i.n route. The results showed that Poli Vi coadministered with PLc (PLc+Poli Vi) induce a higher IgA response in saliva (p<0.01) and faeces (p<0.01) than Poli Vi administered alone. Likewise, the IgG response in sera was higher in animals immunised with PLc+Poli Vi (p<0.01). Furthermore, IgG induced in sera of mice immunised with PLc+Poli Vi was similar (p>0.05) to that induced in a group of mice immunised by the parenteral route with the Cuban anti-typhoid vaccine vax-TyVi®, although this vaccine did not induce a mucosal response. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that PLc can be used as a mucosal adjuvant to potentiate the immune response against a polysaccharide antigen like Poli Vi. PMID:23458379

  12. A Cholera Conjugate Vaccine Containing O-specific Polysaccharide (OSP) of V. cholerae O1 Inaba and Recombinant Fragment of Tetanus Toxin Heavy Chain (OSP:rTTHc) Induces Serum, Memory and Lamina Proprial Responses against OSP and Is Protective in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Eckhoff, Grace; Charles, Richelle C.; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Sultana, Tania; Rashu, Md. Rasheduzzaman; Berger, Amanda; Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; Mandlik, Anjali; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Leung, Daniel T.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Qadri, Firdausi; Vann, W. F.; Kováč, Pavol; Ryan, Edward T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vibrio cholerae is the cause of cholera, a severe watery diarrhea. Protection against cholera is serogroup specific. Serogroup specificity is defined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methodology Here we describe a conjugate vaccine for cholera prepared via squaric acid chemistry from the OSP of V. cholerae O1 Inaba strain PIC018 and a recombinant heavy chain fragment of tetanus toxin (OSP:rTTHc). We assessed a range of vaccine doses based on the OSP content of the vaccine (10-50 μg), vaccine compositions varying by molar loading ratio of OSP to rTTHc (3:1, 5:1, 10:1), effect of an adjuvant, and route of immunization. Principle Findings Immunized mice developed prominent anti-OSP and anti-TT serum IgG responses, as well as vibriocidal antibody and memory B cell responses following intramuscular or intradermal vaccination. Mice did not develop anti-squarate responses. Intestinal lamina proprial IgA responses targeting OSP occurred following intradermal vaccination. In general, we found comparable immune responses in mice immunized with these variations, although memory B cell and vibriocidal responses were blunted in mice receiving the highest dose of vaccine (50 μg). We found no appreciable change in immune responses when the conjugate vaccine was administered in the presence or absence of immunoadjuvant alum. Administration of OSP:rTTHc resulted in 55% protective efficacy in a mouse survival cholera challenge model. Conclusion We report development of an Inaba OSP:rTTHc conjugate vaccine that induces memory responses and protection against cholera in mice. Development of an effective cholera conjugate vaccine that induces high level and long-term immune responses against OSP would be beneficial, especially in young children who respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens. PMID:26154421

  13. Oral administration of a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit promotes mucosal healing in the colon.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, K J; Royal, J M; Kouokam, J C; Haribabu, B; Jala, V R; Yaddanapudi, K; Hamorsky, K T; Dryden, G W; Matoba, N

    2016-11-02

    Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) is a component of a licensed oral cholera vaccine. However, CTB has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects whose impacts on the gut are not fully understood. Here, we found that oral administration in mice of a plant-made recombinant CTB (CTBp) significantly increased several immune cell populations in the colon lamina propria. Global gene expression analysis revealed that CTBp had more pronounced impacts on the colon than the small intestine, with significant activation of TGFβ-mediated pathways in the colon epithelium. The clinical relevance of CTBp-induced impacts on colonic mucosa was examined. In a human colon epithelial model using Caco2 cells, CTBp, but not the non-GM1-binding mutant G33D-CTBp, induced TGFβ-mediated wound healing. In a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) acute colitis mouse model, oral administration of CTBp protected against colon mucosal damage as manifested by mitigated body weight loss, decreased histopathological scores, and blunted escalation of inflammatory cytokine levels while inducing wound healing-related genes. Furthermore, biweekly oral administration of CTBp significantly reduced disease severity and tumorigenesis in the azoxymethane/DSS model of ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. Altogether, these results demonstrate CTBp's ability to enhance mucosal healing in the colon, highlighting its potential application in ulcerative colitis therapy besides cholera vaccination.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 2 November 2016. doi:10.1038/mi.2016.95.

  14. Sensitization of spinal cord nociceptive neurons with a conjugate of substance P and cholera toxin

    PubMed Central

    Caudle, Robert M; Mannes, Andrew J; Keller, Jason; Perez, Federico M; Suckow, Shelby K; Neubert, John K

    2007-01-01

    Background Several investigators have coupled toxins to neuropeptides for the purpose of lesioning specific neurons in the central nervous system. By producing deficits in function these toxin conjugates have yielded valuable information about the role of these cells. In an effort to specifically stimulate cells rather than kill them we have conjugated the neuropeptide substance P to the catalytic subunit of cholera toxin (SP-CTA). This conjugate should be taken up selectively by neurokinin receptor expressing neurons resulting in enhanced adenylate cyclase activity and neuronal firing. Results The conjugate SP-CTA stimulates adenylate cyclase in cultured cells that are transfected with either the NK1 or NK2 receptor, but not the NK3 receptor. We further demonstrate that intrathecal injection of SP-CTA in rats induces the phosphorylation of the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and also enhances the expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos. Behaviorally, low doses of SP-CTA (1 μg) injected intrathecally produce thermal hyperalgesia. At higher doses (10 μg) peripheral sensitivity is suppressed suggesting that descending inhibitory pathways may be activated by the SP-CTA induced sensitization of spinal cord neurons. Conclusion The finding that stimulation of adenylate cyclase in neurokinin receptor expressing neurons in the spinal cord produces thermal hyperalgesia is consistent with the known actions of these neurons. These data demonstrate that cholera toxin can be targeted to specific cell types by coupling the catalytic subunit to a peptide agonist for a g-protein coupled receptor. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that SP-CTA can be used as a tool to study sensitization of central neurons in vivo in the absence of an injury. PMID:17493276

  15. Cholera

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes antibiotics. Anyone who thinks they may have cholera should seek medical attention immediately. Dehydration can be rapid so fluid replacement is essential. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  16. General secretion pathway (eps) genes required for toxin secretion and outer membrane biogenesis in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Sandkvist, M; Michel, L O; Hough, L P; Morales, V M; Bagdasarian, M; Koomey, M; DiRita, V J; Bagdasarian, M

    1997-11-01

    The general secretion pathway (GSP) of Vibrio cholerae is required for secretion of proteins including chitinase, enterotoxin, and protease through the outer membrane. In this study, we report the cloning and sequencing of a DNA fragment from V. cholerae, containing 12 open reading frames, epsC to -N, which are similar to GSP genes of Aeromonas, Erwinia, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas spp. In addition to the two previously described genes, epsE and epsM (M. Sandkvist, V. Morales, and M. Bagdasarian, Gene 123: 81-86, 1993; L. J. Overbye, M. Sandkvist, and M. Bagdasarian, Gene 132:101-106, 1993), it is shown here that epsC, epsF, epsG, and epsL also encode proteins essential for GSP function. Mutations in the eps genes result in aberrant outer membrane protein profiles, which indicates that the GSP, or at least some of its components, is required not only for secretion of soluble proteins but also for proper outer membrane assembly. Several of the Eps proteins have been identified by use of the T7 polymerase-promoter system in Escherichia coli. One of them, a pilin-like protein, EpsG, was analyzed also in V. cholerae and found to migrate as two bands on polyacrylamide gels, suggesting that in this organism it might be processed or otherwise modified by a prepilin peptidase. We believe that TcpJ prepilin peptidase, which processes the subunit of the toxin-coregulated pilus, TcpA, is not involved in this event. This is supported by the observations that apparent processing of EpsG occurs in a tcpJ mutant of V. cholerae and that, when coexpressed in E. coli, TcpJ cannot process EpsG although the PilD peptidase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae can.

  17. Expression of cholera toxin B subunit oligomers in transgenic potato plants.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, T; Chong, D K; Merritt, J L; Langridge, W H

    1997-11-01

    A gene encoding the cholera toxin B subunit protein (CTB), fused to an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (SEKDEL) was inserted adjacent to the bi-directional mannopine synthase P2 promoter in a plant expression vector containing a bacterial luciferase AB fusion gene (luxF) linked to the P1 promoter. Potato leaf explants were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the vector and kanamycin-resistant plants were regenerated. The CTB-SEKDEL fusion gene was identified in the genomic DNA of bioluminescent plants by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Immunoblot analysis indicated that plant-derived CTB protein was antigenically indistinguishable from bacterial CTB protein, and that oligomeric CTB molecules (M(r) approximately 50 kDa) were the dominant molecular species isolated from transgenic potato leaf and tuber tissues. Similar to bacterial CTB, plant-synthesized CTB dissociated into monomers (M(r) approximately 15 kDa) during heat or acid treatment. The maximum amount of CTB protein detected in auxin-induced transgenic potato leaf and tuber tissues was approximately 0.3% of total soluble plant protein. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods indicated that plant-synthesized CTB protein bound specifically to GM1-ganglioside, the natural membrane receptor of cholera toxin. In the presence of the SEKDEL signal, CTB protein accumulates in potato tissues and is assembled into an oligomeric form that retains native biochemical and immunological properties. The expression of oligomeric CTB protein with immunological and biochemical properties identical to native CTB protein in edible plants opens the way for preparation of inexpensive food plant-based oral vaccines for protection against cholera and other pathogens in endemic areas throughout the world.

  18. Structural and Molecular Mechanism for Autoprocessing of MARTX Toxin of Vibrio cholerae at Multiple Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Prochazkova, Katerina; Shuvalova, Ludmilla A.; Minasov, George; Voburka, Zdeněk; Anderson, Wayne F.; Satchell, Karla J.F.

    2009-10-05

    The multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin of Vibrio cholerae causes destruction of the actin cytoskeleton by covalent cross-linking of actin and inactivation of Rho GTPases. The effector domains responsible for these activities are here shown to be independent proteins released from the large toxin by autoproteolysis catalyzed by an embedded cysteine protease domain (CPD). The CPD is activated upon binding inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP{sub 6}). In this study, we demonstrated that InsP{sub 6} is not simply an allosteric cofactor, but rather binding of InsP{sub 6} stabilized the CPD structure, facilitating formation of the enzyme-substrate complex. The 1.95-{angstrom} crystal structure of this InsP{sub 6}-bound unprocessed form of CPD was determined and revealed the scissile bond Leu{sup 3428}-Ala{sup 3429} captured in the catalytic site. Upon processing at this site, CPD was converted to a form with 500-fold reduced affinity for InsP{sub 6}, but was reactivated for high affinity binding of InsP{sub 6} by cooperative binding of both a new substrate and InsP{sub 6}. Reactivation of CPD allowed cleavage of the MARTX toxin at other sites, specifically at leucine residues between the effector domains. Processed CPD also cleaved other proteins in trans, including the leucine-rich protein YopM, demonstrating that it is a promiscuous leucine-specific protease.

  19. Revisiting the oligomerization mechanism of Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, a beta-barrel pore-forming toxin.

    PubMed

    Rai, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2016-06-03

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a membrane-damaging beta-barrel pore-forming toxin (beta-PFT). VCC causes permeabilization of the target membranes by forming transmembrane oligomeric beta-barrel pores. Oligomerization is a key step in the mode of action of any beta-PFT, including that of VCC. Earlier studies have identified some of the key residues in VCC that are directly involved in the generation of the inter-protomer contacts, thus playing critical roles in the oligomerization of the membrane-bound toxin. Analysis of the VCC oligomeric pore structure reveals a potential hydrogen-bond network that appears to connect the sidechain of an asparagine residue (Asn582; located within an inter-domain linker sequence) from one protomer to the backbone CO- and NH-groups of the neighbouring protomer, indirectly through water molecules at most of the inter-protomer interfaces. In the present study, we show that the mutation of Asn582Ala affects the oligomerization and the pore-forming activity of VCC in the membrane lipid bilayer of the synthetic lipid vesicles, while the replacement of Asn582Gln results into the restoration of the oligomeric pore-forming ability of the toxin. Using a number of truncated variants of VCC, having deletion in the C-terminal region of the toxin starting from the Asn582 residue or beyond, we also show that the presence of Asn582 is critically required for the oligomerization of the truncated form of the protein.

  20. Identification of host cell factors required for intoxication through use of modified cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Carla P; Carette, Jan E; Varadarajan, Malini; Antos, John; Popp, Maximilian W; Spooner, Eric; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2011-11-28

    We describe a novel labeling strategy to site-specifically attach fluorophores, biotin, and proteins to the C terminus of the A1 subunit (CTA1) of cholera toxin (CTx) in an otherwise correctly assembled and active CTx complex. Using a biotinylated N-linked glycosylation reporter peptide attached to CTA1, we provide direct evidence that ~12% of the internalized CTA1 pool reaches the ER. We also explored the sortase labeling method to attach the catalytic subunit of diphtheria toxin as a toxic warhead to CTA1, thus converting CTx into a cytolethal toxin. This new toxin conjugate enabled us to conduct a genetic screen in human cells, which identified ST3GAL5, SLC35A2, B3GALT4, UGCG, and ELF4 as genes essential for CTx intoxication. The first four encode proteins involved in the synthesis of gangliosides, which are known receptors for CTx. Identification and isolation of the ST3GAL5 and SLC35A2 mutant clonal cells uncover a previously unappreciated differential contribution of gangliosides to intoxication by CTx.

  1. Intracellular Signal Triggered by Cholera Toxin in Saccharomyces boulardii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Rogelio L.; Castro, Ieso M.; Bambirra, Eduardo A.; Amaral, Sheila C.; Fietto, Luciano G.; Tropia, Maria José M.; Neves, Maria José; Dos Santos, Raquel G.; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Nicoli, Jacques R.

    1998-01-01

    As is the case for Saccharomyces boulardii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303 protects Fisher rats against cholera toxin (CT). The addition of glucose or dinitrophenol to cells of S. boulardii grown on a nonfermentable carbon source activated trehalase in a manner similar to that observed for S. cerevisiae. The addition of CT to the same cells also resulted in trehalase activation. Experiments performed separately on the A and B subunits of CT showed that both are necessary for activation. Similarly, the addition of CT but not of its separate subunits led to a cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal in both S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae. These data suggest that trehalase stimulation by CT probably occurred through the cAMP-mediated protein phosphorylation cascade. The requirement of CT subunit B for both the cAMP signal and trehalase activation indicates the presence of a specific receptor on the yeasts able to bind to the toxin, a situation similar to that observed for mammalian cells. This hypothesis was reinforced by experiments with 125I-labeled CT showing specific binding of the toxin to yeast cells. The adhesion of CT to a receptor on the yeast surface through the B subunit and internalization of the A subunit (necessary for the cAMP signal and trehalase activation) could be one more mechanism explaining protection against the toxin observed for rats treated with yeasts. PMID:9464394

  2. Intracellular signal triggered by cholera toxin in Saccharomyces boulardii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Brandão, R L; Castro, I M; Bambirra, E A; Amaral, S C; Fietto, L G; Tropia, M J; Neves, M J; Dos Santos, R G; Gomes, N C; Nicoli, J R

    1998-02-01

    As is the case for Saccharomyces boulardii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303 protects Fisher rats against cholera toxin (CT). The addition of glucose or dinitrophenol to cells of S. boulardii grown on a nonfermentable carbon source activated trehalase in a manner similar to that observed for S.cerevisiae. The addition of CT to the same cells also resulted in trehalase activation. Experiments performed separately on the A and B subunits of CT showed that both are necessary for activation. Similarly, the addition of CT but not of its separate subunits led to a cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal in both S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae. These data suggest that trehalase stimulation by CT probably occurred through the cAMP-mediated protein phosphorylation cascade. The requirement of CT subunit B for both the cAMP signal and trehalase activation indicates the presence of a specific receptor on the yeasts able to bind to the toxin, a situation similar to that observed for mammalian cells. This hypothesis was reinforced by experiments with 125I-labeled CT showing specific binding of the toxin to yeast cells. The adhesion of CT to a receptor on the yeast surface through the B subunit and internalization of the A subunit (necessary for the cAMP signal and trehalase activation) could be one more mechanism explaining protection against the toxin observed for rats treated with yeasts.

  3. Intranasal Immunization with Influenza Virus-Like Particles Containing Membrane-Anchored Cholera Toxin B or Ricin Toxin B Enhances Adaptive Immune Responses and Protection against an Antigenically Distinct Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xianliang; Ren, Zhiguang; Xu, Na; Meng, Lingnan; Yu, Zhijun; Feng, Na; Sang, Xiaoyu; Li, Shengnan; Li, Yuanguo; Wang, Tiecheng; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Zheng, Xuexing; Jin, Hongli; Li, Nan; Yang, Songtao; Cao, Jinshan; Liu, Wensen; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective means to prevent influenza virus infection, although current approaches are associated with suboptimal efficacy. Here, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and matrix protein (M1) of A/Changchun/01/2009 (H1N1) with or without either membrane-anchored cholera toxin B (CTB) or ricin toxin B (RTB) as molecular adjuvants. The intranasal immunization of mice with VLPs containing membrane-anchored CTB or RTB elicited stronger humoral and cellular immune responses when compared to mice immunized with VLPs alone. Administration of VLPs containing CTB or RTB significantly enhanced virus-specific systemic and mucosal antibody responses, hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titers, virus neutralizing antibody titers, and the frequency of virus-specific IFN-γ and IL-4 secreting splenocytes. VLPs with and without CTB or RTB conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with a mouse-adapted homologous virus. When challenged with an antigenically distinct H1N1 virus, all mice immunized with VLPs containing CTB or RTB survived whereas mice immunized with VLPs alone showed only partial protection (80% survival). Our results suggest that membrane-anchored CTB and RTB possess strong adjuvant properties when incorporated into an intranasally-delivered influenza VLP vaccine. Chimeric influenza VLPs containing CTB or RTB may represent promising vaccine candidates for improved immunological protection against homologous and antigenically distinct influenza viruses. PMID:27110810

  4. Intranasal Immunization with Influenza Virus-Like Particles Containing Membrane-Anchored Cholera Toxin B or Ricin Toxin B Enhances Adaptive Immune Responses and Protection against an Antigenically Distinct Virus.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xianliang; Ren, Zhiguang; Xu, Na; Meng, Lingnan; Yu, Zhijun; Feng, Na; Sang, Xiaoyu; Li, Shengnan; Li, Yuanguo; Wang, Tiecheng; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; Zheng, Xuexing; Jin, Hongli; Li, Nan; Yang, Songtao; Cao, Jinshan; Liu, Wensen; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-04-21

    Vaccination is the most effective means to prevent influenza virus infection, although current approaches are associated with suboptimal efficacy. Here, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and matrix protein (M1) of A/Changchun/01/2009 (H1N1) with or without either membrane-anchored cholera toxin B (CTB) or ricin toxin B (RTB) as molecular adjuvants. The intranasal immunization of mice with VLPs containing membrane-anchored CTB or RTB elicited stronger humoral and cellular immune responses when compared to mice immunized with VLPs alone. Administration of VLPs containing CTB or RTB significantly enhanced virus-specific systemic and mucosal antibody responses, hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titers, virus neutralizing antibody titers, and the frequency of virus-specific IFN-γ and IL-4 secreting splenocytes. VLPs with and without CTB or RTB conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with a mouse-adapted homologous virus. When challenged with an antigenically distinct H1N1 virus, all mice immunized with VLPs containing CTB or RTB survived whereas mice immunized with VLPs alone showed only partial protection (80% survival). Our results suggest that membrane-anchored CTB and RTB possess strong adjuvant properties when incorporated into an intranasally-delivered influenza VLP vaccine. Chimeric influenza VLPs containing CTB or RTB may represent promising vaccine candidates for improved immunological protection against homologous and antigenically distinct influenza viruses.

  5. Delineation and comparison of ganglioside-binding epitopes for the toxins of Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium tetani: evidence for overlapping epitopes.

    PubMed

    Angström, J; Teneberg, S; Karlsson, K A

    1994-12-06

    Binding studies of various glycolipids, mainly belonging to the ganglio series, to the toxins isolated from Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium tetani have been performed, using the microtiter well assay. By using the found binding preferences in conjunction with minimum-energy conformations obtained from molecular modeling of the various ligands, binding epitopes on the natural receptor glycolipids for the toxins have been defined. The binding preferences for the cholera toxin and the heat-labile E. coli toxin are very similar, with the ganglioside GM1 being the most efficient ligand. The tetanus toxin binds strongly to gangliosides of the G1b series, with GT1b as the most efficient ligand. It is found that the binding epitope on GM1 for the cholera and heat-labile toxins to a large extent overlaps with the epitope on GQ1b for the tetanus toxin.

  6. Cholera Toxin Promotes Th17 Cell Differentiation by Modulating Expression of Polarizing Cytokines and the Antigen-Presenting Potential of Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Ok; Lee, Jee-Boong

    2016-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT), an exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholera, acts as a mucosal adjuvant. In a previous study, we showed that CT skews differentiation of CD4 T cells to IL-17-producing Th17 cells. Here, we found that intranasal administration of CT induced migration of migratory dendritic cell (DC) populations, CD103+ DCs and CD11bhi DCs, to the lung draining mediastinal lymph nodes (medLN). Among those DC subsets, CD11bhi DCs that were relatively immature had a major role in Th17 cell differentiation after administration of CT. CT-treated BMDCs showed reduced expression of MHC class II and CD86, similar to CD11bhi DCs in medLN, and these BMDCs promoted Th17 cell differentiation more potently than other BMDCs expressing higher levels of MHC class II and CD86. By analyzing the expression of activation markers such as CD25 and CD69, proliferation and IL-2 production, we determined that CT-treated BMDCs showed diminished antigen-presenting potential to CD4+ T cells compared with normal BMDCs. We also found that CT-stimulated BMDCs promote activin A expression as well as IL-6 and IL-1β, and activin A had a synergic role with TGF-β1 in CT-mediated Th17 cell differentiation. Taken together, our results suggest that CT-stimulated DCs promote Th17 cell differentiation by not only modulating antigen-presenting potential but also inducing Th polarizing cytokines. PMID:27271559

  7. Cholera toxin subunit B-mediated intracellular trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles toward the endoplasmic reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, William Andrew

    In recent decades, pharmaceutical research has led to the development of numerous treatments for human disease. Nanoscale delivery systems have the potential to maximize therapeutic outcomes by enabling target specific delivery of these therapeutics. The intracellular localization of many of these materials however, is poorly controlled, leading to sequestration in degradative cellular pathways and limiting the efficacy of their payloads. Numerous proteins, particularly bacterial toxins, have evolved mechanisms to subvert the degradative mechanisms of the cell. Here, we have investigated a possible strategy for shunting intracellular delivery of encapsulated cargoes from these pathways by modifying mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with the well-characterized bacterial toxin Cholera toxin subunit B (CTxB). Using established optical imaging methods we investigated the internalization, trafficking, and subcellular localization of our modified MSNs in an in vitro animal cell model. We then attempted to demonstrate the practical utility of this approach by using CTxB-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles to deliver propidium iodide, a membrane-impermeant fluorophore.

  8. Immunogenicity of a West Nile virus DIII-cholera toxin A2/B chimera after intranasal delivery.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Juliette K; Yan, Jie; Knippel, Reece J; Panayiotou, Panos; Cornell, Kenneth A

    2014-04-22

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes potentially fatal neuroinvasive disease and persists at endemic levels in many parts of the world. Despite advances in our understanding of WNV pathogenesis, there remains a significant need for a human vaccine. The domain III (DIII) region of the WNV envelope protein contains epitopes that are the target of neutralizing antibodies. We have constructed a chimeric fusion of the non-toxic cholera toxin (CT) CTA2/B domains to DIII for investigation as a novel mucosally-delivered WNV vaccine. Purification and assembly of the chimera, as well as receptor-binding and antigen delivery, were verified by western blot, GM1 ELISA and confocal microscopy. Groups of BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally with DIII-CTA2/B, DIII, DIII mixed with CTA2/B, or CTA2/B control, and boosted at 10 days. Analysis of serum IgG after 14 and 45 days revealed that mucosal immunization with DIII-CTA2/B induced significant DIII-specific humoral immunity and drove isotype switching to IgG2a. The DIII-CTA2/B chimera also induced antigen-specific IgM and IgA responses. Bactericidal assays indicate that the DIII-CTA2/B immunized mice produced DIII-specific antibodies that can trigger complement-mediated killing. A dose escalation resulted in increased DIII-specific serum IgG titers on day 45. DIII antigen alone, in the absence of adjuvant, also induced significant systemic responses after intranasal delivery. Our results indicate that the DIII-CTA2/B chimera is immunogenic after intranasal delivery and merits further investigation as a novel WNV vaccine candidate.

  9. Induction of Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase in Human Dendritic Cells by a Cholera Toxin B Subunit—Proinsulin Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Mbongue, Jacques C.; Nicholas, Dequina A.; Zhang, Kangling; Kim, Nan-Sun; Hamilton, Brittany N.; Larios, Marco; Zhang, Guangyu; Umezawa, Kazuo; Firek, Anthony F.; Langridge, William H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) interact with naïve T cells to regulate the delicate balance between immunity and tolerance required to maintain immunological homeostasis. In this study, immature human dendritic cells (iDC) were inoculated with a chimeric fusion protein vaccine containing the pancreatic β-cell auto-antigen proinsulin linked to a mucosal adjuvant the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB-INS). Proteomic analysis of vaccine inoculated DCs revealed strong up-regulation of the tryptophan catabolic enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO1). Increased biosynthesis of the immunosuppressive enzyme was detected in DCs inoculated with the CTB-INS fusion protein but not in DCs inoculated with proinsulin, CTB, or an unlinked combination of the two proteins. Immunoblot and PCR analyses of vaccine treated DCs detected IDO1mRNA by 3 hours and IDO1 protein synthesis by 6 hours after vaccine inoculation. Determination of IDO1 activity in vaccinated DCs by measurement of tryptophan degradation products (kynurenines) showed increased tryptophan cleavage into N-formyl kynurenine. Vaccination did not interfere with monocytes differentiation into DC, suggesting the vaccine can function safely in the human immune system. Treatment of vaccinated DCs with pharmacological NF-κB inhibitors ACHP or DHMEQ significantly inhibited IDO1 biosynthesis, suggesting a role for NF-κB signaling in vaccine up-regulation of dendritic cell IDO1. Heat map analysis of the proteomic data revealed an overall down-regulation of vaccinated DC functions, suggesting vaccine suppression of DC maturation. Together, our experimental data indicate that CTB-INS vaccine induction of IDO1 biosynthesis in human DCs may result in the inhibition of DC maturation generating a durable state of immunological tolerance. Understanding how CTB-INS modulates IDO1 activity in human DCs will facilitate vaccine efficacy and safety, moving this immunosuppressive strategy closer to clinical applications for prevention of type 1

  10. Plasmon Coupling Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanobeacon for Single-Step, Ultrasensitive Detection of Cholera Toxin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong-Hua; Liu, Ling-Wei; Liang, Ping; Tang, Li-Juan; Yu, Ru-Qin; Jiang, Jian-Hui

    2016-08-02

    We report the development of a novel plasmon coupling enhanced Raman scattering (PCERS) method, PCERS nanobeacon, for ultrasensitive, single-step, homogeneous detection of cholera toxin (CT). This method relies on our design of the plasmonic nanoparticles, which have a bilayer phospholipid coating with embedded Raman indicators and CT-binding ligands of monosialoganglioside (GM1). This design allows a facile synthesis of the plasmonic nanoparticle via two-step self-assembly without any specific modification or chemical immobilization. The realization of tethering GM1 on the surface imparts the plasmonic nanoparticles with high affinity, excellent specificity, and multivalence for interaction with CT. The unique lipid-based bilayer coated structure also affords excellent biocompatibility and stability for the plasmonic nanoparticles. The plasmonic nanoparticles are able to show substantial enhancement of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals in a single-step interaction with CT, because of their assembly into aggregates in response to the CT-sandwiched interactions. The results reveal that the developed nanobeacon provides a simple but ultrasensitive sensor for rapid detection of CT with a large signal-to-background ratio and excellent reproducibility in a wide dynamic range, implying its potential for point-of-care applications in preventive and diagnostic monitoring of cholera.

  11. Molecular modeling of methyl-α-Neu5Ac analogues docked against cholera toxin--a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Blessy, J Jino; Sharmila, D Jeya Sundara

    2015-02-01

    Molecular modeling of synthetic methyl-α-Neu5Ac analogues modified in C-9 position was investigated by molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation methods. Methyl-α-Neu5Ac analogues were docked against cholera toxin (CT) B subunit protein and MD simulations were carried out for three Methyl-α-Neu5Ac analogue-CT complexes (30, 10 and 10 ns) to estimate the binding activity of cholera toxin-Methyl-α-Neu5Ac analogues using OPLS_2005 force field. In this study, direct and water mediated hydrogen bonds play a vital role that exist between the methyl-α-9-N-benzoyl-amino-9-deoxy-Neu5Ac (BENZ)-cholera toxin active site residues. The Energy plot, RMSD and RMSF explain that the simulation was stable throughout the simulation run. Transition of phi, psi and omega angle for the complex was calculated. Molecular docking studies could be able to identify the binding mode of methyl-α-Neu5Ac analogues in the binding site of cholera toxin B subunit protein. MD simulation for Methyl-α-9-N-benzoyl-amino-9-deoxy-Neu5Ac (BENZ), Methyl-α-9-N-acetyl-9-deoxy-9-amino-Neu5Ac and Methyl-α-9-N-biphenyl-4-acetyl-deoxy-amino-Neu5Ac complex with CT B subunit protein was carried out, which explains the stable nature of interaction. These methyl-α-Neu5Ac analogues that have computationally acceptable pharmacological properties may be used as novel candidates for drug design for cholera disease.

  12. Widespread dispersal of cholera toxin subunit b to brain and spinal cord neurons following systemic delivery.

    PubMed

    Alisky, Joseph M; van de Wetering, Christopher I; Davidson, Beverly L

    2002-11-01

    We have discovered novel transport properties of cholera toxin subunit b beyond well-known anterograde and retrograde axonal transport. Injection of 1500 microg of CTb intraperitoneally or intravenously in young adult mice resulted in generalized enhanced labeling of motor nuclei at all levels of the brain stem and spinal cord (oculomotor, trochlear, abducens, facial, trigeminal, vagal, hypoglossal, cervical, and lumbar). There was also extensive labeling of trigeminal and spinal primary afferent fibers, bulk labeling of the area postrema, and finally numerous labeled neurons in the periventricular and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei. Generalized labeling of motor, sensory, and hypothalamic neurons could also be produced on a more limited scale from intramuscular injections of 500 microg of CTb in the tongue. Neuronal uptake of peripherally administered CTb may be useful as a research tool, or, when fused to therapeutic peptides, enzymes, growth factors, or gene therapy vectors, may have application in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, diabetic neuropathy, motor neuronopathic lysosomal storage diseases, and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. Cellular Endocytosis and Trafficking of Cholera Toxin B-Modified Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Walker, William A.; Tarannum, Mubin; Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were functionalized with Cholera toxin subunit B (CTxB) protein to influence their intracellular trafficking pathways. The CTxB-MSN carrier was synthesized, and its chemical and structural properties were characterized. Endocytic pathway inhibition assays showed that the uptake of CTxB-MSNs in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells was partially facilitated by both chlatrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis mechanisms. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) experiments demonstrated that CTxB-MSNs were taken up by the cells and partially trafficked through the trans-Golgi network into to the endoplasmic reticulum in a retrograde fashion. The delivery abilities of CTxB-MSNs were evaluated using propidium iodide, an impermeable cell membrane dye. LSCM images depicted the release of propidium iodide in the endoplasmic reticulum and cell nucleus of HeLa cells. PMID:27134749

  14. Facile Method for the Production of Recombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Hamorsky, Krystal; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report an Escherichia coli-based expression and purification method of recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). The CTB gene (E. coli codon optimized) is cloned into commercial pET-22b(+) vector using standard molecular biology techniques and the resulting vector is transformed into BL21(DE3) electrocompetent cells. The bacterial cells are grown and induction with isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) results in accumulation of CTB in the culture medium. CTB is purified from the culture medium using a simple two-step chromatography process: immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) followed by ceramic hydroxyapatite (CHT). CTB is purified to >95 % homogeneity with a yield of over 10 mg per liter of culture. Depending on the application, endotoxin is removed using a commercially available endotoxin removal resin to <1 EU/mg.

  15. N-Glycosylation of Cholera Toxin B Subunit: Serendipity for Novel Plant-Made Vaccines?

    PubMed Central

    Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The non-toxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) has attracted considerable interests from vaccinologists due to strong mucosal immunomodulatory effects and potential utility as a vaccine scaffold for heterologous antigens. Along with other conventional protein expression systems, various plant species have been used as production hosts for CTB and its fusion proteins. However, it has recently become clear that the protein is N-glycosylated within the endoplasmic reticulum of plant cells—a eukaryotic post-translational modification that is not present in native CTB. While functionally active aglycosylated variants have been successfully engineered to circumvent potential safety and regulatory issues related to glycosylation, this modification may actually provide advantageous characteristics to the protein as a vaccine platform. Based on data from our recent studies, I discuss the unique features of N-glycosylated CTB produced in plants for the development of novel vaccines. PMID:26732492

  16. Production of Recombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit in Nicotiana benthamiana Using GENEWARE® Tobacco Mosaic Virus Vector.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lauren; Hamorsky, Krystal; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a method to produce a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit in Nicotiana benthamiana plants (CTBp) using the GENEWARE(®) tobacco mosaic virus vector system. Infectious transcripts of the vector RNA are generated in vitro and inoculated on N. benthamiana seedlings. After 11 days, CTBp is extracted in a simple tris buffer at room temperature. No protease inhibitor is required. The leaf homogenate is treated with mild heat and a pH shift to selectively precipitate host-derived proteins. CTBp is purified to >95 % homogeneity by two-step chromatography using immobilized metal affinity and ceramic hydroxyapatite resins. This procedure yields on average 400 mg of low-endotoxin CTBp from 1 kg of fresh leaf material.

  17. N-Glycosylation of Cholera Toxin B Subunit: Serendipity for Novel Plant-Made Vaccines?

    PubMed

    Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The non-toxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) has attracted considerable interests from vaccinologists due to strong mucosal immunomodulatory effects and potential utility as a vaccine scaffold for heterologous antigens. Along with other conventional protein expression systems, various plant species have been used as production hosts for CTB and its fusion proteins. However, it has recently become clear that the protein is N-glycosylated within the endoplasmic reticulum of plant cells-a eukaryotic post-translational modification that is not present in native CTB. While functionally active aglycosylated variants have been successfully engineered to circumvent potential safety and regulatory issues related to glycosylation, this modification may actually provide advantageous characteristics to the protein as a vaccine platform. Based on data from our recent studies, I discuss the unique features of N-glycosylated CTB produced in plants for the development of novel vaccines.

  18. NADP/sup +/ enhances cholera and pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Y.; Whitsel, C.; Arinze, I.J.

    1986-05-01

    Cholera or pertussis toxin-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation is frequently used to estimate the concentration of the stimulatory (Ns) or inhibitory (Ni) guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins which modulate the activity of adenylate cyclase. With this assay, however, the degradation of the substrate, NAD/sup +/, by endogenous enzymes such as NAD/sup +/-glycohydrolase (NADase) present in the test membranes can influence the results. In this study the authors show that both cholera and pertussis toxin-catalyzed (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation of liver membrane proteins is markedly enhanced by NADP/sup +/. The effect is concentration dependent; with 20 ..mu..M (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ as substrate maximal enhancement is obtained at 0.5-1.0 mM NADP/sup +/. The enhancement of (/sup 32/P)ADP-ribosylation by NADP/sup +/ was much greater than that by other known effectors such as Mg/sup 2 +/, phosphate or isoniazid. The effect of NADP/sup +/ on ADP-ribosylation may occur by inhibition of the degradation of NAD/sup +/ probably by acting as an alternate substrate for NADase. Among inhibitors tested (NADP/sup +/, isoniazid, imidazole, nicotinamide, L-Arg-methyl-ester and HgCl/sub 2/) to suppress NADase activity, NADP/sup +/ was the most effective and, 10 mM, inhibited activity of the enzyme by about 90%. In membranes which contain substantial activities of NADase the inclusion of NADP/sup +/ in the assay is necessary to obtain maximal ADP-ribosylation.

  19. A Nanocoaxial-Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Cholera Toxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, Michelle M.; Rizal, Binod; Connolly, Timothy; Burns, Michael J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.

    2015-03-01

    Sensitive, real-time detection of biomarkers is of critical importance for rapid and accurate diagnosis of disease for point of care (POC) technologies. Current methods do not allow for POC applications due to several limitations, including sophisticated instrumentation, high reagent consumption, limited multiplexing capability, and cost. Here, we report a nanocoaxial-based electrochemical sensor for the detection of bacterial toxins using an electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Proof-of-concept was demonstrated for the detection of cholera toxin (CT). The linear dynamic range of detection was 10 ng/ml - 1 μg/ml, and the limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 2 ng/ml. This level of sensitivity is comparable to the standard optical ELISA used widely in clinical applications. In addition to matching the detection profile of the standard ELISA, the nanocoaxial array provides a simple electrochemical readout and a miniaturized platform with multiplexing capabilities for the simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers, giving the nanocoax a desirable advantage over the standard method towards POC applications. Sensitive, real-time detection of biomarkers is of critical importance for rapid and accurate diagnosis of disease for point of care (POC) technologies. Current methods do not allow for POC applications due to several limitations, including sophisticated instrumentation, high reagent consumption, limited multiplexing capability, and cost. Here, we report a nanocoaxial-based electrochemical sensor for the detection of bacterial toxins using an electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Proof-of-concept was demonstrated for the detection of cholera toxin (CT). The linear dynamic range of detection was 10 ng/ml - 1 μg/ml, and the limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 2 ng/ml. This level of sensitivity is comparable to the standard optical

  20. Purification and characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pestis LcrV–cholera toxin A2/B chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Chadwick T.; Arlian, Britni M.

    2010-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a virulent human pathogen and potential biological weapon. Despite a long history of research on this organism, there is no licensed vaccine to protect against pneumonic forms of Y. pestis disease. In the present study, plasmids were constructed to express cholera toxin A2/B chimeric molecules containing the LcrV protective antigen from Y. enterocolitica and Y. pestis. These chimeras were expressed and purified to high yields from the supernatant of transformed E. coli. Western and GM1 ELISA assays were used to characterize the composition, receptor-binding and relative stability of the LcrV-CTA2/B chimera in comparison to cholera toxin. In addition, we investigated the ability of the Y. pestis LcrV-CTA2/B chimera to bind to and internalize into cultured epithelial cells and macrophages by confocal microscopy. These studies indicate that the uptake and trafficking of the LcrV antigen from the chimera is comparable to the trafficking of native toxin. Together these findings report that stable, receptor-binding, non-toxic LcrV-cholera toxin A2/B chimeras can be expressed at high levels in E. coli and purified from the supernatant. In addition, the internalization of antigen in vitro reported here supports the development of these molecules as novel mucosal vaccine candidates. PMID:20438844

  1. Intradermal immunization in the ear with cholera toxin and its non-toxic β subunit promotes efficient Th1 and Th17 differentiation dependent on migrating DCs.

    PubMed

    Meza-Sánchez, David; Pérez-Montesinos, Gibrán; Sánchez-García, Javier; Moreno, José; Bonifaz, Laura C

    2011-10-01

    The nature of CD4(+) T-cell responses after skin immunization and the role of migrating DCs in the presence of adjuvants in the elicited response are interesting issues to be investigated. Here, we evaluated the priming of CD4(+) T cells following ear immunization with low doses of model antigens in combination with either cholera toxin (CT) or the non-toxic β CT subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant. Following immunization with CT, we found efficient antigen presentation that is reflected in the production of IFN-γ and IL-17 by CD4(+) T cells over IL-4 or IL-5 production. The CTB-induced activation of DCs in the ear occurred without visible inflammation, which reflects a similar type of CD4(+) T-cell differentiation. In both cases, the elicited response was dependent on the presence of migrating skin cells. Remarkably, immunization with CT or with CTB led to the induction of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in the ear. The DTH response that was induced by CT immunization was dependent on IL-17 and partially dependent on IFN-γ activity. These results indicate that both CT and CTB induce an efficient CD4(+) T-cell response to a co-administered antigen following ear immunization that is dependent on migrating DCs.

  2. Cholera outbreaks caused by an altered Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strain producing classical cholera toxin B in Vietnam in 2007 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Minh; Lee, Je Hee; Cuong, Ngo Tuan; Choi, Seon Young; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Anh, Dang Duc; Lee, Hye Ri; Ansaruzzaman, M; Endtz, Hubert P; Chun, Jongsik; Lopez, Anna Lena; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Clemens, John D; Kim, Dong Wook

    2009-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates collected during cholera outbreaks occurring from late 2007 to early 2008 in northern Vietnam were revealed to represent an altered strain containing the RS1 element followed by a CTX prophage harboring El Tor type rstR and classical ctxB on the large chromosome.

  3. Cholera toxin-B (ctxB) antigen expressing Salmonella Typhimurium polyvalent vaccine exerts protective immune response against Vibrio cholerae infection.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Vikalp; Sahoo, Sushree Sangita; Das, Susmita; Ray, Shilpa; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2015-04-08

    Live attenuated vaccines are cost effective approach for preventing a broad range of infectious diseases, and thus are of great interest. However, immune-defects can predispose the patient to infections by the vaccine candidate itself. So far, few live vaccine candidates have been designed specifically for immune compromised individuals. Recently, we reported a new Salmonella Typhimurium Z234-vaccine strain (Periaswamy et al., PLoS ONE 2012;7:e45433), which was specifically attenuated in the NADPH-oxidase deficient host. In the present study, the Z234-vaccine strain was further engineered to express heterologous antigen (Vibrio cholerae toxin antigen subunit-B, i.e. CtxB) with the intention of creating a vector for simultaneous protection against Cholera and Salmonellosis. The primary aim of this study was to ensure the expression of CtxB antigen by the recombinant vaccine strain Z234-pMS101. The antigen CtxB was expressed through Z234 as a fusion protein with N-terminal signal sequence of Salmonella outer protein (SopE), an effector protein from Salmonella under the control of SopE promoter. The CtxB-expressing plasmid construct pMS101 (pM968-pSopE-ctxB) was found to be stable both in vitro and in vivo. In an oral mouse infection model, the vaccine strain Z234-pMS101 efficiently colonized the host gut. The extent of protection was confirmed after challenging the immunized hosts with live V. cholerae. Vaccinated mice showed reduced gut colonization by V. cholerae. Further assessment of immunological parameters supported the possibility of conferring effective immune response by Z234-pMS101 vaccine strain. Overall, the Z234-pMS101 vaccine strain showed potential as a promising polyvalent vaccine candidate to protect against S. Typhimurium and V. cholerae infection simultaneously.

  4. A Nanocoaxial-Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Cholera Toxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, Michelle; Rizal, Binod; Connolly, Timothy; Burns, Michael J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.; Biology; Physics Collaboration

    We report a nanocoax-based electrochemical sensor for the detection of bacterial toxins using an electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The device architecture is composed of vertically-oriented, nanoscale coaxial electrodes, with coax cores and shields serving as integrated working and counter electrodes, respectively. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated for the detection of cholera toxin (CT), with a linear dynamic range of detection was 10 ng/ml - 1 µg/ml, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 2 ng/ml. This level of sensitivity is comparable to the standard optical ELISA used widely in clinical applications. The nanocoax array thus matches the detection profile of the standard ELISA while providing a simple electrochemical readout and a miniaturized platform with multiplexing capabilities, toward point-of-care (POC) implementation. In addition, next generation nanocoax devices with extended cores are currently under development, which would provide a POC platform amenable for biofunctionalization of ELISA receptor proteins directly onto the device. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute Award No. CA137681 and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Award No. AI100216).

  5. Immunochromatographic detection of the heat-labile enterotoxin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with cross-detection of cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Arimitsu, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Keiko; Tsuji, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report the development of an immunochromatographic test strip that can detect heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Five types of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-producing hybridomas were isolated: three mAbs were A subunit specific and two were B subunit specific. Four mAbs also cross-reacted with both LT proteins derived from swine and human E. coli strains, but only one mAb 57B9 additionally cross-reacted with cholera toxin. Thus, mAb 57B9 was used to form a gold colloid-conjugated antibody for the immunochromatographic test by combination with polyclonal anti-LT rabbit IgG. This test strip detected not only LT in the culture supernatant of LT gene-positive strains, but also cholera toxin in the culture supernatant of Vibrio cholerae. These results indicate that this test strip is suitable for the diagnosis of both enterotoxigenic E. coli and V. cholerae infection.

  6. Intranasal immunization with influenza antigens conjugated with cholera toxin subunit B stimulates broad spectrum immunity against influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Junwei; Arévalo, Maria T; Chen, Yanping; Posadas, Olivia; Smith, Jacob A; Zeng, Mingtao

    2014-01-01

    Frequent mutation of influenza viruses keep vaccinated and non-vaccinated populations vulnerable to new infections, causing serious burdens to public health and the economy. Vaccination with universal influenza vaccines would be the best way to effectively protect people from infection caused by mismatched or unforeseen influenza viruses. Presently, there is no FDA approved universal influenza vaccine. In this study, we expressed and purified a fusion protein comprising of influenza matrix 2 protein ectodomain peptides, a centralized influenza hemagglutinin stem region, and cholera toxin subunit B. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with this novel artificial antigen resulted in potent humoral immune responses, including induction of specific IgA and IgG, and broad protection against infection by multiple influenza viruses. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that when used as a mucosal antigen, cholera toxin subunit B improved antigen-stimulated T cell and memory B cell responses.

  7. Cholera toxin B subunit pentamer reassembled from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies for use in vaccination.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Yukihiro; Harakuni, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Rui; Miyata, Takeshi; Arakawa, Takeshi

    2016-03-04

    The cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) is secreted in its pentameric form from Escherichia coli if its leader peptide is replaced with one of E. coli origin. However, the secretion of the pentamer is generally severely impaired when the molecule is mutated or fused to a foreign peptide. Therefore, we attempted to regenerate pentameric CTB from the inclusion bodies (IBs) of E. coli. Stepwise dialysis of the IBs solubilized in guanidine hydrochloride predominantly generated soluble high-molecular-mass (HMM) aggregates and only a small fraction of pentamer. Three methods to reassemble homogeneous pentameric molecules were evaluated: (i) using a pentameric coiled-coil fusion partner, expecting it to function as an assembly core; (ii) optimizing the protein concentration during refolding; and (iii) eliminating contaminants before refolding. Coiled-coil fusion had some effect, but substantial amounts of HMM aggregates were still generated. Varying the protein concentration from 0.05 mg/mL to 5mg/mL had almost no effect. In contrast, eliminating the contaminants before refolding had a robust effect, and only the pentamer was regenerated, with no detectable HMM aggregates. Surprisingly, the protein concentration at refolding was up to 5mg/mL when the contaminants were removed, with no adverse effects on refolding. The regenerated pentamer was indistinguishable in its biochemical and immunological characteristics from CTB secreted from E. coli or choleragenoid from Vibrio cholerae. This study provides a simple but very efficient strategy for pentamerizing CTB with a highly homogeneous molecular conformation, with which it may be feasible to engineer CTB derivatives and CTB fusion antigens.

  8. The nucleotide exchange factors Grp170 and Sil1 induce cholera toxin release from BiP to enable retrotranslocation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeffrey M; Inoue, Takamasa; Chen, Grace; Tsai, Billy

    2015-06-15

    Cholera toxin (CT) intoxicates cells by trafficking from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where the catalytic CTA1 subunit hijacks components of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery to retrotranslocate to the cytosol and induce toxicity. In the ER, CT targets to the ERAD machinery composed of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1-Sel1L complex, in part via the activity of the Sel1L-binding partner ERdj5. This J protein stimulates BiP's ATPase activity, allowing BiP to capture the toxin. Presumably, toxin release from BiP must occur before retrotranslocation. Here, using loss-and gain-of-function approaches coupled with binding studies, we demonstrate that the ER-resident nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) Grp170 and Sil1 induce CT release from BiP in order to promote toxin retrotranslocation. In addition, we find that after NEF-dependent release from BiP, the toxin is transferred to protein disulfide isomerase; this ER redox chaperone is known to unfold CTA1, which allows the toxin to cross the Hrd1-Sel1L complex. Our data thus identify two NEFs that trigger toxin release from BiP to enable successful retrotranslocation and clarify the fate of the toxin after it disengages from BiP.

  9. The nucleotide exchange factors Grp170 and Sil1 induce cholera toxin release from BiP to enable retrotranslocation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jeffrey M.; Inoue, Takamasa; Chen, Grace; Tsai, Billy

    2015-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) intoxicates cells by trafficking from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where the catalytic CTA1 subunit hijacks components of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery to retrotranslocate to the cytosol and induce toxicity. In the ER, CT targets to the ERAD machinery composed of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1-Sel1L complex, in part via the activity of the Sel1L-binding partner ERdj5. This J protein stimulates BiP's ATPase activity, allowing BiP to capture the toxin. Presumably, toxin release from BiP must occur before retrotranslocation. Here, using loss-and gain-of-function approaches coupled with binding studies, we demonstrate that the ER-resident nucleotide exchange factors (NEFs) Grp170 and Sil1 induce CT release from BiP in order to promote toxin retrotranslocation. In addition, we find that after NEF-dependent release from BiP, the toxin is transferred to protein disulfide isomerase; this ER redox chaperone is known to unfold CTA1, which allows the toxin to cross the Hrd1-Sel1L complex. Our data thus identify two NEFs that trigger toxin release from BiP to enable successful retrotranslocation and clarify the fate of the toxin after it disengages from BiP. PMID:25877869

  10. A novel fluorescent retrograde neural tracer: cholera toxin B conjugated carbon dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nan; Hao, Zeyu; Zhao, Xiaohuan; Maharjan, Suraj; Zhu, Shoujun; Song, Yubin; Yang, Bai; Lu, Laijin

    2015-09-01

    The retrograde neuroanatomical tracing method is a key technique to study the complex interconnections of the nervous system. Traditional tracers have several drawbacks, including time-consuming immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent staining procedures, rapid fluorescence quenching and low fluorescence intensity. Carbon dots (CDs) have been widely used as a fluorescent bio-probe due to their ultrasmall size, excellent optical properties, chemical stability, biocompatibility and low toxicity. Herein, we develop a novel fluorescent neural tracer: cholera toxin B-carbon dot conjugates (CTB-CDs). It can be taken up and retrogradely transported by neurons in the peripheral nervous system of rats. Our results show that CTB-CDs possess high photoluminescence intensity, good optical stability, a long shelf-life and non-toxicity. Tracing with CTB-CDs is a direct and more economical way of performing retrograde labelling experiments. Therefore, CTB-CDs are reliable fluorescent retrograde tracers.The retrograde neuroanatomical tracing method is a key technique to study the complex interconnections of the nervous system. Traditional tracers have several drawbacks, including time-consuming immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent staining procedures, rapid fluorescence quenching and low fluorescence intensity. Carbon dots (CDs) have been widely used as a fluorescent bio-probe due to their ultrasmall size, excellent optical properties, chemical stability, biocompatibility and low toxicity. Herein, we develop a novel fluorescent neural tracer: cholera toxin B-carbon dot conjugates (CTB-CDs). It can be taken up and retrogradely transported by neurons in the peripheral nervous system of rats. Our results show that CTB-CDs possess high photoluminescence intensity, good optical stability, a long shelf-life and non-toxicity. Tracing with CTB-CDs is a direct and more economical way of performing retrograde labelling experiments. Therefore, CTB-CDs are reliable fluorescent retrograde

  11. Cytokines: The Future of Intranasal Vaccine Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Afton L.; Staats, Herman F.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its potential as an effective, needle-free route of immunization for use with subunit vaccines, nasal immunization continues to be evaluated as a route of immunization in both research and clinical studies. However, as with other vaccination routes, subunit vaccines often require the addition of adjuvants to induce potent immune responses. Unfortunately, many commonly used experimental vaccine adjuvants, such as cholera toxin and E. coli heat-labile toxin, are too toxic for use in humans. Because new adjuvants are needed, cytokines have been evaluated for their ability to provide effective adjuvant activity when delivered by the nasal route in both animal models and in limited human studies. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the potential of cytokines as nasal vaccine adjuvants. PMID:21826181

  12. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    Discussing the symptomatology of cholera, the author deals first with the incubation period, the clinical types, choleraic diarrhoea, and cholerine; he then considers in detail the various stages of cholera gravis and the relapses and complications that may be met. This is followed by sections on diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and on prognosis and the various factors influencing it. The author's highly detailed review of the treatment of cholera which concludes this study is divided into three parts, dealing with attempts at specific therapy, with infusion treatment, and with adjuvant treatment. PMID:13426761

  13. Expression of the cholera toxin B subunit (CT-B) in maize seeds and a combined mucosal treatment against cholera and traveler's diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Karaman, S; Cunnick, J; Wang, K

    2012-03-01

    The non-toxic B subunit (CT-B) of cholera toxin from Vibrio cholerae is a strong immunogen and amplifies the immune reaction to conjugated antigens. In this work, a synthetic gene encoding for CT-B was expressed under control of a γ-zein promoter in maize seeds. Levels of CT-B in maize plants were determined via ganglioside dependent ELISA. The highest expression level recorded in T(1) generation seeds was 0.0014% of total aqueous soluble protein (TASP). Expression level of the same event in the T(2) generation was significantly increased to 0.0197% of TASP. Immunogenicity of maize derived CT-B was evaluated in mice with an oral immunization trial. Anti-CTB IgG and anti-CTB IgA were detected in the sera and fecal samples of the orally immunized mice, respectively. The mice were protected against holotoxin challenge with CT. An additional group of mice was administrated with an equal amount (5 μg per dose each) of mixed maize-derived CT-B and LT-B (B subunit of E. coli heat labile toxin). In the sera and fecal samples obtained from this group, the specific antibody levels were enhanced compared to either the same or a higher amount of CT-B alone. These results suggest that a synergistic action may be achieved using a CT-B and LT-B mixture that can lead to a more efficacious combined vaccine to target diarrhea induced by both cholera and enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli.

  14. Carbohydrate binding specificities and crystal structure of the cholera toxin-like B-subunit from Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Lena; Angström, Jonas; Lebens, Michael; Imberty, Anne; Varrot, Annabelle; Teneberg, Susann

    2010-05-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae are well known causative agents of severe diarrheal diseases. Both pathogens produce AB(5) toxins, with one enzymatically active A-subunit and a pentamer of receptor-binding B-subunits. The primary receptor for both B-subunits is the GM1 ganglioside (Galbeta3GalNAcbeta4(NeuAcalpha3)Galbeta4GlcbetaCer), but the B-subunits from porcine isolates of E. coli also bind neolacto-(Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta-)terminated glycoconjugates and the B-subunits from human isolates of E. coli (hLTB) have affinity for blood group A type 2-(GalNAcalpha3(Fucalpha2)Galbeta4GlcNAcbeta-)terminated glycoconjugates. A B-subunit with 73% sequence identity to the B-subunits of cholera toxin and the heat-labile toxin of E. coli is produced by certain strains of enteropathogenic E. coli and by Citrobacter freundii. This C. freundii B-subunit (CFXB) has now been expressed in V. cholerae, and isolated in high yields. Glycosphingolipid binding studies show that CFXB binds to the GM1 ganglioside with high affinity. In addition, CFXB has high affinity for both neolacto-terminated and blood group A type 2-terminated glycoconjugates. The crystal structure of the pentameric arrangement of C. freundii B-subunits display high structural similarity with related proteins from E. coli and V. cholerae and oligosaccharide binding sites can be identified on the protein surface. Small changes in the 88-95 loop connecting the GM1 and blood group A binding sites explains the minor changes in affinity seen for these two ligands. However, the enhanced affinity of CFXB for neolacto-terminated structures can be sought in the Lys34Tyr substitution affording additional hydrogen bond interactions between the tyrosyl side chain and the GlcNAcbeta3Galb4Glcbeta1 segment of neolactotetraosylceramide via bridging water molecules.

  15. Stensen's duct injuries: the role of sialendoscopy and adjuvant botulinum toxin injection

    PubMed Central

    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Szyfter, Witold

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Stensen's duct injuries are uncommon but troublesome sequelae of facial surgery or other external traumas. Aim To investigate the feasibility of sialendoscopic control of Stensen's duct in iatrogenic injuries and the efficiency of botulinum toxin adjuvant therapy. Material and methods In 2008 and 2010, 5 patients with parotid sialoceles or fistulas, infrequent complications after plastic surgery or trauma, were treated in a single institution, Poznan University of Medical Sciences ENT Department. The group consisted of 5 patients with diagnosed Stensen's duct injuries, which were post-surgery and post-traumatic sequelae. All were treated by means of open surgery. Botulinum toxin injection was administered during the procedure to decrease the saliva secretion and to improve the healing process. A sialendoscopy was performed to control the lumen of the junction after the duct injury was repaired. Results Complete healing of the fistulas and sialoceles after the reparative surgery followed by a single botulinum toxin application was observed in all patients within 10-14 days. No side effects were noticed. Conclusions Our findings suggest that sialendoscopy is a valuable tool and an important step of control in the surgery of parotid duct injuries and the injection of botulinum toxin is an effective and safe second-line treatment. PMID:23837095

  16. Glycolipid Crosslinking Is Required for Cholera Toxin to Partition Into and Stabilize Ordered Domains.

    PubMed

    Raghunathan, Krishnan; Wong, Tiffany H; Chinnapen, Daniel J; Lencer, Wayne I; Jobling, Michael G; Kenworthy, Anne K

    2016-12-20

    Current models of lipid rafts propose that lipid domains exist as nanoscale compositional fluctuations and these fluctuations can potentially be stabilized into larger domains, consequently better compartmentalizing cellular functions. However, the mechanisms governing stabilized raft assembly and function remain unclear. Here, we test the role of glycolipid crosslinking as a raft targeting and ordering mechanism using the well-studied raft marker cholera toxin B pentamer (CTxB) that binds up to five GM1 glycosphingolipids to enter host cells. We show that when applied to cell-derived giant plasma membrane vesicles, a variant of CTxB containing only a single functional GM1 binding site exhibits significantly reduced partitioning to the ordered phase compared to wild-type CTxB with five binding sites. Moreover, monovalent CTxB does not stabilize membrane domains, unlike wild-type CTxB. These results support the long-held hypothesis that CTxB stabilizes raft domains via a lipid crosslinking mechanism and establish a role for crosslinking in the partitioning of CTxB to ordered domains.

  17. Sub-attomolar detection of cholera toxin using a label-free capacitive immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Loyprasert, S; Hedström, M; Thavarungkul, P; Kanatharana, P; Mattiasson, B

    2010-04-15

    A label-free immunosensor for the direct detection of cholera toxin (CT) at sub-attomolar level has been developed based on potential-step capacitance measurements. Anti-CT antibody was adsorbed on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) incorporated on a polytyramine-modified gold electrode. The concentration of CT was determined by detecting the change of capacitance caused by the formation of antibody-antigen complexes. By using AuNPs adsorbed to the sensing surface, the signal was dramatically increased leading to a significantly more sensitive assay. In fact, under optimum conditions the immunosensor could detect CT concentration with a limit of detection of 9 x 10(-20)M or 0.09 aM, with a dynamic range between 0.1 aM and 10 pM. Good analytical reproducibility could be obtained by injecting CT up to 36 times with an RSD of 2.5%. In addition, good performance of the developed immunosensor was achieved when applied to turbid water samples collected from a local stream that were spiked with CT.

  18. Repeatability of ellipsometric data in cholera toxin G M1-ELISA structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Leon G.; Thompson, Daniel W.; Tiwald, Thomas; Berberov, Emil M.; Woollam, John A.

    2007-04-01

    The need for repeated measurements in a wide range of biological testing due to statistical variations is well known. In this paper, we discuss a specific example in which the measurement probe is a spectroscopic ellipsometer. Repeatable results are needed in a wide range of applications such as drug testing, immunoassays and other tests for disease, and fundamental biomaterial research. The present paper seeks to help reduce the non-meaningful causes of lack of repeatability by identifying a large number of externally controllable factors. Another goal of this work was to quantify the effects of many of these factors on ellipsometric measurements. By exploiting the sensitivity of spectroscopic ellipsometry to ultrathin layers, improved ways to detect and quantitatively differentiate biological events can be explored. This initial work was motivated from an interest to distinguish one disease from another or discern effects of one drug from another using the high surface sensitivity of spectroscopic ellipsometry. In this paper, we investigate the example biological system of cholera toxin (CT) in an ELISA structure with monosialoganglioside (G M1).

  19. Purification and characterization of a novel cell-penetrating carrier similar to cholera toxin chimeric protein.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiping; Zheng, Xi; Wang, Huaqian; Yu, Lin; Zhou, Xiaofen; Sun, Yunxiao; Zhao, Suqing; Du, Zhiyun; Zhang, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Developing a recombinant vector for noninvasively delivering biological macromolecules into the brain is important. This study constructed and purified a protein complex based on the cholera toxin (CT) molecular structure. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-modified A2 subunits of CT (CTA2) were used as tracer molecules for introduction of transactivator of transcription (TAT) through the A subunit into cells. The protein complex EGFP-CTA2-TAT/(CTB)5 (CTB: B subunit of CT) was obtained using an in vitro recombination method and verified by monosialoganglioside-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high performance liquid chromatography assay. The protein complexes bound more strongly to monosialoganglioside (GM1) than (CTB)5 at low concentrations (0.625-1.25 μg/mL). In vitro assays revealed that the transmembrane function of TAT was also maintained. The GM1-binding activity and cell membrane-penetrating ability suggested that a CT structure-based protein complexes could be used to design a delivery carrier for intranasal administration through GM1 binding. The expression vector introduced in this study provides a feasible expression frame for constructing several new macromolecular protein drugs for effective cell penetration.

  20. Cholera-toxin suppresses carcinogenesis in a mouse model of inflammation-driven sporadic colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Doulberis, Michael; Angelopoulou, Katerina; Kaldrymidou, Eleni; Tsingotjidou, Anastasia; Abas, Zaphiris; Erdman, Suzan E; Poutahidis, Theofilos

    2015-02-01

    Human studies and clues from animal models have provided important links between gastrointestinal (GI) tract bacteria and colon cancer. Gut microbiota antigenic stimuli play an important role in shaping the intestinal immune responses. Therefore, especially in the case of inflammation-associated colon cancer, gut bacteria antigens may affect tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the oral administration of a bacterial product with known immunomodulatory properties on inflammation-driven colorectal neoplasmatogenesis. For that, we used cholera-toxin and a well-established mouse model of colon cancer in which neoplasia is initiated by a single dose of the genotoxic agent azoxymethane (AOM) and subsequently promoted by inflammation caused by the colitogenic substance dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). We found that a single, low, non-pathogenic dose of CT, given orally at the beginning of each DSS treatment cycle downregulated neutrophils and upregulated regulatory T-cells and IL-10 in the colonic mucosa. The CT-induced disruption of the tumor-promoting character of DSS-induced inflammation led to the reduction of the AOM-initiated colonic polypoidogenesis. This result adds value to the emerging notion that certain GI tract bacteria or their products affect the immune system and render the microenvironment of preneoplastic lesions less favorable for promoting their evolution to cancer.

  1. Impaired Oral Tolerance Induction in Diabetes Prone but not in Diabetes Resistant Mice Revealed by Cholera Toxin Subunit B-Peptide Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Presa, Maximiliano; Ortiz, Angela Zarama; Garabatos, Nahir; Izquierdo, Cristina; Rivas, Elisa I.; Teyton, Luc; Mora, Conchi; Serreze, David; Stratmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) has been used as adjuvant to improve oral vaccine delivery in type 1 diabetes. The effect of CTB/peptide formulations on antigen-specific CD4 T cells has remained largely unexplored. We investigated by tetramer analysis how oral delivery of CTB fused to 2 CD4 T cell epitopes, the BDC-2.5 T cell 2.5mi mimotope and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 286–300, affected diabetogenic CD4 T cells in NOD mice. CTB-2.5mi activated 2.5mi+ T cells when administered intraperitoneally and generated Ag-specific Foxp3+ Treg and Th2 cells following intragastric delivery. While 2.5mi+ and GAD-specific T cells were tolerized in diabetes resistant NODxB6.Foxp3EGFP F1 and NOR mice, this did not occur in NOD mice. This indicated NOD mice had a recessive genetic resistance to induce oral tolerance to both CTB-fused epitopes. Contrarily to NODxB6.Foxp3EGFP F1 mice, oral treatment in NOD mice lead to strong 2.5mi+ T cell activation and the sequestration of these cells to the effector-memory pool. Oral treatment of NOD mice with CTB-2.5mi failed to prevent diabetes. These findings underline the importance of investigating the effect of oral vaccine formulations on diabetogenic T cells as in selected cases they may have counterproductive consequences in human patients. PMID:23925934

  2. Autophagy and endosomal trafficking inhibition by Vibrio cholerae MARTX toxin phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-specific phospholipase A1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shivani; Kim, Hyunjin; Chan, Robin B.; Agarwal, Shivangi; Williamson, Rebecca; Cho, Wonhwa; Paolo, Gilbert D.; Satchell, Karla J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, responsible for acute gastroenteritis secretes a large multifunctional-autoprocessing repeat-in-toxin (MARTX) toxin linked to evasion of host immune system, facilitating colonization of small intestine. Unlike other effector domains of the multifunctional toxin that target cytoskeleton, the function of alpha-beta hydrolase (ABH) remained elusive. This study demonstrates that ABH is an esterase/lipase with catalytic Ser–His–Asp triad. ABH binds with high affinity to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) and cleaves the fatty acid in PtdIns3P at the sn1 position in vitro making it the first PtdIns3P-specific phospholipase A1 (PLA1). Expression of ABH in vivo reduces intracellular PtdIns3P levels and its PtdIns3P-specific PLA1 activity blocks endosomal and autophagic pathways. In accordance with recent studies acknowledging the potential of extracellular pathogens to evade or exploit autophagy to prevent their clearance and facilitate survival, this is the first report highlighting the role of ABH in inhibiting autophagy and endosomal trafficking induced by extracellular V. cholerae. PMID:26498860

  3. Architecture of the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pilus machine revealed by electron cryotomography.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Wei; Kjær, Andreas; Ortega, Davi R; Kovacikova, Gabriela; Sutherland, John A; Rettberg, Lee A; Taylor, Ronald K; Jensen, Grant J

    2017-02-06

    Type IV pili (T4P) are filamentous appendages found on many Bacteria and Archaea. They are helical fibres of pilin proteins assembled by a multi-component macromolecular machine we call the basal body. Based on pilin features, T4P are classified into type IVa pili (T4aP) and type IVb pili (T4bP)(1,2). T4aP are more widespread and are involved in cell motility(3), DNA transfer(4), host predation(5) and electron transfer(6). T4bP are less prevalent and are mainly found in enteropathogenic bacteria, where they play key roles in host colonization(7). Following similar work on T4aP machines(8,9), here we use electron cryotomography(10) to reveal the three-dimensional in situ structure of a T4bP machine in its piliated and non-piliated states. The specific machine we analyse is the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pilus machine (TCPM). Although only about half of the components of the TCPM show sequence homology to components of the previously analysed Myxococcus xanthus T4aP machine (T4aPM), we find that their structures are nevertheless remarkably similar. Based on homologies with components of the M. xanthus T4aPM and additional reconstructions of TCPM mutants in which the non-homologous proteins are individually deleted, we propose locations for all eight TCPM components within the complex. Non-homologous proteins in the T4aPM and TCPM are found to form similar structures, suggesting new hypotheses for their functions and evolutionary histories.

  4. Cholera Toxin B Subunit Shows Transneuronal Tracing after Injection in an Injured Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Bi-Qin; Qiu, Xue-Chen; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Rong-Yi; Jin, Hui; Li, Ge; Shen, Hui-Yong; Wu, Jin-Lang; Ling, Eng-Ang; Zeng, Yuan-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) has been extensively used in the past for monosynaptic mapping. For decades, it was thought to lack the ability of transneuronal tracing. In order to investigate whether biotin conjugates of CTB (b-CTB) would pass through transneurons in the rat spinal cord, it was injected into the crushed left sciatic nerve. For experimental control, the first order afferent neuronal projections were defined by retrograde transport of fluorogold (FG, a non-transneuronal labeling marker as an experimental control) injected into the crushed right sciatic nerve in the same rat. Neurons containing b-CTB or FG were observed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at the L4-L6 levels ipsilateral to the tracer injection. In the spinal cord, b-CTB labeled neurons were distributed in all laminae ipsilaterally between C7 and S1 segments, but labeling of neurons at the cervical segment was abolished when the T10 segment was transected completely. The interneurons, distributed in the intermediate gray matter and identified as gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic), were labeled by b-CTB. In contrast, FG labeling was confined to the ventral horn neurons at L4-L6 spinal segments ipsilateral to the injection. b-CTB immunoreactivity remained to be restricted to the soma of neurons and often appeared as irregular patches detected by light and electron microscopy. Detection of monosialoganglioside (GM1) in b-CTB labeled neurons suggests that GM1 ganglioside may specifically enhance the uptake and transneuronal passage of b-CTB, thus supporting the notion that it may be used as a novel transneuronal tracer. PMID:26640949

  5. Cholera toxin enhances Na+ absorption across MCF10A human mammary epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Cellular mechanisms to account for the low Na+ concentration in human milk are poorly defined. MCF10A cells, which were derived from human mammary epithelium and grown on permeable supports, exhibit amiloride- and benzamil-sensitive short-circuit current (Isc; a sensitive indicator of net ion transport), suggesting activity of the epithelial Na+ channel ENaC. When cultured in the presence of cholera toxin (Ctx), MCF10A cells exhibit greater amiloride-sensitive Isc at all time points tested (2 h to 7 days), an effect that is not reduced with Ctx washout for 12 h. Amiloride-sensitive Isc remains elevated by Ctx in the presence of inhibitors for PKA (H-89, Rp-cAMP), PI3K (LY294002), and protein trafficking (brefeldin A). Additionally, the Ctx B subunit, alone, does not replicate these effects. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses indicate no significant increase in either the mRNA or protein expression for α-, β-, or, γ-ENaC subunits. Ctx increases the abundance of both β- and γ-ENaC in the apical membrane. Additionally, Ctx increases both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated Nedd4-2 expression. These results demonstrate that human mammary epithelia express ENaC, which can account for the low Na+ concentration in milk. Importantly, the results suggest that Ctx increases the expression but reduces the activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2, which would tend to reduce the ENaC retrieval and increase steady-state membrane residency. The results reveal a novel mechanism in human mammary gland epithelia by which Ctx regulates ENaC-mediated Na+ transport, which may have inferences for epithelial ion transport regulation in other tissues throughout the body. PMID:24371040

  6. Molecular simulation of N-acetylneuraminic acid analogs and molecular dynamics studies of cholera toxin-Neu5Gc complex.

    PubMed

    Blessy, J Jino; Sharmila, D Jeya Sundara

    2015-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) is an AB5 protein complex secreted by the pathogen Vibrio cholera, which is responsible for cholera infection. N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc) is a derivative of neuraminic acid with nine-carbon backbone. NeuNAc is distributed on the cell surface mainly located in the terminal components of glycoconjugates, and also plays an important role in cell-cell interaction. In our current study, molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were implemented to identify the potent NeuNAc analogs with high-inhibitory activity against CT protein. Thirty-four NeuNAc analogs, modified in different positions C-1/C-2/C-4/C-5/C-7/C-8/C-9, were modeled and docked against the active site of CT protein. Among the 34 NeuNAc analogs, the analog Neu5Gc shows the least extra precision glide score of -9.52 and glide energy of -44.71 kcal/mol. NeuNAc analogs block the CT active site residues HIS:13, ASN:90, LYS:91, GLN:56, GLN:61, and TRP:88 through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The MD simulation for CT-Neu5Gc docking complex was performed using Desmond. MD simulation of CT-Neu5Gc complex reveals the stable nature of docking interaction.

  7. Ganglioside GM1-mediated transcytosis of cholera toxin bypasses the retrograde pathway and depends on the structure of the ceramide domain.

    PubMed

    Saslowsky, David E; te Welscher, Yvonne M; Chinnapen, Daniel J-F; Wagner, Jessica S; Wan, Joy; Kern, Eli; Lencer, Wayne I

    2013-09-06

    Cholera toxin causes diarrheal disease by binding ganglioside GM1 on the apical membrane of polarized intestinal epithelial cells and trafficking retrograde through sorting endosomes, the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and into the endoplasmic reticulum. A fraction of toxin also moves from endosomes across the cell to the basolateral plasma membrane by transcytosis, thus breeching the intestinal barrier. Here we find that sorting of cholera toxin into this transcytotic pathway bypasses retrograde transport to the TGN. We also find that GM1 sphingolipids can traffic from apical to basolateral membranes by transcytosis in the absence of toxin binding but only if the GM1 species contain cis-unsaturated or short acyl chains in the ceramide domain. We found previously that the same GM1 species are needed to efficiently traffic retrograde into the TGN and endoplasmic reticulum and into the recycling endosome, implicating a shared mechanism of action for sorting by lipid shape among these pathways.

  8. Mechanism of cholera toxin action on a polarized human intestinal epithelial cell line: role of vesicular traffic

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The massive secretion of salt and water in cholera-induced diarrhea involves binding of cholera toxin (CT) to ganglioside GM1 in the apical membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, translocation of the enzymatically active A1-peptide across the membrane, and subsequent activation of adenylate cyclase located on the cytoplasmic surface of the basolateral membrane. Studies on nonpolarized cells show that CT is internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis, and that the A1-subunit may remain membrane associated. To test the hypothesis that toxin action in polarized cells may involve intracellular movement of toxin- containing membranes, monolayers of the polarized intestinal epithelial cell line T84 were mounted in modified Ussing chambers and the response to CT was examined. Apical CT at 37 degrees C elicited a short circuit current (Isc: 48 +/- 2.1 microA/cm2; half-maximal effective dose, ED50 integral of 0.5 nM) after a lag of 33 +/- 2 min which bidirectional 22Na+ and 36Cl- flux studies showed to be due to electrogenic Cl- secretion. The time course of the CT-induced Isc response paralleled the time course of cAMP generation. The dose response to basolateral toxin at 37 degrees C was identical to that of apical CT but lag times (24 +/- 2 min) and initial rates were significantly less. At 20 degrees C, the Isc response to apical CT was more strongly inhibited (30-50%) than the response to basolateral CT, even though translocation occurred in both cases as evidenced by the formation of A1-peptide. A functional rhodamine-labeled CT-analogue applied apically or basolaterally at 20 degrees C was visualized only within endocytic vesicles close to apical or basolateral membranes, whereas movement into deeper apical structures was detected at 37 degrees C. At 15 degrees C, in contrast, reduction to the A1-peptide was completely inhibited and both apical and basolateral CT failed to stimulate Isc although Isc responses to 1 nM vasoactive intestinal peptide, 10 micro

  9. Novel GM1 ganglioside-like peptide mimics prevent the association of cholera toxin to human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Robert K; Usuki, Seigo; Itokazu, Yutaka; Wu, Han-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by infection in the gastrointestinal tract by the gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, and is a serious public health threat worldwide. There has not been any effective treatment for this infectious disease. Cholera toxin (CT), which is secreted by V. cholerae, can enter host cells by binding to GM1, a monosialoganglioside widely distributed on the plasma membrane surface of various animal epithelial cells. The present study was undertaken to generate peptides that are conformationally similar to the carbohydrate epitope of GM1 for use in the treatment of cholera and related bacterial infection. For this purpose, we used cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit to select CTB-binding peptides that structurally mimic GM1 from a dodecamer phage-display library. Six GM1-replica peptides were selected by biopanning based on CTB recognition. Five of the six peptides showed inhibitory activity for GM1 binding to CTB. To test the potential of employing the peptide mimics for intervening with the bacterial infection, those peptides were examined for their binding capacity, functional inhibitory activity and in vitro effects using a human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2 cells. One of the peptides, P3 (IPQVWRDWFKLP), was most effective in inhibiting cellular uptake of CTB and suppressing CT-stimulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate production in the cells. Our results thus provide convincing evidence that GM1-replica peptides could serve as novel agents to block CTB binding on epithelial cells and prevent the ensuing physiological effects of CT.

  10. Manipulation of electrostatic and saccharide linker interactions in the design of efficient glycopolypeptide-based cholera toxin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Ronak; Levenson, Eric A; Kiick, Kristi L

    2010-01-11

    Multivalent, glycopolymer inhibitors designed for the treatment of disease and pathogen infection have shown improvements in binding correlated with general changes in glycopolymer architecture and composition. We have previously demonstrated that control of glycopolypeptide backbone extension and ligand spacing significantly impacts the inhibition of the cholera toxin B subunit pentamer (CT B(5)) by these polymers. In the studies reported here, we elucidate the role of backbone charge and linker length in modulating the inhibition event. Peptides of the sequence AXPXG (where X is a positive, neutral or negative amino acid), equipped with the alkyne functionality of propargyl glycine, were designed and synthesized via solid-phase peptide synthetic methods and glycosylated via Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reactions. The capacity of the glycopeptides to inhibit the binding of the B(5) subunit of cholera toxin was evaluated. These studies indicated that glycopeptides with a negatively charged backbone show improved inhibition of the binding event relative to the other glycopeptides. In addition, variations in the length of the linker between the peptide and the saccharide ligand also affected the inhibition of CT by the glycopeptides. Our findings suggest that, apart from appropriate saccharide spacing and polypeptide chain extension, saccharide linker conformation and the systematic placement of charges on the polypeptide backbone are also significant variables that can be tuned to improve the inhibitory potencies of glycopolypeptide-based multivalent inhibitors.

  11. Hemocyte-hemocyte adhesion and nodulation reactions of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella are influenced by cholera toxin and its B-subunit.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, Jason F; Dunphy, Gary B; Mandato, Craig A

    2012-01-01

    Nodulation, the lepidopteran insect immune response to large numbers of microbes in the blood (hemolymph) consists of the coordination of the blood cell (hemocyte) types the granular cells and plasmatocytes in terms of granular cell-bacteria adhesion and hemocyte-hemocyte adhesion (microaggregation). Hemocyte-microbe adhesion is influenced by the secondary messenger, cAMP, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. In the present study, cholera toxin, an AB5 protein known to indirectly stimulate adenylate cyclase, is used to examine the hemocyte responses to glass, bacteria and hemocyte-hemocyte microaggregates. In vitro, this toxin induces a bimodal hemocyte adhesion response that varies with the holotoxin concentration in terms of the individual and aggregated hemocyte adhesion responses: the lower CTX concentration (1.2 nM) increases microaggregate adhesion and decreases individual hemocyte binding to glass, as does higher concentrations (6-120 nM), however microaggregates induced by lower concentrations do not adhere to glass. Cholera toxin-induced microaggregation is inhibited by RGDS, suggestive of integrin involvement. In vivo, cholera toxin (1.2-120 nM) injected into larvae induces also a bimodal hemocytic response: low levels (1.2-6 nM) cause reduced hemocyte adhesion, while high levels (12-120 nM) increase hemocyte release or mobilization of adhesive hemocyte counts in the hemolymph. Increasing levels of cholera toxin concomitantly injected with the non-pathogenic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis produces a bimodal pattern in bacterial removal from the hemolymph which correlates with nodule frequency in larvae injected with cholera toxin only. The effects of higher concentrations of cholera toxin in vitro (6-120 nM) and in vivo (12-120 nM) are mediated by the B-subunit, whereas the isolated A-subunit has no effect on hemocyte activity. Cholera toxin and its individual subunits did not detectably alter levels of intracellular cAMP in the hemocytes, suggesting

  12. Hemocyte–hemocyte adhesion and nodulation reactions of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella are influenced by cholera toxin and its B-subunit

    PubMed Central

    Lapointe, Jason F.; Dunphy, Gary B.; Mandato, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Nodulation, the lepidopteran insect immune response to large numbers of microbes in the blood (hemolymph) consists of the coordination of the blood cell (hemocyte) types the granular cells and plasmatocytes in terms of granular cell–bacteria adhesion and hemocyte–hemocyte adhesion (microaggregation). Hemocyte–microbe adhesion is influenced by the secondary messenger, cAMP, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. In the present study, cholera toxin, an AB5 protein known to indirectly stimulate adenylate cyclase, is used to examine the hemocyte responses to glass, bacteria and hemocyte–hemocyte microaggregates. In vitro, this toxin induces a bimodal hemocyte adhesion response that varies with the holotoxin concentration in terms of the individual and aggregated hemocyte adhesion responses: the lower CTX concentration (1.2 nM) increases microaggregate adhesion and decreases individual hemocyte binding to glass, as does higher concentrations (6–120 nM), however microaggregates induced by lower concentrations do not adhere to glass. Cholera toxin-induced microaggregation is inhibited by RGDS, suggestive of integrin involvement. In vivo, cholera toxin (1.2–120 nM) injected into larvae induces also a bimodal hemocytic response: low levels (1.2–6 nM) cause reduced hemocyte adhesion, while high levels (12–120 nM) increase hemocyte release or mobilization of adhesive hemocyte counts in the hemolymph. Increasing levels of cholera toxin concomitantly injected with the non-pathogenic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis produces a bimodal pattern in bacterial removal from the hemolymph which correlates with nodule frequency in larvae injected with cholera toxin only. The effects of higher concentrations of cholera toxin in vitro (6–120 nM) and in vivo (12–120 nM) are mediated by the B-subunit, whereas the isolated A-subunit has no effect on hemocyte activity. Cholera toxin and its individual subunits did not detectably alter levels of intracellular cAMP in the

  13. Comparative Adjuvant Effects of Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxins in Combination with Two Different Candidate Ricin Toxin Vaccine Antigens.

    PubMed

    Vance, David J; Greene, Christopher J; Rong, Yinghui; Mandell, Lorrie M; Connell, Terry D; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    Type II heat-labile enterotoxins (HLTs) constitute a promising set of adjuvants that have been shown to enhance humoral and cellular immune responses when coadministered with an array of different proteins, including several pathogen-associated antigens. However, the adjuvant activities of the four best-studied HLTs, LT-IIa, LT-IIb, LT-IIb(T13I), and LT-IIc, have never been compared side by side. We therefore conducted immunization studies in which LT-IIa, LT-IIb, LT-IIb(T13I), and LT-IIc were coadministered by the intradermal route to mice with two clinically relevant protein subunit vaccine antigens derived from the enzymatic A subunit (RTA) of ricin toxin, RiVax and RVEc. The HLTs were tested with low and high doses of antigen and were assessed for their abilities to stimulate antigen-specific serum IgG titers, ricin toxin-neutralizing activity (TNA), and protective immunity. We found that all four HLTs tested were effective adjuvants when coadministered with RiVax or RVEc. LT-IIa was of particular interest because as little as 0.03 μg when coadministered with RiVax or RVEc proved effective at augmenting ricin toxin-specific serum antibody titers with nominal evidence of local inflammation. Collectively, these results justify the need for further studies into the mechanism(s) underlying LT-IIa adjuvant activity, with the long-term goal of evaluating LT-IIa's activity in humans.

  14. The Live Attenuated Cholera Vaccine CVD 103-HgR Primes Responses to the Toxin-Coregulated Pilus Antigen TcpA in Subjects Challenged with Wild-Type Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Mayo-Smith, Leslie M; Simon, Jakub K; Chen, Wilbur H; Haney, Douglas; Lock, Michael; Lyon, Caroline E; Calderwood, Stephen B; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Cohen, Mitchell; Levine, Myron M; Gurwith, Marc; Harris, Jason B

    2017-01-01

    One potential advantage of live attenuated bacterial vaccines is the ability to stimulate responses to antigens which are only expressed during the course of infection. To determine whether the live attenuated cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Vaxchora) results in antibody responses to the in vivo-induced toxin-coregulated pilus antigen TcpA, we measured IgA and IgG responses to Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor TcpA in a subset of participants in a recently reported experimental challenge study. Participants were challenged with V. cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba N16961 either 10 days or 90 days after receiving the vaccine or a placebo. Neither vaccination nor experimental infection with V. cholerae alone resulted in a robust TcpA IgG or IgA response, but each did elicit a strong response to cholera toxin. However, compared to placebo recipients, vaccinees had a marked increase in IgG TcpA antibodies following the 90-day challenge, suggesting that vaccination with CVD 103-HgR resulted in priming for a subsequent response to TcpA. No such difference between vaccine and placebo recipients was observed for volunteers challenged 10 days after vaccination, indicating that this was insufficient time for vaccine-induced priming of the TcpA response. The priming of the response to TcpA and potentially other antigens expressed in vivo by attenuated V. cholerae may have relevance to the maintenance of immunity in areas where cholera is endemic.

  15. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.; Burrows, W.

    1955-01-01

    Relevant information regarding the numerous problems encountered in cholera immunity is dealt with in great detail in this study. Toxin production, bacterial virulence, serological reactions, and the antigenic structure of V. cholerae are discussed. Natural, passive, and active cholera immunity receives special attention, the authors describing the various means of vaccination as well as the evaluation of the immunity induced. PMID:13240451

  16. Rapid and Scalable Plant-based Production of a Cholera Toxin B Subunit Variant to Aid in Mass Vaccination against Cholera Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Lauren J.; Baldauf, Keegan J.; Kajiura, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) is a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine. The protein induces neutralizing antibodies against the holotoxin, the virulence factor responsible for severe diarrhea. A field clinical trial has suggested that the addition of CTB to killed whole-cell bacteria provides superior short-term protection to whole-cell-only vaccines; however, challenges in CTB biomanufacturing (i.e., cost and scale) hamper its implementation to mass vaccination in developing countries. To provide a potential solution to this issue, we developed a rapid, robust, and scalable CTB production system in plants. Methodology/Principal Findings In a preliminary study of expressing original CTB in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana, the protein was N-glycosylated with plant-specific glycans. Thus, an aglycosylated CTB variant (pCTB) was created and overexpressed via a plant virus vector. Upon additional transgene engineering for retention in the endoplasmic reticulum and optimization of a secretory signal, the yield of pCTB was dramatically improved, reaching >1 g per kg of fresh leaf material. The protein was efficiently purified by simple two-step chromatography. The GM1-ganglioside binding capacity and conformational stability of pCTB were virtually identical to the bacteria-derived original B subunit, as demonstrated in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, surface plasmon resonance, and fluorescence-based thermal shift assay. Mammalian cell surface-binding was corroborated by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. pCTB exhibited strong oral immunogenicity in mice, inducing significant levels of CTB-specific intestinal antibodies that persisted over 6 months. Moreover, these antibodies effectively neutralized the cholera holotoxin in vitro. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these results demonstrated that pCTB has robust producibility in Nicotiana plants and retains most, if not all, of major biological activities of

  17. Characterization of the cholera toxin receptor on Balb/c 3T3 cells as a ganglioside similar to, or identical with, ganglioside GM1. No evidence for galactoproteins with receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Critchley, D R; Streuli, C H; Kellie, S; Ansell, S; Patel, B

    1982-04-15

    Balb/c 3T3 cells contain a large number [(0.8-1.6) x 10(6)] of high-affinity (half-maximal binding at 0.2 nM) binding sites for cholera toxin that are resistant to proteolysis, but are quantitatively extracted with chloroform/methanol. The following evidence rigorously establishes that the receptor is a ganglioside similar to, or identical with, ganglioside GM1 by the galactose oxidase/NaB3H4 technique on intact cells was inhibited by cholera toxin. (2) Ganglioside GM1 was specifically adsorbed from Nonidet P40 extracts of both surface- (galactose oxidase/NaB3H4 technique) and metabolically ([1-14C]palmitate) labelled cells in the presence of cholera toxin, anti-toxin and Staphylococcus aureus. (3) Ganglioside GM1 was the only ganglioside labelled when total cellular gangliosides separated on silica-gel sheets were overlayed with 125I-labelled cholera toxin, although GM3 and GD1a were the major gangliosides present. In contrast no evidence for a galactoprotein with receptor activity was obtained. Cholera toxin did not protect the terminal galactose residues of cell-surface glycoproteins from labelling by the galactose oxidase/NaB3H4 technique. No toxin-binding proteins could be identified in Nonidet P40 extracts of [35S]-methionine-labelled cells by immunochemical means. After sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis none of the major cellular galactoproteins identified by overlaying gels with 125I-labelled ricin were able to bind 125I-labelled cholera toxin. It is concluded that the cholera toxin receptor on Balb/c 3T3 cells is exclusively ganglioside GM1 (or a related species), and that cholera toxin can therefore be used to probe the function and organisation of gangliosides in these cells as previously outlined [Critchley, Ansell, Perkins, Dilks & Ingram (1979) J. Supramol. Struct. 12, 273-291].

  18. Synthesis, biological evaluation, WAC and NMR studies of S-galactosides and non-carbohydrate ligands of cholera toxin based on polyhydroxyalkylfuroate moieties.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Soriano, Javier; Niss, Ulf; Angulo, Jesús; Angulo, Manuel; Moreno-Vargas, Antonio J; Carmona, Ana T; Ohlson, Sten; Robina, Inmaculada

    2013-12-23

    The synthesis of several non-carbohydrate ligands of cholera toxin based on polyhydroxyalkylfuroate moieties is reported. Some of them have been linked to D-galactose through a stable and well-tolerated S-glycosidic bond. They represent a novel type of non-hydrolyzable bidentate ligand featuring galactose and polyhydroxyalkylfuroic esters as pharmacophoric residues, thus mimicking the GM1 ganglioside. The affinity of the new compounds towards cholera toxin was measured by weak affinity chromatography (WAC). The interaction of the best candidates with this toxin was also studied by saturation transfer difference NMR experiments, which allowed identification of the binding epitopes of the ligands interacting with the protein. Interestingly, the highest affinity was shown by non-carbohydrate mimics based on a polyhydroxyalkylfuroic ester structure.

  19. Cholera toxin subunit B peptide fusion proteins reveal impaired oral tolerance induction in diabetes-prone but not in diabetes-resistant mice.

    PubMed

    Presa, Maximiliano; Ortiz, Angela Zarama; Garabatos, Nahir; Izquierdo, Cristina; Rivas, Elisa I; Teyton, Luc; Mora, Conchi; Serreze, David; Stratmann, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) has been used as adjuvant to improve oral vaccine delivery in type 1 diabetes. The effect of CTB/peptide formulations on Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells has remained largely unexplored. Here, using tetramer analysis, we investigated how oral delivery of CTB fused to two CD4(+) T-cell epitopes, the BDC-2.5 T-cell 2.5 mi mimotope and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 286-300, affected diabetogenic CD4(+) T cells in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. When administered i.p., CTB-2.5 mi activated 2.5 mi(+) T cells and following intragastric delivery generated Ag-specific Foxp3(+) Treg and Th2 cells. While 2.5 mi(+) and GAD-specific T cells were tolerized in diabetes-resistant NODxB6.Foxp3(EGFP) F1 and nonobese resistant (NOR) mice, this did not occur in NOD mice. This indicated that NOD mice had a recessive genetic resistance to induce oral tolerance to both CTB-fused epitopes. In contrast to NODxB6.Foxp3(EGFP) F1 mice, oral treatment in NOD mice lead to strong 2.5 mi(+) T-cell activation and the sequestration of these cells to the effector-memory pool. Oral treatment of NOD mice with CTB-2.5 mi failed to prevent diabetes. These findings underline the importance of investigating the effect of oral vaccine formulations on diabetogenic T cells as in selected cases they may have counterproductive consequences in human patients.

  20. Recombinant Bacillus subtilis spores expressing cholera toxin B subunit and Helicobacter pylori urease B confer protection against H. pylori in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenwen; Dong, Hui; Huang, Yanmei; Yao, Shuwen; Liang, Bingshao; Xie, Yongqiang; Long, Yan; Mai, Jialiang; Gong, Sitang

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The limitations of current therapies for H. pylori infection include poor compliance and antibiotic resistance. Therefore, an effective anti-H. pylori vaccine would be an alternative or complement to antibiotic treatment. Urease B (UreB) is considered an ideal vaccine antigen against H. pylori infection. In this study, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), a mucosal adjuvant, was used to enhance the immunogenicity of a novel Bacillus subtilis spore vaccine expressing CTB-UreB, along with the B. subtilis spore coat protein CotC as a fusion protein. Oral administration of B. subtilis spores expressing CotC-UreB or CotC-CTB-UreB led to increased levels of UreB-specific IgG in serum and UreB-specific IgA in faeces, as well as elevated levels of IL-10 and IFN-γ in splenocytes. In addition, oral administration of CotC-UreB or CotC-CTB-UreB spores induced significant reductions (80.0 and 90.5 %, respectively) in gastric H. pylori bacterial load (1.11±0.36×105 and 0.53±0.21×105 c.f.u., respectively) compared to that of the CotC control group (5.56±1.64×105 c.f.u., P<0.01). Moreover, CotC-CTB-UreB spores were significantly more effective at reducing the bacterial load than CotC-UreB spores (P<0.05). These results indicate that CotC-CTB-UreB-expressing B. subtilis spores are a potential vaccine candidate for the control of H. pylori infection.

  1. Expression of recombinant T-cell epitopes of major Japanese cedar pollen allergens fused with cholera toxin B subunit in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Vinh Van; Zou, Yanshuang; Kurata, Kentaro; Enomoto, Keiichi

    2015-05-01

    Peptides containing T-cell epitopes from allergens, which are not reactive to allergen-specific IgE, are appropriate candidates as antigens for specific immunotherapy against allergies. To develop a vaccine that can be used in practical application to prevent and treat Japanese cedar pollen allergy, four major T-cell epitopes from the Cry j 1 antigen and six from the Cry j 2 antigen were selected to design cry j 1 epi and cry j 2 epi, DNA constructs encoding artificial polypeptides of the selected epitopes. To apply cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant, cry j 1 epi and cry j 2 epi were linked and then fused to the CTB gene in tandem to construct a fusion gene, ctb-linker-cry j 1 epi- cry j 2 epi-flag. The fusion gene was introduced into a pET-28a(+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The expressed recombinant protein was purified by a His-tag affinity column and confirmed by western blot analysis using anti-CTB and anti-FLAG antibodies. The purified recombinant protein also proved to be antigenic against anti-Cry j 1 and anti-Cry j 2 antibodies. Expression of the recombinant protein induced with 1mM IPTG reached a maximum in 3-5h, and recovery of the affinity-purified recombinant protein was approximately 120mg/L of culture medium. The present study indicates that production of sufficient amounts of recombinant protein with antigenic epitopes may be possible by recombinant techniques using E. coli or other bacterial strains for protein expression.

  2. The Vibrio cholerae Minor Pilin TcpB Initiates Assembly and Retraction of the Toxin-Coregulated Pilus

    PubMed Central

    Harn, Tony; Spielman, Ingrid; Gao, Yang; Kovacikova, Gabriela; Biais, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Type IV pilus (T4P) systems are complex molecular machines that polymerize major pilin proteins into thin filaments displayed on bacterial surfaces. Pilus functions require rapid extension and depolymerization of the pilus, powered by the assembly and retraction ATPases, respectively. A set of low abundance minor pilins influences pilus dynamics by unknown mechanisms. The Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) is among the simplest of the T4P systems, having a single minor pilin TcpB and lacking a retraction ATPase. Here we show that TcpB, like its homolog CofB, initiates pilus assembly. TcpB co-localizes with the pili but at extremely low levels, equivalent to one subunit per pilus. We used a micropillars assay to demonstrate that TCP are retractile despite the absence of a retraction ATPase, and that retraction relies on TcpB, as a V. cholerae tcpB Glu5Val mutant is fully piliated but does not induce micropillars movements. This mutant is impaired in TCP-mediated autoagglutination and TcpF secretion, consistent with retraction being required for these functions. We propose that TcpB initiates pilus retraction by incorporating into the growing pilus in a Glu5-dependent manner, which stalls assembly and triggers processive disassembly. These results provide a framework for understanding filament dynamics in more complex T4P systems and the closely related Type II secretion system. PMID:27992883

  3. Cholera toxin B subunit labeling in lamina II of spinal cord dorsal horn following chronic inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing Ping; Tian, Li

    2002-07-26

    We have investigated the effect of inflammation on the labeling pattern of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-conjugated horseradish peroxidase, an A-fiber marker, by an intra-sciatic nerve injection of the tracer. Following chronic inflammation in one hind paw in rats, there was substantial CTB labeling in lamina II of the spinal dorsal horn, which is normally absent. However, there was no change in the labeling pattern of wheat germ agglutinin or fluoride resistant acid phosphatase/thiamine monophosphatase, two C-fiber markers. The CTB labeling in lamina II after peripheral nerve injury has been interpreted as central sprouting of A-fibers or uptake of the tracer by injured C-fibers. Our results suggest that chronic inflammation and nerve injury may share some common mechanisms in generating allodynia and hyperalgesia.

  4. Multiple neuroanatomical tract-tracing using fluorescent Alexa Fluor conjugates of cholera toxin subunit B in rats.

    PubMed

    Conte, William L; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Reep, Roger L

    2009-01-01

    Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) is a highly sensitive retrograde neuroanatomical tracer. With the new availability of fluorescent Alexa Fluor (AF) conjugates of CTB, multiple neuroanatomical connections can be reliably studied and compared in the same animal. Here we provide a protocol that describes the use of AF-CTB for studying connections in the central nervous system of rats. The viscous properties of CTB allow small and discreet injection sites yet still show robust retrograde labeling. Furthermore, the AF conjugates are extremely bright and photostable, compared with other conventional fluorescent tracers. This protocol can also be adapted for use with other neuroanatomical tracers. Including a 7-d survival period, this protocol takes approximately 11 to 12 d to complete in its entirety.

  5. Molecular recognition and colorimetric detection of cholera toxin by poly(diacetylene) liposomes incorporating G{sub m1} ganglioside

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, J.J.; Charych, D.

    1997-03-19

    Molecular recognition sites on cell membranes serve as the main communication channels between the inside of a cell and its surroundings. Upon receptor binding, cellular messages such as ion channel opening or activation of enzymes are triggered. In this report, we demonstrate that artificial cell membranes made from conjugated lipid polymers (poly(diacetylene)) can, on a simple level, mimic membrane processes of molecular recognition and signal transduction. The ganglioside GM1 was incorporated into poly(diacetylene) liposomes. Molecular recognition of cholera toxin at the interface of the liposome resulted in a change of the membrane color due to conformational charges in the conjugated (ene-yne) polymer backbone. The `colored liposomes` might be used as simple colorimetric sensors for drug screening or as new tools to study membrane-membrane or membrane-receptor interactions. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Characterization of transducin from bovine retinal rod outer segments: mechanism and effects of cholera toxin-catalyzed adp-ribosylation

    SciTech Connect

    Navon, S.E.; Fung, B.K.K.

    1984-05-25

    Transducin, a guanine nucleotide-binding protein consisting of two subunits (T/sub ..cap alpha../ and T/sub ..beta gamma../), mediates the signal coupling between rhodopsin and a membrane-bound cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase in retinal rod outer segments. The T/sub ..cap alpha../ subunit is an activator of the phosphodiesterase, and the function of the T/sub ..beta gamma../ subunit is to physically link T/sub ..cap alpha../ with photolyzed rhodopsin. In this study, the mechanism of cholera toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of T/sub ..cap alpha../ has been examined in a reconstituted system consisting of purified transducin and stripped rod outer segment membranes. Limited proteolysis of the labeled T/sub ..cap alpha../ with trypsin indicated that the inserted ADP-ribose is located exclusively on a single proteolytic fragment with an apparent molecular weight of 23,000. Maximal incorporation of ADP-ribose was achieved when guanosine 5'-(..beta..,..gamma..-im ido)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) and T/sub ..beta gamma../ were present at concentrations equal to that of T/sub ..cap alpha../ and when rhodopsin was continuously irradiated with visible light in the 400-500 nm region. The stimulating effect of illumination was related to the direct interaction of the retinal chromophore with opsin. These findings strongly suggest that a transient protein complex consisting of T/sub ..cap alpha../xGpp(NH)p, T/sub ..beta gamma../, and a photointermediate of rhodopsin is the required substrate for cholera toxin. Single turnover kinetic measurements demonstrated that the ADP-ribosylation of T/sub ..cap alpha../ coincided with the appearance of a population of transducin molecules having a very slow rate of GTP hydrolysis. The hydrolysis rate of the bound GTP for this population was 1.1 x 10/sup -3//s, which was 22-fold slower than the rate for the unmodified transducin. 30 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  7. Cholera toxin, a typical protein kinase A activator, induces G1 phase growth arrest in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells via inhibiting the c-Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoke; Ou, Yanqiu; Shu, Minfeng; Wang, Youqiong; Zhou, Yuxi; Su, Xingwen; Zhu, Wenbo; Yin, Wei; Li, Shifeng; Qiu, Pengxin; Yan, Guangmei; Zhang, Jingxia; Hu, Jun; Xu, Dong

    2014-05-01

    The biotoxin cholera toxin has been demonstrated to have anti-tumor activity in numerous types of cancer, including glioma. However, the role of cholera toxin in the tumorigenesis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), the most common malignant tumor of the bladder, remains to be elucidated. To address this, in the present study, two TCC cell lines, T24 and UM-UC-3, were treated with cholera toxin [protein kinase A (PKA) activator] and KT5720 (PKA inhibitor). Cell survival and proliferation, cell cycle alterations and apoptosis were analyzed using Hoechst staining, the MTT assay, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation. The results revealed that cholera toxin significantly induced G1 arrest and downregulated the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 in the TCC cell lines, and this was rescued by KT5720. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that cholera toxin downregulated the activation of the c-Raf/Mek/Erk cascade, an important mediator of tumor cell proliferation, via the PKA-dependent c-Raf phosphorylation at Ser-43. Furthermore, inhibition of Mek activity with UO126 mimicked the effects of cholera toxin. In conclusion, these results confirmed that cholera toxin specifically inhibited proliferation and induced G1 phase arrest in human bladder TCC cells. This effect was due to PKA-dependent inactivation of the c-Raf/Mek/Erk pathway. This suggested that cholera toxin may be a viable therapeutic treatment against tumorigenesis and proliferation in bladder cancer.

  8. Mucosal immunogenicity of a recombinant Salmonella typhimurium-cloned heterologous antigen in the absence or presence of coexpressed cholera toxin A2 and B subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Harokopakis, E; Hajishengallis, G; Greenway, T E; Russell, M W; Michalek, S M

    1997-01-01

    An avirulent Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing a streptococcal protein adhesin and a similar clone which produces the same streptococcal antigen linked to the cholera toxin (CT) A2 and B subunits (CTA2/B) were compared for the ability to induce antibody responses to the expressed heterologous antigen after oral or intranasal immunization of mice. Expression of cloned immunogens in these systems is temperature regulated, being optimal at 37 degrees C, and the two clones under comparison were shown to produce similar levels of the streptococcal antigen. Both clones were found to stimulate high levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal IgA antibodies to the cloned immunogen. A consistent trend was observed toward higher mucosal IgA but lower serum IgG responses in the case of the S. typhimurium vector that coexpressed CTA2/B, a potential mucosal adjuvant, regardless of the route of administration. Also noteworthy was the capacity of these antigen delivery systems to induce anamnestic systemic and secretory responses to the cloned immunogen 15 weeks after the primary immunization, despite preexisting immunity to the Salmonella vectors. These antibody responses were sustained for at least 7 months following the booster immunization, at which time the secretory IgA antibody levels were significantly higher in mice given the Salmonella clone that coexpressed CTA2/B. Although the serum IgG response against the Salmonella vector was characterized by a high IgG2a/IgG1 ratio (indicative of the T helper type 1 [Th1]/Th2 profile), a mixed IgG1 and IgG2a pattern was observed for the carried heterologous antigen, which displayed a dominant IgG1 response when administered as a purified immunogen. Our findings indicate that the recombinant streptococcal antigen and CTA2/B are strong immunogens when expressed by the antigen delivery system used in this study and suggest that CTA2/B may have an additional immunoenhancing activity in the mucosal compartment

  9. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of a 46 kDa protein is decreased in brains of ethanol-fed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nhamburo, P.T.; Hoffman, P.L.; Tabakoff, B.

    1988-01-01

    The acute in vitro effects of ethanol on cerebral cortical adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenergic receptor characteristics suggested a site of action of ethanol at Gs, the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein. After chronic ethanol ingestion, the beta-adrenergic receptor appeared to be uncoupled (i.e., the form of the receptor with high affinity for agonist was undetectable), and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by isoproterenol or guanine nucleotides was reduced, suggesting an alteration in the properties of Gs. To further characterize this change, cholera and pertussis toxin-mediated /sup 32/P-ADP-ribosylation of mouse cortical membranes was assessed in mice that had chronically ingested ethanol in a liquid diet. /sup 32/P-labeled proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and quantitated by autoradiography. There was a selective 30-50% decrease in cholera toxin-induced labeling of 46 kDa protein band in membranes of ethanol-fed mice, with no apparent change in pertussis toxin-induced labeling. The 46 kDa protein has a molecular weight similar to that of the alpha subunit of Gs, suggesting a reduced amount of this protein or a change in its characteristics as a substrate for cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation in cortical membranes of ethanol-fed mice.

  10. Differential roles of spinal cholera toxin- and pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins in nociceptive responses caused by formalin, capsaicin, and substance P in mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, K M; Lee, K C; Choi, S S; Suh, H W

    2001-03-15

    The aim of the present study is to characterize the roles of spinal cholera toxin (CTX)- and pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G proteins in the regulation of various nociceptive responses. The effects of intrathecal (i.t.) pretreatments with CTX and PTX on the formalin (subcutaneous)-, capsaicin (i.t.)-, and substance P (SP; i.t.)-induced nociceptive behaviours were examined in mice. Pretreatment with CTX (i.t.; 24 h before) significantly and dose-dependently (0.05-0.5 microg) suppressed both the first and second phases of the formalin-induced nociceptive behaviour. On the other hand, pretreatment with PTX (i.t., 6 days before) at the same doses (0.05-N0.5 microg) did not affect the formalin-induced response. Capsaicin (i.t., 0.5 microg)- and SP (i.t., 0.7 microg)-induced nociceptive behaviours were attenuated by the pretreatment with CTX. In addition, SP-induced nociceptive response was also attenuated by the pretreatment with PTX. However, the capsaicin-induced nociceptive response was not influenced by PTX pretreatment. These findings suggest that, at the spinal cord level, CTX-sensitive G-proteins are involved in the formalin-, capsaicin-, and SP-induced nociceptive behavioural responses, whereas PTX-sensitive G proteins are involved in SP-induced nociceptive response.

  11. Novel GM1 ganglioside-like peptide mimics prevent the association of cholera toxin to human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Robert K; Usuki, Seigo; Itokazu, Yutaka; Wu, Han-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by infection in the gastrointestinal tract by the gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, and is a serious public health threat worldwide. There has not been any effective treatment for this infectious disease. Cholera toxin (CT), which is secreted by V. cholerae, can enter host cells by binding to GM1, a monosialoganglioside widely distributed on the plasma membrane surface of various animal epithelial cells. The present study was undertaken to generate peptides that are conformationally similar to the carbohydrate epitope of GM1 for use in the treatment of cholera and related bacterial infection. For this purpose, we used cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit to select CTB-binding peptides that structurally mimic GM1 from a dodecamer phage-display library. Six GM1-replica peptides were selected by biopanning based on CTB recognition. Five of the six peptides showed inhibitory activity for GM1 binding to CTB. To test the potential of employing the peptide mimics for intervening with the bacterial infection, those peptides were examined for their binding capacity, functional inhibitory activity and in vitro effects using a human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2 cells. One of the peptides, P3 (IPQVWRDWFKLP), was most effective in inhibiting cellular uptake of CTB and suppressing CT-stimulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate production in the cells. Our results thus provide convincing evidence that GM1-replica peptides could serve as novel agents to block CTB binding on epithelial cells and prevent the ensuing physiological effects of CT. PMID:26405107

  12. Substrate-Induced Unfolding of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Displaces the Cholera Toxin A1 Subunit from Its Holotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael; Burress, Helen; Banerjee, Tuhina; Ray, Supriyo; Curtis, David; Tatulian, Suren A.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    To generate a cytopathic effect, the catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CT) must be separated from the rest of the toxin. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is thought to mediate CT disassembly by acting as a redox-driven chaperone that actively unfolds the CTA1 subunit. Here, we show that PDI itself unfolds upon contact with CTA1. The substrate-induced unfolding of PDI provides a novel molecular mechanism for holotoxin disassembly: we postulate the expanded hydrodynamic radius of unfolded PDI acts as a wedge to dislodge reduced CTA1 from its holotoxin. The oxidoreductase activity of PDI was not required for CT disassembly, but CTA1 displacement did not occur when PDI was locked in a folded conformation or when its substrate-induced unfolding was blocked due to the loss of chaperone function. Two other oxidoreductases (ERp57 and ERp72) did not unfold in the presence of CTA1 and did not displace reduced CTA1 from its holotoxin. Our data establish a new functional property of PDI that may be linked to its role as a chaperone that prevents protein aggregation. PMID:24516389

  13. Revisiting the membrane interaction mechanism of a membrane-damaging β-barrel pore-forming toxin Vibrio cholerae cytolysin.

    PubMed

    Rai, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) permeabilizes target cell membranes by forming transmembrane oligomeric β-barrel pores. VCC has been shown to associate with the target membranes via amphipathicity-driven spontaneous partitioning into the membrane environment. More specific interaction(s) of VCC with the membrane components have also been documented. In particular, specific binding of VCC with the membrane lipid components is believed to play a crucial role in determining the efficacy of the pore-formation process. However, the structural basis and the functional implications of the VCC interaction with the membrane lipids remain unclear. Here we show that the distinct loop sequences within the membrane-proximal region of VCC play critical roles to determine the functional interactions of the toxin with the membrane lipids. Alterations of the loop sequences via structure-guided mutagenesis allow amphipathicity-driven partitioning of VCC to the membrane lipid bilayer. Alterations of the loop sequences, however, block specific interactions of VCC with the membrane lipids and abort the oligomerization, membrane insertion, pore-formation and cytotoxic activity of the toxin. Present study identifies the structural signatures in VCC implicated for its functional interactions with the membrane lipid components, a process that presumably acts to drive the subsequent steps of the oligomeric β-barrel pore-formation and cytotoxic responses.

  14. Effect of cholera toxin on cAMP levels and Na/sup +/ influx in isolated intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, C.S.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1982-09-01

    Freshly isolated chicken intestinal cells contain approximately 20 pmol adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)/mg cellular protein. Incubation with 3 ..mu..g/ml cholera toxin (CT) at 37/sup 0/C induces an elevation of cellular cAMP beginning 10-15 min after initial exposure. The response is linear with time for 40-50 min and causes a six- to eightfold increase over control levels at steady state. Dibutyryl cAMP and agents that increase cAMP production inhibit Na/sup +/ influx into the isolated enterocytes. Chlorpromazine completely abolishes the toxin-induced elevation of cAMP in the isolated cells and also reverses the effect on Na/sup +/ entry. The data provide evidence for a cAMP-mediated control of intestinal cell Na/sup +/ uptake, which may represent the mechanistic basis for the antiabsorptive effect of CT on Na/sup +/ during induction of intestinal secretory activity. Studies on the time-dependent effects of chlorpromazine on both intracellular cAMP concentration and Na/sup +/ influx suggest that the reactivation of the Na/sup +/ transport system after cAMP-induced inhibition is slow relative to the disappearance of cAMP.

  15. Platelet cytosolic 44-kDa protein is a substrate of cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation and is not recognized by antisera against the. alpha. subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Molina Y Vedia, L.M.; Reep, B.R.; Lapetina, E.G. )

    1988-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation induced by cholera toxin and pertussis toxin was studied in particulate and cytosolic fractions of human platelets. Platelets were disrupted by a cycle of freezing and thawing in the presence of a hyposmotic buffer containing protease inhibitors. In both fractions, the A subunit of cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates two proteins with molecular masses of 42 and 44 kDa, whereas pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylates a 41-kDa polypeptide. Two antisera against the {alpha} subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein recognize only the 42-kDa polypeptide. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of the 42- and 44-kDa proteins is reduced by pretreatment of platelets with iloprost, a prostacyclin analog. The 44-kDa protein, which is substrate of cholera toxin, could be extracted completely from the membrane and recovered in the cytosolic fraction when the cells were disrupted by Dounce homogenization and the pellet was extensively washed. A 44-kDa protein can also be labeled with 8-azidoguanosine 5{prime}-({alpha}-{sup 32}P)triphosphate in the cytosol and membranes. These finding indicate that cholera and pertussis toxins produced covalent modifications of proteins present in particulate and cytosolic platelet fractions. Moreover, the 44-kDa protein might be an {alpha} subunit of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein that is not recognized by available antisera.

  16. DNA sequences, recombinant DNA molecules and processes for producing the A and B subunits of cholera toxin and preparations containing so-obtained subunit or subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Harford, N.; De Wilde, M.

    1987-05-19

    A recombinant DNA molecule is described comprising at least a portion coding for subunits A and B of cholera toxin, or a fragment or derivative of the portion wherein the fragment or derivative codes for a polypeptide have an activity which can induce an immune response to subunit A; can induce an immune response to subunit A and cause epithelial cell penetration and the enzymatic effect leading to net loss of fluid into the gut lumen; can bind to the membrane receptor for the B subunit of cholera toxin; can induce an immune response to subunit B; can induce an immune response to subunit B and bind to the membrane receptor; or has a combination of the activities.

  17. Effective DNA epitope chimeric vaccines for Alzheimer's disease using a toxin-derived carrier protein as a molecular adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yun-Zhou; Wang, Shuang; Bai, Jie-Ying; Zhao, Meng; Chen, Ao; Wang, Wen-Bin; Chang, Qing; Liu, Si; Qiu, Wei-Yi; Pang, Xiao-Bin; Xu, Qing; Sun, Zhi-Wei

    2013-10-01

    Active amyloid-beta (Aβ) immunotherapy is under investigation to prevent or treat Alzheimer disease (AD). We describe here the immunological characterization and protective effect of DNA epitope chimeric vaccines using 6 copies of Aβ1-15 fused with PADRE or toxin-derived carriers. These naked 6Aβ15-T-Hc chimeric DNA vaccines were demonstrated to induce robust anti-Aβ antibodies that could recognize Aβ oligomers and inhibit Aβ oligomer-mediated neurotoxicity, result in the reduction of cerebral Aβ load and Aβ oligomers, and improve cognitive function in AD mice, but did not stimulate Aβ-specific T cell responses. Notably, toxin-derived carriers as molecular adjuvants were able to substantially promote immune responses, overcome Aβ-associated hypo-responsiveness, and elicit long-term Aβ-specific antibody response in 6Aβ15-T-Hc-immunized AD mice. These findings suggest that our 6Aβ15-T-Hc DNA chimeric vaccines can be used as a safe and effective strategy for AD immunotherapy, and toxin-derived carrier proteins are effective molecular adjuvants of DNA epitope vaccines for Alzheimer's disease.

  18. A Vibrio cholerae Classical TcpA Amino Acid Sequence Induces Protective Antibody That Binds an Area Hypothesized To Be Important for Toxin-Coregulated Pilus Structure

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ronald K.; Kirn, Thomas J.; Meeks, Michael D.; Wade, Terri K.; Wade, William F.

    2004-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that has been associated with cholera pandemics since the early 1800s. Whole-cell, killed, and live-attenuated oral cholera vaccines are in use. We and others have focused on the development of a subunit cholera vaccine that features standardized epitopes from various V. cholerae macromolecules that are known to induce protective antibody responses. TcpA protein is assembled into toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), a type IVb pilus required for V. cholerae colonization, and thus is a strong candidate for a cholera subunit vaccine. Polypeptides (24 to 26 amino acids) in TcpA that can induce protective antibody responses have been reported, but further characterization of their amino acid targets relative to tertiary or quaternary TCP structures has not been done. We report a refinement of the TcpA sequences that can induce protective antibody. One sequence, TcpA 15 (residues 170 to 183), induces antibodies that bind linear TcpA in a Western blot as well as weakly bind soluble TcpA in solution. These antibodies bind assembled pili at high density and provide 80 to 100% protection in the infant mouse protection assay. This is in sharp contrast to other anti-TcpA peptide sera (TcpA 11, TcpA 13, and TcpA 17) that bind very strongly in Western blot and solution assays yet do not provide protection or effectively bind TCP, as evidenced by immunoelectron microscopy. The sequences of TcpA 15 that induce protective antibody were localized on a model of assembled TCP. These sequences are centered on a site that is predicted to be important for TCP structure. PMID:15385509

  19. Binding of fluorescently labeled cholera toxin subunit B to glycolipids in the human submandibular gland and inhibition of binding by periodate oxidation and by galactose.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, S

    2016-01-01

    FITC-labeled cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) stained the surfaces of cells of mucous acini in the submandibular gland. CTB, also called choleragenoid, binds to the GM1 glycolipid in the cell membrane. The binding in most acini was inhibited by periodic acid oxidation of the sections, while some acini remained unaffected even after increased oxidation. Staining with the subunit was also reduced significantly by adding galactose to the incubation medium. Binding of CTB to cell surfaces apparently requires intact sialic groups on most, but not all, cell surfaces. Oxidation of the sialic acid residues may influence the structure of the sialylated GM1 molecules on the cell surface in different ways. It is possible that both the sialic acid residue and the terminal galactose are oxidized. Alternatively, the sialic acid may be resistant to acid hydrolysis in gangliosides in which the sialic acid is attached to the internal galactose residue linked to GalNAc, as in the GM1 glycolipid. Inhibition of the GM1 receptor binding to cholera toxin has potential for protection of humans against cholera. Galactose and agents that modify sialic acid inhibit the accessibility of the toxin to the GM1 carbohydrate receptor. Human milk contains high levels of sialic acid glycoconjugates that may provide defense mechanisms.

  20. Measurement of the binding of cholera toxin to GM1 gangliosides on solid supported lipid bilayer vesicles and inhibition by europium (III) chloride.

    PubMed

    Williams, Thomas L; Jenkins, A Toby A

    2008-05-21

    In this paper the immobilization of small unilamellar DMPC/GM1 lipid vesicles containing a water-soluble bodipy dye is described. The binding of the complete alphabeta toxin expressed by Vibrio cholerae to the attached vesicles was measured using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and a value of the dissociation constant K d obtained. Further measurements showed that the interaction of both the alphabeta-toxin and the beta-subunit alone resulted in the permeation of the lipid membrane, with release of a fluorophore contained within the vesicle being measured by combined SPR and Surface Plasmon enhanced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (SPFS). The leakage of dye through the membrane, measured by following the change in fluorescence, was fitted to a simple diffusion model. Finally, SPFS measurements of the effect of europium(III) chloride (EuCl 3) showed that cholera toxin binding and subsequent membrane permeation could be blocked by 1 micromol dm (-3) europium chloride. In view of the low oral toxicity of europium chloride, we speculate on the potential pharmaceutical applications of this molecule in the treatment of cholera infection.

  1. Novel Mucosal DNA-MVA HIV Vaccination in Which DNA-IL-12 Plus Cholera Toxin B Subunit (CTB) Cooperates to Enhance Cellular Systemic and Mucosal Genital Tract Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Holgado, María Pía; Falivene, Juliana; Gherardi, María Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Induction of local antiviral immune responses at the mucosal portal surfaces where HIV-1 and other viral pathogens are usually first encountered remains a primary goal for most vaccines against mucosally acquired viral infections. Exploring mucosal immunization regimes in order to find optimal vector combinations and also appropriate mucosal adjuvants in the HIV vaccine development is decisive. In this study we analyzed the interaction of DNA-IL-12 and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) after their mucosal administration in DNA prime/MVA boost intranasal regimes, defining the cooperation of both adjuvants to enhance immune responses against the HIV-1 Env antigen. Our results demonstrated that nasal mucosal DNA/MVA immunization schemes can be effectively improved by the co-delivery of DNA-IL-12 plus CTB inducing elevated HIV-specific CD8 responses in spleen and more importantly in genital tract and genito-rectal draining lymph nodes. Remarkably, these CTL responses were of superior quality showing higher avidity, polyfunctionality and a broader cytokine profile. After IL-12+CTB co-delivery, the cellular responses induced showed an enhanced breadth recognizing with higher efficiency Env peptides from different subtypes. Even more, an in vivo CTL cytolytic assay demonstrated the higher specific CD8 T-cell performance after the IL-12+CTB immunization showing in an indirect manner its potential protective capacity. Improvements observed were maintained during the memory phase where we found higher proportions of specific central memory and T memory stem-like cells T-cell subpopulations. Together, our data show that DNA-IL-12 plus CTB can be effectively employed acting as mucosal adjuvants during DNA prime/MVA boost intranasal vaccinations, enhancing magnitude and quality of HIV-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. PMID:25215887

  2. A single native ganglioside GM1-binding site is sufficient for cholera toxin to bind to cells and complete the intoxication pathway.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Michael G; Yang, Zhijie; Kam, Wendy R; Lencer, Wayne I; Holmes, Randall K

    2012-10-30

    Cholera toxin (CT) from Vibrio cholerae is responsible for the majority of the symptoms of the diarrheal disease cholera. CT is a heterohexameric protein complex with a 240-residue A subunit and a pentameric B subunit of identical 103-residue B polypeptides. The A subunit is proteolytically cleaved within a disulfide-linked loop to generate the A1 and A2 fragments. The B subunit of wild-type (wt) CT binds 5 cell surface ganglioside GM(1) (GM(1)) molecules, and the toxin-GM(1) complex traffics from the plasma membrane (PM) retrograde through endosomes and the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). From the ER, the enzymatic A1 fragment retrotranslocates to the cytosol to cause disease. Clustering of GM(1) by multivalent toxin binding can structurally remodel cell membranes in ways that may assist toxin uptake and retrograde trafficking. We have recently found, however, that CT may traffic from the PM to the ER by exploiting an endogenous glycosphingolipid pathway (A. A. Wolf et al., Infect. Immun. 76:1476-1484, 2008, and D. J. F. Chinnapen et al., Dev. Cell 23:573-586, 2012), suggesting that multivalent binding to GM(1) is dispensable. Here we formally tested this idea by creating homogenous chimeric holotoxins with defined numbers of native GM(1) binding sites from zero (nonbinding) to five (wild type). We found that a single GM(1) binding site is sufficient for activity of the holotoxin. Therefore, remodeling of cell membranes by mechanisms that involve multivalent binding of toxin to GM(1) receptors is not essential for toxicity of CT. Through multivalent binding to its lipid receptor, cholera toxin (CT) can remodel cell membranes in ways that may assist host cell invasion. We recently found that CT variants which bind no more than 2 receptor molecules do exhibit toxicity, suggesting that CT may be able to enter cells by coopting an endogenous lipid sorting pathway without clustering receptors. We tested this idea directly by using purified variants

  3. Influence of tunicamycin, sialidase, and cholera toxin on gangliosides and T-lymphocyte responses to interleukin 2

    SciTech Connect

    Semmes, O.J.; Bailey, J.M.; Merritt, W.D.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have shown that gangliosides inhibit interleukin 2 (IL 2)-dependent proliferation of murine T cells. Tunicamycin (TM), sialidase, and cholera toxin-..beta.. subunit (..beta..-CT) are known modulators of cell surface glycoconjugates. To test the possible role of endogenous gangliosides in T cell responses to IL-2, the effect of these agents on ganglioside expression and cell proliferation was studied. Gangliosides were labelled for 24 hrs with /sup 3/H-glucosamine/galactose in the presence of IL-2 and purified sialidase, TM or ..beta..-CT. Gangliosides were isolated and the species separated by TLC. Alternatively, proliferation was assayed by /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake after 48 hrs culture. TM treatment at a concentration (10 ..mu..g/ml) that completely inhibited proliferation resulted in a 86% reduction of incorporation of saccharide precursors into gangliosides compared to a 50% reduction into proteins. Sialidase treatment (0.1 IU/ml) resulted in a 70% inhibition of proliferation and 30% reduction of radiolabel into gangliosides, of which 3 species were specifically reduced. ..beta..-CT, which binds to GM/sub 1/ and to a lesser extent GD/sub 1a/, caused a 50% reduction in proliferation response at 35 units/ml. The results support the hypothesis that gangliosides are involved in IL-2-dependent proliferation.

  4. Modes of Diffusion of Cholera Toxin Bound to GM1 on Live Cell Membrane by Image Mean Square Displacement Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Pierre D.J.; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The image-mean square displacement technique applies the calculation of the mean square displacement commonly used in single-molecule tracking to images without resolving single particles. The image-mean square displacement plot obtained is similar to the mean square displacement plot obtained using the single-particle tracking technique. This plot is then used to reconstruct the protein diffusion law and to identify whether the labeled molecules are undergoing pure isotropic, restricted, corralled, transiently confined, or directed diffusion. In our study total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy images were taken of Cholera toxin subunit B (CtxB) membrane-labeled NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and MDA 231 MB cells. We found a population of CTxB undergoing purely isotropic diffusion and one displaying restricted diffusion with corral sizes ranging from 150 to ∼1800 nm. We show that the diffusion rate of CTxB bound to GM1 is independent of the size of the confinement, suggesting that the mechanism of confinement is different from the mechanism controlling the diffusion rate of CtxB. We highlight the potential effect of continuous illumination on the diffusion mode of CTxB. We also show that aggregation of CTxB/GM1 in large complexes occurs and that these aggregates tend to have slower diffusion rates. PMID:25809257

  5. Mediodorsal thalamic nucleus receives a direct retinal input in marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus): a subunit B cholera toxin study.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Twyla Barros; de Santana, Melquisedec Abiaré Dantas; Silva, Alane de Medeiros; Guzen, Fausto Pierdoná; Oliveira, Francisco Gilberto; Cavalcante, Judney Cley; Cavalcante, Jeferson de Souza; Costa, Miriam Stela Maris Oliveira; Nascimento, Expedito Silva do

    2013-01-01

    The mediodorsal thalamic nucleus is a prominent nucleus in the thalamus, positioned lateral to the midline nuclei and medial to the intralaminar thalamic complex in the dorsal thalamus. Several studies identify the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus as a key structure in learning and memory, as well as in emotional mechanisms and alertness due to reciprocal connections with the limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Fibers from the retina to the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus have recently been described for the first time in a crepuscular rodent, suggesting a possible regulation of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus by visual activity. The present study shows retinal afferents in the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus of a new world primate, the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), using B subunit of cholera toxin (CTb) as an anterograde tracer. A small population of labeled retinofugal axonal arborizations is consistently labeled in small domains of the medial and lateral periphery of the caudal half of the mediodorsal nucleus. Retinal projections in the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus are exclusively contralateral and the morphology of the afferent endings was examined. Although the functional significance of this projection remains unknown, this retina-mediodorsal thalamic nucleus pathway may be involved in a wide possibility of functional implications.

  6. Transport of the cholera toxin B-subunit from recycling endosomes to the Golgi requires clathrin and AP-1.

    PubMed

    Matsudaira, Tatsuyuki; Niki, Takahiro; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-15

    The retrograde pathway is defined by the transport of proteins and lipids from the plasma membrane through endosomes to the Golgi complex, and is essential for a variety of cellular activities. Recycling endosomes are important sorting stations for some retrograde cargo. SMAP2, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Arf1 with a putative clathrin-binding domain, has previously been shown to participate in the retrograde transport of the cholera toxin B-subunit (CTxB) from recycling endosomes. Here, we found that clathrin, a vesicle coat protein, and clathrin adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1) were present at recycling endosomes and were needed for the retrograde transport of CTxB from recycling endosomes to the Golgi, but not from the plasma membrane to recycling endosomes. SMAP2 immunoprecipitated clathrin and AP-1 through a putative clathrin-binding domain and a CALM-binding domain, and SMAP2 mutants that did not interact with clathrin or AP-1 could not localize to recycling endosomes. Moreover, knockdown of Arf1 suppressed the retrograde transport of CTxB from recycling endosomes to the Golgi. These findings suggest that retrograde transport is mediated by clathrin-coated vesicles from recycling endosomes and that the role of the coat proteins is in the recruitment of Arf GAP to transport vesicles.

  7. Modes of diffusion of cholera toxin bound to GM1 on live cell membrane by image mean square displacement analysis.

    PubMed

    Moens, Pierre D J; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-03-24

    The image-mean square displacement technique applies the calculation of the mean square displacement commonly used in single-molecule tracking to images without resolving single particles. The image-mean square displacement plot obtained is similar to the mean square displacement plot obtained using the single-particle tracking technique. This plot is then used to reconstruct the protein diffusion law and to identify whether the labeled molecules are undergoing pure isotropic, restricted, corralled, transiently confined, or directed diffusion. In our study total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy images were taken of Cholera toxin subunit B (CtxB) membrane-labeled NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and MDA 231 MB cells. We found a population of CTxB undergoing purely isotropic diffusion and one displaying restricted diffusion with corral sizes ranging from 150 to ∼1800 nm. We show that the diffusion rate of CTxB bound to GM1 is independent of the size of the confinement, suggesting that the mechanism of confinement is different from the mechanism controlling the diffusion rate of CtxB. We highlight the potential effect of continuous illumination on the diffusion mode of CTxB. We also show that aggregation of CTxB/GM1 in large complexes occurs and that these aggregates tend to have slower diffusion rates.

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of human ADP-ribosylation factors: Two guanine nucleotide-dependent activators of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Bobak, D.A.; Nightingale, M.S.; Murtagh, J.J.; Price, S.R.; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M. )

    1989-08-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance the enzymatic activities of cholera toxin. Two ARF cDNAs, ARF1 and ARF3, were cloned from a human cerebellum library. Based on deduced amino acid sequences and patterns of hybridization of cDNA and oligonucleotide probes with mammalian brain poly(A){sup +} RNA, human ARF1 is the homologue of bovine ARF1. Human ARF3, which differs from bovine ARF1 and bovine ARF2, appears to represent a newly identified third type of ARF. Hybridization patterns of human ARF cDNA and clone-specific oligonucleotides with poly(A){sup +} RNA are consistent with the presence of at least two, and perhaps four, separate ARF messages in human brain. In vitro translation of ARF1, ARF2, and ARF3 produced proteins that behaved, by SDS/PAGE, similar to a purified soluble brain ARF. Deduced amino acid sequences of human ARF1 and ARF3 contain regions, similar to those in other G proteins, that are believed to be involved in GTP binding and hydrolysis. ARFS also exhibit a modest degree of homology with a bovine phospholipase C. The observations reported here support the conclusion that the ARFs are members of a multigene family of small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Definition of the regulation of ARF mRNAs and of function(s) of recombinant ARF proteins will aid in the elucidation of the physiologic role(s) of ARFs.

  9. Retrograde and transganglionic transport of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated cholera toxin B subunit, wheatgerm agglutinin and isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia I in primary afferent neurons innervating the rat urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Wang, H F; Shortland, P; Park, M J; Grant, G

    1998-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated and compared the ability of the cholera toxin B subunit, wheat germ agglutinin and isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia I conjugated to horseradish peroxidase, to retrogradely and transganglionically label visceral primary afferents after unilateral injections into the rat urinary bladder wall. Horseradish peroxidase histochemical or lectin-immunofluorescence histochemical labelling of bladder afferents was seen in the L6-S1 spinal cord segments and in the T13-L2 and L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia. In the lumbosacral spinal cord, the most intense and extensive labelling of bladder afferents was seen when cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase was injected. Cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase-labelled fibres were found in Lissauer's tract, its lateral and medial collateral projections, and laminae I and IV-VI of the spinal gray matter. Labelled fibres were numerous in the lateral collateral projection and extended into the spinal parasympathetic nucleus. Labelling from both the lateral and medial projections extended into the dorsal grey commissural region. Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase labelling produced a similar pattern but was not as dense and extensive as that of cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase. The isolectin B4 from Griffonia simplicifolia I-horseradish peroxidase-labelled fibres, on the other hand, were fewer and only observed in the lateral collateral projection and occasionally in lamina I. Cell profile counts showed that a larger number of dorsal root ganglion cells were labelled with cholera toxin B subunit-horseradish peroxidase than with wheat germ agglutinin- or isolectin B4-horseradish peroxidase. In the L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia, the majority (81%) of the cholera toxin B subunit-, and almost all of the wheat germ agglutinin- and isolectin B4-immunoreactive cells were RT97-negative (an anti-neurofilament antibody that labels dorsal root ganglion neurons with

  10. Induction of toxin-specific neutralizing immunity by molecularly uniform rice-based oral cholera toxin B subunit vaccine without plant-associated sugar modification.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Yoshikazu; Mejima, Mio; Kurokawa, Shiho; Hiroiwa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Yuko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Nochi, Tomonori; Katakai, Yuko; Kuroda, Masaharu; Takeyama, Natsumi; Kashima, Koji; Abe, Michiyo; Chen, Yingju; Nakanishi, Ushio; Masumura, Takehiro; Takeuchi, Yoji; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Shibata, Hiroaki; Oyama, Masaaki; Tanaka, Kunisuke; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Plants have been used as expression systems for a number of vaccines. However, the expression of vaccines in plants sometimes results in unexpected modification of the vaccines by N-terminal blocking and sugar-chain attachment. Although MucoRice-CTB was thought to be the first cold-chain-free and unpurified oral vaccine, the molecular heterogeneity of MucoRice-CTB, together with plant-based sugar modifications of the CTB protein, has made it difficult to assess immunological activity of vaccine and yield from rice seed. Using a T-DNA vector driven by a prolamin promoter and a signal peptide added to an overexpression vaccine cassette, we established MucoRice-CTB/Q as a new generation oral cholera vaccine for humans use. We confirmed that MucoRice-CTB/Q produces a single CTB monomer with an Asn to Gln substitution at the 4th glycosylation position. The complete amino acid sequence of MucoRice-CTB/Q was determined by MS/MS analysis and the exact amount of expressed CTB was determined by SDS-PAGE densitometric analysis to be an average of 2.35 mg of CTB/g of seed. To compare the immunogenicity of MucoRice-CTB/Q, which has no plant-based glycosylation modifications, with that of the original MucoRice-CTB/N, which is modified with a plant N-glycan, we orally immunized mice and macaques with the two preparations. Similar levels of CTB-specific systemic IgG and mucosal IgA antibodies with toxin-neutralizing activity were induced in mice and macaques orally immunized with MucoRice-CTB/Q or MucoRice-CTB/N. These results show that the molecular uniformed MucoRice-CTB/Q vaccine without plant N-glycan has potential as a safe and efficacious oral vaccine candidate for human use.

  11. Safety of the Recombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit, Killed Whole-Cell (rBS-WC) Oral Cholera Vaccine in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Ramadhan; Khatib, Ahmed M.; Enwere, Godwin; Park, Jin Kyung; Reyburn, Rita; Ali, Mohammad; Chang, Na Yoon; Kim, Deok Ryun; Ley, Benedikt; Thriemer, Kamala; Lopez, Anna Lena; Clemens, John D.; Deen, Jacqueline L.; Shin, Sunheang; Schaetti, Christian; Hutubessy, Raymond; Aguado, Maria Teresa; Kieny, Marie Paule; Sack, David; Obaro, Stephen; Shaame, Attiye J.; Ali, Said M.; Saleh, Abdul A.; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Jiddawi, Mohamed S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mass vaccinations are a main strategy in the deployment of oral cholera vaccines. Campaigns avoid giving vaccine to pregnant women because of the absence of safety data of the killed whole-cell oral cholera (rBS-WC) vaccine. Balancing this concern is the known higher risk of cholera and of complications of pregnancy should cholera occur in these women, as well as the lack of expected adverse events from a killed oral bacterial vaccine. Methodology/Principal Findings From January to February 2009, a mass rBS-WC vaccination campaign of persons over two years of age was conducted in an urban and a rural area (population 51,151) in Zanzibar. Pregnant women were advised not to participate in the campaign. More than nine months after the last dose of the vaccine was administered, we visited all women between 15 and 50 years of age living in the study area. The outcome of pregnancies that were inadvertently exposed to at least one oral cholera vaccine dose and those that were not exposed was evaluated. 13,736 (94%) of the target women in the study site were interviewed. 1,151 (79%) of the 1,453 deliveries in 2009 occurred during the period when foetal exposure to the vaccine could have occurred. 955 (83%) out of these 1,151 mothers had not been vaccinated; the remaining 196 (17%) mothers had received at least one dose of the oral cholera vaccine. There were no statistically significant differences in the odds ratios for birth outcomes among the exposed and unexposed pregnancies. Conclusions/Significance We found no statistically significant evidence of a harmful effect of gestational exposure to the rBS-WC vaccine. These findings, along with the absence of a rational basis for expecting a risk from this killed oral bacterial vaccine, are reassuring but the study had insufficient power to detect infrequent events. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00709410 PMID:22848772

  12. Vibrio cholerae in an Historically Cholera-Free Country.

    PubMed

    Haley, Bradd J; Chen, Arlene; Grim, Christopher J; Clark, Philip; Diaz, Celia Municio; Taviani, Elisa; Hasan, Nur A; Sancomb, Elizabeth; Elnemr, Wessam Mahmoud; Islam, Muhammad A; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Benediktsdóttir, Eva

    2012-08-01

    We report the autochthonous existence of Vibrio cholerae in coastal waters of Iceland, a geothermally active country where cholera is absent and has never been reported. Seawater, mussel, and macroalgae samples were collected close to and distant from sites where geothermal activity causes a significant increase in water temperature during low tides. V. cholerae was detected only at geothermal-influenced sites during low-tides. None of the V. cholerae isolates encoded cholera toxin (ctxAB) and all were non-O1/non-O139 serogroups. However, all isolates encoded other virulence factors that are associated with cholera as well as extra-intestinal V. cholerae infections. The virulence factors were functional at temperatures of coastal waters of Iceland, suggesting an ecological role. It is noteworthy that V. cholerae was isolated from samples collected at sites distant from anthropogenic influence, supporting the conclusion that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment of Iceland.

  13. Role of the RS1 sequence of the cholera vibrio in amplification of the segment of plasmid DNA carrying the gene of resistance to tetracycline and the genes of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Fil'kova, S.L.; Il'ina, T.S.; Gintsburg, A.L.; Yanishevskii, N.V.; Smirnov, G.B.

    1988-11-01

    The hybrid plasmid pCO107, representing cointegrate 14(2)-5(2) of two plasmids, an F-derivative (pOX38) and a PBR322-derivative (pCT105) with an RS1 sequence of the cholera vibrio cloned in its makeup, contains two copes of RS1 at the sites of union of the two plasmids. Using a tetracycline resistance marker (Tc/sup R/) of the plasmid pCT105, clones were isolated which have an elevated level of resistance to tetracycline (an increase of from 4- to 30-fold). Using restriction analysis and the Southern blot method of hybridization it was shown that the increase in the level of resistance of tetracycline is associated with the amplification of pCT105 portion of the cointegrate, and that the process of amplification is governed by the presence of direct repeats of the RS1 sequence at its ends. The increase in the number of copies of the pCT105 segment, which contains in its composition the genes of cholera toxin (vct), is accompanied by an increase in toxin production.

  14. Selection of cholera toxin specific IgNAR single-domain antibodies from a naïve shark library.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinny L; Anderson, George P; Delehanty, James B; Baumann, Richard; Hayhurst, Andrew; Goldman, Ellen R

    2007-03-01

    Shark immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNAR, also referred to as NAR) variable domains (Vs) are single-domain antibody (sdAb) fragments containing only two hypervariable loop structures forming 3D topologies for a wide range of antigen recognition and binding. Their small size ( approximately 12kDa) and high solubility, thermostability and binding specificity make IgNARs an exceptional alternative source of engineered antibodies for sensor applications. Here, two new shark NAR V display libraries containing >10(7) unique clones from non-immunized (naïve) adult spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis) sharks were constructed. The most conserved consensus sequences derived from random clone sequence were compared with published nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) sequences. Cholera toxin (CT) was chosen for panning one of the naïve display libraries due to its severe pathogenicity and commercial availability. Three very similar CT binders were selected and purified soluble monomeric anti-CT sdAbs were characterized using Luminex(100) and traditional ELISA assays. These novel anti-CT sdAbs selected from our newly constructed shark NAR V sdAb library specifically bound to soluble antigen, without cross reacting with other irrelevant antigens. They also showed superior heat stability, exhibiting slow loss of activity over the course of one hour at high temperature (95 degrees C), while conventional antibodies lost all activity in the first 5-10min. The successful isolation of target specific sdAbs from one of our non-biased NAR libraries, demonstrate their ability to provide binders against an unacquainted antigen of interest.

  15. Measuring Positive Cooperativity Using the Direct ESI-MS Assay. Cholera Toxin B Subunit Homopentamer Binding to GM1 Pentasaccharide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Kitova, Elena N.; Klassen, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Direct electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) assay was used to investigate the stepwise binding of the GM1 pentasaccharide β- D-Gal p-(1→3)-β-D-Gal pNAc-(1→4)[α-D-Neu5Ac-(2→3)]-β- D-Gal p-(1→4)-β-D-Glc p (GM1os) to the cholera toxin B subunit homopentamer (CTB5) and to establish conclusively whether GM1os binding is cooperative. Apparent association constants were measured for the stepwise addition of one to five GM1os to CTB5 at pH 6.9 and 22 °C. The intrinsic association constant, which was established from the apparent association constant for the addition of a single GM1os to CTB5, was found to be (3.2 ± 0.2) × 106 M-1. This is in reasonable agreement with the reported value of (6.4 ± 0.3) × 106 M-1, which was measured at pH 7.4 and 25 °C using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Analysis of the apparent association constants provides direct and unambiguous evidence that GM1os binding exhibits small positive cooperativity. Binding was found to be sensitive to the number of ligand-bound nearest neighbor subunits, with the affinities enhanced by a factor of 1.7 and 2.9 when binding occurs next to one or two ligand-bound subunits, respectively. These findings, which provide quantitative support for the binding model proposed by Homans and coworkers [14], highlight the unique strengths of the direct ESI-MS assay for measuring cooperative ligand binding.

  16. The β-subunit of cholera toxin has a high affinity for ganglioside GM1 embedded into solid supported lipid membranes with a lipid raft-like composition.

    PubMed

    Margheri, G; D'Agostino, R; Trigari, S; Sottini, S; Del Rosso, M

    2014-02-01

    In this communication, we report on the fabrication of GM1-rich solid-supported bilayer lipid membranes (ssBLM) made of sphingomyelin and cholesterol, the main components of lipid rafts,which are the physiological hosting microenvironment of GM1 on the cell membrane. The functionality of the ganglioside has been checked by measuring the apparent dissociation constant K(D) of the complex formed by the β-subunit of the cholera toxin and GM1. The value found deviates less than one order of magnitude from that measured for in vivo cells, indicating the potential of these ssBLM as optimized in vitro biomimetic platforms.

  17. Refined structure of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, a close relative of cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Sixma, T K; Kalk, K H; van Zanten, B A; Dauter, Z; Kingma, J; Witholt, B; Hol, W G

    1993-04-05

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) from Escherichia coli is a bacterial protein toxin with an AB5 multimer structure, in which the B pentamer has a membrane binding function and the A subunit is needed for enzymatic activity. The LT crystal structure has been solved using a combination of multiple isomorphous replacement, fivefold averaging and molecular dynamics refinement. Phase combination using all these sources of phase information was of crucial importance for the chain tracing. The structure has now been refined to 1.95 A resolution, resulting in a model containing 6035 protein atoms and 293 solvent molecules with a crystallographic R-factor of 18.2% and good stereochemistry. The B subunits are arranged as a highly stable pentamer with a donut shape. Each subunit takes part in approximately 30 inter-subunit hydrogen bonds and six salt bridges with its two neighbors, whilst burying a large surface area. The A subunit has higher temperature factors and less well-defined secondary structure than the B subunits. It interacts with the B pentamer mainly via the C-terminal A2 fragment, which runs through the highly charged central pore of the B subunits. The pore contains at least 66 water molecules, which fill the space left by the A2 fragment. A detailed analysis of the contacts between A and B subunits showed that most specific contacts occur at the entrance of the central pore of the B pentamer, while the contacts within the pore are mainly hydrophobic and water mediated, with the exception of two salt bridges. Only a few contacts exist between the A1 fragment and the B pentamer, showing that the A2 fragment functions as a "linker" of the A and B parts of the protein. Interacting with the A subunit by the B subunits does not cause large deviations from a common B subunit structure, and the 5-fold symmetry is well maintained. A potential NAD(+)-binding site is located in an elongated crevice at the interface of two small sheets in the A1 fragment. At the back of this

  18. N-Glycosylation of cholera toxin B subunit in Nicotiana benthamiana: impacts on host stress response, production yield and vaccine potential

    PubMed Central

    Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Kouokam, J. Calvin; Jurkiewicz, Jessica M.; Nelson, Bailey; Moore, Lauren J.; Husk, Adam S.; Kajiura, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Plant-based transient overexpression systems enable rapid and scalable production of subunit vaccines. Previously, we have shown that cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), an oral cholera vaccine antigen, is N-glycosylated upon expression in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana. Here, we found that overexpression of aglycosylated CTB by agroinfiltration of a tobamoviral vector causes massive tissue necrosis and poor accumulation unless retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, the re-introduction of N-glycosylation to its original or an alternative site significantly relieved the necrosis and provided a high CTB yield without ER retention. Quantitative gene expression analysis of PDI, BiP, bZIP60, SKP1, 26Sα proteasome and PR1a, and the detection of ubiquitinated CTB polypeptides revealed that N-glycosylation significantly relieved ER stress and hypersensitive response, and facilitated the folding/assembly of CTB. The glycosylated CTB (gCTB) was characterized for potential vaccine use. Glycan profiling revealed that gCTB contained approximately 38% plant-specific glycans. gCTB retained nanomolar affinity to GM1-ganglioside with only marginal reduction of physicochemical stability and induced an anti-cholera holotoxin antibody response comparable to native CTB in a mouse oral immunization study. These findings demonstrated gCTB's potential as an oral immunogen and point to a potential role of N-glycosylation in increasing recombinant protein yields in plants. PMID:25614217

  19. N-glycosylation of cholera toxin B subunit in Nicotiana benthamiana: impacts on host stress response, production yield and vaccine potential.

    PubMed

    Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Kouokam, J Calvin; Jurkiewicz, Jessica M; Nelson, Bailey; Moore, Lauren J; Husk, Adam S; Kajiura, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-23

    Plant-based transient overexpression systems enable rapid and scalable production of subunit vaccines. Previously, we have shown that cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), an oral cholera vaccine antigen, is N-glycosylated upon expression in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana. Here, we found that overexpression of aglycosylated CTB by agroinfiltration of a tobamoviral vector causes massive tissue necrosis and poor accumulation unless retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, the re-introduction of N-glycosylation to its original or an alternative site significantly relieved the necrosis and provided a high CTB yield without ER retention. Quantitative gene expression analysis of PDI, BiP, bZIP60, SKP1, 26Sα proteasome and PR1a, and the detection of ubiquitinated CTB polypeptides revealed that N-glycosylation significantly relieved ER stress and hypersensitive response, and facilitated the folding/assembly of CTB. The glycosylated CTB (gCTB) was characterized for potential vaccine use. Glycan profiling revealed that gCTB contained approximately 38% plant-specific glycans. gCTB retained nanomolar affinity to GM1-ganglioside with only marginal reduction of physicochemical stability and induced an anti-cholera holotoxin antibody response comparable to native CTB in a mouse oral immunization study. These findings demonstrated gCTB's potential as an oral immunogen and point to a potential role of N-glycosylation in increasing recombinant protein yields in plants.

  20. Trapping of Vibrio cholerae cytolysin in the membrane-bound monomeric state blocks membrane insertion and functional pore formation by the toxin.

    PubMed

    Rai, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2014-06-13

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a potent membrane-damaging cytolytic toxin that belongs to the family of β barrel pore-forming protein toxins. VCC induces lysis of its target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β barrel pores. The mechanism of membrane pore formation by VCC follows the overall scheme of the archetypical β barrel pore-forming protein toxin mode of action, in which the water-soluble monomeric form of the toxin first binds to the target cell membrane, then assembles into a prepore oligomeric intermediate, and finally converts into the functional transmembrane oligomeric β barrel pore. However, there exists a vast knowledge gap in our understanding regarding the intricate details of the membrane pore formation process employed by VCC. In particular, the membrane oligomerization and membrane insertion steps of the process have only been described to a limited extent. In this study, we determined the key residues in VCC that are critical to trigger membrane oligomerization of the toxin. Alteration of such key residues traps the toxin in its membrane-bound monomeric state and abrogates subsequent oligomerization, membrane insertion, and functional transmembrane pore-formation events. The results obtained from our study also suggest that the membrane insertion of VCC depends critically on the oligomerization process and that it cannot be initiated in the membrane-bound monomeric form of the toxin. In sum, our study, for the first time, dissects membrane binding from the subsequent oligomerization and membrane insertion steps and, thus, defines the exact sequence of events in the membrane pore formation process by VCC.

  1. Studies on nonidet P40 lysis of murine lymphoid cells. I. Use of cholera toxin and cell surface Ig to determine degree of dissociation of the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Hart, D A

    1975-09-01

    Lymphoid cells from A/J mice were iodinated (125I) by the lactoperoxidase lysed with the non-ionic detergent NP-40. The plasma membrane glycolipid receptor for cholera toxin and cell surface immunoglobulin were utilized in immune precipitation systems to characterize the degree of dissociation of the plasma membrane under various conditions. It was found that at 0.1% NP-40 and at cell concentration from 5 to 10 times 10(7) cells/ml, lipid-protein and protein-lipid-protein complexes formed in NP-40 which were soluble after centrifugation at 10(5) times G. Column chromatography of 125I-cell lysates on agarose A-0.5 M in 0.1% or 0.5% NP-40/PBS indicated that the majority of iodinated cell surface material existed as aggregates in detergent micelles. The availability of the oligosaccharide moiety of the glycolipid to interact with the cholera toxin was dependent on both the detergent concentration and the cell concentration used for cell lysis. However, the cell surface immunoglobulin was immunoprecipitable under all conditions of lysis tested.

  2. Evidence for TLR4 and FcRγ-CARD9 activation by cholera toxin B subunit and its direct bindings to TREM2 and LMIR5 receptors.

    PubMed

    Phongsisay, Vongsavanh; Iizasa, Ei'ichi; Hara, Hiromitsu; Yoshida, Hiroki

    2015-08-01

    Cholera toxin (CTX) is a virulent factor of Vibrio cholerae that causes life-threatening diarrheal disease. Its non-toxic subunit CTB has been extensively studied for vaccine delivery. In immune cells, CTB induces a number of signaling molecules related to cellular activation and cytokine production. The mechanisms by which CTB exerts its immunological effects are not understood. We report here the immunological targets of CTB. The unexpected finding that GM1 ganglioside inhibited NF-κB activation in human monocytes stimulated with CTX and agonists of Toll-like receptors (TLR) suggests the possibility of CTX-TLR interaction. Indeed, CTX-induced IL-6 production was substantially reduced in MyD88(-/-) or TLR4(-/-) macrophages. Ectopic expression of TLR4 was required for CTX-induced NF-κB activation in HEK 293 cells. Furthermore, the inflammatory capacity of CTB was lost in the absence of TLR4, adaptor protein FcRγ, or its downstream signaling molecule CARD9. Attempts have been made to identify CTB-binding targets from various C-type lectin and immunoglobulin-like receptors. CTB targeted not only GM1 and TLR4 but also TREM2 and LMIR5/CD300b. CTB-TREM2 interaction initiated signal transduction through adaptor protein DAP12. The binding of CTB inhibited LMIR5 activation induced by its endogenous ligand 3-O-sulfo-β-d-galactosylceramide C24:1. In summary, CTB targets TLR4, FcRγ-CARD9, TREM2, and LMIR5. These findings provide new insights into the immunobiology of cholera toxin.

  3. Platelet-activating factor-mediated transmembrane signaling in human B lymphocytes is regulated through a pertussis- and cholera toxin-sensitive pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Mazer, B D; Sawami, H; Tordai, A; Gelfand, E W

    1992-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) stimulates human B cells, resulting in elevation of intracellular calcium and the release of inositol phosphates. This signaling pathway is inhibited in the presence of pertussis (PT) or cholera toxin (CT). Preincubation of human B cells with either toxin, but not their inactive subunits, for 3 h blocked these PAF-induced responses in two B-lymphoblastoid cell lines. This effect was time dependent, with some inhibition noted at 30 min, but only after preincubation for 2-3 h was maximum inhibition achieved. This inhibitory activity was also dose dependent. The toxins blocked both PAF-induced transmembrane uptake of Ca2+ as well as release of Ca2+ from internal stores, and were selective in that activation events after cross-linking of surface IgM were not affected. Further, the toxins did not appear to act through elevation of intracellular levels of cAMP. These data, coupled with previous observations on the absence of heterologous desensitization between PAF and sIgM receptors, may delineate distinct signaling pathways in human B cells. This may reflect different roles for GTP-binding proteins in the activation of human B cells. PMID:1325997

  4. Group B Streptococcus Capsular Polysaccharide-Cholera Toxin B Subunit Conjugate Vaccines Prepared by Different Methods for Intranasal Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xuzhuang; Lagergård, Teresa; Yang, Yonghong; Lindblad, Marianne; Fredriksson, Margareta; Holmgren, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) type III capsular polysaccharide (CPS III) was conjugated to recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB) using three different methods which employed (i) cystamine and N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate (SPDP), (ii) carbodiimide with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) as a spacer, or (iii) reductive amination (RA). The CPS III-rCTB conjugates were divided into large- and small-molecular-weight (Mr) fractions, and the immunogenicities of the different preparations after intranasal (i.n.) immunization were studied in mice. Both large- and small-Mr conjugates of CPS III-rCTBRA or CPS III-rCTBADH induced high, almost comparable levels of CPS-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum, lungs, and vagina that were generally superior to those obtained with CPS III-rCTBSPDP conjugates or a CPS III and rCTB mixture. However, the smaller-Mr conjugates of CPS III-rCTBRA or CPS III-rCTBADH in most cases elicited a lower anti-CPS IgA immune response than the large-Mr conjugates, and the highest anti-CPS IgA titers in both tissues and serum were obtained with the large-Mr CPS III-rCTBRA conjugate. Serum IgG anti-CPS titers induced by the CPS III-rCTBRA conjugate had high levels of specific IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 antibodies. Based on the effectiveness of RA for coupling CPS III to rCTB, RA was also tested for conjugating GBS CPS Ia with rCTB. As for the CPS III-rCTB conjugates, the immunogenicity of CPS Ia was greatly increased by conjugation to rCTB. Intranasal immunization with a combination of CPS Ia-rCTB and CPS III-rCTB conjugates was shown to induce anti-CPS Ia and III immune responses in serum and lungs that were fully comparable with the responses to immunization with the monovalent CPS Ia-rCTB or CPS III-rCTB conjugates. These results suggest that the GBS CPS III-rCTB and CPS Ia-rCTB conjugates prepared by the RA method may be used in bivalent and possibly also in multivalent mucosal GBS conjugate vaccines. PMID:11119518

  5. Effect of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin, cholera toxin and theophylline on ion transport in porcine colon

    PubMed Central

    Argenzio, R. A.; Whipp, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    1. The effect of heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) of Escherichia coli, cholera toxin (CT), and theophylline (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) on ion and water transport was studied with an in vivo isolated loop system of the pig colon. 2. All three agents abolished net Na absorption as a result of a decrease in the lumen to blood Na flux alone. With all three agents, net Cl absorption was reduced, but not abolished, and net HCO3 secretion was elicited. Luminal pCO2 was reduced with CT and theophylline from that observed in normal Ringer alone. 3. Theophylline resulted in a prompt and sustained increase in both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) levels in colonic mucosa studied in vitro. ST selectively elevated cyclic GMP, whereas CT selectively elevated cyclic AMP. These responses paralleled the time course and magnitude of response of the transepithelial electrical potential difference (ψLB) measured in vivo. 4. Ion replacement studies in the presence or absence of theophylline showed that in the absence of Na, Cl absorption was slightly reduced and HCO3 secretion was elicited; no further additive effects of theophylline in the absence of luminal Na were observed. In the absence of luminal Cl, net Na absorption was abolished and HCO3 was absorbed; theophylline resulted in significant net Na and HCO3 secretion. Theophylline also increased ψLB in the absence of either luminal Na or Cl. 5. Results suggest that in the presence of theophylline or enterotoxin, the coupled Na—H and Cl—HCO3 exchange processes that are normally responsible for at least half of the net NaCl absorption by this tissue are interrupted. Active HCO3 secretion is observed and Cl absorption under these conditions can be entirely explained as a consequence of ψLB. Thus, these studies indicate that the colon may participate in the production of diarrhoea of enterotoxigenic origin. They also suggest an important functional role of cyclic

  6. Comparison of Efficacy and Side Effects of Oral Baclofen Versus Tizanidine Therapy with Adjuvant Botulinum Toxin Type A in Children With Cerebral Palsy and Spastic Equinus Foot Deformity.

    PubMed

    Dai, Alper I; Aksoy, Sefika N; Demiryürek, Abdullah T

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective study aimed to compare the therapeutic response, including side effects, for oral baclofen versus oral tizanidine therapy with adjuvant botulinum toxin type A in a group of 64 pediatric patients diagnosed with static encephalopathy and spastic equinus foot deformity. Following botulinum toxin A treatment, clinical improvement led to the gradual reduction of baclofen or tizanidine dosing to one-third of the former dose. Gross Motor Functional Measure and Caregiver Health Questionnaire scores were markedly elevated post-botulinum toxin A treatment, with scores for the tizanidine (Gross Motor Functional Measure: 74.45 ± 3.72; Caregiver Health Questionnaire: 72.43 ± 4.29) group significantly higher than for the baclofen group (Gross Motor Functional Measure: 68.23 ± 2.66; Caregiver Health Questionnaire: 67.53 ± 2.67, P < .001). These findings suggest that the combined use of botulinum toxin A and a low dose of tizanidine in treating children with cerebral palsy appears to be more effective and has fewer side effects versus baclofen with adjuvant botulinum toxin A.

  7. Activation of a pro-survival pathway IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 contributes to glial fibrillary acidic protein induction during the cholera toxin-induced differentiation of C6 malignant glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Shu, Minfeng; Zhou, Yuxi; Zhu, Wenbo; Wu, Sihan; Zheng, Xiaoke; Yan, Guangmei

    2011-06-01

    Differentiation-inducing therapy has been proposed to be a novel potential approach to treat malignant gliomas. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a well-known specific astrocyte biomarker and acts as a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in glioma pathogenesis. Previously we reported that a traditional biotoxin cholera toxin could induce malignant glioma cell differentiation characterized by morphologic changes and dramatic GFAP expression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GFAP induction are still largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that an oncogenic pathway interleukin-6/janus kinase-2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (IL-6/JAK2/STAT3) cascade mediates the cholera toxin-induced GFAP expression. Cholera toxin dramatically stimulated GFAP expression at the transcriptional level in C6 glioma cells. Meanwhile, phosphorylation of STAT3 and JAK2 was highly induced in a time-dependent manner after cholera toxin incubation, whereas no changes of STAT3 and JAK2 were observed. Furthermore, the IL-6 gene was quickly induced by cholera toxin and subsequent IL-6 protein secretion was stimulated. Importantly, exogenous recombinant rat IL-6 can also induce phosphorylation of STAT3 concomitant with GFAP expression while JAK2 specific inhibitor AG490 could effectively block both cholera toxin- and IL-6-induced GFAP expression. Given that the methylation of the STAT3 binding element can suppress GFAP expression, we detected the methylation status of the critical recognition sequence of STAT3 in the promoter of GFAP gene (-1518 ∼ -1510) and found that it was unmethylated in C6 glioma cells. In addition, neither DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1) inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZa-CdR) nor silencing DNMT1 can stimulate GFAP expression, indicating that the loss of GFAP expression in C6 cells is not caused by its promoter hypermethylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that activation of a pro-survival IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 cascade contributes to

  8. Retinal projections in the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, as studied using the axonal transport of cholera toxin B subunit: Comparison with mouse.

    PubMed

    Scalia, Frank; Rasweiler, John J; Danias, John

    2015-08-15

    To provide a modern description of the Chiropteran visual system, the subcortical retinal projections were studied in the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, using the anterograde transport of eye-injected cholera toxin B subunit, supplemented by the silver-impregnation of anterograde degeneration following eye removal, and compared with the retinal projections of the mouse. The retinal projections were heavily labeled by the transported toxin in both species. Almost all components of the murine retinal projection are present in Carollia in varying degrees of prominence and laterality. The projections: to the superior colliculus, accessory optic nuclei, and nucleus of the optic tract are predominantly or exclusively contralateral; to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and posterior pretectal nucleus are predominantly contralateral; to the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet, and olivary pretectal nucleus have a substantial ipsilateral component; and to the suprachiasmatic nucleus are symmetrically bilateral. The retinal projection in Carollia is surprisingly reduced at the anterior end of the dorsal lateral geniculate and superior colliculus, suggestive of a paucity of the relevant ganglion cells in the ventrotemporal retina. In the superior colliculus, in which the superficial gray layer is very thin, the projection is patchy in places where the layer is locally absent. Except for a posteriorly located lateral terminal nucleus, the other accessory optic nuclei are diminutive in Carollia, as is the nucleus of the optic tract. In both species the cholera toxin labeled sparse groups of apparently terminating axons in numerous regions not listed above. A question of their significance is discussed.

  9. Cholera Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Infection & Risk Factors Non-O1 and Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Infections Diagnosis and Detection Laboratory Testing for Cholera ...

  10. Molecular dynamics of sialic acid analogues complex with cholera toxin and DFT optimization of ethylene glycol-mediated zinc nanocluster conjugation.

    PubMed

    Sharmila, D Jeya Sundara; Jino Blessy, J

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is an infectious disease caused by cholera toxin (CT) protein of bacterium Vibrio cholerae. A sequence of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid, NeuNAc or Neu5Ac) analogues modified in its C-5 position is modelled using molecular modelling techniques and docked against the CT followed by molecular dynamics simulations. Docking results suggest better binding affinity of NeuNAc analogue towards the binding site of CT. The NeuNAc analogues interact with the active site residues GLU:11, TYR:12, HIS:13, GLY:33, LYS:34, GLU:51, GLN:56, HIE:57, ILE:58, GLN:61, TRP:88, ASN:90 and LYS:91 through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Analogues N-glycolyl-NeuNAc, N-Pentanoyl-NeuNAc and N-Propanoyl-NeuNAc show the least XPGscore (docking score) of -9.90, -9.16, and -8.91, respectively, and glide energy of -45.99, -42.14 and -41.66 kcal/mol, respectively. Stable nature of CT-N-glycolyl-NeuNAc, CT-N-Pentanoyl-NeuNAc and CT-N-Propanoyl-NeuNAc complexes was verified through molecular dynamics simulations, each for 40 ns using the software Desmond. All the nine NeuNAc analogues show better score for drug-like properties, so could be considered as suitable candidates for drug development for cholera infection. To improve the enhanced binding mode of NeuNAc analogues towards CT, the nine NeuNAc analogues are conjugated with Zn nanoclusters through ethylene glycol (EG) as carriers. The NeuNAc analogues conjugated with EG-Zn nanoclusters show better binding energy towards CT than the unconjugated nine NeuNAc analogues. The electronic structural optimization of EG-Zn nanoclusters was carried out for optimizing their performance as better delivery vehicles for NeuNAc analogues through density functional theory calculations. These sialic acid analogues may be considered as novel leads for the design of drug against cholera and the EG-Zn nanocluster may be a suitable carrier for sialic acid analogues.

  11. Stable expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus protein VP1 fused with cholera toxin B subunit in the potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    He, Dong-Mei; Qian, Kai-Xian; Shen, Gui-Fang; Li, Yi-Nü; Zhang, Zhi-Fang; Su, Zhong-Liang; Shao, Hong-Bo

    2007-04-01

    The expression vector, pBI121CTBVP1, containing the fusion of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 gene and the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) gene was constructed by fused PCR and transferred into potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transformed plants were obtained by selecting on kanamycin-resistant medium strictly and regenerated. The transgenic plantlets were identified by PCR, Southern-blot and the production of fused protein was confirmed and quantified by Western-blot and ELISA assays. The results showed that the fused genes were expressed stablely under the control of specific-tuber patatin promoter. The expressed fused proteins have a certain degree of immunogenicity.

  12. A mutational analysis of residues in cholera toxin A1 necessary for interaction with its substrate, the stimulatory G protein Gsα.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Michael G; Gotow, Lisa F; Yang, Zhijie; Holmes, Randall K

    2015-03-18

    Pathogenesis of cholera diarrhea requires cholera toxin (CT)-mediated adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation of stimulatory G protein (Gsα) in enterocytes. CT is an AB5 toxin with an inactive CTA1 domain linked via CTA2 to a pentameric receptor-binding B subunit. Allosterically activated CTA1 fragment in complex with NAD+ and GTP-bound ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6-GTP) differs conformationally from the CTA1 domain in holotoxin. A surface-exposed knob and a short α-helix (formed, respectively, by rearranging "active-site" and "activation" loops in inactive CTA1) and an ADP ribosylating turn-turn (ARTT) motif, all located near the CTA1 catalytic site, were evaluated for possible roles in recognizing Gsα. CT variants with one, two or three alanine substitutions at surface-exposed residues within these CTA1 motifs were tested for assembly into holotoxin and ADP-ribosylating activity against Gsα and diethylamino-(benzylidineamino)-guanidine (DEABAG), a small substrate predicted to fit into the CTA1 active site). Variants with single alanine substitutions at H55, R67, L71, S78, or D109 had nearly wild-type activity with DEABAG but significantly decreased activity with Gsα, suggesting that the corresponding residues in native CTA1 participate in recognizing Gsα. As several variants with multiple substitutions at these positions retained partial activity against Gsα, other residues in CTA1 likely also participate in recognizing Gsα.

  13. Cholera: a great global concern.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha Deb; Pal, Nishith Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Cholera, caused by the infection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) to humans, is a life threatening diarrheal disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. The V. cholerae, both O1 and O139 serogroups, produce a potent enterotoxin (cholera toxin) responsible for the lethal symptoms of the disease. The O1 serogroup has two biotypes (phenotypes), classical and El Tor; each of which has two major serotypes (based on antigenic responses), Ogawa and Inaba and the extremely rare Hikojima. V. cholerae O1 strains interconvert and switch between the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. Fluid and electrolyte replacement is the mainstay of treatment of cholera patients; the severe cases require antibiotic treatment to reduce the duration of illness and replacement of fluid intake. The antibiotic therapy currently has faced difficulties due to the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistant V. cholerae causing several outbreaks in the globe. Currently, cholera has been becoming endemic in an increasing number of geographical areas, reflecting a failure in implementation of control measures. However, the current safe oral vaccines lower the number of resistant infections and could thus represent an effective intervention measure to control antibiotic resistance in cholera. Overall, the priorities for cholera control remain public health interventions through improved drinking water, sanitation, surveillance and access to health care facilities, and further development of safe, effective and appropriate vaccines. Thus, this review describes the facts and phenomena related to the disease cholera, which is still a great threat mainly to the developing countries, and hence a grave global concern too.

  14. The 1.2 Å resolution crystal structure of TcpG, the Vibrio cholerae DsbA disulfide-forming protein required for pilus and cholera-toxin production.

    PubMed

    Walden, Patricia M; Heras, Begoña; Chen, Kai-En; Halili, Maria A; Rimmer, Kieran; Sharma, Pooja; Scanlon, Martin J; Martin, Jennifer L

    2012-10-01

    The enzyme TcpG is a periplasmic protein produced by the Gram-negative pathogen Vibrio cholerae. TcpG is essential for the production of ToxR-regulated proteins, including virulence-factor pilus proteins and cholera toxin, and is therefore a target for the development of a new class of anti-virulence drugs. Here, the 1.2 Å resolution crystal structure of TcpG is reported using a cryocooled crystal. This structure is compared with a previous crystal structure determined at 2.1 Å resolution from data measured at room temperature. The new crystal structure is the first DsbA crystal structure to be solved at a sufficiently high resolution to allow the inclusion of refined H atoms in the model. The redox properties of TcpG are also reported, allowing comparison of its oxidoreductase activity with those of other DSB proteins. One of the defining features of the Escherichia coli DsbA enzyme is its destabilizing disulfide, and this is also present in TcpG. The data presented here provide new insights into the structure and redox properties of this enzyme, showing that the binding mode identified between E. coli DsbB and DsbA is likely to be conserved in TcpG and that the β5-α7 loop near the proposed DsbB binding site is flexible, and suggesting that the tense oxidized conformation of TcpG may be the consequence of a short contact at the active site that is induced by disulfide formation and is relieved by reduction.

  15. ADP-Ribosylation Factor 6 Acts as an Allosteric Activator for the Folded but not Disordered Cholera Toxin A1 Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Tuhina; Taylor, Michael; Jobling, Michael G.; Burress, Helen; Yang, ZhiJie; Serrano, Albert; Holmes, Randall K.; Tatulian, Suren A.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Summary The catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CTA1) has a disordered structure at 37°C. An interaction with host factors must therefore place CTA1 in a folded conformation for the modification of its Gsα target which resides in a lipid raft environment. Host ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) act as in vitro allosteric activators of CTA1, but the molecular events of this process are not fully characterized. Isotope-edited Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy monitored ARF6-induced structural changes to CTA1, which were correlated to changes in CTA1 activity. We found ARF6 prevents the thermal disordering of structured CTA1 and stimulates the activity of stabilized CTA1 over a range of temperatures. Yet ARF6 alone did not promote the refolding of disordered CTA1 to an active state. Instead, lipid rafts shifted disordered CTA1 to a folded conformation with a basal level of activity that could be further stimulated by ARF6. Thus, ARF alone is unable to activate disordered CTA1 at physiological temperature: additional host factors such as lipid rafts place CTA1 in the folded conformation required for its ARF-mediated activation. Interaction with ARF is required for in vivo toxin activity, as enzymatically active CTA1 mutants that cannot be further stimulated by ARF6 fail to intoxicate cultured cells. PMID:25257027

  16. Establishment of an In Vitro Transport Assay That Reveals Mechanistic Differences in Cytosolic Events Controlling Cholera Toxin and T-Cell Receptor α Retro-Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Paul; He, Kaiyu; Tsai, Billy

    2013-01-01

    Following retrograde trafficking to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) subunit hijacks ER-associated degradation (ERAD) machinery and retro-translocates into the cytosol to induce toxicity. We previously established a cell-based in vivo assay to identify ER components that regulate this process. However, elucidating cytosolic events that govern CTA1 retro-translocation using this assay is difficult as manipulating cytosolic factors often perturbs toxin retrograde transport to the ER. To circumvent this problem, we developed an in vitro assay in semi-permeabilized cells that directly monitors CTA1 release from the ER into the cytosol. We demonstrate CTA1 is released into the cytosol as a folded molecule in a p97- and proteasome-independent manner. Release nonetheless involves a GTP-dependent reaction. Upon extending this assay to the canonical ERAD substrate T-cell receptor α (TCRα), we found the receptor is unfolded when released into the cytosol and degraded by membrane-associated proteasome. In this reaction, p97 initially extracts TCRα from the ER membrane, followed by TCRα discharge into the cytosol that requires additional energy-dependent cytosolic activities. Our results reveal mechanistic insights into cytosolic events controlling CTA1 and TCRα retro-translocation, and provide a reliable tool to further probe this process. PMID:24146777

  17. Antibodies against a peptide of cholera toxin differing in cross-reactivity with the toxin differ in their specific interactions with the peptide as observed by sup 1 H NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Anglister, J.; Zilber, B. )

    1990-01-30

    The interactions between the aromatic residues of the monoclonal antibody TE34, and its peptide antigen CTP3, have been studied by 2D TRNOE difference spectroscopy. The sequence of CTP3 corresponds to residues 50-64 of the B subunit of cholera toxin (VEVPGSQHIDSQKKA). Unlike two previously studied anti-CTP3 antibodies (TE32 and TE33), the TE34 antibody does not bind the toxin. The off-rate of CTP3 from TE34 was found to be too slow to measure strong TRNOE cross-peaks between the antibody and the peptide. Much faster off-rates, resulting in a strong TRNOE, were obtained for two peptide analogues: (a) CTP3 with an amide in the C-terminus (VEVPGSQHIDSQKKA-NH{sub 2}) and (b) a truncated version of the peptide (N-acetyl-IDSQKKA). These modifications do not interfere significantly either with the interactions of the unmodified part of the peptide with the antibody or with intramolecular interactions occurring in the epitope recognized by the antibody. The combined use of these peptides allows us to study the interactions between the antibody and the whole peptide. Two tyrosine residues and one or more tryptophan and phenylalanine residues have been found to interact with histidine-8, isoleucine-9, aspartate-10, lysine-13 and/or lysine-14, and alanine-15 of the peptide. The strong interaction of TE34 with the negatively charged C-terminus of CTP3 is one of the main reasons for its lack of cross-reactivity with the native toxin. Similar use of modified peptides may extend the applicability of 2D TRNOE difference spectroscopy to the study of other antibody-peptide complexes involving slow peptide off-rates.

  18. The β-prism lectin domain of Vibrio cholerae hemolysin promotes self-assembly of the β-pore-forming toxin by a carbohydrate-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Sreerupa; Mukherjee, Amarshi; Mazumdar, Budhaditya; Ghosh, Amar N; Banerjee, Kalyan K

    2014-02-14

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin/hemolysin (VCC) is an amphipathic 65-kDa β-pore-forming toxin with a C-terminal β-prism lectin domain. Because deletion or point mutation of the lectin domain seriously compromises hemolytic activity, it is thought that carbohydrate-dependent interactions play a critical role in membrane targeting of VCC. To delineate the contributions of the cytolysin and lectin domains in pore formation, we used wild-type VCC, 50-kDa VCC (VCC(50)) without the lectin domain, and mutant VCC(D617A) with no carbohydrate-binding activity. VCC and its two variants with no carbohydrate-binding activity moved to the erythrocyte stroma with apparent association constants on the order of 10(7) M(-1). However, loss of the lectin domain severely reduced the efficiency of self-association of the VCC monomer with the β-barrel heptamer in the synthetic lipid bilayer from ∼83 to 27%. Notably, inactivation of the carbohydrate-binding activity by the D617A mutation marginally reduced oligomerization to ∼77%. Oligomerization of VCC(50) was temperature-insensitive; by contrast, VCC self-assembly increased with increasing temperature, suggesting that the process is driven by entropy and opposed by enthalpy. Asialofetuin, the β1-galactosyl-terminated glycoprotein inhibitor of VCC-induced hemolysis, promoted oligomerization of 65-kDa VCC to a species that resembled the membrane-inserted heptamer in stoichiometry and morphology but had reduced global amphipathicity. In conclusion, we propose (i) that the β-prism lectin domain facilitated toxin assembly by producing entropy during relocation in the heptamer and (ii) that glycoconjugates inhibited VCC by promoting its assembly to a water-soluble, less amphipathic oligomer variant with reduced ability to penetrate the bilayer.

  19. Carbohydrate-based anti-adhesive inhibition of Vibrio cholerae toxin binding to GM1-OS immobilized into artificial planar lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Haydn R; Kemp, Fred; Slegte, Jaap de; Gibson, Glenn R; Rastall, Robert A

    2009-10-12

    We have studied 'food grade' sialyloligosaccharides (SOS) as anti-adhesive drugs or receptor analogues, since the terminal sialic acid residue has already been shown to contribute significantly to the adhesion and pathogenesis of the Vibrio cholerae toxin (Ctx). GM1-oligosaccharide (GM1-OS) was immobilized into a supporting POPC lipid bilayer onto a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chip, and the interaction between uninhibited Ctx and GM1-OS-POPC was measured. SOS inhibited 94.7% of the Ctx binding to GM1-OS-POPC at 10mg/mL. The SOS EC(50) value of 5.521mg/mL is high compared with 0.2811microg/mL (182.5rhoM or 1.825x10(-10)M) for GM1-OS. The commercially available sialyloligosaccharide (SOS) mixture Sunsial E((R)) is impure, containing one monosialylated and two disialylated oligosaccharides in the ratio 9.6%, 6.5% and 17.5%, respectively, and 66.4% protein. However, these inexpensive food-grade molecules are derived from egg yolk and could be used to fortify conventional food additives, by way of emulsifiers, sweeteners and/or preservatives. The work further supports our hypothesis that SOS could be a promising natural anti-adhesive glycomimetic against Ctx and prevent subsequent onset of disease.

  20. Production of a recombinant hybrid molecule of cholera toxin-B-subunit and proteolipid-protein-peptide for the treatment of experimental encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Y; Byun, Y; Fujita, M; Izutani, W; Suzuki, T; Udaka, S; Fujihashi, K; McGhee, J R; Kiyono, H

    2001-07-05

    Mucosal administration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-specific autoantigens can reduce the onset of disease. To examine whether cholera toxin-B-subunit (CTB)-conjugated EAE-specific T-cell epitope can reduce development of the autoimmune disease in mice, we produced a recombinant hybrid molecule of CTB fusion protein linked with proteolipid-protein (PLP)-peptide139-151(C140S) at levels up to 0.1 gram per liter culture media in Bacillus brevis as a secretion-expression system. Amino acid sequencing and GM1-receptor binding assay showed that this expression system produced a uniformed recombinant hybrid protein. EAE was induced in SJL/J mice by systemic administration with the PLP-peptide. When nasally immunized 5 times with 70 microg rCTB PLP-peptide hybrid protein, mice showed a significantly suppressed development of ongoing EAE and an inhibition of both the PLP-peptide-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses and leukocyte infiltration into the spinal cord. In contrast, all mice given the PLP-peptide alone or the PLP-peptide with the free form of CTB did not suppress the development of EAE and DTH responses. These results suggest that nasal treatment with the recombinant B. brevis-derived hybrid protein of CTB and autoantigen peptide could prove useful in the control of multiple sclerosis.

  1. Oral immunisation of mice with transgenic rice calli expressing cholera toxin B subunit fused to consensus dengue cEDIII antigen induces antibodies to all four dengue serotypes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Byeong-Young; Oh, Sun-Mi; Reljic, Rajko; Jang, Yong-Suk; Yang, Moon-Sik

    2016-10-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is an emerging global health threat. DENV consists of four distinct serotypes, necessitating a tetravalent vaccine. In this study, expression of consensus envelope protein domain III (cEDIII) fused to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) in transgenic rice calli was improved using the luminal binding protein BiP at the N-terminus and the SEKDEL signal sequences at the C-terminus, targeting the recombinant protein to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We found that the fusion protein showed higher levels of expression when compared to the fusion proteins using rice amylase 3D (RAmy3D) or CTB native signal sequence only. The CTB-cEDIII fusion protein was evaluated as an oral dengue vaccine candidate in mice. Serotype specific systemic IgG antibodies and specific IgA response in feces were detected and furthermore, T cell proliferation and high frequency antibody-secreting B cells were detected in the spleen. These results suggest the possible use of plant-based dengue tetravalent vaccine targeted to the mucosal immune system for induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to DENV infection.

  2. NKp46+ Innate Lymphoid Cells Dampen Vaginal CD8 T Cell Responses following Local Immunization with a Cholera Toxin-Based Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Luci, Carmelo; Bekri, Selma; Bihl, Franck; Pini, Jonathan; Bourdely, Pierre; Nouhen, Kelly; Malgogne, Angélique; Walzer, Thierry; Braud, Véronique M.; Anjuère, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune cells work in concert to generate efficient protection at mucosal surface. Vaginal mucosa is an epithelial tissue that contains innate and adaptive immune effector cells. Our previous studies demonstrated that vaginal administration of Cholera toxin -based vaccines generate antigen-specific CD8 T cells through the stimulation of local dendritic cells (DC). Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a group of lymphocytes localized in epithelial tissues that have important immune functions against pathogens and in tissue homeostasis. Their contribution to vaccine-induced mucosal T cell responses is an important issue for the design of protective vaccines. We report here that the vaginal mucosa contains a heterogeneous population of NKp46+ ILC that includes conventional NK cells and ILC1-like cells. We show that vaginal NKp46+ ILC dampen vaccine-induced CD8 T cell responses generated after local immunization. Indeed, in vivo depletion of NKp46+ ILC with anti-NK1.1 antibody or NKG2D blockade increases the magnitude of vaginal OVA-specific CD8 T cells. Furthermore, such treatments also increase the number of DC in the vagina. NKG2D ligands being expressed by vaginal DC but not by CD8 T cells, these results support that NKp46+ ILC limit mucosal CD8 T cell responses indirectly through the NKG2D-dependent elimination of vaginal DC. Our data reveal an unappreciated role of NKp46+ ILC in the regulation of mucosal CD8 T cell responses. PMID:26630176

  3. Cholera toxin B subunit-five-stranded α-helical coiled-coil fusion protein: "five-to-five" molecular chimera displays robust physicochemical stability.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Takeshi; Harakuni, Tetsuya

    2014-09-03

    To create a physicochemically stable cholera toxin (CT) B subunit (CTB), it was fused to the five-stranded α-helical coiled-coil domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). The chimeric fusion protein (CTB-COMP) was expressed in Pichia pastoris, predominantly as a pentamer, and retained its affinity for the monosialoganglioside GM1, a natural receptor of CT. The fusion protein displayed thermostability, tolerating the boiling temperature of water for 10min, whereas unfused CTB readily dissociated to its monomers and lost its affinity for GM1. The fusion protein also displayed resistance to strong acid at pHs as low as 0.1, and to the protein denaturant sodium dodecyl sulfate at concentrations up to 10%. Intranasal administration of the fusion protein to mice induced anti-B subunit serum IgG, even after the protein was boiled, whereas unfused CTB showed no thermostable mucosal immunogenicity. This study demonstrates that CTB fused to a pentameric α-helical coiled coil has a novel physicochemical phenotype, which may provide important insight into the molecular design of enterotoxin-B-subunit-based vaccines and vaccine delivery molecules.

  4. Immunogenicity and virulence of attenuated vaccinia virus Tian Tan encoding HIV-1 muti-epitope genes, p24 and cholera toxin B subunit in mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Shouwen; Wang, Yuhang; Liu, Cunxia; Wang, Maopeng; Zhu, Yilong; Tan, Peng; Ren, Dayong; Li, Xiao; Tian, Mingyao; Yin, Ronglan; Li, Chang; Jin, Ningyi

    2015-07-01

    No effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine against HIV-1 in humans is currently available. This study analyzes the immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant attenuated vaccinia virus. A chimeric gene of HIV-1 multi-epitope genes containing CpG ODN and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) was inserted into Chinese vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (VTT) mutant strain. The recombinant virus rddVTT(-CCMp24) was assessed for immunogenicity and safety in mice. Results showed that the protein CCMp24 was expressed stably in BHK-21 infected with rddVTT(-CCMp24). And the recombinant virus induced the production of HIV-1 p24 specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IL-2 and IL-4. The recombinant vaccine induced γ-interferon secretion against HIV peptides, and elicited a certain levels of immunological memory. Results indicated that the recombinant virus had certain immunogenicity to HIV-1. Additionally, the virulence of the recombinant virus was been attenuated in vivo of mice compared with wild type VTT (wtVTT), and the introduction of CTB and HIV Mp24 did not alter the infectivity and virulence of defective vaccinia virus.

  5. Properties of rat erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal structures produced by digitonin extraction: digitonin-insoluble beta-adrenergic receptor, adenylate cyclase, and cholera toxin substrate.

    PubMed

    LeVine, H; Sahyoun, N E; Cuatrecasas, P

    1982-01-01

    Rat erythrocyte plasma membranes have been extracted exhaustively with digitonin at low temperature, and the residual, detergent-extracted membrane cytoskeletal material is compared to that prepared with Triton X-100 with respect to protein, glycoprotein, phospholipid, and cholesterol content. Digitonin, a weaker detergent than Triton X-100, solubilizes only 26% of the phospholipids and none of the cholesterol. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals that differences between the proteins extracted by the two detergents are primarily quantitative. In terms of functional preservation, digitonin retains in the cytoskeleton 28% of the beta-adrenergic receptor binding activity (with the balance accounted for in the supernatant), greater than 90% of the adenylate cyclase and greater than 90% of the 45,000 mol wt polypeptide cholera toxin substrate. The cytoskeletal-associated beat-adrenergic receptor retains binding properties for antagonist and agonist which are identical to those of the native membrane receptor. The digitonin-extracted cytoskeleton containing the beta-adrenergic receptor may provide a useful vehicle for the reconstitution of a hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase.

  6. [Cholera update and vaccination problems].

    PubMed

    Fournier, J M; Villeneuve, S

    1998-01-01

    Cholera remains an important public health problem. The long-term control of cholera depends on good personal hygiene, uncontaminated water supply and appropriate sewage disposal. However, the improvement of hygiene is distant goal for many countries. Thus the availability of an effective cholera vaccine is important for the prevention of cholera in these countries. Research on new cholera vaccines has mainly focused on oral formulations that stimulate the mucosal secretory immune system. Two oral cholera vaccines were experimented on large scale in human. The first vaccine, containing inactivated bacterial cells and B-subunit of cholera toxin, has been tested in Bangladesh from 1985 to 1989. This vaccine, according to WHO, may prove useful in the stable phase of refugee/displaced person crises, especially when given preventively. The second vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine containing the genetically manipulated Vibrio cholerae O1 strain CVD 103-HgR. Despite its efficacy in adult volunteers, results of a large-scale field trial carried-out in Indonesia for 4 years have shown a surprisingly low protection. Moreover, one of the safety concerns associated with live cholera vaccine is a possible horizontal gene transfer and recombination event leading to reversion to virulence. A new vaccine development program for cholera is based upon the hypothesis that immunoglobulins G directed to the O-specific polysaccharide of Vibrio cholerae O1 could confer protective immunity to cholera by inactivating the inoculum on intestinal mucosal surface. This program may lead to the development of cholera conjugate vaccines to elicit protection in infants.

  7. Mucosal Immunization with Virus-Like Particles of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Conjugated with Cholera Toxin Subunit B

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Yao, Qizhi; Guo, Lizheng; Compans, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    To enhance the efficiency of antigen uptake at mucosal surfaces, CTB was conjugated to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) virus-like particles (VLPs). We characterized the immune responses to the Env and Gag proteins after intranasal administration. Intranasal immunization with a mixture of VLPs and CTB as an adjuvant elicited higher levels of SIV gp160-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in sera and IgA in mucosae, including saliva, vaginal-wash samples, lung, and intestine, as well as a higher level of neutralization activities than immunization with VLPs alone. Conjugation of CTB to VLPs also enhanced the SIV VLP-specific antibodies in sera and in mucosae to similar levels. Interestingly, CTB-conjugated VLPs showed higher levels of cytokine (gamma interferon)-producing splenocytes and cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte activities of immune cells than VLPs plus CTB, as well as an increased level of both IgG1 and IgG2a serum antibodies, which indicates enhancement of both Th1- and Th2-type cellular immune responses. These results demonstrate that CTB can be an effective mucosal adjuvant in the context of VLPs to induce enhanced humoral, as well as cellular, immune responses. PMID:12941891

  8. Designing an efficient multi-epitope peptide vaccine against Vibrio cholerae via combined immunoinformatics and protein interaction based approaches.

    PubMed

    Nezafat, Navid; Karimi, Zeinab; Eslami, Mahboobeh; Mohkam, Milad; Zandian, Sanam; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-06-01

    Cholera continues to be a major global health concern. Among different Vibrio cholerae strains, only O1 and O139 cause acute diarrheal diseases that are related to epidemic and pandemic outbreaks. The currently available cholera vaccines are mainly lived and attenuated vaccines consisting of V. cholerae virulence factors such as toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), outer membrane proteins (Omps), and nontoxic cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). Nowadays, there is a great interest in designing an efficient epitope vaccine against cholera. Epitope vaccines consisting of immunodominant epitopes and adjuvant molecules enhance the possibility of inciting potent protective immunity. In this study, V. cholerae protective antigens (OmpW, OmpU, TcpA and TcpF) and the CTB, which is broadly used as an immunostimulatory adjuvant, were analyzed using different bioinformatics and immunoinformatics tools. The common regions between promiscuous epitopes, binding to various HLA-II supertype alleles, and B-cell epitopes were defined based upon the aforementioned protective antigens. The ultimately selected epitopes and CTB adjuvant were fused together using proper GPGPG linkers to enhance vaccine immunogenicity. A three-dimensional model of the thus constructed vaccine was generated using I-TASSER. The model was structurally validated using the ProSA-web error-detection software and the Ramachandran plot. The validation results indicated that the initial 3D model needed refinement. Subsequently, a high-quality model obtained after various refinement cycles was used for defining conformational B-cell epitopes. Several linear and conformational B-cell epitopes were determined within the epitope vaccine, suggesting likely antibody triggering features of our designed vaccine. Next, molecular docking was performed between the 3D vaccine model and the tertiary structure of the toll like receptor 2 (TLR2). To gain further insight into the interaction between vaccine and TLR2, molecular dynamics

  9. Binding Cooperativity Matters: A GM1-Like Ganglioside-Cholera Toxin B Subunit Binding Study Using a Nanocube-Based Lipid Bilayer Array

    PubMed Central

    Weatherston, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    Protein-glycan recognition is often mediated by multivalent binding. These multivalent bindings can be further complicated by cooperative interactions between glycans and individual glycan binding subunits. Here we have demonstrated a nanocube-based lipid bilayer array capable of quantitatively elucidating binding dissociation constants, maximum binding capacity, and binding cooperativity in a high-throughput format. Taking cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as a model cooperativity system, we studied both GM1 and GM1-like gangliosides binding to CTB. We confirmed the previously observed CTB-GM1 positive cooperativity. Surprisingly, we demonstrated fucosyl-GM1 has approximately 7 times higher CTB binding capacity than GM1. In order to explain this phenomenon, we hypothesized that the reduced binding cooperativity of fucosyl-GM1 caused the increased binding capacity. This was unintuitive, as GM1 exhibited higher binding avidity (16 times lower dissociation constant). We confirmed the hypothesis using a theoretical stepwise binding model of CTB. Moreover, by taking a mixture of fucosyl-GM1 and GM2, we observed the mild binding avidity fucosyl-GM1 activated GM2 receptors enhancing the binding capacity of the lipid bilayer surface. This was unexpected as GM2 receptors have negligible binding avidity in pure GM2 bilayers. These unexpected discoveries demonstrate the importance of binding cooperativity in multivalent binding mechanisms. Thus, quantitative analysis of multivalent protein-glycan interactions in heterogeneous glycan systems is of critical importance. Our user-friendly, robust, and high-throughput nanocube-based lipid bilayer array offers an attractive method for dissecting these complex mechanisms. PMID:27070150

  10. Expression of cholera toxin B–proinsulin fusion protein in lettuce and tobacco chloroplasts – oral administration protects against development of insulitis in non-obese diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruhlman, Tracey; Ahangari, Raheleh; Devine, Andrew; Samsam, Mohtahsem; Daniell, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Summary Lettuce and tobacco chloroplast transgenic lines expressing the cholera toxin B subunit–human proinsulin (CTB-Pins) fusion protein were generated. CTB-Pins accumulated up to ~16% of total soluble protein (TSP) in tobacco and up to ~2.5% of TSP in lettuce. Eight milligrams of powdered tobacco leaf material expressing CTB-Pins or, as negative controls, CTB–green fluorescent protein (CTB-GFP) or interferon–GFP (IFN-GFP), or untransformed leaf, were administered orally, each week for 7 weeks, to 5-week-old female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. The pancreas of CTB-Pins-treated mice showed decreased infiltration of cells characteristic of lymphocytes (insulitis); insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets of CTB-Pins-treated mice were significantly preserved, with lower blood or urine glucose levels, by contrast with the few β-cells remaining in the pancreatic islets of the negative controls. Increased expression of immunosuppressive cytokines, such as interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 (IL-4 and IL-10), was observed in the pancreas of CTB-Pins-treated NOD mice. Serum levels of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), but not IgG2a, were elevated in CTB-Pins-treated mice. Taken together, T-helper 2 (Th2) lymphocyte-mediated oral tolerance is a likely mechanism for the prevention of pancreatic insulitis and the preservation of insulin-producing β-cells. This is the first report of expression of a therapeutic protein in transgenic chloroplasts of an edible crop. Transplastomic lettuce plants expressing CTB-Pins grew normally and transgenes were maternally inherited in T1 progeny. This opens up the possibility for the low-cost production and delivery of human therapeutic proteins, and a strategy for the treatment of various other autoimmune diseases. PMID:17490448

  11. An important role for adenine, cholera toxin, hydrocortisone and triiodothyronine in the proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation of limbal stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Bojic, Sanja; Figueiredo, Gustavo S; Rooney, Paul; de Havilland, Julian; Dickinson, Anne; Figueiredo, Francisco C; Lako, Majlinda

    2016-11-01

    The cornea is a self-renewing tissue located at the front of the eye. Its transparency is essential for allowing light to focus onto the retina for visual perception. The continuous renewal of corneal epithelium is supported by limbal stem cells (LSCs) which are located in the border region between conjunctiva and cornea known as the limbus. Ex vivo expansion of LSCs has been successfully applied in the last two decades to treat patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Various methods have been used for their expansion, yet the most widely used culture media contains a number of ingredients derived from animal sources which may compromise the safety profile of human LSC transplantation. In this study we sought to understand the role of these components namely adenine, cholera toxin, hydrocortisone and triiodothyronine with the aim of re-defining a safe and GMP compatible minimal media for the ex vivo expansion of LSCs on human amniotic membrane. Our data suggest that all four components play a critical role in maintaining LSC proliferation and promoting LSC self-renewal. However removal of adenine and triiodothyronine had a more profound impact and led to LSC differentiation and loss of viability respectively, suggesting their essential role for ex vivo expansion of LSCs. Replacement of each of the components with GMP-grade reagents resulted in equal growth to non-GMP grade media, however an enhanced differentiation of LSCs was observed, suggesting that additional combinations of GMP grade reagents need to be tested to achieve similar or better level of LSC maintenance in the same manner as the traditional LSC media.

  12. Cholera toxin treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells decreases smooth muscle α-actin content and abolishes the platelet-derived growth factor-BB-stimulated DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sachinidis, Agapios; Seul, Claudia; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Seewald, Stefan; Ko, Yon; Vetter, Hans; Fingerle, Jürgen; Hoppe, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic AMP regulates diverse biological processes such as cell morphology and cell growth. We examined the role of the second messenger cyclic AMP on rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) morphology and the intracellular transduction pathway mediated by platelet-derived growth factor β-receptor (PDGF-Rβ). The effect of PDGF-BB on VSMCs growth was assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PDGF-Rβ, PLC-γ1, ERK1 and ERK2, p125FAK and paxillin as well as Sm α-actin was examined by the chemiluminescence Western blotting method. Actin mRNA level was quantitated by Northern blotting. Visualization of Sm α-actin filaments, paxillin and PDGF-Rβ was performed by immunfluorescence microscopy. Cholera toxin (CTX; 10 nM) treatment lead to a large and sustained increase in the cyclic AMP concentration after 2 h which correlated with change of VSMC morphology including complete disruption of the Sm α-actin filament array and loss of focal adhesions. Treatment of VSMCs with CTX did not influence tyrosine phosphorylation of p125FAK and paxillin but decreased the content of a Sm α-actin protein. Maximal decrease of 70% was observed after 24 h of treatment. CTX also caused a 90% decrease of the actin mRNA level. CTX treatment completely abolished PDGF-BB stimulated DNA-synthesis although PDGF-Rβ level and subcellular distribution and translocation was not altered. Furthermore CTX attenuated the PDGF-BB-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGF-Rβ, PI 3′-K, PLC-γ1 and ERK1/2 indicating an action of cyclic AMP on PDGF-β receptor. We conclude that although cyclic AMP attenuates the PDGF-Rβ mediated intracellular transduction pathway, an intact actin filament may be required for the PDGF-BB-induced DNA synthesis in VSMCs. PMID:10928958

  13. Immune response of broiler chickens immunized orally with the recombinant proteins flagellin and the subunit B of cholera toxin associated with Lactobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Baptista, A A S; Donato, T C; Garcia, K C O D; Gonçalves, G A M; Coppola, M P; Okamoto, A S; Sequeira, J L; Andreatti Filho, R L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the immune response of broiler chickens with oral treatment of a Lactobacillus spp. pool (PL) associated with microencapsulated recombinant proteins flagellin (FliC) and the subunit B of cholera toxin (CTB). Immune responses were evaluated by measuring IgA from intestinal fluid, serum IgY, and immunostaining of CD8(+) T lymphocytes present in the cecum. The evaluations were performed on d 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 posttreatment. A significant increase (P < 0.05) was observed in IgA levels in all immunized groups, especially 3 wk after immunization. Treatments 2 (recombinant CTB) and 3 (recombinant FliC+CTB) showed the highest concentrations. Similarly, serum concentrations IgY (μg/mL) increased along the experiment, and the means for treatments 2 and 3 showed significant differences (P < 0.05) compared with controls, reaching concentrations of 533 and 540 μg/mL, respectively. The number of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in all treatments greatly differed (P < 0.05) compared with the negative control at 21 d posttreatment. However, only treatment 2 (recombinant CTB), 4 (PL), and 5 (recombinant FliC+ recombinant CTB + PL) remained significantly (P < 0.05) different from the control at 28 d posttreatment. Thus, it is concluded that the microencapsulated recombinant proteins administered orally to broiler chickens are capable of stimulating humoral and cellular immune response, and the combinations of these antigens with Lactobacillus spp. can influence the population of CD8(+) T cells residing in the cecum.

  14. Intranasal vaccination of humans with recombinant cholera toxin B subunit induces systemic and local antibody responses in the upper respiratory tract and the vagina.

    PubMed Central

    Bergquist, C; Johansson, E L; Lagergård, T; Holmgren, J; Rudin, A

    1997-01-01

    Forty-five volunteers were vaccinated twice intranasally with 10, 100, or 1,000 microg of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). Blood and nasal and vaginal secretions were collected before and 1 week after the second vaccination from all volunteers, and the specific and total immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG titers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples were also taken 6 months (n = 16) and 1 year (n = 14) after the vaccination. The 10- and 100-microg doses were well tolerated by the volunteers, but the 1,000-microg dose induced increased secretions from the nose and repetitive sneezings for several hours. The CTB-specific serum IgA and IgG increased 21- and 7-fold, respectively, 1 week after vaccination with the medium dose and increased 61- and 37-fold, respectively, after the high dose. In nasal secretions the specific IgA and IgG increased 2- and 6-fold after the medium dose and 2- and 20-fold after the high dose, respectively. In vaginal secretions the specific IgA and IgG increased 3- and 5-fold after the medium dose and 56- and 74-fold after the high dose, respectively. The lowest dose did not induce any significant antibody titer increases in serum or in secretions. The specific IgA and IgG levels in secretions were still elevated after 6 months but were decreasing 1 year after the vaccination. These results show that intranasal vaccination of humans with CTB induces strong systemic and mucosal antibody responses and suggest that CTB may be used as a carrier for antigens that induce protective immunity against systemic as well as respiratory and genital infections. PMID:9199436

  15. Selective amplification of an mRNA and related pseudogene for a human ADP-ribosylation factor, a guanine nucleotide-dependent protein activator of cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Monaco, L.; Murtagh, J.J.; Newman, K.B.; Tsai, Su-Chen; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M. )

    1990-03-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are {approx}20-kDa proteins that act as GTP-dependent allosteric activators of cholera toxin. With deoxyinosine-containing degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to conserved GTP-binding domains in ARFs, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify simultaneously from human DNA portions of three ARF genes that include codons for 102 amino acids, with intervening sequences. Amplification products that differed in size because of differences in intron sizes were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. One amplified DNA contained no introns and had a sequence different from those of known AFRs. Based on this sequence, selective oligonucleotide probes were prepared and used to isolate clone {Psi}ARF 4, a putative ARF pseudogene, from a human genomic library in {lambda} phage EMBL3. Reverse transcription-PCR was then used to clone from human poly(A){sup +} RNA the cDNA corresponding to the expressed homolog of {Psi}ARF 4, referred to as human ARF 4. It appears that {Psi}ARF 4 arose during human evolution by integration of processed ARF 4 mRNA into the genome. Human ARF 4 differs from previously identified mammalian ARFs 1, 2, and 3. Hybridization of ARF 4-specific oligonucleotide probes with human, bovine, and rat RNA revealed a single 1.8-kilobase mRNA, which was clearly distinguished from the 1.9-kilobase mRNA for ARF 1 in these tissues. The PCR provides a powerful tool for investigating diversity in this and other multigene families, especially with primers targeted at domains believed to have functional significance.

  16. Transport of an external Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) protein from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum: studies with cholera toxin in Vero cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The A2 chain of cholera toxin (CTX) contains a COOH-terminal Lys-Asp- Glu-Leu (KDEL) sequence. We have, therefore, analyzed by immunofluorescence and by subcellular fractionation in Vero cells whether CTX can used to demonstrate a retrograde transport of KDEL proteins from the Golgi to the ER. Immunofluorescence studies reveal that after a pulse treatment with CTX, the CTX-A and B subunits (CTX-A and CTX-B) reach Golgi-like structures after 15-20 min (maximum after 30 min). Between 30 and 90 min, CTX-A (but not CTX-B) appear in the intermediate compartment and in the ER, whereas the CTX-B are translocated to the lysosomes. Subcellular fractionation studies confirm these results: after CTX uptake for 15 min, CTX-A is associated only with endosomal and Golgi compartments. After 30 min, a small amount of CTX-A appears in the ER in a trypsin-resistant form, and after 60 min, a significant amount appears. CTX-A seems to be transported mainly in its oxidized form (CTX-A1-S-S-CTX-A2) from the Golgi to the ER, where it becomes slowly reduced to form free CTX A1 and CTX-A2, as indicated by experiments in which cells were homogenized 30 and 90 min after the onset of CTX uptake in the presence of N- ethylmaleimide. Nocodazol applied after accumulation of CTX in Golgi inhibits the appearance of CTX-A in the ER and delays the increase of 3',5'cAMP, indicating the participation of microtubules in the retrograde Golgi-ER transport. PMID:8666663

  17. Physicochemically stable cholera toxin B subunit pentamer created by peripheral molecular constraints imposed by de novo-introduced intersubunit disulfide crosslinks.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Takeshi; Oshiro, Satoshi; Harakuni, Tetsuya; Taira, Toki; Matsuzaki, Goro; Arakawa, Takeshi

    2012-06-13

    We attempted to generate a physicochemically stable cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) by de novo-introduction of intersubunit disulfide bonds between adjacent subunits. Genes encoding double mutant CTB (dmCTB) encompassing a pair of amino acids to be replaced with cysteine residues either at the N-terminal (T1C/T92C, Q3C/T47C), C-terminal (F25C/N103C, Y76C/N103C), or at the internal α-helix region (L77C/T78C), were engineered. One mutant with the N-terminal constraint [dmCTB(T1C/T92C)], expressed as pentamer retained monosialoganglioside G(M1) (GM1) binding affinity, and exhibited robust thermostability. However, when the mutant CTB was heat-treated in the presence of a reducing agent, the thermostable phenotype was abolished, indicating the observed phenotype is due to the introduction of intersubunit disulfide bonds. The mutant CTB also exhibited a strong acid stability at a pH as low as 1.2, as well as stability against incubation with sodium dodecyl sulfate at concentrations as high as 10%. Furthermore, intranasal administration of the mutant CTB to mice induced CTB-specific serum IgG even after heat treatment, while the wildtype CTB failed to show such heat-resistant mucosal immunogenicity. This study demonstrated that an enterotoxin B subunit could be transformed into a physicochemically stable pentamer by the de novo-introduction of peripherally arranged intersubunit disulfide crosslinks, which may prove to be a useful strategy for the development of molecularly stable enterotoxin B subunit-based vaccines and delivery molecules.

  18. Gut T cell receptor-γδ(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes are activated selectively by cholera toxin to break oral tolerance in mice.

    PubMed

    Frossard, C P; Asigbetse, K E; Burger, D; Eigenmann, P A

    2015-04-01

    The gut immune system is usually tolerant to harmless foreign antigens such as food proteins. However, tolerance breakdown may occur and lead to food allergy. To study mechanisms underlying food allergy, animal models have been developed in mice by using cholera toxin (CT) to break tolerance. In this study, we identify T cell receptor (TCR)-γδ(+)  intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) as major targets of CT to break tolerance to food allergens. TCR-γδ(+)  IEL-enriched cell populations isolated from mice fed with CT and transferred to naive mice hamper tolerization to the food allergen β-lactoglobulin (BLG) in recipient mice which produce anti-BLG immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 antibodies. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of TCR-γδ(+)  cells from CT-fed mice triggers the production of anti-CT IgG1 antibodies in recipient mice that were never exposed to CT, suggesting antigen-presenting cell (APC)-like functions of TCR-γδ(+)  IELs. In contrast to TCR-αβ(+)  cells, TCR-γδ(+)  IELs bind and internalize CT both in vitro and in vivo. CT-activated TCR-γδ(+)  IELs express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, CD80 and CD86 demonstrating an APC phenotype. CT-activated TCR-γδ(+)  IELs migrate to the lamina propria, where they produce interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-17. These results provide in-vivo evidence for a major role of TCR-γδ(+)  IELs in the modulation of oral tolerance in the pathogenesis of food allergy.

  19. Intranasal immunization with the cholera toxin B subunit-pneumococcal surface antigen A fusion protein induces protection against colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae and has negligible impact on the nasopharyngeal and oral microbiota of mice.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, F C; Miyaji, E N; Arêas, A P M; Oliveira, M L S; de Andrade, A L S S; Ho, P L; Hollingshead, S K; Leite, L C C

    2006-08-01

    One of the candidate proteins for a mucosal vaccine antigen against Streptococcus pneumoniae is PsaA (pneumococcal surface antigen A). Vaccines targeting mucosal immunity may raise concerns as to possible alterations in the normal microbiota, especially in the case of PsaA, which was shown to have homologs with elevated sequence identity in other viridans group streptococci. In this work, we demonstrate that intranasal immunization with a cholera toxin B subunit-PsaA fusion protein is able to protect mice against colonization with S. pneumoniae but does not significantly alter the natural oral or nasopharyngeal microbiota of mice.

  20. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of sup 45 Ca sup 2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells does not require activation of cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding proteins or adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. )

    1990-08-01

    We have previously reported that FSH stimulates flux of 45Ca2+ into cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats via voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. In the present study, we show that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin (CT)- or pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein or activation of adenylate cyclase (AC). Significant stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx was observed within 1 min, and maximal response (3.2-fold over basal levels) was achieved within 2 min after exposure to FSH. FSH-stimulated elevations in cellular cAMP paralleled increases in 45Ca2+ uptake, suggesting a possible coupling of AC activation to 45Ca2+ influx. (Bu)2cAMP, however, was not able to enhance 45Ca2+ uptake over basal levels at a final concentration of 1000 microM, although a concentration-related increase in androstenedione conversion to estradiol was evident. Exposure of Sertoli cells to CT (10 ng/ml) consistently stimulated basal levels of androstenedione conversion to estradiol but had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake. Similarly, CT had no effect on FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake, but potentiated FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis. PT (10 ng/ml) augmented basal and FSH-stimulated estradiol secretion without affecting 45Ca2+ influx. The adenosine analog N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, which binds to Gi-coupled adenosine receptors on Sertoli cells, inhibited FSH-stimulated androgen conversion to estradiol in a dose-related (1-1000 nM) manner, but FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx remained unchanged. Our results show that in contrast to FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis, the flux of 45Ca2+ into Sertoli cells in response to FSH is not mediated either directly or indirectly by CT- or PT-sensitive G protein, nor does it require activation of AC. Our data further suggest that the FSH receptor itself may function as a calcium channel.

  1. Swedish isolates of Vibrio cholerae enhance their survival when interacted intracellularly with Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Shanan, Salah; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar; Abd, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that occurs naturally in aquatic environment. Only V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 produce cholera toxin and cause cholera, other serogroups can cause gastroenteritis, open wounds infection, and septicaemia. V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactions of the Swedish clinical isolates V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11, and V. cholerae O160 with A. castellanii. The interaction between A. castellanii and V. cholerae strains was studied by means of amoeba cell counts, viable counts of the bacteria in the absence or presence of amoebae, and of the intracellularly growing bacteria, visualised by electron microscopy. These results show that all V. cholerae can grow and survive outside and inside the amoebae, disclosing that V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11, and V. cholerae O160 all can be considered as facultative intracellular bacteria. PMID:27118300

  2. Transmission of Infectious Vibrio cholerae through Drinking Water among the Household Contacts of Cholera Patients (CHoBI7 Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Rafique, Raisa; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Monira, Shirajum; Rahman, Zillur; Mahmud, Md. Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K. M.; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Islam, Saiful; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Md. Sazzadul I.; Sharif, Mohsena B.; Rahman, Sabita R.; Sack, David A.; Sack, R. Bradley; George, Christine M.; Alam, Munirul

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality among the growing population of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are at >100 times higher risk of cholera during the week after the presentation of the index patient. Our prospective study investigated the mode of transmission of Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, in the households of cholera patients in Dhaka city. Out of the total 420 rectal swab samples analyzed from 84 household contacts and 330 water samples collected from 33 households, V. cholerae was isolated from 20%(17/84) of household contacts, 18%(6/33) of stored drinking water, and 27%(9/33) of source water samples. Phenotypic and molecular analyses results confirmed the V. cholerae isolates to be toxigenic and belonging to serogroup O1 biotype El Tor (ET) possessing cholera toxin of classical biotype (altered ET). Phylogenetic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed the V. cholerae isolates to be clonally linked, as >95% similarity was confirmed by sub-clustering patterns in the PFGE (NotI)-based dendrogram. Mapping results showed cholera patients to be widely distributed across 25 police stations. The data suggesting the transmission of infectious V. cholerae within the household contacts of cholera patients through drinking water underscores the need for safe water to prevent spread of cholera and related deaths in Dhaka city. PMID:27803695

  3. Transmission of Infectious Vibrio cholerae through Drinking Water among the Household Contacts of Cholera Patients (CHoBI7 Trial).

    PubMed

    Rafique, Raisa; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Monira, Shirajum; Rahman, Zillur; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Islam, Saiful; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Md Sazzadul I; Sharif, Mohsena B; Rahman, Sabita R; Sack, David A; Sack, R Bradley; George, Christine M; Alam, Munirul

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality among the growing population of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are at >100 times higher risk of cholera during the week after the presentation of the index patient. Our prospective study investigated the mode of transmission of Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, in the households of cholera patients in Dhaka city. Out of the total 420 rectal swab samples analyzed from 84 household contacts and 330 water samples collected from 33 households, V. cholerae was isolated from 20%(17/84) of household contacts, 18%(6/33) of stored drinking water, and 27%(9/33) of source water samples. Phenotypic and molecular analyses results confirmed the V. cholerae isolates to be toxigenic and belonging to serogroup O1 biotype El Tor (ET) possessing cholera toxin of classical biotype (altered ET). Phylogenetic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed the V. cholerae isolates to be clonally linked, as >95% similarity was confirmed by sub-clustering patterns in the PFGE (NotI)-based dendrogram. Mapping results showed cholera patients to be widely distributed across 25 police stations. The data suggesting the transmission of infectious V. cholerae within the household contacts of cholera patients through drinking water underscores the need for safe water to prevent spread of cholera and related deaths in Dhaka city.

  4. Oral Administration of a Fusion Protein between the Cholera Toxin B Subunit and the 42-Amino Acid Isoform of Amyloid-β Peptide Produced in Silkworm Pupae Protects against Alzheimer's Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Si; Wei, Zhen; Chen, Jian; Chen, Yanhong; Lv, Zhengbing; Yu, Wei; Meng, Qiaohong; Jin, Yongfeng

    2014-01-01

    A key molecule in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a 42-amino acid isoform of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42), which is the most toxic element of senile plaques. In this study, to develop an edible, safe, low-cost vaccine for AD, a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-Aβ42 fusion protein was successfully expressed in silkworm pupae. We tested the silkworm pupae-derived oral vaccination containing CTB-Aβ42 in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Anti-Aβ42 antibodies were induced in these mice, leading to a decreased Aβ deposition in the brain. We also found that the oral administration of the silk worm pupae vaccine improved the memory and cognition of mice, as assessed using a water maze test. These results suggest that the new edible CTB-Aβ42 silkworm pupae-derived vaccine has potential clinical application in the prevention of AD. PMID:25469702

  5. Oral administration of a fusion protein between the cholera toxin B subunit and the 42-amino acid isoform of amyloid-β peptide produced in silkworm pupae protects against Alzheimer's disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Si; Wei, Zhen; Chen, Jian; Chen, Yanhong; Lv, Zhengbing; Yu, Wei; Meng, Qiaohong; Jin, Yongfeng

    2014-01-01

    A key molecule in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a 42-amino acid isoform of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42), which is the most toxic element of senile plaques. In this study, to develop an edible, safe, low-cost vaccine for AD, a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-Aβ42 fusion protein was successfully expressed in silkworm pupae. We tested the silkworm pupae-derived oral vaccination containing CTB-Aβ42 in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Anti-Aβ42 antibodies were induced in these mice, leading to a decreased Aβ deposition in the brain. We also found that the oral administration of the silk worm pupae vaccine improved the memory and cognition of mice, as assessed using a water maze test. These results suggest that the new edible CTB-Aβ42 silkworm pupae-derived vaccine has potential clinical application in the prevention of AD.

  6. Suppression of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice by oral administration of a cholera toxin B subunit-insulin B chain fusion protein vaccine produced in silkworm.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhaohui; Jin, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2007-02-09

    Oral tolerance has been applied successfully as a potential therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes. In this paper we constructed an edible vaccine consisting of a fusion protein composed of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and insulin B chain (InsB) that was produced in silkworm larvae. The silkworm larvae produced this fusion protein at levels of up to 0.97mg/ml of hemolymph as the pentameric CTB-InsB form, which retained the GM1-ganglioside binding affinity and the native antigenicity of CTB. Non-obese diabetic mice fed hemolymph containing microgram quantities of the CTB-InsB fusion protein showed a prominent reduction in pancreatic islet inflammation and a delay in the development of diabetic symptoms. This study demonstrates that silkworm-produced CTB-InsB fusion protein can be used as an ideal oral protein vaccine for induction of immunological tolerance against autoimmune diabetes.

  7. Cholera Illness and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Infection & Risk Factors Non-O1 and Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Infections Diagnosis and Detection Laboratory Testing for Cholera ...

  8. Cholera Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Infection & Risk Factors Non-O1 and Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Infections Diagnosis and Detection Laboratory Testing for Cholera ...

  9. Regulation of neutrophil NADPH oxidase activation in a cell-free system by guanine nucleotides and fluoride. Evidence for participation of a pertussis and cholera toxin-insensitive G protein.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; English, D; Akard, L P; Schell, M J

    1987-02-05

    Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) transduce a remarkably diverse group of extracellular signals to a relatively limited number of intracellular target enzymes. In the neutrophil, transduction of the signal following fMet-Leu-Phe receptor-ligand interaction is mediated by a pertussis toxin substrate (Gi) that activates inositol-specific phospholipase C. We have utilized a plasma membrane-containing fraction from unstimulated human neutrophils as the target enzyme to explore the role of G proteins in arachidonate and cytosolic cofactor-dependent activation of the NADPH-dependent O-2-generating oxidase. When certain guanine nucleotides or their nonhydrolyzable analogues were present during arachidonate and cytosolic cofactor-dependent activation, they exerted substantial dose-dependent effects. The GTP analogue, GTP gamma S, caused a 2-fold increase in NADPH oxidase activation (half-maximal stimulation, 1.1 microM). Either GDP or its nonhydrolyzable analogue, GDP beta S, inhibited up to 80% of the basal NADPH oxidase activation (Ki GDP = 0.12 mM, GDP beta S = 0.23 mM). GTP caused only slight and variable stimulation, whereas F-, an agent known to promote the active conformation of G proteins, caused a 1.6-fold stimulation of NADPH oxidase activation. NADPH oxidase activation in the cell-free system was absolutely and specifically dependent on Mg2+. Although O2- production in response to fMet-Leu-Phe was inhibited greater than 90% in neutrophils pretreated with pertussis toxin, cytosolic cofactor and target oxidase membranes from neutrophils treated with pertussis toxin showed no change in basal- or GTP gamma S-stimulated NADPH oxidase activation. Cholera toxin treatment of neutrophils also had no effect on the cell-free activation system. Our results suggest a role for a G protein that is distinct from Gs or Gi in the arachidonate and cytosolic cofactor-dependent NADPH oxidase cell-free activation system.

  10. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    The first section of this study deals with areas where cholera is endemic and with the conditions normally favouring endemicity. Turning next to epidemics, the author discusses their origin and types, climatic influences on them, their periodicity and the possibility of forecasting them, the role played in them by different serological races of V. cholerae, and the causes of their decline. In a section on the factors governing the local spread of cholera, he considers contact and water-borne infection; the role of contaminated food and drink, of fomites, of flies, and of carriers; and the incidence according to sex, age, race, and occupation. The last part deals with factors governing the spread of cholera over longer distances, and includes discussion of the effect of movements of individuals and groups and of assemblies of the population on pilgrimages or at religious festivals. PMID:13472431

  11. Adjuvant requirement for successful immunization with recombinant derivatives of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 delivered via the intranasal route.

    PubMed

    Bargieri, Daniel Y; Rosa, Daniela S; Lasaro, Melissa Ang Simões; Ferreira, Luis Carlos S; Soares, Irene S; Rodrigues, Mauricio M

    2007-06-01

    Recently, we generated two bacterial recombinant proteins expressing 89 amino acids of the C-terminal domain of the Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 and the hexa-histidine tag (His6MSP1(19)). One of these recombinant proteins contained also the amino acid sequence of the universal pan allelic T-cell epitope (His6MSP1(19)-PADRE). In the present study, we evaluated the immunogenic properties of these antigens when administered via the intra-nasal route in the presence of distinct adjuvant formulations. We found that C57BL/6 mice immunized with either recombinant proteins in the presence of the adjuvants cholera toxin (CT) or the Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (LT) developed high and long lasting titers of specific serum antibodies. The induced immune responses reached maximum levels after three immunizing doses with a prevailing IgG1 subclass response. In contrast, mice immunized by intranasal route with His6MSP1(19)-PADRE in the presence of the synthetic oligonucleotides adjuvant CpG ODN 1826 developed lower antibody titers but when combined to CT, CpG addition resulted in enhanced IgG responses characterized by lower IgG1 levels. Considering the limitations of antigens formulations that can be used in humans, mucosal adjuvants can be a reliable alternative for the development of new strategies of immunization using recombinant proteins of P. vivax.

  12. MucoRice-cholera toxin B-subunit, a rice-based oral cholera vaccine, down-regulates the expression of α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor-like protein family as major rice allergens.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Shiho; Nakamura, Rika; Mejima, Mio; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Kuroda, Masaharu; Takeyama, Natsumi; Oyama, Masaaki; Satoh, Shigeru; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Masumura, Takehiro; Teshima, Reiko; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2013-07-05

    To develop a cold chain- and needle/syringe-free rice-based cholera vaccine (MucoRice-CTB) for human use, we previously advanced the MucoRice system by introducing antisense genes specific for endogenous rice storage proteins and produced a molecularly uniform, human-applicable, high-yield MucoRice-CTB devoid of plant-associated sugar. To maintain the cold chain-free property of this vaccine for clinical application, we wanted to use a polished rice powder preparation of MucoRice-CTB without further purification but wondered whether this might cause an unexpected increase in rice allergen protein expression levels in MucoRice-CTB and prompt safety concerns. Therefore, we used two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and shotgun MS/MS proteomics to compare rice allergen protein expression levels in MucoRice-CTB and wild-type (WT) rice. Both proteomics analyses showed that the only notable change in the expression levels of rice allergen protein in MucoRice-CTB, compared with those in WT rice, was a decrease in the expression levels of α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor-like protein family such as the seed allergen protein RAG2. Real-time PCR analysis showed mRNA of RAG2 reduced in MucoRice-CTB seed. These results demonstrate that no known rice allergens appear to be up-reregulated by genetic modification of MucoRice-CTB, suggesting that MucoRice-CTB has potential as a safe oral cholera vaccine for clinical application.

  13. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    In this study, figures relating to cholera deaths occurring in individual countries, from 1900 to 1952, are recorded as well as the incidence of the disease from 1923 up to the present time. The mode of spread of cholera from its endemic home in India to outside countries is described in relation to favourable seasons, main routes followed by the infection, and the role played by large religious gatherings. The incidence of the disease in the various seaports infected within recent years is discussed. PMID:14364186

  14. Methods to Assess the Impact of Mass Oral Cholera Vaccination Campaigns under Real Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Deen, Jacqueline; Ali, Mohammad; Sack, David

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest to use oral cholera vaccination as an additional strategy to water and sanitation interventions against endemic and epidemic cholera. There are two internationally-available and WHO-prequalified oral cholera vaccines: an inactivated vaccine containing killed whole-cells of V. cholerae O1 with recombinant cholera toxin B-subunit (WC/rBS) and a bivalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 (BivWC). The efficacy, effectiveness, direct and indirect (herd) protection conferred by WC/rBS and BivWC are well established. Yet governments may need local evidence of vaccine impact to justify and scale-up mass oral cholera vaccination campaigns. We discuss various approaches to assess oral cholera vaccine protection, which may be useful to policymakers and public health workers considering deployment and evaluation of the vaccine. PMID:24516595

  15. Brucella spp. lumazine synthase: a novel adjuvant and antigen delivery system to effectively induce oral immunity.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Gabriela; Fragoso, Gladis; Ainciart, Natalia; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Santana, Angélica; Bobes, Raúl J; Ramírez-Pliego, Oscar; Toledo, Andrea; Cruz-Revilla, Carmen; Meneses, Gabriela; Berguer, Paula; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Sciutto, Edda

    2006-04-01

    Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) has been previously used with success as a delivery system for systemic immunization against murine cysticercosis. We herein determined the usefulness of BLS as a new antigen-delivery system and mucosal-adjuvant using KETc1, one of the peptides of the anti-cysticercosis vaccine. A protection of up to 98% was induced when KETc1 was used as a chimera fused to BLS. Used as adjuvant of KETc1, BLS also induced a high level of protection (79%), which did not significantly differ from that induced by the cholera toxin (74%). KETc1 and BLS administered separately also reduced the parasite load. KETc1 administered orally as a chimera, and to a lesser extent with BLS as adjuvant, elicited IgG and IgA specific antibodies, which were detectable both in fecal extracts and in sera, and increased B and CD4 activated cells. BLS-KETc1 also increased the levels of transcription of TNF-alpha, IL-2 and IFNgamma in Peyer's patches, and in spleen, only increased TNF-alpha was observed. Overall, these results showed that BLS can be used as both an antigen-carrier and as an adjuvant in the design of new oral subunit vaccines.

  16. Antibody-based biological toxin detection

    SciTech Connect

    Menking, D.E.; Goode, M.T.

    1995-12-01

    Fiber optic evanescent fluorosensors are under investigation in our laboratory for the study of drug-receptor interactions for detection of threat agents and antibody-antigen interactions for detection of biological toxins. In a direct competition assay, antibodies against Cholera toxin, Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B or ricin were noncovalently immobilized on quartz fibers and probed with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) - labeled toxins. In the indirect competition assay, Cholera toxin or Botulinum toxoid A was immobilized onto the fiber, followed by incubation in an antiserum or partially purified anti-toxin IgG. These were then probed with FITC-anti-IgG antibodies. Unlabeled toxins competed with labeled toxins or anti-toxin IgG in a dose dependent manner and the detection of the toxins was in the nanomolar range.

  17. Non-toxigenic environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 strain from Haiti provides evidence of pre-pandemic cholera in Hispaniola

    PubMed Central

    Azarian, Taj; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A.; Jubair, Mohammad; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Nolan, David J.; Farmerie, William; Rashid, Mohammad H.; Sinha-Ray, Shrestha; Alam, Meer T.; Morris, J. Glenn; Salemi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, with environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains serving as a source for recurrent cholera epidemics and pandemic disease. However, a number of questions remain about long-term survival and evolution of V. cholerae strains within these aquatic environmental reservoirs. Through monitoring of the Haitian aquatic environment following the 2010 cholera epidemic, we isolated two novel non-toxigenic (ctxA/B-negative) Vibrio cholerae O1. These two isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing and were investigated through comparative genomics and Bayesian coalescent analysis. These isolates cluster in the evolutionary tree with strains responsible for clinical cholera, possessing genomic components of 6th and 7th pandemic lineages, and diverge from “modern” cholera strains around 1548 C.E. [95% HPD: 1532–1555]. Vibrio Pathogenicity Island (VPI)-1 was present; however, SXT/R391-family ICE and VPI-2 were absent. Rugose phenotype conversion and vibriophage resistance evidenced adaption for persistence in aquatic environments. The identification of V. cholerae O1 strains in the Haitian environment, which predate the first reported cholera pandemic in 1817, broadens our understanding of the history of pandemics. It also raises the possibility that these and similar environmental strains could acquire virulence genes from the 2010 Haitian epidemic clone, including the cholera toxin producing CTXϕ. PMID:27786291

  18. Non-toxigenic environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 strain from Haiti provides evidence of pre-pandemic cholera in Hispaniola.

    PubMed

    Azarian, Taj; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A; Jubair, Mohammad; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Nolan, David J; Farmerie, William; Rashid, Mohammad H; Sinha-Ray, Shrestha; Alam, Meer T; Morris, J Glenn; Salemi, Marco

    2016-10-27

    Vibrio cholerae is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, with environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains serving as a source for recurrent cholera epidemics and pandemic disease. However, a number of questions remain about long-term survival and evolution of V. cholerae strains within these aquatic environmental reservoirs. Through monitoring of the Haitian aquatic environment following the 2010 cholera epidemic, we isolated two novel non-toxigenic (ctxA/B-negative) Vibrio cholerae O1. These two isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing and were investigated through comparative genomics and Bayesian coalescent analysis. These isolates cluster in the evolutionary tree with strains responsible for clinical cholera, possessing genomic components of 6(th) and 7(th) pandemic lineages, and diverge from "modern" cholera strains around 1548 C.E. [95% HPD: 1532-1555]. Vibrio Pathogenicity Island (VPI)-1 was present; however, SXT/R391-family ICE and VPI-2 were absent. Rugose phenotype conversion and vibriophage resistance evidenced adaption for persistence in aquatic environments. The identification of V. cholerae O1 strains in the Haitian environment, which predate the first reported cholera pandemic in 1817, broadens our understanding of the history of pandemics. It also raises the possibility that these and similar environmental strains could acquire virulence genes from the 2010 Haitian epidemic clone, including the cholera toxin producing CTXϕ.

  19. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    After a general consideration of the loss of fluids and salts in evacuations from the gastro-intestinal tract, the author discusses in detail both the physical and the chemical changes in the blood of cholera patients. The author then deals exhaustively with the problems of circulatory and renal failure. PMID:13413649

  20. Haitian variant ctxB producing Vibrio cholerae O1 with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin is persistent in Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India, after causing a cholera outbreak.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Mishra, D K; Deshmukh, D G; Jain, M; Zade, A M; Ingole, K V; Yadava, P K

    2014-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor producing Haitian variant Cholera Toxin (HCT) and showing reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin caused a cholera outbreak associated with a high case fatality rate (4.5) in India. HCT-secreting strains responsible for severe cholera epidemics in Orissa (India), Western Africa and Haiti were associated with increased mortality. There is a pressing need for an integrated multidisciplinary approach to combat further spread of newly emerging variant strains. The therapeutic effect of ciprofloxacin was diminished whereas use of doxycycline in moderate to severe cholera patients was found to be effective in outbreak management.

  1. Heteropentameric Cholera Toxin B Subunit Chimeric Molecules Genetically Fused to a Vaccine Antigen Induce Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses: a Potential New Strategy To Target Recombinant Vaccine Antigens to Mucosal Immune Systems

    PubMed Central

    Harakuni, Tetsuya; Sugawa, Hideki; Komesu, Ai; Tadano, Masayuki; Arakawa, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Noninvasive mucosal vaccines are attractive alternatives to parenteral vaccines. Although the conjugation of vaccine antigens with the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) is one of the most promising strategies for vaccine delivery to mucosal immune systems, the molecule cannot tolerate large-protein fusion, as it severely impairs pentamerization and loses affinity for GM1-ganglioside. Here we report a new strategy, in which steric hindrance between CTB-antigen fusion subunits is significantly reduced through the integration of unfused CTB “molecular buffers” into the pentamer unit, making them more efficiently self-assemble into biologically active pentamers. In addition, the chimeric protein took a compact configuration, becoming small enough to be secreted, and one-step affinity-purified proteins, when administered through a mucosal route, induced specific immune responses in mice. Since our results are not dependent on the use of a particular expression system or vaccine antigen, this strategy could be broadly applicable to bacterial enterotoxin-based vaccine design. PMID:16113283

  2. Expression of cholera toxin B subunit-lumbrokinase in edible sunflower seeds-the use of transmucosal carrier to enhance its fusion protein's effect on protection of rats and mice against thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chunfeng; Ji, Jing; Jin, Chao; Wang, Gang; Li, Xiaozhou; Guan, Wenzhu

    2014-01-01

    Lumbrokinase (LK) is a group of serine proteases with strong fibrinolytic and thrombolytic activities and is useful for treating diseases caused by thrombus. Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) has been widely used to facilitate antigen delivery by serving as an effective mucosal carrier molecule for the induction of oral tolerance. We investigate here the application of CTB as a transmucosal carrier in enhancing its fusion protein-LKs effect to protect rats against thrombosis. Thus, in this study, CTB-LK fusion gene separated by a furin cleavage site was expressed in seeds of Helianthus annuus L. The activity of recombinant protein in seeds of transgenic sunflower was confirmed by Western blot analysis, fibrin plate assays and GM1 -ganglioside ELISA. The thrombosis model of rats and mice revealed that the oral administration of peeled seeds of sunflower expressing CTB-LK had a more significant anti-thrombotic effect on animals compared with that administration of peeled seeds of sunflower expressing LK. It is possible to conclude that CTB can successfully enhance its fusion protein to be absorbed in rats or mice thrombosis model. The use of CTB as a transmucosal carrier in the delivery of transgenic plant-derived oral therapeutic proteins was supported. In addition, for the purpose of that recombinant CTB-LK was designed for oral administration, thus the expression of CTB-LK in edible sunflower seeds eliminated the need for downstream processing of proteins.

  3. Plasma Leptin Levels in Children Hospitalized with Cholera in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Falkard, Brie; Uddin, Taher; Rahman, M Arifur; Franke, Molly F; Aktar, Amena; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Leung, Daniel T; Charles, Richelle C; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, induces both innate and adaptive immune responses in infected humans. Leptin is a hormone that plays a role in both metabolism and mediating immune responses. We characterized leptin levels in 11 children with cholera in Bangladesh, assessing leptin levels on days 2, 7, 30, and 180 following cholera. We found that patients at the acute stage of cholera had significantly lower plasma leptin levels than matched controls, and compared with levels in late convalescence. We then assessed immune responses to V. cholerae antigens in 74 children with cholera, correlating these responses to plasma leptin levels on day 2 of illness. In multivariate analysis, we found an association between day 2 leptin levels and development of later anti-cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) responses. This finding appeared to be limited to children with better nutritional status. Interestingly, we found no association between leptin levels and antibody responses to V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide, a T cell-independent antigen. Our results suggest that leptin levels may be associated with cholera, including the development of immune responses to T cell-dependent antigens.

  4. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1956-01-01

    The first portion of this study describes in detail the different aspects of stool examinations, including the collection, preservation, and pooling of specimens, macroscopic and bacterioscopic examination, enrichment methods, and cultivation on a variety of solid media. The author also deals with the examination of vomits and of water. The performance and value of different identification tests (agglutination, haemolysis, and bacteriophage) and confirmatory tests are then considered. An annex is included on bacteriological procedures in the laboratory diagnosis of cholera. PMID:13356145

  5. A nontoxic chimeric enterotoxin adjuvant induces protective immunity in both mucosal and systemic compartments with reduced IgE antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Mi-Na; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Fumiko; Tamura, Shinichi; Van Ginkel, Frederik W; Miyauchi, Akira; Takagi, Hiroaki; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Hamabata, Takashi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; McGhee, Jerry R; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    A novel nontoxic form of chimeric mucosal adjuvant that combines the A subunit of mutant cholera toxin E112K with the pentameric B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was constructed by use of the Brevibacillus choshinensis expression system (mCTA/LTB). Nasal immunization of mice with tetanus toxoid (TT) plus mCTA/LTB elicited significant TT-specific immunoglobulin A responses in mucosal compartments and induced high serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A anti-TT antibody responses. Although TT plus native CT induced high total and TT-specific immunoglobulin E responses, use of the chimera molecule as mucosal adjuvant did not. Furthermore, all mice immunized with TT plus mCTA/LTB were protected from lethal systemic challenge with tetanus toxin. Importantly, the mice were completely protected from influenza virus infection after nasal immunization with inactivated influenza vaccine together with mCTA/LTB. These results show that B. choshinensis-derived mCTA/LTB is an effective and safe mucosal adjuvant for the induction of protective immunity against potent bacterial exotoxin and influenza virus infection.

  6. Localized surface plasmon resonance detection of biological toxins using cell surface oligosaccharides on glyco chips.

    PubMed

    Nagatsuka, Takehiro; Uzawa, Hirotaka; Sato, Keita; Kondo, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Yokoyama, Kenji; Ohsawa, Isaac; Seto, Yasuo; Neri, Paola; Mori, Hiroshi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Saito, Masato; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2013-05-22

    We have detected biological toxins using localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and synthetic glycosyl ceramides (β-lactoside, globosyl trisaccharide (Gb3), or GM1 pentasaccharide) attached to gold (Au) nanoparticles. The particle diameters ranged from 5-100 nm. The detection sensitivity for three toxins (ricin, Shiga toxin, and cholera toxin) was found to depend not only on the attached glycoside but also on the diameter of the Au nanoparticles. For the detection of ricin, the 20-nm β-lactoside-coated Au nanoparticle exhibited the highest LSPR response, whereas 40-nm Gb3- and GM1-coated Au nanoparticles gave the best results for Shiga toxin and cholera toxin, respectively. In addition, a blocking process on the nanoparticle surface greatly improved the detection sensitivity for cholera toxin. The LSPR system enabled us to detect ricin at 30 ng/mL, Shiga toxin at 10 ng/mL, and the cholera toxin at 20 ng/mL.

  7. Cholera in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection of the intestines caused by bacteria called Vibrio cholerae. It causes a watery diarrhea that can range ... as raw or undercooked shellfish contaminated with V cholerae. Cholera has ... are some species of Vibrio that do not cause cholera, although they can ...

  8. The hows and whys of constructing a native recombinant cholera vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Boustanshenas, Mina; Bakhshi, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of different ctxB genotypes within virulent Vibrio cholerae populations accentuates the need to develop a vaccine that has the potential to protect against all cholera toxin genotypes. Oral administration of rCTB—alone and in combination with 2 dominant domestic killed whole cells of V. cholerae (O1 Ogawa El Tor and O1 Inaba El Tor) plus one standard V. cholerae (O1 Ogawa classic ATCC 14035)—has shown satisfactory protection as a potent vaccine candidate against toxigenic V. cholerae. PMID:24165439

  9. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    SciTech Connect

    Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David C; Challacombe, Jean F; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Munik, A C; Chertkov, Olga; Meincke, Linda; Saunders, Elizabeth; Choi, Seon Y; Haley, Bradd J; Taviani, Elisa; Jeon, Yoon - Seong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae - Hak; Walters, Ronald A; Hug, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V

  10. Cell Vacuolation Caused by Vibrio cholerae Hemolysin

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Arredondo, Paula; Heuser, John E.; Akopyants, Natalia S.; Morisaki, J. Hiroshi; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Enríquez-Rincón, Fernando; Berg, Douglas E.

    2001-01-01

    Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae implicated in gastroenteritis and diarrhea generally lack virulence determinants such as cholera toxin that are characteristic of epidemic strains; the factors that contribute to their virulence are not understood. Here we report that at least one-third of diarrhea-associated nonepidemic V. cholerae strains from Mexico cause vacuolation of cultured Vero cells. Detailed analyses indicated that this vacuolation was related to that caused by aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin of Aeromonas; it involved primarily the endoplasmic reticulum at early times (∼1 to 4 h after exposure), and resulted in formation of large, acidic, endosome-like multivesicular vacuoles (probably autophagosomes) only at late times (∼16 h). In contrast to vacuolation caused by Helicobacter pylori VacA protein, that induced by V. cholerae was exacerbated by agents that block vacuolar proton pumping but not by endosome-targeted weak bases. It caused centripetal redistribution of endosomes, reflecting cytoplasmic alkalinization. The gene for V. cholerae vacuolating activity was cloned and was found to correspond to hlyA, the structural gene for hemolysin. HlyA protein is a pore-forming toxin that causes ion leakage and, ultimately, eukaryotic cell lysis. Thus, a distinct form of cell vacuolation precedes cytolysis at low doses of hemolysin. We propose that this vacuolation, in itself, contributes to the virulence of V. cholerae strains, perhaps by perturbing intracellular membrane trafficking or ion exchange in target cells and thereby affecting local intestinal inflammatory or other defense responses. PMID:11179335

  11. A natural vaccine candidate strain against cholera.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Q; Qi, G M; Wang, S X; Yu, Y M; Duan, G C; Zhang, L J; Gao, S Y

    1995-12-01

    E1 Tor Vibrio cholerae (EVC) strains may be classified into two kinds-epidemigenic (EEVC) strains and non-epidemigenic (NEEVC) strains-based on a phage-biotyping system. A large number of EEVC strains have been screened for toxigenic and putative colonization attributes. One such naturally occurring strains (designated IEM101) has been found which is devoid of genes encoding cholera toxin (CT), accessory cholera enterotoxin (ACE), zonula occludens toxin (ZOT), but possesses RS1 sequences and toxin-coregulated pilus A gene (icpA) although icpA is poorly expressed. It expresses type B pili but does not possess type C pili. It is an E1 Tor Ogawa strain and does not cause fluid accumulation in rabbit ilcal loop tests. Active immunization of rabbits with strain IEM101 elicited good protection against challenge with virulent strains of V. cholerae O1. Oral administration caused no side effects in 15 human volunteers, colonized the gut for four to ten days and elicited good immune responses.

  12. A controlled field trial of the effectiveness of cholera and cholera El Tor vaccines in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    1965-01-01

    In a controlled field trial on some 584 000 people in an endemic cholera El Tor area in the Philippines, it was demonstrated that cholera vaccines gave moderate protection of short duration. Injection of a single dose of vaccine prepared from either Vibrio cholerae or Vibrio El Tor gave over 50% protection for the first two months. The immunity conferred by the V. cholerae vaccine rapidly declined after three to four months. The V. El Tor vaccine gave protection for six months, but its effectiveness declined. An oil-adjuvant vaccine prepared from V. cholerae conferred an increasing degree of protection of long duration, but, owing to severe vaccination reactions, its use could not be recommended. PMID:5294176

  13. A controlled field trial of the effectiveness of cholera and cholera El Tor vaccines in the Philippines*

    PubMed Central

    Azurin, J. C.; Cruz, A.; Pesigan, T. P.; Alvero, M.; Camena, T.; Suplido, R.; Ledesma, L.; Gomez, C. Z.

    1967-01-01

    A controlled field trial on some 584 000 people in an endemic cholera El Tor area in the Philippines demonstrated that cholera vaccines gave moderate protection of short duration. Injection of a single dose of vaccine prepared from either Vibrio cholerae or El Tor vibrios gave over 50% protection for the first 2 months. The immunity conferred by the V. cholerae vaccine declined rapidly after 3 to 4 months. The effectiveness of the El Tor vaccine continued for 6 months. An oil-adjuvant vaccine prepared from V. cholerae conferred an equally high degree of protection for a longer period of time, but, owing to severe vaccination reactions, its use could not be recommended. PMID:5300874

  14. An Adult Mouse Model of Vibrio cholerae-induced Diarrhea for Studying Pathogenesis and Potential Therapy of Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Sawasvirojwong, Sutthipong; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2013-01-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to establish an adult mouse model of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhea and to characterize its pathophysiology. Ligated ileal loops of adult mice were inoculated for 6, 9, 12 and 18 h with a classical O1 hypertoxigenic 569B strain of V. cholerae (107 CFU/loop). Time-course studies demonstrated that the optimal period for inducing diarrhea was 12 h post-inoculation, when peak intestinal fluid accumulation (loop/weight ratio of ∼0.2 g/cm) occurred with the highest diarrhea success rate (90%). In addition, pathogenic numbers of V. cholerae (∼109 CFU/g tissue) were recovered from ileal loops at all time points between 6–18 h post-inoculation with the diarrheagenic amount of cholera toxin being detected in the secreted intestinal fluid at 12 h post-inoculation. Interestingly, repeated intraperitoneal administration of CFTRinh-172 (20 µg every 6 h), an inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), completely abolished the V. cholerae-induced intestinal fluid secretion without affecting V. cholerae growth in vivo. As analyzed by ex vivo measurement of intestinal electrical resistance and in vivo assay of fluorescein thiocyanate (FITC)-dextran trans-intestinal flux, V. cholerae infection had no effect on intestinal paracellular permeability. Measurements of albumin in the diarrheal fluid suggested that vascular leakage did not contribute to the pathogenesis of diarrhea in this model. Furthermore, histological examination of V. cholerae-infected intestinal tissues illustrated edematous submucosa, congestion of small vessels and enhanced mucus secretion from goblet cells. This study established a new adult mouse model of V. cholerae-induced diarrhea, which could be useful for studying the pathogenesis of cholera diarrhea and for evaluating future therapeutics/cholera vaccines. In addition, our study confirmed the major role of CFTR in V

  15. An Adult Mouse Model of Vibrio cholerae-induced Diarrhea for Studying Pathogenesis and Potential Therapy of Cholera.

    PubMed

    Sawasvirojwong, Sutthipong; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2013-06-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to establish an adult mouse model of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhea and to characterize its pathophysiology. Ligated ileal loops of adult mice were inoculated for 6, 9, 12 and 18 h with a classical O1 hypertoxigenic 569B strain of V. cholerae (10(7) CFU/loop). Time-course studies demonstrated that the optimal period for inducing diarrhea was 12 h post-inoculation, when peak intestinal fluid accumulation (loop/weight ratio of ∼0.2 g/cm) occurred with the highest diarrhea success rate (90%). In addition, pathogenic numbers of V. cholerae (∼10(9) CFU/g tissue) were recovered from ileal loops at all time points between 6-18 h post-inoculation with the diarrheagenic amount of cholera toxin being detected in the secreted intestinal fluid at 12 h post-inoculation. Interestingly, repeated intraperitoneal administration of CFTRinh-172 (20 µg every 6 h), an inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), completely abolished the V. cholerae-induced intestinal fluid secretion without affecting V. cholerae growth in vivo. As analyzed by ex vivo measurement of intestinal electrical resistance and in vivo assay of fluorescein thiocyanate (FITC)-dextran trans-intestinal flux, V. cholerae infection had no effect on intestinal paracellular permeability. Measurements of albumin in the diarrheal fluid suggested that vascular leakage did not contribute to the pathogenesis of diarrhea in this model. Furthermore, histological examination of V. cholerae-infected intestinal tissues illustrated edematous submucosa, congestion of small vessels and enhanced mucus secretion from goblet cells. This study established a new adult mouse model of V. cholerae-induced diarrhea, which could be useful for studying the pathogenesis of cholera diarrhea and for evaluating future therapeutics/cholera vaccines. In addition, our study confirmed the major role of CFTR in V

  16. Accessory cholera enterotoxin, Ace, from Vibrio cholerae: structure, unfolding, and virstatin binding.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Mukherjee, Debadrita; Dey, Sucharita; Pal, Aritrika; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2011-04-12

    Vibrio cholerae accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is the third toxin, along with cholera toxin (CT) and zonula occludens toxin (Zot), that causes the endemic disease cholera. Structural characterization of Ace has been restricted because of the limited production of this toxic protein by V. cholerae. We have cloned, overexpressed, and purified Ace from V. cholerae strain O395 in Escherichia coli to homogeneity and determined its biological activity. The unfolding of the purified protein was investigated using circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Because Ace is predominantly a hydrophobic protein, the degree of exposure of hydrophobic regions was identified from the spectral changes of the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) that quenches the fluorescence of tryptophan residues of Ace in a concentration-dependent manner. Results showed that bis-ANS binds one monomeric unit of Ace with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a K' of 0.72 μM. Ace exists as a dimer, with higher oligomeric forms appearing upon glutaraldehyde cross-linking. This study also reports the binding of virstatin, a small molecule that inhibits virulence regulation in V. cholerae, to Ace. The binding constant (K=9×10(4) M(-1)) and the standard free energy change (ΔG°=-12 kcal mol(-1)) of Ace-virstatin interaction have been evaluated by the fluorescence quenching method. The binding does not affect the oligomeric status of Ace. A cell viability assay of the antibacterial activity of Ace has been performed using various microbial strains. A homology model of Ace, consistent with the experimental results, has been constructed.

  17. Immunogenicity characterization of the multi-epitope vaccine CTB-UE with chitosan-CpG as combination adjuvants against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yingying; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiaokang; Guo, Le; Lv, Xiaobo; Xi, Tao

    2015-07-03

    Urease is considered as an excellent vaccine candidate antigen against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Our previous study reported a novel multi-epitope vaccine CTB-UE which was composed of the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and five cell epitopes from urease subunits. Murine experiments indicated that it could induce cellular and humoral immune responses intensively and attenuate H. pylori infection effectively in mice model. However, the body expression and lack of suitable adjuvant of this epitope vaccine restricted its application. In this study, new recombinant Escherichia coli strains was established to increase the solubility by fusing thioredoxin (Trx) and the combination adjuvants which composed of the chitosan and CpG were adopted to enhance the immunogenicity of CTB-UE for oral immunization. The experimental results indicated that the levels of IgG2a, IgG1 and IgA in the serum and the levels of sIgA in stomach, intestine and feces were significantly higher in the vaccinated group compared with the model control group. Additionally, chitosan-CpG combination adjuvants changed the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 and conferred Th1/Th17-mediated protective immune responses. These results demonstrate that the oral vaccine with chitosan-CpG as combination adjuvants may be a promising vaccine candidate against H. pylori infection.

  18. Phenotypic and Genetic Heterogeneity in Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolated from Cholera Cases in Delhi, India during 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Raikamal; Sharma, Naresh C; Halder, Kalpataru; Bhadra, Rupak K; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Shinoda, Sumio; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Nair, G Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thadavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004-2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Cholera toxin genotype 1 was present in the majority of the O139 isolates while few had type 3 or a novel type 4. In the cholera toxin encoding gene (ctx) restriction fragment length polymorphism, the majority of the isolates harbored three copies of CTX element, of which one was truncated. In this study, the ctx was detected for the first time in the small chromosome of V. cholerae O139 and one isolate harbored 5 copies of CTX element, of which 3 were truncated. The ribotype BII pattern was found in most of the O139 isolates. Three V. cholerae O139 isolated in 2001 had a new ribotype BVIII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed clonal variation in 2001 isolates compared to the 2004-2006 isolates. Molecular changes in V. cholerae O139 have to be closely monitored as this information may help in understanding the changing genetic features of this pathogen in relation to the epidemiology of cholera.

  19. Phenotypic and Genetic Heterogeneity in Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolated from Cholera Cases in Delhi, India during 2001–2006

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Raikamal; Sharma, Naresh C.; Halder, Kalpataru; Bhadra, Rupak K.; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Shinoda, Sumio; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Nair, G. Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thadavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004–2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Cholera toxin genotype 1 was present in the majority of the O139 isolates while few had type 3 or a novel type 4. In the cholera toxin encoding gene (ctx) restriction fragment length polymorphism, the majority of the isolates harbored three copies of CTX element, of which one was truncated. In this study, the ctx was detected for the first time in the small chromosome of V. cholerae O139 and one isolate harbored 5 copies of CTX element, of which 3 were truncated. The ribotype BII pattern was found in most of the O139 isolates. Three V. cholerae O139 isolated in 2001 had a new ribotype BVIII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed clonal variation in 2001 isolates compared to the 2004–2006 isolates. Molecular changes in V. cholerae O139 have to be closely monitored as this information may help in understanding the changing genetic features of this pathogen in relation to the epidemiology of cholera. PMID:27555841

  20. Release from Th1-type immune tolerance in spleen and enhanced production of IL-5 in Peyer's patch by cholera toxin B induce the glomerular deposition of IgA.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takahiro; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Terashima, Masazumi; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Habu, Sonoko; Okumura, Ko; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    We examined the pathogenesis of glomerular damage in Th2 type-dependent GATA-3 transgenic (GATA-3 Tg) mice with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). GATA-3 Tg mice were immunized orally using OVA plus cholera toxin B (CTB), and measurement of the serum IgA antibody level and histopathological examination were performed. Marked increases in the serum levels of OVA-specific IgA antibody, IgA and IgG, C3 deposits analogous to those seen in IgAN, and expansion of the matrix in association with mesangial cell proliferation were observed. Furthermore, glomerular IgA deposits were co-localized with mannan-binding lectin (MBL) deposits, which might actually have been abnormal IgA deposits. In GATA-3/TCR-Tg mice that had been orally sensitized with CTB plus OVA and were re-stimulated with OVA in vitro, cultured Peyer's patch cells showed the enhanced production of IL-5 and supernatants from cultures of spleen cells showed a reduction of TGF-β production with a simultaneous increase in IL-2 production and the recovery of IFN-γ formation. The amount of TGF-β produced by the spleen cells was found to be correlated with the amount of IFN-γ and IL-IL-2 produced by the cells. Also, the percentage of regulatory T cells (Treg) in the spleens of mice sensitized with OVA plus CTB was lower than that in mice orally sensitized with OVA alone. These results suggest that the increased production of IL-5 from Peyer's patch cells (PPc) and the restored Th1-type immune response might cause the production of abnormal IgA and might induce the deposition of IgA in glomeruli.

  1. Antibody-based bacterial toxin detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menking, Darrell E.; Heitz, Jonathon M.; Anis, Nabil A.; Thompson, Roy G.

    1994-03-01

    Fiber optic evanescent fluorosensors are under investigation in our laboratory for the study of drug-receptor interactions for detection of threat agents and antibody-antigen interactions for detection of biological toxins. In a one step assay, antibodies against Cholera toxin or Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B were noncovalently immobilized on quartz fibers and probed with fluorescein-isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled toxins. In the two-step assay, Cholera toxin or Botulinum toxoid A was immobilized onto the fiber, followed by incubation in an antiserum or partially purified antitoxin IgG. These were then probed with FITC-anti-IgG antibodies. Unlabeled toxins competed with labeled toxins or antitoxin IgG in a dose-dependent manner and the detection of the toxins was in the nanomolar range.

  2. High-Resolution Crystal Structures Elucidate the Molecular Basis of Cholera Blood Group Dependence.

    PubMed

    Heggelund, Julie Elisabeth; Burschowsky, Daniel; Bjørnestad, Victoria Ariel; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Krengel, Ute

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is the prime example of blood-group-dependent diseases, with individuals of blood group O experiencing the most severe symptoms. The cholera toxin is the main suspect to cause this relationship. We report the high-resolution crystal structures (1.1-1.6 Å) of the native cholera toxin B-pentamer for both classical and El Tor biotypes, in complexes with relevant blood group determinants and a fragment of its primary receptor, the GM1 ganglioside. The blood group A determinant binds in the opposite orientation compared to previously published structures of the cholera toxin, whereas the blood group H determinant, characteristic of blood group O, binds in both orientations. H-determinants bind with higher affinity than A-determinants, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. Together, these findings suggest why blood group O is a risk factor for severe cholera.

  3. High-Resolution Crystal Structures Elucidate the Molecular Basis of Cholera Blood Group Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heggelund, Julie Elisabeth; Burschowsky, Daniel; Bjørnestad, Victoria Ariel; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Krengel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Cholera is the prime example of blood-group-dependent diseases, with individuals of blood group O experiencing the most severe symptoms. The cholera toxin is the main suspect to cause this relationship. We report the high-resolution crystal structures (1.1–1.6 Å) of the native cholera toxin B-pentamer for both classical and El Tor biotypes, in complexes with relevant blood group determinants and a fragment of its primary receptor, the GM1 ganglioside. The blood group A determinant binds in the opposite orientation compared to previously published structures of the cholera toxin, whereas the blood group H determinant, characteristic of blood group O, binds in both orientations. H-determinants bind with higher affinity than A-determinants, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. Together, these findings suggest why blood group O is a risk factor for severe cholera. PMID:27082955

  4. Immunizing adult female mice with a TcpA-A2-CTB chimera provides a high level of protection for their pups in the infant mouse model of cholera.

    PubMed

    Price, Gregory A; Holmes, Randall K

    2014-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae expresses two primary virulence factors, cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). CT causes profuse watery diarrhea, and TCP (composed of repeating copies of the major pilin TcpA) is required for intestinal colonization by V. cholerae. Antibodies to CT or TcpA can protect against cholera in animal models. We developed a TcpA holotoxin-like chimera (TcpA-A2-CTB) to elicit both anti-TcpA and anti-CTB antibodies and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in the infant mouse model of cholera. Adult female CD-1 mice were immunized intraperitoneally three times with the TcpA-A2-CTB chimera and compared with similar groups immunized with a TcpA+CTB mixture, TcpA alone, TcpA with Salmonella typhimurium flagellin subunit FliC as adjuvant, or CTB alone. Blood and fecal samples were analyzed for antigen-specific IgG or IgA, respectively, using quantitative ELISA. Immunized females were mated; their reared offspring were challenged orogastrically with 10 or 20 LD50 of V. cholerae El Tor N16961; and vaccine efficacy was assessed by survival of the challenged pups at 48 hrs. All pups from dams immunized with the TcpA-A2-CTB chimera or the TcpA+CTB mixture survived at both challenge doses. In contrast, no pups from dams immunized with TcpA+FliC or CTB alone survived at the 20 LD50 challenge dose, although the anti-TcpA or anti-CTB antibody level elicited by these immunizations was comparable to the corresponding antibody level achieved by immunization with TcpA-A2-CTB or TcpA+CTB. Taken together, these findings comprise strong preliminary evidence for synergistic action between anti-TcpA and anti-CTB antibodies in protecting mice against cholera. Weight loss analysis showed that only immunization of dams with TcpA-A2-CTB chimera or TcpA+CTB mixture protected their pups against excess weight loss from severe diarrhea. These data support the concept of including both TcpA and CTB as immunogens in development of an effective multivalent

  5. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    In discussing prevention, the author deals first with the provision of permanently safe water, supplied from waterworks or wells, and with other improvements in environmental sanitation. Control of food and drinks, public health propaganda and education, and vaccination are also considered under this heading. The greater part of this study is devoted to suppressive measures, affecting the individual, the environment, and persons in the mass. Discussion of the isolation, detection and management of cholera patients, the management of contacts, and the management and treatment of carriers is followed by sections on, inter alia, disinfection, temporary improvements in water supplies, fly control, and personal prophylaxis. In dealing with mass prophylaxis, the author pays particular attention to vaccination. In the concluding sections he goes into the control of pilgrimages and local and international quarantine measures. PMID:13479774

  6. Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated during cholera outbreaks in Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed Central

    Dalsgaard, A; Mortensen, H F; Mølbak, K; Dias, F; Serichantalergs, O; Echeverria, P

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, 19 strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor isolated during outbreaks of cholera in Guinea-Bissau in 1987, 1994, and 1995 were characterized to investigate a possible epidemiological relationship among the isolates. On the basis of ribotyping with the restriction enzyme BglI, 5 strains isolated in 1987 showed two closely related ribotypes, while 14 strains isolated in 1994 and 1995 showed the same ribotype that was distinct from the ribotypes of strains isolated in 1987. Southern blot hybridization of BglI-digested genomic DNA with a cholera toxin probe demonstrated that the strains isolated in 1987 showed an identical cholera toxin genotype, whereas O1 strains isolated in 1994 and 1995 showed the same genotype that was distinct from the genotype of strains isolated in 1987. These results were supported by the results of antibiotic susceptibility testing, in which strains isolated in 1987 showed resistance to polymyxin B only, while each of the strains from 1994 and 1995 showed resistance to polymyxin B, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and the vibriostatic agent O/129. Although our results are based on a limited number of V. cholerae O1 strains, they suggest that the epidemic in Guinea-Bissau in 1994 and 1995 was due to the introduction of a new strain to the country. PMID:8727901

  7. Environmental surveillance for toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in surface waters of Haiti.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Amy M; Haley, Bradd J; Chen, Arlene; Mull, Bonnie J; Tarr, Cheryl L; Turnsek, Maryann; Katz, Lee S; Humphrys, Michael S; Derado, Gordana; Freeman, Nicole; Boncy, Jacques; Colwell, Rita R; Huq, Anwar; Hill, Vincent R

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic cholera was reported in Haiti in 2010, with no information available on the occurrence or geographic distribution of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Haitian waters. In a series of field visits conducted in Haiti between 2011 and 2013, water and plankton samples were collected at 19 sites. Vibrio cholerae was detected using culture, polymerase chain reaction, and direct viable count methods (DFA-DVC). Cholera toxin genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction in broth enrichments of samples collected in all visits except March 2012. Toxigenic V. cholerae was isolated from river water in 2011 and 2013. Whole genome sequencing revealed that these isolates were a match to the outbreak strain. The DFA-DVC tests were positive for V. cholerae O1 in plankton samples collected from multiple sites. Results of this survey show that toxigenic V. cholerae could be recovered from surface waters in Haiti more than 2 years after the onset of the epidemic.

  8. Whole-genome sequence comparisons reveal the evolution of Vibrio cholerae O1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lee, Chan Hee; Nair, G Balakrish; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of the whole-genome sequences of Vibrio cholerae strains from previous and current cholera pandemics has demonstrated that genomic changes and alterations in phage CTX (particularly in the gene encoding the B subunit of cholera toxin) were major features in the evolution of V. cholerae. Recent studies have revealed the genetic mechanisms in these bacteria by which new variants of V. cholerae are generated from type-specific strains; these mechanisms suggest that certain strains are selected by environmental or human factors over time. By understanding the mechanisms and driving forces of historical and current changes in the V. cholerae population, it would be possible to predict the direction of such changes and the evolution of new variants; this has implications for the battle against cholera.

  9. A Tripartite Fusion, FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B, of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Elicits Antibodies That Neutralize Cholera Toxin, Inhibit Adherence of K88 (F4) and F18 Fimbriae, and Protect Pigs against K88ac/Heat-Labile Toxin Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Liu, Mei; Casey, Thomas A.; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing antiadhesin (anti-K88 and anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT and anti-ST) immunity would provide broad protection to young pigs against ETEC. In this study, we genetically fused nucleotides coding for peptides from K88ac major subunit FaeG, F18 minor subunit FedF, and LT toxoid (LT192) A2 and B subunits for a tripartite adhesin-adhesin-toxoid fusion (FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B). This fusion was used for immunizations in mice and pigs to assess the induction of antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies. In addition, protection by the elicited antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies against a porcine ETEC strain was evaluated in a gnotobiotic piglet challenge model. The data showed that this FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B fusion elicited anti-K88, anti-F18, and anti-LT antibodies in immunized mice and pigs. In addition, the anti-porcine antibodies elicited neutralized cholera toxin and inhibited adherence against both K88 and F18 fimbriae. Moreover, immunized piglets were protected when challenged with ETEC strain 30302 (K88ac/LT/STb) and did not develop clinical disease. In contrast, all control nonvaccinated piglets developed severe diarrhea and dehydration after being challenged with the same ETEC strain. This study clearly demonstrated that this FaeG-FedF-LT192A2:B fusion antigen elicited antibodies that neutralized LT toxin and inhibited the adherence of K88 and F18 fimbrial E. coli strains and that this fusion could serve as an antigen for vaccines against porcine ETEC diarrhea. In addition, the adhesin-toxoid fusion approach used in this study may provide important information for developing effective vaccines against human ETEC diarrhea. PMID:21813665

  10. Cholera Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... works to: promote the design and implementation of global strategies to contribute to capacity development for cholera prevention ... countries for the implementation of effective cholera control strategies and monitoring ... global public health problem through the dissemination of information ...

  11. Integrated optical toxin sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Dan; Song, Xuedong; Frayer, Daniel K.; Mendes, Sergio B.; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Swanson, Basil I.; Grace, Karen M.

    1999-12-01

    We have developed a method for simple and highly sensitive detection of multivalent proteins using an optical waveguide sensor. The optical biosensor is based on optically tagged glycolipid receptors imbedded within a fluid phospholipid bilayer membrane formed on the surface of a planar optical waveguide. The binding of multivalent toxin initiates a fluorescence resonance energy transfer resulting in a distinctive spectral signature that is monitored by measuring emitted luminescence above the waveguide surface. The sensor methodology is highly sensitive and specific, and requires no additional reagents or washing steps. Demonstration of the utility of protein-receptor recognition using planar optical waveguides is shown here by the detection of cholera toxin.

  12. The discovery of cholera - like enterotoxins produced by Escherichia coli causing secretory diarrhoea in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sack, R. Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Non-vibrio cholera has been recognized as a clinical entity for as long as cholera was known to be caused by Vibrio cholerae. Until 1968, the aetiologic agent of this syndrome was not known. Following a series of studies in patients with non-vibrio cholera it was found that these patients had large concentrations of Escherichia coli in the small bowel and stools which produced cholera toxin-like enterotoxins, and had fluid and electrolyte transport abnormalities in the small bowel similar to patients with documented cholera. Furthermore, these patients developed antibodies to the cholera-like enterotoxin. Later studies showed that these strains, when fed to volunteers produced a cholera-like disease and that two enterotoxins were found to be produced by these organisms: a heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) which is nearly identical to cholera toxin, and a heat-stable enterotoxin (ST), a small molecular weight polypeptide. E. coli that produced one or both of these enterotoxins were designated enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). ETEC are now known not only to cause a severe cholera-like illness, but to be the most common bacterial cause of acute diarrhoea in children in the developing world, and to be the most common cause of travellers’ diarrhoea in persons who visit the developing world. PMID:21415491

  13. Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin B Effects in Vitro: A Potential Protein Therapeutic?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    involved in numerous human/animal diseases that include skin-linked maladies such as cutaneous anthrax, carbuncles, impetigo, and scalded-skin...contrast to Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin, which activates host adenylate cyclase, intracellular amounts of cAMP elicited by B. anthracis edema toxin rise...increase TNF- levels from PBMC. Such results are also similar to those previously reported for mouse macrophages with ele- vated cAMP due to cholera

  14. Molecular characterization of the circulating strains of Vibrio cholerae during 2010 cholera outbreak in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedeji, Kolawole S; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Nwaokorie, Francisca O; Bamidele, Tajudeen A; Ochoga, Michael; Akinsinde, Kehinde A; Brai, Bartholomew I; Oladele, David; Omonigbehin, Emmanuel A; Bamidele, Moses; Fesobi, Toun W; Musa, Adesola Z; Adeneye, Adeniyi K; Smith, Stella I; Ujah, Innocent A

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the phenotypic and toxigenic status of circulating strains of cholera during outbreaks in Nigeria, employing molecular typing techniques. Two hundred and one samples of rectal swabs, stool, vomitus, water (from the well, borehole, sachet, stream, and tap) and disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite) were collected from three states in the country. The samples were inoculated on thiosulphate-citrate bile salt-sucrose (TCBS), Cary-Blair transport medium and smeared on glass slides for direct examination. The Vibrio cholerae isolates were serotyped, biotyped, and characterized using PCR of the cytotoxin gene A (ctxA), wbeO1, and wbfO139 gene primer. Of the 201 samples screened, 96 were positive for V cholerae O1 (48%), with 69 (72%) positive for ctxA gene. The results from this study showed that the circulating strains of cholera in Nigeria were of Ogawa serotype, also observed in other outbreaks in Nigeria (1991, 1992, and 1996). However, the strains were of the Classical biotype and were mainly (72%) ctxA gene-positive. This current investigation has confirmed the production of cholera toxin by the circulating strains, and this could be harnessed for possible cholera vaccine production in Nigeria.

  15. Malonate inhibits virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Minato, Yusuke; Fassio, Sara R; Häse, Claudia C

    2013-01-01

    We previously found that inhibition of the TCA cycle, either through mutations or chemical inhibition, increased toxT transcription in Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we found that the addition of malonate, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), decreased toxT transcription in V. cholerae, an observation inconsistent with the previous pattern observed. Unlike another SDH inhibitor, 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), which increased toxT transcription and slightly inhibited V. cholerae growth, malonate inhibited toxT transcription in both the wild-type strain and TCA cycle mutants, suggesting malonate-mediated inhibition of virulence gene expression is independent to TCA cycle activity. Addition of malonate also inhibited ctxB and tcpA expressions but did not affect aphA, aphB, tcpP and toxR expressions. Malonate inhibited cholera toxin (CT) production in both V. cholerae classical biotype strains O395N1 and CA401, and El Tor biotype strain, N16961. Consistent with previous reports, we confirmed that these strains of V. cholerae did not utilize malonate as a primary carbon source. However, we found that the addition of malonate to the growth medium stimulated V. cholerae growth. All together, these results suggest that metabolizing malonate as a nutrient source negatively affects virulence gene expression in V. cholerae.

  16. Recombinant fusion protein of cholera toxin B subunit with YVAD secreted by Lactobacillus casei inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1 beta secretion in Caco-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus species are used as bacterial vectors to deliver functional peptides to the intestine because they are delivered live to the intestine, colonize the mucosal surface, and continue to produce the desired protein. Previously, we generated a recombinant Lactobacillus casei secreting the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), which can translocate into intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) through GM1 ganglioside. Recombinant fusion proteins of CTB with functional peptides have been used as carriers for the delivery of these peptides to IECs because of the high cell permeation capacity of recombinant CTB (rCTB). However, there have been no reports of rCTB fused with peptides expressed or secreted by Lactobacillus species. In this study, we constructed L. casei secreting a recombinant fusion protein of CTB with YVAD (rCTB–YVAD). YVAD is a tetrapeptide (tyrosine–valine–alanine–aspartic acid) that specifically inhibits caspase-1, which catalyzes the production of interleukin (IL)-1β, an inflammatory cytokine, from its inactive precursor. Here, we examined whether rCTB–YVAD secreted by L. casei binds to GM1 ganglioside and inhibits caspase-1 activation in Caco-2 cells used as a model of IECs. Results We constructed the rCTB–YVAD secretion vector pSCTB–YVAD by modifying the rCTB secretion vector pSCTB. L. casei secreting rCTB–YVAD was generated by transformation with pSCTB–YVAD. Both the culture supernatant of pSCTB–YVAD-transformed L. casei and purified rCTB–YVAD bound to GM1 ganglioside, as did the culture supernatant of pSCTB-transformed L. casei and purified rCTB. Interestingly, although both purified rCTB–YVAD and rCTB translocated into Caco-2 cells, regardless of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), only purified rCTB–YVAD but not rCTB inhibited LPS-induced caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1β secretion in Caco-2 cells, without affecting cell viability. Conclusions The rCTB protein fused to a functional peptide secreted by L. casei

  17. Molecular insights into the evolutionary pathway of Vibrio cholerae O1 atypical El Tor variants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lee, Dokyung; Moon, Se Hoon; Lee, Chan Hee; Kim, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Ouk; Song, Manki; Das, Bhabatosh; Clemens, John D; Pape, Jean William; Nair, G Balakrish; Kim, Dong Wook

    2014-09-01

    Pandemic V. cholerae strains in the O1 serogroup have 2 biotypes: classical and El Tor. The classical biotype strains of the sixth pandemic, which encode the classical type cholera toxin (CT), have been replaced by El Tor biotype strains of the seventh pandemic. The prototype El Tor strains that produce biotype-specific cholera toxin are being replaced by atypical El Tor variants that harbor classical cholera toxin. Atypical El Tor strains are categorized into 2 groups, Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains, based on genomic variations and the CTX phage that they harbor. Whole-genome analysis of V. cholerae strains in the seventh cholera pandemic has demonstrated gradual changes in the genome of prototype and atypical El Tor strains, indicating that atypical strains arose from the prototype strains by replacing the CTX phages. We examined the molecular mechanisms that effected the emergence of El Tor strains with classical cholera toxin-carrying phage. We isolated an intermediary V. cholerae strain that carried two different CTX phages that encode El Tor and classical cholera toxin, respectively. We show here that the intermediary strain can be converted into various Wave 2 strains and can act as the source of the novel mosaic CTX phages. These results imply that the Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains may have been generated from such intermediary strains in nature. Prototype El Tor strains can become Wave 3 strains by excision of CTX-1 and re-equipping with the new CTX phages. Our data suggest that inter-chromosomal recombination between 2 types of CTX phages is possible when a host bacterial cell is infected by multiple CTX phages. Our study also provides molecular insights into population changes in V. cholerae in the absence of significant changes to the genome but by replacement of the CTX prophage that they harbor.

  18. Transcutaneous immunization with cross-reacting material CRM(197) of diphtheria toxin boosts functional antibody levels in mice primed parenterally with adsorbed diphtheria toxoid vaccine.

    PubMed

    Stickings, Paul; Peyre, Marisa; Coombes, Laura; Muller, Sylviane; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Partidos, Charalambos D; Sesardic, Dorothea

    2008-04-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) capitalizes on the accessibility and immunocompetence of the skin, elicits protective immunity, simplifies vaccine delivery, and may be particularly advantageous when frequent boosting is required. In this study we examined the potential of TCI to boost preexisting immune responses to diphtheria in mice. The cross-reacting material (CRM(197)) of diphtheria toxin was used as the boosting antigen and was administered alone or together with either one of two commonly used mucosal adjuvants, cholera toxin (CT) and a partially detoxified mutant of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LTR72). We report that TCI with CRM(197) significantly boosted preexisting immune responses elicited after parenteral priming with aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed diphtheria toxoid (DTxd) vaccine. In the presence of LTR72 as an adjuvant, toxin-neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher than those elicited by CRM(197) alone and were comparable to the functional antibody levels induced after parenteral booster immunization with the adsorbed DTxd vaccine. Time course study showed that high levels of toxin-neutralizing antibodies persisted for at least 14 weeks after the transcutaneous boost. In addition, TCI resulted in a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response in all groups of mice boosted with the CRM(197) protein. These findings highlight the promising prospect of using booster administrations of CRM(197) via the transcutaneous route to establish good herd immunity against diphtheria.

  19. Effect of Different Adjuvants on Protection and Side-Effects Induced by Helicobacter suis Whole-Cell Lysate Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bosschem, Iris; Bayry, Jagadeesh; De Bruyne, Ellen; Van Deun, Kim; Smet, Annemieke; Vercauteren, Griet; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter suis (H. suis) is a widespread porcine gastric pathogen, which is also of zoonotic importance. The first goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of several vaccine adjuvants (CpG-DNA, Curdlan, Freund's Complete and Incomplete, Cholera toxin), administered either subcutaneously or intranasally along with H. suis whole-cell lysate, to protect against subsequent H. suis challenge in a BALB/c infection model. Subcutaneous immunization with Freund's complete (FC)/lysate and intranasal immunization with Cholera toxin (CT)/lysate were shown to be the best options for vaccination against H. suis, as determined by the amount of colonizing H. suis bacteria in the stomach, although adverse effects such as post-immunization gastritis/pseudo-pyloric metaplasia and increased mortality were observed, respectively. Therefore, we decided to test alternative strategies, including sublingual vaccine administration, to reduce the unwanted side-effects. A CCR4 antagonist that transiently inhibits the migration of regulatory T cells was also included as a new adjuvant in this second study. Results confirmed that immunization with CT (intranasally or sublingually) is among the most effective vaccination protocols, but increased mortality was still observed. In the groups immunized subcutaneously with FC/lysate and CCR4 antagonist/lysate, a significant protection was observed. Compared to the FC/lysate immunized group, gastric pseudo-pyloric metaplasia was less severe or even absent in the CCR4 antagonist/lysate immunized group. In general, an inverse correlation was observed between IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, KC, MIP-2 and LIX mRNA expression and H. suis colonization density, whereas lower IL-10 expression levels were observed in partially protected animals.

  20. Adjuvant effects of saponins on animal immune responses*

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Hu, Song-hua; Xiao, Chen-wen; Arijo, Abdullah G.

    2007-01-01

    Vaccines require optimal adjuvants including immunopotentiator and delivery systems to offer long term protection from infectious diseases in animals and man. Initially it was believed that adjuvants are responsible for promoting strong and sustainable antibody responses. Now it has been shown that adjuvants influence the isotype and avidity of antibody and also affect the properties of cell-mediated immunity. Mostly oil emulsions, lipopolysaccharides, polymers, saponins, liposomes, cytokines, ISCOMs (immunostimulating complexes), Freund’s complete adjuvant, Freund’s incomplete adjuvant, alums, bacterial toxins etc., are common adjuvants under investigation. Saponin based adjuvants have the ability to stimulate the cell mediated immune system as well as to enhance antibody production and have the advantage that only a low dose is needed for adjuvant activity. In the present study the importance of adjuvants, their role and the effect of saponin in immune system is reviewed. PMID:17323426

  1. [Epidemiological Surveillance of Cholera in Russia During the Period of the Seventh Pandemic].

    PubMed

    Onishhenko, G G; Moskvitina, E A; Kruglikov, V D; Titova, S V; Adamenko, O L; Vodop'ianov, A S; Vodop'ianov, S O

    2015-01-01

    In this work basic stages of formation of the epidemiological surveillance of cholera in Russia are described. In 1990-s for the first time zoning by epidemic manifestations of cholera was carried out at the level of subjects forming parts of Russia and other Republics of the Soviet Union with the introduction of differential tactics of epidemiological surveillance. Improvement of epidemiological surveillance of cholera was aimed at harmonization with the IHR (2005), integration of epidemiological surveillance of cholera and social-hygienic monitoring of water objects of I and II categories. Characterization of isolated Vibrio cholerae strains (1990-2014) on the genomic basis determined the emergence of new VNTR-genotypes of V. cholerae O1 ctxAB+ tcpA+, responsible for outbreaks, simultaneously with isolation of V. cholerae 01 ctxAB-tcpA-strains during monitoring of environmental objectsfor cholera. A viewpoint is considered of the beginning of the eighth cholera pandemic in the context of emergence of V. cholerae El Tor strains with CTXφ prophage carrying ctxB gene of cholera toxin of classical biovar. Main directions offurther enhancement ofepidemiological surveillance include the study of basic data structures used in the epidemiological surveillance system, the use of zoning of municipal units offederal subjects with corresponding surveillance tactics and expected economic effect.

  2. Detection of ctx gene positive non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in shrimp aquaculture environments.

    PubMed

    Madhusudana, Rao B; Surendran, P K

    2013-06-01

    Water and post-larvae samples from black tiger (Penaeus monodon) shrimp hatcheries; pond water, pond sediment and shrimp from aquaculture farms were screened for the presence of V. cholerae. A V. cholerae-duplex PCR method was developed by utilizing V. cholerae species specific sodB primers and ctxAB genes specific primers. Incidence of V. cholerae was not observed in shrimp hatchery samples but was noticed in aquaculture samples. The incidence of V. cholerae was higher in pond water (7.6%) than in pond sediment (5.2%). Shrimp head (3.6%) portion had relatively higher incidence than shrimp muscle (1.6%). All the V. cholerae isolates (n = 42) belonged to non-O1/non-O139 serogroup, of which 7% of the V. cholerae isolates were potentially cholera-toxigenic (ctx positive). All the ctx positive V. cholerae (n = 3) were isolated from the pond water. Since, cholera toxin (CT) is the major contributing factor for cholera gravis, it is proposed that the mere presence of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae need not be the biohazard criterion in cultured black tiger shrimp but only the presence of ctx carrying non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae may be considered as potential public health risk.

  3. Structure of Vibrio cholerae ToxT reveals a mechanism for fatty acid regulation of virulence genes

    SciTech Connect

    Lowden, Michael J.; Skorupski, Karen; Pellegrini, Maria; Chiorazzo, Michael G.; Taylor, Ronald K.; Kull, F. Jon

    2010-03-04

    Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. In order for V. cholerae to cause disease, it must produce two virulence factors, the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT), whose expression is controlled by a transcriptional cascade culminating with the expression of the AraC-family regulator, ToxT. We have solved the 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of ToxT, which reveals folds in the N- and C-terminal domains that share a number of features in common with AraC, MarA, and Rob as well as the unexpected presence of a buried 16-carbon fatty acid, cis-palmitoleate. The finding that cis-palmitoleic acid reduces TCP and CT expression in V. cholerae and prevents ToxT from binding to DNA in vitro provides a direct link between the host environment of V. cholerae and regulation of virulence gene expression.

  4. Protective immunity against Naegleria fowleri infection on mice immunized with the rNfa1 protein using mucosal adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinyoung; Yoo, Jong-Kyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Kang, Hee-kyoung; Kim, Daesik; Shin, Ho-Joon; Kim, Jong-Hyun

    2015-04-01

    The free-living amoeba, Naegleria fowleri, causes a fatal disease called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals. Of the pathogenic mechanism of N. fowleri concerning host tissue invasion, the adherence of amoeba to hose cells is the most important. We previously cloned the nfa1 gene from N. fowleri. The protein displayed immunolocalization in the pseudopodia, especially the food-cups structure, and was related to the contact-dependent mechanism of the amoebic pathogenicity in N. fowleri infection. The cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) have been used as potent mucosal adjuvants via the parenteral route of immunization in most cases. In this study, to examine the effect of protective immunity of the Nfa1 protein for N. fowleri infection with enhancement by CTB or LTB adjuvants, intranasally immunized BALB/c mice were infected with N. fowleri trophozoites for the development of PAM. The mean time to death of mice immunized with the Nfa1 protein using LTB or CTB adjuvant was prolonged by 5 or 8 days in comparison with that of the control mice. In particular, the survival rate of mice immunized with Nfa1 plus CTB was 100% during the experimental period. The serum IgG levels were significantly increased in mice immunized with Nfa1 protein plus CTB or LTB adjuvants. These results suggest that the Nfa1 protein, with CTB or LTB adjuvants, induces strong protective immunity in mice with PAM due to N. fowleri infection.

  5. Chemiluminescent optical fiber immunosensor for detecting cholera antitoxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Robert S.; Bassis, Effim; Bychenko, Alexei; Levine, Myron M.

    1997-12-01

    A chemiluminescent-based optical fiber immunosensor is developed to detect the presence of jejunal cholera antitoxin IgA immunoglobulins. This was accomplished using optical fiber tips, conjugated with the cholera toxin B subunit. The cholera antitoxin analyte is marked by a secondary antibody labeled with horseradish peroxidase. A photoelectronic setup is designed specifically to monitor the signal. This immunosensor system is shown to be specific, sensitive, and fast to run, without requiring a purification step. The lowest titer detected was 1:1,310,720. When the luminol-containing buffer solution was replaced by air, thus dramatically lowering the index of refraction of the surrounding medium, sensitivity increased and cholera antitoxin was detected at an additional titer dilution at 1:2,621,440.

  6. Vibrio cholerae Biofilms and Cholera Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anisia J.; Benitez, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i) the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii) the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii) the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv) we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity. PMID:26845681

  7. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    In this study, the author describes in detail experimental cholera infection of mammals (infection by the oral route, intragastric inoculation, and intestinal, gall-bladder, and parenteral infection). The pathogenicity for lower animals is examined, and certain observations on insects are included. The second part of the study is devoted to the pathology of human cholera (morbid anatomy distribution of the causative organisms in the dead bodies of cholera victims, and pathogenesis). PMID:13284569

  8. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios. PMID:23412687

  9. Cholera outbreaks in India.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sharma, Naresh C

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is a global health problem as several thousands of cases and deaths occur each year. The unique epidemiologic attribute of the disease is its propensity to occur as outbreaks that may flare-up into epidemics, if not controlled. The causative bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae prevails in the environment and infects humans whenever there is a breakdown in the public health component. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to this disease due its vast coastlines with areas of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, and overcrowding. Recently, it was shown that climatic conditions also play a major role in the persistence and spread of cholera. Constant change in the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae are also important aspects that changes virulence and survival of the pathogen. Such continuous changes increase the infection ability of the pathogen affecting the susceptible population including the children. The short-term carrier status of V. cholerae has been studied well at community level and this facet significantly contributes to the recurrence of cholera. Several molecular tools recognized altering clonality of V. cholerae in relation with the advent of a serogroup or serotype. Rapid identification systems were formulated for the timely detection of the pathogen so as to identify and control the outbreak and institute proper treatment of the patients. The antimicrobials used in the past are no longer useful in the treatment of cholera as V. cholerae has acquired several mechanisms for multiple antimicrobial resistance. This upsurge in antimicrobial resistance directly influences the management of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of cholera prevalence in India, possible sources of infection, and molecular epidemiology along with antimicrobial resistance of V. cholerae.

  10. Nasal Vaccination with the 40-Kilodalton Outer Membrane Protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis and a Nontoxic Chimeric Enterotoxin Adjuvant Induces Long-Term Protective Immunity with Reduced Levels of Immunoglobulin E Antibodies▿

    PubMed Central

    Momoi, Fumiki; Hashizume, Tomomi; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that the 40-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis (40-kDa OMP) nasally administered with a nontoxic chimeric adjuvant that combines the A subunit of mutant cholera toxin E112K with the pentameric B subunit of heat-labile enterotoxin from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (mCTA/LTB) elicited a long-term protective immune response. Immunization with the 40-kDa OMP and mCTA/LTB induced high levels of 40-kDa-OMP-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies (Abs) in sera and elicited a significant IgA anti-40-kDa OMP Ab response in saliva. These Ab responses were maintained for at least 1 year after the immunization. Although using adjuvant mCTA/LTB gave Ab responses in the saliva comparable to those obtained using native cholera toxin (nCT) as the adjuvant, the levels of total IgE and 40-kDa-OMP-specific IgE Abs as well as interleukin-4 levels induced by the immunization with mCTA/LTB were lower than those induced by the immunization with nCT. Importantly, IgG Abs generated by nasal immunization with the 40-kDa OMP plus mCTA/LTB inhibited the coaggregation and hemagglutinin activities of P. gingivalis. Furthermore, the mice given nasal 40-kDa OMP plus mCTA/LTB showed a significant reduction of alveolar bone loss caused by oral infection with P. gingivalis even 1 year after the immunization compared to the loss in unimmunized mice. Because mCTA/LTB is nontoxic, nasally administered 40-kDa OMP together with mCTA/LTB should be an effective and safe mucosal vaccine against P. gingivalis infection in humans and may be an important tool for the prevention of chronic periodontitis. PMID:18411288

  11. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    The morphological characteristics, biochemical properties, and cultural characteristics of V. cholerae are described in great detail in this study. The author also discusses the resistance of the organism to temperature, humidity, sunlight, and various chemicals, as well as the viability of V. cholerae outside the body (in faeces, contaminated material, food, beverages, water, etc.). PMID:14379012

  12. Virulence profile and clonal relationship among the Vibrio cholerae isolates from ground and surface water in a cholera endemic area during rainy season.

    PubMed

    Goel, A K; Jain, M; Kumar, P; Kamboj, D V; Singh, L

    2010-01-01

    All the V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 isolates from ground and surface water samples collected during the rainy season (rainfall contributes significantly in the spread of cholera) contained ompW and a regulatory toxR gene, while many others possessed accessory cholera toxin (ace), hemolysin (hlyA) and outer membrane protein (ompU) genes. All the isolates lacked ctxAB, tcp, zot, rfbO1 and rfbO139 genes. The strains could be grouped into two main clusters colligating the isolates from ground water and surface water samples. The results suggest that surface water harbors various virulent V. cholerae strains that contaminate the ground water due to rain or poor hygienic practices, and result in the emergence of new toxigenic strains for cholera.

  13. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae identified in estuaries of Tanzania using PCR techniques.

    PubMed

    Dalusi, Lucy; Lyimo, Thomas J; Lugomela, Charles; Hosea, Ken M M; Sjöling, Sara

    2015-03-01

    The current study assessed the occurrence of the Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 in environmental samples along salinity gradients in three selected estuaries of Tanzania both through culture independent methods and by cultured bacteria. Occurrence of V. cholerae was determined by PCR targeting the V. cholerae outer membrane protein gene ompW. Furthermore, the presence of toxigenic strains and serogroups O1 and O139 was determined using multiplex PCR with specific primers targeting the cholera toxin gene subunit A, ctxA, and serotype specific primers, O1-rfb and O139-rfb, respectively. Results showed that V. cholerae occurred in approximately 10% (n = 185) of both the environmental samples and isolated bacteria. Eight of the bacteria isolates (n = 43) were confirmed as serogroup O1 while one belonged to serogroup O139, the first reported identification of this epidemic strain in East African coastal waters. All samples identified as serogroup O1 or O139 and a number of non-O1/O139 strains were ctxA positive. This study provides in situ evidence of the presence of pathogenic V. cholerae O1 and O139 and a number of V. cholerae non-O1/O139 that carry the cholera toxin gene in estuaries along the coast of Tanzania.

  14. Phage-bacterial interactions in the evolution of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Shah M; Mekalanos, John J

    2012-11-15

    Understanding the genetic and ecological factors which support the emergence of new clones of pathogenic bacteria is vital to develop preventive measures. Vibrio cholerae the causative agent of cholera epidemics represents a paradigm for this process in that this organism evolved from environmental non-pathogenic strains by acquisition of virulence genes. The major virulence factors of V. cholerae, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP) are encoded by a lysogenic bacteriophage (CTXφ) and a pathogenicity island, respectively. Additional phages which cooperate with the CTXφ in horizontal transfer of genes in V. cholerae have been characterized, and the potential exists for discovering yet new phages or genetic elements which support the transfer of genes for environmental fitness and virulence leading to the emergence of new epidemic strains. Phages have also been shown to play a crucial role in modulating seasonal cholera epidemics. Thus, the complex array of natural phenomena driving the evolution of pathogenic V. cholerae includes, among other factors, phages that either participate in horizontal gene transfer or in a bactericidal selection process favoring the emergence of new clones of V. cholerae.

  15. Occurrence in Mexico, 1998-2008, of Vibrio cholerae CTX+ El Tor carrying an additional truncated CTX prophage.

    PubMed

    Alam, Munirul; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Mannan, Shahnewaj Bin; Islam, Tarequl; Lizarraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Hasan, Nur A; Huq, Anwar; Sack, R Bradley; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2014-07-08

    The seventh cholera pandemic caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor (ET) has been superseded in Asia and Africa by altered ET possessing the cholera toxin (CTX) gene of classical (CL) biotype. The CL biotype of V. cholerae was isolated, along with prototypic and altered ET, during the 1991 cholera epidemic in Mexico and subsequently remained endemic until 1997. Microbiological, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses of clinical and environmental V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 1998 and 2008 revealed important genetic events favoring predominance of ET over CL and altered ET. V. cholerae altered ET was predominant after 1991 but not after 2000. V. cholerae strains isolated between 2001 and 2003 and a majority isolated in 2004 lacked CTX prophage (Φ) genes encoding CTX subunits A and B and repeat sequence transcriptional regulators of ET and CL biotypes: i.e., CTXΦ(-). Most CTXΦ(-) V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 2001 and 2003 also lacked toxin coregulated pili tcpA whereas some carried either tcpA(ET) or a variant tcpA with noticeable sequence dissimilarity from tcpA(CL). The tcpA variants were not detected in 2005 after CTXΦ(+) ET became dominant. All clinical and environmental V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 2005-2008 in Mexico were CTXΦ(+) ET, carrying an additional truncated CTXΦ instead of RS1 satellite phage. Despite V. cholerae CTXΦ(-) ET exhibiting heterogeneity in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, CTXΦ(+) ET isolated during 2004-2008 displayed homogeneity and clonal relationship with V. cholerae ET N16961 and V. cholerae ET isolated in Peru.

  16. Occurrence in Mexico, 1998–2008, of Vibrio cholerae CTX+ El Tor carrying an additional truncated CTX prophage

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Munirul; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Mannan, Shahnewaj Bin; Islam, Tarequl; Lizarraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Hasan, Nur A.; Huq, Anwar; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita R.; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The seventh cholera pandemic caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor (ET) has been superseded in Asia and Africa by altered ET possessing the cholera toxin (CTX) gene of classical (CL) biotype. The CL biotype of V. cholerae was isolated, along with prototypic and altered ET, during the 1991 cholera epidemic in Mexico and subsequently remained endemic until 1997. Microbiological, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses of clinical and environmental V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 1998 and 2008 revealed important genetic events favoring predominance of ET over CL and altered ET. V. cholerae altered ET was predominant after 1991 but not after 2000. V. cholerae strains isolated between 2001 and 2003 and a majority isolated in 2004 lacked CTX prophage (Φ) genes encoding CTX subunits A and B and repeat sequence transcriptional regulators of ET and CL biotypes: i.e., CTXΦ−. Most CTXΦ− V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 2001 and 2003 also lacked toxin coregulated pili tcpA whereas some carried either tcpAET or a variant tcpA with noticeable sequence dissimilarity from tcpACL. The tcpA variants were not detected in 2005 after CTXΦ+ ET became dominant. All clinical and environmental V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 2005–2008 in Mexico were CTXΦ+ ET, carrying an additional truncated CTXΦ instead of RS1 satellite phage. Despite V. cholerae CTXΦ− ET exhibiting heterogeneity in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, CTXΦ+ ET isolated during 2004–2008 displayed homogeneity and clonal relationship with V. cholerae ET N16961 and V. cholerae ET isolated in Peru. PMID:24958870

  17. Sublingual vaccination with sonicated Salmonella proteins and mucosal adjuvant induces mucosal and systemic immunity and protects mice from lethal enteritis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ching-Feng; Wu, Tzee-Chung; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Lo, Wen-Tsung; Hwang, Kwei-Shuai; Hsu, Mu-Ling; Peng, Ho-Jen

    2011-07-01

    Salmonella enteritidis is one of the most common pathogens of enteritis. Most experimental vaccines against Salmonella infection have been applied through injections. This is a new trial to explore the effect of sublingual administration of Salmonella vaccines on systemic and mucosal immunity. Adult BALB/c mice were sublingually vaccinated with sonicated Salmonella proteins (SSP) alone, or plus adjuvant CpG DNA (CpG) or cholera toxin (CT). They were boosted 2 weeks later. Saliva specific secretory IgA (SIgA) antibody responses were significantly stimulated in the mice vaccinated with SSP only or together with CpG or CT. Whereas the mice sublingually vaccinated with SSP and CpG had higher spleen cell IFN-γ production and serum specific IgG2a antibody responses, those receiving SSP and CT showed enhanced spleen cell IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6 production, and serum specific IgG1 antibody responses. After oral challenge with live S. enteritidis, the same strain of the source of SSP, immune protection in those sublingually vaccinated with SSP and CpG or CT was found to prevent intestinal necrosis and to render a higher survival rate. In conclusion, sublingual vaccination together with mucosal adjuvant CpG or CT is a simple but effective way against enteric bacterial pathogens.

  18. [The development of biochip to detect anti-cholera antibodies in human blood serum].

    PubMed

    Utkin, D V; Osina, N A; Spitsin, A N; Kireev, M N; Gromova, O V; Zakharova, T L; Naidenova, E V; Kuklev, V E

    2015-02-01

    The full-scaled agglutinating immunoassay is commonly applied to detect content of antibodies to cholera agent Vibrio cholerae human in blood serum under application of serological diagnostic. The time of analysis implementation amounts to 18 hours. To shorten time of detection of antibodies a biological microchip (biochip) was developed. The biochip represents an activated slide with immobilized corpuscle and soluble antigen cholera agent (O-antigens, cholera toxin). The experimental work resulted in development of scheme of biochip and selection of optimal conditions of sorption and implementation of immunologic analysis using biochip. The application of biochip facilitated to detect specific antibodies to antigens of cholera agent in commercial experimental animal serums and blood serums of ill patients. The time of analysis implementation amounted to 2-3 hours. The results are substantiated by bacteriological and serological methods.

  19. Molecular Epidemiology and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae Associated with a Large Cholera Outbreak in Ghana in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Eibach, Daniel; Herrera-León, Silvia; Gil, Horacio; Hogan, Benedikt; Ehlkes, Lutz; Adjabeng, Michael; Kreuels, Benno; Nagel, Michael; Opare, David; Fobil, Julius N; May, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background Ghana is affected by regular cholera epidemics and an annual average of 3,066 cases since 2000. In 2014, Ghana experienced one of its largest cholera outbreaks within a decade with more than 20,000 notified infections. In order to attribute this rise in cases to a newly emerging strain or to multiple simultaneous outbreaks involving multi-clonal strains, outbreak isolates were characterized, subtyped and compared to previous epidemics in 2011 and 2012. Methodology/Principal Findings Serotypes, biotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities were determined for 92 Vibrio cholerae isolates collected in 2011, 2012 and 2014 from Southern Ghana. For a subgroup of 45 isolates pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and multilocus-variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) were performed. Eighty-nine isolates (97%) were identified as ctxB (classical type) positive V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor and three (3%) isolates were cholera toxin negative non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae. Among the selected isolates only sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistance was detectable in 2011, while 95% of all 2014 isolates showed resistance towards sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ampicillin and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. MLVA achieved the highest subtype discrimination, revealing 22 genotypes with one major outbreak cluster in each of the three outbreak years. Apart from those clusters genetically distant genotypes circulate during each annual epidemic. Conclusions/Significance This analysis suggests different endemic reservoirs of V. cholerae in Ghana with distinct annual outbreak clusters accompanied by the occurrence of genetically distant genotypes. Preventive measures for cholera transmission should focus on aquatic reservoirs. Rapidly emerging multidrug resistance must be monitored closely. PMID:27232338

  20. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  1. [Cholera and war].

    PubMed

    Ganin, V S

    2009-09-01

    During last centures wars were the main account of spread of cholera. It is caused by movement of great mass of troops and peaceful populace, acute fall of living circumstances, decline of sanitarium conditions of population aggregates, difficultness or impossibility of effectuating of contra-epidemic measures. Cholera casualty was multifold bigger, the weapon casualty in fighting armies. The article presents data of cholera epidemics, were in fighting armies of different states. During the XXth century fight casualty began to overpass the disease casualty. It is caused by grand increasing of damage effects of measures of war, organized using of prophylaxis measures and success in treatment of infectious diseases. The article presents data about cholera falling ill during the Great Patriotic War and about system of contro-epidemic barrier on fronts and rear of state.

  2. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cholera caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae and provides epidemiological information on cholera. Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  6. Seroepidemiologic survey of epidemic cholera in Haiti to assess spectrum of illness and risk factors for severe disease.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Brendan R; Talkington, Deborah F; Pruckler, James M; Fouché, M D Bernadette; Lafosse, Elsie; Nygren, Benjamin; Gómez, Gerardo A; Dahourou, Georges A; Archer, W Roodly; Payne, Amanda B; Hooper, W Craig; Tappero, Jordan W; Derado, Gordana; Magloire, Roc; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Freeman, Nicole; Boncy, Jacques; Mintz, Eric D

    2013-10-01

    To assess the spectrum of illness from toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and risk factors for severe cholera in Haiti, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in a rural commune with more than 21,000 residents. During March 22-April 6, 2011, we interviewed 2,622 residents ≥ 2 years of age and tested serum specimens from 2,527 (96%) participants for vibriocidal and antibodies against cholera toxin; 18% of participants reported a cholera diagnosis, 39% had vibriocidal titers ≥ 320, and 64% had vibriocidal titers ≥ 80, suggesting widespread infection. Among seropositive participants (vibriocidal titers ≥ 320), 74.5% reported no diarrhea and 9.0% had severe cholera (reported receiving intravenous fluids and overnight hospitalization). This high burden of severe cholera is likely explained by the lack of pre-existing immunity in this population, although the virulence of the atypical El Tor strain causing the epidemic and other factors might also play a role.

  7. Cholera in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The cholera epidemic 1st hit South America in January 1991 in the coastal town of Chancay, Peru. In 2 weeks, it spread over 2000 km of the Pacific coast. By the end of the 1st month, it had already reached the mountains and tropical forests. By August 1991, cholera cases were reported in order of appearances in Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Brazil, the US, Mexico, Guatemala, Bolivia, and El Salvador. Health authorities still do not know how it was introduced into South America. The case fatality rate has remained at a low of 1%, probably due to the prompt actions of health authorities in informing the public of the epidemic and what preventive cautions should be taken. This epidemic is part of the 7th pandemic which originated in Celebes, Indonesia in 1961. Cholera can spread relatively unchecked in Latin America because sewage in urban areas is not treated even though they do have sewage collection systems. The untreated wastewater enters rivers and the ocean. Consumption of raw seafood is not unusual and has been responsible for cholera infection in some cases. In fact, many countries placed import restrictions on marine products from Peru following the outbreak at a loss of $US10-$US40 million. Municipal sewage treatment facilities, especially stabilization ponds, would prevent the spread of cholera and other pathogens. In rural areas, pit latrines located away from wells can effectively dispose of human wastes. Most water supplies in Latin America are not disinfected. Disinfection drinking water with adequate levels of chlorine would effectively destroy V. cholera. If this is not possible, boiling the water for 2-3 minutes would destroy the pathogen. Any cases of cholera must be reported to PAHO. PAHO has responded to the outbreak by forming a Cholera Task Force and arranged transport of oral rehydration salts, intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and other essential medical supplies.

  8. [Cholera in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Lezama-Basulto, L A; Mota-Hernández, F

    1993-09-01

    Cholerae is a grave and acute bacterial intestine infection which is caused by a bacilo, V. cholerae 01, that produces toxic products. Its clinical symptoms range from abundant liquid diarrhoea combined with vomiting and rapid dehydration. It is highly lethal when right treatment is not applied. There are also cases of cholera where victims do not show any symptoms of it, that is asymptomatic carriers. Any clinical suspicion of cholerae has to be corroborated by epidemiological data and its diagnostic confirmation should be done by isolating the bacteria, V. cholerae. When beginning the treatment, it is not necessary to confirm the diagnostic and this is based on the restitution of the liquids lost through vomiting and facing using any methods that are recommended for any other type of diarrhoea. The antimicrobial treatment is used only for grave cases. This present revision includes recent knowledge about cholerae emphasising on the effective management of cases through an adequate use of right treatment methods and also using the principal prevention measures against dissemination of this disease.

  9. Triplex reverse transcription-PCR for detecting viable toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in water samples in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kanoktippornchai, Boonnapa; Chomvarin, Chariya; Engchanil, Chulapan; Wongboot, Warawan

    2014-03-01

    Abstract. Detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 in aquatic environment is difficult to achieve using the culture method. For direct detection of viable toxigenic V. cholerae in aquatic environment, we developed a triplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, targeting genes for the outer membrane protein (ompW), cholera toxin A (ctxA) and toxin-coregulated pilli (tcpA) and compared the assay with the culture method. After enrichment of the bacteria-containing filters in alkaline peptone water for 6 hours, the sensitivity of triplex RT-PCR for detecting V. cholerae was 7 cfu/ml. Of the 80 environmental water samples collected from various regions in Northeast Thailand, triplex RT-PCR detected 15 toxigenic and 20 non-toxigenic V. cholerae, whereas the culture method detected only 3 toxigenic V. cholerae--containing water samples. These results show that this triplex RT-PCR method could be used as an alternative tool for rapid and sensitive identification of viable toxigenic V cholerae in environmental water samples.

  10. Origins of the current seventh cholera pandemic.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dalong; Liu, Bin; Feng, Lu; Ding, Peng; Guo, Xi; Wang, Min; Cao, Boyang; Reeves, Peter R; Wang, Lei

    2016-11-29

    Vibrio cholerae has caused seven cholera pandemics since 1817, imposing terror on much of the world, but bacterial strains are currently only available for the sixth and seventh pandemics. The El Tor biotype seventh pandemic began in 1961 in Indonesia, but did not originate directly from the classical biotype sixth-pandemic strain. Previous studies focused mainly on the spread of the seventh pandemic after 1970. Here, we analyze in unprecedented detail the origin, evolution, and transition to pandemicity of the seventh-pandemic strain. We used high-resolution comparative genomic analysis of strains collected from 1930 to 1964, covering the evolution from the first available El Tor biotype strain to the start of the seventh pandemic. We define six stages leading to the pandemic strain and reveal all key events. The seventh pandemic originated from a nonpathogenic strain in the Middle East, first observed in 1897. It subsequently underwent explosive diversification, including the spawning of the pandemic lineage. This rapid diversification suggests that, when first observed, the strain had only recently arrived in the Middle East, possibly from the Asian homeland of cholera. The lineage migrated to Makassar, Indonesia, where it gained the important virulence-associated elements Vibrio seventh pandemic island I (VSP-I), VSP-II, and El Tor type cholera toxin prophage by 1954, and it then became pandemic in 1961 after only 12 additional mutations. Our data indicate that specific niches in the Middle East and Makassar were important in generating the pandemic strain by providing gene sources and the driving forces for genetic events.

  11. Antibody microarrays for native toxin detection.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Victor C; Havenstrite, Karen L; Herr, Amy E

    2005-04-15

    We have developed antibody-based microarray techniques for the multiplexed detection of cholera toxin beta-subunit, diphtheria toxin, anthrax lethal factor and protective antigen, Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B, and tetanus toxin C fragment in spiked samples. Two detection schemes were investigated: (i) a direct assay in which fluorescently labeled toxins were captured directly by the antibody array and (ii) a competition assay that employed unlabeled toxins as reporters for the quantification of native toxin in solution. In the direct assay, fluorescence measured at each array element is correlated with labeled toxin concentration to yield baseline binding information (Langmuir isotherms and affinity constants). Extending from the direct assay, the competition assay yields information on the presence, identity, and concentration of toxins. A significant advantage of the competition assay over reported profiling assays is the minimal sample preparation required prior to analysis because the competition assay obviates the need to fluorescently label native proteins in the sample of interest. Sigmoidal calibration curves and detection limits were established for both assay formats. Although the sensitivity of the direct assay is superior to that of the competition assay, detection limits for unmodified toxins in the competition assay are comparable to values reported previously for sandwich-format immunoassays of antibodies arrayed on planar substrates. As a demonstration of the potential of the competition assay for unlabeled toxin detection, we conclude with a straightforward multiplexed assay for the differentiation and identification of both native S. aureus enterotoxin B and tetanus toxin C fragment in spiked dilute serum samples.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of a freeze-dried oral killed cholera vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Borde, Annika; Larsson, Anette; Holmgren, Jan; Nygren, Erik

    2011-11-01

    Different oral liquid cholera vaccines have proved to be safe and effective, but their formulations present problems for use in low-income countries, since large package volumes have to be transported and cold chain maintenance is required. A solid state formulation would here be more advantageous, and consequently, the possibility to develop a dry cholera vaccine formulation by freeze-drying was investigated. The ability of sucrose, trehalose and mannitol to provide process stabilization during freeze-drying was tested on a formalin-killed whole-cell Vibrio cholerae model vaccine. A matrix of sucrose or trehalose prevented bacterial aggregation, preserved cell morphology and maintained practically completely the protective lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen on the cell surface and its reactivity with specific antibody in vitro. After reconstitution, this formulation also retained the capacity to elicit a strong serum and gut mucosal anti-LPS antibody response in orally immunized mice, as compared to the corresponding liquid vaccine formulation. The full preservation of the in vivo immunogenicity was also maintained when the internationally widely licensed oral cholera vaccine Dukoral™, which comprises a cocktail of inactivated V. cholerae together with cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB), was freeze-dried using sucrose for stabilization. Thus, we present a process generating a dry oral inactivated whole-cell cholera vaccine formulation with attractive features for public health use in cholera-afflicted settings.

  13. Diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae O1 infection in Africa.

    PubMed

    Keddy, Karen H; Sooka, Arvinda; Parsons, Michele B; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Fitchet, Kaye; Smith, Anthony M

    2013-11-01

    Isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 is necessary for cholera outbreak confirmation. Rapid diagnostic testing of fecal specimens, based on lipopolysaccharide detection of V. cholerae O1 or O139, may assist in early outbreak detection and surveillance. Cary-Blair transport medium is recommended for specimen transport. Filter paper, although used in epidemics, needs evaluation against rectal swab specimens. Fecal specimens are subcultured onto selective and nonselective media, including 5% blood agar and TCBS agar, for detection of V. cholerae O1 or O139. Suspicious, oxidase-positive isolates are serotyped in monovalent antisera. Antimicrobial-susceptibility testing is performed to detect resistance. Molecular characterization supports phenotypic identification and outbreak investigations. The presence of genes encoding cholera toxin, lipopolysaccharide, and El Tor biotype traits can be confirmed. Standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis facilitates strain comparison. Quality management ensures reliability of results through validation and verification of functional laboratory equipment; quality control of testing procedures, laboratory reagents, and consumables; and participation in proficiency-testing schemes.

  14. A model for Vibrio cholerae colonization of the human intestine.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Anna Maria; Dirita, Victor; Kirschner, Denise

    2011-11-21

    Vibrio cholerae is a strict human pathogen that causes the disease cholera. It is an old-world pathogen that has re-emerged as a new threat since the early 1990s. V. cholerae colonizes the upper, small intestine where it produces a toxin that leads to watery diarrhea, characterizing the disease (Kahn et al., 1988). The dynamics of colonization by the bacteria of the intestines are largely unknown. Although a large initial infectious dose is required for infection, data suggests that only a smaller sub-population colonizes a portion of the small bowel leading to disease. There are many barriers to colonization in the intestines including peristalsis, fluid wash-out, viscosity of the mucus layer, and pH. We are interested in identifying the mechanisms that allow this sub-population of bacteria to survive and colonize the intestines when faced with these barriers. To elaborate the dynamics of V. cholerae infection, we have developed a mathematical model based on a convection-diffusion-reaction-swimming equation capturing bacterial dynamics coupled with Stokes equations governing fluid velocity where we developed a novel non-local boundary condition. Our results indicate that both host and bacterial factors contribute to bacterial density in the gut. Host factors include intestinal diffusion and convection rates while bacterial factors include adherence, motility and growth rates. This model can ultimately be used to test therapeutic strategies against V. cholerae.

  15. Case studies in cholera: lessons in medical history and science.

    PubMed Central

    Kavic, S. M.; Frehm, E. J.; Segal, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Cholera, a prototypical secretory diarrheal disease, is an ancient scourge that has both wrought great suffering and taught many valuable lessons, from basic sanitation to molecular signal transduction. Victims experience the voluminous loss of bicarbonate-rich isotonic saline at a rate that may lead to hypovolemic shock, metabolic acidosis, and death within afew hours. Intravenous solution therapy as we know it was first developed in an attempt to provide life-saving volume replacement for cholera patients. Breakthroughs in epithelial membrane transport physiology, such as the discovery of sugar and salt cotransport, have paved the way for oral replacement therapy in areas of the world where intravenous replacement is not readily available. In addition, the discovery of the cholera toxin has yielded vital information about toxigenic infectious diseases, providing a framework in which to study fundamental elements of intracellular signal transduction pathways, such as G-proteins. Cholera may even shed light on the evolution and pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis, the most commonly inherited disease among Caucasians. The goal of this paper is to review, using case studies, some of the lessons learned from cholera throughout the ages, acknowledging those pioneers whose seminal work led to our understanding of many basic concepts in medical epidemiology, microbiology, physiology, and therapeutics. PMID:11138935

  16. Genome sequencing reveals unique mutations in characteristic metabolic pathways and the transfer of virulence genes between V. mimicus and V. cholerae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duochun; Wang, Haiyin; Zhou, Yanyan; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Fanfei; Du, Pengcheng; Wang, Shujing; Chen, Chen; Kan, Biao

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio mimicus, the species most similar to V. cholerae, is a microbe present in the natural environmental and sometimes causes diarrhea and internal infections in humans. It shows similar phenotypes to V. cholerae but differs in some biochemical characteristics. The molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in biochemical metabolism between V. mimicus and V. cholerae are currently unclear. Several V. mimicus isolates have been found that carry cholera toxin genes (ctxAB) and cause cholera-like diarrhea in humans. Here, the genome of the V. mimicus isolate SX-4, which carries an intact CTX element, was sequenced and annotated. Analysis of its genome, together with those of other Vibrio species, revealed extensive differences within the Vibrionaceae. Common mutations in gene clusters involved in three biochemical metabolism pathways that are used for discrimination between V. mimicus and V. cholerae were found in V. mimicus strains. We also constructed detailed genomic structures and evolution maps for the general types of genomic drift associated with pathogenic characters in polysaccharides, CTX elements and toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP) gene clusters. Overall, the whole-genome sequencing of the V. mimicus strain carrying the cholera toxin gene provides detailed information for understanding genomic differences among Vibrio spp. V. mimicus has a large number of diverse gene and nucleotide differences from its nearest neighbor, V. cholerae. The observed mutations in the characteristic metabolism pathways may indicate different adaptations to different niches for these species and may be caused by ancient events in evolution before the divergence of V. cholerae and V. mimicus. Horizontal transfers of virulence-related genes from an uncommon clone of V. cholerae, rather than the seventh pandemic strains, have generated the pathogenic V. mimicus strain carrying cholera toxin genes.

  17. Grape Extracts Inhibit Multiple Events in the Cell Biology of Cholera Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Srikar; Taylor, Michael; Zhao, Mojun; Cherubin, Patrick; Geden, Sandra; Ray, Supriyo; Francis, David; Teter, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae produces cholera toxin (CT), an AB5 protein toxin that is primarily responsible for the profuse watery diarrhea of cholera. CT is secreted into the extracellular milieu, but the toxin attacks its Gsα target within the cytosol of a host cell. Thus, CT must cross a cellular membrane barrier in order to function. This event only occurs after the toxin travels by retrograde vesicular transport from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The catalytic A1 polypeptide then dissociates from the rest of the toxin and assumes an unfolded conformation that facilitates its transfer to the cytosol by a process involving the quality control system of ER-associated degradation. Productive intoxication is blocked by alterations to the vesicular transport of CT and/or the ER-to-cytosol translocation of CTA1. Various plant compounds have been reported to inhibit the cytopathic activity of CT, so in this work we evaluated the potential anti-CT properties of grape extract. Two grape extracts currently sold as nutritional supplements inhibited CT and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin activity against cultured cells and intestinal loops. CT intoxication was blocked even when the extracts were added an hour after the initial toxin exposure. A specific subset of host-toxin interactions involving both the catalytic CTA1 subunit and the cell-binding CTB pentamer were affected. The extracts blocked toxin binding to the cell surface, prevented unfolding of the isolated CTA1 subunit, inhibited CTA1 translocation to the cytosol, and disrupted the catalytic activity of CTA1. Grape extract could thus potentially serve as a novel therapeutic to prevent or possibly treat cholera. PMID:24039929

  18. Grape extracts inhibit multiple events in the cell biology of cholera intoxication.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Srikar; Taylor, Michael; Zhao, Mojun; Cherubin, Patrick; Geden, Sandra; Ray, Supriyo; Francis, David; Teter, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae produces cholera toxin (CT), an AB5 protein toxin that is primarily responsible for the profuse watery diarrhea of cholera. CT is secreted into the extracellular milieu, but the toxin attacks its Gsα target within the cytosol of a host cell. Thus, CT must cross a cellular membrane barrier in order to function. This event only occurs after the toxin travels by retrograde vesicular transport from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The catalytic A1 polypeptide then dissociates from the rest of the toxin and assumes an unfolded conformation that facilitates its transfer to the cytosol by a process involving the quality control system of ER-associated degradation. Productive intoxication is blocked by alterations to the vesicular transport of CT and/or the ER-to-cytosol translocation of CTA1. Various plant compounds have been reported to inhibit the cytopathic activity of CT, so in this work we evaluated the potential anti-CT properties of grape extract. Two grape extracts currently sold as nutritional supplements inhibited CT and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin activity against cultured cells and intestinal loops. CT intoxication was blocked even when the extracts were added an hour after the initial toxin exposure. A specific subset of host-toxin interactions involving both the catalytic CTA1 subunit and the cell-binding CTB pentamer were affected. The extracts blocked toxin binding to the cell surface, prevented unfolding of the isolated CTA1 subunit, inhibited CTA1 translocation to the cytosol, and disrupted the catalytic activity of CTA1. Grape extract could thus potentially serve as a novel therapeutic to prevent or possibly treat cholera.

  19. A combined vaccine approach against Vibrio cholerae and ETEC based on outer membrane vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Deborah R.; Lichtenegger, Sabine; Temel, Philipp; Zingl, Franz G.; Ratzberger, Desiree; Roier, Sandro; Schild-Prüfert, Kristina; Feichter, Sandra; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Enteric infections induced by pathogens like Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) remain a massive burden in developing countries with increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Previously, we showed that the immunization with genetically detoxified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from V. cholerae elicits a protective immune response based on the generation of O antigen antibodies, which effectively block the motility by binding to the sheathed flagellum. In this study, we investigated the potential of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-modified and toxin negative OMVs isolated from V. cholerae and ETEC as a combined OMV vaccine candidate. Our results indicate that the immunization with V. cholerae or ETEC OMVs induced a species-specific immune response, whereas the combination of both OMV species resulted in a high-titer, protective immune response against both pathogens. Interestingly, the immunization with V. cholerae OMVs alone resulted in a so far uncharacterized and cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB) independent protection mechanism against an ETEC colonization. Furthermore, we investigated the potential use of V. cholerae OMVs as delivery vehicles for the heterologously expression of the ETEC surface antigens, CFA/I, and FliC. Although we induced a detectable immune response against both heterologously expressed antigens, none of these approaches resulted in an improved protection compared to a simple combination of V. cholerae and ETEC OMVs. Finally, we expanded the current protection model from V. cholerae to ETEC by demonstrating that the inhibition of motility via anti-FliC antibodies represents a relevant protection mechanism of an OMV-based ETEC vaccine candidate in vivo. PMID:26322032

  20. Mucosal Targeting of a BoNT/A Subunit Vaccine Adjuvanted with a Mast Cell Activator Enhances Induction of BoNT/A Neutralizing Antibodies in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Herman F.; Fielhauer, Jeffrey R.; Thompson, Afton L.; Tripp, Alice A.; Sobel, Ashley E.; Maddaloni, Massimo; Abraham, Soman N.; Pascual, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Background We previously reported that the immunogenicity of Hcβtre, a botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) immunogen, was enhanced by fusion to an epithelial cell binding domain, Ad2F, when nasally delivered to mice with cholera toxin (CT). This study was performed to determine if Ad2F would enhance the nasal immunogenicity of Hcβtre in rabbits, an animal model with a nasal cavity anatomy similar to humans. Since CT is not safe for human use, we also tested the adjuvant activity of compound 48/80 (C48/80), a mast cell activating compound previously determined to safely exhibit nasal adjuvant activity in mice. Methods New Zealand White or Dutch Belted rabbits were nasally immunized with Hcβtre or Hcβtre-Ad2F alone or combined with CT or C48/80, and serum samples were tested for the presence of Hcβtre-specific binding (ELISA) or BoNT/A neutralizing antibodies. Results Hcβtre-Ad2F nasally administered with CT induced serum anti-Hcβtre IgG ELISA and BoNT/A neutralizing antibody titers greater than those induced by Hcβtre + CT. C48/80 provided significant nasal adjuvant activity and induced BoNT/A-neutralizing antibodies similar to those induced by CT. Conclusions Ad2F enhanced the nasal immunogenicity of Hcβtre, and the mast cell activator C48/80 was an effective adjuvant for nasal immunization in rabbits, an animal model with a nasal cavity anatomy similar to that in humans. PMID:21304600

  1. Increased severity in patients presenting to hospital with diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh Since emergence of the hybrid strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 is not unique to cholera patients

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Kuchta, Alison; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Faruque, ASG; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-01-01

    In 2001, a hybrid strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor that expresses a classical cholera toxin (CT) emerged and this hybrid variant rapidly replaced the previous El Tor strain around the world. The global emergence of this variant coincided with anecdotal reports that cholera patients were presenting with more severe dehydration and disease in many locations. We compared severity of disease in cholera patients from before and after emergence of the hybrid strain at a diarrheal hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We did indeed find that cholera patients presented with more severe dehydration and severe disease in the latter period; however, this was also true for “all non-cholera patients” as well. In addition, in sub-analyses of patients who presented with rotavirus and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), we found similar results. Comparing the two periods for differences in patient characteristics, nutritional status, vaccination status and income, we were unable to detect a plausible cause for patients presenting with more severe disease in the latter period. Because we observed a shift in severity for both cholera and non-cholera, our results indicate that the altered El Tor strain cannot fully explain the differences in cholera severity before and after 2001 PMID:26409202

  2. OmpU as a biomarker for rapid discrimination between toxigenic and epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 and non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae in a modified MALDI-TOF MS assay

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. Outbreaks are caused by a genetically homogenous group of strains from serogroup O1 or O139 that are able to produce the cholera toxin. Rapid detection and identification of these epidemic strains is essential for an effective response to cholera outbreaks. Results The use of ferulic acid as a matrix in a new MALDI-TOF MS assay increased the measurable mass range of existing MALDI-TOF MS protocols for bacterial identification. The assay enabled rapid discrimination between epidemic V. cholerae O1/O139 strains and other less pathogenic V. cholerae strains. OmpU, an outer membrane protein whose amino acid sequence is highly conserved among epidemic strains of V. cholerae, appeared as a discriminatory marker in the novel MALDI-TOF MS assay. Conclusions The extended mass range of MALDI-TOF MS measurements obtained by using ferulic acid improved the screening for biomarkers in complex protein mixtures. Differences in the mass of abundant homologous proteins due to variation in amino acid sequences can rapidly be examined in multiple samples. Here, a rapid MALDI-TOF MS assay was developed that could discriminate between epidemic O1/O139 strains and other less pathogenic V. cholerae strains based on differences in mass of the OmpU protein. It appeared that the amino acid sequence of OmpU from epidemic V. cholerae O1/O139 strains is unique and highly conserved. PMID:24943244

  3. Stimulation of IgY responses in gene gun immunized laying hens by combined administration of vector DNA coding for the target antigen Botulinum toxin A1 and for avian cytokine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Niederstadt, Lars; Hohn, Oliver; Dorner, Brigitte G; Schade, Rüdiger; Bannert, Norbert

    2012-08-31

    DNA immunization is a convenient and effective way of inducing a specific antibody response. In mammals, co-administration of vectors encoding immunostimulatory cytokines can enhance the humoral response resulting in elevated antibody titers. We therefore set out to investigate the effect using avian interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and avian interleukin 6 (IL-6) as genetic adjuvants when immunizing laying hens. A BoNT A1 holotoxoid DNA immunogen carrying two inactivating mutations was evaluated for its ability to induce a specific and sustained IgY antibody response. Both the holotoxoid and the cytokine sequences were codon-optimized. In vitro, the proteins were efficiently expressed in transfected HEK 293T cells and the cytokines were secreted into the culture supernatants. Whereas eggs from hens immunized via gene gun using a prime boost strategy showed no differences in their total IgY content, the specific αBoNT A1 response was slightly elevated up to 1.4× by the IL-1β adjuvant vector and increased by 3.8× by the IL-6 vector. Finally, although hens receiving the IL-1β adjuvant had laying capacities above the average, hens receiving the IL-6 adjuvant experienced laying problems.

  4. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1954-01-01

    In this, the first of a series of cholera studies, the history of the disease from its earliest recorded appearance up to 1923 is outlined, and its geographical distribution described. The origins and main routes of spread of the six great pandemics are indicated; possible causes of the variations in mortality which accompanied them are discussed. PMID:13160764

  5. A genomic island in Vibrio cholerae with VPI-1 site-specific recombination characteristics contains CRISPR-Cas and type VI secretion modules

    PubMed Central

    Labbate, Maurizio; Orata, Fabini D.; Petty, Nicola K.; Jayatilleke, Nathasha D.; King, William L.; Kirchberger, Paul C.; Allen, Chris; Mann, Gulay; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Boucher, Yan; Charles, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    Cholera is a devastating diarrhoeal disease caused by certain strains of serogroup O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae. Mobile genetic elements such as genomic islands (GIs) have been pivotal in the evolution of O1/O139 V. cholerae. Perhaps the most important GI involved in cholera disease is the V. cholerae pathogenicity island 1 (VPI-1). This GI contains the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) gene cluster that is necessary for colonization of the human intestine as well as being the receptor for infection by the cholera-toxin bearing CTX phage. In this study, we report a GI (designated GIVchS12) from a non-O1/O139 strain of V. cholerae that is present in the same chromosomal location as VPI-1, contains an integrase gene with 94% nucleotide and 100% protein identity to the VPI-1 integrase, and attachment (att) sites 100% identical to those found in VPI-1. However, instead of TCP and the other accessory genes present in VPI-1, GIVchS12 contains a CRISPR-Cas element and a type VI secretion system (T6SS). GIs similar to GIVchS12 were identified in other V. cholerae genomes, also containing CRISPR-Cas elements and/or T6SS’s. This study highlights the diversity of GIs circulating in natural V. cholerae populations and identifies GIs with VPI-1 recombination characteristics as a propagator of CRISPR-Cas and T6SS modules. PMID:27845364

  6. A case of non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae septicemia and meningitis in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yingying; Wang, Yueling; Bi, Zhenwang; Sun, Baixiu; Jin, Yan; Bai, Yuanyuan; Chen, Baoli; Shao, Chunhong; Sun, Xuerong; Lu, Zhiming

    2015-06-01

    A case of septicemia with meningitis due to non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in a neonate is reported. The genotype and phenotype of the isolate were examined in relation to the major virulence genes. The isolate was shown to be non-toxin but cytotoxin-producing, distinguished from the dominant clone of non-O1/non-O139V. cholerae by multilocus sequence typing.

  7. Physicochemical constraints of elevated pH affect efficient membrane interaction and arrest an abortive membrane-bound oligomeric intermediate of the beta-barrel pore-forming toxin Vibrio cholerae cytolysin.

    PubMed

    Rai, Anand Kumar; Kundu, Nidhi; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2015-10-01

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a potent membrane-damaging cytotoxic protein. VCC causes permeabilization of the target cell membranes by forming transmembrane oligomeric beta-barrel pores. Membrane pore formation by VCC involves following key steps: (i) membrane binding, (ii) formation of a pre-pore oligomeric intermediate, (iii) membrane insertion of the pore-forming motifs, and (iv) formation of the functional transmembrane pore. Membrane binding, oligomerization, and subsequent pore-formation process of VCC appear to be facilitated by multiple regulatory mechanisms that are only partly understood. Here, we have explored the role(s) of the physicochemical constraints, specifically imposed by the elevated pH conditions, on the membrane pore-formation mechanism of VCC. Elevated pH abrogates efficient interaction of VCC with the target membranes, and blocks its pore-forming activity. Under the elevated pH conditions, membrane-bound fractions of VCC remain trapped in the form of abortive oligomeric species that fail to generate the functional transmembrane pores. Such an abortive oligomeric assembly appears to represent a distinct, more advanced intermediate state than the pre-pore state. The present study offers critical insights regarding the implications of the physicochemical constraints for regulating the efficient membrane interaction and pore formation by VCC.

  8. From cholera to corals: Viruses as drivers of virulence in a major coral bacterial pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Weynberg, Karen D.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Neave, Matthew J.; Buerger, Patrick; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Disease is an increasing threat to reef-building corals. One of the few identified pathogens of coral disease is the bacterium Vibrio coralliilyticus. In Vibrio cholerae, infection by a bacterial virus (bacteriophage) results in the conversion of non-pathogenic strains to pathogenic strains and this can lead to cholera pandemics. Pathogenicity islands encoded in the V. cholerae genome play an important role in pathogenesis. Here we analyse five whole genome sequences of V. coralliilyticus to examine whether virulence is similarly driven by horizontally acquired elements. We demonstrate that bacteriophage genomes encoding toxin genes with homology to those found in pathogenic V. cholerae are integrated in V. coralliilyticus genomes. Virulence factors located on chromosomal pathogenicity islands also exist in some strains of V. coralliilyticus. The presence of these genetic signatures indicates virulence in V. coralliilyticus is driven by prophages and other horizontally acquired elements. Screening for pathogens of coral disease should target conserved regions in these elements. PMID:26644037

  9. Vaccination Strategies to Combat an Infectious Globe: Oral Cholera Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    López-Gigosos, Rosa M; Plaza, Elena; Díez-Díaz, Rosa M; Calvo, Maria J

    2011-01-01

    Cholera is a substantial health burden in many countries in Africa and Asia, where it is endemic. It is as well responsible for ongoing epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa which are becoming greater in terms of frequency, extension, and duration. Given the availability of two oral cholera vaccines and the new data on their efficacy, field effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptance in cholera-affected populations and in travelers, these vaccines should be used in endemic areas, in travelers for these areas and should be considered in areas at risk for outbreaks. The two vaccines currently available in worldwide are: (1) The killed oral vaccine (Dukoral, licensed by SBL–Sweden to Crucell–Holland) is recommended since 1999 by WHO and consists of a mixture of four preparations of heat or formalin killed whole cell Vibrio cholera O1 (Inaba and Ogaba serotypes, and classical and El Tor biotypes) that are then added with purified recombinant cholera toxin (CT) B subunit. Because CT cross-reacts with Escherichia coli LT the vaccine also provides short-term protection against ETEC (enterotoxigenic E. coli) which is of added benefit for travelers. It is available in more than 60 countries. (2) A bivalent O1 and O139 whole cell oral vaccine without CT B subunit (Shanchol) has been lately developed in Vietnam (licensed by VaBiotech–Viet Nam to Shantha Biotechnics–India. It is available in India and Indonesia. A structured search of papers in PubMed and reports on cholera vaccines by WHO and CDC, as well as critical reading and synthesis of the information was accomplished. Inclusion criteria were defined according to reports quality and relevance. PMID:21572610

  10. Isolation of Vibrio cholerae from aquatic birds in Colorado and Utah.

    PubMed Central

    Ogg, J E; Ryder, R A; Smith, H L

    1989-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae was isolated from cloacal swabs and freshly voided feces collected from 20 species of aquatic birds in Colorado and Utah during 1986 and 1987. About 17% (198 of 1,131) fecal specimens collected from July 1986 through August 1987 contained the organism. Both O1 and non-O1 V. cholerae strains were isolated from the fecal specimens. Isolates from eight birds (representing five species) agglutinated in O group 1 antiserum. Supernatants of broth cultures from three isolates which typed as V. cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa gave reactions typical of cholera toxin when tested on Y-1 mouse adrenal cell cultures. Several serovars of non-O1 V. cholerae were isolated from the fecal specimens; serovar 22 was the most prevalent type. All non-O1 isolates were cytotoxic to Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. Only non-O1 V. cholerae was detected in water samples collected from the habitat of the birds. The results of this study suggest that aquatic birds serve as carriers and disseminate V. cholerae over a wide area. PMID:2705773

  11. Cross-protection against Vibrio cholerae infection by monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio vulnificus RtxA1/MARTXVv.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Hee; Cha, Sun-Shin; Lee, Chang-Seop; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Woo, Hye Ryun; Chung, Kyung Min

    2016-11-01

    Gram-negative Vibrio species secrete multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins associated with bacterial pathogenesis. Here, the cross-reactivity and cross-protectivity of mAbs against V. vulnificus RtxA1/MARTXVv was evaluated. Passive administration of any of these mAbs (21RA, 24RA, 46RA, 47RA and 50RA) provided strong protection against lethal V. cholerae infection. Interestingly, 24RA and 46RA, which map to the cysteine protease domain of V. cholerae MARTXVc , inhibited CPD autocleavage in vitro; this process is involved in V. cholerae pathogenesis. These results generate new insight into the development of broadly protective mAbs and/or vaccines against Vibrio species with MARTX toxins.

  12. Molecular analyses of Vibrio cholerae O1 clinical strains, including new nontoxigenic variants isolated in Mexico during the Cholera epidemic years between 1991 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Lizárraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Quilici, Marie-Laure

    2009-05-01

    We studied the evolution of Vibrio cholerae O1 during the 1991 to 2000 cholera epidemic in Mexico by biochemical, serological, and molecular characterization of strains collected during this period. Strains were divided into toxigenic and nontoxigenic groups according to the presence or absence of genes encoding cholera toxin. As previously reported, we characterized two populations among toxigenic strains, which were present from the first year of the epidemic. BglI rRNA analysis revealed that these strains had ribotype profiles, denoted M5 and M6 in our study, that were identical to those previously designated Koblavi B5 or Popovic 5 and Popovic 6a or Tamayo B21a, respectively. Ribotype M5 was isolated between 1991 and 1993. This ribotype had a low level of genetic variation as detected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribotype M6 persisted from 1991 to 2000. However, PFGE profiles suggested that two epidemiologically unrelated strains coexisted within this single ribotype from 1995 until the end of the epidemic. We identified three new BglI ribotypes, Mx1, Mx2, and Mx3, from nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated between 1998 and 2000; one of them grouped strains positive for the toxin-coregulated pilus island. They differed from nontoxigenic clones isolated in Latin America and on the U.S. Gulf Coast and are probably autochthonous Mexican V. cholerae O1 variants. Most of these new variants were isolated from states surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, where the highest incidence of cholera in the country was recorded. Thus, the Mexican Gulf Coast, like the U.S. Gulf Coast, may act as an environmental reservoir of V. cholerae O1.

  13. [Production and characteristics of monoclonal antibodies to the diphtheria toxin].

    PubMed

    Valiakina, T I; Lakhtina, O E; Komaleva, R L; Simonova, M A; Samokhvalova, L V; Shoshina, N S; Kalinina, N A; Rubina, A Iu; Filippova, M A; Vertiev, Iu V; Grishin, E V

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to the diphtheria toxin were produced without cross reactivity with the thermolabile toxin (LT) from Escherichia coli; ricin; choleraic toxin; the SeA, SeB, SeE, SeI, and SeG toxins of staphylococcus; the lethal factor of the anthrax toxin; and the protective antigen of the anthrax toxin. A pair of antibodies for the quantitative determination of the diphtheria toxin in the sandwich variation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was chosen. The determination limit of the toxin was 0.7 ng/ml in plate and 1.6 ng/ml in microchip ELISA. The presence of a secretion from the nasopharynx lavage did not decrease the sensitivity of the toxin determination by sandwich ELISA. The immunization of mice with the diphtheria toxin and with a conjugate of the diphtheria toxin with polystyrene microspheres demonstrated that the conjugate immunization resulted in the formation of hybridoma clones which produced antibodies only to the epitopes of the A fragment of the diphtheria toxin. The immunization with the native toxin caused the production of hybridoma clones which predominantly produced antibodies to the epitopes of the B fragment.

  14. Effect of skin barrier disruption on immune responses to topically applied cross-reacting material, CRM(197), of diphtheria toxin.

    PubMed

    Godefroy, S; Peyre, M; Garcia, N; Muller, S; Sesardic, D; Partidos, C D

    2005-08-01

    The high accessibility of the skin and the presence of immunocompetent cells in the epidermis makes this surface an attractive route for needle-free administration of vaccines. However, the lining of the skin by the stratum corneum is a major obstacle to vaccine delivery. In this study we examined the effect of skin barrier disruption on the immune responses to the cross-reacting material CRM(197), a nontoxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (DTx) that is considered as a vaccine candidate. Application of CRM(197), together with cholera toxin (CT), onto the tape-stripped skin of mice elicited antibody responses that had anti-DTx neutralizing activity. Vaccine delivery onto mildly ablated skin or intact skin did not elicit any detectable anti-CRM(197) antibodies. Mice immunized with CRM(197) alone onto the tape-stripped skin mounted a vigorous antigen-specific proliferative response. In contrast, the induction of cellular immunity after CRM(197) deposition onto mildly ablated or intact skin was adjuvant dependent. Furthermore, epidermal cells were activated and underwent apoptosis that was more pronounced when the stratum corneum was removed by tape stripping. Overall, these findings highlight the potential for transcutaneous delivery of CRM(197) and establish a correlation between the degree of barrier disruption and levels of antigen-specific immune responses. Moreover, these results provide the first evidence that the development of a transcutaneous immunization strategy for diphtheria, based on simple and practical methods to disrupt the skin barrier, is feasible.

  15. Critical analysis of compositions and protective efficacies of oral killed cholera vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Shahjahan

    2014-09-01

    Two cholera vaccines, sold as Shanchol and Dukoral, are currently available. This review presents a critical analysis of the protective efficacies of these vaccines. Children under 5 years of age are very vulnerable to cholera and account for the highest incidence of cholera cases and more than half of the resulting deaths. Both Shanchol and Dukoral are two-spaced-dose oral vaccines comprising large numbers of killed cholera bacteria. The former contains Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 cells, and the latter contains V. cholerae O1 cells with the recombinant B subunit of cholera toxin. In a field trial in Kolkata (India), Shanchol, the preferred vaccine, protected 45% of the test subjects in all of the age groups and only 17% of the children under 5 years of age during the first year of surveillance. In a field trial in Peru, two spaced doses of Dukoral offered negative protection in children under 5 years of age and little protection (15%) in vaccinees over 6 years of age during the first year of surveillance. Little is known about Dukoral's long-term protective efficacy. Both of these vaccines have questionable compositions, using V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in 1947 that have been inactivated by heat and formalin treatments that may denature protein. Immunological studies revealed Dukoral's reduced and short-lived efficacy, as measured by several immunological endpoints. Various factors, such as the necessity for multiple doses, poor protection of children under 5 years of age, the requirement of a cold supply chain, production costs, and complex logistics of vaccine delivery, greatly reduce the suitability of either of these vaccines for endemic or epidemic cholera control in resource-poor settings.

  16. Purification and characterization of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 heat-stable enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Arita, M; Takeda, T; Honda, T; Miwatani, T

    1986-01-01

    A toxin which causes rapid fluid accumulation in a suckling mouse assay and which was produced by Vibrio cholerae non-O1 was investigated. The toxin was purified from the culture supernatant of V. cholerae non-O1 (strain A-5) by ammonium sulfate fractionation, hydroxyapatite treatment, ethanol extraction, column chromatographies on SP-Sephadex C-50 and DEAE-Sephadex A-25, and high-pressure liquid chromatography on a Lichrosorb RP-8 column. About 1.4 X 10(5)-fold purification was achieved, with a recovery of about 12%. Although the crude preparation was heat labile, the purified toxin was heat stable. The minimum effective dose of purified toxin was about 5 ng in the suckling mouse assay. The amino acid composition of the purified toxin was determined to be Asp(3), Glu(1), Ala(1), half-Cys(6), Ile(2), Leu(1), Phe(1), and Pro(1). These data show the production of a new type of heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST) by V. cholerae non-O1. PMID:3957432

  17. Response of Vibrio cholerae to the Catecholamine Hormones Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Halang, Petra; Toulouse, Charlotte; Geißel, Bernadette; Michel, Bernd; Flauger, Birgit; Müller, Manuel; Voegele, Ralf T.; Stefanski, Volker

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Escherichia coli or Salmonella enterica, the stress-associated mammalian hormones epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) trigger a signaling cascade by interacting with the QseC sensor protein. Here we show that Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, exhibits a specific response to E and NE. These catecholates (0.1 mM) enhanced the growth and swimming motility of V. cholerae strain O395 on soft agar in a medium containing calf serum, which simulated the environment within the host. During growth, the hormones were converted to degradation products, including adrenochrome formed by autooxidation with O2 or superoxide. In E. coli, the QseC sensor kinase, which detects the autoinducer AI-3, also senses E or NE. The genome of V. cholerae O395 comprises an open reading frame coding for a putative protein with 29% identity to E. coli QseC. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments revealed increased transcript levels of the qseC-like gene and of pomB, a gene encoding a structural component of the flagellar motor complex, under the influence of E or NE. Phentolamine blocks the response of E. coli QseC to E or NE. A V. cholerae mutant devoid of the qseC-like gene retained the phentolamine-sensitive motility in the presence of E, whereas NE-stimulated motility was no longer inhibited by phentolamine. Our study demonstrates that V. cholerae senses the stress hormones E and NE. A sensor related to the histidine kinase QseC from E. coli is identified and is proposed to participate in the sensing of NE. IMPORTANCE Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that may cause cholera, a severe illness with high mortality due to acute dehydration caused by diarrhea and vomiting. Pathogenic V. cholerae strains possess virulence factors like the cholera toxin (CTX) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) produced in response to signals provided by the host. In pathogenic enterobacteria, the stress-associated hormones epinephrine (E) and

  18. In Silico Screening of Antibacterial Compounds from Herbal Sources Against Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Perveen, Sabah; Chaudhary, Hotam Singh

    2015-01-01

    , found two compound Luteolin from Tulsi and Catechin from Green Tea which showed good binding energy and druggish property. Abbreviations used: V. cholerae: Vibrio cholera, ADME: Absorption, digestion, metabolism and excretion, CT: Cholera toxin, TCP: Toxin co-regulated Pilus, GOLD: Genetic Optimization for Ligand Docking, Asp: Aspartic acid, Arg: Arginine, Lys: Lysine, Thr: Threonine, Tyr: Tyrosine, KEGG: Kyoto encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. PMID:27013793

  19. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  20. Targeting aphA : a new high-throughput screening assay identifies compounds that reduce prime virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Bolger, Galina; Roy, Sambit; Zapol'skii, Viktor A; Kaufmann, Dieter E; Schnürch, Michael; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Nandy, Ranjan K; Tegge, Werner

    2016-07-01

    A high-throughput screening (HTS) assay was developed for identifying compounds with inhibitory effect on aphA, one of the key regulators positively controlling Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis. An inhibitory effect on aphA was expected to lead to attenuation in the secretion of the major pathogenicity factors of V. cholerae, cholera toxin and toxin co-regulated pilus. The plasmid construct pAKSB was developed with a kanamycin resistance (KmR) gene under the control of the aphA -like promoter for conferring a KmR phenotype under aphA -expressing conditions. The HTS assay was performed to identify compounds with inhibitory effect on the growth of O139 V. cholerae MO10 carrying the construct pAKSB in growth medium containing Km (30 g ml-1), but not in its absence. Of 20 338 compounds screened, six compounds were identified to inhibit the pAKSB-induced KmR phenotype and these compounds caused transcriptional inhibition of aphA in V. cholerae O139 strain MO10 as well as variant V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain NM06-058. Of the three most active substances, compound 53760866 showed lowest half-maximal cytotoxicity in a eukaryotic cell viability assay and was characterized further. Compound 53760866 caused reduction in cholera toxin secretion and expression of TcpA in vitro. The in vitro virulence attenuation corroborated well in a suckling mouse model in vivo, which showed reduction of colonization by V. cholerae NM06-058 when co-administered with 53760866. The screening method and the compounds may lead to new preventive strategies for cholera by reducing the pathogenicity of V. cholerae .

  1. Epidemic cholera spreads like wildfire.

    PubMed

    Roy, Manojit; Zinck, Richard D; Bouma, Menno J; Pascual, Mercedes

    2014-01-15

    Cholera is on the rise globally, especially epidemic cholera which is characterized by intermittent and unpredictable outbreaks that punctuate periods of regional disease fade-out. These epidemic dynamics remain however poorly understood. Here we examine records for epidemic cholera over both contemporary and historical timelines, from Africa (1990-2006) and former British India (1882-1939). We find that the frequency distribution of outbreak size is fat-tailed, scaling approximately as a power-law. This pattern which shows strong parallels with wildfires is incompatible with existing cholera models developed for endemic regions, as it implies a fundamental role for stochastic transmission and local depletion of susceptible hosts. Application of a recently developed forest-fire model indicates that epidemic cholera dynamics are located above a critical phase transition and propagate in similar ways to aggressive wildfires. These findings have implications for the effectiveness of control measures and the mechanisms that ultimately limit the size of outbreaks.

  2. Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  3. Environmental factors influencing epidemic cholera.

    PubMed

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-09-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks.

  4. Epidemic cholera spreads like wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Manojit; Zinck, Richard D.; Bouma, Menno J.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is on the rise globally, especially epidemic cholera which is characterized by intermittent and unpredictable outbreaks that punctuate periods of regional disease fade-out. These epidemic dynamics remain however poorly understood. Here we examine records for epidemic cholera over both contemporary and historical timelines, from Africa (1990-2006) and former British India (1882-1939). We find that the frequency distribution of outbreak size is fat-tailed, scaling approximately as a power-law. This pattern which shows strong parallels with wildfires is incompatible with existing cholera models developed for endemic regions, as it implies a fundamental role for stochastic transmission and local depletion of susceptible hosts. Application of a recently developed forest-fire model indicates that epidemic cholera dynamics are located above a critical phase transition and propagate in similar ways to aggressive wildfires. These findings have implications for the effectiveness of control measures and the mechanisms that ultimately limit the size of outbreaks.

  5. Inactivated Eyedrop Influenza Vaccine Adjuvanted with Poly(I:C) Is Safe and Effective for Inducing Protective Systemic and Mucosal Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Do; Han, Soo Jung; Byun, Young-Ho; Yoon, Sang Chul; Choi, Kyoung Sub; Seong, Baik Lin; Seo, Kyoung Yul

    2015-01-01

    The eye route has been evaluated as an efficient vaccine delivery routes. However, in order to induce sufficient antibody production with inactivated vaccine, testing of the safety and efficacy of the use of inactivated antigen plus adjuvant is needed. Here, we assessed various types of adjuvants in eyedrop as an anti-influenza serum and mucosal Ab production-enhancer in BALB/c mice. Among the adjuvants, poly (I:C) showed as much enhancement in antigen-specific serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibody production as cholera toxin (CT) after vaccinations with trivalent hemagglutinin-subunits or split H1N1 vaccine antigen in mice. Vaccination with split H1N1 eyedrop vaccine antigen plus poly(I:C) showed a similar or slightly lower efficacy in inducing antibody production than intranasal vaccination; the eyedrop vaccine-induced immunity was enough to protect mice from lethal homologous influenza A/California/04/09 (H1N1) virus challenge. Additionally, ocular inoculation with poly(I:C) plus vaccine antigen generated no signs of inflammation within 24 hours: no increases in the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines nor in the infiltration of mononuclear cells to administration sites. In contrast, CT administration induced increased expression of IL-6 cytokine mRNA and mononuclear cell infiltration in the conjunctiva within 24 hours of vaccination. Moreover, inoculated visualizing materials by eyedrop did not contaminate the surface of the olfactory bulb in mice; meanwhile, intranasally administered materials defiled the surface of the brain. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the use of eyedrop inactivated influenza vaccine plus poly(I:C) is a safe and effective mucosal vaccine strategy for inducing protective anti-influenza immunity. PMID:26355295

  6. Inactivated Eyedrop Influenza Vaccine Adjuvanted with Poly(I:C) Is Safe and Effective for Inducing Protective Systemic and Mucosal Immunity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Do; Han, Soo Jung; Byun, Young-Ho; Yoon, Sang Chul; Choi, Kyoung Sub; Seong, Baik Lin; Seo, Kyoung Yul

    2015-01-01

    The eye route has been evaluated as an efficient vaccine delivery routes. However, in order to induce sufficient antibody production with inactivated vaccine, testing of the safety and efficacy of the use of inactivated antigen plus adjuvant is needed. Here, we assessed various types of adjuvants in eyedrop as an anti-influenza serum and mucosal Ab production-enhancer in BALB/c mice. Among the adjuvants, poly (I:C) showed as much enhancement in antigen-specific serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibody production as cholera toxin (CT) after vaccinations with trivalent hemagglutinin-subunits or split H1N1 vaccine antigen in mice. Vaccination with split H1N1 eyedrop vaccine antigen plus poly(I:C) showed a similar or slightly lower efficacy in inducing antibody production than intranasal vaccination; the eyedrop vaccine-induced immunity was enough to protect mice from lethal homologous influenza A/California/04/09 (H1N1) virus challenge. Additionally, ocular inoculation with poly(I:C) plus vaccine antigen generated no signs of inflammation within 24 hours: no increases in the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines nor in the infiltration of mononuclear cells to administration sites. In contrast, CT administration induced increased expression of IL-6 cytokine mRNA and mononuclear cell infiltration in the conjunctiva within 24 hours of vaccination. Moreover, inoculated visualizing materials by eyedrop did not contaminate the surface of the olfactory bulb in mice; meanwhile, intranasally administered materials defiled the surface of the brain. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the use of eyedrop inactivated influenza vaccine plus poly(I:C) is a safe and effective mucosal vaccine strategy for inducing protective anti-influenza immunity.

  7. The Dynamics of Genetic Interactions between Vibrio metoecus and Vibrio cholerae, Two Close Relatives Co-Occurring in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Orata, Fabini D.; Kirchberger, Paul C.; Méheust, Raphaël; Barlow, E. Jed; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Boucher, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio metoecus is the closest relative of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the potent diarrheal disease cholera. Although the pathogenic potential of this new species is yet to be studied in depth, it has been co-isolated with V. cholerae in coastal waters and found in clinical specimens in the United States. We used these two organisms to investigate the genetic interaction between closely related species in their natural environment. The genomes of 20 V. cholerae and 4 V. metoecus strains isolated from a brackish coastal pond on the US east coast, as well as 4 clinical V. metoecus strains were sequenced and compared with reference strains. Whole genome comparison shows 86–87% average nucleotide identity (ANI) in their core genes between the two species. On the other hand, the chromosomal integron, which occupies approximately 3% of their genomes, shows higher conservation in ANI between species than any other region of their genomes. The ANI of 93–94% observed in this region is not significantly greater within than between species, meaning that it does not follow species boundaries. Vibrio metoecus does not encode toxigenic V. cholerae major virulence factors, the cholera toxin and toxin-coregulated pilus. However, some of the pathogenicity islands found in pandemic V. cholerae were either present in the common ancestor it shares with V. metoecus, or acquired by clinical and environmental V. metoecus in partial fragments. The virulence factors of V. cholerae are therefore both more ancient and more widespread than previously believed. There is high interspecies recombination in the core genome, which has been detected in 24% of the single-copy core genes, including genes involved in pathogenicity. Vibrio metoecus was six times more often the recipient of DNA from V. cholerae as it was the donor, indicating a strong bias in the direction of gene transfer in the environment. PMID:26454015

  8. Vibrio cholerae O1 with Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin and Azithromycin Isolated from a Rural Coastal Area of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rashed, Shah M.; Hasan, Nur A.; Alam, Munirul; Sadique, Abdus; Sultana, Marzia; Hoq, Md. Mozammel; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita R.; Huq, Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Cholera outbreaks occur each year in the remote coastal areas of Bangladesh and epidemiological surveillance and routine monitoring of cholera in these areas is challenging. In this study, a total of 97 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from Mathbaria, Bangladesh, collected during 2010 and 2014 were analyzed for phenotypic and genotypic traits, including antimicrobial susceptibility. Of the 97 isolates, 95 possessed CTX-phage mediated genes, ctxA, ace, and zot, and two lacked the cholera toxin gene, ctxA. Also both CTX+ and CTX− V. cholerae O1 isolated in this study carried rtxC, tcpAET, and hlyA. The classical cholera toxin gene, ctxB1, was detected in 87 isolates, while eight had ctxB7. Of 95 CTX+ V. cholerae O1, 90 contained rstRET and 5 had rstRCL. All isolates, except two, contained SXT related integrase intSXT. Resistance to penicillin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, erythromycin, and tetracycline varied between the years of study period. Most importantly, 93% of the V. cholerae O1 were multidrug resistant. Six different resistance profiles were observed, with resistance to streptomycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim predominant every year. Ciprofloxacin and azithromycin MIC were 0.003–0.75 and 0.19–2.00 μg/ml, respectively, indicating reduced susceptibility to these antibiotics. Sixteen of the V. cholerae O1 isolates showed higher MIC for azithromycin (≥0.5 μg/ml) and were further examined for 10 macrolide resistance genes, erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), ere(A), ere(B), mph(A), mph(B), mph(D), mef(A), and msr(A) with none testing positive for the macrolide resistance genes. PMID:28270803

  9. The Dynamics of Genetic Interactions between Vibrio metoecus and Vibrio cholerae, Two Close Relatives Co-Occurring in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Orata, Fabini D; Kirchberger, Paul C; Méheust, Raphaël; Barlow, E Jed; Tarr, Cheryl L; Boucher, Yan

    2015-10-09

    Vibrio metoecus is the closest relative of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the potent diarrheal disease cholera. Although the pathogenic potential of this new species is yet to be studied in depth, it has been co-isolated with V. cholerae in coastal waters and found in clinical specimens in the United States. We used these two organisms to investigate the genetic interaction between closely related species in their natural environment. The genomes of 20 V. cholerae and 4 V. metoecus strains isolated from a brackish coastal pond on the US east coast, as well as 4 clinical V. metoecus strains were sequenced and compared with reference strains. Whole genome comparison shows 86-87% average nucleotide identity (ANI) in their core genes between the two species. On the other hand, the chromosomal integron, which occupies approximately 3% of their genomes, shows higher conservation in ANI between species than any other region of their genomes. The ANI of 93-94% observed in this region is not significantly greater within than between species, meaning that it does not follow species boundaries. Vibrio metoecus does not encode toxigenic V. cholerae major virulence factors, the cholera toxin and toxin-coregulated pilus. However, some of the pathogenicity islands found in pandemic V. cholerae were either present in the common ancestor it shares with V. metoecus, or acquired by clinical and environmental V. metoecus in partial fragments. The virulence factors of V. cholerae are therefore both more ancient and more widespread than previously believed. There is high interspecies recombination in the core genome, which has been detected in 24% of the single-copy core genes, including genes involved in pathogenicity. Vibrio metoecus was six times more often the recipient of DNA from V. cholerae as it was the donor, indicating a strong bias in the direction of gene transfer in the environment.

  10. AAA+ proteases and their role in distinct stages along the Vibrio cholerae lifecycle.

    PubMed

    Pressler, Katharina; Vorkapic, Dina; Lichtenegger, Sabine; Malli, Gerald; Barilich, Benjamin P; Cakar, Fatih; Zingl, Franz G; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    The facultative human pathogen Vibrio cholerae has to adapt to different environmental conditions along its lifecycle by means of transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation. This study provides a first comprehensive analysis regarding the contribution of the cytoplasmic AAA+ proteases Lon, ClpP and HslV to distinct features of V. cholerae behaviour, including biofilm formation, motility, cholera toxin expression and colonization fitness in the mouse model. While absence of HslV did not yield to any altered phenotype compared to wildtype, absence of Lon or ClpP resulted in significantly reduced colonization in vivo. In addition, a Δlon deletion mutant showed altered biofilm formation and increased motility, which could be correlated with higher expression of V. cholerae flagella gene class IV. Concordantly, we could show by immunoblot analysis, that Lon is the main protease responsible for proteolytic control of FliA, which is required for class IV flagella gene transcription, but also downregulates virulence gene expression. FliA becomes highly sensitive to proteolytic degradation in absence of its anti-sigma factor FlgM, a scenario reported to occur during mucosal penetration due to FlgM secretion through the broken flagellum. Our results confirm that the high stability of FliA in the absence of Lon results in less cholera toxin and toxin corgulated pilus production under virulence gene inducing conditions and in the presence of a damaged flagellum. Thus, the data presented herein provide a molecular explanation on how V. cholerae can achieve full expression of virulence genes during early stages of colonization, despite FliA getting liberated from the anti-sigma factor FlgM.

  11. Multiplexed toxin analysis using four colors of quantum dot fluororeagents.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Ellen R; Clapp, Aaron R; Anderson, George P; Uyeda, H Tetsuo; Mauro, J Matthew; Medintz, Igor L; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2004-02-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have the potential to simplify the performance of multiplexed analysis. In this work, we prepared bioinorganic conjugates made with highly luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals (CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs) and antibodies to perform multiplexed fluoroimmunoassays. Sandwich immunoassays for the detection of cholera toxin, ricin, shiga-like toxin 1, and staphylococcal enterotoxin B were performed simultaneously in single wells of a microtiter plate. Initially the assay performance for the detection of each toxin was examined. We then demonstrated the simultaneous detection of the four toxins from a single sample probed with a mixture of all four QD-antibody reagents. Using a simple linear equation-based algorithm, it was possible to deconvolute the signal from mixed toxin samples, which allowed quantitation of all four toxins simultaneously.

  12. Isolation of nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 from a human wound infection.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J M; McFarland, L M; Bradford, H B; Caraway, C T

    1983-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 organisms that do not produce cholera toxin and, in fact, lack the genetic material encoding the enterotoxin have recently been detected in coastal regions of the United States. Although these organisms have been assumed to be nonpathogenic, they have been considered a potential reservoir of toxigenic V. cholerae. In 1979, nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 was isolated from a leg wound of an accident victim residing in New Orleans. The only known risk factors of the patient, besides his debilitated condition, were alcoholism and the consumption of raw oysters before recognition of his wound infection. Coincident with the identification of the isolate from the leg wound, an identical nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolate was cultured from the sewage system serving the residence of this patient. Nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 seems to be capable of multiplying in human tissue and may produce extraintestinal infection. This indigenous inhabitant of temperate coastal regions may not be avirulent and may be of public health significance. PMID:6863510

  13. Characterization and Genetic Variation of Vibrio cholerae Isolated from Clinical and Environmental Sources in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Siriphap, Achiraya; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Kaas, Rolf S.; Theethakaew, Chonchanok; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Sutheinkul, Orasa; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is still an important public health problem in several countries, including Thailand. In this study, a collection of clinical and environmental V. cholerae serogroup O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 strains originating from Thailand (1983 to 2013) was characterized to determine phenotypic and genotypic traits and to investigate the genetic relatedness. Using a combination of conventional methods and whole genome sequencing (WGS), 78 V. cholerae strains were identified. WGS was used to determine the serogroup, biotype, virulence, mobile genetic elements, and antimicrobial resistance genes using online bioinformatics tools. In addition, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance was determined by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. The 78 V. cholerae strains belonged to the following serogroups O1: (n = 44), O139 (n = 16) and non-O1/non-O139 (n = 18). Interestingly, we found that the typical El Tor O1 strains were the major cause of clinical cholera during 1983–2000 with two Classical O1 strains detected in 2000. In 2004–2010, the El Tor variant strains revealed genotypes of the Classical biotype possessing either only ctxB or both ctxB and rstR while they harbored tcpA of the El Tor biotype. Thirty O1 and eleven O139 clinical strains carried CTXϕ (Cholera toxin) and tcpA as well four different pathogenic islands (PAIs). Beside non-O1/non-O139, the O1 environmental strains also presented chxA and Type Three Secretion System (TTSS). The in silico MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) discriminated the O1 and O139 clinical strains from other serogroups and environmental strains. ST69 was dominant in the clinical strains belonging to the 7th pandemic clone. Non-O1/non-O139 and environmental strains showed various novel STs indicating genetic variation. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains were observed and conferred resistance to ampicillin, azithromycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and trimethoprim and harboured variants of the SXT elements

  14. Non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae carrying multiple virulence factors and V. cholerae O1 in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Daniela; Chen, Arlene; Hasan, Nur A; Rashed, Shah M; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2015-03-01

    Non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae inhabits estuarine and coastal waters globally, but its clinical significance has not been sufficiently investigated, despite the fact that it has been associated with septicemia and gastroenteritis. The emergence of virulent non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae is consistent with the recognition of new pathogenic variants worldwide. Oyster, sediment, and water samples were collected during a vibrio surveillance program carried out from 2009 to 2012 in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. V. cholerae O1 was detected by a direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) assay but was not successfully cultured, whereas 395 isolates of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae were confirmed by multiplex PCR and serology. Only a few of the non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae isolates were resistant to ampicillin and/or penicillin. Most of the isolates were sensitive to all antibiotics tested, and 77 to 90% carried the El Tor variant hemolysin gene hlyAET, the actin cross-linking repeats in toxin gene rtxA, the hemagglutinin protease gene hap, and the type 6 secretion system. About 19 to 21% of the isolates carried the neuraminidase-encoding gene nanH and/or the heat-stable toxin (NAG-ST), and only 5% contained a type 3 secretion system. None of the non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae isolates contained Vibrio pathogenicity island-associated genes. However, ctxA, ace, or zot was present in nine isolates. Fifty-five different genotypes showed up to 12 virulence factors, independent of the source of isolation, and represent the first report of both antibiotic susceptibility and virulence associated with non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae from the Chesapeake Bay. Since these results confirm the presence of potentially pathogenic non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae, monitoring for total V. cholerae, regardless of serotype, should be done within the context of public health.

  15. ToxR regulates the production of lipoproteins and the expression of serum resistance in Vibrio cholerae

    SciTech Connect

    Parsot, C.; Taxman, E.; Mekalanos, J.J. )

    1991-03-01

    The genes encoding three lipoproteins of Vibrio cholerae were identified by a combination of DNA sequence analysis and ({sup 3}H)palmitate labeling of hybrid proteins encoded by TnphoA gene fusions. The expression of these three lipoproteins, TagA, AcfD, and TcpC, was controlled by ToxR, the cholera toxin transcriptional activator. The involvement of other bacterial lipoproteins in conferring resistance ot the bactericidal effects of complement prompted us to examine this possibility in V. cholerae. Remarkably, mutations in toxR and tcp genes (including tcpC), involved in the biogenesis of the toxin coregulated pili, rendered V. cholerae about 10{sup 4} - 10{sup 6} times more sensitive to the vibriocidal activity of antibody and complement. Since V. cholerae is a noninvasive organism and toxR and tcp mutants are highly defective in intestinal colonization in animals and humans, these results raise the possibility that resistance to a gut-associated, complement-like bactericidal activity may be a major virulence determinant of V. cholerae and other enterobacterial species.

  16. Stool C difficile toxin

    MedlinePlus

    Antibiotic associated colitis - toxin; Colitis - toxin; Pseudomembranous - toxin; Necrotizing colitis - toxin; C difficile - toxin ... provider thinks that diarrhea is caused by the antibiotic medicines you have taken recently. Antibiotics change the ...

  17. Pertussis toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Sekura, R.D.; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Genetic and Functional Studies of Pertussis Toxin Substrates; Effect of Pertussis Toxin on the Hormonal Responsiveness of Different Tissues; Extracellular Adenylate Cyclase of Bordetella pertussis; and GTP-Regulatory Proteins are Introcellular Messagers: A Model for Hormone Action.

  18. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K.; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26540279

  19. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders.

  20. Cholera between 1991 and 1997 in Mexico was associated with infection by classical, El Tor, and El Tor variants of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Alam, Munirul; Nusrin, Suraia; Islam, Atiqul; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Rahim, Niaz; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Gil, Ana I; Watanabe, Haruo; Morita, Masatomo; Nair, G Balakrish; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2010-10-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor (ET), the cause of the current 7th pandemic, has recently been replaced in Asia and Africa by an altered ET biotype possessing cholera toxin (CTX) of the classical (CL) biotype that originally caused the first six pandemics before becoming extinct in the 1980s. Until recently, the ET prototype was the biotype circulating in Peru; a detailed understanding of the evolutionary trend of V. cholerae causing endemic cholera in Latin America is lacking. The present retrospective microbiological, molecular, and phylogenetic study of V. cholerae isolates recovered in Mexico (n = 91; 1983 to 1997) shows the existence of the pre-1991 CL biotype and the ET and CL biotypes together with the altered ET biotype in both epidemic and endemic cholera between 1991 and 1997. According to sero- and biotyping data, the altered ET, which has shown predominance in Mexico since 1991, emerged locally from ET and CL progenitors that were found coexisting until 1997. In Latin America, ET and CL variants shared a variable number of phenotypic markers, while the altered ET strains had genes encoding the CL CTX (CTX(CL)) prophage, ctxB(CL) and rstR(CL), in addition to resident rstR(ET), as the underlying regional signature. The distinct regional fingerprints for ET in Mexico and Peru and their divergence from ET in Asia and Africa, as confirmed by subclustering patterns in a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NotI)-based dendrogram, suggest that the Mexico epidemic in 1991 may have been a local event and not an extension of the epidemics occurring in Asia and South America. Finally, the CL biotype reservoir in Mexico is unprecedented and must have contributed to the changing epidemiology of global cholera in ways that need to be understood.

  1. Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 associated with seawater and plankton from coastal marine areas of the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; García-Amado, M Alexandra; Contreras, Monica; Edgcomb, Virginia; Vitelli, Juana; Gueneau, Pulchérie; Suárez, Paula

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the virulence properties and the antimicrobial resistance of Vibrio cholerae isolates from a coastal area of the Caribbean Sea. Three V. cholerae isolates were obtained from seawater and plankton using the HP selective medium for Helicobacter pylori. These V. cholerae isolates belonged to the non-O1, non-O139 serogroups and they did not have cholera toxin genes. They were resistant to penicillins and some cephalosporins and were sensitive to netilmicin, tetracyclines, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and quinolones. This is the first study that provides biochemical and molecular evidence of non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae isolates, non-toxigenic, carrying antibiotic resistance in seawater and plankton from a coastal area of the Caribbean Sea.

  2. Intranasal coadministration of Cholera toxin with amoeba lysates modulates the secretion of IgA and IgG antibodies, production of cytokines and expression of pIgR in the nasal cavity of mice in the model of Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Yepez, Maricela; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael; Lopez-Reyes, Israel; Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; Rodriguez-Cortes, Antonio Yahve; Contis-Montes de Oca, Arturo; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Miliar-Garcia, Angel; Rojas-Hernandez, Saul

    2014-11-01

    The nasal mucosa is the first contact with antigens to induce IgA response. The role of this site has rarely been studied. We have shown than intranasal administration with Naegleria fowleri lysates plus Cholera toxin (CT) increased the protection (survival up to 100%) against N. fowleri infection in mice and apparently antibodies IgA and IgG together with polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells avoid the attachment of N. fowleri to apical side of the nasal epithelium. We also observed that nasal immunization resulted in the induction of antigen-specific IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG2a) in nasal washes at days 3 and 9 after the challenge and IgA and IgG in the nasal cavity, compared to healthy and infected mice. We found that immunization with both treatments, N. fowleri lysates plus CT or CT alone, increased the expression of the genes for alpha chain, its receptor (pIgR), and it also increased the expression of the corresponding proteins evidenced by the ∼65 and ∼74kDa bands, respectively. Since the production of pIgR, IgA and IgG antibodies, is up-regulated by some factors, we analyzed the expression of genes for IL-10, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β by using RT-PCR of nasal passages. Immunization resulted in an increased expression of IL-10, IL-6, and IFN-γ cytokines. We also aimed to examine the possible influences of immunization and challenge on the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β). We observed that the stimulus of immunization inhibits the production of TNF-α compared to the infected group where the infection without immunization causes an increase in it. Thus, it is possible that the coexistence of selected cytokines produced by our immunization model may provide a highly effective immunological environment for the production of IgA, IgG and pIgR as well as a strong activation of the PMN in mucosal effector tissue such as nasal passages.

  3. Vibrio cholerae in the environment.

    PubMed

    Soomro, Abdul Lateef; Junejo, Nasreen

    2004-08-01

    The emergence of cholera has been a significant public health problem around the world and battle to completely control this deadly disease continues. Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) microorganisms in the environment was considered as the most important factor in this regard. Soil, fresh water, sea water, aquatic plants, animals and some birds have been made target for search if they were providing reserve shelter to the causative agent during inter epidemic periods. Multiple environmental factors have been considered to have the aetiological relationship as no single source is found to host the microorganisms in an inter-epidemic period. We have attempted to review the literature from different parts of the world; encompassing experimental and isolation studies of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of V. cholerae in the environment. The non-pathogenic strains were also included due to converting behavior of the agents in the changing environmental scenario to pathogenic forms.

  4. Cholera and the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching the scientific method where an outbreak of cholera within the school is simulated. Students act like epidemiologists in an attempt to track down the source of the contamination. (PR)

  5. A glimpse into the expanded genome content of Vibrio cholerae through identification of genes present in environmental strains.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Alexandra; Rohwer, Forest; Edwards, Rob; Azam, Farooq; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2005-05-01

    Vibrio cholerae has multiple survival strategies which are reflected both in its broad distribution in many aquatic environments and its high genotypic diversity. To obtain additional information regarding the content of the V. cholerae genome, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to prepare libraries of DNA sequences from two southern California coastal isolates which are divergent or absent in the clinical strain V. cholerae O1 El Tor N16961. More than 1,400 subtracted clones were sequenced. This revealed the presence of novel sequences encoding functions related to cell surface structures, transport, metabolism, signal transduction, luminescence, mobile elements, stress resistance, and virulence. Flanking sequence information was determined for loci of interest, and the distribution of these sequences was assessed for a collection of V. cholerae strains obtained from southern California and Mexican environments. This led to the surprising observation that sequences related to the toxin genes toxA, cnf1, and exoY are widespread and more common in these strains than those of the cholera toxin genes which are a hallmark of the pandemic strains of V. cholerae. Gene transfer among these strains could be facilitated by a 4.9-kbp plasmid discovered in one isolate, which possesses similarity to plasmids from other environmental vibrios. By investigating some of the nucleotide sequence basis for V. cholerae genotypic diversity, DNA fragments have been uncovered which could promote survival in coastal environments. Furthermore, a set of genes has been described which could be involved in as yet undiscovered interactions between V. cholerae and eukaryotic organisms.

  6. Clonal transmission, dual peak, and off-season cholera in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, Atiqul; Bhuiyan, Nurul A; Rahim, Niaz; Hossain, Anowar; Khan, G Yeahia; Ahmed, Dilruba; Watanabe, Haruo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Faruque, Abu S G; Akanda, Ali S; Islam, Shafiqul; Sack, R Bradley; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is an estuarine bacterium associated with a single peak of cholera (March-May) in coastal villages of Bangladesh. For an unknown reason, however, cholera occurs in a unique dual peak (March-May and September-November) pattern in the city of Dhaka that is bordered by a heavily polluted freshwater river system and flood embankment. In August 2007, extreme flooding was accompanied by an unusually severe diarrhea outbreak in Dhaka that resulted in a record high illness. This study was aimed to understand the unusual outbreak and if it was related to the circulation of a new V. cholerae clone. Nineteen V. cholerae isolated during the peak of the 2007 outbreak were subjected to extensive phenotypic and molecular analyses, including multi-locus genetic screening by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequence-typing of the ctxB gene, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Factors associated with the unusual incidence of cholera were determined and analysis of the disease severity was done. Overall, microbiological and molecular data confirmed that the hypervirulent V. cholerae was O1 biotype El Tor (ET) that possessed cholera toxin (CT) of the classical biotype. The PFGE (NotI) and dendrogram clustering confirmed that the strains were clonal and related to the pre-2007 variant ET from Dhaka and Matlab and resembled one of two distinct clones of the variant ET confirmed to be present in the estuarine ecosystem of Bangladesh. Results of the analyses of both diarrheal case data for three consecutive years (2006-2008) and regional hydroclimatology over three decades (1980-2009) clearly indicate that the pattern of cholera occurring in Dhaka, and not seen at other endemic sites, was associated with flood waters transmitting the infectious clone circulating via the fecal-oral route during and between the dual seasonal cholera peaks in Dhaka. Circular river systems and flood embankment likely facilitate transmission of infectious V. cholerae throughout the

  7. Clonal transmission, dual peak, and off-season cholera in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Munirul; Islam, Atiqul; Bhuiyan, Nurul A.; Rahim, Niaz; Hossain, Anowar; Khan, G. Yeahia; Ahmed, Dilruba; Watanabe, Haruo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Akanda, Ali S.; Islam, Shafiqul; Sack, R. Bradley; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is an estuarine bacterium associated with a single peak of cholera (March–May) in coastal villages of Bangladesh. For an unknown reason, however, cholera occurs in a unique dual peak (March–May and September–November) pattern in the city of Dhaka that is bordered by a heavily polluted freshwater river system and flood embankment. In August 2007, extreme flooding was accompanied by an unusually severe diarrhea outbreak in Dhaka that resulted in a record high illness. This study was aimed to understand the unusual outbreak and if it was related to the circulation of a new V. cholerae clone. Nineteen V. cholerae isolated during the peak of the 2007 outbreak were subjected to extensive phenotypic and molecular analyses, including multi-locus genetic screening by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequence-typing of the ctxB gene, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Factors associated with the unusual incidence of cholera were determined and analysis of the disease severity was done. Overall, microbiological and molecular data confirmed that the hypervirulent V. cholerae was O1 biotype El Tor (ET) that possessed cholera toxin (CT) of the classical biotype. The PFGE (NotI) and dendrogram clustering confirmed that the strains were clonal and related to the pre-2007 variant ET from Dhaka and Matlab and resembled one of two distinct clones of the variant ET confirmed to be present in the estuarine ecosystem of Bangladesh. Results of the analyses of both diarrheal case data for three consecutive years (2006–2008) and regional hydroclimatology over three decades (1980–2009) clearly indicate that the pattern of cholera occurring in Dhaka, and not seen at other endemic sites, was associated with flood waters transmitting the infectious clone circulating via the fecal-oral route during and between the dual seasonal cholera peaks in Dhaka. Circular river systems and flood embankment likely facilitate transmission of infectious V. cholerae

  8. Development and preclinical evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of an oral ETEC vaccine containing inactivated E. coli bacteria overexpressing colonization factors CFA/I, CS3, CS5 and CS6 combined with a hybrid LT/CT B subunit antigen, administered alone and together with dmLT adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, J; Bourgeois, L; Carlin, N; Clements, J; Gustafsson, B; Lundgren, A; Nygren, E; Tobias, J; Walker, R; Svennerholm, A-M

    2013-05-07

    A first-generation oral inactivated whole-cell enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) vaccine, comprising formalin-killed ETEC bacteria expressing different colonization factor (CF) antigens combined with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), when tested in phase III studies did not significantly reduce overall (generally mild) ETEC diarrhea in travelers or children although it reduced more severe ETEC diarrhea in travelers by almost 80%. We have now developed a novel more immunogenic ETEC vaccine based on recombinant non-toxigenic E. coli strains engineered to express increased amounts of CF antigens, including CS6 as well as an ETEC-based B subunit protein (LCTBA), and the optional combination with a nontoxic double-mutant heat-labile toxin (LT) molecule (dmLT) as an adjuvant. Two test vaccines were prepared under GMP: (1) A prototype E. coli CFA/I-only formalin-killed whole-cell+LCTBA vaccine, and (2) A "complete" inactivated multivalent ETEC-CF (CFA/I, CS3, CS5 and CS6 antigens) whole-cell+LCTBA vaccine. These vaccines, when given intragastrically alone or together with dmLT in mice, were well tolerated and induced strong intestinal-mucosal IgA antibody responses as well as serum IgG and IgA responses to each of the vaccine CF antigens as well as to LT B subunit (LTB). Both mucosal and serum responses were further enhanced (adjuvanted) when the vaccines were co-administered with dmLT. We conclude that the new multivalent oral ETEC vaccine, both alone and especially in combination with the dmLT adjuvant, shows great promise for further testing in humans.

  9. Structure, Biological Functions and Applications of the AB5 Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Beddoe, Travis; Paton, Adrienne W.; Le Nours, Jérôme; Rossjohn, Jamie; Paton, James C.

    2010-01-01

    AB5 toxins are important virulence factors for several major bacterial pathogens, including Bordetella pertussis, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysenteriae and at least two distinct pathotypes of Escherichia coli. The AB5 toxins are so termed because they comprise a catalytic A-subunit, which is responsible for disruption of essential host functions, and a pentameric B-subunit that binds to specific glycan receptors on the target cell surface. The molecular mechanisms by which these AB5 toxins cause disease have been largely unraveled, including recent insights into a novel AB5 toxin family, subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB). Furthermore, AB5 toxins have become a valuable tool for studying fundamental cellular functions, and are now being investigated for potential applications in the clinical treatment of human diseases. PMID:20202851

  10. TcpP protein is a positive regulator of virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Häse, C C; Mekalanos, J J

    1998-01-20

    The production of several virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae O1, including cholera toxin and the pilus colonization factor TCP (toxin-coregulated pilus), is strongly influenced by environmental conditions. To specifically identify membrane proteins involved in these signal transduction events, we examined a transposon library of V. cholerae generated by Tnbla mutagenesis for cells that produce TCP when grown under various nonpermissive conditions. To select for TCP-producing cells we used the recently described bacteriophage CTX phi-Kan, which uses TCP as its receptor and carries a gene encoding resistance to kanamycin. Among the isolated mutants was a transposon insertion in a gene homologous to nqrB from Vibrio alginolyticus, which encodes a subunit of a Na(+)-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, and tcpI, encoding a chemo-receptor previously implicated in the negative regulation of TCP production. A third transposon mutant had an insertion in tcpP, which is in an operon with tcpH, a known positive regulator of TCP production. However, TcpP was shown to be essential for TCP production in V. cholerae, as a tcpP-deletion strain was deficient in pili production. The amino-terminal region of TcpP shows sequence homology to the DNA-binding domains of several regulatory proteins, including ToxR from V. cholerae and PsaE from Yersinia pestis. Like ToxR, TcpP activates transcription of the toxT gene, an essential activator of tcp operon transcription. Furthermore, TcpH, with its large periplasmic domain and inner membrane anchor, has a structure similar to that of ToxS and was shown to enhance the activity of TcpP. We propose that TcpP/TcpH constitute a pair of regulatory proteins functionally similar to ToxR/ToxS and PsaE/PsaF that are required for toxT transcription in V. cholerae.

  11. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated from the Nigerian Cholera Outbreak in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupke, Susann; Akinsinde, Kehinde A; Grunow, Roland; Iwalokun, Bamidele A; Olukoya, Daniel K; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    We examined clinical samples from Nigerian patients with acute watery diarrhea for Vibrio cholerae during the 2010 cholera outbreak. A total of 109 suspected isolates were characterized, but only 57 V. cholerae strains could be confirmed using multiplex real-time PCR as well as rpoB sequencing and typed as V. cholerae O:1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. This finding highlighted the need for accurate diagnosis of cholera in epidemic countries to implement life-saving interventions.

  12. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated from the Nigerian Cholera Outbreak in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Dupke, Susann; Akinsinde, Kehinde A.; Grunow, Roland; Iwalokun, Bamidele A.; Olukoya, Daniel K.; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P.

    2016-01-01

    We examined clinical samples from Nigerian patients with acute watery diarrhea for Vibrio cholerae during the 2010 cholera outbreak. A total of 109 suspected isolates were characterized, but only 57 V. cholerae strains could be confirmed using multiplex real-time PCR as well as rpoB sequencing and typed as V. cholerae O:1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. This finding highlighted the need for accurate diagnosis of cholera in epidemic countries to implement life-saving interventions. PMID:27487957

  13. Fish as Hosts of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Malka; Izhaki, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is abundant in marine and freshwater environments. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of this species. However, the ways V. cholerae is globally disseminated are as yet unknown. Here we review the scientific literature that provides evidence for the possibility that some fish species may be reservoirs and vectors of V. cholerae. So far, V. cholerae has been isolated from 30 fish species (22 freshwater; 9 marine). V. cholerae O1 was reported in a few cases. In most cases V. cholerae was isolated from fish intestines, but it has also been detected in gills, skin, kidney, liver and brain tissue. In most cases the fish were healthy but in some, they were diseased. Nevertheless, Koch postulates were not applied to prove that V. cholerae and not another agent was the cause of the disease in the fish. Evidence from the literature correlates raw fish consumption or fish handling to a few cholera cases or cholera epidemics. Thus, we can conclude that V. cholerae inhabits some marine and freshwater fish species. It is possible that fish may protect the bacteria in unfavorable habitats while the bacteria may assist the fish to digest its food. Also, fish may disseminate the bacteria in the aquatic environment and may transfer it to waterbirds that consume them. Thus, fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae and may play a role in its global dissemination. PMID:28293221

  14. Repair of a Bacterial Small β-Barrel Toxin Pore Depends on Channel Width.

    PubMed

    von Hoven, Gisela; Rivas, Amable J; Neukirch, Claudia; Meyenburg, Martina; Qin, Qianqian; Parekh, Sapun; Hellmann, Nadja; Husmann, Matthias

    2017-02-14

    Membrane repair emerges as an innate defense protecting target cells against bacterial pore-forming toxins. Here, we report the first paradigm of Ca(2+)-dependent repair following attack by a small β-pore-forming toxin, namely, plasmid-encoded phobalysin of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae In striking contrast, Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, the closest ortholog of phobalysin, subverted repair. Mutational analysis uncovered a role of channel width in toxicity and repair. Thus, the replacement of serine at phobalysin´s presumed channel narrow point with the bulkier tryptophan, the corresponding residue in Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (W318), modulated Ca(2+) influx, lysosomal exocytosis, and membrane repair. And yet, replacing tryptophan (W318) with serine in Vibrio cholerae cytolysin enhanced toxicity. The data reveal divergent strategies evolved by two related small β-pore-forming toxins to manipulate target cells: phobalysin leads to fulminant perturbation of ion concentrations, closely followed by Ca(2+) influx-dependent membrane repair. In contrast, V. cholerae cytolysin causes insidious perturbations and escapes control by the cellular wounded membrane repair-like response.IMPORTANCE Previous studies demonstrated that large transmembrane pores, such as those formed by perforin or bacterial toxins of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin family, trigger rapid, Ca(2+) influx-dependent repair mechanisms. In contrast, recovery from attack by the small β-pore-forming Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin or aerolysin is slow in comparison and does not depend on extracellular Ca(2+) To further elucidate the scope of Ca(2+) influx-dependent repair and understand its limitations, we compared the cellular responses to phobalysin and V. cholerae cytolysin, two related small β-pore-forming toxins which create membrane pores of slightly different sizes. The data indicate that the channel width of a small β-pore-forming toxin is a critical determinant of both primary

  15. Influence of bacterial toxins on the GTPase activity of transducin from bovine retinal rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Rybin, V.O.; Gureeva, A.A.

    1986-05-10

    The action of cholera toxin, capable of ADP-ribosylation of the activator N/sub s/ protein, and pertussis toxin, capable of ADP-ribosylation of the inhibitor N/sub i/ protein of the adenylate cyclase complex, on transducin, the GTP-binding protein of the rod outer segments of the retina, was investigated. It was shown that under the action of pertussis and cholera toxins, the GTPase activity of transducin is inhibited. Pertussin toxin inhibits the GTPase of native retinal rod outer segments by 30-40%, while GTPase of homogeneous transducin produces a 70-80% inhibition. The action of toxins on transducin depends on the presence and nature of the guanylic nucleotide with which incubation is performed. On the basis of the data obtained it is suggested that pertussis toxin interacts with pretransducin and with the transducin-GDP complex, while cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates the transducin-GTP complex and does not act on transducin lacking GTP.

  16. Single-Cell Analysis of the Plasmablast Response to Vibrio cholerae Demonstrates Expansion of Cross-Reactive Memory B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Robert C.; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur R.; Nakajima, Rie; Mayo-Smith, Leslie M.; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Hoq, Mohammad Rubel; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Rahman, Atiqur; Bhaumik, Siddhartha K.; Harris, Levelle; O'Neal, Justin T.; Trost, Jessica F.; Alam, Nur Haq; Jasinskas, Algis; Dotsey, Emmanuel; Kelly, Meagan; Charles, Richelle C.; Xu, Peng; Kováč, Pavol; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Felgner, Phillip L.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We characterized the acute B cell response in adults with cholera by analyzing the repertoire, specificity, and functional characteristics of 138 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) generated from single-cell-sorted plasmablasts. We found that the cholera-induced responses were characterized by high levels of somatic hypermutation and large clonal expansions. A majority of the expansions targeted cholera toxin (CT) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Using a novel proteomics approach, we were able to identify sialidase as another major antigen targeted by the antibody response to Vibrio cholerae infection. Antitoxin MAbs targeted both the A and B subunits, and most were also potent neutralizers of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin. LPS-specific MAbs uniformly targeted the O-specific polysaccharide, with no detectable responses to either the core or the lipid moiety of LPS. Interestingly, the LPS-specific antibodies varied widely in serotype specificity and functional characteristics. One participant infected with the Ogawa serotype produced highly mutated LPS-specific antibodies that preferentially bound the previously circulating Inaba serotype. This demonstrates durable memory against a polysaccharide antigen presented at the mucosal surface and provides a mechanism for the long-term, partial heterotypic immunity seen following cholera. PMID:27999163

  17. Enterotoxin production by Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus grown in continuous culture with microbial cell recycle.

    PubMed Central

    Spira, W M; Fedorka-Cray, P J

    1983-01-01

    We have examined the effect of complete cell recycle on the production of cholera toxin (CT) by Vibrio cholerae and CT-like toxin by Vibrio mimicus in continuous culture fermentations. Complete cell recycle was obtained by filtering culture fluids through Amicon hollow fibers with an exclusion limit of 100,000 daltons (H1P100-20) and returning the concentrated cell slurry to the fermentor. A single 1-liter laboratory fermentor system modified with this recycle loop was capable of producing over 20 liters of cell-free culture filtrate per day. Toxin production in this system was compared with yields obtained in traditional continuous cultures and in shake flask cultures. Yields of CT from V. cholerae 569B in the recycle fermentor were highest at the highest dilution rate employed (1.0 vol/vol per h). The use of complete cell recycle dramatically increased yields over those obtained in continuous culture and equaled those obtained in shake flasks. The concentration of CT in the filtrate was slightly less than half of that measured in culture fluids sampled at the same time. Similarly, V. mimicus 61892 grown in the presence of 50 micrograms of lincomycin per ml produced 280 ng of CT per ml in the recycle fermentor, compared with 210 ng/ml in shake flasks under optimal conditions. The sterile filtrate from this fermentation contained 110 ng/ml. PMID:6357081

  18. Widespread epidemic cholera caused by a restricted subset of Vibrio cholerae clones.

    PubMed

    Moore, S; Thomson, N; Mutreja, A; Piarroux, R

    2014-05-01

    Since 1817, seven cholera pandemics have plagued humankind. As the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous in the aquatic ecosystem and some studies have revealed links between outbreaks and fluctuations in climatic and aquatic conditions, it has been widely assumed that cholera epidemics are triggered by environmental factors that promote the growth of local bacterial reservoirs. However, mounting epidemiological findings and genome sequence analysis of clinical isolates have indicated that epidemics are largely unassociated with most of the V. cholerae strains in aquatic ecosystems. Instead, only a specific subset of V. cholerae El Tor 'types' appears to be responsible for current epidemics. A recent report examining the evolution of a variety of V. cholerae strains indicates that the current pandemic is monophyletic and originated from a single ancestral clone that has spread globally in successive waves. In this review, we examine the clonal nature of the disease, with the example of the recent history of cholera in the Americas. Epidemiological data and genome sequence-based analysis of V. cholerae isolates demonstrate that the cholera epidemics of the 1990s in South America were triggered by the importation of a pathogenic V. cholerae strain that gradually spread throughout the region until local outbreaks ceased in 2001. Latin America remained almost unaffected by the disease until a new toxigenic V. cholerae clone was imported into Haiti in 2010. Overall, cholera appears to be largely caused by a subset of specific V. cholerae clones rather than by the vast diversity of V. cholerae strains in the environment.

  19. Cholera Vaccination in Urban Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Rouzier, Vanessa; Severe, Karine; Juste, Marc Antoine Jean; Peck, Mireille; Perodin, Christian; Severe, Patrice; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Verdier, Rose Irene; Prince, Sabine; Francois, Jeannot; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Guillaume, Florence D.; Wright, Peter F.; Pape, Jean W.

    2013-01-01

    Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation. PMID:24106194

  20. Chromosome Segregation in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, R.; Jha, J; Chattoraj, DK

    2014-01-01

    The study of chromosome segregation is currently one of the most exciting research frontiers in cell biology. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the chromosome segregation process in Vibrio cholerae, based primarily on findings from fluorescence microscopy experiments. This bacterium is of special interest because of its eukaryotic feature of having a divided genome, a feature shared with 10% of known bacteria. We also discuss how the segregation mechanisms of V. cholerae compare with those in other bacteria, and highlight some of the remaining questions regarding the process of bacterial chromosome segregation. PMID:25732338

  1. Mechanisms of immune regulation by norepinephrine and cholera toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    Norepinephrine has previously been demonstrated by this laboratory to potentiate the in vitro T-dependent antibody response through the stimulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors. The role of {beta}-adrenergic receptor subtypes in norepinephrine-induced potentiation of the antibody responses was examined with selective {beta}-adrenergic antagonists. The antagonists were metoprolol ({beta}{sub 1}-selective), ICI 118-551 ({beta}{sub 2}-selective), and propranolol ({beta}-non-selective). Both propranolol and ICI 118-551 blocked norepinephrine-induced potentiation of the antibody response, but metoprolol was ineffective. Receptor binding competition of antagonists with the radioligant, ({sup 3}H)CGP-12177 was examined and results were analyzed with the computer program, LIGAND. Competition by ICI 118-551 identified 75% {beta}{sub 2}- and 25% {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic receptors on splenic mononuclear cells. Enriched T lymphocytes exhibited 75% {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors, while enriched B lymphocytes contained 90% {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors as identified by ICI 118-551. Greater than twice as many total receptors were identified on B lymphocytes than T lymphocytes. A T cell lymphoma contained about 60% {beta}{sub 2}-receptors, while 100% were {beta}{sub 2} receptors on a B cell lymphoma, as assessed by ICI 118-551. Results support a heterogeneous {beta}-adrenergic receptor population on T lymphocytes and a more homogeneous {beta}{sub 2}-population on B lymphocytes.

  2. Diagnostic limitations to accurate diagnosis of cholera.

    PubMed

    Alam, Munirul; Hasan, Nur A; Sultana, Marzia; Nair, G Balakrish; Sadique, A; Faruque, A S G; Endtz, Hubert P; Sack, R B; Huq, A; Colwell, R R; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Morita, Masatomo; Watanabe, Haruo; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2010-11-01

    The treatment regimen for diarrhea depends greatly on correct diagnosis of its etiology. Recent diarrhea outbreaks in Bangladesh showed Vibrio cholerae to be the predominant cause, although more than 40% of the suspected cases failed to show cholera etiology by conventional culture methods (CMs). In the present study, suspected cholera stools collected from every 50th patient during an acute diarrheal outbreak were analyzed extensively using different microbiological and molecular tools to determine their etiology. Of 135 stools tested, 86 (64%) produced V. cholerae O1 by CMs, while 119 (88%) tested positive for V. cholerae O1 by rapid cholera dipstick (DS) assay; all but three samples positive for V. cholerae O1 by CMs were also positive for V. cholerae O1 by DS assay. Of 49 stools that lacked CM-based cholera etiology despite most being positive for V. cholerae O1 by DS assay, 25 (51%) had coccoid V. cholerae O1 cells as confirmed by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay, 36 (73%) amplified primers for the genes wbe O1 and ctxA by multiplex-PCR (M-PCR), and 31 (63%) showed El Tor-specific lytic phage on plaque assay (PA). Each of these methods allowed the cholera etiology to be confirmed for 97% of the stool samples. The results suggest that suspected cholera stools that fail to show etiology by CMs during acute diarrhea outbreaks may be due to the inactivation of V. cholerae by in vivo vibriolytic action of the phage and/or nonculturability induced as a host response.

  3. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 after exposure to Austrian bathing sites.

    PubMed

    Hirk, Sonja; Huhulescu, Steliana; Allerberger, Franz; Lepuschitz, Sarah; Rehak, Sonja; Weil, Sandra; Gschwandtner, Elisabeth; Hermann, Michael; Neuhold, Stephanie; Zoufaly, Alexander; Indra, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We report on two cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the lower leg due to nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae). A 73-year-old woman (case 1) and an 80-year-old man (case 2) were hospitalized with symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis on July 18 and August 15, 2015, respectively. In both cases, symptoms started the day after swimming in local ponds. Swabs gained intraoperatively and a blood culture from the male patient, yielded V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139, negative for cholera toxin gene ctx and positive for hemolysin genes hlyA and hlyB. Water samples taken from pond A on August 17, 2015 (32 days after exposure of case 1) and from pond B on August 20, 2015 (7 days after exposure of case 2) yielded non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in most-probable numbers of > 11,000 per 100 ml each. The occurrence of two cases of necrotizing fasciitis within a 1 month period related to two Austrian non-saline bathing waters, previously not known to harbor V. cholerae, is probably linked to the prevailing extreme weather conditions (heat wave, drought) this summer in Austria. While case 1 was discharged in good clinical condition after 73 days, case 2 died after four months of hospitalization. Public health authorities are challenged to assess the effects of long-term climate change on pathogen growth and survival in continental bodies of fresh water.

  4. Phenotypic and genotypic biotyping of environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolated in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Filetici, E; Bonadonna, L; Ciccozzi, M; Anastasio, M P; Fantasia, M; Shimada, T

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize strains of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolated in Italy from different sources by biochemical and serological assays, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and molecular biotyping. Serotyping and genomic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis proved to be useful in discriminating the isolates. The data obtained show a wide heterogeneity at the genomic level, and in keeping with this, the serogrouping classification provided evidence of a high variability of the investigated strains. In addition, none of the strains tested produced cholera-like toxins. PMID:9327577

  5. Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Luísa Eça; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future.

  6. Vibriosis, not cholera: toxigenic Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 infections in the United States, 1984-2014.

    PubMed

    Crowe, S J; Newton, A E; Gould, L H; Parsons, M B; Stroika, S; Bopp, C A; Freeman, M; Greene, K; Mahon, B E

    2016-11-01

    Toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 have caused cholera epidemics, but other serogroups - such as O75 or O141 - can also produce cholera toxin and cause severe watery diarrhoea similar to cholera. We describe 31 years of surveillance for toxigenic non-O1, non-O139 infections in the United States and map these infections to the state where the exposure probably originated. While serogroups O75 and O141 are closely related pathogens, they differ in how and where they infect people. Oysters were the main vehicle for O75 infection. The vehicles for O141 infection include oysters, clams, and freshwater in lakes and rivers. The patients infected with serogroup O75 who had food traceback information available ate raw oysters from Florida. Patients infected with O141 ate oysters from Florida and clams from New Jersey, and those who only reported being exposed to freshwater were exposed in Arizona, Michigan, Missouri, and Texas. Improving the safety of oysters, specifically, should help prevent future illnesses from these toxigenic strains and similar pathogenic Vibrio species. Post-harvest processing of raw oysters, such as individual quick freezing, heat-cool pasteurization, and high hydrostatic pressurization, should be considered.

  7. Array biosensor for detection of toxins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ligler, Frances S.; Taitt, Chris Rowe; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Sapsford, Kim E.; Shubin, Yura; Golden, Joel P.

    2003-01-01

    The array biosensor is capable of detecting multiple targets rapidly and simultaneously on the surface of a single waveguide. Sandwich and competitive fluoroimmunoassays have been developed to detect high and low molecular weight toxins, respectively, in complex samples. Recognition molecules (usually antibodies) were first immobilized in specific locations on the waveguide and the resultant patterned array was used to interrogate up to 12 different samples for the presence of multiple different analytes. Upon binding of a fluorescent analyte or fluorescent immunocomplex, the pattern of fluorescent spots was detected using a CCD camera. Automated image analysis was used to determine a mean fluorescence value for each assay spot and to subtract the local background signal. The location of the spot and its mean fluorescence value were used to determine the toxin identity and concentration. Toxins were measured in clinical fluids, environmental samples and foods, with minimal sample preparation. Results are shown for rapid analyses of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, ricin, cholera toxin, botulinum toxoids, trinitrotoluene, and the mycotoxin fumonisin. Toxins were detected at levels as low as 0.5 ng mL(-1).

  8. Crystal structure of the VgrG1 actin cross-linking domain of the Vibrio cholerae type VI secretion system.

    PubMed

    Durand, Eric; Derrez, Estelle; Audoly, Gilles; Spinelli, Silvia; Ortiz-Lombardia, Miguel; Raoult, Didier; Cascales, Eric; Cambillau, Christian

    2012-11-02

    Vibrio cholerae is the cause of the diarrheal disease cholera. V. cholerae produces RtxA, a large toxin of the MARTX family, which is targeted to the host cell cytosol, where its actin cross-linking domain (ACD) cross-links G-actin, leading to F-actin depolymerization, cytoskeleton rearrangements, and cell rounding. These effects on the cytoskeleton prevent phagocytosis and bacterial engulfment by macrophages, thus preventing V. cholerae clearance from the gut. The V. cholerae Type VI secretion-associated VgrG1 protein also contains a C-terminal ACD, which shares 61% identity with MARTX ACD and has been shown to covalently cross-link G-actin. Here, we purified the VgrG1 C-terminal domain and determined its crystal structure. The VgrG1 ACD exhibits a V-shaped three-dimensional structure, formed of 12 β-strands and nine α-helices. Its active site comprises five residues that are conserved in MARTX ACD toxin, within a conserved area of ∼10 Å radius. We showed that less than 100 ACD molecules are sufficient to depolymerize the actin filaments of a fibroblast cell in vivo. Mutagenesis studies confirmed that Glu-16 is critical for the F-actin depolymerization function. Co-crystals with divalent cations and ATP reveal the molecular mechanism of the MARTX/VgrG toxins and offer perspectives for their possible inhibition.

  9. Botulinum Toxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    resulting from antibiotic treatment (Cherington, 1998). Foodbome and inhalational have noninfectious etiologies and are the result of ingesting or...infants Self- Antibiotic -treated All exposed All exposed individuals Patients treated with local toxin injections (2 to 4 months of age) prior to...typically take place except under circumstances where the normal flora has been altered by antibiotic treatment (Cherington, 1998). Botulism results

  10. Ecological study of Vibrio cholerae in Vellore.

    PubMed Central

    Jesudason, M. V.; Balaji, V.; Mukundan, U.; Thomson, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Vellore is endemic for cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139. In a previous study the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in drinking water, lakes and sewage outfalls in a single 2-months period in Vellore, India was determined. In addition water samples from three sites were also tested for the presence of V. cholerae O1 and O139 by fluorescent antibody staining. This follow on study has examined how the environmental distribution of V. cholerae at the same sites alters over a 12-month period and the relationship to the clinical pattern of cholera in Vellore. Samples of water were collected from fixed sites at three water bodies each month between April 1997 and March 1998. Bacteria isolated from samples were identified by standard biochemical tests and isolated strains of V. cholerae tested for their ability to agglutinate O1 and O139 antisera. Samples were also tested for the presence of V. cholerae O1 and O139 by fluorescent antibody staining. The clinical isolation rate of V. cholerae in Vellore, maximum temperature and rainfall were also studied. The results demonstrate the presence in the environment of viable but non-cultivable (VNC) V. cholerae in 10 of 12 months of the study year as well as their viability. Their prevalence in the environment also correlated with the isolation of these pathogens from clinical samples over the same study period. PMID:10813143

  11. How Will Climate Change Impact Cholera Outbreaks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr Azadani, F.; Jutla, A.; Rahimikolu, J.; Akanda, A. S.; Huq, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental parameters associated with cholera are well documented. However, cholera continues to be a global public health threat. Uncertainty in defining environmental processes affecting growth and multiplication of the cholera bacteria can be affected significantly by changing climate at different temporal and spatial scales, either through amplification of the hydroclimatic cycle or by enhanced variability of large scale geophysical processes. Endemic cholera in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia has a unique pattern of two seasonal peaks and there are associated with asymmetric and episodic variability in river discharge. The first cholera outbreak in spring is related with intrusion of bacteria laden coastal seawater during low river discharge. Cholera occurring during the fall season is hypothesized to be associated with high river discharge related to a cross-contamination of water resources and, therefore, a second wave of disease, a phenomenon characteristic primarily in the inland regions. Because of difficulties in establishing linkage between coarse resolutions of the Global Climate Model (GCM) output and localized disease outbreaks, the impact of climate change on diarrheal disease has not been explored. Here using the downscaling method of Support Vector Machines from HADCM3 and ECHAM models, we show how cholera outbreak patterns are changing in the Bengal Delta. Our preliminary results indicate statistically significant changes in both seasonality and magnitude in the occurrence of cholera over the next century. Endemic cholera is likely to transform into epidemic forms and new geographical areas will be at risk for cholera outbreaks.

  12. 1.65 Å resolution structure of the AraC-family transcriptional activator ToxT from Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaqin; Wehmeyer, Graham; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Egan, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    ToxT is an AraC-family transcriptional activator protein that controls the expression of key virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. ToxT directly activates the expression of the genes that encode the toxin-coregulated pilus and cholera toxin, and also positively auto-regulates its own expression from the tcp promoter. The crystal structure of ToxT has previously been solved at 1.9 Å resolution (PDB entry 3gbg). In this study, a crystal structure of ToxT at 1.65 Å resolution with a similar overall structure to the previously determined structure is reported. However, there are distinct differences between the two structures, particularly in the region that extends from Asp101 to Glu110. This region, which can influence ToxT activity but was disordered in the previous structure, can be traced entirely in the current structure. PMID:27599865

  13. Antimicrobial drugs for treating cholera

    PubMed Central

    Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Neuberger, Ami; Bitterman, Roni; Sinclair, David; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Paul, Mical

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoea caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which if severe can cause rapid dehydration and death. Effective management requires early diagnosis and rehydration using oral rehydration salts or intravenous fluids. In this review, we evaluate the additional benefits of treating cholera with antimicrobial drugs. Objectives To quantify the benefit of antimicrobial treatment for patients with cholera, and determine whether there are differences between classes of antimicrobials or dosing schedules. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; African Index Medicus; LILACS; Science Citation Index; metaRegister of Controlled Trials; WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; conference proceedings; and reference lists to March 2014. Selection criteria Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials in adults and children with cholera that compared: 1) any antimicrobial treatment with placebo or no treatment; 2) different antimicrobials head-to-head; or 3) different dosing schedules or different durations of treatment with the same antimicrobial. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, and extracted data from included trials. Diarrhoea duration and stool volume were defined as primary outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) or ratio of means (ROM) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and pooled data using a random-effects meta-analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Main results Thirty-nine trials were included in this review with 4623 participants. Antimicrobials versus placebo or no treatment Overall, antimicrobial therapy shortened the mean duration of diarrhoea by about a day and a half compared to placebo or no treatment (MD -36.77 hours, 95% CI -43

  14. Effectiveness of the WC/rBS oral cholera vaccine in the prevention of traveler's diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    López-Gigosos, Rosa; Campins, Magda; Calvo, María J.; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Salleras, Luis; Azuara, María T.; Martínez, Xavier; Bayas, José M.; Ramón Torrell, Josep M.; Pérez-Cobaleda, María A.; Núñez-Torrón, María E.; Gorgojo, Lydia; García-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Díez-Díaz, Rosa; Armadans, Luis; Sánchez-Fernández, Concepción; Mejías, Teresa; Masuet, Cristina; Pinilla, Rafael; Antón, Nieves; Segarra, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Traveler’s diarrhea (TD) is the most frequent disease among people from industrialized countries who travel to less developed ones, especially sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia and South America. The most common bacteria causing TD is enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The WC/rBS cholera vaccine (Dukoral®) has been shown to induce cross-protection against ETEC by means of the B subunit of the cholera toxin. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the WC/rBS cholera vaccine in preventing TD. Methods: Between May 1 and September 30 (2007), people seeking pre-travel advice in ten Spanish international vaccination centers were included in a prospective cohort study of travelers to cholera risk countries. The incidence rates of TD were adjusted for variables whose frequencies were statistically different (entry point 0.10) between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated cohorts. Findings: The vaccinated cohort (n = 544 travelers) included people vaccinated with the WC/rBS cholera vaccine, and the non-vaccinated cohort (n = 530 travelers) by people not vaccinated. The cumulative incidence rate of TD was 1.69 in vaccinated and 2.14 in non-vaccinated subjects. The adjusted relative risk of TD in vaccinated travelers was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.58–0.88) and the adjusted vaccination effectiveness was 28% (95% CI: 12–42). Conclusions: The WC/rBS cholera vaccine prevents TD in 2 out of 7 travelers (preventive fraction: 28%). The number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent 1 case of TD is 10. PMID:23324573

  15. Oral vaccination against diphtheria using polyacryl starch microparticles as adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Niclas; Sjöholm, Ingvar

    2004-03-12

    Oral vaccination offers the advantage of eliciting both a mucosal and a systemic immune response. This study investigated the use of polyacryl starch microparticles as adjuvant for oral vaccination against diphtheria. Diphtheria toxin or cross-reacting material (CRM197) were covalently conjugated to the microparticles and