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Sample records for adjuvants aluminum hydroxide

  1. Advances in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Zou, Yening; Hu, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, hundreds of materials have been tried as adjuvant; however, only aluminum-based adjuvants continue to be used widely in the world. Aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate and alum constitute the main forms of aluminum used as adjuvants. Among these, aluminum hydroxide is the most commonly used chemical as adjuvant. In spite of its wide spread use, surprisingly, the mechanism of how aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants exert their beneficial effects is still not fully understood. Current explanations for the mode of action of aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants include, among others, the repository effect, pro-phagocytic effect, and activation of the pro-inflammatory NLRP3 pathway. These collectively galvanize innate as well as acquired immune responses and activate the complement system. Factors that have a profound influence on responses evoked by aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant applications include adsorption rate, strength of the adsorption, size and uniformity of aluminum hydroxide particles, dosage of adjuvant, and the nature of antigens. Although vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants are beneficial, sometimes they cause adverse reactions. Further, these vaccines cannot be stored frozen. Until recently, aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants were known to preferentially prime Th2-type immune responses. However, results of more recent studies show that depending on the vaccination route, aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants can enhance both Th1 as well as Th2 cellular responses. Advances in systems biology have opened up new avenues for studying mechanisms of aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants. These will assist in scaling new frontiers in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research that include improvement of formulations, use of nanoparticles of aluminum hydroxide and development of composite adjuvants. PMID:25692535

  2. Advances in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research and its mechanism

    PubMed Central

    He, Peng; Zou, Yening; Hu, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, hundreds of materials have been tried as adjuvant; however, only aluminum-based adjuvants continue to be used widely in the world. Aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate and alum constitute the main forms of aluminum used as adjuvants. Among these, aluminum hydroxide is the most commonly used chemical as adjuvant. In spite of its wide spread use, surprisingly, the mechanism of how aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants exert their beneficial effects is still not fully understood. Current explanations for the mode of action of aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants include, among others, the repository effect, pro-phagocytic effect, and activation of the pro-inflammatory NLRP3 pathway. These collectively galvanize innate as well as acquired immune responses and activate the complement system. Factors that have a profound influence on responses evoked by aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant applications include adsorption rate, strength of the adsorption, size and uniformity of aluminum hydroxide particles, dosage of adjuvant, and the nature of antigens. Although vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants are beneficial, sometimes they cause adverse reactions. Further, these vaccines cannot be stored frozen. Until recently, aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants were known to preferentially prime Th2-type immune responses. However, results of more recent studies show that depending on the vaccination route, aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants can enhance both Th1 as well as Th2 cellular responses. Advances in systems biology have opened up new avenues for studying mechanisms of aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants. These will assist in scaling new frontiers in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research that include improvement of formulations, use of nanoparticles of aluminum hydroxide and development of composite adjuvants. PMID:25692535

  3. Aluminum Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  4. Aluminum hydroxide adjuvant induces macrophage differentiation towards a specialized antigen-presenting cell type.

    PubMed

    Rimaniol, Anne-Cécile; Gras, Gabriel; Verdier, François; Capel, Francis; Grigoriev, Vladimir B; Porcheray, Fabrice; Sauzeat, Elisabeth; Fournier, Jean-Guy; Clayette, Pascal; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Dormont, Dominique

    2004-08-13

    Aluminum hydroxide (AlOOH) has been used for many years as a vaccine adjuvant, but little is known about its mechanism of action. We investigated in this study the in vitro effect of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant on isolated macrophages. We showed that AlOOH-stimulated macrophages contain large and persistent intracellular crystalline inclusions, a characteristic property of muscle infiltrated macrophages described in animal models of vaccine injection, as well as in the recently described macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) histological reaction in humans. AlOOH-loaded macrophages exhibited phenotypical and functional modifications, as they expressed the classical markers of myeloid dendritic cells (HLA-DR(high)/CD86(high)/CD83(+)/CD1a(-)/CD14(-)) and displayed potent ability to induce MHC-II-restricted antigen specific memory responses, but kept a macrophage morphology. This suggests a key role of macrophages, in the reaction to AlOOH-adjuvanted vaccines and these mature antigen-presenting macrophages may therefore be of particular importance in the establishment of memory responses and in vaccination mechanisms leading to long-lasting protection. PMID:15297065

  5. Aluminum Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    ... penicillamine (Cuprimine, Depen), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), products containing iron, tetracycline (Sumycin, Tetracap, and others), ticlopidine (Ticlid), and vitamins.be aware that aluminum hydroxide may interfere with other medicines, making them less effective. Take your other medications 1 ...

  6. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  7. Mechanisms of Antigen Adsorption Onto an Aluminum-Hydroxide Adjuvant Evaluated by High-Throughput Screening.

    PubMed

    Jully, Vanessa; Mathot, Frédéric; Moniotte, Nicolas; Préat, Véronique; Lemoine, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption mechanism of antigen on aluminum adjuvant can affect antigen elution at the injection site and hence the immune response. Our aim was to evaluate adsorption onto aluminum hydroxide (AH) by ligand exchange and electrostatic interactions of model proteins and antigens, bovine serum albumin (BSA), β-casein, ovalbumin (OVA), hepatitis B surface antigen, and tetanus toxin (TT). A high-throughput screening platform was developed to measure adsorption isotherms in the presence of electrolytes and ligand exchange by a fluorescence-spectroscopy method that detects the catalysis of 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate by free hydroxyl groups on AH. BSA adsorption depended on predominant electrostatic interactions. Ligand exchange contributes to the adsorption of β-casein, OVA, hepatitis B surface antigen, and TT onto AH. Based on relative surface phosphophilicity and adsorption isotherms in the presence of phosphate and fluoride, the capacities of the proteins to interact with AH by ligand exchange followed the trend: OVA < β-casein < BSA < TT. This could be explained by both the content of ligands available in the protein structure for ligand exchange and the antigen's molecular weight. The high-throughput screening platform can be used to better understand the contributions of ligand exchange and electrostatic attractions governing the interactions between an antigen adsorbed onto aluminum-containing adjuvant. PMID:27238481

  8. Glassy-state stabilization of a dominant negative inhibitor anthrax vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide and glycopyranoside lipid A adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Kimberly J; Vance, David J; Jain, Nishant K; Sahni, Neha; Rabia, Lilia A; Cousins, Megan C; Joshi, Sangeeta; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell; Mantis, Nicholas J; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2015-02-01

    During transport and storage, vaccines may be exposed to temperatures outside of the range recommended for storage, potentially causing efficacy losses. To better understand and prevent such losses, dominant negative inhibitor (DNI), a recombinant protein antigen for a candidate vaccine against anthrax, was formulated as a liquid and as a glassy lyophilized powder with the adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and glycopyranoside lipid A (GLA). Freeze-thawing of the liquid vaccine caused the adjuvants to aggregate and decreased its immunogenicity in mice. Immunogenicity of liquid vaccines also decreased when stored at 40°C for 8 weeks, as measured by decreases in neutralizing antibody titers in vaccinated mice. Concomitant with efficacy losses at elevated temperatures, changes in DNI structure were detected by fluorescence spectroscopy and increased deamidation was observed by capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) after only 1 week of storage of the liquid formulation at 40°C. In contrast, upon lyophilization, no additional deamidation after 4 weeks at 40°C and no detectable changes in DNI structure or reduction in immunogenicity after 16 weeks at 40°C were observed. Vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide and GLA elicited higher immune responses than vaccines adjuvanted with only aluminum hydroxide, with more mice responding to a single dose. PMID:25581103

  9. Glassy-State Stabilization of a Dominant Negative Inhibitor Anthrax Vaccine Containing Aluminum Hydroxide and Glycopyranoside Lipid A Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, Kimberly J.; Vance, David J.; Jain, Nishant K.; Sahni, Neha; Rabia, Lilia A.; Cousins, Megan C.; Joshi, Sangeeta; Volkin, David B.; Middaugh, Russell; Mantis, Nicholas J.; Carpenter, John F.; Randolph, Theodore W.

    2014-01-01

    During transport and storage, vaccines may be exposed to temperatures outside of the range recommended for storage, potentially causing efficacy losses. To better understand and prevent such losses, Dominant Negative Inhibitor (DNI), a recombinant protein antigen for a candidate vaccine against anthrax, was formulated as a liquid and as a glassy lyophilized powder with the adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and glycopyranoside lipid A (GLA). Freeze-thawing of the liquid vaccine caused the adjuvants to aggregate and decreased its immunogenicity in mice. Immunogenicity of liquid vaccines also decreased when stored at 40 °C for 8 weeks, as measured by decreases in neutralizing antibody titers in vaccinated mice. Concomitant with efficacy losses at elevated temperatures, changes in DNI structure were detected by fluorescence spectroscopy and increased deamidation was observed by capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) after only 1 week of storage of the liquid formulation at 40 °C. In contrast, upon lyophilization, no additional deamidation after 4 weeks at 40 °C and no detectable changes in DNI structure or reduction in immunogenicity after 16 weeks at 40 °C was observed. Vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide and GLA elicited higher immune responses than vaccines adjuvanted with only aluminum hydroxide, with more mice responding to a single dose. PMID:25581103

  10. Comparison of the adjuvant activity of aluminum hydroxide and calcium phosphate on the antibody response towards Bothrops asper snake venom.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Hidekel; Herrera, María; Rojas, Leonardo; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; Leiguez, Elbio; Teixeira, Catarina; Estrada, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo; Montero, Mavis L

    2014-01-01

    The adjuvanticity of aluminum hydroxide and calcium phosphate on the antibody response in mice towards the venom of the snake Bothrops asper was studied. It was found that, in vitro, most of the venom proteins are similarly adsorbed by both mineral salts, with the exception of some basic phospholipases A2, which are better adsorbed by calcium phosphate. After injection, the adjuvants promoted a slow release of the venom, as judged by the lack of acute toxicity when lethal doses of venom were administered to mice. Leukocyte recruitment induced by the venom was enhanced when it was adsorbed on both mineral salts; however, venom adsorbed on calcium phosphate induced a higher antibody response towards all tested HPLC fractions of the venom. On the other hand, co-precipitation of venom with calcium phosphate was the best strategy for increasing: (1) the capacity of the salt to couple venom proteins in vitro; (2) the venom ability to induce leukocyte recruitment; (3) phagocytosis by macrophages; and (4) a host antibody response. These findings suggest that the chemical nature is not the only one determining factor of the adjuvant activity of mineral salts. PMID:23506358

  11. New proteoliposome vaccine formulation from N. meningitidis serogroup B, without aluminum hydroxide, retains its antimeningococcal protectogenic potential as well as Th-1 adjuvant capacity.

    PubMed

    Tamargo, Beatriz; Márquez, Yanet; Ramírez, Wendy; Cedré, Bárbara; Fresno, Manuel; Sierra, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Proteoliposomes purified from the Outer Membrane of Neisseria meningitidis B, have been successfully used as core for adjuvants and vaccine formulations. We have tried to increase their structural definition and to conserve their efficacy and stability avoiding the addition of the aluminum hydroxide to the final formulation. Liposomal particle systems were prepared from components of defined molecular structure, such as a Neisseria meningitidis B protein complex, extracted and purified without forming vesicle structures. Liposomes were prepared from a mixture of dioleoyl phosphatidyl serine and cholesterol, using the classical dehydration-rehydration method. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the liposomes. BALB/c mice were used for animal testing procedures. Analysis of specific IgG response, serum bactericidal activity as well as DTH reaction was carried out. Isolation and purification of mRNA and real-time PCR, was performed to determine the dominating Th lymphokine pattern. The new antimeningococcal formulation without aluminum hydroxide prepared with components of defined molecular structure assembled itself into Neoproteoliposomes (NPL) ranging from 50 to 70 nm in diameter. The extraction and purification of selected membrane proteins to provide the antigen for this new formulation (PD-Tp), as well as the NPL-formulation favors a Th1 response pattern, suggested by the higher percentages of DTH, increased expression of proinflamatory lymphokine mRNAs when administered by intramuscular and intranasal routes. It stimulates a systemic bactericidal antibody response against Neisseria meningitidis B and immunologic memory similar to the Cuban VA-MENGOC-BC vaccine, even at lower dosages and is less reactogenic at the injection site in comparison with the formulation with aluminum hydroxide. This new adjuvant formulation could be applicable to the development of new and improved vaccines against meningococcal disease, and eventually as

  12. In vitro interactions between macrophages and aluminum-containing adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Rimaniol, Anne-Cécile; Gras, Gabriel; Clayette, Pascal

    2007-09-17

    Intramuscular administration of aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines induces an infiltration of aluminum-containing macrophages between muscle fibers. In vitro stimulation of human monocyte-derived macrophages with aluminum hydroxide (AlOOH) induces similar intracellular crystalline inclusions as well as phenotypical and functional modifications. We compared in this study the ability of other adjuvants to exert similar changes in macrophages in vitro. All mineral salts, i.e. aluminic (AlOOH, AlPO(4)) and non-aluminic mineral adjuvants (CaPO(4), FePO(4)) but not emulsion were able to increase macrophages capacity to potentiate autologous memory T lymphocyte proliferation, while only aluminic adjuvants induced CD83 expression and increased CD86 on macrophages. All together, this suggests that aluminic and non-aluminic adjuvants exerted their immunoactivities by distinct mechanisms on macrophages. PMID:17689842

  13. Adsorption of recombinant poxvirus L1-protein to aluminum hydroxide/CpG vaccine adjuvants enhances immune responses and protection of mice from vaccinia virus challenge

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yuhong; Zeng, Yuhong; Alexander, Edward; Mehta, Shyam; Joshi, Sangeeta B.; Buchman, George W.; Volkin, David B.; Middaugh, C. Russell; Isaacs, Stuart N.

    2012-01-01

    The stockpiling of live vaccinia virus vaccines has enhanced biopreparedness against the intentional or accidental release of smallpox. Ongoing research on future generation smallpox vaccines is providing key insights into protective immune responses as well as important information about subunit vaccine design strategies. For protein-based recombinant subunit vaccines, the formulation and stability of candidate antigens with different adjuvants are important factors to consider for vaccine design. In this work, a non-tagged secreted L1-protein, a target antigen on mature virus, was expressed using recombinant baculovirus technology and purified. To identify optimal formulation conditions for L1, a series of biophysical studies was performed over a range of pH and temperature conditions. The overall physical stability profile was summarized in an empirical phase diagram. Another critical question to address for development of an adjuvanted-vaccine was if immunogenicity and protection could be affected by the interactions and binding of L1 to aluminum salts (Alhydrogel) with and without a second adjuvant, CpG. We thus designed a series of vaccine formulations with different binding interactions between the L1 and the two adjuvants, and then performed a series of vaccination-challenge experiments in mice including measurement of antibody responses and post-challenge weight-loss and survival. We found that better humoral responses and protection were conferred with vaccine formulations when the L1-protein was adsorbed to Alhydrogel. These data demonstrate that designing vaccine formulation conditions to maximize antigen-adjuvant interactions is a key factor in smallpox subunit vaccine immunogenicity and protection. PMID:23153450

  14. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  18. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  19. Aluminum vaccine adjuvants: are they safe?

    PubMed

    Tomljenovic, L; Shaw, C A

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum is an experimentally demonstrated neurotoxin and the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant. Despite almost 90 years of widespread use of aluminum adjuvants, medical science's understanding about their mechanisms of action is still remarkably poor. There is also a concerning scarcity of data on toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. In spite of this, the notion that aluminum in vaccines is safe appears to be widely accepted. Experimental research, however, clearly shows that aluminum adjuvants have a potential to induce serious immunological disorders in humans. In particular, aluminum in adjuvant form carries a risk for autoimmunity, long-term brain inflammation and associated neurological complications and may thus have profound and widespread adverse health consequences. In our opinion, the possibility that vaccine benefits may have been overrated and the risk of potential adverse effects underestimated, has not been rigorously evaluated in the medical and scientific community. We hope that the present paper will provide a framework for a much needed and long overdue assessment of this highly contentious medical issue. PMID:21568886

  20. Aluminum adjuvant linked to Gulf War illness induces motor neuron death in mice.

    PubMed

    Petrik, Michael S; Wong, Margaret C; Tabata, Rena C; Garry, Robert F; Shaw, Christopher A

    2007-01-01

    Gulf War illness (GWI) affects a significant percentage of veterans of the 1991 conflict, but its origin remains unknown. Associated with some cases of GWI are increased incidences of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological disorders. Whereas many environmental factors have been linked to GWI, the role of the anthrax vaccine has come under increasing scrutiny. Among the vaccine's potentially toxic components are the adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and squalene. To examine whether these compounds might contribute to neuronal deficits associated with GWI, an animal model for examining the potential neurological impact of aluminum hydroxide, squalene, or aluminum hydroxide combined with squalene was developed. Young, male colony CD-1 mice were injected with the adjuvants at doses equivalent to those given to US military service personnel. All mice were subjected to a battery of motor and cognitive-behavioral tests over a 6-mo period postinjections. Following sacrifice, central nervous system tissues were examined using immunohistochemistry for evidence of inflammation and cell death. Behavioral testing showed motor deficits in the aluminum treatment group that expressed as a progressive decrease in strength measured by the wire-mesh hang test (final deficit at 24 wk; about 50%). Significant cognitive deficits in water-maze learning were observed in the combined aluminum and squalene group (4.3 errors per trial) compared with the controls (0.2 errors per trial) after 20 wk. Apoptotic neurons were identified in aluminum-injected animals that showed significantly increased activated caspase-3 labeling in lumbar spinal cord (255%) and primary motor cortex (192%) compared with the controls. Aluminum-treated groups also showed significant motor neuron loss (35%) and increased numbers of astrocytes (350%) in the lumbar spinal cord. The findings suggest a possible role for the aluminum adjuvant in some neurological features associated with GWI and possibly an

  1. Mechanism of Immunopotentiation and Safety of Aluminum Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    HogenEsch, Harm

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum-containing adjuvants are widely used in preventive vaccines against infectious diseases and in preparations for allergy immunotherapy. The mechanism by which they enhance the immune response remains poorly understood. Aluminum adjuvants selectively stimulate a Th2 immune response upon injection of mice and a mixed response in human beings. They support activation of CD8 T cells, but these cells do not undergo terminal differentiation to cytotoxic T cells. Adsorption of antigens to aluminum adjuvants enhances the immune response by facilitating phagocytosis and slowing the diffusion of antigens from the injection site which allows time for inflammatory cells to accumulate. The adsorptive strength is important as high affinity interactions interfere with the immune response. Adsorption can also affect the physical and chemical stability of antigens. Aluminum adjuvants activate dendritic cells via direct and indirect mechanisms. Phagocytosis of aluminum adjuvants followed by disruption of the phagolysosome activates NLRP3-inflammasomes resulting in the release of active IL-1β and IL-18. Aluminum adjuvants also activate dendritic cells by binding to membrane lipid rafts. Injection of aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines causes the release of uric acid, DNA, and ATP from damaged cells which in turn activate dendritic cells. The use of aluminum adjuvant is limited by weak stimulation of cell-mediated immunity. This can be enhanced by addition of other immunomodulatory molecules. Adsorption of these molecules is determined by the same mechanisms that control adsorption of antigens and can affect the efficacy of such combination adjuvants. The widespread use of aluminum adjuvants can be attributed in part to the excellent safety record based on a 70-year history of use. They cause local inflammation at the injection site, but also reduce the severity of systemic and local reactions by binding biologically active molecules in vaccines. PMID:23335921

  2. Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Christopher A; Petrik, Michael S

    2009-11-01

    Gulf War Syndrome is a multi-system disorder afflicting many veterans of Western armies in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. A number of those afflicted may show neurological deficits including various cognitive dysfunctions and motor neuron disease, the latter expression virtually indistinguishable from classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) except for the age of onset. This ALS "cluster" represents the second such ALS cluster described in the literature to date. Possible causes of GWS include several of the adjuvants in the anthrax vaccine and others. The most likely culprit appears to be aluminum hydroxide. In an initial series of experiments, we examined the potential toxicity of aluminum hydroxide in male, outbred CD-1 mice injected subcutaneously in two equivalent-to-human doses. After sacrifice, spinal cord and motor cortex samples were examined by immunohistochemistry. Aluminum-treated mice showed significantly increased apoptosis of motor neurons and increases in reactive astrocytes and microglial proliferation within the spinal cord and cortex. Morin stain detected the presence of aluminum in the cytoplasm of motor neurons with some neurons also testing positive for the presence of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein, a pathological hallmark of various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. A second series of experiments was conducted on mice injected with six doses of aluminum hydroxide. Behavioural analyses in these mice revealed significant impairments in a number of motor functions as well as diminished spatial memory capacity. The demonstrated neurotoxicity of aluminum hydroxide and its relative ubiquity as an adjuvant suggest that greater scrutiny by the scientific community is warranted. PMID:19740540

  3. Incorporation of Phosphonate into Benzonaphthyridine Toll-like Receptor 7 Agonists for Adsorption to Aluminum Hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Alex; Li, Yongkai; Miller, Andrew T; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Yue, Kathy; Maginnis, Jillian; Hampton, Janice; Hall, De Shon; Shapiro, Michael; Nayak, Bishnu; D'Oro, Ugo; Li, Chun; Skibinski, David; Mbow, M Lamine; Singh, Manmohan; O'Hagan, Derek T; Cooke, Michael P; Valiante, Nicholas M; Wu, Tom Y-H

    2016-06-23

    Small molecule Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonists have been used as vaccine adjuvants by enhancing innate immune activation to afford better adaptive response. Localized TLR7 agonists without systemic exposure can afford good adjuvanticity, suggesting peripheral innate activation (non-antigen-specific) is not required for immune priming. To enhance colocalization of antigen and adjuvant, benzonaphthyridine (BZN) TLR7 agonists are chemically modified with phosphonates to allow adsorption onto aluminum hydroxide (alum), a formulation commonly used in vaccines for antigen stabilization and injection site deposition. The adsorption process is facilitated by enhancing aqueous solubility of BZN analogs to avoid physical mixture of two insoluble particulates. These BZN-phosphonates are highly adsorbed onto alum, which significantly reduced systemic exposure and increased local retention post injection. This report demonstrates a novel approach in vaccine adjuvant design using phosphonate modification to afford adsorption of small molecule immune potentiator (SMIP) onto alum, thereby enhancing co-delivery with antigen. PMID:27270029

  4. Effects of solution conditions and surface chemistry on the adsorption of three recombinant botulinum neurotoxin antigens to aluminum salt adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Vessely, Christina; Estey, Tia; Randolph, Theodore W; Henderson, Ian; Nayar, Rajiv; Carpenter, John F

    2007-09-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a biological warfare threat. Protein antigens have been developed against the seven major BoNT serotypes for the development of a recombinant protein vaccine. This study is an evaluation of adsorption profiles for three of the recombinant protein antigens to aluminum salt adjuvants in the development of a trivalent vaccine against BoNT. Adsorption profiles were obtained over a range of protein concentrations. The results document that charge-charge interactions dominate the adsorption of antigen to adjuvant. Optimal conditions for adsorption were determined. However, potency studies and solution stability studies indicated the necessity of using aluminum hydroxide adjuvant at low pH. To improve the adsorption profiles to AlOH adjuvant, phosphate ions were introduced into the adsorption buffers. The resulting change in the adjuvant chemistry led to an improvement of adsorption of the BoNT antigens to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant while maintaining potency. Competitive adsorption profiles were also determined, and showed changes in maximum adsorption from mixed solutions compared to adsorption from individual protein solutions. The adsorption profiles for each protein varied due to differences in adsorption mechanism and affinity for the adjuvant surface. These results emphasize the importance of evaluating competitive adsorption in the development of multivalent vaccine products. PMID:17518359

  5. Structure and properties of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkov, R.; Kulkov, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. The dependence of porosity and mechanical characteristics of the material sintered at different temperatures was studied. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by varying the aluminum hydroxide concentration and sintering temperature. Based on these results one can conclude that the obtained structure is very close to inorganic bone matrix and can be used as promising material for bone implants production.

  6. A case of recurrent renal aluminum hydroxide stone.

    PubMed

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  7. Polyionic vaccine adjuvants: another look at aluminum salts and polyelectrolytes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvants improve the adaptive immune response to a vaccine antigen by modulating innate immunity or facilitating transport and presentation. The selection of an appropriate adjuvant has become vital as new vaccines trend toward narrower composition, expanded application, and improved safety. Functionally, adjuvants act directly or indirectly on antigen presenting cells (APCs) including dendritic cells (DCs) and are perceived as having molecular patterns associated either with pathogen invasion or endogenous cell damage (known as pathogen associated molecular patterns [PAMPs] and damage associated molecular patterns [DAMPs]), thereby initiating sensing and response pathways. PAMP-type adjuvants are ligands for toll-like receptors (TLRs) and can directly affect DCs to alter the strength, potency, speed, duration, bias, breadth, and scope of adaptive immunity. DAMP-type adjuvants signal via proinflammatory pathways and promote immune cell infiltration, antigen presentation, and effector cell maturation. This class of adjuvants includes mineral salts, oil emulsions, nanoparticles, and polyelectrolytes and comprises colloids and molecular assemblies exhibiting complex, heterogeneous structures. Today innovation in adjuvant technology is driven by rapidly expanding knowledge in immunology, cross-fertilization from other areas including systems biology and materials sciences, and regulatory requirements for quality, safety, efficacy and understanding as part of the vaccine product. Standardizations will aid efforts to better define and compare the structure, function and safety of adjuvants. This article briefly surveys the genesis of adjuvant technology and then re-examines polyionic macromolecules and polyelectrolyte materials, adjuvants currently not known to employ TLR. Specific updates are provided for aluminum-based formulations and polyelectrolytes as examples of improvements to the oldest and emerging classes of vaccine adjuvants in use. PMID:25648619

  8. An Aluminum Magnesium Hydroxide Stearate-based Skin Barrier Protection Cream Used for the Management of Eczematous Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhambri, Sanjay; Michaels, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Eczematous dermatoses can often be very difficult to treat. An aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream has recently become available for clinical use. Aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream provides an alternative option in treating these dermatoses while providing barrier protection against external allergens and irritants. This article reviews various studies evaluating aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream. PMID:21212843

  9. Form and stability of aluminum hydroxide complexes in dilute solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, John David; Roberson, Charles Elmer

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory studies of solutions 4.53 x 10 -4 to 4.5 x 10 -5 molal (12.2-1.2 ppm) in aluminum, in 0.01 molal sodium perchlorate, were conducted to obtain information as to the probable behavior of aluminum in natural water. When the solutions were brought to pH 7.5-9.5 and allowed to stand for 24 hours, a precipitate was obtained which was virtually amorphous as shown by X-rays, and which had a solubility equivalent to that of boehmite. This precipitate had a hydrolysis constant (*Ks4) of 1.93 x 10 -13a. When solutions were allowed to stead at this pH range for 10 days, their precipitates gave the X-ray pattern of bayerite (*Ks4 = 1.11 > (10- 4). These hydrolysis constants were obtained at 25?C. and corrected to zero ionic strength and are in close agreement with other published values. The predominant dissolved form in this pH range is Al(OH) -4. Below neutral pH (7.0) the dissolved aluminum species consist of octahedral units in which each aluminum ion is surrounded by six water molecules or hydroxide ions. Single units such as Al(OH2)6 + 3 and AlOH(OH2)5+2 are most abundant below pH 5.0, and where the molar ratio (r) of combined hydroxide to total dissolved aluminum is low. When r is greater than 1.0, polymerization of the octahedral units occurs. When r is between 2.0 and 3.0, solutions aged for 10 days or more contained colloidal particles between 0.10 and 0.45 ? in diameter. Particles whose diameters were greater than 0.10 ? were identified by X-ray diffraction as gibbsite. Particles smaller than 0.10 ? were also present and were shown by means of the electron microscope to have a hexagonal crystal pattern. Structured material consisting of sheets of coalesced six-membered rings of aluminum ions held together by double OH bridges has a distinctive kinetic behavior. This property was used to determine amounts of polymerized material in solutions having r between 1.0 and 3.0 after aging times ranging from a few hours to more than 4 months. Aging increased the

  10. Toward understanding the mechanism underlying the strong adjuvant activity of aluminum salt nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ruwona, Tinashe B; Xu, Haiyue; Li, Xu; Taylor, Amber N; Shi, Yan-Chun; Cui, Zhengrong

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum salts such as aluminum oxyhydroxide and aluminum hydroxyphosphate are commonly used human vaccine adjuvants. In an effort to improve the adjuvant activity of aluminum salts, we previously showed that the adjuvant activity of aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles is significantly more potent than that of aluminum oxyhydroxide microparticles. The present study was designed to (i) understand the mechanism underlying the potent adjuvant activity of aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles, relative to microparticles, and (ii) to test whether aluminum hydroxyphosphate nanoparticles have a more potent adjuvant activity than aluminum hydroxyphosphate microparticles as well. In human THP-1 myeloid cells, wild-type and NLRP3-deficient, both aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles and microparticles stimulate the secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β by activating NLRP3 inflammasome, although aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are more potent than microparticles, likely related to the higher uptake of the nanoparticles by the THP-1 cells than the microparticles. Aluminum hydroxyphosphate nanoparticles also have a more potent adjuvant activity than microparticles in helping a model antigen lysozyme to stimulate specific antibody response, again likely related to their stronger ability to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:27155490

  11. Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations.

    PubMed

    Tomljenovic, L; Shaw, C A

    2012-02-01

    Immune challenges during early development, including those vaccine-induced, can lead to permanent detrimental alterations of the brain and immune function. Experimental evidence also shows that simultaneous administration of as little as two to three immune adjuvants can overcome genetic resistance to autoimmunity. In some developed countries, by the time children are 4 to 6 years old, they will have received a total of 126 antigenic compounds along with high amounts of aluminum (Al) adjuvants through routine vaccinations. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, safety assessments for vaccines have often not included appropriate toxicity studies because vaccines have not been viewed as inherently toxic. Taken together, these observations raise plausible concerns about the overall safety of current childhood vaccination programs. When assessing adjuvant toxicity in children, several key points ought to be considered: (i) infants and children should not be viewed as "small adults" with regard to toxicological risk as their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to toxic insults; (ii) in adult humans Al vaccine adjuvants have been linked to a variety of serious autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (i.e., "ASIA"), yet children are regularly exposed to much higher amounts of Al from vaccines than adults; (iii) it is often assumed that peripheral immune responses do not affect brain function. However, it is now clearly established that there is a bidirectional neuro-immune cross-talk that plays crucial roles in immunoregulation as well as brain function. In turn, perturbations of the neuro-immune axis have been demonstrated in many autoimmune diseases encompassed in "ASIA" and are thought to be driven by a hyperactive immune response; and (iv) the same components of the neuro-immune axis that play key roles in brain development and immune function are heavily targeted by Al adjuvants. In summary, research evidence shows that increasing concerns

  12. Biopersistence and brain translocation of aluminum adjuvants of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, Romain Kroum; Eidi, Housam; Crépeaux, Guillemette; Authier, François Jerome; Cadusseau, Josette

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum oxyhydroxide (alum) is a crystalline compound widely used as an immunological adjuvant of vaccines. Concerns linked to the use of alum particles emerged following recognition of their causative role in the so-called macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) lesion detected in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue/syndrome. MMF revealed an unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence of alum within immune cells in presumably susceptible individuals, stressing the previous fundamental misconception of its biodisposition. We previously showed that poorly biodegradable aluminum-coated particles injected into muscle are promptly phagocytosed in muscle and the draining lymph nodes, and can disseminate within phagocytic cells throughout the body and slowly accumulate in brain. This strongly suggests that long-term adjuvant biopersistence within phagocytic cells is a prerequisite for slow brain translocation and delayed neurotoxicity. The understanding of basic mechanisms of particle biopersistence and brain translocation represents a major health challenge, since it could help to define susceptibility factors to develop chronic neurotoxic damage. Biopersistence of alum may be linked to its lysosome-destabilizing effect, which is likely due to direct crystal-induced rupture of phagolysosomal membranes. Macrophages that continuously perceive foreign particles in their cytosol will likely reiterate, with variable interindividual efficiency, a dedicated form of autophagy (xenophagy) until they dispose of alien materials. Successful compartmentalization of particles within double membrane autophagosomes and subsequent fusion with repaired and re-acidified lysosomes will expose alum to lysosomal acidic pH, the sole factor that can solubilize alum particles. Brain translocation of alum particles is linked to a Trojan horse mechanism previously described for infectious particles (HIV, HCV), that obeys to CCL2, signaling the major inflammatory monocyte chemoattractant

  13. Lack of teratogenicity of aluminum hydroxide in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, J.S.; Mercedes Gomez, M.A.B.; Corbella, J.

    1989-01-01

    The embryotoxic and teratogenic potential of aluminum hydroxide, a therapeutic drug used as an antacid and phosphate binder, was investigated in Swiss mice. Mated female mice were given by gavage daily doses of 0, 66.5, 133 or 266 mg/kg of A1(OH)/sub 3/ on gestation days 6 through 15 and killed on gestation day 18. Females were evaluated for body weight gain, food consumption appearance and behavior, survival rates, and reproduction data. No significant effects attributable to A1(OH)/sub 3/ were noted in comparisons of maternal body weight and food consumption values, appearance and behavior. No treatment-related changes were recorded in the number of total implants, resorptions, the number of live and dead fetuses, fetal size parameters or fetal sex distribution data. Gross external, soft tissue and skeletal examination of the A1-treated fetuses did not reveal differences at any dose in comparison with the controls. Thus, no evidence of maternal toxicity, embryo/fetal toxicity or teratogenicity was observed with A1(OH)/sub 3/ in mice.

  14. Physiochemical Properties of Aluminum Adjuvants Elicit Differing Reorganization of Phospholipid Domains in Model Membranes.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Lorena R; Livingston, Andrea; Berkland, Cory; Dhar, Prajnaparamita

    2016-05-01

    Most vaccines contain aluminum adjuvants; however, their exact mechanism of action remains unclear. A novel mechanism by Shi and colleagues proposes aluminum adjuvants may enhance immune activation by binding and reorganizing lipids that are key components of lipid rafts. To better understand the specificity of interaction between aluminum adjuvants and the cell membrane lipids, we present a biophysical study of lipid domain clustering in simple model phospholipid monolayers containing dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) exposed to two aluminum adjuvants, Alhydrogel and Adju-Phos. Surface pressure measurements and fluorescence microscopy images verified aluminum adjuvant-induced increase in lipid domain size, even in the key lipid raft components. Additionally, adjuvant induced lipid clustering differed based on the physicochemical properties of the adjuvants. Alhydrogel appeared to reduce monolayer compressibility and insert into the monolayer, while Adju-Phos induced more significant changes in domain size, without compromising the integrity of the monolayer. The Alhydrogel and Adju-Phos-mediated reorganization of phospholipid domains reported here supports the new mechanistic paradigm proposed by Shi and co-workers, and further suggests that lipid clustering is induced even in simple phospholipid membranes. The results present the basis for future exploration into lipid-mediated mechanisms of action for adjuvants. PMID:26998680

  15. Aluminum hydroxide coating thickness measurements and brushing tests on K West Basin fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-09-11

    Aluminum hydroxide coating thicknesses were measured on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin using specially developed eddy current probes . The results were used to estimate coating inventories for MCO fuel,loading. Brushing tests successfully demonstrated the ability to remove the coating if deemed necessary prior to MCO loading.

  16. Improved quantification of protein in vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide by simple modification of the Lowry method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Naery; Shin, SukJin; Chung, Hye Joo; Kim, Do Keun; Lim, Jong-Mi; Park, Hyunsung; Oh, Ho Jung

    2015-09-22

    Aluminum (Al) components in vaccines are known to act as adsorbents that interfere with accurate protein quantification by the Lowry method. Therefore, certain modifications based on the characteristics and compositions of the vaccine are required for determination of protein contents. We investigated the effects of an additional centrifugal separation and found that protein contents were overestimated by up to 238% without centrifugation through a collaborative study performed with hepatitis B vaccines containing Al. However, addition of a centrifugation step yielded protein concentrations that were similar to the actual values, with small coefficients of variation (CVs). Proficiency testing performed in 11 laboratories showed that four laboratories did not have satisfactory results for vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide, although all laboratories were proficient in protein analysis when samples did not contain aluminum hydroxide. Incomplete resuspension of aluminum hydroxide solution with alkaline copper solution was the major cause of insufficient proficiency in these laboratories. PMID:26275477

  17. Patterns of binding of aluminum-containing adjuvants to Haemophilus influenzae type b and meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines and components

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Robert B.D.; Burkin, Karena; Amir, Saba Erum; Crane, Dennis T.; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The basis of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC) glycoconjugates binding to aluminum-containing adjuvants was studied. By measuring the amount of polysaccharide and protein in the non-adsorbed supernatant, the adjuvant, aluminum phosphate, AlPO4, was found to be less efficient than aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH)3 at binding to the conjugates, at concentrations relevant to licensed vaccine formulations and when equimolar. At neutral pH, binding of TT conjugates to AlPO4 was facilitated through the carrier protein, with only weak binding of AlPO4 to CRM197 being observed. There was slightly higher binding of either adjuvant to tetanus toxoid conjugates, than to CRM197 conjugates. This was verified in AlPO4 formulations containing DTwP–Hib, where the adsorption of TT-conjugated Hib was higher than CRM197-conjugated Hib. At neutral pH, the anionic Hib and MenC polysaccharides did not appreciably bind to AlPO4, but did bind to Al(OH)3, due to electrostatic interactions. Phosphate ions reduced the binding of the conjugates to the adjuvants. These patterns of adjuvant adsorption can form the basis for future formulation studies with individual and combination vaccines containing saccharide-protein conjugates. PMID:26194164

  18. Patterns of binding of aluminum-containing adjuvants to Haemophilus influenzae type b and meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines and components.

    PubMed

    Otto, Robert B D; Burkin, Karena; Amir, Saba Erum; Crane, Dennis T; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    The basis of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC) glycoconjugates binding to aluminum-containing adjuvants was studied. By measuring the amount of polysaccharide and protein in the non-adsorbed supernatant, the adjuvant, aluminum phosphate, AlPO4, was found to be less efficient than aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH)3 at binding to the conjugates, at concentrations relevant to licensed vaccine formulations and when equimolar. At neutral pH, binding of TT conjugates to AlPO4 was facilitated through the carrier protein, with only weak binding of AlPO4 to CRM197 being observed. There was slightly higher binding of either adjuvant to tetanus toxoid conjugates, than to CRM197 conjugates. This was verified in AlPO4 formulations containing DTwP-Hib, where the adsorption of TT-conjugated Hib was higher than CRM197-conjugated Hib. At neutral pH, the anionic Hib and MenC polysaccharides did not appreciably bind to AlPO4, but did bind to Al(OH)3, due to electrostatic interactions. Phosphate ions reduced the binding of the conjugates to the adjuvants. These patterns of adjuvant adsorption can form the basis for future formulation studies with individual and combination vaccines containing saccharide-protein conjugates. PMID:26194164

  19. Formation of hydrotalcite in mixtures of aluminum hydroxycarbonate and magnesium hydroxide gels.

    PubMed

    Vanderlaan, R K; White, J L; Hem, S L

    1982-07-01

    IR and X-ray analysis demonstrate that hydrotalcite forms during the aging of aluminum hydroxycarbonate gel and magnesium hydroxide gel mixtures. The formation of hydrotalcite produces a change in the pH-stat titrigram and a sharp increase in the pH of the mixture. Hydrotalcite was noted earlier in mixtures having a high molar ratio of magnesium to aluminum, a high total gel concentration, a high initial pH, or in mixtures stored at elevated temperatures. The addition of sorbitol to the mixtures substantially delayed the appearance of hydrotalcite. Nonacid-reactive hydrotalcite formed when mixtures of chloride-containing aluminum hydroxide gel and magnesium hydroxide gel were aged. PMID:7120062

  20. Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C A; Tomljenovic, L

    2013-07-01

    We have examined the neurotoxicity of aluminum in humans and animals under various conditions, following different routes of administration, and provide an overview of the various associated disease states. The literature demonstrates clearly negative impacts of aluminum on the nervous system across the age span. In adults, aluminum exposure can lead to apparently age-related neurological deficits resembling Alzheimer's and has been linked to this disease and to the Guamanian variant, ALS-PDC. Similar outcomes have been found in animal models. In addition, injection of aluminum adjuvants in an attempt to model Gulf War syndrome and associated neurological deficits leads to an ALS phenotype in young male mice. In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders. Many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome. PMID:23609067

  1. Kinetics of leaching of the aluminum hydroxide in bauxites by alkaline solutions at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtsev, A. V.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Gorichev, I. G.; Kipriyanov, N. A.; Izotov, A. D.

    2011-11-01

    The kinetics of leaching of the aluminum hydroxide from the gibbsite bauxites of Guinea (Kindia deposit) is studied under atmospheric conditions. The activation energy of the process is found to be 34.75 kJ/mol, which indicates that the process proceeds in a kinetic mode. The leaching of the aluminum hydroxide from bauxite in an alkaline solution is simulated using acid-base equilibria (ion exchange) and the electrochemical theory of the structure of a double electrical layer (Gram-Parsons theory).

  2. Synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from porous anodic alumina.

    PubMed

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    A novel method for the synthesis of aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers from a porous anodic oxide film of aluminum is demonstrated. In the present method, the porous anodic alumina not only acts as a template, but also serves as the starting material for the synthesis. The porous anodic alumina film is hydrothermally treated for pore-sealing, which forms aluminum oxy-hydroxide inside the pores of the oxide film as well as on the surface of the film. The hydrothermally sealed porous oxide film is immersed in the sodium citrate solution, which selectively etches the porous aluminum oxide from the film, leaving the oxy-hydroxide intact. The method is simple and gives highly uniform aluminum oxy-hydroxide nanofibers. Moreover, the diameter of the nanofibers can be controlled by controlling the pore size of the porous anodic alumina film, which depends on the anodizing conditions. Nanofibers with diameters of about 38-85 nm, having uniform shape and size, were successfully synthesized using the present method. PMID:21832599

  3. Fluoride adsorption onto amorphous aluminum hydroxide: Roles of the surface acetate anions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Xing; Jia, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Amorphous aluminum hydroxide with hydroxyl groups, acetate anions and chlorine anions enriched surface was synthesized, and was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Batch experiments were performed to study the influence of various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial fluoride concentration, temperature, pH value and the presence of competing anions on the adsorption of fluoride on amorphous aluminum hydroxide. The kinetic data was well fitted to pseudo-second-order model. The fluoride adsorption on the amorphous aluminum hydroxide can be well described by the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 63.94mgg(-1) at pH 7.0. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy, standard enthalpy and standard entropy were calculated, and the results suggested that the adsorption of fluoride on the amorphous aluminum hydroxide was a feasible, spontaneous and exothermic process. The adsorption mechanism was revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The results suggested that the surface acetate anions and surface chlorine anions played important roles in the fluoride removal process. PMID:27565961

  4. Immobilization of Thermomyces lanuginosus Xylanase on Aluminum Hydroxide Particles Through Adsorption: Characterization of Immobilized Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Wu, Yue; Li, Huixin

    2015-12-28

    Xylanase plays important roles in a broad range of industrial production as a biocatalyst, and its applications commonly require immobilization on supports to enhance its stability. Aluminum hydroxide, a carrier material with high surface area, has the advantages of simple and low-cost preparation and resistance to biodegradation, and can be potentially used as a proper support for xylanase immobilization. In this work, xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus was immobilized on two types of aluminum hydroxide particles (gibbsite and amorphous Al(OH)3) through adsorption, and the properties of the adsorbed enzymes were studied. Both particles had considerable adsorptive capacity and affinity for xylanase. Xylanase retained 75% and 64% of the original catalytic activities after adsorption to gibbsite and amorphous Al(OH)3. Both the adsorptions improved pH and thermal stability, lowered activation energy, and extended lifespan of the immobilized enzyme, as compared with the free enzyme. Xylanase adsorbed on gibbsite and amorphous Al(OH)3 retained 71% and 64% of its initial activity, respectively, after being recycled five times. These results indicated that aluminum hydroxides served as good supports for xylanase immobilization. Therefore, the adsorption of xylanase on aluminum hydroxide particles has promising potential for practical production. PMID:26282687

  5. Anodic dissolution and protection of aluminum alloy 7075 in hydroxide solutions

    SciTech Connect

    McCafferty, E.; Trzaskoma-Paulette, P.

    1997-03-01

    Dissolution of Al 7075 (UNS A97075) in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions results in formation of a black, loosely adherent film of corrosion products that provides partial protection in the aqueous environment. Optical and scanning microscopy showed the reaction product film is a bilayer, with a thin, adherent inner layer and a thicker, more fragile outer layer. The reaction mechanism involves the dissolution of aluminum followed by formation of a precipitated film. Corrosion protection at moderate hydroxide concentrations is provided by the use of a partially fluorinated amino-surfactant or a silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) coating prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition.

  6. Aluminum adjuvants of vaccines injected into the muscle: Normal fate, pathology and associated disease.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, R K; Aouizerate, J; Cadusseau, J; Yara, S; Authier, F J

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum oxyhydroxide (Alhydrogel(®)) is a nano-crystalline compound forming aggregates that has been introduced in vaccine for its immunologic adjuvant effect in 1926. It is the most commonly used adjuvant in human and veterinary vaccines but mechanisms by which it stimulates immune responses remain ill-defined. Although generally well tolerated on the short term, it has been suspected to occasionally cause delayed neurologic problems in susceptible individuals. In particular, the long-term persistence of aluminic granuloma also termed macrophagic myofasciitis is associated with chronic arthromyalgias and fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. Safety concerns largely depend on the long biopersistence time inherent to this adjuvant, which may be related to its quick withdrawal from the interstitial fluid by avid cellular uptake; and the capacity of adjuvant particles to migrate and slowly accumulate in lymphoid organs and the brain, a phenomenon documented in animal models and resulting from MCP1/CCL2-dependant translocation of adjuvant-loaded monocyte-lineage cells (Trojan horse phenomenon). These novel insights strongly suggest that serious re-evaluation of long-term aluminum adjuvant phamacokinetics and safety should be carried out. PMID:26948677

  7. Adsorptive bubble separation of zinc and cadmium cations in presence of ferric and aluminum hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Jurkiewicz, Kazimierz

    2005-06-15

    The adsorptive bubble separation of zinc and cadmium cations from solution in the presence of ferric and aluminum hydroxides was carried out by means of Tween 80 (nonionic surfactant), and sodium laurate and stearate (anionic surfactants). The mechanism of metal removal is different depending on the nature of the surfactant used. The removal of zinc cations by adsorbing colloid flotation is higher than that of cadmium cations. It increases with increases in the amount of hydroxide precipitate and the concentration of Tween 80. The removal of zinc cations by ion flotation is lower than that of cadmium cations. It does not change with increases in the hydroxide amount. It increases, however, with increased sodium laurate or stearate concentration. Both separation methods turned out to be helpful for studying both the solution's structure and the interactions at the solution-solid interface. PMID:15897071

  8. Interfacial charging phenomena of aluminum (hydr)oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Hiemstra, T.; Yong, H.; Van Riemsdijk, W.H.

    1999-08-31

    The interfacial charging of Al(OH){sub 3} (gibbsite and bayerite) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been studied. For Al(OH){sub 3} it can be shown that the very strong variation in charging behavior for different preparations is related to the relative presence of differently reacting crystal planes. The edge faces of the hexagonal gibbsite crystals are proton reactive over the whole pH range, in contrast to the 001 plane, which is mainly uncharged below pH = 10. On this 001 face only doubly coordinated surface groups are found, in contrast to the edges which also have singly coordinated surface groups. The results are fully in agreement with the predictions of the Multi site complexation (MUSIC) model. The proton adsorption, electrolyte ion adsorption, and shift of the IEP of gibbsite and aluminum oxide have been modeled simultaneously. For gibbsite, the ion pair formation of Na is larger than that of Cl, as is evidenced by modeling the experimentally observed upward shift on the IEP and charge reversal at high electrolyte concentrations. All these experimental results can be satisfactorily modeled with the MUSIC model, including the experimental surface potential of aluminum oxide (ISFET).

  9. Orthophosphate and metaphosphate ion removal from aqueous solution using alum and aluminum hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Georgantas, D A; Grigoropoulou, H P

    2007-11-01

    The removal of orthophosphates (10(-2) kg P m(-3)), condensed phosphates (10(-2) kg P m(-3)), and mixtures of both (5 x 10(-3) kg P m(-3) as orthophosphate and 5 x 10(-3) kg P m(-3) as metaphosphate) in aqueous solution is studied using alum and aluminum hydroxide. The effects of coagulant dose, pH, temperature, aging of aluminum hydroxide, and presence of different ions are investigated. On the basis of the experimental results, alum is much more efficient in phosphorus removal than aluminum hydroxide even if, in both cases, at the conditions studied, the active coagulant form is Al(OH)(3). The differences then could be due to the higher activity of the in situ formed hydroxide. Orthophosphates and metaphosphates seem to have similar behavior vs pH variation: maximum removal is achieved at pH values 5-6 in all cases. On the other hand, in the simultaneous presence of both P forms, orthophosphate and metaphosphate ions have different affinities for the surface sites of aluminum hydroxide, since for both alum and aluminum hydroxide, orthophosphates are preferentially removed compared to metaphosphates, due probably to orientation effects and the charge per P atom. The presence of sodium, potassium, magnesium, sulfate, chloride, and magnesium, at the concentrations studied and for a pH value of 6, does not influence P removal. Temperature variation, between 25 and 60 degrees C, does not affect alum efficiency but both P forms are increasingly removed with increasing temperature, probably due to polymer Al(OH)(3) breaking, producing new surfaces for adsorption. Aging decreases sorption capacity of Al(OH)(3), while crystallites of increasing size are formed. Finally adsorption of both P forms is best described by the Freundlich isotherm [[K(F)=(49.1-69.1) x 10(-3) (m(3)kg(-1))(1/N), 1/N: 0.14-0.19 for T=25-60 degrees C] and [ K(F)=(1.58-2.79) x 10(-3) (m(3)kg(-1))(1/N), 1/N: 2.17-2.47 for T=25-60 degrees C] for orthophosphate and metaphosphate, respectively. PMID

  10. Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Couette, Maryline; Boisse, Marie-Françoise; Maison, Patrick; Brugieres, Pierre; Cesaro, Pierre; Chevalier, Xavier; Gherardi, Romain K; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine; Authier, François-Jérôme

    2009-11-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition, characterized by specific muscle lesions assessing long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Affected patients mainly complain of arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and cognitive difficulties. We designed a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests to prospectively delineate MMF-associated cognitive dysfunction (MACD). Compared to control patients with arthritis and chronic pain, MMF patients had pronounced and specific cognitive impairment. MACD mainly affected (i) both visual and verbal memory; (ii) executive functions, including attention, working memory, and planning; and (iii) left ear extinction at dichotic listening test. Cognitive deficits did not correlate with pain, fatigue, depression, or disease duration. Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying MACD remain to be determined. In conclusion, long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide within the body assessed by MMF is associated with cognitive dysfunction, not solely due to chronic pain, fatigue and depression. PMID:19748679

  11. Cadmium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Microspheres for Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Daniel; Ezzeddine, Alaa; Sougrat, Rachid; Khashab, Niveen M; Hmadeh, Mohamad; Al-Ghoul, Mazen

    2016-04-21

    We report the synthesis of cadmium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (CdAl LDH) using the reaction-diffusion framework. As the hydroxide anions diffuse into an agar gel matrix containing the mixture of aluminum and cadmium salts at a given ratio, they react to give the LDH. The LDH self-assembles inside the pores of the gel matrix into a unique spherical-porous shaped microstructure. The internal and external morphologies of the particles are studied by electron microscopy and tomography revealing interconnected channels and a high surface area. This material is shown to exhibit a promising performance in the photoreduction of carbon dioxide using solar light. Moreover, the palladium-decorated version shows a significant improvement in its reduction potential at room temperature. PMID:27028104

  12. Aluminum hydroxide nucleation kinetics and mechanism during the electrodialysis decomposition of aluminate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lainer, Yu. A.; Gorichev, I. G.; Todorov, S. A.

    2008-08-01

    The kinetic laws of the electrodialysis decomposition of strong aluminate solutions are considered. Mathematical simulation is performed using the equations of the heterogeneous kinetics of aluminum hydroxide precipitation for the electrodialysis of aluminate solutions, and this simulation shows that the nature of the limiting stage is related to the instantaneous nucleation during the three-dimensional coalescence of particles. The electrodialysis precipitate is analyzed, and the possible commercial application of the decomposition of strong aluminate solutions by electrodialysis is considered.

  13. Effect of aging on aluminum hydroxide complexes in dilute aqueous solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Ross Wilbert; Hem, John David

    1972-01-01

    Aqueous aluminum solutions containing 4?10 -5 mole/liter aluminum and a constant total ionic strength of 10 -2, but with varying ratios of hydroxide to aluminum (OH:Al), were prepared. Progress of these solutions toward equilibrium conditions over aging periods of as much as 2 years was studied by determining the composition and pH of the solutions at various time intervals. The solutions, after mixing, were supersaturated with respect to both crystalline and amorphous forms of aluminum oxides and aluminum hydroxides. The compositions of the solutions were determined by use of a timed colorimetric analytical procedure which allowed the estimation of three separate forms of aluminum that have been designated Al a, Al b, and Al c. Form Al a appeared to be composed of monomeric species such as Al(H20)6+3, Al(OH)(H20)5+2, Al(OH)2(H20)4 +I and Al(OH)4-. Form Al b was polynuclear material containing perhaps 20-400 aluminum atoms per structure. It appeared to be a metastable material. Form Al c was composed of relatively large, microcrystalline, clearly solid AI(OH)3 particles. For each OH :Al ratio, the concentration of Al a remained constant with aging time, Al b decreased, and Al c increased. It appeared that Al b particles were increasing in size and ultimately were converted to Al c particles. After a few weeks' aging, Al c particles had the structure of gibbsite. In all solutions, equilibrium was only very slowly achieved, and the time required depended on the OH:Al ratio and how rapidly the solution was initially prepared (mixing time). Lower ratios caused a slower approach to equilibrium; sometimes equilibrium was not achieved even after several years' aging. The more slowly base was initially added (to obtain the proper OH:Al ratio), the more slowly was equilibrium approached. Ultimate equilibrium values of dissolved aluminum concentration and pH were consistent with known thermodynamic data on monomeric aluminum species. From data determined during the aging

  14. Aluminum affects heterogeneous Fe(III) (Hydr)oxide nucleation, growth, and ostwald ripening.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yandi; Li, Qingyun; Lee, Byeongdu; Jun, Young-Shin

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous coprecipitation of iron and aluminum oxides is an important process for pollutant immobilization and removal in natural and engineered aqueous environments. Here, using a synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering technique, we studied heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide on quartz under conditions found in acid mine drainage (at pH = 3.7 ± 0.2, [Fe(3+)] = 10(-4) M) with different initial aqueous Al/Fe ratios (0:1, 1:1, and 5:1). Interestingly, although the atomic ratios of Al/Fe in the newly formed Fe(III) (hydr)oxide precipitates were less than 1%, the in situ particle size and volume evolutions of the precipitates on quartz were significantly influenced by aqueous Al/Fe ratios. At the end of the 3 h experiments, with aqueous Al/Fe ratios of 0:1, 1:1, and 5:1, the average radii of gyration of particles on quartz were 5.7 ± 0.3, 4.6 ± 0.1, and 3.7 ± 0.3 nm, respectively, and the ratio of total particle volumes on quartz was 1.7:3.4:1.0. The Fe(III) (hydr)oxide precipitates were poorly crystallized, and were positively charged in all solutions. In the presence of Al(3+), Al(3+) adsorption onto quartz changed the surface charge of quartz from negative to positive, which caused the slower heterogeneous growth of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide on quartz. Furthermore, Al affected the amount of water included in the Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, which can influence their adsorption capacity. This study yielded important information usable for pollutant removal not only in natural environments, but also in engineered water treatment processes. PMID:24289329

  15. Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?

    PubMed

    Tomljenovic, Lucija; Shaw, Christopher A

    2011-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious multisystem developmental disorders and an urgent global public health concern. Dysfunctional immunity and impaired brain function are core deficits in ASD. Aluminum (Al), the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, is a demonstrated neurotoxin and a strong immune stimulator. Hence, adjuvant Al has the potential to induce neuroimmune disorders. When assessing adjuvant toxicity in children, two key points ought to be considered: (i) children should not be viewed as "small adults" as their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to toxic insults; and (ii) if exposure to Al from only few vaccines can lead to cognitive impairment and autoimmunity in adults, is it unreasonable to question whether the current pediatric schedules, often containing 18 Al adjuvanted vaccines, are safe for children? By applying Hill's criteria for establishing causality between exposure and outcome we investigated whether exposure to Al from vaccines could be contributing to the rise in ASD prevalence in the Western world. Our results show that: (i) children from countries with the highest ASD prevalence appear to have the highest exposure to Al from vaccines; (ii) the increase in exposure to Al adjuvants significantly correlates with the increase in ASD prevalence in the United States observed over the last two decades (Pearson r=0.92, p<0.0001); and (iii) a significant correlation exists between the amounts of Al administered to preschool children and the current prevalence of ASD in seven Western countries, particularly at 3-4 months of age (Pearson r=0.89-0.94, p=0.0018-0.0248). The application of the Hill's criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between Al in vaccines and ASD may be causal. Because children represent a fraction of the population most at risk for complications following exposure to Al, a more rigorous evaluation of Al adjuvant safety seems warranted. PMID:22099159

  16. Nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxides prepared via inverse micelles formation

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Bernal, Maria E.; Ruano-Casero, Ricardo J.; Benito, Fatima; Rives, Vicente

    2009-06-15

    Nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxides have been prepared by conventional coprecipitation and by coprecipitation in the presence of a surfactant. The solids have been characterised by several physicochemical techniques. Calcination leads to formation of homogeneously dispersed mixed oxides, which have been characterised as well. The colour properties (lightness and chromaticity coordinates) of both series of solids (layered precursors and calcined ones) have been measured. It has been found that both the preparation method and the calcination treatment have an important effect on the luminosity (whiteness/darkness) of the solids, although the effect on the precise chromaticity coordinates (green/red and blue/yellow) is less marked. - Graphical abstract: Nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxides have been prepared by conventional coprecipitation and by coprecipitation in the presence of a surfactant. It has been found that both the preparation method and the calcination treatment have an important effect on the luminosity (whiteness/darkness) of the solids, although the effect on the precise chromaticity coordinates (green/red and blue/yellow) is less marked.

  17. ALUMINUM READINESS EVALUATION FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENRATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; MASSIE HL

    2011-01-27

    A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

  18. Microstructure of amorphous aluminum hydroxide in belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cement

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Fei; Yu, Zhenglei; Yang, Fengling; Lu, Yinong Liu, Yunfei

    2015-05-15

    Belite-calcium sulfoaluminate (BCSA) cement is a promising low-CO{sub 2} alternative to ordinary Portland cement. Herein, aluminum hydroxide (AH{sub 3}), the main amorphous hydration product of BCSA cement, was investigated in detail. The microstructure of AH{sub 3} with various quantities of gypsum was investigated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The AH{sub 3} with various morphologies were observed and confirmed in the resulting pastes. Particular attention was paid to the fact that AH{sub 3} always contained a small amount of Ca according to the results of EDS analysis. The AH{sub 3} was then characterized via high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results of HRTEM indicated that Ca arose from nanosized tricalcium aluminate hexahydrate which existed in the AH{sub 3}.

  19. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using aluminum hydroxide coated rice husk ash.

    PubMed

    Ganvir, Vivek; Das, Kalyan

    2011-01-30

    Fluoride content in groundwater that is greater than the WHO limit of 1.5mg/L, causes dental and skeletal fluorosis. In India, several states are affected with excess fluoride in groundwater. The problem is aggravated due to the lack of appropriate and user friendly defluoridation technology. Several fluoride removal techniques are reported in the literature amongst which the Nalgonda technique and use of activated alumina have been studied extensively. However a simple, efficient and cost effective technology is not available for widespread use in many affected regions. In this paper, we present a novel cost effective defluoridation method that is based on surface modification of rice husk ash (RHA) by coating aluminum hydroxide. RHA is obtained by burning rice/paddy husk which is an abundantly available and is an inexpensive raw material. The results showed excellent fluoride removal efficiency and the adsorption capacity was found to be between 9 and 10mg/g. PMID:21074319

  20. Wettability conversion of an aluminum-hydroxide nanostructure by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jihoon; Choi, Dukhyun; Kim, Hyungdae; Park, Yong Tae; Choi, Min-Jun; Chung, Kwun-Bum

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a method for controlling the wettability of an aluminum-hydroxide (Al(OH)3) nanostructure by using ion implantation. We implant Xe ions into Al(OH)3 nanostructures at dosages between 5 × 1014 to 1 × 1016 ions/cm2. The microscopic surface morphology of the nanostructure after implantation does not change under our dosing conditions. However, a drastic increase in the surface contact angle (CA) from 0° to 100° is observed at a dosage of 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. We attribute this significant change in CA to the composition and chemical bonding states of carbon contained within the Al(OH)3 nanostructure.

  1. Wetting behavior and drag reduction of superhydrophobic layered double hydroxides films on aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Yin, Liang; Liu, Xiaowei; Weng, Rui; Wang, Yang; Wu, Zhiwen

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel method to fabricate Zn-Al LDH (layered double hydroxides) film with 3D flower-like micro-and nanostructure on the aluminum foil. The wettability of the Zn-Al LDH film can be easily changed from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic with a simple chemical modification. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces have water CAs (contact angles) of 165 ± 2°. In order to estimate the drag reduction property of the surface with different adhesion properties, the experimental setup of the liquid/solid friction drag is proposed. The drag reduction ratio for the as-prepared superhydrophobic sample is 20-30% at low velocity. Bearing this in mind, we construct superhydrophobic surfaces that have numerous technical applications in drag reduction field.

  2. Iron and aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles in the environment: from nano-scale to the field processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina

    The objective of this doctoral research was to increase scientific understanding of the behavior of Fe and Al hydroxide nanoparticles in soils. These particles are of great environmental importance due to their ability to retain and transport nutrients and contaminants. Three studies were undertaken at different scales, which are documented in three manuscripts included in this dissertation. The first study examined the rate constants for goethite (alpha-FeOOH) crystallization from nano-particulate Fe hydroxide suspensions in the absence (0% Al) and presence (2% Al) of aluminum. One of the merits of this study was the application of a multivariate curve resolution analysis (MCR) of infrared spectra to environmentally important mixed Fe-Al hydroxide colloids in order to quantify goethite content in poorly-crystalline mixtures. Obtained rate constants were found to be equal to (7.64+/-0.67)x10-7 s-1 for 0% Al and (4.5+/-0.21) x10-7 s-1 for 2% Al hydroxides. Dissolution-precipitation mechanism was dominant in the process of goethite transformation to ferrihydrite. Further growth of goethite crystals took place either by aggregation mechanism to form polycrystalline agglomerates or alternatively by Oswald ripening to form large single crystals. The presence of aqueous Al species "poisoned" goethite's surface by disrupting the formation of hydrogen bonds thus increasing the number of non-stoichiometric hydroxyls. The second study addressed changes of mineral composition in mixed Fe-Al hydroxide nanoparticles as a function of Al-substitution and reaction time. It was found that low Al concentrations (2-8 mol. %) lead to formation of moderately crystalline Al-goethite upon ageing, while at medium Al concentrations (10-20%) colloidal suspensions remained stable for the duration of the whole experiment (54 days), goethite formation was completely retarded, and less crystalline intermediate structure were formed. At 25% Al substitution, gibbsite Al(OH)3 microcrystalline

  3. Double-blind clinical, endoscopic and histological comparison of hydrotalcite/dimethicone suspension and magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide suspension in the treatment of symptomatic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Cobden, I; McMahon, M J; Dixon, M F; Axon, A T

    1981-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized trial was undertaken to compare the clinical, endoscopic and histological response to 6-weeks' treatment with hydrotalcite/dimethicone suspension or magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide suspension in 36 patients with symptomatic gastritis. Significantly more patients (P less than 0.05) showed symptomatic improvement in the antacid-treated group than in the hydrotalcite/dimethicone-treated group and more had a reduction in histological inflammatory scores (P less than 0.01), although there was little correlation between histology and symptoms. There was no evidence from this study that the bile acid binding and anti-foaming properties of hydrotalcite/dimethicone suspension were of any benefit in the treatment of patients with symptomatic gastritis. PMID:7267678

  4. Characterization of aluminum hydroxide particles from the Bayer process using neural network and Bayesian classifiers.

    PubMed

    Zaknich, A

    1997-01-01

    An automatic process of isolating and characterizing individual aluminum hydroxide particles from the Bayer process in scanning electron microscope gray-scale images of samples is described. It uses image processing algorithms, neural nets and Bayesian classifiers. As the particles are amorphous and different greatly, there were complex nonlinear decisions and anomalies. The process is in two stages; isolation of particles, and classification of each particle. The isolation process correctly identifies 96.9% of the objects as complete and single particles after a 15.5% rejection of questionable objects. The sample set had a possible 2455 particles taken from 384 256x256-pixel images. Of the 15.5%, 14.2% were correctly rejected. With no rejection the accuracy drops to 91.8% which represents the accuracy of the isolation process alone. The isolated particles are classified by shape, single crystal protrusions, texture, crystal size, and agglomeration. The particle samples were preclassified by a human expert and the data were used to train the five classifiers to embody the expert knowledge. The system was designed to be used as a research tool to determine and study relationships between particle properties and plant parameters in the production of smelting grade alumina by the Bayer process. PMID:18255695

  5. Removal of trivalent chromium from aqueous solution using aluminum oxide hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Bedemo, Agaje; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh; Zewge, Feleke

    2016-01-01

    Water is second most essential for human being. Contamination of water makes it unsuitable for human consumption. Chromium ion is released to water bodies from various industries having high toxicity which affects the biota life in these waters. In this study aluminum oxide hydroxide was tested for its efficiency to remove trivalent chromium from aqueous solutions through batch mode experiments. Chromium concentrations in aqueous solutions and tannery waste water before and after adsorption experiments were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption of Cr(III) were studied. The study revealed that more than 99 % removal of Cr(III) was achieved over wide range of initial pH (3-10). The optimum conditions for the removal of Cr(III) were found to be at pH 4-6 with 40 g/L adsorbent dose at 60 min of contact time. The adsorption capacity was assessed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The equilibrium data at varying adsorbent dose obeyed the two isotherms. The adsorbent was found to be efficient for the removal of Cr(III) from tannery waste effluent. PMID:27547663

  6. Mechanism of freeze-thaw instability of aluminum hydroxycarbonate and magnesium hydroxide gels.

    PubMed

    Zapata, M I; Feldkamp, J R; Peck, G E; White, J L; Hem, S L

    1984-01-01

    The effect of freeze-thaw cycles on the physical stability of aluminum hydroxycarbonate and magnesium hydroxide gels was studied. Coagulation following a freeze-thaw cycle, leading to the formation of visible aggregates, affected the content uniformity of both gels. The freeze-thaw cycles did not affect the crystal form or surface characteristics of the gels as determined by X-ray powder diffraction and point of zero charge, but caused a slight reduction in the rate of acid neutralization and a large increase in the rate of sedimentation. The greatest effect was observed after the first freeze-thaw cycle. While the duration of freezing was not a factor, the rate of freezing was important and was inversely related to the aggregate size. The aggregates which formed following a freeze-thaw cycle were not redispersed by shaking, but were reversed by ultrasonic treatment or homogenization. The adsorption of polymers or surface-active agents prior to freezing reduced and, in some cases, prevented the formation of aggregates. The physical instability produced by a freeze-thaw cycle was explained by the modified DLVO theory. The force exerted on the particles by the growing ice crystals forced the particles into the primary minimum, producing strong interparticle attraction. On thawing, simple agitation did not provide enough force to overcome the attractive force of the primary minimum. Adsorption of polymers or surface-active agents increased the steric repulsive force and prevented the particles from reaching the primary minimum. PMID:6694078

  7. The formation and structure of the oxide and hydroxide chemisorbed phases at the aluminum surface, and relevance to hydrogen embrittlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Michael; Kelly, Robert; Neurock, Matthew

    2010-03-01

    Aluminum alloys used in aerospace structures are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) induced by hydrogen embrittlement (HE) (Gangloff and Ives 1990). Crack growth experiments have demonstrated a linear relation between the relative humidity of the environment and crack growth rates, indicating the importance of water (Speidel and Hyatt 1972). While the presence of water has been demonstrated to be necessary for EAC of aluminum, crack growth rates have been linked to the diffusivity of hydrogen in aluminum (Gangloff 2003) and hydrogen densities at the crack tip as high as Al2H have been observed (Young and Scully 1998). While the mechanism by which hydrogen embrittles aluminum is yet not well understood, without the entry of hydrogen into the aluminum matrix, embrittlement would not occur. While at the crack tip high hydrogen concentrations exist, the solubility of hydrogen in aluminum is normal near 1 ppm (Wolverton 2004). In this work combined first principles and kinetic Monte Carlo methods will be used to examine the oxide and hydroxide structure resulting from exposure of aluminum to H2O or O2 and relevance to hydrogen entry as well as EAC is discussed.

  8. Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts

    PubMed Central

    Willhite, Calvin C.; Karyakina, Nataliya A.; Yokel, Robert A.; Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Wisniewski, Thomas M.; Arnold, Ian M. F.; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    leads to intrinsic apoptosis. In contrast, the toxicity of the insoluble Al oxides depends primarily on their behavior as particulates. Aluminum has been held responsible for human morbidity and mortality, but there is no consistent and convincing evidence to associate the Al found in food and drinking water at the doses and chemical forms presently consumed by people living in North America and Western Europe with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Neither is there clear evidence to show use of Al-containing underarm antiperspirants or cosmetics increases the risk of AD or breast cancer. Metallic Al, its oxides, and common Al salts have not been shown to be either genotoxic or carcinogenic. Aluminum exposures during neonatal and pediatric parenteral nutrition (PN) can impair bone mineralization and delay neurological development. Adverse effects to vaccines with Al adjuvants have occurred; however, recent controlled trials found that the immunologic response to certain vaccines with Al adjuvants was no greater, and in some cases less than, that after identical vaccination without Al adjuvants. The scientific literature on the adverse health effects of Al is extensive. Health risk assessments for Al must take into account individual co-factors (e.g., age, renal function, diet, gastric pH). Conclusions from the current review point to the need for refinement of the PTWI, reduction of Al contamination in PN solutions, justification for routine addition of Al to vaccines, and harmonization of OELs for Al substances. PMID:25233067

  9. Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts.

    PubMed

    Willhite, Calvin C; Karyakina, Nataliya A; Yokel, Robert A; Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Wisniewski, Thomas M; Arnold, Ian M F; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    oxidative damage that leads to intrinsic apoptosis. In contrast, the toxicity of the insoluble Al oxides depends primarily on their behavior as particulates. Aluminum has been held responsible for human morbidity and mortality, but there is no consistent and convincing evidence to associate the Al found in food and drinking water at the doses and chemical forms presently consumed by people living in North America and Western Europe with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neither is there clear evidence to show use of Al-containing underarm antiperspirants or cosmetics increases the risk of AD or breast cancer. Metallic Al, its oxides, and common Al salts have not been shown to be either genotoxic or carcinogenic. Aluminum exposures during neonatal and pediatric parenteral nutrition (PN) can impair bone mineralization and delay neurological development. Adverse effects to vaccines with Al adjuvants have occurred; however, recent controlled trials found that the immunologic response to certain vaccines with Al adjuvants was no greater, and in some cases less than, that after identical vaccination without Al adjuvants. The scientific literature on the adverse health effects of Al is extensive. Health risk assessments for Al must take into account individual co-factors (e.g., age, renal function, diet, gastric pH). Conclusions from the current review point to the need for refinement of the PTWI, reduction of Al contamination in PN solutions, justification for routine addition of Al to vaccines, and harmonization of OELs for Al substances. PMID:25233067

  10. Arsenic Adsorption Equilibrium Concentration and Adsorption Rate of Activated Carbon Coated with Ferric-Aluminum Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Oguma, T.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In some areas of developing countries, ground or well water contaminated with arsenic has been reluctantly used as drinking water. It is highly desirable that effective and inexpensive arsenic removal agents should be developed and provided to reduce the potential health risk. Previous studies demonstrated that activated carbon coated with ferric-aluminum hydroxides (Fe-Al-C) has high adsorptive potential for removal of arsenic. In this study, a series of experiments using Fe-Al-C were carried to discuss adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorption rate of arsenic for Fe-Al-C. Fe-Al-C used in this study was provided by Astec Co., Ltd. Powder reagent of disodium hydrogen arsenate heptahydrate was dissolved into ion-exchanged water. The solution was then further diluted with ion-exchanged water to be 1 and 10 mg/L as arsenic concentration. The pH of the solution was adjusted to be around 7 by adding HCl and/or NaOH. The solution was used as artificial arsenic contaminated water in two types of experiments (arsenic adsorption equilibrium and arsenic adsorption rate tests). The results of the arsenic equilibrium tests were showed that a time period of about 3 days to reach apparent adsorption equilibrium for arsenic. The apparent adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorbed amount of arsenic on Fe-Al-C adsorbent could be estimated by application of various adsorption isotherms, but the distribution coefficient of arsenic between solid and liquid varies with experimental conditions such as initial concentration of arsenic and addition concentration of adsorbent. An adsorption rate equation that takes into account the reduction in the number of effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent caused by the arsenic adsorption reaction was derived based on the data obtained from the arsenic adsorption rate tests.

  11. Density functional studies of the hydrolysis of aluminum (chloro)hydroxide in water with CPMD and COSMO.

    PubMed

    Saukkoriipi, Jaakko J; Laasonen, Kari

    2008-10-30

    Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) and the static density functional method (DFT) with a conductor-like screening model (COSMO) were used to investigate the chemistry of aluminum (chloro)hydroxide in water. With these methods, the stability, reactivity, and acidic nature of the chosen chlorohydrate were able to be determined. Constrained molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the binding of chlorine in an aquatic environment. According to the results, aluminum preferred to be 5-fold-coordinated. In addition, the activation energy barriers for the dissociation of chlorine atoms from the original chlorohydrate structure were able to be determined. The actual values for the barriers were 14 +/- 3 and 40 +/- 5 kJ mol (-1). The results also revealed the acidity of the original cationic dimer. DFT with COSMO was used to determine free energy differences for the reactions detected in the molecular dynamic simulations. In conclusion, new results and insight into the aquatic chemistry of the aluminum (chloro)hydroxides are provided. PMID:18834096

  12. Alum, an Aluminum Based Adjuvant, Induces Sjögren’s Syndrome-like Disorder in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bagavant, Harini; Nandula, Seshagiri Rao; Kaplonek, Paulina; Rybakowska, Paulina D.; Deshmukh, Umesh S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adjuvant induced innate immune responses have been suspected to play a role in the initiation of certain autoimmune disorders. This study investigates the role of alum, an aluminum based adjuvant in the induction of Sjögren’s syndrome-like disorder in mice. Methods Inbred, female New Zealand Mixed (NZM) 2758 strain of mice were injected with alum. Control mice were treated similarly with PBS. Mice were monitored for salivary gland dysfunction by measuring pilocarpine induced salivation. Presence of lymphocytic infiltrates within the submandibular glands was studied by histopathology. Autoantibodies to Ro and La proteins were analyzed by ELISA and the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence. Results By eight weeks after treatment, the saliva production in alum treated mice was significantly decreased in comparison to the PBS treated mice. This functional loss persisted till the termination of experiments at 20wks. The incidence and severity of sialoadenitis was significantly higher in the alum treated mice. Although there were no differences in the levels of anti-Ro/La autoantibodies in sera of alum and PBS treated groups, the alum group showed higher ANA reactivity. Conclusion In the NZM2758 mice, alum induces a Sjögren’s syndrome-like disorder that is characterized by chronic salivary gland dysfunction and the presence of lymphocytic infiltrates within the salivary glands. Thus, the potential of aluminum based adjuvants for induction of autoimmunity should be closely monitored in individuals genetically susceptible to developing autoimmune disorders. PMID:24739520

  13. Preparation of a nanodispersed aluminum hydroxide-based binder used for the production of refractory corundum ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetchinkina, T. N.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Averin, V. V.; Olyunina, T. V.

    2015-03-01

    The preparation of the rehydrated metastable ρ phase of alumina with a large specific surface based on domestic aluminum hydroxide is studied in order to develop a method for producing a calcium-free binder (analog of the α-Bond binder produced abroad by the Almatis company for the preparation of corundum refractories with a high thermal stability). Three types of aluminum hydroxide specimens from three enterprises, i.e., obtained from different raw materials and by different methods, are studied. The specimens with a specific surface smaller than ~240 m2/g represented by the η-, χ-, ν-, θ-, ρ,and δ-Al2O3 structural modifications are isolated due to "impact" dehydration. The dehydration of Al(OH)3 under reduced pressures is studied. The product with a phase composition closest to that of the α-Bond binder is obtained under an impact thermal load at 600°C and a rarefaction of 0.01 MPa.

  14. Surfactant-coated aluminum hydroxide for the rapid removal and biodegradation of hydrophobic organic pollutants in water.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Tohru; Yamaguchi, Masato; Hiraide, Masataka

    2011-02-01

    The removal of hydrophobic organic pollutants in water to surfactant-coated aluminum hydroxide [surfactant-Al(OH)(3)] was investigated. Anionic surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT), and sodium oleate were sorbed on positively charged aluminum hydroxide at pH 7 and formed hydrophobic aggregates that can incorporate hydrophobic organic pollutants in water. Because of the hydrophobic interaction and decrease in the positive charge, surfactant-Al(OH)(3) was coagulated into precipitates that can readily be separated from water. Hydrophobic organic pollutants such as alkylphenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, estrogens, chlorinated antifungals, and pesticides were well collected to the precipitates and thus efficiently removed from water. The collection of hydrophobic organic pollutants was correlated to their aqueous-octanol distribution coefficient. The decomposition of hydrophobic organic pollutants was examined using a bacterial agent (Bacillus subtilis). Hydrophobic organic compounds collected to AOT-Al(OH)(3) or sodium oleate-Al(OH)(3) were insufficiently decomposed. On the other hand, nonylphenol, octylphenol, and pendimethalin collected to SDS-Al(OH)(3) were decomposed within 1 week. The decomposition was accelerated by the collection to SDS-Al(OH)(3). PMID:21193213

  15. Isatis indigotica root polysaccharides as adjuvants for an inactivated rabies virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijiao; Zheng, Xuexing; Cheng, Nan; Gai, Weiwei; Xue, Xianghong; Wang, Yuxia; Gao, Yuwei; Shan, Junjie; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-06-01

    Adjuvants can enhance vaccine immunogenicity and induce long-term enhancement of immune responses. Thus, adjuvants are important for vaccine research. Polysaccharides isolated from select Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to possess various beneficial functions and excellent adjuvant abilities. In the present study, the polysaccharides IIP-A-1 and IIP-2 were isolated from Isatis indigotica root and compared with the common vaccine adjuvant aluminum hydroxide via intramuscular co-administration of inactivated rabies virus rCVS-11-G into mice. Blood was collected to determine virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers and B and T lymphocyte activation status. Inguinal lymph node samples were collected and used to measure B lymphocyte proliferation. Splenocytes were isolated, from which antigen-specific cellular immune responses were detected via ELISpot, ELISA and intracellular cytokine staining. The results revealed that both types of polysaccharides induce more rapid changes and higher VNA titers than aluminum hydroxide. Flow cytometry assays revealed that the polysaccharides activated more B lymphocytes in the lymph nodes and more B and T lymphocytes in the blood than aluminum hydroxide. Antigen-specific cellular immune responses showed that IIP-2 strongly induced T lymphocyte proliferation in the spleen and high levels of cytokine secretion from splenocytes, whereas aluminum hydroxide induced proliferation in only a small number of lymphocytes and the secretion of only small quantities of cytokines. Collectively, these data suggest that the polysaccharide IIP-2 exhibits excellent adjuvant activity and can enhance both cellular and humoral immunity. PMID:26875535

  16. Comparison of the kinetic laws of the dissolution of bauxite and aluminum and iron(III) oxides and hydroxides in hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gololobova, E. G.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Kozlov, K. V.

    2013-07-01

    The influence of the temperature and concentration of a hydrochloric acid solution on the dissolution kinetics of aluminum and iron(III) oxides and hydroxides and a natural sample of aluminum-containing raw materials, bauxite, is studied. The rate W of the transition of iron(III) ions from bauxite is higher than the rate of aluminum ion transition. The dependence of the fraction of a dissolved solid phase on time τ of dissolution of the oxides and hydroxides is determined, α = 1 — exp(- Asinh( Wτ)). The solubility of iron(III) chloride increases and that of aluminum chloride decreases as the HCl concentration increases. An empirical equation is proposed for the description of the dependence of the process rate on a series of parameters,.

  17. Acceptance testing of the eddy current probes for measurement of aluminum hydroxide coating thickness on K West Basin fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-08-21

    During a recent visual inspection campaign of fuel elements stored in the K West Basin, it was noted that fuel elements contained in sealed aluminum canisters had a heavy translucent type coating on their surfaces (Pitner 1997a). Subsequent sampling of this coating in a hot cell (Pitner 1997b) and analysis of the material identified it as aluminum hydroxide. Because of the relatively high water content of this material, safety related concerns are raised with respect to long term storage of this fuel in Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). A campaign in the basin is planned to demonstrate whether this coating can be removed by mechanical brushing (Bridges 1998). Part of this campaign involves before-and-after measurements of the coating thickness to determine the effectiveness of coating removal by the brushing machine. Measurements of the as-deposited coating thickness on multiple fuel elements are also expected to provide total coating inventory information needed for MCO safety evaluations. The measurement technique must be capable of measuring coating thicknesses on the order of several mils, with a measurement accuracy of 0.5 mil. Several different methods for quantitatively measuring these thin coatings were considered in selecting the most promising approach. Ultrasonic measurement was investigated, but it was determined that due to the thin coating depth and the high water content of the material, the signal would likely pass directly through to the cladding without ever sensing the coating surface. X-ray fluorescence was also identified as a candidate technique, but would not work because the high gamma background from the irradiated fuel would swamp out the low energy aluminum signal. Laser interferometry could possibly be applied, but considerable development would be required and it was considered to be high risk on a short term basis. The consensus reached was that standard eddy current techniques for coating thickness measurement had the best chance for

  18. Corrosion resistance of flaky aluminum pigment coated with cerium oxides/hydroxides in chloride and acidic electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niroumandrad, S.; Rostami, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to enhance the corrosion resistance of lamellar aluminum pigment through surface treatment by cerium oxides/hydroxides. The surface composition of the pigments was studied by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion resistance of the pigment was evaluated by conventional hydrogen evolution measurements in acidic solution and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. Results showed that the Ce-rich coating composed of Ce2O3 and CeO2 was precipitated on the pigment surface after immersion in the cerium solution. The corrosion resistance of pigment was significantly enhanced after modification with cerium layer.

  19. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p) for ...

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and efficacy of antituberculosis isoniazid zinc aluminum-layered double hydroxide based nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Saifullah, Bullo; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J; Geilich, Benjamin Mahler; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2016-01-01

    The chemotherapy for tuberculosis (TB) is complicated by its long-term treatment, its frequent drug dosing, and the adverse effects of anti-TB drugs. In this study, we have developed two nanocomposites (A and B) by intercalating the anti-TB drug isoniazid (INH) into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides. The average size of the nanocomposites was found to bê164 nm. The efficacy of the Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides intercalated INH against Mycobacterium tuberculosis was increased by approximately three times more than free INH. The nanocomposites were also found to be active against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to the free INH, the nanodelivery formulation was determined to be three times more biocompatible with human normal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells and 3T3 fibroblast cells at a very high concentration of 50 µg/mL for up to 72 hours. The in vitro release of INH from the Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides was found to be sustained in human body-simulated buffer solutions of pH 4.8 and 7.4. This research is a step forward in making the TB chemotherapy patient friendly. PMID:27486322

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and efficacy of antituberculosis isoniazid zinc aluminum-layered double hydroxide based nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Saifullah, Bullo; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J; Geilich, Benjamin Mahler; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2016-01-01

    The chemotherapy for tuberculosis (TB) is complicated by its long-term treatment, its frequent drug dosing, and the adverse effects of anti-TB drugs. In this study, we have developed two nanocomposites (A and B) by intercalating the anti-TB drug isoniazid (INH) into Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides. The average size of the nanocomposites was found to bê164 nm. The efficacy of the Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides intercalated INH against Mycobacterium tuberculosis was increased by approximately three times more than free INH. The nanocomposites were also found to be active against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to the free INH, the nanodelivery formulation was determined to be three times more biocompatible with human normal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells and 3T3 fibroblast cells at a very high concentration of 50 µg/mL for up to 72 hours. The in vitro release of INH from the Zn/Al-layered double hydroxides was found to be sustained in human body-simulated buffer solutions of pH 4.8 and 7.4. This research is a step forward in making the TB chemotherapy patient friendly. PMID:27486322

  2. Aluminium hydroxide adjuvant initiates strong antigen-specific Th2 responses in the absence of IL-4- or IL-13-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Brewer, J M; Conacher, M; Hunter, C A; Mohrs, M; Brombacher, F; Alexander, J

    1999-12-15

    Previous studies demonstrate that aluminium hydroxide adjuvant (alum) produces increased Th1 responses in IL-4-deficient mice compared with wild-type animals, although the continued production of IL-5 by spleen cells from these mice also indicates that Th2 responses are induced. In the present study, we demonstrate that alum can induce Th2-associated IL-4 and IL-5 production in the absence of IL-4 signaling in mice deficient in either IL-4Ralpha or Stat6. The Th2 responses observed could not be due to IL-13 as IL-13 responses are also impaired in IL-4Ralpha- and Stat6-deficient mice. We also detected higher levels of IL-4 in IL-4Ralpha gene-deficient, though not Stat6-deficient, mice compared with their wild-type counterparts. The increased levels of IL-4 could be explained by the IL-4R being unavailable to neutralize this cytokine in IL-4Ralpha-deficient mice. While levels of IL-5 production in IL-4Ralpha- or Stat6-deficient mice were similar to IL-4-deficient and wild-type mice, other type 2-associated responses, which are largely or wholly IL-4 dependent, such as the production of IgG1 or IgE Abs, were either reduced or absent. We conclude that alum adjuvants can induce IL-4 production and Th2 responses independently of IL-4 or IL-13, negating the requirement for an early source of IL-4 in the Th2 response induced by this adjuvant. PMID:10586035

  3. Solubility of aluminum in the presence of hydroxide, fluoride, and sulfate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberson, Charles Elmer; Hem, John David

    1969-01-01

    The total concentration of aqueous dissolved species of aluminum that will be present in equilibrium with microcrystalline gibbsite at various levels of complexing ligand concentration are shown graphically. The graphs can be used to estimate aluminum solubility, at 25?C and 1 atmosphere total pressure, when the pH of the solution, its ionic strength, and the total sulfate and fluoride concentrations are known. The standard free energy of formation of cryolite calculated from solubility experiments is --745.4 ? 1.0 kcal per mole at 25?C. Diagrams are included showing the solubility of cryolite in terms of aluminum, fluoride, and sodium concentrations. The stability fields of cryolite and microcrystalline gibbsite and their solubilities also are shown on pH-[F] diagrams.

  4. Adjuvants for vaccines to drugs of abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R; Torres, Oscar; Jalah, Rashmi; Beck, Zoltan

    2014-09-22

    Immunotherapeutic vaccines to drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, heroin, oxycodone, methamphetamine, and others are being developed. The theoretical basis of such vaccines is to induce antibodies that sequester the drug in the blood in the form of antibody-bound drug that cannot cross the blood brain barrier, thereby preventing psychoactive effects. Because the drugs are haptens a successful vaccine relies on development of appropriate hapten-protein carrier conjugates. However, because induction of high and prolonged levels of antibodies is required for an effective vaccine, and because injection of T-independent haptenic drugs of abuse does not induce memory recall responses, the role of adjuvants during immunization plays a critical role. As reviewed herein, preclinical studies often use strong adjuvants such as complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant and others that cannot be, or in the case of many newer adjuvants, have never been, employed in humans. Balanced against this, the only adjuvant that has been included in candidate vaccines in human clinical trials to nicotine and cocaine has been aluminum hydroxide gel. While aluminum salts have been widely utilized worldwide in numerous licensed vaccines, the experience with human responses to aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines to haptenic drugs of abuse has suggested that the immune responses are too weak to allow development of a successful vaccine. What is needed is an adjuvant or combination of adjuvants that are safe, potent, widely available, easily manufactured, and cost-effective. Based on our review of the field we recommend the following adjuvant combinations either for research or for product development for human use: aluminum salt with adsorbed monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA); liposomes containing MPLA [L(MPLA)]; L(MPLA) adsorbed to aluminum salt; oil-in-water emulsion; or oil-in-water emulsion containing MPLA. PMID:25111169

  5. Structural Characterization of Aluminum (Oxy)hydroxide Films at the Muscovite (001)-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Soo; Schmidt, Moritz; Fister, Timothy T; Nagy, Kathryn L; Sturchio, Neil C; Fenter, Paul

    2016-01-19

    The formation of Al (oxy)hydroxide on the basal surface of muscovite mica was investigated to understand how the structure of the substrate controls the nucleation and growth of secondary phases. Atomic force microscopy images showed that solid phases nucleated on the surface initially as two-dimensional islands that were ≤10 Å in height and ≤200 Å in diameter after 16-50 h of reaction in a 100 μM AlCl3 solution at pH 4.2 at room temperature. High-resolution X-ray reflectivity data indicated that these islands were gibbsite layers whose basic unit is composed of a plane of Al ions octahedrally coordinated to oxygen or hydroxyl groups. The formation of gibbsite layers is likely favored because of the structural similarity between its basal plane and the underlying mica surface. After 700-2000 h of reaction, a thicker and continuous film had formed on top of the initial gibbsite layers. X-ray diffraction data showed that this film was composed of diaspore that grew predominantly with its [040] and [140] crystallographic directions oriented along the muscovite [001] direction. These results show the structural characteristics of the muscovite (001) and Al (oxy)hydroxide film interface where presumed epitaxy had facilitated nucleation of metastable gibbsite layers which acted as a structural anchor for the subsequent growth of thermodynamically stable diaspore grown from a mildly acidic and Al-rich solution. PMID:26681160

  6. Mechanism of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate sorption on amorphous aluminum hydroxide: spectroscopic evidence for rapid surface precipitation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yupeng; Li, Wei; Yang, Jun; Zheng, Anmin; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan; Sparks, Donald L

    2014-06-17

    Inositol hexakisphosphates are the most abundant organic phosphates (OPs) in most soils and sediments. Adsorption, desorption, and precipitation reactions at environmental interfaces govern the reactivity, speciation, mobility, and bioavailability of inositol hexakisphosphates in terrestrial and aquatic environments. However, surface complexation and precipitation reactions of inositol hexakisphosphates on soil minerals have not been well understood. Here we investigate the surface complexation-precipitation process and mechanism of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP, phytate) on amorphous aluminum hydroxide (AAH) using macroscopic sorption experiments and multiple spectroscopic tools. The AAH (16.01 μmol m(-2)) exhibits much higher sorption density than boehmite (0.73 μmol m(-2)) and α-Al2O3 (1.13 μmol m(-2)). Kinetics of IHP sorption and accompanying OH(-) release, as well as zeta potential measurements, indicate that IHP is initially adsorbed on AAH through inner-sphere complexation via ligand exchange, followed by AAH dissolution and ternary complex formation; last, the ternary complexes rapidly transform to surface precipitates and bulk phase analogous to aluminum phytate (Al-IHP). The pH level, reaction time, and initial IHP loading evidently affect the interaction of IHP on AAH. In situ ATR-FTIR and solid-state NMR spectra further demonstrate that IHP sorbs on AAH and transforms to surface precipitates analogous to Al-IHP, consistent with the results of XRD analysis. This study indicates that active metal oxides such as AAH strongly mediate the speciation and behavior of IHP via rapid surface complexation-precipitation reactions, thus controlling the mobility and bioavailability of inositol phosphates in the environment. PMID:24871399

  7. ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  8. Chromium and yttrium-doped magnesium aluminum oxides prepared from layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, J. M.; Pérez-Bernal, M. E.; Ruano-Casero, R. J.; Rives, V.

    2007-12-01

    Layered double hydroxides with the hydrotalcite-like structures, containing Mg 2+ and Al 3+, doped with Cr 3+ and Y 3+, have been prepared by precipitation at constant pH. The weight percentages of Cr 3+ and Y 3+ were 1, 2, or 3%, and 0.5 or 1%, respectively. Single phases were obtained in all cases, whose crystallinity decreased as the content in Cr and Y was increased. The solids have been characterised by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (differential, thermogravimetric and programmed reduction), FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopies; the specific surface areas have been determined from nitrogen adsorption isotherms at -196 °C. Upon calcination at 1200 °C for 5 h in air all solids display a mixed structure (spinel and rock salt for MgO); these solids have also been characterised by these techniques and their chromatic coordinates (CIE - L∗a∗b∗) have been determined. Their pink colour makes these solids suitable for being used as ceramic pigments.

  9. How the method of synthesis governs the local and global structure of zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Pushparaj, Suraj Shiv Charan; Forano, Claude; Prevot, Vanessa; Lipton, Andrew S.; Rees, Gregory; Hanna, John V.; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

    2015-11-10

    A series of zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides (ZnAl LDHs), [Zn1-xAlx (OH)2Ax,nH2O with A = NO3-, Cl- or CO3] were prepared by the urea and co-precipitation synthesis methods, which allowed for a detailed investigation on how synthesis parameters such as pH, metal ion concentration and post synthesis treatment influence the local and global structure of the LDH product. Information about sample composition, purity, defects and other structural aspects of the LDH products were obtained from powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman, and elemental analysis, as well as solid state 1H, 27Al and 67Zn NMR spectroscopy. Our results show that the urea method results in LDHs, which on the global scale are highly crystalline LDHs, whereas solid state NMR shows the different local environments indicating local disorder most likely linked to the presence of Al-rich phases. However, these Alrich phases are not detected by global range techniques, as they either defects within the LDH particles or separate phase(s) associated with LDHs. In contrast, samples prepared by coprecipitation especially synthesized under careful pH control and subsequently hydrothermal treated have high local order and good crystallinity (particle size). Our results show that both molecular level and macroscopic techniques are needed to assess the composition of LDHs, as the conventional PXRD and TEM analysis of LDHs failed to identify the many structural defects and/or amorphous phases.

  10. Preparation of Nickel-Aluminum-Containing Layered Double Hydroxide Films by Secondary (Seeded) Growth Method and Their Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fazhi; Guo, Li; Xu, Sailong; Zhang, Rong

    2015-06-23

    Thin films of nickel-aluminum-containing layered double hydroxide (NiAl-LDH) have been prepared on nickel foil and nickel foam substrates by secondary (seeded) growth of NiAl-LDH seed layer. The preparation procedure consists of deposition of LDH seeds from a colloidal suspension on the substrate by dip coating, followed by hydrothermal treatment of the nanocrystals to form the LDH film. The secondary grown film is found to provide a higher crystallinity and more uniform composition of metal cations in the film layer than the in situ grown film on seed-free substrate under identical hydrothermal conditions. A systematic investigation of the film evolution process reveals that the crystallite growth rate is relatively fast for the secondary grown film because of the presence of LDH nanocrystal seeds. Electrochemical performance of the resulting NiAl-LDH films as positive electrode material was further assessed as an example of their practical applications. The secondary grown film electrode delivers improved recharge-discharge capacity and cycling stability compared with that of the in situ grown film, which can be explained by the existence of a unique microstructure of the former. Our findings show an example for the effective fabrication of LDH film with controllable microstructure and enhanced application performance through a secondary (seeded) growth procedure. PMID:26033419

  11. Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 gene DNA possibly bound to particulate aluminum adjuvant in the HPV vaccine Gardasil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin Hang

    2012-12-01

    Medical practitioners in nine countries submitted samples of Gardasil (Merck & Co.) to be tested for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA because they suspected that residual recombinant HPV DNA left in the vaccine might have been a contributing factor leading to some of the unexplained post-vaccination side effects. A total of 16 packages of Gardasil were received from Australia, Bulgaria, France, India, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, Spain and the United States. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using the MY09/MY11 degenerate primers for initial amplification and the GP5/GP6-based nested PCR primers for the second amplification were used to prepare the template for direct automated cycle DNA sequencing of a hypervariable segment of the HPV L1 gene which is used for manufacturing of the HPV L1 capsid protein by a DNA recombinant technology in vaccine production. Detection of HPV DNA and HPV genotyping of all positive samples were finally validated by BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) analysis of a 45-60 bases sequence of the computer-generated electropherogram. The results showed that all 16 Gardasil samples, each with a different lot number, contained fragments of HPV-11 DNA, or HPV-18 DNA, or a DNA fragment mixture from both genotypes. The detected HPV DNA was found to be firmly bound to the insoluble, proteinase-resistant fraction, presumably of amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate (AAHS) nanoparticles used as adjuvant. The clinical significance of these residual HPV DNA fragments bound to a particulate mineral-based adjuvant is uncertain after intramuscular injection, and requires further investigation for vaccination safety. PMID:23078778

  12. Evaluation of hyaluronic acid-based combination adjuvant containing monophosphoryl lipid A and aluminum salt for hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Moon, Se-hee; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Noh, Young-Woock; Lim, Yong Taik

    2015-09-11

    Here, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and aluminum salt (Alum) were introduced into a hyaluronic acid (HA)-based combination vaccine adjuvant for hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). Although Alum is a well-known hepatitis B vaccine adjuvant that induces an enhanced humoral immune response, it cannot induce the cellular immune responses. On the other hand, MPLA has been generally reported to promote IFN-γ production via antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells, but it is not water soluble as a result of its long hydrophobic alkyl chains. To this end, water insoluble MPLA could be solubilized in an aqueous solution with the help of HA, which contains many carboxyl and hydroxyl groups that can be used to attach to the hydroxyl head groups of MPLA via hydrogen bonds. Three groups of mice were treated with either hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) alone, HBsAg_Alum complex, or HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex. The group immunized with the HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex exhibited a high increase in cellular immune response as well as in humoral immune response relative to the other two groups. The antibody, cytokine and T cell levels were most elevated in the group of mice immunized with HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex, even at a 1μg/mice dose, and the magnitude was still maintained even after 8 weeks. Specifically, the antibody value was 120 times larger in mice vaccinated with HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex than in mice vaccinated with HBsAg_Alum complex designed similar to commercially available hepatitis B vaccine, Engerix B. The cytokine and T cell proliferation levels were 2 times and 6 times larger in mice adjuvanted with HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex than in those vaccinated with HBsAg_Alum. The results therefore indicate that incorporating MPLA and Alum with HA can be a potent strategy to increase both the magnitude and the persistence of HBsAg-specific immune responses to protect hosts against hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:26271830

  13. A Method of Lyophilizing Vaccines Containing Aluminum Salts into a Dry Powder Without Causing Particle Aggregation or Decreasing the Immunogenicity Following Reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinran; Thakkar, Sachin G.; Ruwona, Tinashe B.; Williams, Robert O.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2015-01-01

    Many currently licensed and commercially available human vaccines contain aluminum salts as vaccine adjuvants. A major limitation with these vaccines is that they must not be exposed to freezing temperatures during transport or storage such that the liquid vaccine freezes, because freezing causes irreversible coagulation that damages the vaccines (e.g., loss of efficacy). Therefore, vaccines that contain aluminum salts as adjuvants are formulated as liquid suspensions and are required to be kept in cold chain (2–8°C) during transport and storage. Formulating vaccines adjuvanted with aluminum salts into dry powder that can be readily reconstituted before injection may address the limitation. Spray freeze-drying of vaccines with low concentrations of aluminum salts and high concentrations of trehalose alone, or a mixture of sugars and amino acids, as excipients can convert vaccines containing aluminum salts into dry powder, but fails to preserve the particle size and/or immunogenicity of the vaccines. In the present study, using ovalbumin as a model antigen adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate, a commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccine adjuvanted with potassium alum, a human hepatitis B vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, and a human papillomavirus vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, it was shown that vaccines containing a relatively high concentration of aluminum salts (i.e., up to ~1%, w/v, of aluminum hydroxide) can be converted into a dry powder by thin-film freezing followed by removal of the frozen solvent by lyophilization while using low levels of trehalose (i.e., as low as 2% w/v) as an excipient. Importantly, the thin-film freeze-drying process did not cause particle aggregation, nor decreased the immunogenicity of the vaccines. Moreover, repeated freezing-and-thawing of the dry vaccine powder did not cause aggregation. Thin-film freeze-drying is a viable platform technology to produce dry powders of

  14. Preparation and controlled-release studies of a protocatechuic acid-magnesium/aluminum-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Barahuie, Farahnaz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer Hasan; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2013-01-01

    In the study reported here, magnesium/aluminum (Mg/Al)-layered double hydroxide (LDH) was intercalated with an anticancer drug, protocatechuic acid, using ion-exchange and direct coprecipitation methods, with the resultant products labeled according to the method used to produce them: “PANE” (ie, protocatechuic acid-Mg/Al nanocomposite synthesized using the ion-exchange method) and “PAND” (ie, protocatechuic acid-Mg/Al nanocomposite synthesized using the direct method), respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the intercalation of protocatechuic acid into the inter-galleries of Mg/Al-LDH. The protocatechuic acid between the interlayers of PANE and PAND was found to be a monolayer, with an angle from the z-axis of 8° for PANE and 15° for PAND. Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis results revealed that the thermal stability of protocatechuic acid was markedly enhanced upon intercalation. The loading of protocatechuic acid in PANE and PAND was estimated to be about 24.5% and 27.5% (w/w), respectively. The in vitro release study of protocatechuic acid from PANE and PAND in phosphate-buffered saline at pH 7.4, 5.3, and 4.8 revealed that the nanocomposites had a sustained release property. After 72 hours incubation of PANE and PAND with MCF-7 human breast cancer and HeLa human cervical cancer cell lines, it was found that the nanocomposites had suppressed the growth of these cancer cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 35.6 μg/mL for PANE and 36.0 μg/mL for PAND for MCF-7 cells, and 19.8 μg/mL for PANE and 30.3 μg/mL for PAND for HeLa cells. No half maximal inhibitory concentration for either nanocomposite was found for 3T3 cells. PMID:23737666

  15. One-step hydrothermal crystallization of a layered double hydroxide/alumina bilayer film on aluminum and its corrosion resistance properties.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Sailong; Zhao, Lili; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Fazhi; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2009-09-01

    A zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDH)/alumina bilayer film has been fabricated on an aluminum substrate by a one-step hydrothermal crystallization method. The LDH film was uniform and compact. XRD patterns and SEM images showed that the LDH film was highly oriented with the c-axis of the crystallites parallel to the substrate surface. The alumina layer existing between the LDH film and the substrate was formed prior to the LDH during the crystallization process. Polarization measurements showed that the bilayer film exhibited a low corrosion current density value of 10(-8) A/cm(2), which means that the LDH/alumina bilayer film can effectively protect aluminum from corrosion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the impedance of the bilayer was 16 MOmega, meaning that the film served as a passive layer with a high charge transfer resistance. The adhesion between the film and the substrate was very strong which enhances its potential for practical application. PMID:19441823

  16. Aluminum-26 as a biological tracer using accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flarend, Richard Edward

    1997-06-01

    The development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has provided a practical method of detection for the only isotope of aluminum suitable as a tracer, 26Al. The use of 26Al as a tracer for aluminum has made possible the study of aluminum metabolism and the pharmacokinetics of aluminum-containing drugs at physiological levels. An overview of the various advantages of using 26Al as a tracer for aluminum and a general description of the AMS technique as applied to bio-medical applications is given. To illustrate the versatility of 26Al as a tracer for aluminum, 26Al studies of the past several years are discussed briefly. In addition, Two novel investigations dealing with 26Al-labeled drugs will be presented in more detail. In one of these studies, it was found that 26Al from aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate vaccine adjuvants appeared in the blood just one hour after intramuscular injection. This is a surprising result since the currently held theory of how adjuvants work assumes that adjuvants remain insoluble and hold the antigen at the injection site for a long period of time. In another project, 26Al-labeled antiperspirants are being characterized by combining AMS with traditional analytical and chromatographic techniques. Future directions for this and other possible studies are discussed.

  17. Effect of single flame retardant aluminum tri-hydroxide and boric acid against inflammability and biodegradability of recycled PP/KF composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suharty, Neng Sri; Dihardjo, Kuncoro; Handayani, Desi Suci; Firdaus, Maulidan

    2016-03-01

    Composites rPP/DVB/AA/KF had been reactively synthesized in melt using starting material: recycled polypropylene (rPP), kenaf fiber (KF), multifunctional compound acrylic acid (AA), compatibilizer divinyl benzene (DVB). To improve the inflammability of composites, single flame retardant aluminum tri-hydroxide (ATH) and boric acid (BA) as an additive was added. The inflammability of the composites was tested according to ASTM D635. By using 20% ATH and 5% BA additive in the composites it is effectively inhibiting its time to ignition (TTI). Its burning rate (BR) can be reduced and its heat realease (%HR) decreases. The biodegradability of composites was quantified by its losing weight (LW) of composites after buried for 4 months in the media with rich cellulolytic bacteria. The result shows that the LW of composites in the presence 20% ATH and 5% BA is 6.3%.

  18. EC-18, a synthetic monoacetyldiglyceride (1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetylglycerol), attenuates the asthmatic response in an aluminum hydroxide/ovalbumin-induced model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Sohn, Ki-Young; Lee, Tae-Suk; Kim, Jae-Wha; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2014-01-01

    EC-18 is a synthetic monoacetyldiaglyceride that is a major constituent in antlers of Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temmenick). In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of EC-18 on Th2-type cytokines, eosinophil infiltration, and other factors in an aluminum hydroxide/ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. Mice were sensitized on days 0 and 14 by intraperitoneal injection of OVA with aluminum hydroxide. On days 21, 22 and 23 after the initial sensitization, the mice received an airway challenge with OVA for 1h using an ultrasonic nebulizer. EC-18 was administered to mice by oral gavage at doses of 30mg/kg and 60mg/kg once daily from day 18 to 23. Methacholine responsiveness was measured 24h after the final OVA challenge, and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 48h after the final OVA challenge. EC-18 significantly reduced methacholine responsiveness, T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines, eotaxin-1, immunoglobulin (Ig) E, IgG, and the number of inflammatory cells. In addition, EC-18-treated mice exhibited the reduction in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung tissue. In the histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin stain and periodic acid-Schiff stain, EC-18 attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airway and reduced the level of mucus production. Our results showed that EC-18 effectively suppressed the asthmatic response induced by OVA challenge. These effects were considered to be associated with iNOS suppression. In conclusion, this study suggests that EC-18 may be a therapeutic agent for allergic asthma. PMID:24269625

  19. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing : Part III. Long-term aluminum hydroxide precipitation tests in borated water.

    SciTech Connect

    Bahn, C. B.; Kasza, K. E.; Shack, W. J.; Natesan, K.; Klein, P.

    2011-05-01

    Long-term aluminum (Al) hydroxide precipitation tests were conducted in slightly alkaline solutions containing 2500 ppm boron. The solution temperature was cycled to obtain a temperature history more representative of emergency core cooling system temperatures after a loss-of-coolant accident. The observed Al precipitation boundary was close to predicted results for amorphous precipitates, which are higher than the solubility expected for crystalline forms. Bench-scale and loop head loss test results under various conditions were successfully combined into single map in a temperature - 'pH + p[Al]{sub T}' domain, which yielded two bounding lines for Al hydroxide solubility in borated alkaline water that depend on whether or not loop head loss tests with Al alloy coupons are included. Precipitates were observed to form either as fine, cloudy suspensions, which showed very little tendency to settle, or as flocculated precipitates. The flocculation tendency of the precipitates can be qualitatively explained by a colloid stability theory or a phase diagram for protein solutions.

  20. Influence of adjuvant and antigen dose on protection induced by an inactivated whole vaccine against Neospora caninum infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Montejo, Silvia; Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; Prenafeta, Antoni; Gomez-Bautista, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis M

    2011-02-10

    In this study, the protection afforded by a Neospora caninum inactivated vaccine formulated with three different adjuvants (water-in-oil emulsion, aluminum hydroxide with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and aluminum hydroxide with ginseng extract) and three different parasite doses (10(5), 5 × 10(5) or 10(6) inactivated whole tachyzoites) was evaluated using a mouse model. Mice were immunized subcutaneously twice at three-week intervals with inactivated Nc-Spain 1H tachyzoites and challenged by intraperitoneal inoculation with 10(6) live Nc-1 tachyzoites. The efficacy of the immunization was evaluated in non-pregnant BALB/c mice on days 1 and 5 (acute infection phase) and days 14 and 30 (chronic infection phase) post-challenge. The results showed the ability of water-in-oil emulsion combined with inactivated 5 × 10(5) tachyzoites to induce protection against neosporosis during the chronic stage, limiting parasite multiplication in the brain. Aluminum hydroxide-ginseng extract and inactivated tachyzoites reduced the number of parasites circulating in the blood during acute phase but failed to limit the establishment of chronic infection. On the other hand, a dose-effect was observed in groups vaccinated with aluminum hydroxide-ginseng extract in which the lesion severity increased as the inactivated tachyzoite dose. This study demonstrates that efficacy can significantly vary depending on the adjuvant, the dose of antigen and the phase of N. caninum infection in which the vaccine is tested. PMID:21067865

  1. Nickel-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Coating on the Surface of Conductive Substrates by Liquid Phase Deposition.

    PubMed

    Maki, Hideshi; Takigawa, Masashi; Mizuhata, Minoru

    2015-08-12

    The direct synthesis of the adhered Ni-Al LDH thin film onto the surface of electrically conductive substrates by the liquid phase deposition (LPD) reaction is carried out for the development of the positive electrode. The complexation and solution equilibria of the dissolved species in the LPD reaction have been clarified by a theoretical approach, and the LPD reaction conditions for the Ni-Al LDH depositions are shown to be optimized by controlling the fluoride ion concentration and the pH of the LPD reaction solutions. The yields of metal oxides and hydroxides by the LPD method are very sensitive to the supersaturation state of the hydroxide in the reaction solution. The surfaces of conductive substrates are completely covered by the minute mesh-like Ni-Al LDH thin film; furthermore, there is no gap between the surfaces of conductive substrates and the deposited Ni-Al LDH thin film. The active material layer thickness was able to be controlled within the range from 100 nm to 1 μm by the LPD reaction time. The high-crystallinity and the arbitrary-thickness thin films on the conductive substrate surface will be beneficial for the interface control of charge transfer reaction fields and the internal resistance reduction of various secondary batteries. PMID:26189509

  2. The adjuvant MF59 induces ATP release from muscle that potentiates response to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Vono, Maria; Taccone, Marianna; Caccin, Paola; Gallotta, Marilena; Donvito, Giovanna; Falzoni, Simonetta; Palmieri, Emiliano; Pallaoro, Michele; Rappuoli, Rino; Di Virgilio, Francesco; De Gregorio, Ennio; Montecucco, Cesare; Seubert, Anja

    2013-12-24

    Vaccines are the most effective agents to control infections. In addition to the pathogen antigens, vaccines contain adjuvants that are used to enhance protective immune responses. However, the molecular mechanism of action of most adjuvants is ill-known, and a better understanding of adjuvanticity is needed to develop improved adjuvants based on molecular targets that further enhance vaccine efficacy. This is particularly important for tuberculosis, malaria, AIDS, and other diseases for which protective vaccines do not exist. Release of endogenous danger signals has been linked to adjuvanticity; however, the role of extracellular ATP during vaccination has never been explored. Here, we tested whether ATP release is involved in the immune boosting effect of four common adjuvants: aluminum hydroxide, calcium phosphate, incomplete Freund's adjuvant, and the oil-in-water emulsion MF59. We found that intramuscular injection is always associated with a weak transient release of ATP, which was greatly enhanced by the presence of MF59 but not by all other adjuvants tested. Local injection of apyrase, an ATP-hydrolyzing enzyme, inhibited cell recruitment in the muscle induced by MF59 but not by alum or incomplete Freund's adjuvant. In addition, apyrase strongly inhibited influenza-specific T-cell responses and hemagglutination inhibition titers in response to an MF59-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine. These data demonstrate that a transient ATP release is required for innate and adaptive immune responses induced by MF59 and link extracellular ATP with an enhanced response to vaccination. PMID:24324152

  3. Antibody response in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) immunized with a model antigen associated with different adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Pavan, T R; Di Domenico, J; Kirsten, K S; Nied, C O; Frandoloso, R; Kreutz, L C

    2016-07-25

    Adjuvants are essential to boost the immune response to inoculated antigen and play a central role in vaccine development. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of several adjuvants in the production of anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies in silver catfish. Two hundred and seventy juvenile silver catfish (60-80 g) of both sexes were intraperitoneally vaccinated with BSA (200 µg/fish) alone or mixed to the following adjuvants: Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), aluminum hydroxide (AlOH), Montanide, four types of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and three concentrations of β-glucan, and the immune enhancing property was evaluated by measuring anti-BSA antibodies in blood samples at biweekly intervals. Our results demonstrated that CpGs ODNs and β-glucan were as effective as classical adjuvants (FCA, FIA, AlOH and Montanide) in promoting anti-BSA antibodies and that the kinetics of antibody production induced by all adjuvants used in our study had a similar trend to that observed in other fish species, with a peak at 28 days post-vaccination. These results may be useful for the selection of adjuvants for vaccine formulation intended for silver catfish and for the development of vaccine and vaccination strategies to other fish species. PMID:27464022

  4. Antibody response in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) immunized with a model antigen associated with different adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, T.R.; Di Domenico, J.; Kirsten, K.S.; Nied, C.O.; Frandoloso, R.; Kreutz, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvants are essential to boost the immune response to inoculated antigen and play a central role in vaccine development. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of several adjuvants in the production of anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies in silver catfish. Two hundred and seventy juvenile silver catfish (60–80 g) of both sexes were intraperitoneally vaccinated with BSA (200 µg/fish) alone or mixed to the following adjuvants: Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA), aluminum hydroxide (AlOH), Montanide, four types of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and three concentrations of β-glucan, and the immune enhancing property was evaluated by measuring anti-BSA antibodies in blood samples at biweekly intervals. Our results demonstrated that CpGs ODNs and β-glucan were as effective as classical adjuvants (FCA, FIA, AlOH and Montanide) in promoting anti-BSA antibodies and that the kinetics of antibody production induced by all adjuvants used in our study had a similar trend to that observed in other fish species, with a peak at 28 days post-vaccination. These results may be useful for the selection of adjuvants for vaccine formulation intended for silver catfish and for the development of vaccine and vaccination strategies to other fish species. PMID:27464022

  5. Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) 2013: Unveiling the pathogenic, clinical and diagnostic aspects.

    PubMed

    Perricone, Carlo; Colafrancesco, Serena; Mazor, Roei D; Soriano, Alessandra; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2013-12-01

    In 2011 a new syndrome termed 'ASIA Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants' was defined pointing to summarize for the first time the spectrum of immune-mediated diseases triggered by an adjuvant stimulus such as chronic exposure to silicone, tetramethylpentadecane, pristane, aluminum and other adjuvants, as well as infectious components, that also may have an adjuvant effect. All these environmental factors have been found to induce autoimmunity by themselves both in animal models and in humans: for instance, silicone was associated with siliconosis, aluminum hydroxide with post-vaccination phenomena and macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized to be involved in the onset of adjuvant-induced autoimmunity; a genetic favorable background plays a key role in the appearance on such vaccine-related diseases and also justifies the rarity of these phenomena. This paper will focus on protean facets which are part of ASIA, focusing on the roles and mechanisms of action of different adjuvants which lead to the autoimmune/inflammatory response. The data herein illustrate the critical role of environmental factors in the induction of autoimmunity. Indeed, it is the interplay of genetic susceptibility and environment that is the major player for the initiation of breach of tolerance. PMID:24238833

  6. REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK

    SciTech Connect

    HUBER HJ; DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

    2010-05-11

    A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sup +}X{sup -}) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 {micro}m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of {approx} 5 {micro}m diameter platelets with < 1 {micro}m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

  7. Novel hollow microspheres of hierarchical zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides and their enhanced adsorption capacity for phosphate in water.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiabin; Yang, Siliang; Yu, Jiaguo; Shu, Zhan

    2011-09-15

    Hollow microspheres of hierarchical Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method using urea as precipitating agent. The morphology and microstructure of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the morphology of hierarchical Zn-Al LDHs can be tuned from irregular platelets to hollow microspheres by simply varying concentrations of urea. The effects of initial phosphate concentration and contact time on phosphate adsorption using various Zn-Al LDHs and their calcined products (LDOs) were investigated from batch tests. Our results indicate that the equilibrium adsorption data were best fitted by Langmuir isothermal model, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 54.1-232 mg/g; adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and intra-particle diffusion model. In addition, Zn-Al LDOs are shown to be effective adsorbents for removing phosphate from aqueous solutions due to their hierarchical porous structures and high specific surface areas. PMID:21719194

  8. Facile one-step synthesis of nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes and Nickel-Aluminum layered double hydroxides with high cycling stability for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Bai, Caihui; Sun, Shiguo; Xu, Yongqian; Yu, Ruijin; Li, Hongjuan

    2016-10-15

    Nickel-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide (NiAl-LDH) and nanocomposite of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and NiAl-LDH (CNTs/NiAl-LDH) were prepared by using a facile one-step homogeneous precipitation approach. The morphology, structure and electrochemical properties of the as-prepared CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite were then systematically studied. According to the galvanostatic charge-discharge curves, the CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite exhibited a high specific capacitance of 694Fg(-1) at the 1Ag(-1). Furthermore, the specific capacitance of the CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite still retained 87% when the current density was increased from 1 to 10Ag(-1). These results indicated that the CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite displayed a higher specific capacitance and rate capability than pure NiAl-LDH. And the participation of CNTs in the NiAl-LDH composite improved the electrochemical properties. Additionally, the capacitance of the CNTs/NiAl-LDH nanocomposite kept at least 92% after 3000cycles at 20Ag(-1), suggesting that the nanocomposite exhibited excellent cycling durability. This strategy provided a facile and effective approach for the synthesis of nanocomposite based on CNTs and NiAl-LDH with enhanced supercapacitor behaviors, which can be potentially applied in energy storage conversion devices. PMID:27405071

  9. Aluminum doped nickel oxide thin film with improved electrochromic performance from layered double hydroxides precursor in situ pyrolytic route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingjing; Lai, Lincong; Zhang, Ping; Li, Hailong; Qin, Yumei; Gao, Yuanchunxue; Luo, Lei; Lu, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Electrochromic materials with unique performance arouse great interest on account of potential application values in smart window, low-power display, automobile anti-glare rearview mirror, and e-papers. In this paper, high-performing Al-doped NiO porous electrochromic film grown on ITO substrate has been prepared via a layered double hydroxides(LDHs) precursor in situ pyrolytic route. The Al3+ ions distributed homogenously within the NiO matrix can significantly influence the crystallinity of Ni-Al LDH and NiO:Al3+ films. The electrochromic performance of the films were evaluated by means of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry(CA) measurements. In addition, the ratio of Ni3+/Ni2+ also varies with Al content which can lead to different electrochemical performances. Among the as-prepared films, NiO film prepared from Ni-Al (19:1) LDH show the best electrochromic performance with a high transparency of 96%, large optical modulation range (58.4%), fast switching speed (bleaching/coloration times are 1.8/4.2 s, respectively) and excellent durability (30% decrease after 2000 cycles). The improved performance was owed to the synergy of large NiO film specific surface area and porous morphology, as well as Al doping stifled the formation of Ni3+ making bleached state more pure. This LDHs precursor pyrolytic method is simple, low-cost and environmental benign and is feasible for the preparation of NiO:Al and other Al-doped oxide thin film.

  10. Development of a highly thermostable, adjuvanted human papillomavirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Kimberly J; Meinerz, Natalie M; Semmelmann, Florian; Cousins, Megan C; Garcea, Robert L; Randolph, Theodore W

    2015-08-01

    A major impediment to economical, worldwide vaccine distribution is the requirement for a "cold chain" to preserve antigenicity. We addressed this problem using a model human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine stabilized by immobilizing HPV16 L1 capsomeres, i.e., pentameric subunits of the virus capsid, within organic glasses formed by lyophilization. Lyophilized glass and liquid vaccine formulations were incubated at 50°C for 12weeks, and then analyzed for retention of capsomere conformational integrity and the ability to elicit neutralizing antibody responses after immunization of BALB/c mice. Capsomeres in glassy-state vaccines retained tertiary and quaternary structure, and critical conformational epitopes. Moreover, glassy formulations adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide and glycopyranoside lipid A were not only as immunogenic as the commercially available HPV vaccine Cervarix®, but also retained complete neutralizing immunogenicity after high-temperature storage. The thermal stability of such adjuvanted vaccine powder preparations may thus eliminate the need for the cold chain. PMID:25998700

  11. A study on the immune response of sheep to foot and mouth disease virus vaccine type 'O' prepared with different inactivants and adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Nair, S P; Sen, A K

    1992-10-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) type 'O' was inactivated either with formaldehyde or binaryethyleneimine (BEI). Vaccines were prepared with inactivated virus incorporating aluminum hydroxide gel or mineral oil as an adjuvant. The antibody response in sheep was monitored by serum neutralization and ELISA test for a period of six months. Significant difference in antibody response was not observed between vaccines inactivated with formaldehyde or BEI. On the other hand significant difference in the antibody response was noticed between alhydrogel and oil vaccines. The high titer of antibodies stimulated by oil adjuvant vaccines persisted longer than those of alhydrogel vaccines within the period of study. PMID:1364024

  12. Magnesium Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  13. Trends in vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Schijns, Virgil E J C; Lavelle, Ed C

    2011-04-01

    Adjuvants are essential components of most clinically used vaccines. This is because the majority of nonliving vaccines are relatively poor inducers of adaptive immunity unless effective adjuvants are co-administered. Aluminum salts (alum) have been used as adjuvants with great success for almost a century and have been particularly effective at promoting protective humoral immunity. However, alum is not optimally effective for diseases where cell-mediated immunity is required for protection. Furthermore, adjuvants including oil-in-water emulsions have shown improved efficacy for avian influenza protection suggesting that even for diseases where humoral immunity can confer protection, there is scope for developing improved adjuvants. There have been major developments in antigen discovery over the past decade, which has accelerated the vaccine development process for new indications and this demands a new generation of adjuvants that can drive and specifically direct the desired immune responses. A number of systems are under investigation that combine different types of adjuvants into specific formulations with greater activity. Additionally, targeting of vaccines to specific immune cells shows great promise. In the case of cancer and chronic infectious diseases, it may be difficult to develop effective vaccines without blocking immune regulatory pathways, which impede cell-mediated responses. However, increased understanding of immunology and particularly the innate immune system is informing vaccine adjuvant research and consequently driving the development of novel and specifically directed vaccine adjuvant strategies. In this article we address the importance of adjuvants in vaccine development, the known mode of action of specific adjuvants and recent developments in this important field. PMID:21506650

  14. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine. PMID:22129866

  15. The potential of adjuvants to improve immune responses against TdaP vaccines: A preclinical evaluation of MF59 and monophosphoryl lipid A.

    PubMed

    Agnolon, Valentina; Bruno, Cristina; Leuzzi, Rosanna; Galletti, Bruno; D'Oro, Ugo; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Seubert, Anja; O'Hagan, Derek T; Baudner, Barbara C

    2015-08-15

    The successful approach of combining diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis antigens into a single vaccine has become a cornerstone of immunization programs. Yet, even if vaccination coverage is high, a resurgence of pertussis has been reported in many countries suggesting current vaccines may not provide adequate protection. To induce better tailored and more durable immune responses against pertussis vaccines different approaches have been proposed, including the use of novel adjuvants. Licensed aP vaccines contain aluminum salts, which mainly stimulate humoral immune responses and might not be ideal for protecting against Bordetella pertussis infection. Adjuvants inducing more balanced T-helper profiles or even Th1-prone responses might be more adequate. In this study, two adjuvants already approved for human use have been tested: MF59 emulsion and the combination of aluminum hydroxide with the Toll-Like Receptor 4 agonist MPLA. Adjuvanticity was evaluated in a mouse model using a TdaP vaccine containing three B. pertussis antigens: genetically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT-9K/129G), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN) The physico-chemical compatibility of TdaP antigens with the proposed adjuvants, together with a quicker onset and changed quality of the antibody responses, fully supports the replacement of aluminum salts with a new adjuvant to enhance aP vaccines immunogenicity. PMID:26149936

  16. PROCESS FOR REMOVING ALUMINUM COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Flox, J.

    1959-07-01

    A process is presented for removing aluminum jackets or cans from uranium slugs. This is accomplished by immersing the aluminum coated uranium slugs in an aqueous solution of 9 to 20% sodium hydroxide and 35 to 12% sodium nitrate to selectively dissolve the aluminum coating, the amount of solution being such as to obtain a molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to aluminum of at least

  17. {sup 27}Al and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR and powder x-ray diffraction studies of sodium aluminate speciation and the mechanistics of aluminum hydroxide precipitation upon acid hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, S.M.; Hanna, J.V.

    1994-08-24

    {sup 27}Al and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR, powder X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopic investigations of freeze-dried sodium aluminates and aluminum hydroxides formed through acid hydrolysis have been undertaken, with OH/Al hydrolysis ratios between 5.3 and 2.8 being analyzed. Numerous {sup 27}AlNMR resonances were observed, the intensities of which vary as a function of OH/Al ratio, and these have been assigned to four-, five-, and six-coordinate aluminum species constituting a variety of structural moieties. The dominant species at an OH/Al ratio above 4.4 appears to be a Q{sup o}Na[Al(OH);{sub 4}] salt, as indicated by a {sup 27}Al resonance at 86.6 ppm. In addition, a second, broader resonance at 71.3 ppm demonstrates the simultaneous existence of further four-coordinate aluminum species linked thorough oxo bonds to other four-coordinate aluminums (e.g., Q{sup 2} [Al(OH);{sub 2}(OAl){sub 2}];{sup x-}). At an OH/Al ratio between 4.4 and 4.1, a water-soluble phase forms that contains both four- and six-coordinate aluminum. At OH/Al ratios fo 4.0 and below, a water-soluble phase forms that contains both four-and six-coordinate aluminum. AT OH/Al ratios of 4.0 and below, a water-insoluble phase exists possessing four-, five-, and six-coordinate aluminum. At OH/Al{le}3.9 range exhibits {sup 27}Al chemical shifts similar to those reported for transitional aluminas such as {gamma}-, {eta}-, and 0-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and an infrared spectrum similar to pseudo-spinel gels, suggesting that a pseudo-spinel intermediate is the first phase involved in the crystallization of gibbsite. The resonance assigned to five-coordinate aluminum probably results from species involved in the transformation of the pseudo-spinal phase to pseudo-boehmite. The formation of gibbssite on the acid hydrolysis of alkaline sodium aluminate solutions thus appears to follow the pathway pseudo-spinel {r_arrow} pseudo-boehmite {r_arrow} bayerite {r_arrow} gibbsite. 82 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. NICKEL HYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    MCBREEN,J.

    1997-11-01

    Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

  19. Aluminum Coprecipitates with Fe (hydr)oxides: Does Isomorphous Substitution of Al3plus for Fe3plus in Goethite Occur

    SciTech Connect

    E Bazilevskaya; D Archibald; M Aryanpour; J Kubicki; C Martinez

    2011-12-31

    Iron (hydr)oxides are common in natural environments and typically contain large amounts of impurities, presumably the result of coprecipitation processes. Coprecipitation of Al with Fe (hydr)oxides occurs, for example, during alternating reduction-oxidation cycles that promote dissolution of Fe from Fe-containing phases and its re-precipitation as Fe-Al (hydr)oxides. We used chemical and spectroscopic analyses to study the formation and transformation of Al coprecipitates with Fe (hydr)oxides. In addition, periodic density functional theory (DFT) computations were performed to assess the structural and energetic effects of isolated or clustered Al atoms at 8 and 25 mol% Al substitution in the goethite structure. Coprecipitates were synthesized by raising the pH of dilute homogeneous solutions containing a range of Fe and Al concentrations (100% Fe to 100% Al) to 5. The formation of ferrihydrite in initial suspensions with {<=}20 mol% Al, and of ferrihydrite and gibbsite in initial suspensions with {>=}25 mol% Al was confirmed by infrared spectroscopic and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction analyses. While base titrations showed a buffer region that corresponded to the hydrolysis of Fe in initial solutions with {<=}25 mol% Al, all of the Al present in these solutions was retained by the solid phases at pH 5, thus indicating Al coprecipitation with the primary Fe hydroxide precipitate. In contrast, two buffer regions were observed in solutions with 30 mol% Al (at pH {approx}2.25 for Fe{sup 3+} and at pH {approx}4 for Al{sup 3+}), suggesting the formation of Fe and Al (hydr)oxides as two separate phases. The Al content of initial coprecipitates influenced the extent of ferrihydrite transformation and of its transformation products as indicated by the presence of goethite, hematite and/or ferrihydrite in aged suspensions. DFT experiments showed that: (i) optimized unit cell parameters for Al-substituted goethites (8 and 25 Mol% Al) in clustered arrangement (i.e., the

  20. Neisseria meningitidis Native Outer Membrane Vesicles Containing Different Lipopolysaccharide Glycoforms as Adjuvants for Meningococcal and Nonmeningococcal Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Nagaputra, Jerry C.; Sadarangani, Manish; Hoe, J. Claire; Mehta, Ojas Hrakesh; Norheim, Gunnstein; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Feavers, Ian; Pollard, Andrew J.; Moxon, E. Richard

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the adjuvant effect of a modified glycoform of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (LgtB-LpxL1) compared to that of the nonmodified glycoform Lpxl1 serogroup B meningococcal H44/76 native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) on immune responses to vaccination with the recombinant meningococcal protein, rPorA, tetanus toxoid, or meningococcal serogroup C capsular polysaccharide. We used LgtB-LpxL1 LPS because the disruption of the lgtB gene, which results in the exposure of N-acetylglucosamine-galactose-glucose residues in the LPS outer core, has been shown to enhance the activation of human dendritic cells in vitro. The responses were compared to those of a monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)-based adjuvant and to an aluminum hydroxide suspension. The nOMVs induced blood serum IgG responses against each of the three antigens comparable to those obtained with MPL or aluminum salt. However, nOMVs elicited (i) a lower IgG1/IgG2a ratio against rPorA and (ii) serum bactericidal antibody titers superior to those achieved with aluminum salt, reaching similar titers to those obtained with MPL. Similarly, bactericidal antibody titers induced by immunization with meningococcal serogroup C polysaccharide and nOMVs were similar to those obtained using MPL but were better than those with aluminum salt. Immunization with tetanus toxoid and nOMVs resulted in tetanus toxoid-specific IgG responses similar to those obtained when adjuvanted with aluminum salt. These results highlight the potential utility of meningococcal LpxL1 LPS-containing nOMVs as an adjuvant for recombinant meningococcal protein vaccines and suggest their possible use with a variety of other antigens. PMID:24351756

  1. Al adjuvants can be tracked in viable cells by lumogallion staining.

    PubMed

    Mile, Irene; Svensson, Andreas; Darabi, Anna; Mold, Matthew; Siesjö, Peter; Eriksson, Håkan

    2015-07-01

    The mechanism behind the adjuvant effect of aluminum salts is poorly understood notwithstanding that aluminum salts have been used for decades in clinical vaccines. In an aqueous environment and at a nearly neutral pH, the aluminum salts form particulate aggregates, and one plausible explanation of the lack of information regarding the mechanisms could be the absence of an efficient method of tracking phagocytosed aluminum adjuvants and thereby the intracellular location of the adjuvant. In this paper, we want to report upon the use of lumogallion staining enabling the detection of phagocytosed aluminum adjuvants inside viable cells. Including micromolar concentrations of lumogallion in the culture medium resulted in a strong fluorescence signal from cells that had phagocytosed the aluminum adjuvant. The fluorescence appeared as spots in the cytoplasm and by confocal microscopy and co-staining with probes presenting fluorescence in the far-red region of the spectrum, aluminum adjuvants could to a certain extent be identified as localized in acidic vesicles, i.e., lysosomes. Staining and detection of intracellular aluminum adjuvants was achieved not only by diffusion of lumogallion into the cytoplasm, thereby highlighting the presence of the adjuvant, but also by pre-staining the aluminum adjuvant prior to incubation with cells. Pre-staining of aluminum adjuvants resulted in bright fluorescent particulate aggregates that remained fluorescent for weeks and with only a minor reduction of fluorescence upon extensive washing or incubation with cells. Both aluminum oxyhydroxide and aluminum hydroxyphosphate, two of the most commonly used aluminum adjuvants in clinical vaccines, could be pre-stained with lumogallion and were easily tracked intracellularly after incubation with phagocytosing cells. Staining of viable cells using lumogallion will be a useful method in investigations of the mechanisms behind aluminum adjuvants' differentiation of antigen-presenting cells

  2. Carbohydrate-based immune adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Petrovsky, Nikolai; Cooper, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    The role for adjuvants in human vaccines has been a matter of vigorous scientific debate, with the field hindered by the fact that for over 80 years, aluminum salts were the only adjuvants approved for human use. To this day, alum-based adjuvants, alone or combined with additional immune activators, remain the only adjuvants approved for use in the USA. This situation has not been helped by the fact that the mechanism of action of most adjuvants has been poorly understood. A relative lack of resources and funding for adjuvant development has only helped to maintain alum’s relative monopoly. To seriously challenge alum’s supremacy a new adjuvant has many major hurdles to overcome, not least being alum’s simplicity, tolerability, safety record and minimal cost. Carbohydrate structures play critical roles in immune system function and carbohydrates also have the virtue of a strong safety and tolerability record. A number of carbohydrate compounds from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources have emerged as promising vaccine adjuvant candidates. Carbohydrates are readily biodegradable and therefore unlikely to cause problems of long-term tissue deposits seen with alum adjuvants. Above all, the Holy Grail of human adjuvant development is to identify a compound that combines potent vaccine enhancement with maximum tolerability and safety. This has proved to be a tough challenge for many adjuvant contenders. Nevertheless, carbohydrate-based compounds have many favorable properties that could place them in a unique position to challenge alum’s monopoly over human vaccine usage. PMID:21506649

  3. Adjuvant Immune Enhancement of Subunit Vaccine Encoding pSCPI of Streptococcus iniae in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Zheng, Zonglin; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Jun; He, Yang; Wang, Erlong; Chen, Defang; Ouyang, Ping; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is an important agricultural fish that has been plagued by Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae) infections in recent years, some of them severe. C5a peptidase is an important virulent factor of S. iniae. In this study, the subunit vaccine containing the truncated part of C5a peptidase (pSCPI) was mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel (AH), propolis adjuvant (PA), and Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA). The immunogenicity of the pSCPI was detected by Western-blot in vitro. The relative percent survival (RPS), lysozyme activity, antibody titers, and the expression of the related immune genes were monitored in vivo to evaluate the immune effects of the three different adjuvants. The results showed that pSCPI exerted moderate immune protection (RPS = 46.43%), whereas each of the three adjuvants improved the immune protection of pSCPI. The immunoprotection of pSCPI + AH, pSCPI + PA, and pSCPI + FIA was characterized by RPS values of 67.86%, 75.00% and, 85.71%, respectively. Further, each of the three different adjuvanted pSCPIs stimulated higher levels of lysozyme activity and antibody titers than the unadjuvanted pSCPI and/or PBS buffer. In addition, pSCPI + FIA and pSCPI + PA induced expression of the related immune genes under investigation, which was substantially higher than the levels stimulated by PBS. pSCPI + AH significantly stimulated the induction of MHC II β, CD4-L2, and IFN-γ, while it induced slightly higher production of TNF-α and even led to a decrease in the levels of IL-1β, MHC I α, and CD8 α. Therefore, we conclude that compared with the other two adjuvants, FIA combined with pSCPI is a more promising candidate adjuvant against S. iniae in channel catfish. PMID:26602918

  4. Adjuvant Immune Enhancement of Subunit Vaccine Encoding pSCPI of Streptococcus iniae in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jie; Zheng, Zonglin; Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Jun; He, Yang; Wang, Erlong; Chen, Defang; Ouyang, Ping; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is an important agricultural fish that has been plagued by Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae) infections in recent years, some of them severe. C5a peptidase is an important virulent factor of S. iniae. In this study, the subunit vaccine containing the truncated part of C5a peptidase (pSCPI) was mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel (AH), propolis adjuvant (PA), and Freund’s Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA). The immunogenicity of the pSCPI was detected by Western-blot in vitro. The relative percent survival (RPS), lysozyme activity, antibody titers, and the expression of the related immune genes were monitored in vivo to evaluate the immune effects of the three different adjuvants. The results showed that pSCPI exerted moderate immune protection (RPS = 46.43%), whereas each of the three adjuvants improved the immune protection of pSCPI. The immunoprotection of pSCPI + AH, pSCPI + PA, and pSCPI + FIA was characterized by RPS values of 67.86%, 75.00% and, 85.71%, respectively. Further, each of the three different adjuvanted pSCPIs stimulated higher levels of lysozyme activity and antibody titers than the unadjuvanted pSCPI and/or PBS buffer. In addition, pSCPI + FIA and pSCPI + PA induced expression of the related immune genes under investigation, which was substantially higher than the levels stimulated by PBS. pSCPI + AH significantly stimulated the induction of MHC II β, CD4-L2, and IFN-γ, while it induced slightly higher production of TNF-α and even led to a decrease in the levels of IL-1β, MHC I α, and CD8 α. Therefore, we conclude that compared with the other two adjuvants, FIA combined with pSCPI is a more promising candidate adjuvant against S. iniae in channel catfish. PMID:26602918

  5. A comparative study of structural and electrochemical properties of high-density aluminum substituted α-nickel hydroxide containing different interlayer anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Enbo; Li, Jing; Guo, Dan; Guo, Litan; Nie, Mengzhen; Chang, Zhaorong; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-05-01

    Al-substituted α-type nickel hydroxides (α-Ni(OH)2) containing different interlayer anions (NO3-, SO42- , Cl-, CO32- , OH-) are synthesized via a polyacrylamide (PAM) assisted two-step drying method. The effects of interlayer anions on the microstructure, morphology and electrochemical performance of Al-substituted α-Ni(OH)2 are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and charge/discharge tests. The results demonstrate that the intercalated anions have a critical effect on the basal plane spacing, degree of crystallinity, and electrochemical properties of the end products. Especially, the intercalated anions have a marked impact on the activation process of the nickel electrodes. The Cl- intercalated α-Ni(OH)2 sample exhibits better high-rate discharge ability and cycle stability than samples with other interlayer anions. This is attributed to the higher crystallinity, better exchange ability and smaller anion size of Cl-. The anion exchange ability and the size of anions also play an important role in the proton diffusion rate, which directly affects the electrochemical properties of α-Ni(OH)2. The relationships between the specific capacity and basal spacing are also discussed in details for the five samples.

  6. Thermodynamic equilibrium analyses of the uptake of aromatic compounds from an aqueous solution by magnesium-aluminum (Mg-Al) layered double hydroxide intercalated with 1-naphthol-3,8-disulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Tomohito; Uchiyama, Tomomi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2013-06-01

    Magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) intercalated with 1-naphthol-3,8-disulfonate (1-N-3,8-DS2-) was prepared by coprecipitation. Thermodynamically, the prepared Mg-Al LDH showed greater preferential uptake of 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) than of 1,2-dimethoxybenzene (DMB). This preferential uptake of aromatic compounds, which is adequately expressed by the Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherm, was attributed to the π-π stacking interactions between the benzene ring of the aromatic compounds and the naphthalene core of 1-N-3,8-DS2- intercalated in the interlayer spaces of Mg-Al LDH. Negative values of ΔG for DNB and DMB indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous at all temperatures. The value of ΔS for DNB was much lower than that for DMB. This implies that DNB was far more strongly adsorbed to 1-N-3,8-DS2- than was DMB, resulting in a lower degree of freedom for and higher uptake of DNB than those in the case DMB. The absolute values of |ΔH| for DNB and DMB were less than 20 kJ mol-1, indicating that the uptake of DNB or DMB by 1-N-3,8-DS·Mg-Al LDH can be considered a physical adsorption process caused by π-π stacking interactions.

  7. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HYDROXIDE FROM BISMUTH HYDROXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Watt, G.W.

    1958-08-19

    An tmproved method is described for separating plutonium hydroxide from bismuth hydroxide. The end product of the bismuth phosphate processes for the separation amd concentration of plutonium is a inixture of bismuth hydroxide amd plutonium hydroxide. It has been found that these compounds can be advantageously separated by treatment with a reducing agent having a potential sufficient to reduce bismuth hydroxide to metalltc bisinuth but not sufficient to reduce the plutonium present. The resulting mixture of metallic bismuth and plutonium hydroxide can then be separated by treatment with a material which will dissolve plutonium hydroxide but not metallic bismuth. Sodiunn stannite is mentioned as a preferred reducing agent, and dilute nitric acid may be used as the separatory solvent.

  8. Adjuvant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Asma; Neoptolemos, John

    2006-01-01

    Exocrine pancreatic cancer (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the western world, accounting for 5% of all cancer-related deaths. Only a small percentage of patients with pancreatic cancer are able to undergo potentially curative resection, even in specialized centres, and prognosis remains poor after successful surgery. Over the last few years efforts have been directed towards the development of adjuvant therapies in attempts to improve outcome. The main trials of adjuvant chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy with follow-on chemotherapy are described in this paper, followed by the results of the ESPAC-1 trial and the status of ESPAC-2 and -3 trials. PMID:18333088

  9. Predicting As removal during metal hydroxide precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M.

    1997-01-01

    A simplified isotherm is described that can predict the extent of arsenate removal at drinking water utilities practicing coagulation or iron-manganese (Fe-Mn) removal. If all possible sources of particulate iron and aluminum hydroxide present in the system are accounted for, the model predicts arsenic (As) removal to within {+-}13 percent (90 percent confidence) for Fe coagulation at pH 6.5--8 and alum coagulation at pH < 7.6. Analysis of full-scale treatment data suggests that colloidal aluminum (Al) flocs with sorbed arsenate [As(V)] may pass through filters, thereby decreasing overall As removal efficiency. Thus, Al solubility and particle stability must be minimized to improve As removal. If stability and solubility of aluminum hydroxide flocs are not a problem, alum and Fe coagulants have nearly equal capacity for sorbing As(V). Survey results also demonstrate the importance of particulate As.

  10. Enhancement of long-lasting immunoprotective effect against Androctonus australis hector envenomation using safe antigens: Comparative role of MF59 and Alum adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Abdelmounaim; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2015-10-26

    Envenomation is a public health problem in many regions of the world. The only available treatment is the serotherapy that has limited efficiency due to the delay of its administration. The goal of this study is to provide a new and more efficient alternative to this treatment. A comparative study of the effects of two adjuvants in their ability to enhance the efficiency of the detoxified and safe antigens to produce a long lasting immunoprotection is undertaken using Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvant (Alum) or the water-in-oil MF59 adjuvant mixed with Androctonus australis hector (Aah) detoxified venom, and compare their effects on the immune system. Immunization schedule was performed with two groups of rabbits, which were injected with attenuated venom and Alum or MF59 adjuvant preparations, once a month during three months. Blood samples were collected each week for cell count, evaluation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinoperoxydase (EPO) activities and antibody titer. After four months from the last immunization, rabbits were challenged with increased doses of native Aah venom. Results showed that MF59 effect was immediate in the first 24h post-immunization by activating the recruitment of lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils, while Alum adjuvant effect seems to be delayed, and appeared in the second week after immunization. An important cell infiltration was observed with Alum preparation, due to its specific local depot effect. However, immunized animals with MF59 preparation challenged with the native venom showed a protective effect against its toxicity until 6 LD50 compared to those immunized with Alum preparation which are only protected at 4 LD50. One week after challenge, only immunized animals with Alum preparation present an increase in cell infiltration, MPO and EPO activities. These results are correlated with the ability of MF59 adjuvant to induce a potent immunoprotective effect against Aah venom compared to Alum adjuvant. PMID:26419199

  11. Nickel-aluminum dry charge reserve battery

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, W.; Buzzelli, E.S.

    1986-08-12

    A nickel-aluminum reserve battery is described which consists of: (1) a case within which are disposed at least one bipolar plate comprising: (i) an electrode comprising battery material, the battery material consisting essentially of nickel hydroxide, the material containing --OH groups, and (ii) and electrode comprising aluminum, (2) a storage reservoir containing aqueous alkali hydroxide electrolyte near the case, and (3) means to transfer stored electrolyte to the electrodes where the nickel hydroxide containing electrode is connected to a current collector, which current collector is in turn connected to the aluminum electrode of the bipolar plate by means of an electrically conducting bonding medium.

  12. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  13. First comparison of adjuvant for trivalent inactivated Haemophilus parasuis serovars 4, 5 and 12 vaccines against Glässer's disease.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qiao; Zhao, Zhanqin; Liu, Huisheng; Chen, Kunpeng; Xue, Yun; Wang, Le

    2015-12-15

    Haemophilus parasuis has had a huge impact in the swine industry throughout the world. Inactivated bacterium for H. parasuis is a traditional vaccine that can elicit efficient protection against homologous challenges. The objective of this study was to screen for the adjuvant-enhanced immune effect of trivalent inactivated H. parasuis serovars 4, 5 and 12 (prevalent serovars in China) vaccines against Glässer's disease. The adjuvants of mineral oil, aluminum hydroxide, Montanide GEL 01 PR, Montanide IMS 1313N VG and Montanide ISA 760 VG were used to make emulsified inactivated H. parasuis serovars 4, 5 and 12, respectively. Safety, antibody titer and protective efficacy of these vaccines were examined separately in piglets, and the feasibility of microagglutination test for detecting antibody titer of H. parasuis was confirmed for the first time. Due to easy of injection, high safety, rapidly immune responses, high concentrations of antibody, and 100% of protective efficacy for piglets, Montanide GEL 01 PR adjuvant can provide more homologous serovar protection than other domestically developed inactivated vaccines and should be used as a candidate adjuvant. PMID:26672914

  14. Protective Immunity and Reduced Renal Colonization Induced by Vaccines Containing Recombinant Leptospira interrogans Outer Membrane Proteins and Flagellin Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Monaris, D.; Sbrogio-Almeida, M. E.; Dib, C. C.; Canhamero, T. A.; Souza, G. O.; Vasconcellos, S. A.; Ferreira, L. C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic disease caused by different Leptospira species, such as Leptospira interrogans, that colonize the renal tubules of wild and domestic animals. Thus far, attempts to develop effective leptospirosis vaccines, both for humans and animals, have failed to induce immune responses capable of conferring protection and simultaneously preventing renal colonization. In this study, we evaluated the protective immunity induced by subunit vaccines containing seven different recombinant Leptospira interrogans outer membrane proteins, including the carboxy-terminal portion of the immunoglobulinlike protein A (LigAC) and six novel antigens, combined with aluminum hydroxide (alum) or Salmonella flagellin (FliC) as adjuvants. Hamsters vaccinated with the different formulations elicited high antigen-specific antibody titers. Immunization with LigAC, either with alum or flagellin, conferred protective immunity but did not prevent renal colonization. Similarly, animals immunized with LigAC or LigAC coadministered with six leptospiral proteins with alum adjuvant conferred protection but did not reduce renal colonization. In contrast, immunizing animals with the pool of seven antigens in combination with flagellin conferred protection and significantly reduced renal colonization by the pathogen. The present study emphasizes the relevance of antigen composition and added adjuvant in the efficacy of antileptospirosis subunit vaccines and shows the complex relationship between immune responses and renal colonization by the pathogen. PMID:26108285

  15. Protective Immunity and Reduced Renal Colonization Induced by Vaccines Containing Recombinant Leptospira interrogans Outer Membrane Proteins and Flagellin Adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Monaris, D; Sbrogio-Almeida, M E; Dib, C C; Canhamero, T A; Souza, G O; Vasconcellos, S A; Ferreira, L C S; Abreu, P A E

    2015-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic disease caused by different Leptospira species, such as Leptospira interrogans, that colonize the renal tubules of wild and domestic animals. Thus far, attempts to develop effective leptospirosis vaccines, both for humans and animals, have failed to induce immune responses capable of conferring protection and simultaneously preventing renal colonization. In this study, we evaluated the protective immunity induced by subunit vaccines containing seven different recombinant Leptospira interrogans outer membrane proteins, including the carboxy-terminal portion of the immunoglobulinlike protein A (LigA(C)) and six novel antigens, combined with aluminum hydroxide (alum) or Salmonella flagellin (FliC) as adjuvants. Hamsters vaccinated with the different formulations elicited high antigen-specific antibody titers. Immunization with LigA(C), either with alum or flagellin, conferred protective immunity but did not prevent renal colonization. Similarly, animals immunized with LigA(C) or LigA(C) coadministered with six leptospiral proteins with alum adjuvant conferred protection but did not reduce renal colonization. In contrast, immunizing animals with the pool of seven antigens in combination with flagellin conferred protection and significantly reduced renal colonization by the pathogen. The present study emphasizes the relevance of antigen composition and added adjuvant in the efficacy of antileptospirosis subunit vaccines and shows the complex relationship between immune responses and renal colonization by the pathogen. PMID:26108285

  16. Identification of GLA/SE as an effective adjuvant for the induction of robust humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to EBV-gp350 in mice and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Heeke, Darren S; Lin, Rui; Rao, Eileen; Woo, Jennifer C; McCarthy, Michael P; Marshall, Jason D

    2016-05-17

    Childhood infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is often asymptomatic and may result in mild flu-like symptoms, but exposure during adolescence and young adulthood can lead to acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) with a pathology characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, and severe fatigue lasting weeks or months. A vaccine targeting the envelope glycoprotein gp350 adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide complexed with the TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) achieved a 78% reduction in AIM incidence in a small phase II trial of college-age individuals, but development of this vaccine was halted by the manufacturer. Here, we report the evaluation in mice and rabbits of an EBV-gp350 vaccine combined with an adjuvant composed of the synthetic TLR4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) integrated into stable emulsion (SE). In mice, GLA/SE-adjuvanted gp350 generated high IgG titers (both IgG1 and IgG2a/c subtypes), elevated EBV-neutralizing antibody titers, and robust poly-functional anti-gp350 CD4(+) T cell responses. In addition, GLA/SE routinely demonstrated superior performance over aluminum hydroxide in all immunological readouts, including induction of durable neutralizing antibody titers out to at least 1 year post-vaccination. Both components of the GLA/SE adjuvant were found to be required to get optimal responses in both arms of the immune response: specifically, SE for neutralizing antibodies and GLA for induction of T cell responses. Furthermore, this vaccine also elicited high neutralizing antibody titers in a second species, rabbit. These promising results suggest that clinical development of a vaccine comprised of EBV-gp350 plus GLA/SE has the potential to prevent AIM in post-adolescents. PMID:27085175

  17. Antibody and T-cell responses to a virosomal adjuvanted H9N2 avian influenza vaccine: impact of distinct additional adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Radosević, Katarina; Rodriguez, Ariane; Mintardjo, Ratna; Tax, Dennis; Bengtsson, Karin Lövgren; Thompson, Catherine; Zambon, Maria; Weverling, Gerrit Jan; Uytdehaag, Fons; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2008-07-01

    A highly efficacious vaccine is required to counteract a threat of an avian influenza pandemic. Increasing the potency of vaccines by adjuvation is essential not only to overcome generally low immunogenicity of pandemic strains, but also to allow dose sparing and as such to make it feasible to satisfy huge global production demands. In this study we evaluated the ability of four distinct adjuvants to further increase immune responses to a virosomal adjuvanted avian H9N2 influenza vaccine in mice. Currently registered adjuvants aluminium phosphate, aluminium hydroxide and MF59, as well as a novel promising adjuvant MATRIX-M were included in the study. Our results demonstrate that all adjuvants significantly increased the H9N2 haemagglutinin (HA) inhibition and ELISA antibody titers induced with the virosomal adjuvanted vaccine. The adjuvants exhibited different effect on the isotype of virus specific antibodies, with MATRIX-M inducing the most pronounced skewing to IgG2a, i.e. towards Th1 type of response. While the virosomal adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine efficiently induced CD4(+) T-cell response, with no further increase upon adjuvation, the CD8(+) T-cell responses induced with virosomal adjuvanted vaccine could be significantly improved upon additional adjuvation with MATRIX-M or MF59. All adjuvants demonstrated a dose sparing effect, i.e. in combination with the virosomal adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine they increased immune responses to comparable level independent of the tested vaccine dose. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that immune responses to a virosomal adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine can be further enhanced by add-on adjuvants, with MATRIX-M being overall the most potent adjuvant in combination with virosomes, followed by MF59 and finally aluminium-based adjuvants. PMID:18514980

  18. Working together: interactions between vaccine antigens and adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Ryan M.; Barnes V, Lucien; Dowling, Quinton M.; Vedvick, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    The development of vaccines containing adjuvants has the potential to enhance antibody and cellular immune responses, broaden protective immunity against heterogeneous pathogen strains, enable antigen dose sparing, and facilitate efficacy in immunocompromised populations. Nevertheless, the structural interplay between antigen and adjuvant components is often not taken into account in the published literature. Interactions between antigen and adjuvant formulations should be well characterized to enable optimum vaccine stability and efficacy. This review focuses on the importance of characterizing antigen–adjuvant interactions by summarizing findings involving widely used adjuvant formulation platforms, such as aluminum salts, emulsions, lipid vesicles, and polymer-based particles. Emphasis is placed on the physicochemical basis of antigen–adjuvant associations and the appropriate analytical tools for their characterization, as well as discussing the effects of these interactions on vaccine potency. PMID:24757512

  19. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flumerfelt, Joel Fredrick

    In recent years, the aluminum powder industry has expanded into non-aerospace applications. However, the alumina and aluminum hydroxide in the surface oxide film on aluminum powder require high cost powder processing routes. A driving force for this research is to broaden the knowledge base about aluminum powder metallurgy to provide ideas for fabricating low cost aluminum powder components. The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization commercial inert gas atomization and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). The commercial atomization methods are bench marks of current aluminum powder technology. The GARS process is a laboratory scale inert gas atomization facility. A benefit of using pure aluminum powders is an unambiguous interpretation of the results without considering the effects of alloy elements. A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a

  20. Influence of Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide as an adjuvant on the immunogenicity of HPV-16 L1VLP vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Kianmehr, Zahra; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Ardestani, Susan Kaboudanian; Fotouhi, Fatemeh; Abdoli, Asghar

    2015-04-01

    Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has less toxicity and no pyrogenic properties in comparison with other bacterial LPS. It is a toll-like receptor 4 agonist and has been shown to have the potential use as a vaccine adjuvant. In this study, the immunostimulatory properties of LPS from smooth and rough strains of B. abortus (S19 and RB51) as adjuvants were investigated for the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L1 virus-like particles (L1VLPs) vaccines. C57BL/6 mice were immunized subcutaneously three times either with HPV-16 L1VLPs alone, or in combination with smooth LPS (S-LPS), rough LPS (R-LPS), aluminum hydroxide or a mixture of them as adjuvant. The humoral immunity was evaluated by measuring the specific and total IgG levels, and also the T-cell immune response of mice was evaluated by measuring different cytokines such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17. Results showed that serum anti-HPV16 L1VLP IgG antibody titers was significantly higher in mice immunized with a combination of VLPs and R-LPS or S-LPS compared with other immunized groups. Co-administration of HPV-16 L1VLPs with R-LPS elicited the highest levels of splenocytes cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17 and TNF-α) and also effectively induced improvement of a Th1-type cytokine response characterized with a high ratio of IFN-γ/IL-10. The data indicate that B. abortus LPS particularly RB51-LPS enhances the immune responses to HPV-16 L1VLPs and suggests its potential as an adjuvant for the development of a potent prophylactic HPV vaccine and other candidate vaccines. PMID:25187406

  1. Coordination nature of aluminum (oxy)hydroxides formed under the influence of low molecular weight organic acids and a soil humic acid studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, R. K.; Hu, Y. F.; Dynes, J. J.; Zhao, A. Z.; Blyth, R. I. R.; Kozak, L. M.; Huang, P. M.

    2010-11-01

    Organic ligands in the environment hinder the formation of crystalline Al precipitation products by perturbing the hydrolytic and polymeric reactions of Al resulting in the formation of short-range ordered (SRO) mineral colloids with varying degrees of crystallinity. However, the effect of these ligands on the mechanisms of their formation and nature of the transformation products of Al (oxy)hydroxides at the atomic and molecular levels is not well understood. In this study, the coordination structure of Al in Al (oxy)hydroxides formed under the influence of varying concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW) organic acids such as citric, malic, salicylic and acetic acids and a humic acid (HA) was investigated with X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The Al K- and L-edge XANES spectra showed that with increasing LMW organic acid concentration the coordination number of Al changed from 6-fold to a mixture of 4- and 6-fold, except for acetate as acetate was unable to perturb the formation of Al (oxy)hydroxides at the acetate/Al molar ratio (MR) = 0.1. The proportion of 4-fold to 6-fold coordinated Al in the Al precipitation products depended on the structure and functionality of the LMW organic acids. The incorporation of the LMW organic acid into the network structure of Al (oxy)hydroxides prevented the formation of sheets/inter-layer H-bonding that was required for the formation of crystalline Al (oxy)hydroxides. The HA used in this study only slightly perturbed the crystallization of the Al (oxy)hydroxides at the concentrations used. The Al K-edge data showed that Al coordination number had not been altered in the presence of HA. The findings obtained in the present study are of fundamental significance in understanding the physicochemical behavior of soils and sediments, and their relation to the accumulation and transport of nutrients and pollutants in the

  2. Characterization of the in situ immunological responses to vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Horohov, D W; Dunham, J; Liu, C; Betancourt, A; Stewart, J C; Page, A E; Chambers, T M

    2015-03-15

    Adjuvants are included with many inactivated and some modified live vaccines to enhance immune responses to specific antigens. While early vaccines relied exclusively upon aluminum salts, still the major adjuvant used in human vaccines, other adjuvant products are used in veterinary medicine. In addition to enhancing antigen presentation, adjuvants can also enhance the development of specific immune responses. Thus, alum adjuvants often preferentially stimulate humoral immune responses. By contrast, lipid-based adjuvants are often more effective at stimulating cell-mediated immune responses. Metastim(®) is a lipid-based adjuvant reported to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses, though the mechanism responsible for this activity remains unclear. In this study, we compared the ability of equine influenza virus vaccines containing either saline or Metastim(®) or an aluminum phosphate adjuvant to stimulate antigen presenting cell function in vivo. Six ponies were intradermally inoculated with inactivated equine influenza (KY97) mixed with either adjuvant or saline. Multiple sites were injected so that biopsies could be collected at different times post injection. The 4mm punch biopsies were formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Total RNA was isolated from 2mm punch biopsies for the determination of gene expression by real-time PCR. H&E staining revealed a variety of cells recruited to the injection sites, including lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages. Real-time PCR analysis of the injection site confirmed this cellular infiltration and identified increased expression of activation markers. Both vaccines also stimulated gene expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The vaccine containing Metastim(®) elicited significantly higher gene expression of interferon-γ, IL-12, CD4 and CD83 compared to alum (p<0.05). While the greater induction of IFNγ-related gene expression indicates that Metastim

  3. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Medical Management Guidelines for Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) . Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Available at: www.atsdr.cdc. ...

  4. Potassium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms from swallowing potassium hydroxide include: Abdominal pain - severe Burns in the mouth and throat Chest pain Collapse Diarrhea Drooling Mouth pain - severe Rapid drop in blood pressure (shock) Throat pain - severe Throat ...

  5. Dissolution and Separation of Aluminum and Aluminosilicates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H.

    2015-12-19

    The selection of an aluminum alloy for target irradiation affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the dissolver, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. Aluminosilicate dissolution presents challenges in a number of different areas, metals extraction from minerals, flyash treatment, and separations from aluminum alloys. We present experimental work that attempts to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as amore » function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. Our data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.« less

  6. Dissolution and Separation of Aluminum and Aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H.

    2015-12-19

    The selection of an aluminum alloy for target irradiation affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the dissolver, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. Aluminosilicate dissolution presents challenges in a number of different areas, metals extraction from minerals, flyash treatment, and separations from aluminum alloys. We present experimental work that attempts to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. Our data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  7. Vaccine Adjuvants: from 1920 to 2015 and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Alberta; Preiss, Scott; Tavares Da Silva, Fernanda; Garçon, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The concept of stimulating the body’s immune response is the basis underlying vaccination. Vaccines act by initiating the innate immune response and activating antigen presenting cells (APCs), thereby inducing a protective adaptive immune response to a pathogen antigen. Adjuvants are substances added to vaccines to enhance the immunogenicity of highly purified antigens that have insufficient immunostimulatory capabilities, and have been used in human vaccines for more than 90 years. While early adjuvants (aluminum, oil-in-water emulsions) were used empirically, rapidly increasing knowledge on how the immune system interacts with pathogens means that there is increased understanding of the role of adjuvants and how the formulation of modern vaccines can be better tailored towards the desired clinical benefit. Continuing safety evaluation of licensed vaccines containing adjuvants/adjuvant systems suggests that their individual benefit-risk profile remains favorable. Adjuvants contribute to the initiation of the innate immune response induced by antigens; exemplified by inflammatory responses at the injection site, with mostly localized and short-lived effects. Activated effectors (such as APCs) then move to draining lymph nodes where they direct the type, magnitude and quality of the adaptive immune response. Thus, the right match of antigens and adjuvants can potentiate downstream adaptive immune responses, enabling the development of new efficacious vaccines. Many infectious diseases of worldwide significance are not currently preventable by vaccination. Adjuvants are the most advanced new technology in the search for new vaccines against challenging pathogens and for vulnerable populations that respond poorly to traditional vaccines. PMID:26343190

  8. A Novel Synthetic TLR-4 Agonist Adjuvant Increases the Protective Response to a Clinical-Stage West Nile Virus Vaccine Antigen in Multiple Formulations.

    PubMed

    Van Hoeven, Neal; Joshi, Sharvari Waghmare; Nana, Ghislain Ismael; Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Fox, Christopher; Bowen, Richard A; Clements, David E; Martyak, Timothy; Parks, D Elliot; Baldwin, Susan; Reed, Steven G; Coler, Rhea N

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted member of the Flaviviridae family that has emerged in recent years to become a serious public health threat. Given the sporadic nature of WNV epidemics both temporally and geographically, there is an urgent need for a vaccine that can rapidly provide effective immunity. Protection from WNV infection is correlated with antibodies to the viral envelope (E) protein, which encodes receptor binding and fusion functions. Despite many promising E-protein vaccine candidates, there are currently none licensed for use in humans. This study investigates the ability to improve the immunogenicity and protective capacity of a promising clinical-stage WNV recombinant E-protein vaccine (WN-80E) by combining it with a novel synthetic TLR-4 agonist adjuvant. Using the murine model of WNV disease, we find that inclusion of a TLR-4 agonist in either a stable oil-in-water emulsion (SE) or aluminum hydroxide (Alum) formulation provides both dose and dosage sparing functions, whereby protection can be induced after a single immunization containing only 100 ng of WN-80E. Additionally, we find that inclusion of adjuvant with a single immunization reduced viral titers in sera to levels undetectable by viral plaque assay. The enhanced protection provided by adjuvanted immunization correlated with induction of a Th1 T-cell response and the resultant shaping of the IgG response. These findings suggest that inclusion of a next generation adjuvant may greatly enhance the protective capacity of WNV recombinant subunit vaccines, and establish a baseline for future development. PMID:26901122

  9. The immune enhancement of a novel soy lecithin/β-glucans based adjuvant on native Neospora caninum tachyzoite extract vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Florencia Celeste; Franco-Mahecha, Olga Lucía; Lavoria, María Ángeles; Moore, Dadín Prando; Giraldez, Adrián Nicolás; Iglesias, Marcela Elvira; Wilda, Maximiliano; Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria

    2012-02-01

    Efficient, cost-effective and safe Th1-immunity-inducing vaccine formulations are paramount for achieving protection against Neospora caninum. In this study, a new adjuvant (Providean-AVEC) was used in the development of a N. caninum vaccine and evaluated in a mouse model. Soluble N. caninum tachyzoite native protein extract (sNcAg) was selected as vaccine antigen based on its capacity to activate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines on dendritic cells. Vaccines containing 4 and 0.4 μg of sNcAg, and Providean-AVEC, ISCOM-Matrix or aluminum hydroxide (Alum) were tested in BALB/c mice. While mice vaccinated with 4μg of sNcAg + Providean-AVEC developed specific antibodies shortly after the first dose, the rest of the high antigen payload formulations only induced seroconversion after the booster. Mice immunized with the high payload ISCOM vaccine (4 μg sNcAg) or with either low or high payload Providean-AVEC formulations (0.4 μg and 4 μg sNcAg, respectively) elicited higher IgG2a than IgG1 serum levels, and IFN-γ anamnestic responses with a Th1-cytokine biased profile. These animals had no histological signs of cerebral lesions and parasite burden assessed by quantitative real-time PCR was not detected. Vaccine preparations including Providean-AVEC as adjuvant limited N. canimum multiplication even with only a tenth of antigen payload compared to vaccines containing other adjuvants. Using adjuvants to specifically activate dendritic cells, combined with a careful antigen selection can enhance cellular responses to inert N. caninum vaccines. PMID:22178728

  10. A Novel Synthetic TLR-4 Agonist Adjuvant Increases the Protective Response to a Clinical-Stage West Nile Virus Vaccine Antigen in Multiple Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoeven, Neal; Joshi, Sharvari Waghmare; Nana, Ghislain Ismael; Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Fox, Christopher; Bowen, Richard A.; Clements, David E.; Martyak, Timothy; Parks, D. Elliot; Baldwin, Susan; Reed, Steven G.; Coler, Rhea N.

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted member of the Flaviviridae family that has emerged in recent years to become a serious public health threat. Given the sporadic nature of WNV epidemics both temporally and geographically, there is an urgent need for a vaccine that can rapidly provide effective immunity. Protection from WNV infection is correlated with antibodies to the viral envelope (E) protein, which encodes receptor binding and fusion functions. Despite many promising E-protein vaccine candidates, there are currently none licensed for use in humans. This study investigates the ability to improve the immunogenicity and protective capacity of a promising clinical-stage WNV recombinant E-protein vaccine (WN-80E) by combining it with a novel synthetic TLR-4 agonist adjuvant. Using the murine model of WNV disease, we find that inclusion of a TLR-4 agonist in either a stable oil-in-water emulsion (SE) or aluminum hydroxide (Alum) formulation provides both dose and dosage sparing functions, whereby protection can be induced after a single immunization containing only 100 ng of WN-80E. Additionally, we find that inclusion of adjuvant with a single immunization reduced viral titers in sera to levels undetectable by viral plaque assay. The enhanced protection provided by adjuvanted immunization correlated with induction of a Th1 T-cell response and the resultant shaping of the IgG response. These findings suggest that inclusion of a next generation adjuvant may greatly enhance the protective capacity of WNV recombinant subunit vaccines, and establish a baseline for future development. PMID:26901122

  11. Communicating the role and value of vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Gellin, Bruce G; Salisbury, David M

    2015-06-01

    Despite the inclusion of adjuvants in many routinely used vaccines to improve the immune response, their presence and role are neither clear in product details such as the packaging or in the Summaries of Product Characteristics, nor understood by health professionals or the public. For many vaccines the adjuvant may simply be described as 'Adsorbed' without clarification that the adsorbing onto a material such as aluminium hydroxide adjuvants the antigens. As many future vaccines are likely to be adjuvanted, the presence of adjuvants, either those used in existing vaccines or novel formulations, may raise public and professional concerns unless communication materials are prepared in advance to allay anxieties such as those that have arisen over some present vaccine ingredients such as thiomersal. This raises a dilemma about how active such communications should be: over-promotion of the presence of a new adjuvant may cause unneeded anxieties; under-promotion may raise concerns over concealment of information. Research is needed and appropriate communication materials should be prepared. PMID:26022567

  12. Adjuvants and Inactivated Polio Vaccine: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hawken, Jennifer; Troy, Stephanie B.

    2012-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is nearing universal eradication; in 2011, there were 650 cases reported globally. When wild polio is eradicated, global oral polio vaccine (OPV) cessation followed by universal use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is believed to be the safest vaccination strategy as IPV does not mutate or run the risk of vaccine derived outbreaks that OPV does. However, IPV is significantly more expensive than OPV. One strategy to make IPV more affordable is to reduce the dose by adding adjuvants, compounds that augment the immune response to the vaccine. No adjuvants are currently utilized in stand-alone IPV; however, several have been explored over the past six decades. From aluminum, used in many licensed vaccines, to newer and more experimental adjuvants such as synthetic DNA, a diverse group of compounds has been assessed with varying strengths and weaknesses. This review summarizes the studies to date evaluating the efficacy and safety of adjuvants used with IPV. PMID:23041122

  13. Lactoferrin acts as an adjuvant during influenza vaccination of neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Michael P; Pritzl, Curtis J; Xia, Chuan; Miller, Mindy M; Zaghouani, Habib; Hahm, Bumsuk

    2015-11-27

    Health policy precludes neonatal vaccination against influenza. Hence, morbidity and mortality are high under 6 months of age. Lactoferrin may activate diminished numbers of dysfunctional dendritic cells and reverse neonatal vaccine failures. Aluminum hydroxide/ALUM recruits neutrophils that secrete lactoferrin at deposition sites of antigen. We theorized lactoferrin + influenza antigen initiates an equivalent antibody response compared to ALUM. Three-day-old mice received subcutaneously 30 μg of H1N1 hemagglutinin + 200 μg of bovine lactoferrin versus hemagglutinin + ALUM. Controls received hemagglutinin, lactoferrin, or ALUM. After 21 days, sera measured anti-H1N1 (ELISA) and neutralizing antibody (plaque assays). ELISA detected equal antibody production with lactoferrin + hemagglutinin compared to hemagglutinin + ALUM; both sera also neutralized H1N1 virus at a 1:20 dilution (p < 0.01). Controls had no anti-H1N1 antibody. Neonates given lactoferrin had no anaphylaxis when challenged four weeks later. Lactoferrin is a safe and effective adjuvant for inducing antibody against influenza in neonates. PMID:26478433

  14. Alum-type adjuvant effect of non-haemolytic saponins purified from Ilex and Passiflora spp.

    PubMed

    Silveira, F; Rossi, S; Fernández, C; Gosmann, G; Schenkel, E; Ferreira, F

    2011-12-01

    Five saponins purified from the leaves of three Ilex species (saponins 1 and 2 from I. dumosa; saponin 3 from I. argentina; saponin 4 from I. paraguariensis) and from Passiflora alata (saponin 5) were evaluated for their in vitro haemolytic activity and in vivo immunostimulatory ability in a mouse model using tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model antigen. The assayed saponins showed very weak or no haemolytic activity over the tested concentration range. Mice were immunized twice with TT formulated with pure saponins 1-5, or with a mixture of saponins from Quillaja saponaria, aluminum hydroxide gel or saline, which were used as controls. The elicited humoral response was evaluated by means of the time course of specific serum antibody levels up to day 131 post-priming (total IgG and isotypes); the cellular response was tested through a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay. The assayed saponins, in particular saponins 3 and 5, showed an adjuvant effect similar to that of alum for all tested parameters. The immunostimulating potential of these compounds deserves further investigation, especially taking into account that some Ilex spp. and Passiflora alata are native crops of widespread use and economical importance in Latin America. PMID:21480409

  15. Aluminum-air battery crystallizer

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoni, A.

    1987-01-23

    A prototype crystallizer system for the aluminum-air battery operated reliably through simulated startup and shutdown cycles and met its design objectives. The crystallizer system allows for crystallization and removal of the aluminium hydroxide reaction product; it is required to allow steady-state and long-term operation of the aluminum-air battery. The system has to minimize volume and maintain low turbulence and shear to minimize secondary nucleation and energy consumption while enhancing agglomeration. A lamella crystallizer satisfies system constraints.

  16. Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

  17. Increased potency of BioThrax anthrax vaccine with the addition of the C-class CpG oligonucleotide adjuvant CPG 10109.

    PubMed

    Gu, Mili; Hine, Paul M; James Jackson, W; Giri, Lallan; Nabors, Gary S

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of an adjuvant, in addition to the existing aluminum hydroxide, in the formulation of the licensed anthrax vaccine BioThrax may have the potential to positively modify immune responses. Some potential desirable outcomes from the inclusion of an additional adjuvant include increased immune response kinetics, increased response rates, more prolonged antibody decay rates, and the ability to use less antigen per dose or fewer doses to achieve immunity. One promising group of adjuvants that is being investigated with a variety of vaccines and which has been shown to cause many of these effects are oligonucleotides which contain unmethylated CpG motifs. The C-class oligonucleotide CPG 10109, constructed of a mixed phosphorothioate/phosphodiester backbone and containing 3 CpG motifs, was added to various dilutions of BioThrax and used in mouse and guinea pig immunogenicity studies. Anti-protective antigen (PA) IgG ELISAs and the anthrax toxin neutralization assay (TNA) were performed on serum samples from both species. Anti-PA IgG and TNA responses were approximately 10-fold higher after a single dose of undiluted or diluted BioThrax upon addition of 100 microg CPG 10109 in the mouse regardless of the route of immunization. Responses were also significantly greater in the guinea pig after receiving CpG-adjuvanted undiluted BioThrax or CpG-adjuvanted BioThrax diluted 1:5, 1:10 or 1:30 compared to those achieved with BioThrax alone. A guinea pig spore challenge study showed that a single injection of BioThrax vaccine diluted 1:10 in the presence of 25 microg CPG 10109 was as protective as undiluted BioThrax, whereas a single injection of BioThrax diluted 1:10 was not protective. Taken together with the results from the immunogenicity studies, these results suggest that a CpG adjuvant could be used to reduce the dose of active ingredient required to elicit a protective response, and could lead to improved immune response kinetics. PMID:16973247

  18. Mechanisms of Action of Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Awate, Sunita; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Mutwiri, George

    2013-01-01

    Adjuvants are used in many vaccines, but their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Studies from the past decade on adjuvant mechanisms are slowly revealing the secrets of adjuvant activity. In this review, we have summarized the recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms of action of adjuvants. Adjuvants may act by a combination of various mechanisms including formation of depot, induction of cytokines and chemokines, recruitment of immune cells, enhancement of antigen uptake and presentation, and promoting antigen transport to draining lymph nodes. It appears that adjuvants activate innate immune responses to create a local immuno-competent environment at the injection site. Depending on the type of innate responses activated, adjuvants can alter the quality and quantity of adaptive immune responses. Understanding the mechanisms of action of adjuvants will provide critical information on how innate immunity influences the development of adaptive immunity, help in rational design of vaccines against various diseases, and can inform on adjuvant safety. PMID:23720661

  19. Selenium adsorption to aluminum-based water treatment residuals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water- and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 hours in selenate or selenite solutions at pH values o...

  20. An Improved Qualitative Analysis Procedure for Aluminum Subgroup Cations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kistner, C. R.; Robinson, Patricia J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for the qualitative analysis of aluminum subgroup cations designed to avoid failure to obtain lead or barium chromate precipitates or failure to report aluminum hydroxide when present (due to staining). Provides a flow chart and step-by-step explanation for the new procedure, indicating significantly improved student results.…

  1. Selenium Adsorption To Aluminum-Based Water Treatment Residuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (WTR) can adsorb water-and soil-borne P, As(V), As(III), and perchlorate, and may be able to adsorb excess environmental selenium. WTR, clay minerals, and amorphous aluminum hydroxide were shaken for 24 hours in selenate or selenite solut...

  2. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOEpatents

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  3. Novel adjuvant systems.

    PubMed

    McCluskie, M J; Weeratna, R D

    2001-11-01

    Vaccination remains the single most valuable tool in the prevention of infectious disease. Nevertheless, there exists a need to improve the performance of existing vaccines such that fewer boosts are needed or to develop novel vaccines. For the development of effective vaccines for humans, a great need exists for safe and effective adjuvants. A number of novel adjuvants have been reported in recent years including: i) bacterial toxins such as cholera toxin, CT, and the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, LT; ii) less toxic derivatives of CT and LT; iii) endogenous human immunomodulators, such as IL-2, IL-12, GM-CSF; iv) hormones; v) lipopeptides; vi) saponins, such as QS-21; vii) synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODN); viii) lipid 'A derivatives, such as monophosphoryl lipid A, MPL, and ix) muramyl dipeptide (MDP) derivatives. Herein, we will review recent findings using these novel adjuvant systems. PMID:12455400

  4. Comparable quality attributes of hepatitis E vaccine antigen with and without adjuvant adsorption-dissolution treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Min; Yang, Fan; Li, Yufang; Zheng, Zizheng; Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Qingshan; Wang, Ying; Li, Shaowei; Xia, Ningshao; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian

    2015-01-01

    Most vaccines require adjuvants for antigen stabilization and immune potentiation. Aluminum-based adjuvants are the most widely used adjuvants for human vaccines. Previous reports demonstrated the preservation of antigen conformation and other antigen characteristics after recovery from adjuvanted Hepatitis B and human papillomavirus vaccines. In this study, we used a combination of various physiochemical and immunochemical methods to analyze hepatitis E vaccine antigen quality attributes after recovery from adjuvants. All biochemical and biophysical methods showed similar characteristics of the p239 protein after recovery from adjuvanted vaccine formulation compared to the antigen in solution which never experienced adsorption/desorption process. Most importantly, we demonstrated full preservation of key antigen epitopes post-recovery from adjuvanted vaccine using a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies as exquisite probes. Antigenicity of p239 was probed with a panel of 9 mAbs using competition/blocking ELISA, surface plasmon resonance and sandwich ELISA methods. These multifaceted analyses demonstrated the preservation of antigen key epitopes and comparable protein thermal stability when adsorbed on adjuvants or of the recovered antigen post-dissolution treatment. A better understanding of the antigen conformation in adjuvanted vaccine will enhanced our knowledge of antigen-adjuvant interactions and facilitate an improved process control and development of stable vaccine formulation. PMID:26018442

  5. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM BY REPEATED PRECIPITATION WITH AMPHOTERIC HYDROXIDE CARRIERS

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1960-04-01

    A multiple carrier precipitation method is described for separating and recovering plutonium from an aqueous solution. The hydroxide of an amphoteric metal is precipitated in an aqueous plutonium-containing solution. This precipitate, which carries plutonium, is then separated from the supernatant liquid and dissolved in an aqueous hydroxide solution, forming a second plutonium- containing solution. lons of an amphoteric metal which forms an insoluble hydroxide under the conditions existing in this second solution are added to the second solution. The precipitate which forms and which carries plutonium is separated from the supernatant liquid. Amphoteric metals which may be employed are aluminum, bibmuth, copper, cobalt, iron, lanthanum, nickel, and zirconium.

  6. Adjuvant Therapy for Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Davar, Diwakar; Tarhini, Ahmad A.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates from the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry suggest that melanoma incidence will reach 70,230 in 2011, of which 8,790 will die. The rising incidence and predilection for young individuals makes this tumor a leading source of lost productive years in the society. High-dose interferon-α2b is the only agent approved for adjuvant therapy of melanoma; the improvement in relapse-free survival has been observed across nearly all published studies and meta-analyses. However toxicity affects compliance and current research is focusing upon biomarkers that may allow selection of patients with greater likelihood of response, and exploring new agents either singly or in combination that may improve upon the benefit of IFN. In this article, we review the data for the adjuvant therapy of malignant melanoma - focusing on the results obtained with various regimens testing the several formulations of interferon-α2, and the adjuvant studies of vaccines and radiotherapy. Recent advances in the treatment of metastatic disease have established a role for CTLA-4 blockade and BRAF-inhibition, and raising hopes that these agents may have a role in the adjuvant setting. At present, several trials investigating combinations of novel agents with existing immunomodulators are underway. PMID:22453021

  7. Laser vaccine adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797

  8. Potassium hydroxide clay stabilization process

    SciTech Connect

    Sydansk, R.

    1981-07-28

    An aqueous solution having potassium hydroxide dissolved therein is injected into a subterranean sandstone formation containing water-sensitive fine particles, including clays. Potassium hydroxide stabilizes the fine particles for a substantial period of time thereby substantially preventing formation permeability damage caused by encroachment of aqueous solutions having a distinct ionic makeup into the treated formation.

  9. Human prophylactic vaccine adjuvants and their determinant role in new vaccine formulations

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, O.; Batista-Duharte, A.; González, E.; Zayas, C.; Balboa, J.; Cuello, M.; Cabrera, O.; Lastre, M.; Schijns, V.E.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Adjuvants have been considered for a long time to be an accessory and empirical component of vaccine formulations. However, accumulating evidence of their crucial role in initiating and directing the immune response has increased our awareness of the importance of adjuvant research in the past decade. Nevertheless, the importance of adjuvants still is not fully realized by many researchers working in the vaccine field, who are involved mostly in the search for better target antigens. The choice of a proper adjuvant can be determinant for obtaining the best results for a given vaccine candidate, but it is restricted due to intellectual property and know-how issues. Consequently, in most cases the selected adjuvant continues to be the aluminum salt, which has a record of safety, but predominantly constitutes a delivery system (DS). Ideally, new strategies should combine immune potentiators (IP) and DS by mixing both compounds or by obtaining structures that contain both IP and DS. In addition, the term immune polarizer has been introduced as an essential concept in the vaccine design strategies. Here, we review the theme, with emphasis on the discussion of the few licensed new adjuvants, the need for safe mucosal adjuvants and the adjuvant/immunopotentiating activity of conjugation. A summary of toxicology and regulatory issues will also be discussed, and the Finlay Adjuvant Platform is briefly summarized. PMID:22527130

  10. Human prophylactic vaccine adjuvants and their determinant role in new vaccine formulations.

    PubMed

    Pérez, O; Batista-Duharte, A; González, E; Zayas, C; Balboa, J; Cuello, M; Cabrera, O; Lastre, M; Schijns, V E J C

    2012-08-01

    Adjuvants have been considered for a long time to be an accessory and empirical component of vaccine formulations. However, accumulating evidence of their crucial role in initiating and directing the immune response has increased our awareness of the importance of adjuvant research in the past decade. Nevertheless, the importance of adjuvants still is not fully realized by many researchers working in the vaccine field, who are involved mostly in the search for better target antigens. The choice of a proper adjuvant can be determinant for obtaining the best results for a given vaccine candidate, but it is restricted due to intellectual property and know-how issues. Consequently, in most cases the selected adjuvant continues to be the aluminum salt, which has a record of safety, but predominantly constitutes a delivery system (DS). Ideally, new strategies should combine immune potentiators (IP) and DS by mixing both compounds or by obtaining structures that contain both IP and DS. In addition, the term immune polarizer has been introduced as an essential concept in the vaccine design strategies. Here, we review the theme, with emphasis on the discussion of the few licensed new adjuvants, the need for safe mucosal adjuvants and the adjuvant/immunopotentiating activity of conjugation. A summary of toxicology and regulatory issues will also be discussed, and the Finlay Adjuvant Platform is briefly summarized. PMID:22527130

  11. Solubility and Reaction Rates of Aluminum Solid Phases Under Geothermal Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Anovitz, L.M.

    2000-05-28

    Experimental studies involving equilibrium solubility and dissolution/precipitation rates were initiated on aluminum hydroxide phases prevalent under geothermal reservoir conditions. A large capacity, hydrogen-electrode concentration cell (HECC) was constructed specifically for this purpose.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS... a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  15. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  16. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg....

  17. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 184.1763 Section 184.1763 Food... GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-58-3) is also... powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  3. Aluminum Target Dissolution in Support of the Pu-238 Program

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H

    2014-09-01

    Selection of an aluminum alloy for target cladding affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the caustic dissolution step, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. We present a study to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal alloy, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. These data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Temperature logging during the transients has been investigated as a means to generate kinetic and mass transport data on the dissolution process. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  4. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition and process for electrolysis thereof

    DOEpatents

    Vandegrift, George F.; Krumpelt, Michael; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1983-01-01

    A process for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  5. Adjuvant Therapy Trials.

    PubMed

    Ursem, Carling; Van Loon, Katherine; Venook, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, ramucirumab and TAS-102 became the 10th and 11th drugs approved by the Food and Drug administration for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, not counting leucovorin, and yet only 3 agents, 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin, have proven benefit in adjuvant treatment. In fact, there have been no additions (and 1 subtraction levamisole) to our arsenal of therapies for patients with stages II and III colon cancer for more than a decade. How did we get here? Are we stuck? And how do we move forward? PMID:27341598

  6. [B-cell pseudolymphoma caused by aluminium hydroxide following hyposensitization therapy].

    PubMed

    Hernández, I; Sanmartín, O; Cardá, C; Góme, S; Alfaro, A

    2008-04-01

    Aluminium hydroxide is used as an adjuvant in vaccines. We describe the case of a patient who presented a persistent adverse local reaction to aluminium hydroxide due to hyposensitization therapy to dust mites. Multiple painful and pruriginous subcutaneous nodules were observed in both arms, along with hypertrichosis at the injection site. Histology revealed a pseudolymphomatous B cell reaction predominantly involving cells that were CD20 positive, did not express bcl-2, and did not display the t(14-18) translocation. The cells also exhibited polyclonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chains. X-ray spectral microanalysis revealed deposits of inorganic aluminium in the granular histiocytes among the germinal centers. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous B-cell pseudolymphoma due to aluminium hydroxide as a result of immunotherapy. PMID:18358197

  7. Adjuvant Therapy: Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Davar, Diwakar; Tarhini, Ahmad; Kirkwood, John M.

    2011-01-01

    With an incidence that is increasing at 2–5% per year, cutaneous melanoma is an international scourge that disproportionately targets young individuals. Despite much research, the treatment of advanced disease is still quite challenging. Immunotherapy with high-dose interferon-α2b or interleukin-2 benefits a select group of patients in the adjuvant and metastatic settings, respectively, with significant attendant toxicity. Advances in the biology of malignant melanoma and the role of immunomodulatory therapy have produced advances that have stunned the field. In this paper, we review the data for the use of interferon-α2b in various dosing ranges, vaccine therapy, and the role of radiotherapy in the adjuvant setting for malignant melanoma. Recent trials in the metastatic setting using anticytoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (anti-CTLA-4) monoclonal antibody therapy and BRAF inhibitor therapy have demonstrated clear benefit with prolongation of survival. Trials investigating combinations of these novel agents with existing immunomodulators are at present underway. PMID:22220281

  8. Effects of omeprazole and aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide on riociguat absorption

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Reiner; Unger, Sigrun; Artmeier-Brandt, Ulrike; Weimann, Gerrit; Mück, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Riociguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, is a novel therapy for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Riociguat bioavailability is reduced in neutral versus acidic conditions and therefore may be affected by concomitant use of medications that increase gastric pH. The effect of coadministration of the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole or the antacid AlOH/MgOH on the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of riociguat 2.5 mg was characterized in two open-label, randomized, crossover studies in healthy males. In study 1, subjects pretreated for 4 days with omeprazole 40 mg received cotreatment with omeprazole plus riociguat or riociguat alone (no pretreatment) on day 5 (n = 12). In study 2, subjects received cotreatment with 10 mL AlOH/MgOH plus riociguat or riociguat alone (n = 12). Pre- and cotreatment with omeprazole decreased riociguat bioavailability (mean decreases in area under the plasma concentration–time curve [AUC] and maximum concentration in plasma [Cmax] were 26% and 35%, respectively). Cotreatment with AlOH/MgOH resulted in greater decreases in riociguat bioavailability (mean decreases in AUC and Cmax were 34% and 56%, respectively). In both studies, most adverse events (AEs) were of mild intensity, and no serious AEs were reported. No additional safety signals were identified. Treatment with riociguat, with or without omeprazole or AlOH/MgOH, was well tolerated, with a good safety profile. Owing to the resulting increase of gastric pH, riociguat bioavailability is reduced by coadministration with AlOH/MgOH and, to a lesser extent, by coadministration with omeprazole. Thus, antacids should not be administered within an hour of receiving riociguat, but no dose adjustment is required for coadministration of proton pump inhibitors. PMID:27162626

  9. Effects of omeprazole and aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide on riociguat absorption.

    PubMed

    Becker, Corina; Frey, Reiner; Unger, Sigrun; Artmeier-Brandt, Ulrike; Weimann, Gerrit; Mück, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Riociguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, is a novel therapy for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Riociguat bioavailability is reduced in neutral versus acidic conditions and therefore may be affected by concomitant use of medications that increase gastric pH. The effect of coadministration of the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole or the antacid AlOH/MgOH on the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of riociguat 2.5 mg was characterized in two open-label, randomized, crossover studies in healthy males. In study 1, subjects pretreated for 4 days with omeprazole 40 mg received cotreatment with omeprazole plus riociguat or riociguat alone (no pretreatment) on day 5 (n = 12). In study 2, subjects received cotreatment with 10 mL AlOH/MgOH plus riociguat or riociguat alone (n = 12). Pre- and cotreatment with omeprazole decreased riociguat bioavailability (mean decreases in area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC] and maximum concentration in plasma [C max] were 26% and 35%, respectively). Cotreatment with AlOH/MgOH resulted in greater decreases in riociguat bioavailability (mean decreases in AUC and C max were 34% and 56%, respectively). In both studies, most adverse events (AEs) were of mild intensity, and no serious AEs were reported. No additional safety signals were identified. Treatment with riociguat, with or without omeprazole or AlOH/MgOH, was well tolerated, with a good safety profile. Owing to the resulting increase of gastric pH, riociguat bioavailability is reduced by coadministration with AlOH/MgOH and, to a lesser extent, by coadministration with omeprazole. Thus, antacids should not be administered within an hour of receiving riociguat, but no dose adjustment is required for coadministration of proton pump inhibitors. PMID:27162626

  10. Virus inactivation in aluminum and polyaluminum coagulation.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Sakuma, Satoru; Gojo, Takahito; Mamiya, Teppei; Suzuoki, Hiroshi; Inoue, Takanobu

    2003-11-15

    Inorganic aluminum salts, such as aluminum sulfate, are coagulants that cause small particles, such as bacteria and viruses as well as inorganic particles, to destabilize and combine into larger aggregates. In this investigation, batch coagulation treatments of water samples spiked with Qbeta, MS2, T4, and P1 viruses were conducted with four different aluminum coagulants. The total infectious virus concentration in the suspension of floc particles that eventually formed by dosing with coagulant was measured after the floc particles were dissolved by raising the pH with an alkaline beef extract solution. The virus concentrations were extremely reduced after the water samples were dosed with aluminum coagulants. Viruses mixed with and adsorbed onto preformed aluminum hydroxide floc were, however, completely recovered after the floc dissolution. These results indicated that the aluminum coagulation process inactivates viruses. Virucidal activity was most prominent with the prehydrolyzed aluminum salt coagulant, polyaluminum chloride (PACl). Virucidal activity was lower in river water than in ultrapure water--natural organic matter in the river water depressed the virucidal activity. Mechanisms and kinetics of the virus inactivation were discussed. Our results suggest that intermediate polymers formed during hydrolysis of the aluminum coagulants sorbed strongly to viruses, either rendering them inactive or preventing infectivity. PMID:14655704

  11. Increasing the Potency of an Alhydrogel-Formulated Anthrax Vaccine by Minimizing Antigen-Adjuvant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Watkinson, Allan; Soliakov, Andrei; Ganesan, Ashok; Hirst, Karie; LeButt, Chris; Fleetwood, Kelly; Fusco, Peter C.; Fuerst, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum salts are the most widely used vaccine adjuvants, and phosphate is known to modulate antigen-adjuvant interactions. Here we report an unexpected role for phosphate buffer in an anthrax vaccine (SparVax) containing recombinant protective antigen (rPA) and aluminum oxyhydroxide (AlOH) adjuvant (Alhydrogel). Phosphate ions bind to AlOH to produce an aluminum phosphate surface with a reduced rPA adsorption coefficient and binding capacity. However, these effects continued to increase as the free phosphate concentration increased, and the binding of rPA changed from endothermic to exothermic. Crucially, phosphate restored the thermostability of bound rPA so that it resembled the soluble form, even though it remained tightly bound to the surface. Batches of vaccine with either 0.25 mM (subsaturated) or 4 mM (saturated) phosphate were tested in a disease model at batch release, which showed that the latter was significantly more potent. Both formulations retained their potency for 3 years. The strongest aluminum adjuvant effects are thus likely to be via weakly attached or easily released native-state antigen proteins. PMID:23986317

  12. Aluminum Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.

    1998-01-01

    Presents three problems based on the price of aluminum designed to encourage students to be cooperative and to use an investigative approach to learning. Students collect and synthesize information, analyze results, and draw conclusions. (AIM)

  13. The adjuvanted influenza vaccines with novel adjuvants: experience with the MF59-adjuvanted vaccine.

    PubMed

    Podda, A

    2001-03-21

    Elderly people and subjects with underlying chronic diseases are at increased risk for influenza and related complications. Conventional influenza vaccines provide only limited protection in the elderly population. In order to enhance the immune response to influenza vaccines, several adjuvants have been evaluated. Among these, an oil in water adjuvant emulsion containing squalene, MF59, has been combined with subunit influenza antigens and tested in clinical trials in comparison with non-adjuvanted conventional vaccines. Data from a clinical database of over 10000 elderly subjects immunised with this adjuvanted vaccine (Fluad, Chiron Vaccines, Siena, Italy) demonstrate that, although common postimmunisation reactions are more frequent in recipients of the adjuvanted vaccine, this vaccine is well tolerated, also after re-immunisation in subsequent influenza seasons. Immunogenicity analyses demonstrate a consistently higher immune response with statistically significant increases of postimmunisation geometric mean titres, and of seroconversion and seroprotection rates compared to non-adjuvanted subunit and split influenza vaccines, particularly for the A/H3N2 and the B strains. The higher immunogenicity profile of the MF59-adjuvanted vaccine is maintained also after subsequent immunisations. An even higher adjuvant effect was shown in subjects with low pre-immunisation titre and in those affected by chronic underlying diseases. In conclusion, the addition of MF59 to subunit influenza vaccines enhances significantly the immune response in elderly subjects without causing clinically important changes in the safety profile of the influenza vaccine. PMID:11257408

  14. Ultrafine nanoporous palladium-aluminum film fabricated by citric acid-assisted hot-water-treatment of aluminum-palladium alloy film

    SciTech Connect

    Harumoto, Takashi; Tamura, Yohei; Ishiguro, Takashi

    2015-01-15

    Hot-water-treatment has been adapted to fabricate ultrafine nanoporous palladium-aluminum film from aluminum-palladium alloy film. Using citric acid as a chelating agent, a precipitation of boehmite (aluminum oxide hydroxide, AlOOH) on the nanoporous palladium-aluminum film was suppressed. According to cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy observations, the ligament/pore sizes of the prepared nanoporous film were considerably small (on the order of 10 nm). Since this fabrication method only requires aluminum alloy film and hot-water with chelating agent, the ultrafine nanoporous film can be prepared simply and environmentally friendly.

  15. Fabrication of Lotus-Type Porous Aluminum through Thermal Decomposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. Y.; Park, J. S.; Nakajima, H.

    2009-04-01

    Lotus-type porous aluminum with cylindrical pores was fabricated by unidirectional solidification through thermal decomposition of calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, or titanium hydride. The pore-forming gas decomposed from calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, and titanium hydride is identified as hydrogen. The elongated pores are evolved due to the solubility gap between liquid and solid when the melt dissolving hydrogen is solidified unidirectionally. The porosity of lotus aluminum is as high as 20 pct despite the type of the compounds. The pore size decreases and the pore density increases with increasing amount of calcium hydroxide, which is explained by an increase in the number of pore nucleation sites. The porosity and pore size in lotus aluminum fabricated using calcium hydroxide decrease with increasing argon pressure, which is explained by Boyle’s law. It is suggested that this fabrication method is simple and safe, which makes it superior to the conventional technique using high-pressure hydrogen gas.

  16. Aluminium adjuvants and adverse events in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sub-cutaneous immunotherapy is an effective treatment for allergy. It works by helping to modify or re-balance an individual’s immune response to allergens and its efficacy is greatly improved by the use of adjuvants, most commonly, aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium salts have been used in allergy therapy for many decades and are assumed to be safe with few established side-effects. This assumption belies their potency as adjuvants and their potential for biological reactivity both at injection sites and elsewhere in the body. There are very few data purporting to the safety of aluminium adjuvants in allergy immunotherapy and particularly so in relation to longer term health effects. There are, if only few, published reports of adverse events following allergy immunotherapy and aluminium adjuvants are the prime suspects in the majority of such incidents. Aluminium adjuvants are clearly capable of initiating unwanted side effects in recipients of immunotherapy and while there is as yet no evidence that such are commonplace it is complacent to consider aluminium salts as harmless constituents of allergy therapies. Future research should establish the safety of the use of aluminium adjuvants in sub-cutaneous allergy immunotherapy. PMID:24444186

  17. Intranasal hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin-adjuvanted influenza vaccine protects against sub-heterologous virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kusakabe, Takato; Ozasa, Koji; Kobari, Shingo; Momota, Masatoshi; Kishishita, Natsuko; Kobiyama, Kouji; Kuroda, Etsushi; Ishii, Ken J

    2016-06-01

    Intranasal vaccination with inactivated influenza viral antigens is an attractive and valid alternative to currently available influenza (flu) vaccines; many of which seem to need efficient and safe adjuvant, however. In this study, we examined whether hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), a widely used pharmaceutical excipient to improve solubility and drug delivery, can act as a mucosal adjuvant for intranasal flu vaccines. We found that intranasal immunization of mice with hemagglutinin split- as well as inactivated whole-virion influenza vaccine with HP-β-CD resulted in secretion of antigen-specific IgA and IgGs in the airway mucosa and the serum as well. As a result, both HP-β-CD adjuvanted-flu intranasal vaccine protected mice against lethal challenge with influenza virus, equivalent to those induced by experimental cholera toxin-adjuvanted ones. Of note, intranasal use of HP-β-CD as an adjuvant induced significantly lower antigen-specific IgE responses than that induced by aluminum salt adjuvant. These results suggest that HP-β-CD may be a potent mucosal adjuvant for seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine. PMID:27160037

  18. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium hydroxide. 184.1205 Section 184.1205 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1305-62-0) is also known as slaked lime or calcium hydrate. It is produced by the hydration...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. Contribution to the knowledge of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 5. Analysis and electrochemical behavior of cadmium nickel hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Dennstedt, W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrochemical experiments performed at sintered and bulk electrodes show that beta nickel hydroxide contains an electrochemically inactive proportion of cadmium hydroxide of up to 10%. The electrochemically ineffective cadmium hydroxide is homogeneously dissolved in beta nickel hydroxide.

  16. Aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  17. Innate immunity and adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-10-12

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence against invading pathogens. Furthermore, TLRs were found to act as adjuvant receptors that create a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and to have important roles in the induction of adaptive immunity. This paradigm shift is now changing our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infectious, immune and allergic diseases, as well as cancers. Besides TLRs, recent findings have revealed the presence of a cytosolic detector system for invading pathogens. I will review the mechanisms of pathogen recognition by TLRs and cytoplasmic receptors, and then discuss the roles of these receptors in the development of adaptive immunity in response to viral infection. PMID:21893536

  18. Innate immunity and adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence against invading pathogens. Furthermore, TLRs were found to act as adjuvant receptors that create a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and to have important roles in the induction of adaptive immunity. This paradigm shift is now changing our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infectious, immune and allergic diseases, as well as cancers. Besides TLRs, recent findings have revealed the presence of a cytosolic detector system for invading pathogens. I will review the mechanisms of pathogen recognition by TLRs and cytoplasmic receptors, and then discuss the roles of these receptors in the development of adaptive immunity in response to viral infection. PMID:21893536

  19. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO/sub 2/ from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)/sub 2/) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). Such a process would be applied to scrub /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)/sub 2/ slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)/sub 2/. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated.

  20. The geochemical behavior of aluminum in acidified surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D.K.; Ball, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Speciation calculations for aluminum, in water samples taken from a drainage basin containing acid mine waters, demonstrate a distinct transition from conservative behavior for pH. below 4.6 to nonconservative behavior for pH. above 4.9. This transition corresponds to the pK for the first hydrolysis constant of the aqueous aluminum ion and appears to be a consistent phenomenon independent of field location, ionic strength, and sulfate concentration. Nonconservative behavior is closely correlated with the equilibrium solubility of a microcrystalline gibbsite or amorphous aluminum hydroxide.

  1. Aluminum phosphide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Aluminum phosphide ; CASRN 20859 - 73 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  2. Aluminum toxicity. Hematological effects.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, S; del Carmen Contini, M; Gonzalez, M; Millen, N; Elias, M M

    2000-01-01

    Sequential effects of intoxication with aluminum hydroxide (Al) (80 mg/Kg body weight, i.p., three times a week), were studied on rats from weaning and up to 28 weeks. The study was carried out on hematological and iron metabolism-related parameters on peripheral blood, at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th months of exposure. As it was described that hematotoxic effects of Al are mainly seen together with high levels of uremia, renal function was measured at the same periods. The animals treated developed a microcytosis and was accompanied by a decrease in mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Significantly lower red blood cell counts (RBC million/microl) were found in rats treated during the 1st month. These values matched those obtained for control rats during the 2nd month. From the 3rd month onwards, a significant increase was observed as compared to control groups, and the following values were obtained by the 6th month: (T) 10.0 +/- 0.3 versus (C) 8.7 +/- 0.2 (million/microl). Both MCH and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were found to be significantly lower in groups treated from the 2nd month. At the end of the 6th month the following values were found: MCH (T) 13.3 +/- 0.1 versus (C) 16.9 +/- 0.3 (pg); MCV (T) 42.1 +/- 0.7 versus (C) 51.8 +/- 0.9 (fl). Al was found responsible for lower serum iron concentration levels and in the percentage of transferrin saturation. Thus, although microcytic anemia constitutes an evidence of chronic aluminum exposure, prolonged exposure could lead to a recovery of hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration values with an increase in red cell number. Nevertheless, both microcytosis and the decrease of MCH would persist. These modifications took place without changes being observed in the renal function during the observation period. PMID:10643868

  3. Silica nanoparticles as the adjuvant for the immunisation of mice using hepatitis B core virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Skrastina, Dace; Petrovskis, Ivars; Lieknina, Ilva; Bogans, Janis; Renhofa, Regina; Ose, Velta; Dishlers, Andris; Dekhtyar, Yuri; Pumpens, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials have facilitated the development of silicon dioxide, or Silica, particles as a promising immunological adjuvant for the generation of novel prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. In the present study, we have compared the adjuvanting potential of commercially available Silica nanoparticles (initial particles size of 10-20 nm) with that of aluminium hydroxide, or Alum, as well as that of complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvants for the immunisation of BALB/c mice with virus-like particles (VLPs) formed by recombinant full-length Hepatitis B virus core (HBc) protein. The induction of B-cell and T-cell responses was studied after immunisation. Silica nanoparticles were able to adsorb maximally 40% of the added HBc, whereas the adsorption capacity of Alum exceeded 90% at the same VLPs/adjuvant ratio. Both Silica and Alum formed large complexes with HBc VLPs that sedimented rapidly after formulation, as detected by dynamic light scattering, spectrophotometry, and electron microscopy. Both Silica and Alum augmented the humoral response against HBc VLPs to the high anti-HBc level in the case of intraperitoneal immunisation, whereas in subcutaneous immunisation, the Silica-adjuvanted anti-HBc level even exceeded the level adjuvanted by Alum. The adjuvanting of HBc VLPs by Silica resulted in the same typical IgG2a/IgG1 ratios as in the case of the adjuvanting by Alum. The combination of Silica with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) led to the same enhancement of the HBc-specific T-cell induction as in the case of the Alum and MPL combination. These findings demonstrate that Silica is not a weaker putative adjuvant than Alum for induction of B-cell and T-cell responses against recombinant HBc VLPs. This finding may have an essential impact on the development of the set of Silica-adjuvanted vaccines based on a long list of HBc-derived virus-like particles as the biological component. PMID:25436773

  4. Silica Nanoparticles as the Adjuvant for the Immunisation of Mice Using Hepatitis B Core Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Skrastina, Dace; Petrovskis, Ivars; Lieknina, Ilva; Bogans, Janis; Renhofa, Regina; Ose, Velta; Dishlers, Andris; Dekhtyar, Yuri; Pumpens, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials have facilitated the development of silicon dioxide, or Silica, particles as a promising immunological adjuvant for the generation of novel prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. In the present study, we have compared the adjuvanting potential of commercially available Silica nanoparticles (initial particles size of 10–20 nm) with that of aluminium hydroxide, or Alum, as well as that of complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvants for the immunisation of BALB/c mice with virus-like particles (VLPs) formed by recombinant full-length Hepatitis B virus core (HBc) protein. The induction of B-cell and T-cell responses was studied after immunisation. Silica nanoparticles were able to adsorb maximally 40% of the added HBc, whereas the adsorption capacity of Alum exceeded 90% at the same VLPs/adjuvant ratio. Both Silica and Alum formed large complexes with HBc VLPs that sedimented rapidly after formulation, as detected by dynamic light scattering, spectrophotometry, and electron microscopy. Both Silica and Alum augmented the humoral response against HBc VLPs to the high anti-HBc level in the case of intraperitoneal immunisation, whereas in subcutaneous immunisation, the Silica-adjuvanted anti-HBc level even exceeded the level adjuvanted by Alum. The adjuvanting of HBc VLPs by Silica resulted in the same typical IgG2a/IgG1 ratios as in the case of the adjuvanting by Alum. The combination of Silica with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) led to the same enhancement of the HBc-specific T-cell induction as in the case of the Alum and MPL combination. These findings demonstrate that Silica is not a weaker putative adjuvant than Alum for induction of B-cell and T-cell responses against recombinant HBc VLPs. This finding may have an essential impact on the development of the set of Silica-adjuvanted vaccines based on a long list of HBc-derived virus-like particles as the biological component. PMID:25436773

  5. Hydrolysis of aluminum dross material to achieve zero hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    David, E; Kopac, J

    2012-03-30

    A simple method with high efficiency for generating high pure hydrogen by hydrolysis in tap water of highly activated aluminum dross is established. Aluminum dross is activated by mechanically milling to particles of about 45 μm. This leads to removal of surface layer of the aluminum particles and creation of a fresh chemically active metal surface. In contact with water the hydrolysis reaction takes place and hydrogen is released. In this process a Zero Waste concept is achieved because the other product of reaction is aluminum oxide hydroxide (AlOOH), which is nature-friendly and can be used to make high quality refractory or calcium aluminate cement. For comparison we also used pure aluminum powder and alkaline tap water solution (NaOH, KOH) at a ratio similar to that of aluminum dross content. The rates of hydrogen generated in hydrolysis reaction of pure aluminum and aluminum dross have been found to be similar. As a result of the experimental setup, a hydrogen generator was designed and assembled. Hydrogen volume generated by hydrolysis reaction was measured. The experimental results obtained reveal that aluminum dross could be economically recycled by hydrolysis process with achieving zero hazardous aluminum dross waste and hydrogen generation. PMID:22326245

  6. Classification of Laser Vaccine Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Poznansky, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    An immunologic adjuvant, which enhances the magnitude and quality of immune responses to vaccine antigens, has become an essential part of modern vaccine practice. Chemicals and biologicals have been typically used for this purpose, but there are an increasing number of studies that are being conducted on the vaccine adjuvant effect of laser light on the skin. Currently, four different types or classes of laser devices have been shown to systemically enhance immune responses to intradermal vaccination: ultra-short pulsed lasers, non-pulsed lasers, non-ablative fractional lasers and ablative fractional lasers. Aside from involving the application of laser light to the skin in a manner that minimizes discomfort and damage, each type of laser vaccine adjuvant involves emission parameters, modes of action and immunologic adjuvant effects that are quite distinct from each other. This review provides a summary of the four major classes of “laser vaccine adjuvant” and clarifies and resolves their characteristics as immunologic adjuvants. These aspects of each adjuvant’s properties will ultimately help define which laser would be most efficacious in delivering a specific clinical benefit with a specific vaccine. PMID:27104047

  7. Adjuvant treatment for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Vladimir; Saif, Muhammad Wasif; Goodman, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women. Surgical resection has been shown to be the only curable treatment available. Unfortunately only 20% of all patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer are surgical candidates due to the aggressive biology of this disease. There is no clear consensus on what type of adjuvant therapy should be used for patients with pancreatic cancer. Chemoradiation is the favored treatment modality by many in the United States while gemcitabine based chemotherapy is favored in Europe. Both of these approaches have been shown by large prospective, randomized trials to improve disease free intervals and in some studies overall survival. The survival of these patients, even status post resection and adjuvant therapy, remains poor and therefore the need for alternative adjuvant therapies is needed. We will therefore discuss Abstracts #4124, #TPS4162, #4120 and #E15191 in this paper which are relevant to the issues described above. PMID:25076340

  8. Chemokines as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Bobanga, Iuliana D.; Petrosiute, Agne; Huang, Alex Y.

    2013-01-01

    We are witnessing a new era of immune-mediated cancer therapies and vaccine development. As the field of cancer vaccines advances into clinical trials, overcoming low immunogenicity is a limiting step in achieving full success of this therapeutic approach. Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. PMID:24967094

  9. Drift reduction with drift control adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Five new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  10. Spray drift mitigation with spray mix adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Four new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  11. Drift reduction with drift control adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Four new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  12. QS-21: a potent vaccine adjuvant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    QS-21 is an potent adjuvant derived from the bark of a Chilean tree, Quillaja saponaria. One of the advantages of this adjuvant is that it promotes a balanced humoral and cell-mediaed immune response and can be widely applicable to a variety of vaccines. This adjuvant has used for some veterinary va...

  13. FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J; Jeffrey Gillam, J

    2008-12-17

    aluminum will be stored in Tank 8 and 21,000 kg will be stored in saltcake via evaporation. Up to 77% of the total aluminum planned for SB6 may be removed via aluminum dissolution. Storage of the aluminum-laden supernate in Tank 8 will require routine evaluation of the free hydroxide concentration in order to maintain aluminum in solution. Periodic evaluation will be established on concurrent frequency with corrosion program samples as previously established for aluminum-laden supernate from SB5 that is stored in Tank 11.

  14. Formation and Stability of Ni-Al Hydroxide Phases in Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, E.; Van Der Lelie, D; Sparks, D

    2010-01-01

    The formation of mixed metal-aluminum hydroxide surface precipitates is a potentially significant uptake route for trace metals (including Co, Ni, and Zn) in environmental systems. This paper investigates the effect of mixed Ni-Al hydroxide precipitate formation and aging on Ni solubility and bioavailability in laboratory contaminated soils. Two Delaware agricultural soils were reacted with a 3 mM Ni solution for 12 months at pH's above and below the threshold for mixed Ni-Al hydroxide formation. Ni speciation was determined at 1, 6, and 12 months using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Precipitate solubility was examined through desorption experiments using HNO{sub 3} and EDTA as desorbing agents, whereas metal bioavailability was assessed using a Ni-specific bacterial biosensor. For both soils, the formation of Ni-Al hydroxide surface precipitates resulted in a reduction in the fraction of desorbed and bioavailable Ni. However, precipitate dissolution was greater, particularly with EDTA, than in published studies on isolated soil clay fractions, and less affected by aging processes. These results suggest that mixed Ni-Al hydroxide phases forming in real world environments may be both longer-lasting and more susceptible to ligand-promoted dissolution than previously expected.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of tridecameric Group 13 hydroxide clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensinger, Zachary Lee

    In the research area of Group 13 hydroxide clusters, progress is often hampered by difficult and inefficient synthetic procedures. This has greatly limited the numerous potential applications of Group 13 hydroxide compounds, many of which require large amounts of material. Most relevant to this dissertation is their application as precursors for high quality amorphous metal oxide thin films. Addressing this issue, this dissertation presents a series of Group 13 containing hydroxide compounds of general formula [M13(mu 3-OH)6(mu-OH)18(H2O)24](NO 3)15 which are generated through an efficient, scalable synthetic procedure. Throughout this dissertation, the compounds are generally referred to by their metal content, i.e. [Ga13(mu3-OH) 6(mu-OH)18(H2O)24](NO3) 15 is designated as Ga13. Chapter I reviews the literature of inorganic and ligand-supported Group 13 hydroxide compounds with the aim of identifying common structural trends in metal composition and coordinating ligands. This summary is limited to clusters of aluminum, gallium, and indium. Chapter II describes in detail the synthesis and characterization of one such cluster, Al13. Following this in Chapter III is the description of the first heterometallic Group 13 hydroxide compound, Ga7In 6, which along with Ga13 was used as a precursor material for metal oxide thin films in collaboration with Professor Doug Keszler at Oregon State University. Chapter IV describes a series of six Ga/In compounds, as well as two Al/In compounds. Included in this chapter is an analysis of the heat-induced decomposition properties of the Ga/In clusters. Understanding such thermal decomposition is particularly relevant for the use of these compounds as precursor materials, as an annealing step is used to condense the films. Chapter V addresses the potential for post-synthetic modification of the compounds through metal and ligand exchange reactions, an area that also addresses the issue of solution stability of the structures

  16. Macrophagic myofasciitis lesions assess long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide in muscle.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, R K; Coquet, M; Cherin, P; Belec, L; Moretto, P; Dreyfus, P A; Pellissier, J F; Chariot, P; Authier, F J

    2001-09-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition of unknown cause, detected in patients with diffuse arthromyalgias and fatigue, and characterized by muscle infiltration by granular periodic acid-Schiff's reagent-positive macrophages and lymphocytes. Intracytoplasmic inclusions have been observed in macrophages of some patients. To assess their significance, electron microscopy was performed in 40 consecutive cases and chemical analysis was done by microanalysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Inclusions were constantly detected and corresponded to aluminium hydroxide, an immunostimulatory compound frequently used as a vaccine adjuvant. A lymphocytic component was constantly observed in MMF lesions. Serological tests were compatible with exposure to aluminium hydroxide-containing vaccines. History analysis revealed that 50 out of 50 patients had received vaccines against hepatitis B virus (86%), hepatitis A virus (19%) or tetanus toxoid (58%), 3-96 months (median 36 months) before biopsy. Diffuse myalgias were more frequent in patients with than without an MMF lesion at deltoid muscle biopsy (P < 0.0001). Myalgia onset was subsequent to the vaccination (median 11 months) in 94% of patients. MMF lesion was experimentally reproduced in rats. We conclude that the MMF lesion is secondary to intramuscular injection of aluminium hydroxide-containing vaccines, shows both long-term persistence of aluminium hydroxide and an ongoing local immune reaction, and is detected in patients with systemic symptoms which appeared subsequently to vaccination. PMID:11522584

  17. Immunization with Recombinant Brucella Species Outer Membrane Protein Omp16 or Omp19 in Adjuvant Induces Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells as Well as Systemic and Oral Protection against Brucella abortus Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Pasquevich, Karina A.; Estein, Silvia M.; Samartino, Clara García; Zwerdling, Astrid; Coria, Lorena M.; Barrionuevo, Paula; Fossati, Carlos A.; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Cassataro, Juliana

    2009-01-01

    Available vaccines against Brucella spp. are live attenuated Brucella strains. In order to engineer a better vaccine to be used in animals and humans, our laboratory aims to develop an innocuous subunit vaccine. Particularly, we are interested in the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of B. abortus: Omp16 and Omp19. In this study, we assessed the use of these proteins as vaccines against Brucella in BALB/c mice. Immunization with lipidated Omp16 (L-Omp16) or L-Omp19 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) conferred significant protection against B. abortus infection. Vaccination with unlipidated Omp16 (U-Omp16) or U-Omp19 in IFA induced a higher degree of protection than the respective lipidated versions. Moreover, the level of protection induced after U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 immunization in IFA was similar to that elicited by live B. abortus S19 immunization. Flow cytometric analysis showed that immunization with U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 induced antigen-specific CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells producing gamma interferon. In vivo depletion of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells in mice immunized with U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 plus IFA resulted in a loss of the elicited protection, indicating that both cell types are mediating immune protection. U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 vaccination induced a T helper 1 response, systemic protection in aluminum hydroxide formulation, and oral protection with cholera toxin adjuvant against B. abortus infection. Both immunization routes exhibited a similar degree of protection to attenuated Brucella vaccines (S19 and RB51, respectively). Overall these results indicate that U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 would be a useful candidate for a subunit vaccine against human and animal brucellosis. PMID:18981242

  18. Immunization with recombinant Brucella species outer membrane protein Omp16 or Omp19 in adjuvant induces specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as systemic and oral protection against Brucella abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Pasquevich, Karina A; Estein, Silvia M; García Samartino, Clara; Samartino, Clara García; Zwerdling, Astrid; Coria, Lorena M; Barrionuevo, Paula; Fossati, Carlos A; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Cassataro, Juliana

    2009-01-01

    Available vaccines against Brucella spp. are live attenuated Brucella strains. In order to engineer a better vaccine to be used in animals and humans, our laboratory aims to develop an innocuous subunit vaccine. Particularly, we are interested in the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of B. abortus: Omp16 and Omp19. In this study, we assessed the use of these proteins as vaccines against Brucella in BALB/c mice. Immunization with lipidated Omp16 (L-Omp16) or L-Omp19 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) conferred significant protection against B. abortus infection. Vaccination with unlipidated Omp16 (U-Omp16) or U-Omp19 in IFA induced a higher degree of protection than the respective lipidated versions. Moreover, the level of protection induced after U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 immunization in IFA was similar to that elicited by live B. abortus S19 immunization. Flow cytometric analysis showed that immunization with U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 induced antigen-specific CD4(+) as well as CD8(+) T cells producing gamma interferon. In vivo depletion of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in mice immunized with U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 plus IFA resulted in a loss of the elicited protection, indicating that both cell types are mediating immune protection. U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 vaccination induced a T helper 1 response, systemic protection in aluminum hydroxide formulation, and oral protection with cholera toxin adjuvant against B. abortus infection. Both immunization routes exhibited a similar degree of protection to attenuated Brucella vaccines (S19 and RB51, respectively). Overall these results indicate that U-Omp16 or U-Omp19 would be a useful candidate for a subunit vaccine against human and animal brucellosis. PMID:18981242

  19. Vaccine adjuvants as potential cancer immunotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Temizoz, Burcu; Kuroda, Etsushi; Ishii, Ken J

    2016-07-01

    Accumulated evidence obtained from various clinical trials and animal studies suggested that cancer vaccines need better adjuvants than those that are currently licensed, which include the most commonly used alum and incomplete Freund's adjuvant, because of either a lack of potent anti-tumor immunity or the induction of undesired immunity. Several clinical trials using immunostimulatory adjuvants, particularly agonistic as well as non-agonistic ligands for TLRs, C-type lectin receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptors and stimulator of interferon genes, have revealed their therapeutic potential not only as vaccine adjuvants but also as anti-tumor agents. Recently, combinations of such immunostimulatory or immunomodulatory adjuvants have shown superior efficacy over their singular use, suggesting that seeking optimal combinations of the currently available or well-characterized adjuvants may provide a better chance for the development of novel adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27006304

  20. Improving vaccine delivery using novel adjuvant systems.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2008-01-01

    Adjuvants have been common additions to vaccines to help facilitate vaccine delivery. With advancements in vaccine technology, several adjuvants which activate immune specific responses have emerged. Available data show these adjuvants elicit important immune responses in both healthy and immunocompromised populations, as well as the elderly. Guidelines for the use and licensure of vaccine adjuvants remain under discussion. However, there is a greater understanding of the innate and adaptive immune response, and the realization of the need for immune specific adjuvants appears to be growing. This is a focused review of four adjuvants currently in clinical trial development: ASO4, ASO2A, CPG 7907, and GM-CSF. The vaccines including these adjuvants are highly relevant today, and are expected to reduce the disease burden of cervical cancer, hepatitis B and malaria. PMID:18398303

  1. Vaccine adjuvants as potential cancer immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Temizoz, Burcu; Kuroda, Etsushi

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence obtained from various clinical trials and animal studies suggested that cancer vaccines need better adjuvants than those that are currently licensed, which include the most commonly used alum and incomplete Freund’s adjuvant, because of either a lack of potent anti-tumor immunity or the induction of undesired immunity. Several clinical trials using immunostimulatory adjuvants, particularly agonistic as well as non-agonistic ligands for TLRs, C-type lectin receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptors and stimulator of interferon genes, have revealed their therapeutic potential not only as vaccine adjuvants but also as anti-tumor agents. Recently, combinations of such immunostimulatory or immunomodulatory adjuvants have shown superior efficacy over their singular use, suggesting that seeking optimal combinations of the currently available or well-characterized adjuvants may provide a better chance for the development of novel adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27006304

  2. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... salt or by hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide....

  4. Antimycobacterial, antimicrobial, and biocompatibility properties of para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide and Zn/Al layered double hydroxide nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Saifullah, Bullo; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Webster, Thomas J; Geilich, Benjamin M; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of tuberculosis by chemotherapy is complicated due to multiple drug prescriptions, long treatment duration, and adverse side effects. We report here for the first time an in vitro therapeutic effect of nanocomposites based on para-aminosalicylic acid with zinc layered hydroxide (PAS-ZLH) and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (PAS-Zn/Al LDH), against mycobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria. The nanocomposites demonstrated good antimycobacterial activity and were found to be effective in killing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A biocompatibility study revealed good biocompatibility of the PAS-ZLH nanocomposites against normal human MRC-5 lung cells. The para-aminosalicylic acid loading was quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. In summary, the present preliminary in vitro studies are highly encouraging for further in vivo studies of PAS-ZLH and PAS-Zn/Al LDH nanocomposites to treat tuberculosis. PMID:25114509

  5. Molten Hydroxide Trapping Process for Radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2003-01-28

    A molten hydroxide trapping process has been considered for removing radioiodine species from off-gas streams whereby iodine is reacted directly with molten hydroxides such as NaOH or KOH. The resulting product is the corresponding iodide, which can be separated by simple cooling of the molten mixture to grow the iodide primary phase once the mixture reaches 70-80 mol% in the iodide component. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that such a chemical process is highly favorable. Experimental testing of the trapping process using molecular iodine showed trapping of up to 96% of the volatile iodine. The trapping efficiency was dependent on operational parameters such as temperature and gas-melt contact efficiency, and higher efficiencies are expected as the process is further developed. While an iodide phase could be effectively isolated by slow cooling of a molten iodide-hydroxide mixture, the persistent appearance of hydroxide indicated that an appreciable solubility of hydroxide occurred in the iodide phase.

  6. Biosafe Nanoscale Pharmaceutical Adjuvant Materials

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shubin; Li, Shengliang; Wang, Chongxi; Liu, Juan; Yang, Xiaolong; Wang, Paul C.; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to developments in the field of nanotechnology over the past decades, more and more biosafe nanoscale materials have become available for use as pharmaceutical adjuvants in medical research. Nanomaterials possess unique properties which could be employed to develop drug carriers with longer circulation time, higher loading capacity, better stability in physiological conditions, controlled drug release, and targeted drug delivery. In this review article, we will review recent progress in the application of representative organic, inorganic and hybrid biosafe nanoscale materials in pharmaceutical research, especially focusing on nanomaterial-based novel drug delivery systems. In addition, we briefly discuss the advantages and notable functions that make these nanomaterials suitable for the design of new medicines; the biosafety of each material discussed in this article is also highlighted to provide a comprehensive understanding of their adjuvant attributes. PMID:25429253

  7. Adjuvant therapy for endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    DeLeon, Maria C.; Ammakkanavar, Natraj R.

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is a common gynecologic malignancy typically diagnosed at early stage and cured with surgery alone. Adjuvant therapy is tailored according to the risk of recurrence, estimated based on the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and other histological factors. The objective of this manuscript is to review the evidence guiding adjuvant therapy for early stage and locally advanced uterine cancer. For patients with early stage disease, minimizing toxicity, while preserving outstanding cure rates remains the major goal. For patients with locally advanced endometrial cancer optimal combined regimens are being defined. Risk stratification based on molecular traits is under development and may aid refine the current risk prediction model and permit personalized approaches for women with endometrial cancer. PMID:24761218

  8. ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION - LABORATORY SCALE VALIDATION ON WASTE SIMULANTS TEST REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS T; HAGERTY K

    2011-01-27

    To reduce the additional sodium hydroxide and ease processing of aluminum bearing sludge, the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process has been invented by AREV A and demonstrated on a laboratory scale to remove alumina and regenerate/recycle sodium hydroxide prior to processing in the WTP. The method uses lithium hydroxide (LiOH) to precipitate sodium aluminate (NaAI(OH){sub 4}) as lithium hydrotalcite (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.4Al(OH){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O) while generating sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In addition, phosphate substitutes in the reaction to a high degree, also as a filterable solid. The sodium hydroxide enriched leachate is depleted in aluminum and phosphate, and is recycled to double-shell tanks (DSTs) to leach aluminum bearing sludges. This method eliminates importing sodium hydroxide to leach alumina sludge and eliminates a large fraction of the total sludge mass to be treated by the WTP. Plugging of process equipment is reduced by removal of both aluminum and phosphate in the tank wastes. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify the efficacy of the process and confirm the results of previous tests. These tests used both single-shell tank (SST) and DST simulants.

  9. Polysaccharides: Candidates of promising vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Li, Pingli; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium-based adjuvants remain the only adjuvants approved for human use in the USA for over 80 years because of alum's simplicity, tolerability, safety and cost-efficiency. Recent development of vaccines, especially the increasing applications of recombinant subunit and synthetic vaccines, makes aluminium adjuvants cannot stimulate enough immunity to the antigens, since aluminium adjuvants can only induce Th2 type immune responses. So, novel adjuvants are urgent to make up the disadvantages of aluminium adjuvants. However, some major hurdles need to be overcome, not only the scientific knowledge of adjuvants but also unacceptable side-effects and toxicity. A number of carbohydrate-based polysaccharides from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources can act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and recognize pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on immune cells, followed by triggering innate immunity and regulating adaptive immunity. What is more, polysaccharides are safe and biodegradable without tissue deposits as observed in aluminium adjuvants. Therefore, polysaccharide-based compounds and formulations are potential vaccine adjuvant candidates. Here, we mainly review polysaccharide-based adjuvants investigated in recent years. PMID:25994059

  10. Evaluation of different adjuvants for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing all the SAT serotypes.

    PubMed

    Cloete, M; Dungu, B; Van Staden, L I; Ismail-Cassim, N; Vosloo, W

    2008-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals that is primarily controlled by vaccination of susceptible animals and movement restrictions for animals and animal-derived products in South Africa. Vaccination using aluminium hydroxide gel-saponin (AS) adjuvanted vaccines containing the South African Territories (SAT) serotypes has been shown to be effective both in ensuring that disease does not spread from the endemic to the free zone and in controlling outbreaks in the free zone. Various vaccine formulations containing antigens derived from the SAT serotypes were tested in cattle that were challenged 1 year later. Both the AS and ISA 206B vaccines adjuvanted with saponin protected cattle against virulent virus challenge. The oil-based ISA 206B-adjuvanted vaccine with and without stimulators was evaluated in a field trial and both elicited antibody responses that lasted for 1 year. Furthermore, the ISA 206 adjuvanted FMD vaccine protected groups of cattle against homologous virus challenge at very low payloads, while pigs vaccinated with an emergency ISA 206B-based FMD vaccine containing the SAT 1 vaccine strains were protected against the heterologous SAT 1 outbreak strain. PMID:18575060

  11. Design for aluminum recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This article describes the increasing use of aluminum in automobiles and the need to recycle to benefit further growth of aluminum applications by assuring an economical, high-quality source of metal. The article emphasizes that coordination of material specifications among designers can raise aluminum scrap value and facilitate recycling. Applications of aluminum in automobile construction are discussed.

  12. Contamination of DNase Preparations Confounds Analysis of the Role of DNA in Alum-Adjuvanted Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Noges, Laura E.; White, Janice; Cambier, John C.; Kappler, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum salt (alum) adjuvants have been used for many years as adjuvants for human vaccines because they are safe and effective. Despite its widespread use, the means by which alum acts as an adjuvant remains poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that injected alum is rapidly coated with host chromatin within mice. Experiments suggested that the host DNA in the coating chromatin contributed to alum’s adjuvant activity. Some of the experiments used commercially purchased DNase and showed that coinjection of these DNase preparations with alum and Ag reduced the host’s immune response to the vaccine. In this study, we report that some commercial DNase preparations are contaminated with proteases. These proteases are responsible for most of the ability of DNase preparations to inhibit alum’s adjuvant activity. Nevertheless, DNase somewhat reduces responses to some Ags with alum. The effect of DNase is independent of its ability to cleave DNA, suggesting that alum improves CD4 responses to Ag via a pathway other than host DNA sensing. PMID:27357147

  13. Recovery of gallium from aluminum industry residues

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, M.S.; Neto, K.C.M.; Nobrega, A.W.; Medeiros, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A procedure is proposed to recover gallium from flue dust aluminum residues produced in plants by using solid-phase extraction with a commercial polyether-type polyurethane foam (PUF). Gallium can be separated from high concentrations of aluminum, iron, nickel, titanium, vanadium, copper, zinc, sulfate, fluoride, and chloride by extraction with PUF from 3 M sulfuric acid and 3 M sodium chloride concentration medium with at least a 92% efficiency. Gallium backextraction was fast and quantitative with ethanol solution. In all recovery steps commercial-grade reagents could be used, including tap water. The recovered gallium was precipitated with sodium hydroxide solution, purified by dissolution and precipitation, calcinated, and the final oxide was 98.6% pure.

  14. Adjuvant progestagens for endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Hirsch, Pierre PL; Bryant, Andrew; Keep, Sarah L; Kitchener, Henry C; Lilford, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Endometrial cancer is the most common genital tract carcinoma among women in developed countries, with most women presenting with stage 1 disease. Adjuvant progestagen therapy has been advocated following primary surgery to reduce the risk of recurrence of disease. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of adjuvant progestagen therapy for the treatment of endometrial cancer. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Specilaised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Issue 2, 2009. MEDLINE and EMBASE up to April 2009. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of progestagen therapy in women who have had surgery for endometrial cancer. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Risk ratios (RRs) comparing survival in women who did and did not receive progestagen were pooled in random effects meta-analyses.. Main results Seven trials assessing 4556 women were identified. Three trials included women with stage one disease only, whereas four included women with more advanced disease. Meta-analysis of four trials showed that there was no significant difference in the risk of death at five years between adjuvant progestagen therapy and no further treatment (RR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.18). This conclusion is also robust to single trial analyses at 4 and 7 years and in one trial across all points in time using a hazard ratio (HR). There was also no significant difference between progestagen therapy and control in terms of the risk of death from endometrial cancer, cardiovascular disease and intercurrent disease. Relapse of disease appeared to be reduced by progestagen therapy in one trial (HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.97 and 5 year RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.96), but there was no evidence of a difference in disease recurrence in another trial at 7 years (RR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.27). Authors’ conclusions There

  15. Reactions of aqueous aluminum species at mineral surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, David Wayne; Hem, John David

    1975-01-01

    Aqueous aluminum solutions containing 4.5 ? 10 4 molar aluminum in 0.01 molar NaC104 were partly neutralized with NaOH to give OH:A1 mole ratios from 1.40 to 2.76. Measured amounts of montmorillonite, kaolinite, volcanic ash, or feldspathic sand were added to provide an area of inert surface. Reactions that occurred during 100 days of aging were compared with those in similar solutions without added surfaces, studied in earlier work. Adsorption of monomeric species Al(H20)6+3, AlOH(H2O)5+2, and Al(OH)2(H2O 4? on the added surfaces follows a cation exchange mass law equilibrium model, and adsorption is essentially complete in 1 hour. Only minor changes in monomeric aluminum species occurred after that. Rapid adsorption of polynuclear aluminum hydroxide species also occurs and follows the pattern of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the absence of surfaces, the polynuclear ions slowly increase in size and become microcrystalline gibbsite during aging. Electron micrographs showed microcrystalline gibbsite was present or surfaces after aging only 2 days. However, the analytical data suggest this material must have been adsorbed after it had already attained a near-crystalline state. Adsorbed polynuclear aluminum hydroxide species were not extensively converted to microcrystalline gibbsite during 100 days of aging.

  16. Energetic Insight into the Formation of Solids from Aluminum Polyoxocations.

    PubMed

    Reusser, Dana; Casey, William H; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    The ε-Keggin [AlO4Al12(OH)24(H2O)12](7+) ion (AlAl12(7+)) is a metastable precursor in the formation of aluminum oxyhydroxide solids. It also serves as a useful model for the chemistry of aluminous mineral surfaces. Herein we calculate the enthalpies of formation for this aqueous ion and its heterometal-substituted forms, GaAl12(7+) and GeAl12(8+), using solution calorimetry. Rather than measuring the enthalpies of the MAl12(7/8+) ions directly from solution hydrolysis, we measured the metathesis reaction of the crystallized forms with barium chloride creating an aqueous aluminum solution monospecific in MAl12(7/8+). Then, the contributions to the heat of formation from the crystallized forms were subtracted using referenced states. When comparing the aqueous AlAl12(7+) ion to solid aluminum (oxy)-hydroxide phases, we found that this ion lies closer in energy to solid phases than to aqueous aluminum monomers, thus explaining its role as a precursor to amorphous aluminum hydroxide phases. PMID:26129924

  17. Thermodynamics of Volatile Silicon Hydroxides Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan H.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics are promising candidate structural materials for heat engines. The long-term stability of these materials to environmental degradation is dependent on the formation and retention of a protective SiO2 layer. It is well known that SiO2 forms stable volatile hydroxides in the presence of water vapor at elevated temperatures. Combustion conditions, which characteristically are at high velocities, contain significant water vapor pressures, and high temperatures tend to promote continuous formation of these hydroxides with resulting material degradation. For the degradation of silicon-based ceramics to be predicted, accurate thermodynamic data on the formation of silicon hydroxides are needed.

  18. Bottom-Up Preparation of Ultrathin 2D Aluminum Oxide Nanosheets by Duplicating Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhifeng; Zhou, Anan; Wu, Jifeng; Chen, Yunqiang; Lan, Xiaoli; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei

    2016-02-24

    2D ultrathin aluminum oxide (2D-Al2O3) nanosheets are prepared by duplicating graphene oxide. An amorphous precursor of the hydroxide of aluminum is first deposited onto graphene oxide sheets, which are then converted into 2D-Al2 O3 nanosheets by calcination, while the graphene oxide is removed. The 2D-Al2O3 nanosheets have a large specific surface area and a superior adsorption capacity to fluoride ions. PMID:26678843

  19. Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution Of Sludge Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, M.T.; Hamm, B.A.; Pike, J.A.

    2008-07-01

    High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. The sludge is currently being stabilized in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) through a vitrification process immobilizing the waste in a borosilicate glass matrix for long-term storage in a federal repository. Without additional treatment, the existing volume of sludge would produce nearly 8000 canisters of vitrified waste. Aluminum compounds, along with other non-radioactive components, represent a significant portion of the sludge mass currently planned for vitrification processing in DWPF. Removing the aluminum from the waste stream reduces the volume of sludge requiring vitrification and improves production rates. Treating the sludge with a concentrated sodium hydroxide (caustic) solution at elevated temperatures (>90 deg. C) to remove aluminum is part of an overall sludge mass reduction effort to reduce the number of vitrified canisters, shorten the life cycle for the HLW system, and reduce the risk associated with the long term storage of radioactive wastes at SRS. A projected reduction of nearly 900 canisters will be achieved by performing aluminum dissolution on six targeted sludge batches; however, a project to develop and install equipment will not be ready for operation until 2013. The associated upgrades necessary to implement a high temperature process in existing facilities are costly and present many technical challenges. Efforts to better understand the characteristics of the sludge mass and dissolution kinetics are warranted to overcome these challenges. Opportunities to further reduce the amount of vitrified waste and increase production rates should also be pursued. Sludge staged in Tank 51 as the next sludge batch for feed to DWPF consisted

  20. Unusual hydrocarbon chain packing mode and modification of crystallite growth habit in the self-assembled nanocomposites zinc-aluminum-hydroxide oleate and elaidate (cis-and trans-[Zn2Al(OH)6(CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COO-)] and magnesium analogues.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifeng; Braterman, Paul S.; Xu, Zhi-Ping; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Xu, Huifang; Yu, Kui

    2004-05-01

    We report a novel packing mode specific to the cis unsaturated hydrocarbon chain in the title compound, a self-assembled layered double hydroxide-surfactant hybrid nanomaterial, and its influence on crystallite morphology and structure. The kink imposed by the cis double bond in oleate leads to partial overlap between chains on adjacent layers, with incomplete space filling, in contrast to the more usual (and more efficient) mono- and bilayer packings exhibited by the trans analogues. Incorporation of surfactant into the growing crystallite leads to a reversal of the usual LDH growth habit and results in crystallite shapes featuring ribbonlike sheets. The thermal decomposition behavior of the as-prepared organic/inorganic nanocomposites in air and N{sub 2} is described.

  1. Aluminum Solubility in Complex Electrolytes - 13011

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, S.F.; Johnston, C.T.

    2013-07-01

    Predicting aluminum solubility for Hanford and Savannah River waste liquids is very important for their disposition. It is a key mission goal at each Site to leach as much aluminum as practical from sludges in order to minimize the amount of vitrified high level waste. And it is correspondingly important to assure that any soluble aluminum does not precipitate during subsequent decontamination of the liquid leachates with ion exchange. This report shows a very simple and yet thermodynamic model for aluminum solubility that is consistent with a wide range of Al liquors, from simple mixtures of hydroxide and aluminate to over 300 Hanford concentrates and to a set of 19 Bayer liquors for temperatures from 20-100 deg. C. This dimer-dS{sub mix} (DDS) model incorporates an ideal entropy of mixing along with previous reports for the Al dimer, water activities, gibbsite, and bayerite thermodynamics. We expect this model will have broad application for nuclear wastes as well as the Bayer gibbsite process industry. (authors)

  2. Copper, silver, gold and zinc, cadmium, mercury oxides and hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkse, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of solubility data published up to 1984, including evaluations of the data. Data are presented on the following: copper (I) oxide; copper (II) oxide and hydroxide; silver (I) oxide; silver (II) oxide; gold (III) hydroxide; zinc oxide and hydroxide; cadmium oxide and hydroxide; and mercury (II) oxide.

  3. Role of iron and aluminum coagulant metal residuals and lead release from drinking water pipe materials.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Alisha D; Nguyen, Caroline K; Edwards, Marc A; Stoddart, Amina; McIlwain, Brad; Gagnon, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Bench-scale experiments investigated the role of iron and aluminum residuals in lead release in a low alkalinity and high (> 0.5) chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) in water. Lead leaching was examined for two lead-bearing plumbing materials, including harvested lead pipe and new lead: tin solder, after exposure to water with simulated aluminum sulfate, polyaluminum chloride and ferric sulfate coagulation treatments with 1-25-μM levels of iron or aluminum residuals in the water. The release of lead from systems with harvested lead pipe was highly correlated with levels of residual aluminum or iron present in samples (R(2) = 0.66-0.88), consistent with sorption of lead onto the aluminum and iron hydroxides during stagnation. The results indicate that aluminum and iron coagulant residuals, at levels complying with recommended guidelines, can sometimes play a significant role in lead mobilization from premise plumbing. PMID:25723068

  4. Polarized immune responses modulated by layered double hydroxides nanoparticle conjugated with CpG.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shiyu; Rolfe, Barbara E; Zhang, Bing; Mohammed, Yousuf H; Gu, Wenyi; Xu, Zhi P

    2014-11-01

    Modulation of the immune response is an important step in the induction of protective humoral and cellular immunity against pathogens. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using a nanomaterial conjugated with the toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand CpG to modulate the immune response towards the preferred polarity. MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterial has a very similar chemical composition to Alum, an FDA approved adjuvant for human vaccination. We used a model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA) to demonstrate that MgAl-LDH had comparable adjuvant activity to Alum, but much weaker inflammation. Conjugation of TLR9 ligand CpG to LDH nanoparticles significantly enhanced the antibody response and promoted a switch from Th2 toward Th1 response, demonstrated by a change in the IgG2a:IgG1 ratio. Moreover, immunization of mice with CpG-OVA-conjugated LDH before challenge with OVA-expressing B16/F10 tumor cells retarded tumor growth. Together, these data indicate that LDH nanomaterial can be used as an immune adjuvant to promote Th1 or Th2 dominant immune responses suitable for vaccination purposes. PMID:25145853

  5. Adjuvants: Classification, Modus Operandi, and Licensing

    PubMed Central

    Apostólico, Juliana de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most efficient strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases. Although safer, subunit vaccines are poorly immunogenic and for this reason the use of adjuvants is strongly recommended. Since their discovery in the beginning of the 20th century, adjuvants have been used to improve immune responses that ultimately lead to protection against disease. The choice of the adjuvant is of utmost importance as it can stimulate protective immunity. Their mechanisms of action have now been revealed. Our increasing understanding of the immune system, and of correlates of protection, is helping in the development of new vaccine formulations for global infections. Nevertheless, few adjuvants are licensed for human vaccines and several formulations are now being evaluated in clinical trials. In this review, we briefly describe the most well known adjuvants used in experimental and clinical settings based on their main mechanisms of action and also highlight the requirements for licensing new vaccine formulations. PMID:27274998

  6. Effects of organic solutes on chemical reactions of aluminum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lind, Carol J.; Hem, John David

    1975-01-01

    Concentrations of organic matter in the general range of 1-10 milligrams per litre organic carbon are common in natural water, and many naturally occurrin7 organic compounds form aluminum complexes. The aluminum concentrations in near-neutral pH solutions may be 10-100 times higher than the values predicted from solubility data if formation of such organic complexes is ignored. The processes of polymerization of aluminum hydroxide and precipitation of gibbsite are inhibited by the presence of the organic flavone compound quercetin in concentrations as low as 10 x -5.3 mole per litre. Quercetin forms a complex, with a probable molar ratio of 1:2 aluminum to quercetin, that has a formation constant (f12) of about 10 12. A complex with a higher aluminum-quercetin ratio also was observed, but this material tends to evolve into a compound of low solubility that removes aluminum from solution. In the presence of both dissolved aluminum and aqueous silica, low concentrations of quercetin improved the yield of crystallized kaolinite and halloysite. Small amounts of well-shaped kaolinite and halloysite crystals were identified by electron microscopy in solutions with pH's in the range 6.5-8.5 after 155 days aging in one experimer t and 481 days aging in a repeated experiment. The bulk of the precipitated material was amorphous to X-rays, and crystalline material was too small a proportion of the total to give identifiable X-ray diffraction peaks. The precipitates had aluminum-silicon ratios near 1, and their solubility corresponded to that found by Hem, Roberson, Lind, and Polzer (1973) for similar aluminosilicate precipitated in the absence of organic solutes. The improved yield of crystalline material obtained in the presence of quercetin probably is the result of the influence of the organic compound on the aluminum hydroxide polymerization process. Natural water containing color imparted by organic material tends to be higher in aluminum than would be predicted by p

  7. Sensing of corrosion on aluminum surfaces by use of metallic optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Dong, Saying; Liao, Yanbiao; Tian, Qian

    2005-10-20

    We present a new method for monitoring aluminum corrosion by determining the kind of light output that is as corrosion occurs. We prepared some metallized multimode optical fibers by physical vacuum deposition of aluminum to monitor metal corrosion. The sensing area was 1-2 cm in length and had an uncladded part. We used scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the microappearance of the aluminum before and after corrosion by sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid. The film's thickness was also measured by SEM. The factors that affect the rate of corrosion were also investigated. PMID:16252643

  8. Aluminum and Young Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    The author suggests a variety of ways in which aluminum and aluminum foil can be used in elementary and junior high art classes: relief drawing and rubbing; printing; repousse; sculpture; mobiles; foil sculpture; and three dimensional design. Sources of aluminum supplies are suggested. (SJL)

  9. Adjuvant-induced Human Monocyte Secretome Profiles Reveal Adjuvant- and Age-specific Protein Signatures.

    PubMed

    Oh, Djin-Ye; Dowling, David J; Ahmed, Saima; Choi, Hyungwon; Brightman, Spencer; Bergelson, Ilana; Berger, Sebastian T; Sauld, John F; Pettengill, Matthew; Kho, Alvin T; Pollack, Henry J; Steen, Hanno; Levy, Ofer

    2016-06-01

    Adjuvants boost vaccine responses, enhancing protective immunity against infections that are most common among the very young. Many adjuvants activate innate immunity, some via Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), whose activities varies with age. Accordingly, characterization of age-specific adjuvant-induced immune responses may inform rational adjuvant design targeting vulnerable populations. In this study, we employed proteomics to characterize the adjuvant-induced changes of secretomes from human newborn and adult monocytes in response to Alum, the most commonly used adjuvant in licensed vaccines; Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA), a TLR4-activating adjuvant component of a licensed Human Papilloma Virus vaccine; and R848 an imidazoquinoline TLR7/8 agonist that is a candidate adjuvant for early life vaccines. Monocytes were incubated in vitro for 24 h with vehicle, Alum, MPLA, or R848 and supernatants collected for proteomic analysis employing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) (data available via ProteomeXchange, ID PXD003534). 1894 non-redundant proteins were identified, of which ∼30 - 40% were common to all treatment conditions and ∼5% were treatment-specific. Adjuvant-stimulated secretome profiles, as identified by cluster analyses of over-represented proteins, varied with age and adjuvant type. Adjuvants, especially Alum, activated multiple innate immune pathways as assessed by functional enrichment analyses. Release of lactoferrin, pentraxin 3, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was confirmed in newborn and adult whole blood and blood monocytes stimulated with adjuvants alone or adjuvanted licensed vaccines with distinct clinical reactogenicity profiles. MPLA-induced adult monocyte secretome profiles correlated in silico with transcriptome profiles induced in adults immunized with the MPLA-adjuvanted RTS,S malaria vaccine (Mosquirix™). Overall, adjuvants such as Alum, MPLA and R848 give rise to distinct and age-specific monocyte secretome profiles

  10. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  11. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  12. Aluminum Leaching of ''Archived'' Sludge from Tanks 8F, 11H, and 12H

    SciTech Connect

    FONDEUR, FERNANDOF.

    2004-03-12

    Aluminum can promote formation or dissolution of networks in hydroxide solid solutions. When present in large amounts it will act as a network former increasing both the viscosity and the surface tension of melts. This translates into poor free flow properties that affect pour rate of glass production in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To mitigate this situation, DWPF operations limit the amount of aluminum contained in sludge. This study investigated the leaching of aluminum compounds from archived sludge samples. The conclusions found boehmite present as the predominant aluminum compound in sludge from two tanks. We did not identify an aluminum compound in sludge from the third tank. We did not detect any amorphous aluminum hydroxide in the samples. The amount of goethite measured 4.2 percentage weight while hematite measured 3.7 percentage weight in Tank 11H sludge. The recommended recipe for removing gibbsite in sludge proved inefficient for digesting boehmite, removing less than 50 per cent of the compound within 48 hours. The recipe did remove boehmite when the test ran for 10 days (i.e., 7 more days than the recommended baseline leaching period). Additions of fluoride and phosphate to Tank 12H archived sludge did not improve the aluminum leaching efficiency of the baseline recipe.

  13. Iodine Sequestration Using Delafossites and Layered Hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Pless; J.B. Chwirka; J.L. Krumhansl

    2006-03-28

    The objective of this document is to report on early success for sequestering {sup 129}I. Sorption coefficients (K{sub d}) for I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} onto delafossites, spinels and layered metal hydroxides were measured in order to compare their applicability for sequestering {sup 129}I. The studies were performed using a dilute fluid composition representative of groundwater indigenous to the Yucca mountain area. Delafossites generally exhibited relatively poor sorption coefficients (< 10{sup 1.7} mL/g). In contrast, the composition of the layered hydroxides significantly affects their ability to sorb I. Cu/Al and Cu/Cr layered hydroxide samples exhibit K{sub d}'s greater than 10{sup 3} mL/g for both I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -}.

  14. Xanthan gum as an adjuvant in a subunit vaccine preparation against leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Bacelo, Katia L; Hartwig, Daiane D; Seixas, Fabiana K; Schuch, Rodrigo; Moreira, Angelita da S; Amaral, Marta; Collares, Tiago; Vendrusculo, Claire T; McBride, Alan J A; Dellagostin, Odir A

    2014-01-01

    Leptospiral immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins are of great interest due to their ability to act as mediators of pathogenesis, serodiagnostic antigens, and immunogens. Purified recombinant LigA protein is the most promising subunit vaccine candidate against leptospirosis reported to date, however, as purified proteins are weak immunogens the use of a potent adjuvant is essential for the success of LigA as a subunit vaccine. In the present study, we compared xanthan pv. pruni (strain 106), aluminium hydroxide (alhydrogel), and CpG ODN as adjuvants in a LigA subunit vaccine preparation. Xanthan gum is a high molecular weight extracellular polysaccharide produced by fermentation of Xanthomonas spp., a plant-pathogenic bacterium genus. Preparations containing xanthan induced a strong antibody response comparable to that observed when alhydrogel was used. Upon challenge with a virulent strain of L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, significant protection (Fisher test, P < 0.05) was observed in 100%, 100%, and 67% of hamsters immunized with rLigANI-xanthan, LigA-CpG-xanthan, and rLigANI-alhydrogel, respectively. Furthermore, xanthan did not cause cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro. The use of xanthan as an adjuvant is a novel alternative for enhancing the immunogenicity of vaccines against leptospirosis and possibly against other pathogens. PMID:24895594

  15. The aluminum-air battery for electric vehicles - An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The development of aluminum-air batteries as mechanically rechargeable power sources to be used in electric vehicles is discussed. The chemistry of the aluminum-air battery, which has a potential for providing the range, acceleration and rapid refueling capability of contemporary automobiles and is based on the reaction of aluminum metal with atmospheric oxygen in the presence of an aqueous sodium hydroxide/sodium aluminate electrolyte, is examined, and it is pointed out that the electric vehicle would be practically emissionless. The battery development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which includes evaluations of electrochemical and chemical phenomena, studies of the economics and energy balance of a transportation system based on aluminum, and power cell design and performance analysis, is presented. It is concluded that although difficult problems must be overcome before the technical and economic feasibility of aluminum-air batteries for electric vehicles can be established, projections indicate that the aluminum-air vehicle is potentially competitive with internal combustion vehicles powered by synthetic liquid fuels.

  16. Method of manufacturing positive nickel hydroxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Gutjahr, M.A.; Schmid, R.; Beccu, K.D.

    1975-12-16

    A method of manufacturing a positive nickel hydroxide electrode is discussed. A highly porous core structure of organic material having a fibrous or reticular texture is uniformly coated with nickel powder and then subjected to a thermal treatment which provides sintering of the powder coating and removal of the organic core material. A consolidated, porous nickel support structure is thus produced which has substantially the same texture and porosity as the initial core structure. To provide the positive electrode including the active mass, nickel hydroxide is deposited in the pores of the nickel support structure.

  17. Raman spectra of hydroxide-halide melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakiriyanova, I. D.; Khokhlov, V. A.

    2012-08-01

    The Raman spectra of molten binary mixtures based on sodium hydroxide and containing (mol %) 35 NaCl, 30 NaBr, and 30 NaI have been recorded at various temperatures. An increase in the vibrational frequency and the force constant of the O-H bond is detected under isothermal conditions upon a variation of the anionic composition of a melt in the series I → Br → Cl. Based on the experimental data, the viscosity of the hydroxide-halide melts is estimated.

  18. Convenient method of simultaneously analyzing aluminum and magnesium in pharmaceutical dosage forms using californium-252 thermal neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Landolt, R.R.; Hem, S.L.

    1983-05-01

    A commercial antacid suspension containing aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide products was used as a model sample to study the use of a californium-252 thermal neutron activation as a method for quantifying aluminum content as well as for the simultaneous assay of aluminum and magnesium. A 3.5-micrograms californium-252 source was used for the activation, and the induced aluminum-28 and magnesium-27 activity was simultaneously measured by sodium iodide crystal gamma-ray spectrometry using dual single-channel analyzers and scalers. The antacid suspension was contained in a chamber designed with the unique capability of serving as the container for counting the induced radioactivity in addition to being the irradiation chamber itself. This pilot study demonstrated that use of more intense californium-252 sources, which are commonly available, would provide a method that is competitive with the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid titration method in precision and in other aspects as well.

  19. Evidence supporting a biological role for aluminum in brain chromatin compaction and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Lukiw, Walter J

    2010-05-19

    Averaging 8.1% (w/w) of the earth's crust, aluminum is the most highly abundant metal in our biosphere, yet has long been thought to serve no essential biological function. In aqueous solutions, aluminum salts and hydroxides are exceptionally potent aggregators of biological molecules, often coalescing molecular species to the point that they precipitate out of solution. A biological function for aluminum is proposed in which this abundant, high charge density metal cation has a significant role in biomolecular compaction. Sometimes, molecules ectopically aggregated by aluminum are associated with pathological conditions. The data further suggests that a specific consequence of 'aluminum biocompaction' may be particularly important in the condensation of A+T-rich chromatin domains, and in silencing the expression of specific kinds of genetic information. PMID:20684847

  20. Aluminum: Recycling of Aluminum Dross/Saltcake

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, S.

    1999-01-29

    As this NICE3 publication details, the objective of this project is to commercialize the process technology to eliminate all landfill waste associated with black dross and saltcake generated from aluminum recycling in the United States.

  1. Extended Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on findings from a recent clinical trial which showed that extending adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor can have important benefits for some women with early-stage cancer.

  2. Adjuvant Bisphosphonates for Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of a meta-analysis of randomized trials of bisphosphonates as adjuvant therapy for women with early-stage breast cancer that shows the drugs can reduce the rate of disease recurrence in bone.

  3. Mesoporous aluminosilicates assembled from dissolved LTA zeolite and triblock copolymer in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shunsuke; Okada, Hiroaki; Nakatani, Norihito; Maruo, Takanori; Nishiyama, Norikazu; Miyake, Yoshikazu

    2009-05-15

    Zeolite Na-A crystals dissolved in a HCl solution were used as a single-source of silicon and aluminum for the synthesis of mesoporous aluminosilicates via a template-assisted method with an organic base tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH). Amphiphilic triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 (EO(106)PO(70)EO(106)) was used as template. Increasing the amount of TMAOH in the synthetic solution resulted in an increase in the aluminum content of the products. On the other hand, mesostructural periodicity was deteriorated with higher content of aluminum incorporated into the mesoporous framework. The samples with low Si/Al ratios less than 5 have wormhole-like pore structure, while the samples with Si/Al ratios more than 7 possess highly ordered mesoporous structure, a body-centered Im3m symmetry, with single crystal like morphology. The samples with Si/Al ratio of 7, which prepared at TMAOH molar concentration of 25 mM in the templating solution, possess BET surface area of 470 m(2)/g, pore size of 6.4 nm, and pore volume of 0.56 cm(3)/g. Aluminum atoms have successfully been incorporated in a tetra-coordinated position and remained stable even after calcination at 600 degrees C. PMID:19223041

  4. [Rectal cancer and adjuvant chemotherapy: which conclusions?].

    PubMed

    Bachet, J-B; Rougier, P; de Gramont, A; André, T

    2010-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the rectum represents about a third of cases of colorectal cancer, with an annual incidence of 12,000 cases in France. On the contrary of colon cancer, the benefice of adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer has not been definitively proved, more because this question was assessed in few recent studies than because negative results. Preoperative radiochemotherapy is now the reference treatment for mid and lower rectal cancers, and allow to increase the local control without improvement of progression free survival and overall survival. The data of the "historical studies" of adjuvant treatment in rectal cancer published before 1990, of the meta-analysis of adjuvant trials in rectal cancer and of the QUASAR study suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines (intravenous or oral), in absence of pre-operative treatment, decrease the risk of metastatic relapse after curative surgery for a rectal cancer of stage II or III. This benefice seems similar to the one observed in colon cancer. In the EORTC radiotherapy group trial 22921, an adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and low dose of leucovorin was not associated with a significantly improvement of overall survival but, despite the fact that only 42.9% of patients received all planed cycles, the progression free survival was increased (not significantly) in groups receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. The French recommendations are to discuss the indication of adjuvant chemotherapy by fluoropyrimidines in cases of stage III rectal cancer on histopathologic reports and no chemotherapy in case of stade II. Despite the fact that none study have assessed a combination of fluoropyrimidines and oxaliplatin in adjuvant setting in rectal cancer, like in colon cancer, the Folfox4, modified Folfox6 or Xelox regimens are valid options in stage III (experts opinion). In cases of pathologic complete remission or in absence of involved nodes, the benefice of adjuvant chemotherapy is not assessed. In

  5. [Growth and metabolism of calcium in rats chronically poisoned with aluminium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Mahieu, S; Calvo, M L; Millen, N; Gonzalez, M; Contini, M C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of aluminum on growth have been studied in rats chronically poisoned with aluminum hydroxide (80 mg/kg b.w.-i.p.-three times a week, during 6 months) and in control rats, between 3 and 26 weeks of age. The growth data was evaluated according to Parks 'theory of feeding an growth. At the end of the poisoning period, the calcium metabolism was studied through a balance of calcium and the determination of bone Ca++ accretion and resorption rates with the aid of 45Ca++. The parathyroid glands function was studied using an indirect method. Treated rats showed a significant decrease in asymptotic weights and in the initial efficiency of food conversion into biomass regarding controls. No differences were observed in food intake between both group. Aluminum affected neither the peak growth rate nor the time necessary to attain maturity. The calcium balance in treated rats was significantly less than in the control group. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the calcium excreted by faces, caused perhaps by a less intestinal absorption. An important amount of aluminum on the surface of the trabecular bone and a reduction in the skeletal Ca++ mass, was observed in all treated rats. Nevertheless there are no differences in the latter when expressed for 100 g of body weight. The rate of skeletal Ca++ accretion was found to be significantly decreased in treated group with respect to controls, without any changes in the bone Ca resorption rate. The reduction in bone turnover revealed by the decrease of Vo+/Vo- was accompanied by less recovery velocity of calcemia in the aluminum treated group, being indirectly related to the parathyroid gland response to calcium depletion. In the model that we studied the decreased bone turnover could have been caused by deposits of aluminum in bone; however there could exist associated factors such as dysfunction in the secretion of PTH, or less affinity between its receptors at the bone level. PMID:9504191

  6. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  7. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 582.1139 Section 582.1139 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 582.1139 Section 582.1139 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 582.1139 Section 582.1139 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  13. Recycling Lithium Carbonate/Lithium Hydroxide Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, J.; Flowers, J.

    1983-01-01

    Hazardous waste disposal problem eliminated by regeneration. Li2CO3/ LiOH recycling process relies on low solubility of alkali carbonates in corresponding hydroxides. Li2CO3 precipitate calcined to LI2O, then rehydrated LiOH. Regeneration eliminates need to dispose caustic waste and uses less energy than simple calcination of entire waste mass.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 20, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  15. Applications of nanomaterials as vaccine adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Motao; Wang, Rongfu; Nie, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are applied to amplify the recipient's specific immune responses against pathogen infection or malignancy. A new generation of adjuvants is being developed to meet the demands for more potent antigen-specific responses, specific types of immune responses, and a high margin of safety. Nanotechnology provides a multifunctional stage for the integration of desired adjuvant activities performed by the building blocks of tailor-designed nanoparticles. Using nanomaterials for antigen delivery can provide high bioavailability, sustained and controlled release profiles, and targeting and imaging properties resulting from manipulation of the nanomaterials’ physicochemical properties. Moreover, the inherent immune-regulating activity of particular nanomaterials can further promote and shape the cellular and humoral immune responses toward desired types. The combination of both the delivery function and immunomodulatory effect of nanomaterials as adjuvants is thought to largely benefit the immune outcomes of vaccination. In this review, we will address the current achievements of nanotechnology in the development of novel adjuvants. The potential mechanisms by which nanomaterials impact the immune responses to a vaccine and how physicochemical properties, including size, surface charge and surface modification, impact their resulting immunological outcomes will be discussed. This review aims to provide concentrated information to promote new insights for the development of novel vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25483497

  16. Study of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 2: Oxidation products of nickel (2) hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Demelt, K.; White, J.

    1986-01-01

    Pure phases of some oxidized Ni oxides were prepared galvanimetrically with the Ni(2) hydroxide electrode of an alkaline battery. The crystallographic data of these phases, their chemical behavior, and conditions of transition were studied.

  17. Accessing the biocompatibility of layered double hydroxide by intramuscular implantation: histological and microcirculation evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Vanessa Roberta Rodrigues; de Souza, Rodrigo Barbosa; da Fonseca Martins, Ana Maria Cristina Rebello Pinto; Koh, Ivan Hong Jun; Constantino, Vera Regina Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatibility of layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like materials or double metal hydroxides, was investigated by in vivo assays via intramuscular tablets implantation in rat abdominal wall. The tablets were composed by chloride ions intercalated into LDH of magnesium/aluminum (Mg2Al-Cl) and zinc/aluminum (Zn2Al-Cl). The antigenicity and tissue integration capacity of LDHs were assessed histologically after 7 and 28 days post-implantation. No fibrous capsule nearby the LDH was noticed for both materials as well any sign of inflammatory reactions. Sidestream Dark Field imaging, used to monitor in real time the microcirculation in tissues, revealed overall integrity of the microcirculatory network neighboring the tablets, with no blood flow obstruction, bleeding and/or increasing of leukocyte endothelial adhesion. After 28 days Mg2Al-Cl promoted multiple collagen invaginations (mostly collagen type-I) among its fragments while Zn2Al-Cl induced predominantly collagen type–III. This work supports previous results in the literature about LDHs compatibility with living matter, endorsing them as functional materials for biomedical applications. PMID:27480483

  18. Accessing the biocompatibility of layered double hydroxide by intramuscular implantation: histological and microcirculation evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Vanessa Roberta Rodrigues; de Souza, Rodrigo Barbosa; da Fonseca Martins, Ana Maria Cristina Rebello Pinto; Koh, Ivan Hong Jun; Constantino, Vera Regina Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatibility of layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like materials or double metal hydroxides, was investigated by in vivo assays via intramuscular tablets implantation in rat abdominal wall. The tablets were composed by chloride ions intercalated into LDH of magnesium/aluminum (Mg2Al-Cl) and zinc/aluminum (Zn2Al-Cl). The antigenicity and tissue integration capacity of LDHs were assessed histologically after 7 and 28 days post-implantation. No fibrous capsule nearby the LDH was noticed for both materials as well any sign of inflammatory reactions. Sidestream Dark Field imaging, used to monitor in real time the microcirculation in tissues, revealed overall integrity of the microcirculatory network neighboring the tablets, with no blood flow obstruction, bleeding and/or increasing of leukocyte endothelial adhesion. After 28 days Mg2Al-Cl promoted multiple collagen invaginations (mostly collagen type-I) among its fragments while Zn2Al-Cl induced predominantly collagen type-III. This work supports previous results in the literature about LDHs compatibility with living matter, endorsing them as functional materials for biomedical applications. PMID:27480483

  19. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. Aspects of aluminum toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, C.D.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R. )

    1990-06-01

    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. The widespread occurrence of aluminum, both in the environment and in foodstuffs, makes it virtually impossible for man to avoid exposure to this metal ion. Attention was first drawn to the potential role of aluminum as a toxic metal over 50 years ago, but was dismissed as a toxic agent as recently as 15 years ago. The accumulation of aluminum, in some patients with chronic renal failure, is associated with the development of toxic phenomena; dialysis encephalopathy, osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy, and an anemia. Aluminum accumulation also occurs in patients who are not on dialysis, predominantly infants and children with immature or impaired renal function. Aluminum has also been implicated as a toxic agent in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, Guamiam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and parkinsonism-dementia. 119 references.

  12. Functionalized graphene oxide serves as a novel vaccine nano-adjuvant for robust stimulation of cellular immunity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ligeng; Xiang, Jian; Liu, Ye; Xu, Jun; Luo, Yinchan; Feng, Liangzhu; Liu, Zhuang; Peng, Rui

    2016-02-14

    Benefiting from their unique physicochemical properties, graphene derivatives have attracted great attention in biomedicine. In this study, we carefully engineered graphene oxide (GO) as a vaccine adjuvant for immunotherapy using urease B (Ure B) as the model antigen. Ure B is a specific antigen for Helicobacter pylori, which is a class I carcinogen for gastric cancer. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and various types of polyethylenimine (PEI) were used as coating polymers. Compared with single-polymer modified GOs (GO-PEG and GO-PEI), certain dual-polymer modified GOs (GO-PEG-PEI) can act as a positive modulator to promote the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and enhance their cytokine secretion through the activation of multiple toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways while showing low toxicity. Moreover, this GO-PEG-PEI can serve as an antigen carrier to effectively shuttle antigens into DCs. These two advantages enable GO-PEG-PEI to serve as a novel vaccine adjuvant. In the subsequent in vivo experiments, compared with free Ure B and clinically used aluminum-adjuvant-based vaccine (Alum-Ure B), GO-PEG-PEI-Ure B induces stronger cellular immunity via intradermal administration, suggesting promising applications in cancer immunotherapy. Our work not only presents a novel, highly effective GO-based vaccine nano-adjuvant, but also highlights the critical roles of surface chemistry for the rational design of nano-adjuvants. PMID:26814441

  13. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    DOEpatents

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  14. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  15. Identification of an ideal adjuvant for receptor-binding domain-based subunit vaccines against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Naru; Channappanavar, Rudragouda; Ma, Cuiqing; Wang, Lili; Tang, Jian; Garron, Tania; Tao, Xinrong; Tasneem, Sumaiya; Lu, Lu; Tseng, Chien-Te K; Zhou, Yusen; Perlman, Stanley; Jiang, Shibo; Du, Lanying

    2016-03-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), an emerging infectious disease caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), has garnered worldwide attention as a consequence of its continuous spread and pandemic potential, making the development of effective vaccines a high priority. We previously demonstrated that residues 377-588 of MERS-CoV spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) is a very promising MERS subunit vaccine candidate, capable of inducing potent neutralization antibody responses. In this study, we sought to identify an adjuvant that optimally enhanced the immunogenicity of S377-588 protein fused with Fc of human IgG (S377-588-Fc). Specifically, we compared several commercially available adjuvants, including Freund's adjuvant, aluminum, Monophosphoryl lipid A, Montanide ISA51 and MF59 with regard to their capacity to enhance the immunogenicity of this subunit vaccine. In the absence of adjuvant, S377-588-Fc alone induced readily detectable neutralizing antibody and T-cell responses in immunized mice. However, incorporating an adjuvant improved its immunogenicity. Particularly, among the aforementioned adjuvants evaluated, MF59 is the most potent as judged by its superior ability to induce the highest titers of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a subtypes, and neutralizing antibodies. The addition of MF59 significantly augmented the immunogenicity of S377-588-Fc to induce strong IgG and neutralizing antibody responses as well as protection against MERS-CoV infection in mice, suggesting that MF59 is an optimal adjuvant for MERS-CoV RBD-based subunit vaccines. PMID:25640653

  16. Inhibition of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Precipitation with Citric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Dabbs, Daniel M.; Ramachandran, Usha; Lu, Sang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Li Q.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    2005-12-06

    Citric acid has been shown to act as an agent for increasing the solubility of aluminum oxyhydroxides in aqueous solutions of high (>2.47 mol/mol) hydroxide-to-aluminum ratios. Conversely, citric acid also colloidally stabilizes particles in aqueous suspensions of aluminum-containing particles. Solutions of aluminum chloride, with and without citric acid added, were titrated with NaO(aq). The presence and size of particles were determined using quasi-elastic light scattering. In solutions that contained no citric acid, particles formed instantaneously when NaOH(aq) was added but these were observed to rapidly diminish in size, disappearing at OH/Al ratios below 2.5 mol/mol. When the OH/Al ratio was raised beyond 2.5 by addingmoreNaOH(aq), suspensions of colloidally stable particles formed. Large polycations containing 13 aluminum atoms were detected by 27Al solution NMR in citric-acid-free solutions with OH/Al ratios slightly lower than 2.5. In comparison, adding citric acid to solutions of aluminum chloride inhibited the formation of large aluminum-containing polycations. The absence of the polycations prevents or retards the subsequent formation of particles, indicating that the polycations, when present, act as seeds to the formation of new particles. Particles did not form in solutions with a citric acid/aluminum ratio of 0.8 until sufficient NaOH(aq) was added to raise the OH/Al ratio to 3.29. By comparison, lower amounts of citric acid did not prevent particles from forming but did retard the rate of growth.

  17. Speciation and equilibrium relations of soluble aluminum in a headwater stream at base flow and during rain events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.

    1989-01-01

    In the Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, the short-term dynamics of soluble aluminum in stream water sampled during rain events differed significantly from stream water sampled during base flow conditions. Three fractions of dissolved aluminum were measured. The inorganic monomeric fraction made up approximately two thirds of the total reactive aluminum at base flow, followed by the acid-soluble and organic monomeric fractions, respectively. Equilibrium modeling showed that hydroxide complexes were the most abundant form of inorganic monomeric aluminum followed by fluoride, free aluminum ion, and sulfate. The activity of inorganic monomeric aluminum at base flow appears to be in equilibrium with an Al(OH)3 phase with solubility intermediate between microcrystalline gibbsite and natural gibbsite. During two rain events, the concentration of all three aluminum fractions increased significantly. The primary cause of the transient increase in the Al(OH)3 saturation index appears to have been the neutralization of excess H+ added by soil water through reaction with stream water HCO3- at a more rapid rate than excess inorganic monomeric aluminum could be removed from solution by hydroxide mineral precipitation. -from Author

  18. Adjuvant effects of saponins on animal immune responses*

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Hu, Song-hua; Xiao, Chen-wen; Arijo, Abdullah G.

    2007-01-01

    Vaccines require optimal adjuvants including immunopotentiator and delivery systems to offer long term protection from infectious diseases in animals and man. Initially it was believed that adjuvants are responsible for promoting strong and sustainable antibody responses. Now it has been shown that adjuvants influence the isotype and avidity of antibody and also affect the properties of cell-mediated immunity. Mostly oil emulsions, lipopolysaccharides, polymers, saponins, liposomes, cytokines, ISCOMs (immunostimulating complexes), Freund’s complete adjuvant, Freund’s incomplete adjuvant, alums, bacterial toxins etc., are common adjuvants under investigation. Saponin based adjuvants have the ability to stimulate the cell mediated immune system as well as to enhance antibody production and have the advantage that only a low dose is needed for adjuvant activity. In the present study the importance of adjuvants, their role and the effect of saponin in immune system is reviewed. PMID:17323426

  19. Carbothermic Aluminum Production Using Scrap Aluminum As A Coolant

    DOEpatents

    LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-11-05

    A process for producing aluminum metal by carbothermic reduction of alumina ore. Alumina ore is heated in the presence of carbon at an elevated temperature to produce an aluminum metal body contaminated with about 10-30% by wt. aluminum carbide. Aluminum metal or aluminum alloy scrap then is added to bring the temperature to about 900-1000.degree. C. and precipitate out aluminum carbide. The precipitated aluminum carbide is filtered, decanted, or fluxed with salt to form a molten body having reduced aluminum carbide content.

  20. MTBE OXIDATION BY BIFUNCTIONAL ALUMINUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bifunctional aluminum, prepared by sulfating zero-valent aluminum with sulfuric acid, has a dual functionality of simultaneously decomposing both reductively- and oxidatively-degradable contaminants. In this work, the use of bifunctional aluminum for the degradation of methyl te...

  1. Studies on aluminum neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.

    1988-01-01

    This work reports the inhibitory effects of aluminum on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) from yeast and brains. The aluminum contents and several enzyme activities in aluminum-fed rat brain homogenates were compared with those in age-matched control groups. The concentration of aluminum in the homogenates of the aluminum-fed groups were twice of that of the controls. Acetylcholinesterase activities were the same as in both groups but hexokinase and G6PD activities in the aluminum-fed group were about 73% and 70% of the control, respectively. Further studies on the inhibitory effects of aluminum on G6PD were performed with the enzymes purified from human and pig brains. Two forms of G6PD isozymes were purified from human and pig brain by ammonium sulfate fractionation, hydroxylapatite chromatography, affinity chromatography with NADP-agarose and Blue-Sepharose CL-6B, and gel filtration with Sephadex S-300. The two forms of isozymes (isozyme I and II), purified to be homogeneous, had a molecular weight of 220,000, and composed of 4 subunits of molecular weight of 57,000. HPLC peptide maps of tryptic digests and amino acid analyses of the isozymes showed extensive homologies between the isozymes. Interestingly, only the isozyme II in human and pig brain were active with 6-phosphogluconate as a substrate. No such an activity was found in isozyme I. Aluminum inactivated G6PD activity of the human and pig brain isozyme I and isozyme II without affecting the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity of the isozyme II. Circular dichroism studies showed that the binding of aluminum to G6PD induced a decrease in {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet and a increase in random coil. Therefore it is suggested that inactivation of G6PD by aluminum is due to the conformational change induced by aluminum binding.

  2. Understanding Arsenate Reaction Kinetics with Ferric Hydroxides

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, James; Chaudhary, Binod K.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding arsenic reactions with ferric hydroxides is important in understanding arsenic transport in the environment and in designing systems for removing arsenic from potable water. Many experimental studies have shown that the kinetics of arsenic adsorption on ferric hydroxides is biphasic, where a fraction of the arsenic adsorption occurs on a time scale of seconds while full equilibrium may require weeks to attain. This research employed density functional theory modeling in order to understand the mechanisms contributing to biphasic arsenic adsorption kinetics. The reaction energies and activation barriers for three modes of arsenate adsorption to ferric hydroxides were calculated. Gibbs free energies of reaction depended on the net charge of the complexes, which is a function of the system pH value. Physical adsorption of arsenate to ferric hydroxide proceeded with no activation barrier, with Gibbs free energies of reaction ranging from −21 to −58 kJ/mol. The highest Gibbs free energies of reaction for physical adsorption resulted from negative charge assisted hydrogen bonding between H atoms on the ferric hydroxide and O atoms in arsenate. The conversion of physically adsorbed arsenate into monodentate surface complexes had Gibbs free energies of activation ranging from 62 to 73 kJ/mol, and Gibbs free energies of reaction ranging from −23 to −38 kJ/mol. The conversion of monodentate surface complexes to bidentate, binuclear complexes had Gibbs free energies of activation ranging from 79 to 112 kJ/mol, and Gibbs free energies of reaction ranging from −11 to −55 kJ/mol. For release of arsenate from uncharged bidentate complexes, energies of activation as high as 167 kJ/mol were encountered. Increasingly negative charges on the complexes lowered the activation barriers for desorption of arsenate, and in complexes with −2 charges, the highest activation barrier was 65 kJ/mol. This study shows that the slow kinetics associated with arsenic

  3. Aluminum: Reducing chloride emissions from aluminum production

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, P.

    1999-09-29

    Reynolds Metals Company (RMC), with assistance from a NICE{sup 3} grant, is developing for commercialization a closed-loop control process that greatly reduces chlorine emissions and increases plant efficiency while maintaining metal quality. The process still utilizes chlorine to remove impurities during aluminum processing, but is more effective than current methods. With the new technology chlorine in the stack is monitored and input chlorine is adjusted continuously. This optimization of chlorine use results in substantially less waste because less chlorine has to be bought or produced by aluminum manufacturers. This innovation is a significant improvement over conventional aluminum treatments, in which chlorine is injected in a more costly and wasteful manner. By the year 2010, the new technology has the potential to reduce the energy it takes to create chlorine by 8.4 billion Btu per year and to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 1,377 tons per year.

  4. Aluminum space frame technology

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, S.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the increased application of aluminum to the construction of automobile frames. The topics of the article include a joint venture between Audi and Alcoa, forms in which aluminum is used, new alloys and construction methods, meeting rigidity and safety levels, manufacturing techniques, the use of extrusions, die casting, joining techniques, and pollution control during manufacturing.

  5. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are also…

  6. Cast aluminum denture base.

    PubMed

    Barco, M T; Dembert, M L

    1987-08-01

    The laboratory procedures for a cast aluminum base denture have been presented. If an induction casting machine is not available, the "two-oven technique" works well, provided the casting arm is kept spinning manually for 4 minutes after casting. If laboratory procedures are executed precisely and with care, the aluminum base denture can be cast with good results. PMID:3305884

  7. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust. PMID:24806729

  8. Synthetic Self-Adjuvanting Glycopeptide Cancer Vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Richard; McDonald, David; Byrne, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Due to changes in glycosyltransferase expression during tumorigenesis, the glycoproteins of cancer cells often carry highly truncated carbohydrate chains compared to those on healthy cells. These glycans are known as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and are prime targets for use in vaccines for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Herein, we review the state-of-the-art in targeting the immune system towards tumor-associated glycopeptide antigens via synthetic self adjuvanting vaccines, in which the antigenic and adjuvanting moieties of the vaccines are present in the same molecule. The majority of the self-adjuvanting glycopeptide cancer vaccines reported to date employ antigens from mucin 1, a protein which is highly over-expressed and aberrantly glycosylated in many forms of cancer. The adjuvants used in these vaccines predominantly include lipopeptide- or lipoamino acid-based TLR2 agonists, although studies investigating stimulation of TLR9 and TLR4 are also discussed. Most of these adjuvants are highly lipophilic, and, upon conjugation to antigenic peptides, provide amphiphilic vaccine molecules. The amphiphilic nature of these vaccine constructs can lead to the formation of higher-order structures by vaccines in solution, which are likely to be important for their efficacy in vivo.

  9. Beyond antigens and adjuvants: formulating future vaccines.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Tyson J; Zmolek, Andrew C; Irvine, Darrell J

    2016-03-01

    The need to optimize vaccine potency while minimizing toxicity in healthy recipients has motivated studies of the formulation of vaccines to control how, when, and where antigens and adjuvants encounter immune cells and other cells/tissues following administration. An effective subunit vaccine must traffic to lymph nodes (LNs), activate both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, and persist for a sufficient time to promote a mature immune response. Here, we review approaches to tailor these three aspects of vaccine function through optimized formulations. Traditional vaccine adjuvants activate innate immune cells, promote cell-mediated transport of antigen to lymphoid tissues, and promote antigen retention in LNs. Recent studies using nanoparticles and other lymphatic-targeting strategies suggest that direct targeting of antigens and adjuvant compounds to LNs can also enhance vaccine potency without sacrificing safety. The use of formulations to regulate biodistribution and promote antigen and inflammatory cue co-uptake in immune cells may be important for next-generation molecular adjuvants. Finally, strategies to program vaccine kinetics through novel formulation and delivery strategies provide another means to enhance immune responses independent of the choice of adjuvant. These technologies offer the prospect of enhanced efficacy while maintaining high safety profiles necessary for successful vaccines. PMID:26928033

  10. Systemic adjuvant therapies in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buti, Sebastiano; Bersanelli, Melissa; Donini, Maddalena; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the ten most frequent solid tumors worldwide. Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic disease have led to new therapeutic approaches being investigated in the adjuvant setting. Observation is the only current standard of care after radical nephrectomy, although there is evidence of efficacy of adjuvant use of vaccine among all the strategies used. This article aims to collect published experiences with systemic adjuvant approaches in RCC and to describe the results of past and ongoing phase III clinical trials in this field. We explored all the systemic treatments, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted drugs while alternative approaches have also been described. Appropriate selection of patients who would benefit from adjuvant therapies remains a crucial dilemma. Although the international guidelines do not actually recommend any adjuvant treatment after radical surgery for RCC, no conclusions have yet been drawn pending the results of the promising ongoing clinical trials with the target therapies. The significant changes that these new drugs have made on advanced disease outcome could represent the key to innovation in terms of preventing recurrence, delaying relapse and prolonging survival after radical surgery for RCC. PMID:25992216

  11. CpG DNA as mucosal adjuvant.

    PubMed

    McCluskie, M J; Davis, H L

    1999-09-01

    We have previously found synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs to be a potent adjuvant to protein administered by intramuscular injection or intranasal inhalation to BALB/c mice. Herein we have further evaluated the potential of CpG ODN as a mucosal adjuvant to purified hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) when administered alone or with cholera toxin (CT). CpG ODN and CT both augmented systemic (humoral and cellular) and mucosal immune responses against HBsAg, and these could be further enhanced with higher doses of adjuvant or boosting. Overall, antibody isotypes with CT alone were predominantly IgG1 (Th2-like) whereas they were predominantly IgG2a (Th1-like) with CpG ODN alone or in combination with CT. Results from this study indicate that stimulatory CpG ODN are promising new adjuvants for mucosal vaccination strategies, whether used alone or in combination with other mucosal adjuvants. PMID:10506647

  12. The aluminum smelting process.

    PubMed

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development. PMID:24806722

  13. Aluminum structural applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, G.

    1996-05-01

    Extensive research by aluminum producers and automakers in the 1980s resulted in the development of technologies that enable building of aluminum cars that meet and exceed all the expectations of today`s drivers and passengers, yet weigh several hundred pounds less than their steel counterparts. The Acura NSX sports car, the Audi A8, and the Jaguar XJ220 have all been introduced. Ford has built 40 aluminum-intensive automobiles based on the Taurus/Sable for test purposes, and General Motors recently announced an aluminum-structured electric vehicle. The design flexibility that aluminum allows is shown by these examples. Each uses a somewhat different technology that is particularly suited to the vehicle and its market.

  14. The Aluminum Smelting Process

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development. PMID:24806722

  15. Effects of the administration routes and chemical forms of aluminum on aluminum accumulation in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Yuki; Sakamoto, Takashi; Ishii, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Hidenobu; Tanabe, Shinzo

    2002-06-01

    An experimental rat model of aluminum accumulation in the brain was developed to aid in determining neurotoxity of aluminum (Al). Al was administered orally, intravenously, and intraperitoneally, in the absence or presence of citric acid or maltol. Oral administration of Al hydroxide [Al (OH)3] or aluminum chloride (AlC13) with citric acid for 7 wk was not found to increase brain Al levels. Similarly, a single intravenous injection of AlCl3 in the presence or absence of either citric acid or maltol did not alter brain Al levels after 48 h. Only daily intraperitoneal injections of AlC13 (8 mg Al/kg body weight) and an equimolar amount of maltol over a 14-d period enhanced accumulation of Al in rat brain. No significant increases were observed for the experimental groups receiving intraperitoneal AlCl3 alone or with citric acid. This result suggests that the chemical form of Al strongly influences its bioavailability and that intraperitoneal administration of the Al-maltol complex appears to be useful in creating subacute model of Al accumulation in brain tissue. PMID:12019523

  16. Hydroxide catalysis bonding for astronomical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Veggel, Anna-Maria A.; Killow, Christian J.

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxide catalysis bonding (HCB) as a jointing technique has been under development for astronomical applications since ˜1998 (patented by D.-H. Gwo). It uses an aqueous hydroxide solution to form a chemical bond between oxide or oxidisable materials (e.g., SiO2, sapphire, silicon and SiC). It forms strong, extremely thin bonds, and is suitable for room temperature bonding, precision alignment, operation in ultra-low vacuum and down to temperatures of 2.5 K. It has been applied in the NASA satellite mission Gravity Probe B and in the ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detector GEO600. It will soon fly again on the ESA LISA Pathfinder mission and is currently being implemented in the Advanced LIGO and Virgo ground-based GW detectors. This technique is also of considerable interest for use in other astronomical fields and indeed more broadly, due to its desirable, and adjustable, combination of properties. This paper gives an overview of how HCB has been and can be applied in astronomical instruments, including an overview of the current literature on the properties of hydroxide catalysis bonds.

  17. Adjuvant radiation for soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Colleen I; Haas, Rick; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Over recent decades, limb-preservation surgery in combination with radiotherapy achieves local control rates exceeding 90% for extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Local control is not as successful for retroperitoneal sarcoma (approximately 60%) despite aggressive surgical approaches including en bloc resection of uninvolved adjacent organs combined with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). This review will discuss the indications for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for primary presentation of soft tissue sarcoma: "What," referring to the type and manner of planning and delivery of RT; "When," referring to the timing and scheduling of RT; and "Why," referring to the rationale for the use of RT will be addressed. From a practical stand point, this Educational Chapter on "adjuvant RT" will focus on pre- and postoperative RT in the context of gross total resection for extremity and retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma, the two most frequent paradigms for the use of adjuvant RT. PMID:25993234

  18. Systemic immunotoxicity reactions induced by adjuvanted vaccines.

    PubMed

    Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Portuondo, Deivys; Pérez, O; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2014-05-01

    Vaccine safety is a topic of concern for the treated individual, the family, the health care personnel, and the others involved in vaccination programs as recipients or providers. Adjuvants are necessary components to warrant the efficacy of vaccines, however the overstimulation of the immune system is also associated with adverse effects. Local reactions are the most frequent manifestation of toxicity induced by adjuvanted vaccines and, with the exception of the acute phase response (APR), much less is known about the systemic reactions that follow vaccination. Their low frequency or subclinical expression meant that this matter has been neglected. In this review, various systemic reactions associated with immune stimulation will be addressed, including: APR, hypersensitivity, induction or worsening of autoimmune diseases, modification of hepatic metabolism and vascular leak syndrome (VLS), with an emphasis on the mechanism involved. Finally, the authors analyze the current focus of discussion about vaccine safety and opportunities to improve the design of new adjuvanted vaccines in the future. PMID:24607449

  19. Immunization with the Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis major outer membrane protein by use of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides as an adjuvant induces a protective immune response against an intranasal chlamydial challenge.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukumar; Davis, Heather L; Peterson, Ellena M; de la Maza, Luis M

    2002-09-01

    Recently, we have shown that a vaccine consisting of a purified preparation of the Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and Freund's adjuvant can protect mice against a genital challenge. Here, we wanted to determine if CpG motifs could be used as an immune modulator to the MOMP to induce protection in mice against an intranasal (i.n.) challenge. One-week-old BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly and subcutaneously either once or three times at 2-week intervals with MOMP and CpG suspended in aluminum hydroxide (alum). Negative controls received ovalbumin, CpG, and alum. Positive controls were immunized i.n. with C. trachomatis MoPn elementary bodies (EB). Six weeks after the last immunization, mice were challenged i.n. with 10(4) inclusion-forming units (IFU) of the C. trachomatis MoPn serovar. Mice that received MOMP, CpG, and alum had a strong immune response, as shown by a high titer of serum antibodies to Chlamydia and significant lymphoproliferation of T-cells following stimulation with C. trachomatis EB. After the i.n. challenge mice immunized with MOMP, CpG, and alum showed significantly less body weight loss than the corresponding control mice immunized with ovalbumin, CpG, and alum. Ten days after the challenge the animals were euthanized, their lungs were weighed, and the numbers of IFU in the lungs were determined. The average weight of the lungs of the mice immunized with MOMP, CpG, and alum was significantly less than average weight of the lungs of the mice immunized with ovalbumin, CpG, and alum. Also, the average number of IFU recovered per mouse immunized with MOMP, CpG, and alum was significantly less than the average number of IFU per mouse detected in the mice inoculated with ovalbumin, CpG, and alum. In conclusion, our data show that CpG sequences can be used as an effective adjuvant with the C. trachomatis MoPn MOMP to elicit a protective immune response in mice against a chlamydial respiratory

  20. Control of crystallite and particle size in the synthesis of layered double hydroxides: Macromolecular insights and a complementary modeling tool.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Tiago L P; Neves, Cristina S; Caetano, Ana P F; Maia, Frederico; Mata, Diogo; Malheiro, Eliana; Ferreira, Maria J; Bastos, Alexandre C; Salak, Andrei N; Gomes, José R B; Tedim, João; Ferreira, Mário G S

    2016-04-15

    Zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides with nitrate intercalated (Zn(n)Al-NO3, n=Zn/Al) is an intermediate material for the intercalation of different functional molecules used in a wide range of industrial applications. The synthesis of Zn(2)Al-NO3 was investigated considering the time and temperature of hydrothermal treatment. By examining the crystallite size in two different directions, hydrodynamic particle size, morphology, crystal structure and chemical species in solution, it was possible to understand the crystallization and dissolution processes involved in the mechanisms of crystallite and particle growth. In addition, hydrogeochemical modeling rendered insights on the speciation of different metal cations in solution. Therefore, this tool can be a promising solution to model and optimize the synthesis of layered double hydroxide-based materials for industrial applications. PMID:26828278

  1. [Adjuvant chemotherapy of adults soft tissue sarcomas].

    PubMed

    Bui-Nguyen, B; Italiano, A; Delva, F; Toulmond, M

    2010-06-01

    The main progress in the management of soft tissue sarcomas have been obtained in the field of local control. Although the main evolutive, vital, risk of these diseases is metastatic dissemination, efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy remains a controversial issue. Thus, adjuvant chemotherapy cannot be considered as a standard for any situation. The last results of clinical trials, meta-analysis and population studies are presented and discussed in this article. New therapeutic strategies are to be developed to prevent metastases in soft tissue sarcomas. This needs a better understanding of the biology of those tumors, of metastases risk factors and of the determinants of systemic therapies efficacy in these tumors. PMID:20547481

  2. Layered double hydroxide stability. 1. Relative stabilities of layered double hydroxides and their simple counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing di- and trivalent metal chlorides [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+; M(III) = Al3+, Fe3+] were titrated with NaOH to yield hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDH), [[M(II)]1-x[M(III)]x(OH)2][Cl]x yH2O, by way of M(III) hydroxide/hydrous oxide intermediates. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields nominal solubility constants for the LDH. The corresponding LDH stabilities are in the order Mg < Mn < Co approximately Ni < Zn for M(II) and Al < Fe for M(III). The stability of LDH relative to the separate metal hydroxides/hydrous oxides is discussed.

  3. Clinical biochemistry of aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.W.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Aluminum toxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical disorders in patients with chronic renal failure on long-term intermittent hemodialysis treatment. The predominant disorders have been those involving either bone (osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy) or brain (dialysis encephalopathy). In nonuremic patients, an increased brain aluminum concentration has been implicated as a neurotoxic agent in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and was associated with experimental neurofibrillary degeneration in animals. The brain aluminum concentrations of patients dying with the syndrome of dialysis encephalopathy (dialysis dementia) are significantly higher than in dialyzed patients without the syndrome and in nondialyzed patients. Two potential sources for the increased tissue content of aluminum in patients on hemodialysis have been proposed: (1) intestinal absorption from aluminum containing phosphate-binding gels, and (2) transfer across the dialysis membrane from aluminum in the water used to prepare the dialysate. These findings, coupled with our everyday exposure to the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum in nature, have created concerns over the potential toxicity of this metal.

  4. [ADJUVANTED INFLUENZA VACCINES: DATA FROM DIRECT COMPARATIVE STUDIES].

    PubMed

    Chernikova, M I; Vasiliev, Yu M

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are the cornerstone of influenza control, however available vaccines are subject to certain limitations. Adjuvanted vaccines are a promising approach, however available adjuvants have a suboptimal effectiveness and safety profile. Data from direct comparative trials are necessary for selection of optimal adjuvants among currently available and search for novel safe and effective adjuvants for next generation influenza vaccines. Data from published direct comparative studies of adjuvants for influenza vaccines are summarized, a lack of such studies is noted, especially those using adequate methods and designs and comparing adjuvants of major groups (nature/source and mechanism of action). Several promising approaches of adjuvant research and development could be identified: chitosan-based adjuvants, oil-in-water emulsions and multi-component formulations (depot + immune modulating components). PMID:26829860

  5. Determination of dissolved aluminum in water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Afifi, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A technique has been modified for determination of a wide range of concentrations of dissolved aluminum (Al) in water and has been tested. In this technique, aluminum is complexed with 8-hydroxyquinoline at pH 8.3 to minimize interferences, then extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The extract is analyzed colorimetrically at 395 nm. This technique is used to analyze two forms of monomeric Al, nonlabile (organic complexes) and labile (free, Al, Al sulfate, fluoride and hydroxide complexes). A detection limit 2 ug/L is possible with 25-ml samples and 10-ml extracts. The detection limit can be decreased by increasing the volume of the sample and (or) decreasing the volume of the methyl isobutyl ketone extract. The analytical uncertainty of this method is approximately + or - 5 percent. The standard addition technique provides a recovery test for this technique and ensures precision in samples of low Al concentrations. The average percentage recovery of the added Al plus the amount originally present was 99 percent. Data obtained from analyses of filtered standard solutions indicated that Al is adsorbed on various types of filters. However, the relationship between Al concentrations and adsorption remains linear. A test on standard solutions also indicated that Al is not adsorbed on nitric acid-washed polyethylene and polypropylene bottle wells. (USGS)

  6. Application of the SCC-DFTB method to hydroxide water clusters and aqueous hydroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae Hoon; Liang, Ruibin; Maupin, C Mark; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-05-01

    The self-consistent charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) method has been applied to hydroxide water clusters and a hydroxide ion in bulk water. To determine the impact of various implementations of SCC-DFTB on the energetics and dynamics of a hydroxide ion in gas phase and condensed phase, the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus, and DFTB3-3OB implementations have been tested. Energetic stabilities for small hydroxide clusters, OH(-)(H2O)n, where n = 4-7, are inconsistent with the results calculated with the B3LYP and second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) levels of ab initio theory. The condensed phase simulations, OH(-)(H2O)127, using the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus and DFTB3-3OB methods are compared to Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations using the BLYP functional. The SCC-DFTB method including a modified O-H repulsive potential and the third order correction (DFTB3-diag/Full+gaus) is shown to poorly reproduce the CPMD computational results, while the DFTB2 and DFTB2-γ(h) method somewhat more closely describe the structural and dynamical nature of the hydroxide ion in condensed phase. The DFTB3-3OB outperforms the MIO parameter set but is no more accurate than DFTB2. It is also shown that the overcoordinated water molecules lead to an incorrect bulk water density and result in unphysical water void formation. The results presented in this paper point to serious drawbacks for various DFTB extensions and corrections for a hydroxide ion in aqueous environments. PMID:23566052

  7. Friction reducing behavior of stearic acid film on a textured aluminum substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quan; Wan, Yong; Li, Yang; Yang, Shuyan; Yao, Wenqing

    2013-09-01

    A simple two-step process was developed to render the aluminum hydrophobicity with lower friction. The textured aluminum substrate was firstly fabricated by immersed in a sodium hydroxide solution at 100 °C for 1 h. Stearic acid film was then deposited to acquire high hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements were used to analyze the morphological features, chemical structure and hydrophobicity of prepared samples, respectively. Moreover, the friction reducing behavior of the organic-inorganic composite film on aluminum sliding against steel was evaluated in a ball-on-plate configuration. It was found that the stearic acid film on the textured aluminum led to decreased friction with significantly extended life.

  8. Autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome) in commercial sheep.

    PubMed

    Luján, Lluís; Pérez, Marta; Salazar, Eider; Álvarez, Neila; Gimeno, Marina; Pinczowski, Pedro; Irusta, Silvia; Santamaría, Jesús; Insausti, Nerea; Cortés, Yerzol; Figueras, Luis; Cuartielles, Isabel; Vila, Miguel; Fantova, Enrique; Chapullé, José Luis Gracia

    2013-07-01

    We describe a form of the autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome) in commercial sheep, linked to the repetitive inoculation of aluminum-containing adjuvants through vaccination. The syndrome shows an acute phase that affects less than 0.5% of animals in a given herd, it appears 2-6 days after an adjuvant-containing inoculation and it is characterized by an acute neurological episode with low response to external stimuli and acute meningoencephalitis, most animals apparently recovering afterward. The chronic phase is seen in a higher proportion of flocks, it can follow the acute phase, and it is triggered by external stimuli, mostly low temperatures. The chronic phase begins with an excitatory phase, followed by weakness, extreme cachexia, tetraplegia and death. Gross lesions are related to a cachectic process with muscular atrophy, and microscopic lesions are mostly linked to a neurodegenerative process in both dorsal and ventral column of the gray matter of the spinal cord. Experimental reproduction of ovine ASIA in a small group of repeatedly vaccinated animals was successful. Detection of Al(III) in tissues indicated the presence of aluminum in the nervous tissue of experimental animals. The present report is the first description of a new sheep syndrome (ovine ASIA syndrome) linked to multiple, repetitive vaccination and that can have devastating consequences as it happened after the compulsory vaccination against bluetongue in 2008. The ovine ASIA syndrome can be used as a model of other similar diseases affecting both human and animals. A major research effort is needed in order to understand its complex pathogenesis. PMID:23579772

  9. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  10. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  11. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  12. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001 (c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  13. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...

  14. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.910 and 40 CFR 180.920, which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  15. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  16. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  17. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...

  18. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicant prior to application to...

  19. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.910 and 40 CFR 180.920, which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  20. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...

  1. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.910 and 40 CFR 180.920, which are added to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  2. Effectiveness of spray adjuvants on reduction of spray drift

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Five new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  3. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. 172.710... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The following surfactants and related adjuvants may be safely added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower...

  4. 21 CFR 582.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 582.99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001(c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 582.99...

  5. 21 CFR 182.99 - Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....99 Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. Adjuvants, identified and used in accordance with 40 CFR 180.1001 (c) and (d), which are added to pesticide use dilutions by a grower or applicator prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjuvants for pesticide chemicals. 182.99...

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shalavi, S; Yazdizadeh, M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve the patient's natural teeth without compromising the patient's local or systemic health. Calcium hydroxide has been included in several materials and antimicrobial formulations that are used in several treatment modalities in endodontics, such as inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. The purpose of this article was to review the antimicrobial properties of calcium hydroxide in endodontics. Calcium hydroxide has a high pH (approximately 12.5-12.8) and is classified chemically as a strong base. The lethal effects of calcium hydroxide on bacterial cells are probably due to protein denaturation and damage to DNA and cytoplasmic membranes. Calcium hydroxide has a wide range of antimicrobial activity against common endodontic pathogens but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Calcium hydroxide is also a valuable anti-endotoxin agent. However, its effect on microbial biofilms is controversial. PMID:23323217

  7. Intensity-based optical fiber sensor for monitoring corrosion of aluminum alloys.

    PubMed

    Dong, Saying; Liao, Yanbiao; Tian, Qian

    2005-09-20

    A new method, based on the shift of light power transmitted through fiber, to measure corrosion of aluminum is presented. A multimode fiber was metallized by use of physical vacuum to deposit aluminum onto an unclad part of a fiber of 1 to 2 cm length. Scanning-electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to show, the formation and corrosion of the metallized film. The light signal driven by metal corrosion was affected by the film's thickness and the concentration of the corrosive solution of sodium hydroxide. PMID:16201441

  8. Process for producing gallium-containing solution from aluminum smelting dust

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, H.; Matsui, S.; Era, A.

    1988-02-16

    A process for producing a gallium-containing solution from aluminum smelting dust is described comprising mixing aluminum smelting dust with 5 to 50% by weight of an alkaline flux selected from the group consisting of sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, potassium hydroxide and mixtures thereof, heating the mixture to a temperature sufficient to roast the mixture without fusing the mixture, leaching the roasted mixture at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C. to 100/sup 0/C. with a mineral acid selected from the group consisting of sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and mixtures thereof to preferentially solubilize gallium from other material in the roasted mixture, and filtering the leached mixture to separate the solubilized gallium solution therefrom.

  9. Induction of lupus autoantibodies by adjuvants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Satoh, M.; Kuroda, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Behney, K.M.; Mizutani, A.; Akaogi, J.; Nacionales, D.C.; Lorenson, T.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Reeves, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to the hydrocarbon oil pristane induces lupus specific autoantibodies in non-autoimmune mice. We investigated whether the capacity to induce lupus-like autoimmunity is a unique property of pristane or is shared by other adjuvant oils. Seven groups of 3-month-old female BALB/cJ mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of pristane, squalene (used in the adjuvant MF59), incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), three different medicinal mineral oils, or saline, respectively. Serum autoantibodies and peritoneal cytokine production were measured. In addition to pristane, the mineral oil Bayol F (IFA) and the endogenous hydrocarbon squalene both induced anti-nRNP/Sm and -Su autoantibodies (20% and 25% of mice, respectively). All of these hydrocarbons had prolonged effects on cytokine production by peritoneal APCs. However, high levels of IL-6, IL-12, and TNF?? production 2-3 months after intraperitoneal injection appeared to be associated with the ability to induce lupus autoantibodies. The ability to induce lupus autoantibodies is shared by several hydrocarbons and is not unique to pristane. It correlates with stimulation of the production of IL-12 and other cytokines, suggesting a relationship with a hydrocarbon's adjuvanticity. The potential to induce autoimmunity may complicate the use of oil adjuvants in human and veterinary vaccines. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  11. Adjuvant steroids and relapse of typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Cooles, P

    1986-10-01

    In a retrospective study, relapse after non-severe acute typhoid fever was highly significantly related to the use of adjuvant steroid in the initial illness. The steroid was given late and in small doses when compared with other studies. Caution should be observed when using steroids in this way as relapse though often mild may be a severe illness. PMID:3795323

  12. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  13. Walnut Hulls Clean Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colberg, W. R.; Gordon, G. H.; Jackson, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Hulls inflict minimal substrate damage. Walnut hulls found to be best abrasive for cleaning aluminum surfaces prior to painting. Samples blasted with walnut hulls showed no compressive stress of surface.

  14. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  15. CORROSION PROTECTION OF ALUMINUM

    DOEpatents

    Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

  16. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  17. Light weight aluminum optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catura, R. C.; Vieira, J. R.

    1985-09-01

    Light weight mirror blanks were fabricated by dip-brazing a core of low mass aluminum foam material to thin face sheets of solid aluminum. The blanks weigh 40% of an equivalent size solid mirror and were diamond turned to provide reflective surfaces. Optical interferometry was used to assess their dimensional stability over 7 months. No changes in flatness are observed (to the sensitivity of the measurements of a half wavelength of red light).

  18. The alpha-form of the hydroxides of bivalent metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feitknecht, W.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray analyses were made of the hydroxides of the bivalent metals. The freshly pptd. hydroxide is usually in the alpha-form, which on standing is converted to another form or other forms. The alpha and c grating dimensions of the alpha-form and the C6-type of Co, Zn, C, Co-Zn and Ni-Zn hydroxides are tabulated. Ni hydroxide does not exhibit an alpha-form. The alpha-Co(OH)2, the blue form, is stabilized by sugar or by the higher alcohols: these compounds do not stabilize alpha-Zn(OH)2.

  19. Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethna, P. P.; Downing, H. D.; Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

    1978-01-01

    We have applied Kramers-Kronig analysis to reflection spectra to determine the optical constants of ammonium hydroxide and of aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride and bromide. From considerations of the absorption indices k(nu) we conclude that ammonium hydroxide consists of a solution of NH3 in water, in which NH3 molecules are hydrogen bonded to neighboring water molecules. The spectrum of ammonium hydroxide differs from the spectra of ammonium salts, in which bands characteristic of NH4(+) ions are prominent. The existence of ammonium hydroxide as an aerosol in planetary atmospheres is briefly discussed

  20. Vitamins as influenza vaccine adjuvant components.

    PubMed

    Quintilio, Wagner; de Freitas, Fábio Alessandro; Rodriguez, Dunia; Kubrusly, Flavia Saldanha; Yourtov, Dimitri; Miyaki, Cosue; de Cerqueira Leite, Luciana Cezar; Raw, Isaias

    2016-10-01

    A number of adjuvant formulations were assayed in mice immunized with 3.75 µg of A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) pdm09 influenza vaccine with vitamins A, D and/or E in emulsions or B2 and/or B9 combined with Bordetella pertussis MPLA and/or alum as adjuvants. Squalene was used as positive control, as well as MPLA with alum. The immune response was evaluated by a panel of tests, including a hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test, ELISA for IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a and IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 quantification in splenocyte culture supernatant after stimulus with influenza antigen. Immunological memory was evaluated using a 1/10 dose booster 60 days after the first immunization followed by assessment of the response by HAI, IgG ELISA, and determination of the antibody affinity index. The highest increases in HAI, IgG1 and IgG2a titers were obtained with the adjuvant combinations containing vitamin E, or the hydrophilic combinations containing MPLA and alum or B2 and alum. The IgG1/IgG2a ratio indicates that the response to the combination of B2 with alum would have more Th2 character than the combination of MPLA with alum. In an assay to investigate the memory response, a significant increase in HAI titer was observed with a booster vaccine dose at 60 days after immunization with vaccines containing MPLA with alum or B2 with alum. Overall, of the 27 adjuvant combinations, MPLA with alum and B2 with alum were the most promising adjuvants to be evaluated in humans. PMID:27449155

  1. Adjuvant effect of B domain of staphyloccocal protein A displayed on the surface of hepatitis B virus capsid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Ahn, Keum-Young; Bae, Kyung Dong; Lee, Jiyun; Sim, Sang Jun; Lee, Jeewon

    2016-02-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid-based recombinant particles, which display both major hydrophilic region of HBV surface antigen (HBV-MHR) and B domain of Staphylococcal protein A (SPAB ), were produced using Escherichia coli as expression host. SPAB was used as an adjuvant to elicit the immune response to HBV-MHR, and its adjuvant effect in the immunized mice was estimated with varying the position and amount of SPAB on the HBV capsid particles. Compared to the emulsified aluminum gel (alum gel) that is a currently commercialized vaccine adjuvant, SPAB caused the significantly higher level of anti-HBV immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and seroconversion rate, and notably SPAB at the most surface-exposed position on the recombinant particle led to the highest immune response. Moreover, SPAB caused much lower ratio of IgG1 to IgG2a compared to alum gel, indicating that helper T-cell 1-mediated immune response (responsible for cytotoxic T-cell stimulation) is relatively more stimulated by SPAB , unlike alum gel that mainly stimulates helper T-cell 2-mediated immune response (responsible for B-cell stimulation). Although HBV-MHR and HBV capsid particle were used as proof-of-concept in this study, SPAB can be used as a highly effective adjuvant with other disease-specific antigens on the surface of other virus-like particles to produce various recombinant vaccines with high potency. PMID:26222886

  2. New generation adjuvants--from empiricism to rational design.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, Derek T; Fox, Christopher B

    2015-06-01

    Adjuvants are an essential component of modern vaccine development. Despite many decades of development, only a few types of adjuvants are currently included in vaccines approved for human use. In order to better understand the reasons that development of some adjuvants succeeded while many others failed, we discuss some of the common attributes of successful first generation adjuvants. Next, we evaluate current trends in the development of second generation adjuvants, including the potential advantages of rationally designed synthetic immune potentiators appropriately formulated. Finally, we discuss desirable attributes of next generation adjuvants. Throughout, we emphasize that the importance of formulation and analytical characterization in all aspects of vaccine adjuvant development is often underappreciated. We highlight the formulation factors that must be evaluated in order to optimize interactions between vaccine antigens, immune potentiators, and particulate formulations, and the resulting effects on safety, biological activity, manufacturability, and stability. PMID:26022561

  3. Hydroxide absorption heat pumps with spray absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Summerer, F.; Alefeld, G.; Zeigler, F.; Riesch, P.

    1996-11-01

    The absorber is one of the most expensive components of an absorption heat pump or chiller, respectively. In order to reduce the cost of a heat exchanger, much effort is invested into searching for additives for heat transfer enhancement. Another way to reduce heat exchanger cost, especially for machines with low capacities, is to use an adiabatic spray absorber. The basic principles of the spray absorber is to perform heat and mass transfer separated from each other in two different components. In this way the heat can be rejected effectively in a liquid-liquid heat exchanger, whereas the mass transfer occurs subsequently in a simple vessel. The spray technique can not only save heat exchanger cost in conventional absorption systems working with water and lithium bromide, it also allows the use of quite different working fluids such as hydroxides, which have lower heat transfer coefficients in falling films. Moreover, the separated heat transfer can easily be performed in a liquid-to-air heat exchanger. Hence it is obvious to use hydroxides that allow for a high temperature lift for building an air-cooled chiller with spray absorber. In this presentation theoretical and experimental investigations of the spray absorber as well as the setup will be described. Finally, possible applications will be outlined.

  4. Protons and Hydroxide Ions in Aqueous Systems.

    PubMed

    Agmon, Noam; Bakker, Huib J; Campen, R Kramer; Henchman, Richard H; Pohl, Peter; Roke, Sylvie; Thämer, Martin; Hassanali, Ali

    2016-07-13

    Understanding the structure and dynamics of water's constituent ions, proton and hydroxide, has been a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies over the last century. Besides their obvious importance in acid-base chemistry, these ions play an important role in numerous applications ranging from enzyme catalysis to environmental chemistry. Despite a long history of research, many fundamental issues regarding their properties continue to be an active area of research. Here, we provide a review of the experimental and theoretical advances made in the last several decades in understanding the structure, dynamics, and transport of the proton and hydroxide ions in different aqueous environments, ranging from water clusters to the bulk liquid and its interfaces with hydrophobic surfaces. The propensity of these ions to accumulate at hydrophobic surfaces has been a subject of intense debate, and we highlight the open issues and challenges in this area. Biological applications reviewed include proton transport along the hydration layer of various membranes and through channel proteins, problems that are at the core of cellular bioenergetics. PMID:27314430

  5. Novel inorganic host layered double hydroxides intercalated with guest organic inhibitors for anticorrosion applications.

    PubMed

    Poznyak, S K; Tedim, J; Rodrigues, L M; Salak, A N; Zheludkevich, M L; Dick, L F P; Ferreira, M G S

    2009-10-01

    Zn-Al and Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) loaded with quinaldate and 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate anions were synthesized via anion-exchange reaction. The resulting compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Spectrophotometric measurements demonstrated that the release of organic anions from these LDHs into the bulk solution is triggered by the presence of chloride anions, evidencing the anion-exchange nature of this process. The anticorrosion capabilities of LDHs loaded with organic inhibitors toward the AA2024 aluminum alloy were analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A significant reduction of the corrosion rate is observed when the LDH nanopigments are present in the corrosive media. The mechanism by which the inhibiting anions can be released from the LDHs underlines the versatility of these environmentally friendly structures and their potential application as nanocontainers in self-healing coatings. PMID:20355873

  6. Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia

    SciTech Connect

    Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

  7. High-Density Protein Loading on Hierarchically Porous Layered Double Hydroxide Composites with a Rational Mesostructure.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Yasuaki; Fukui, Megu; Tarutani, Naoki; Nishimura, Sari; Prevot, Vanessa; Forano, Claude; Poologasundarampillai, Gowsihan; Lee, Peter D; Takahashi, Masahide

    2016-09-01

    Hierarchically porous biocompatible Mg-Al-Cl-type layered double hydroxide (LDH) composites containing aluminum hydroxide (Alhy) have been prepared using a phase-separation process. The sol-gel synthesis allows for the hierarchical pores of the LDH-Alhy composites to be tuned, leading to a high specific solid surface area per unit volume available for high-molecular-weight protein adsorptions. A linear relationship between the effective surface area, SEFF, and loading capacity of a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), is established following successful control of the structure of the LDH-Alhy composite. The threshold of the mean pore diameter, Dpm, above which BSA is effectively adsorbed on the surface of LDH-Alhy composites, is deduced as 20 nm. In particular, LDH-Alhy composite aerogels obtained via supercritical drying exhibit an extremely high capacity for protein loading (996 mg/g) as a result of a large mean mesopore diameter (>30 nm). The protein loading on LDH-Alhy is >14 times that of a reference LDH material (70 mg/g) prepared via a standard procedure. Importantly, BSA molecules pre-adsorbed on porous composites were successfully released on soaking in ionic solutions (HPO4(2-) and Cl(-) aqueous). The superior capability of the biocompatible LDH materials for loading, encapsulation, and releasing large quantities of proteins was clearly demonstrated. PMID:27501777

  8. Shape and size control of nano dispersed Mg/Al layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Panda, H S; Srivastava, R; Bahadur, D

    2008-08-01

    Controlling the shape and size of the layered inorganic-organic hybrid particles is a challenge with conventional methods of synthesis. The co-precipitation method has been modified to synthesize Mg/Al Layered double hydroxide by controlling the particle growth using ultrasonic wave at the time of nucleation. In this project, magnesium and aluminum ions were considered as model systems with carbonate anion as intercalating agent. The resulting particles are compared with those of LDHs produced by conventional co-precipitation method at constant pH. Powder X-ray diffraction confirmed formation of the layered double hydroxide phases having crystallite size 19-20 nm in both 'a' and 'c' crystallographic directions. Transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering revealed nano disperse hexagonal platelets with narrow size distribution and average size was around 48 nm. The modified method reduces the particle size, increases the surface charge, narrows down the size distribution and also reduces the aspect ratio of the particles. Therefore, it is suggested that low amplitude ultrasonic wave prevents the aggregation of the nuclei, thus restricting the particle growth and results in uniform size particles. PMID:19049206

  9. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3·XH2O). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with chromium hydroxide green may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3·XH2O). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with chromium hydroxide green may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...

  11. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3·XH2O). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with chromium hydroxide green may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...

  12. Hydroxide Solvation and Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Lindberg, Gerrick E; Knight, Chris; Voth, Gregory A

    2016-01-27

    Understanding hydroxide solvation and transport in anion exchange membranes (AEMs) can provide important insight into the design principles of these new membranes. To accurately model hydroxide solvation and transport, we developed a new multiscale reactive molecular dynamics model for hydroxide in aqueous solution, which was then subsequently modified for an AEM material. With this model, we investigated the hydroxide solvation structure and transport mechanism in the membrane. We found that a relatively even separation of the rigid side chains produces a continuous overlapping region for hydroxide transport that is made up of the first hydration shell of the tethered cationic groups. Our results show that hydroxide has a significant preference for this overlapping region, transporting through it and between the AEM side chains with substantial contributions from both vehicular (standard diffusion) and Grotthuss (proton hopping) mechanisms. Comparison of the AEM with common proton exchange membranes (PEMs) showed that the excess charge is less delocalized in the AEM than the PEMs, which is correlated with a higher free energy barrier for proton transfer reactions. The vehicular mechanism also contributes considerably more than the Grotthuss mechanism for hydroxide transport in the AEM, while our previous studies of PEM systems showed a larger contribution from the Grotthuss mechanism than the vehicular mechanism for proton transport. The activation energy barrier for hydroxide diffusion in the AEM is greater than that for proton diffusion in PEMs, implying a more significant enhancement of ion transport in the AEM at elevated temperatures. PMID:26716727

  13. Astronauts Newman, Walz and Bursch change out lithium hydroxide canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Three members of the astronaut class of 1990 change out a lithium hydroxide canister beneath Discovery's middeck during STS-51 mission. Left to right are astronauts James H. Newman, Carl E. Walz and Daniel W. Bursch, all mission specialists. Note the lithium hydroxide canister floating between them.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner....

  15. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3·XH2O). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with chromium hydroxide green may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...

  16. ALUMINUM RECLAMATION BY ACIDIC EXTRACTION OF ALUMINUM-ANODIZING SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extraction of aluminum-anodizing sludges with sulfuric acid was examined to determine the potential for production of commercial-strength solutions of aluminum sulfate, that is liquid alum. The research established kinetic and stoichiometric relationships and evaluates product qu...

  17. Spontaneous formation of complex structures made from elastic membranes in an aluminum-hydroxide-carbonate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehl, Micah; Kaminker, Vitaliy; Pantaleone, James; Nowak, Piotr; Dyonizy, Agnieszka; Maselko, Jerzy

    2015-06-01

    A popular playground for studying chemo-hydrodynamic patterns and instabilities is chemical gardens, also known as silicate gardens. In these systems, complex structures spontaneously form, driven by buoyant forces and either osmotic or mechanical pumps. Here, we report on systems that differ somewhat from classical chemical gardens in that the membranes are much more deformable and soluble. These properties lead to structures that self-construct and evolve in new ways. For example, they exhibit the formation of chemical balloons, a new growth mechanism for tubes, and also the homologous shrinking of these tubes. The stretching mechanism for the membranes is probably different than for other systems by involving membrane "self-healing." Other unusual properties are osmosis that sometimes occurs out of the structure and also small plumes that flow away from the structure, sometimes upwards, and sometimes downwards. Mathematical models are given that explain some of the observed phenomena.

  18. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn5(OH)8Cl2·2H2O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 °C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 °C and in the LDH at 276 °C.

  19. Calcium hydroxide-based root canal sealers: a review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shalin; Chandler, Nicholas

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this review was to consider laboratory experiments and clinical studies of calcium hydroxide-based root canal sealers. An extensive search of the endodontic literature was made to identify publications related to calcium hydroxide-based root canal sealers. The articles were assessed for the outcome of laboratory and clinical studies on their biological properties and physical characteristics. Comparative studies with other sealers were also considered. Several studies were evaluated covering different properties of calcium hydroxide-based sealers including physical properties, biocompatibility, leakage, adhesion, solubility, antibacterial properties, and periapical healing effect. Calcium hydroxide-based root canal sealers have a variety of physical and biological properties. Comparative studies reveal their mild cytotoxicity, but their antibacterial effects are variable. Further research is required to establish the tissue healing properties of calcium hydroxide in root canal sealers. PMID:19345790

  20. The adjuvancy of silicones: dependency on compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Klykken, P C; White, K L

    1996-01-01

    Studies have been conducted in mice (B6C3F1) and rats (Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344) to investigate the adjuvancy potential of silicone mammary gel and the low molecular weight silicone fluid, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4). Dependent on the experimental conditions employed, a divergent data profile emerges. If the antigen (bovine serum albumin, BSA) is emulsified with either the gel or the D4 prior to intramuscular immunization, an amplified anti-BSA IgG antibody response, as measured by multipoint ELISA methodology, is noted over the 8 week measurement period. In parallel studies, a variety of non-silicone personal care ingredients (lanolin, white mineral oil, isopropyl palmitate) were also capable of amplifying this humoral response relative to the non-adjuvant phosphate buffered saline control. These observations are consistent with the empirical knowledge that hydrophobic substances tend to augment immune responses. However, under conditions in which the antigen is not blended with the silicone prior to immunization, normal immune responses are noted. In short (10 day) and long (180 day) term gel implant studies, the optimal IgM and IgG antibody responses, as determined in the antibody forming cell assay, were equivalent between the gel implanted and control animals. Moreover, under similar exposure conditions, no adjuvancy was noted in the three Host Resistance models (B16F10 Melanoma, Listeria monocytogenes, and Streptococcus pneumoniae) tested. Antibody forming cell studies conducted after 28 days of oral or inhalation exposure to D4 have also yielded responses similar to the non-silicone exposed vehicle controls. Collectively, these data suggest that in the absence of premixing the antigen with the silicone test material, there does not appear to be any silicone induced adjuvant response. PMID:8565549

  1. Psychosocial and Physical Effects of Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, Thomas Gregory; Elwood, J. Mark; Waxler-Morrison, Nancy; Ragaz, Joseph; Skippen, Diane Hazel; Turner, I.D.

    1991-01-01

    Breast cancer patients younger than 55 completed a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and physical side effects shortly after diagnosis and 9 to 15 months after diagnosis. Those who had used adjuvant chemotherapy were more likely than those who had not to report physical side effects; there was little difference in psychosocial factors. Recent users were more likely than ex-users to report physical side effects, difficulties with domestic chores, and improvement in psychosocial factors. PMID:21229020

  2. Aluminum for plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Knight, Mark W; King, Nicholas S; Liu, Lifei; Everitt, Henry O; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2014-01-28

    Unlike silver and gold, aluminum has material properties that enable strong plasmon resonances spanning much of the visible region of the spectrum and into the ultraviolet. This extended response, combined with its natural abundance, low cost, and amenability to manufacturing processes, makes aluminum a highly promising material for commercial applications. Fabricating Al-based nanostructures whose optical properties correspond with theoretical predictions, however, can be a challenge. In this work, the Al plasmon resonance is observed to be remarkably sensitive to the presence of oxide within the metal. For Al nanodisks, we observe that the energy of the plasmon resonance is determined by, and serves as an optical reporter of, the percentage of oxide present within the Al. This understanding paves the way toward the use of aluminum as a low-cost plasmonic material with properties and potential applications similar to those of the coinage metals. PMID:24274662

  3. In vitro adsorption of aluminum by an edible biopolymer poly(γ-glutamic acid).

    PubMed

    Rajan, Yesudoss Christu; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing Huei

    2014-05-21

    Accumulation of aluminum in human has been reported to be associated with dementia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The objectives of this study were to evaluate an edible biopolymer poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) for aluminum removal efficiency under in vitro conditions as affected by pH, contact time, aluminum concentration, temperature, ionic strength, and essential metals in both aqueous aluminum solution and simulated gastrointestinal fluid (GIF). A low aluminum adsorption occurred at pH 1.5-2.5, followed by a maximum adsorption at pH 3.0-4.0 and precipitating thereafter as aluminum hydroxide at pH > 4. Adsorption was extremely fast with 81-96% of total adsorption being attained within 1 min, reaching equilibrium in 5-10 min. Kinetic data at low (10 mg/L) and high (50 mg/L) concentrations were well described by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models, respectively. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms at different temperatures were precisely fitted by both Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models with the maximum adsorption capacities at 25, 37, and 50 °C being 35.85, 38.68, and 44.23 mg/g, respectively. Thermodynamic calculations suggested endothermic and spontaneous nature of aluminum adsorption by γ-PGA with increased randomness at the solid/solution interface. Variation in ionic strengths did not alter the adsorption capacity, however, the incorporation of essential metals significantly reduced the aluminum adsorption by following the order copper > iron > zinc > calcium > potassium. Compared to aqueous solution, the aluminum adsorption from simulated GIF was high at all studied pH (1-4) with Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity being 49.43 mg/g at 37 °C and pH 4. The outcome of this study suggests that γ-PGA could be used as a safe detoxifying agent for aluminum. PMID:24799126

  4. Melanoma and IFN alpha: potential adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Bottoni, U; Clerico, R; Paolino, G; Corsetti, P; Ambrifi, M; Brachini, A; Richetta, A; Nisticò, S; Pranteda, G; Calvieri, S

    2014-01-01

    Interferon alpha (IFNalpha) is the most used adjuvant treatment in clinical practice for melanoma (MEL) high-medium risk patients; however, the use of IFNalpha has yielded conflicting data on Overall Survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) rates. Starting from these considerations, we carried out an analysis on our MEL patients who received adjuvant IFNalpha therapy, in order to identify possible predictors for their outcome. A total of 140 patients were included in our analysis. Patients with Breslow thickness ≤2.00 mm presented a significantly longer mean DFS than patients with Breslow ≥2.01 mm (p = 0.01). Using non- parametric Spearman’s Coefficient test we found association between DFS and Breslow thickness (p < 0.001) and between DFS and ulceration (p = 0.03). Performing Multiple Regression test, Breslow thickness (p < 0.001) remained the only statistically significant predictor. From the OS analysis we found that patients with lower Breslow values ≤ 2.00 mm (p < 0.0001), and absence of ulceration (p <0.004) showed a significantly better long-term survival. From the current analysis we found that the use of low dose IFNalpha is justified only for cutaneous melanoma ≤ 4.01 mm that was not ulcerated; patients with Breslow ≥ 4.01 mm, in our opinion, should not carry out adjuvant treatment with low dose IFNalpha, because its side effects could be higher than the its benefits. PMID:25001659

  5. Utility of adjuvant systemic therapy in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Eggermont, A. M. M.; Testori, A.; Marsden, J.; Hersey, P.; Quirt, I.; Petrella, T.; Gogas, H.; MacKie, R. M.; Hauschild, A.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of effective drugs in stage IV melanoma has impacted the effectiveness of adjuvant therapies in stage II/III disease. To date, chemotherapy, immunostimulants and vaccines have been used with minimal success. Interferon (IFN) has shown an effect on relapse-free survival (RFS) in several clinical trials; however, without a clinically significant effect on overall survival (OS). A recently conducted meta-analysis demonstrated prolongation of disease-free survival (DFS) in 7% and OS benefit in 3% of IFN-treated patients when compared with observation-only patients. There were no clear differences for the dose and duration of treatment observed. Observation is still an appropriate control arm in adjuvant clinical trials. Regional differences exist in Europe in the adjuvant use of IFN. In Northwest Europe, IFN is infrequently prescribed. In Central and Mediterranean Europe, dermatologists commonly prescribe low-dose IFN therapy for AJCC stage II and III disease. High-dose IFN regimens are not commonly used. The population of patients that may benefit from IFN needs to be further characterised, potentially by finding biomarkers that can predict response. Such studies are ongoing. PMID:19617295

  6. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive human malignancies, ranking 4th among causes for cancer-related death in the Western world including the United States. Surgical resection offers the only chance of cure, but only 15 to 20 percent of cases are potentially resectable at presentation. Different studies demonstrate and confirm that advanced pancreatic cancer is among the most complex cancers to treat and that these tumors are relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Currently there is no consensus around the world on what constitutes “standard” adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer. This controversy derives from several studies, each fraught with its own limitations. Standards of care also vary somewhat with regard to geography and economy, for instance chemo-radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy or vice versa is considered the optimal therapy in North America while chemotherapy alone is the current standard in Europe. Regardless of the efforts in adjuvant and neoadjuvant improved therapy, the major goal to combat pancreatic cancer is to find diagnostic markers, identifying the disease in a pre-metastatic stage and making a curative treatment accessible to more patients. In this review, authors examined the different therapy options for advanced pancreatic patients in recent years and the future directions in adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatments for these patients. PMID:22529684

  7. Efficacy of live adjuvanted mesogenic Newcastle disease vaccine in chickens.

    PubMed

    Roy, P; Venugopalan, A T; Koteeswaran, A

    1999-06-01

    120 white leghorn chickens primed with a lentogenic Newcastle disease (ND) live vaccine at 7 days of age were divided into three equal groups of 8 weeks of age and vaccinated with a live mesogenic ND vaccine (NDV). One group received only Newcastle disease mesogenic vaccine (RDVK) in normal saline, the second group received RDVK with groundnut oil as adjuvant and the third group received RDVK with liquid paraffin as adjuvant. Sera were collected at different time points for the assessment of antibody level against ND virus (NDV) by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The commonly used non-adjuvanted RDVK could not evince 100% protective HI titre beyond 11 weeks of age but in both the adjuvanted groups 100% protective HI titre was evident up to 20 weeks of age. On challenge at 20 weeks of age both the adjuvanted groups withstood challenge but in the non-adjuvanted group 80% of chickens withstood the challenge. A significant difference in immune response between the adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted groups was seen but not between both the adjuvanted groups. The advantage of vegetable oil (groundnut oil) as an adjuvant for live mesogenic ND vaccine has been discussed. PMID:10418918

  8. Recent Advances of Vaccine Adjuvants for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Trang

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are the most effective and cost-efficient method for preventing diseases caused by infectious pathogens. Despite the great success of vaccines, development of safe and strong vaccines is still required for emerging new pathogens, re-emerging old pathogens, and in order to improve the inadequate protection conferred by existing vaccines. One of the most important strategies for the development of effective new vaccines is the selection and usage of a suitable adjuvant. Immunologic adjuvants are essential for enhancing vaccine potency by improvement of the humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response to vaccine antigens. Thus, formulation of vaccines with appropriate adjuvants is an attractive approach towards eliciting protective and long-lasting immunity in humans. However, only a limited number of adjuvants is licensed for human vaccines due to concerns about safety and toxicity. We summarize current knowledge about the potential benefits of adjuvants, the characteristics of adjuvants and the mechanisms of adjuvants in human vaccines. Adjuvants have diverse modes of action and should be selected for use on the basis of the type of immune response that is desired for a particular vaccine. Better understanding of current adjuvants will help exploring new adjuvant formulations and facilitate rational design of vaccines against infectious diseases. PMID:25922593

  9. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-15

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 Degree-Sign C and in the LDH at 276 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 Degree-Sign C, and in the LDH it was at 276 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3} molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

  10. Adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Hiroshi; Todo, Yukiharu; Watari, Hidemichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to address the current status of adjuvant chemotherapy alone in early-stage cervical cancer treatments in the literature. At present, the therapeutic effect of adjuvant chemotherapy alone after radical surgery (RS) has not yet been established, and radiation therapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is recommended as the standard adjuvant therapy after RS for early-stage cervical cancer in various guidelines. The main purpose of adjuvant therapy after RS, however, should be to reduce extrapelvic recurrence rather than local recurrence, although adjuvant RT or CCRT has survival benefits for patients with intermediate- or high-risk factors for recurrence. Moreover, several studies reported that adjuvant therapies including RT were associated with a higher incidence of complications, such as lymphedema, bowel obstruction and urinary disturbance, and a lower grade of long-term quality of life (QOL) or sexual functioning than adjuvant chemotherapy alone. The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy alone for early-stage cervical cancer with intermediate- or high-risk factors for recurrence were not fully investigated in prospective studies, but several retrospective studies suggest that the adjuvant effects of chemotherapy alone are at least similar to that of RT or CCRT in terms of recurrence rate, disease-free survival, or overall survival (OS) with lower incidence of complications. Whereas cisplatin based combination regimens were used in these studies, paclitaxel/cisplatin (TP) regimen, which is currently recognized as a standard chemotherapy regimen for patients with metastatic, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer by Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG), had also survival benefit as an adjuvant therapy. Therefore, it may be worth considering a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) of adjuvant chemotherapy alone using TP regimen versus adjuvant RT as an alternative adjuvant therapy. Because early-stage cervical cancer is a curable

  11. Functionalized graphene oxide serves as a novel vaccine nano-adjuvant for robust stimulation of cellular immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ligeng; Xiang, Jian; Liu, Ye; Xu, Jun; Luo, Yinchan; Feng, Liangzhu; Liu, Zhuang; Peng, Rui

    2016-02-01

    Benefiting from their unique physicochemical properties, graphene derivatives have attracted great attention in biomedicine. In this study, we carefully engineered graphene oxide (GO) as a vaccine adjuvant for immunotherapy using urease B (Ure B) as the model antigen. Ure B is a specific antigen for Helicobacter pylori, which is a class I carcinogen for gastric cancer. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and various types of polyethylenimine (PEI) were used as coating polymers. Compared with single-polymer modified GOs (GO-PEG and GO-PEI), certain dual-polymer modified GOs (GO-PEG-PEI) can act as a positive modulator to promote the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and enhance their cytokine secretion through the activation of multiple toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways while showing low toxicity. Moreover, this GO-PEG-PEI can serve as an antigen carrier to effectively shuttle antigens into DCs. These two advantages enable GO-PEG-PEI to serve as a novel vaccine adjuvant. In the subsequent in vivo experiments, compared with free Ure B and clinically used aluminum-adjuvant-based vaccine (Alum-Ure B), GO-PEG-PEI-Ure B induces stronger cellular immunity via intradermal administration, suggesting promising applications in cancer immunotherapy. Our work not only presents a novel, highly effective GO-based vaccine nano-adjuvant, but also highlights the critical roles of surface chemistry for the rational design of nano-adjuvants.Benefiting from their unique physicochemical properties, graphene derivatives have attracted great attention in biomedicine. In this study, we carefully engineered graphene oxide (GO) as a vaccine adjuvant for immunotherapy using urease B (Ure B) as the model antigen. Ure B is a specific antigen for Helicobacter pylori, which is a class I carcinogen for gastric cancer. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and various types of polyethylenimine (PEI) were used as coating polymers. Compared with single-polymer modified GOs (GO-PEG and GO-PEI), certain dual

  12. High pseudocapacitive cobalt carbonate hydroxide films derived from CoAl layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhiyi; Zhu, Wei; Lei, Xiaodong; Williams, Gareth R.; O'Hare, Dermot; Chang, Zheng; Sun, Xiaoming; Duan, Xue

    2012-05-01

    A thin nanosheet of mesoporous cobalt carbonate hydroxide (MPCCH) has been fabricated from a CoAl-LDH nanosheet following removal of the Al cations by alkali etching. The basic etched electrode exhibits enhanced specific capacitance (1075 F g-1 at 5 mA cm-2) and higher rate capability and cycling stability (92% maintained after 2000 cycles).A thin nanosheet of mesoporous cobalt carbonate hydroxide (MPCCH) has been fabricated from a CoAl-LDH nanosheet following removal of the Al cations by alkali etching. The basic etched electrode exhibits enhanced specific capacitance (1075 F g-1 at 5 mA cm-2) and higher rate capability and cycling stability (92% maintained after 2000 cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedure, specific capacitance calculation, EDS and FTIR results, electrochemical results of CoAl-LDH and SEM image. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30617d

  13. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOEpatents

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  14. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOEpatents

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J.

    2009-04-21

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  15. Elevated temperature aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meschter, Peter (Inventor); Lederich, Richard J. (Inventor); O'Neal, James E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Three aluminum-lithium alloys are provided for high performance aircraft structures and engines. All three alloys contain 3 wt % copper, 2 wt % lithium, 1 wt % magnesium, and 0.2 wt % zirconium. Alloy 1 has no further alloying elements. Alloy 2 has the addition of 1 wt % iron and 1 wt % nickel. Alloy 3 has the addition of 1.6 wt % chromium to the shared alloy composition of the three alloys. The balance of the three alloys, except for incidentql impurities, is aluminum. These alloys have low densities and improved strengths at temperatures up to 260.degree. C. for long periods of time.

  16. Synthesis of yttrium hydroxide and oxide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qun; Liu, Zhaoping; Li, Shu; Zhang, Shuyuan; Liu, Xianming; Qian, Yitai

    2003-11-01

    Yttrium hydroxide nanotubes were hydrothermally synthesized via a metastable precursor, PEG-Y(NO 3) 3 complex. XRD patterns showed the product was a pure hexagonal phase of Y(OH) 3. TEM images displayed that the nanotubes have outer diameters ranging from 80 to 200 nm, wall thicknesses of about 30 nm, and lengths up to several micrometers. The nanotube growth may have three stages: formation of a metastable PEG-Y(NO 3) 3 complex; nucleation and formation of Y(OH) 3 nanorods; developing Y(OH) 3 nanotubes. We proposed the Y(OH) 3 nanotubes growth mechanism to be a nucleation-diffusion growth based on the characterization results. Y 2O 3 nanotubes were formed with smaller diameters after post-treatment at 500°C for 2 h.

  17. Complex Microfiltration Behavior of Metal Hydroxide Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-02-28

    Crossflow filtration is to be a key process in the treatment and disposal of approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is assessing filter performance against waste simulant materials that mimic the chemical and physical properties of Hanford tank waste. Prior simulant studies indicate that waste filtration performance may be limited by pore and cake fouling. To limit the shutdown of waste treatment operations, the pre-treatment facility plans to recover filter flux loses from cake formation and filter fouling by frequently backpulsing the filter elements. The objective of the current research is to develop an understanding of the roles of cake and pore fouling and potential flux recovery through backpulsing of the filters for Hanford waste filtration operations. Metal hydroxide wastes were tested to examine the role of particle-filter interaction on filter performance.

  18. Carcinogenicity of beryllium hydroxide and alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, D.H.; Kommineni, C.; Mackay, G.R.

    1980-02-01

    Animal experiments are presented which show that Be metal, BeAl alloy, passivated Be metal, and beryllium hydroxide are pulmonary carcinogens in rats. These findings are supported by successful transplantation experiments. In addition, other alloys of Be, VBe/sub 12/, TiBe/sub 12/, TaBe/sub 12/, NbBe/sub 12/, Be/sub 2/B, and Be/sub 4/B were found to produce pulmonary metaplasia, frequently a preneoplastic lesion in rats. Old rats are shown to be more susceptible to the induction of pulmonary metaplasia than young adult rats. These results indicate that a lower dose of Be would be required to produce cancer in old animals compared to young adult animals. A discussion on the lung cancer incidence in beryllium production workers is presented.

  19. Adjuvants in the Driver’s Seat: How Magnitude, Type, Fine Specificity and Longevity of Immune Responses Are Driven by Distinct Classes of Immune Potentiators

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann-Leitner, Elke S.; Leitner, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism by which vaccine adjuvants enhance immune responses has historically been considered to be the creation of an antigen depot. From here, the antigen is slowly released and provided to immune cells over an extended period of time. This “depot” was formed by associating the antigen with substances able to persist at the injection site, such as aluminum salts or emulsions. The identification of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) has greatly advanced our understanding of how adjuvants work beyond the simple concept of extended antigen release and has accelerated the development of novel adjuvants. This review focuses on the mode of action of different adjuvant classes in regards to the stimulation of specific immune cell subsets, the biasing of immune responses towards cellular or humoral immune response, the ability to mediate epitope spreading and the induction of persistent immunological memory. A better understanding of how particular adjuvants mediate their biological effects will eventually allow them to be selected for specific vaccines in a targeted and rational manner. PMID:26344620

  20. Immune response in cattle induced by inactivated rabies vaccine adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide either alone or in combination with avridine.

    PubMed

    Côrtes, J A; Rweyemamu, M M; Ito, F H; Umehara, O; Medeiros Neto, R R; De Lucca-Neto, D; Baltazar, M C; Vasconcellos, S A; Vasconcellos, M E

    1993-09-01

    In a comparative study of two commercial baby hamster kidney rabies vaccines produced in Brazil, the authors were able to demonstrate the following: a) both vaccines provoked a high level of antibody response and protection against challenge in cattle b) in primary vaccination, at least, the addition of avridine (a synthetic lipoidal amine) enhances the immune response in terms of the level and persistence of antibody c) over 90% of cattle vaccinated with either vaccine were protected against experimental challenge one year after revaccination, and the antibody response profile indicated that these vaccines were capable of maintaining antibody titres above protective levels for more than two years after revaccination. On the basis of these results, the authors recommend optional revaccination of young animals (i.e. "primo-vaccinates") at six months of age. Thereafter, annual revaccination should be sufficient to ensure high levels of antibody between vaccination cycles. PMID:8219344

  1. Synthesis, characterization and application of two-dimensional layered metal hydroxides for environmental remediation purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machingauta, Cleopas

    Two-dimensional layered nano composites, which include layered double hydroxides (LDHs), hydroxy double salts (HDSs) and layered hydroxide salts (LHSs) are able to intercalate different molecular species within their gallery space. These materials have a tunable structural composition which has made them applicable as fire retardants, adsorbents, catalysts, catalyst support materials, and ion exchangers. Thermal treatment of these materials results in destruction of the layers and formation of mixed metal oxides (MMOs) and spinels. MMOs have the ability to adsorb anions from solution and may also regenerate layered structures through a phenomenon known as memory effect. Zinc-nickel hydroxy nitrate was used for the uptake of a series of halogenated acetates (HAs). HAs are pollutants introduced into water systems as by-products of water chlorination and pesticide degradation; their sequestration from water is thus crucial. Optimization of layered materials for controlled uptake requires an understanding of their ion-exchange kinetics and thermodynamics. Exchange kinetics of these anions was monitored using ex-situ PXRD, UV-vis, HPLC and FTIR. It was revealed that exchange rates and uptake efficiencies are related to electronic spatial extents and the charge on carboxyl-oxygen atoms. In addition, acetate and nitrate-based HDSs were used to explore how altering the hydroxide layer affects uptake of acetate/nitrate ions. Changing the metal identities affects the interaction of the anions with the layers. From FTIR, we observed that nitrates coordinate in a D3h and Cs/C 2v symmetry; the nitrates in D3h symmetry were easily exchangeable. Interlayer hydrogen bonding was also revealed to be dependent on metal identity. Substituting divalent cations with trivalent cations produces materials with a higher charge density than HDSs and LHSs. A comparison of the uptake efficiency of zinc-aluminum, zinc-gallium and zinc-nickel hydroxy nitrates was performed using trichloroacetic

  2. RECLAMATION OF ALUMINUM FINISHING SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research study of the reclamation of aluminum-anodizing sludges was conducted in two sequential phases focused on enhanced dewatering of aluminum-anodizing sludges to produce commercial-strength solutions of aluminum sulfate, i.e., liquid alum. The use of high-pressure (14 to...

  3. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  4. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer: Is it needed?

    PubMed Central

    Milinis, Kristijonas; Thornton, Michael; Montazeri, Amir; Rooney, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy has become a standard treatment of advanced rectal cancer in the West. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery alone have been well established. However, controversy surrounds the use adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy, despite it being recommended by a number of international guidelines. Results of recent multicentre randomised control trials showed no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in terms of survival and rates of distant metastases. However, concerns exist regarding the quality of the studies including inadequate staging modalities, out-dated chemotherapeutic regimens and surgical approaches and small sample sizes. It has become evident that not all the patients respond to adjuvant chemotherapy and more personalised approach should be employed when considering the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy. The present review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the current evidence-base and suggests improvements for future studies. PMID:26677436

  5. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David S.; Scott, Darwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  6. Mechanisms of aluminum tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity limits agricultural productivity over much of the world’s arable land by inhibiting root growth and development. Affected plants have difficulty in acquiring adequate water and nutrition from their soil environments and thus have stunted shoot development and diminished yield....

  7. Maize aluminum tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is one of the most economically important food crops grown on acid soils, where aluminum (Al) toxicity greatly limits crop yields. Considerable variation for Al tolerance exists in maize, and this variation has been exploited for many years by plant breeders to enhance maize Al tolerance. Curr...

  8. Aluminum-ferricyanide battery

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, C.; Licht, S.L.

    1993-11-29

    A battery capable of producing high current densities with high charge capacity is described which includes an aluminum anode, a ferricyanide electrolyte and a second electrode capable of reducing ferricyanide electrolyte which is either dissolved in an alkaline solution or alkaline seawater solution. The performance of the battery is enhanced by high temperature and high electrolyte flow rates.

  9. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  10. Fluxless aluminum brazing

    DOEpatents

    Werner, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    This invention relates to a fluxless brazing alloy for use in forming brazed composites made from members of aluminum and its alloys. The brazing alloy consists of 35-55% Al, 10--20% Si, 25-60% Ge; 65-88% Al, 2-20% Si, 2--18% In; 65--80% Al, 15-- 25% Si, 5- 15% Y. (0fficial Gazette)

  11. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

    1984-09-28

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  12. REMOVAL OF ALUMINUM COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, J.H.

    1959-08-25

    A process is presented for dissolving aluminum jackets from uranium fuel elements without attack of the uranium in a boiling nitric acid-mercuric nitrate solution containing up to 50% by weight of nitrtc acid and mercuric nitrate in a concentration of between 0.05 and 1% by weight.

  13. Building an aluminum car

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1994-05-01

    This article examines the increasing use of aluminum in automobiles to decrease weight and consequently increase fuel economy. The topics of the article include federal fuel economy goals, the development of optimum body structure and manufacturing techniques, comparison with steel, cost of materials, weight reduction and recycling of materials.

  14. Mesoporous aluminum phosphite

    SciTech Connect

    El Haskouri, Jamal; Perez-Cabero, Monica; Guillem, Carmen; Latorre, Julio; Beltran, Aurelio; Beltran, Daniel; Amoros, Pedro

    2009-08-15

    High surface area pure mesoporous aluminum-phosphorus oxide-based derivatives have been synthesized through an S{sup +}I{sup -} surfactant-assisted cooperative mechanism by means of a one-pot preparative procedure from aqueous solution and starting from aluminum atrane complexes and phosphoric and/or phosphorous acids. A soft chemical extraction procedure allows opening the pore system of the parent as-prepared materials by exchanging the surfactant without mesostructure collapse. The nature of the pore wall can be modulated from mesoporous aluminum phosphate (ALPO) up to total incorporation of phosphite entities (mesoporous aluminum phosphite), which results in a gradual evolution of the acidic properties of the final materials. While phosphate groups in ALPO act as network building blocks (bridging Al atoms), the phosphite entities become basically attached to the pore surface, what gives practically empty channels. The mesoporous nature of the final materials is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms. The materials present regular unimodal pore systems whose order decreases as the phosphite content increases. NMR spectroscopic results confirm the incorporation of oxo-phosphorus entities to the framework of these materials and also provide us useful information concerning the mechanism through which they are formed. - Abstract: TEM image of the mesoporous aluminum phosphite showing the hexagonal disordered pore array that is generated by using surfactant micelles as template. Also a scheme emphasizing the presence of an alumina-rich core and an ALPO-like pore surface is presented.

  15. The effects of aluminum, iron, chromium, and yttrium on rat intestinal smooth muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cunat, L; Membre, H; Marchal, L; Chaussidon, M; Burnel, D

    1998-01-01

    The modification of peristaltic activity in the presence of several metal ions has been investigated in the rat intestine by the isolated organ technique. The metals tested modify the intestinal movements: aluminum, chromium, and yttrium cause a decrease of amplitude, while iron showed no effect. By use of microscopic techniques, the presence of yttrium hydroxide was observed in the intestinal tissues. Iron also appears as a precipitate outside of the intestinal serosal, which may explain why iron did not modify the peristaltism. Chromium and aluminum were not apparent to microscope, despite being detected and quantified in the tissues by means of atomic emission spectrometer. We conclude that the trivalent ions of these elements may operate differently on the mechanisms of intestinal contractions: yttrium precipitates in intercellular spaces, iron precipitates outside the intestines, and chromium and aluminum remain in solution and are distributed homogeneously in the smooth intestinal muscle. PMID:9845462

  16. A portable air-aluminum power source with an alkaline electrolytic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, S. V.; Galkin, P. S.; Kashinskii, O. N.; Markovich, D. M.; Novopashin, S. A.; Randin, V. V.; Kharlamov, S. M.

    2014-04-01

    The results from development of a portable air-aluminum chemical power source (AA CPS) with an alkaline electrolytic solution without any additional service circuits are presented. The feasibility of making air cathodes on the basis of a metal-carbon composite produced by the plasma method has been shown. Special features of the operational conditions of a portable AA CPS have been investigated. It has been found that the aluminum cathode passivation when aluminum hydroxide precipitates from a solution significantly restricts the specific capacity of such power sources. It was shown that it is possible to overcome the anode passivation and to considerably increase the specific capacity of an AA CPS with an alkaline electrolytic solution by means of modifying an anode alloy.

  17. Rational design of small molecules as vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tom Y-H; Singh, Manmohan; Miller, Andrew T; De Gregorio, Ennio; Doro, Francesco; D'Oro, Ugo; Skibinski, David A G; Mbow, M Lamine; Bufali, Simone; Herman, Ann E; Cortez, Alex; Li, Yongkai; Nayak, Bishnu P; Tritto, Elaine; Filippi, Christophe M; Otten, Gillis R; Brito, Luis A; Monaci, Elisabetta; Li, Chun; Aprea, Susanna; Valentini, Sara; Calabrό, Samuele; Laera, Donatello; Brunelli, Brunella; Caproni, Elena; Malyala, Padma; Panchal, Rekha G; Warren, Travis K; Bavari, Sina; O'Hagan, Derek T; Cooke, Michael P; Valiante, Nicholas M

    2014-11-19

    Adjuvants increase vaccine potency largely by activating innate immunity and promoting inflammation. Limiting the side effects of this inflammation is a major hurdle for adjuvant use in vaccines for humans. It has been difficult to improve on adjuvant safety because of a poor understanding of adjuvant mechanism and the empirical nature of adjuvant discovery and development historically. We describe new principles for the rational optimization of small-molecule immune potentiators (SMIPs) targeting Toll-like receptor 7 as adjuvants with a predicted increase in their therapeutic indices. Unlike traditional drugs, SMIP-based adjuvants need to have limited bioavailability and remain localized for optimal efficacy. These features also lead to temporally and spatially restricted inflammation that should decrease side effects. Through medicinal and formulation chemistry and extensive immunopharmacology, we show that in vivo potency can be increased with little to no systemic exposure, localized innate immune activation and short in vivo residence times of SMIP-based adjuvants. This work provides a systematic and generalizable approach to engineering small molecules for use as vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25411473

  18. [Recent advance in adjuvant therapy for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Chikako; Watanabe, Toru

    2002-12-01

    Adjuvant systemic therapy has contributed to a significant improvement of disease-free and overall survival in addition to surgery and irradiation to the local disease. The adjuvant therapy to a patient is determined integrating the information on estimated risk of recurrence, benefit and harm of the therapy and the patient's value. In this review, the state of the art of adjuvant therapy is discussed from several aspects, such as interpretation and evaluation of risk, the best available evidences on adjuvant systemic therapy, the future direction of primary therapy for breast cancer, and patient-oriented decision making. PMID:12506467

  19. Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation—Session 2 (Plenary II)

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    On the 15–17th May 2013, the Fourth International Conference on Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation was organized in Lausanne, Switzerland, and gathered stakeholders from academics and from the industry to discuss several challenges, advances and promises in the field of vaccine adjuvants. Plenary session 2 of the meeting was composed of four different presentations covering: (1) the recent set-up of an adjuvant technology transfer and training platform in Switzerland, (2) the proposition to revisit existing paradigms of modern vaccinology, (3) the properties of polyethyleneimine as potential new vaccine adjuvant, and (4) the progresses in the design of HIV vaccine candidates able to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies. PMID:23966098

  20. SOLDERING OF ALUMINUM BASE METALS

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, G.F.

    1958-02-25

    This patent deals with the soldering of aluminum to metals of different types, such as copper, brass, and iron. This is accomplished by heating the aluminum metal to be soldered to slightly above 30 deg C, rubbing a small amount of metallic gallium into the part of the surface to be soldered, whereby an aluminum--gallium alloy forms on the surface, and then heating the aluminum piece to the melting point of lead--tin soft solder, applying lead--tin soft solder to this alloyed surface, and combining the aluminum with the other metal to which it is to be soldered.

  1. Complications of sodium hydroxide chemical matrixectomy: nail dystrophy, allodynia, hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Bostancı, Seher; Koçyiğit, Pelin; Güngör, Hilayda Karakök; Parlak, Nehir

    2014-11-01

    Ingrown toenails are seen most commonly in young adults, and they can seriously affect daily life. Partial nail avulsion with chemical matrixectomy, generally by using either sodium hydroxide or phenol, is one of the most effective treatment methods. Known complications of phenol matrixectomy are unpredictable tissue damage, prolonged postoperative drainage, increased secondary infection rates, periostitis, and poor cosmetic results. To our knowledge, there have been no reports about the complications related to sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. Herein, we describe three patients who developed nail dystrophy, allodynia, and hyperalgesia after sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. PMID:25514278

  2. Nickel hydroxide/cobalt-ferrite magnetic nanocatalyst for alcohol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pooja B; Inam, Fawad; Bhat, Badekai Ramachandra

    2014-08-11

    A magnetically separable, active nickel hydroxide (Brønsted base) coated nanocobalt ferrite catalyst has been developed for oxidation of alcohols. High surface area was achieved by tuning the particle size with surfactant. The surface area of 120.94 m2 g(-1) has been achieved for the coated nanocobalt ferrite. Improved catalytic activity and selectivity were obtained by synergistic effect of transition metal hydroxide (basic hydroxide) on nanocobalt ferrite. The nanocatalyst oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols efficiently (87%) to corresponding carbonyls in good yields. PMID:25075969

  3. Postvaccinal sarcomas in the cat: epidemiology and electron probe microanalytical identification of aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrick, M.J.; Goldschmidt, M.H.; Shofer, F.S.; Wang, Y.Y.; Somlyo, A.P. )

    1992-10-01

    An increase in fibrosarcomas in a biopsy population of cats in the Pennsylvania area appears to be related to the increased vaccination of cats following enactment of a mandatory rabies vaccination law. The majority of fibrosarcomas arose in sites routinely used by veterinarians for vaccination, and 42 of 198 tumors were surrounded by lymphocytes and macrophages containing foreign material identical to that previously described in postvaccinal inflammatory injection site reactions. Some of the vaccines used have aluminum-based adjuvants, and macrophages surrounding three tumors contained aluminum oxide identified by electron probe microanalysis and imaged by energy-filtered electron microscopy. Persistence of inflammatory and immunological reactions associated with aluminum may predispose the cat to a derangement of its fibrous connective tissue repair response, leading to neoplasia.

  4. Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Bora Mavis

    2003-12-12

    Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni{sup 2+} precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni{sup 2+} form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni{sup 2+}. On the other hand, presence of Al{sup 3+} facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni{sup 2+} in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator{trademark}, Version 1.01) lets the user change the order of

  5. Opioid and adjuvant analgesics: compared and contrasted.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed Ilyas Ahmed; Walsh, Declan; Brito-Dellan, Norman

    2011-08-01

    An adjuvant (or co-analgesic) is a drug that in its pharmacological characteristic is not necessarily primarily identified as an analgesic in nature but that has been found in clinical practice to have either an independent analgesic effect or additive analgesic properties when used with opioids. The therapeutic role of adjuvant analgesics (AAs) is to increase the therapeutic index of opioids by a dose-sparing effect, add a unique analgesic action in opioid-resistant pain, or reduce opioid side effects. A notable difference between opioids and AAs is that unlike opioids some AAs are associated with permanent organ toxicity, for example, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and renal failure. It is impossible to predict in advance in a given individual what opioid dose they may require to control cancer pain. Most AAs have a ceiling effect for their analgesic actions, but often with continued dose-related toxicities and side effects (with the exception of glucocorticoids). The blood levels of opioids (and their metabolites) can be measured with great precision and accuracy. There is sometimes a role for drug blood levels of certain AAs, like tricyclic antidepressants or anticonvulsants when used for neuropathic pain. Age affects metabolism of most opioids. The therapeutic window of opioids is wide, with no ceiling effect. Most AAs (except corticosteroids) have a narrow therapeutic window. Naloxone is a pure opioid antagonist that competes and displaces opioids from their receptor sites. All clinically useful opioids are mu opioid receptor agonists. Not all routes of administration are available to all opioids. Adjuvant analgesics lack the versatility in routes of administration that opioids possess. Dosing flexibility is a major advantage when treating cancer-related pain with opioids. Dose flexibility is much less with AAs than opioids. Unlike opioids, the analgesic response is usually observed within hours to days of attaining an adequate dose with most

  6. [Adjuvant drug therapies for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Riikka; Auvinen, Päivi; Mattson, Johanna; Joensuu, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Most breast cancers are hormone receptor positive and exhibit a slow growth pattern. Based on biological properties, breast cancers are divided into four different biological subtypes. Furthermore, these subtypes are indicative of the risk of recurrence, which is also influenced by the size of the tumor and extension to lymph nodes. Postoperative adjuvant drug therapy is chosen on the basis of the biological type. Chemotherapy can be used in all subtypes. Hormonal therapies are used exclusively for the treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab antibody belongs to the treatment of the HER2 positive subtype. PMID:26245052

  7. Adjuvant Immunotherapy of Melanoma, and Development of New Approaches Using the Neo- Adjuvant Approach in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Davar, Diwakar; Tarhini, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma is the third most common skin cancer but the leading cause of death from cutaneous malignancies. While early-stage disease is frequently cured by surgical resection with excellent long-term survival, patients with deeper primary lesions (AJCC stage IIB-C) and those with microscopic (IIIA) or clinically evident regional lymph node or in-transit metastases (IIIB-C) have an increased risk of relapse and death–the latter approaching 70% or more at 5 years. In patients at high-risk of recurrence/metastases, adjuvant therapy with high-dose interferon alpha-2b (HDI) following definitive surgical resection has been shown to improve relapse free and overall survival. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy have offered the prospect to improve regional recurrence risk and overall survival in several solid tumors. The advent of effective new molecularly targeted therapies for metastatic disease and new immunotherapies that overcome checkpoints of immune response have augmented the range of new options that are in current trial evaluation to determine their role as potential adjuvant therapies, alone and in combination with one another, and the established modality of IFNα. The differential characteristics of the host immune response between early and advanced melanoma provide a strong mechanistic rationale for the use of neo-adjuvant immunotherapeutic approaches in melanoma, and the opportunity to evaluate the mechanism of action suggest neoadjuvant trial evaluation for each of the new candidate agents and combinations of interest. Several neo-adjuvant trials have been conducted in the phase II setting, which have illuminated the mechanism of IFNα, as well as providing insight to the effects of anti-CTLA4 blocking antibodies. These agents (anti-CTLA4 blocking antibody ipilimumab [BMS], and BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib [Genentech]) are likely to be followed by other immunotherapies that may overcome the PD-1 checkpoint (anti-PD1 [BMS, Merck, Curetech] and anti

  8. Hydroxide-Assisted Bonding of Ultra-Low-Expansion Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alexander; White, Victor

    2008-01-01

    A process for hydroxide-assisted bonding has been developed as a means of joining optical components made of ultra-low-expansion (ULE) glass, while maintaining sufficiently precise alignment between. The process is intended mainly for use in applications in which (1) bonding of glass optical components by use of epoxy does not enable attainment of the required accuracy and dimensional stability and (2) conventional optical contacting (which affords the required accuracy and stability) does not afford adequate bond strength. The basic concept of hydroxide-assisted bonding is not new. The development of the present process was prompted by two considerations: (1) The expertise in hydroxide-assisted bonding has resided in very few places and the experts have not been willing to reveal the details of their processes and (2) data on the reliability and strength attainable by hydroxide-assisted bonding have been scarce.

  9. Conversion coatings prepared or treated with calcium hydroxide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating process that forms a stable and corrosion-resistant oxide layer on metal or metal oxide substrates or layers. Particularly, the conversion coating process involves contacting the metal or metal oxide substrate or layer with the aqueous calcium hydroxide solutions in order to convert the surface of the substrate to a stable metal oxide layer or coating. According to the present invention, the calcium hydroxide solution is prepared by removing carbon dioxide from water or an aqueous solution before introducing the calcium hydroxide. In this manner, formation of calcium carbonate particles is avoided and the porosity of the conversion coating produced by the calcium hydroxide solution is reduced to below about 1%.

  10. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye,...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye,...

  12. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye,...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye,...

  14. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye,...

  15. 68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) BUILDING, LOOKING AT CAUSTIC SODA MEASURING TANKS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  16. Immunization with crude antigens plus aluminium hydroxide protects cattle from Fasciola hepatica infection.

    PubMed

    Guasconi, L; Serradell, M C; Borgonovo, J; Garro, A P; Varengo, H; Caffe, G; Masih, D T

    2012-03-01

    The ability of total homogenate (TH) of Fasciola hepatica conjugated with aluminium hydroxide (alum) or Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) to protect cattle against experimental fasciolosis was evaluated. Compared with the infected group, the immunized animals with alum-TH and FCA-TH presented a significant reduction in fluke burden (85.9% and 96.8%, respectively), a higher percentage of short-sized worms, a marked reduction in the released eggs in faeces (89% and 57%, respectively), as well as an increased production of specific antibodies before infection. The alum-TH immunized group also showed a significant increase in the antigen-specific proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as early as 4 weeks before infection. Although both immunized groups (alum-TH and FCA-TH) were able to develop an efficient protective immune response to metacercarial challenge, an earlier PBMC response, lower hepatic damage and less effect on weight gain were found in alum-immunized animals. Therefore, alum is a good candidate for future immunization against bovine fasciolosis. PMID:21366935

  17. Solvent and process for recovery of hydroxide from aqueous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Keever, Tamara J.

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxide values and associated alkali metal may be recovered from alkaline aqueous solutions using classes of fluorinated alcohols in a water immiscible solvent. The alcohols are characterized by fluorine substituents which are proximal to the acidic alcohol protons and are located to adjust the acidity of the extractant and the solubility of the extractant in the solvent. A method for stripping the extractant and solvent to regenerate the extractant and purified aqueous hydroxide solution is described.

  18. Aluminum permanganate battery

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, C.; Licht, S.L.

    1993-11-30

    A battery is provided comprising an aluminum anode, an aqueous solution of permanganate as the cathodic species and a second electrode capable of reducing permanganate. Such a battery system is characterized by its high energy density and low polarization losses when operating at high temperatures in a strong caustic electrolyte, i.e., high concentration of hydroxyl ions. A variety of anode and electrocatalyst materials are suitable for the efficient oxidation-reduction process and are elucidated.

  19. Aluminum microstructures on anodic alumina for aluminum wiring boards.

    PubMed

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2010-03-01

    The paper demonstrates simple methods for the fabrication of aluminum microstructures on the anodic oxide film of aluminum. The aluminum sheets were first engraved (patterned) either by laser beam or by embossing to form deep grooves on the surface. One side of the sheet was then anodized, blocking the other side by using polymer mask to form the anodic alumina. Because of the lower thickness at the bottom part of the grooves, the part was completely anodized before the complete oxidation of the other parts. Such selectively complete anodizing resulted in the patterns of metallic aluminum on anodic alumina. Using the technique, we fabricated microstructures such as line patterns and a simple wiring circuit-board-like structure on the anodic alumina. The aluminum microstructures fabricated by the techniques were embedded in anodic alumina/aluminum sheet, and this technique is promising for applications in electronic packaging and devices. PMID:20356280

  20. Mucosal adjuvants to improve wildlife rabies vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fry, Tricia; Van Dalen, Kaci; Hurley, Jerome; Nash, Paul

    2012-10-01

    RABORAL V-RG(®)a is a recombinant vaccine used in oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs for wildlife in the United States. Vaccination rates for raccoons are substantially lower than vaccination rates for gray foxes and coyotes. Research suggests that the low viscosity of the oral vaccine may preclude animals from receiving an effective dose when biting into the vaccine bait delivery system. We evaluated the possibility of using two benign compounds, chitosan and N,N,N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC), to increase the viscosity of the vaccine and potentially act as adjuvants to improve the immune response in raccoons (Procyon lotor). Forty mildly sedated raccoons were orally vaccinated via needleless syringe with either RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), chitosan+RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), TMC+ RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), or no vaccine (n = 4), on day 0 and again on day 90. We collected sera every 2-4 wk for 4 mo and evaluated rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (rVNA). Raccoons were considered responders if rVNA titers were ≥ 0.1 IU/mL. Eleven of 12 raccoons vaccinated with TMC+RABORAL V-RG responded after one dose of vaccine, as did eight of 12 vaccinated with RABORAL V-RG, and three of 12 vaccinated with chitosan+ RABORAL V-RG. Our results suggest that the inclusion of an adjuvant, such as TMC, could increase vaccine efficacy to aid in controlling rabies virus spread in wildlife reservoirs. PMID:23060506

  1. Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Chemotherapy of Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mallmann, Peter; Mallmann, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is indicated in patients who can tolerate the side effects of a chemotherapy and with preoperative presentation of one of the following clinical risk situations: bulky disease with a maximal tumor diameter of > 4 cm, suspicious lymph nodes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scan or endosonography, histopathologically confirmed lymph node metastasis, or histopathologically documented risk factors such as G3 and L1V1. A neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery should be performed with cisplatin at a dosage of > 25 mg/m2 per week and an application interval of < 14 days. The previously published data suggests an improved rate of complete resection and reduced incidences of positive lymph nodes and parametric infiltration. Accordingly, the percentage of patients in need for adjuvant radiochemotherapy after operation can be significantly reduced. Some studies demonstrated a prolongation of progression-free and overall survival. Following the previously published studies, adjuvant chemotherapy after operation or after radiochemotherapy has no significant effect on the overall survival and, following the current guidelines, should be avoided. PMID:27614740

  2. Adjuvant chemotherapy for soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Casali, Paolo G

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy is not standard treatment in soft tissue sarcoma (STS). However, when the risk of relapse is high, it is an option for shared decision making with the patient in conditions of uncertainty. This is because available evidence is conflicting, even if several randomized clinical trials have been performed for 4 decades and also have been pooled into meta-analyses. Indeed, available meta-analyses point to a benefit in the 5% to 10% range in terms of survival and distant relapse rate. Some local benefit also was suggested by some trials. Placing chemotherapy in the preoperative setting may help gain a local advantage in terms of the quality of surgical margins or decreased sequelae. This may be done within a personalized approach according to the clinical presentation. Attempts to personalize treatment on the basis of the variegated pathology and molecular biology of STS subgroups are ongoing as well, according to what is done in the medical treatment of advanced STS. Thus, decision making for adjuvant and neoadjuvant indications deserves personalization in clinical research and in clinical practice, taking profit from all multidisciplinary clinical skills available at a sarcoma reference center, though with a degree of subjectivity because of the limitations of available evidence. PMID:25993233

  3. Safety assessment of adjuvanted vaccines: Methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Fernanda Tavares; Di Pasquale, Alberta; Yarzabal, Juan P; Garçon, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvants mainly interact with the innate immune response and are used to enhance the quantity and quality of the downstream adaptive immune response to vaccine antigens. Establishing the safety of a new adjuvant-antigen combination is achieved through rigorous evaluation that begins in the laboratory, and that continues throughout the vaccine life-cycle. The strategy for the evaluation of safety pre-licensure is guided by the disease profile, vaccine indication, and target population, and it is also influenced by available regulatory guidelines. In order to allow meaningful interpretation of clinical data, clinical program methodology should be optimized and standardized, making best use of all available data sources. Post-licensure safety activities are directed by field experience accumulated pre- and post-licensure clinical trial data and spontaneous adverse event reports. Continued evolution of safety evaluation processes that keep pace with advances in vaccine technology and updated communication of the benefit-risk profile is necessary to maintain public confidence in vaccines. PMID:26029975

  4. Safety assessment of adjuvanted vaccines: Methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Fernanda Tavares; Di Pasquale, Alberta; Yarzabal, Juan P; Garçon, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvants mainly interact with the innate immune response and are used to enhance the quantity and quality of the downstream adaptive immune response to vaccine antigens. Establishing the safety of a new adjuvant-antigen combination is achieved through rigorous evaluation that begins in the laboratory, and that continues throughout the vaccine life-cycle. The strategy for the evaluation of safety pre-licensure is guided by the disease profile, vaccine indication, and target population, and it is also influenced by available regulatory guidelines. In order to allow meaningful interpretation of clinical data, clinical program methodology should be optimized and standardized, making best use of all available data sources. Post-licensure safety activities are directed by field experience accumulated pre- and post-licensure clinical trial data and spontaneous adverse event reports. Continued evolution of safety evaluation processes that keep pace with advances in vaccine technology and updated communication of the benefit-risk profile is necessary to maintain public confidence in vaccines. PMID:26029975

  5. Sodium-hydroxide solution treatment on sandstone cores

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    This research was performed to study the effect of sodium hydroxide solution on the sandstone core samples and to develop a method whereby the permeability of the samples could be increased by the injection of sodium hydroxide solution. This work should provide the first step in developing a technique that can be used in the stimulation of oil and gas wells. A series of tests was conducted in which sodium hydroxide solution with concentrations ranging from 0.25 N to 2.00 N was injected into a number of Berea sandstone cores. The tests were conducted at room temperature and at 180{degree}F. In some cases the core sample were damaged by the injection of fresh water which resulted in a marked reduction in the permeability of the cores prior to the injection of sodium hydroxide solution. Based on laboratory testing with measurements of uniaxial compressive strength, SEM examination and X-ray analysis, it was found that sodium hydroxide interacted with sandstone to promote (1) partial dissolution of the sandstone minerals; (2) sandstone weight loss; (3) increased porosity; (4) weakening of the sandstone cores; and (5) changes in permeability. The interaction increased with increasing temperature and increasing sodium hydroxide concentration. However, at concentrations higher than 1.00 N, the degree of increase in permeability was not as large even though the sandstone weight loss and the increase in porosity did increase.

  6. Adjuvant chemotherapy for endometrial cancer after hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nick; Bryant, Andrew; Miles, Tracie; Hogberg, Thomas; Cornes, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Endometrial adenocarcinoma (womb cancer) is a malignant growth of the lining (endometrium) of the womb (uterus). It is distinct from sarcomas (tumours of the uterine muscle). Survival depends the risk of microscopic metastases after surgery. Adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy improves survival from some other adenocarcinomas, and there is evidence that endometrial cancer is sensitive to cytotoxic therapy. This systematic review examines the effect of chemotherapy on survival after hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. Objectives To assess efficacy of adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy for endometrial cancer. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE and EMBASE up to August 2010, registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with any other adjuvant treatment or no other treatment. Data collection and analysis We used a random-effects meta-analysis to assess hazard ratios (HR) for overall and progression-free survival and risk ratios (RR) to compare death rates and site of initial relapse. Main results Five RCTs compared no additional treatment with additional chemotherapy after hysterectomy and radiotherapy. Four trials compared platinum based combination chemotherapy directly with radiotherapy. Indiscriminate pooling of survival data from 2197 women shows a significant overall survival advantage from adjuvant chemotherapy (RR (95% CI) = 0.88 (0.79 to 0.99)). Sensitivity analysis focused on trials of modern platinum based chemotherapy regimens and found the relative risk of death to be 0.85 ((0.76 to 0.96); number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) = 25; absolute risk reduction = 4% (1% to 8%)). The HR for overall survival is 0.74 (0.64 to 0.89), significantly

  7. Spray characteristics affected by physical properties of adjuvants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four drift adjuvants, Array, In-Place, Vector and Control, were tested and physical properties and spray spectrum parameters measured. Array had the highest conductivity, indicating a good potential for the electrostatic charging, and the highest shear viscosity. All adjuvants had very similar neut...

  8. Dispersion and evaporation of droplets amended with adjuvants on soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased use of adjuvants to improve pesticide spray application efficiency is hindered by a lack of knowledge to enhance droplet adhesion. Dispersion and evaporation of single 300 µm droplets amended with four different spray adjuvants deposited at four different soybean plant locations were inves...

  9. Evaluating spray adjuvants to extend residual activity of microbiol pesticides`

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on requests to improve the residual efficacy of baculovirus applications, a commercial adjuvant (Nu-Film 17(R) and an experimental lignin adjuvant were evaluated for resistance to environmental degradation. Nu-Film is a commercial product derived from pine resin; and lignin is a by-product of...

  10. Current status of synthetic hemozoin adjuvant: A preliminary safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michelle Sue Jann; Igari, Yoshikatsu; Tsukui, Toshihiro; Ishii, Ken J; Coban, Cevayir

    2016-04-19

    Although adjuvants are a "must-have" component of successful vaccines, there are very few adjuvants licensed for use in humans, there is therefore an urgent need to develop new and safer adjuvants. Synthetic hemozoin (sHZ), a chemical analog of hemozoin which is produced by the malaria parasite, exhibits a potent adjuvant effect which enhances antigen-specific immune responses to vaccines. The potency of sHZ adjuvanticity is not limited to malaria specific vaccines, it has also been demonstrated to be effective in influenza and dog allergy models. While the synthesis of uniformly sized sHZ with consistent characteristics has proven difficult, we have recently successfully optimized the manufacture of sHZ product with an optimal adjuvant effect. Here, we summarize recent developments on the adjuvant properties of optimized sHZ adjuvant, including its good laboratory practice (GLP) non-clinical safety profile in animals. These studies ensure the safety of optimized sHZ product to be readily used as vaccine adjuvant beforehand in veterinary medicine. PMID:26976665

  11. Adjuvant Effects on Evaporation Time and Wetted Area of Droplets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Appropriate adjuvant selection for pesticide applications is central to improve spray performances on waxy leaves and to reduce off-target losses. Evaporation and deposition patterns of 500 µm sessile droplets with five classes of adjuvants on five different waxy plants were investigated. Droplets g...

  12. Vaccine adjuvant technology: from theoretical mechanisms to practical approaches.

    PubMed

    Schijns, V E J C; Tangerås, A

    2005-01-01

    Poorly immunogenic antigens depend on vaccine adjuvants to evoke an immune response. In addition, adjuvants largely determine the magnitude, quality, time of onset and the duration of immune responses to co-administered antigens. As late as 1989, Janeway aptly called adjuvants: "the immunologist's dirty little secret". This statement reflected the ignorance on the mechanisms of action of most known adjuvants. Yet, rational vaccine design involves a logical choice of adjuvant based on a knowledge of their mode of action and their effects on product efficacy and safety. However, even today the key processes critical for immune induction in general and those evoked by vaccine adjuvants in particular are being disputed among immunologists. This paper presents the four most important concepts likely to explain some of the mechanisms of vaccine adjuvants. They include: (i) the geographical concept of immune reactivity; (ii) the depot concept; (iii) the hypothesis of pathogen-structure recognition, and (iv) the damage/endogenous danger theory. These paradigms are based on observations gathered in mammalian species, largely in murine models. In aquatic animals the processes underlying immune induction will at least partly overlap those in mammals. However, due to inherent species differences, certain pathways may be different. Rational vaccine design, a difficult goal in mammals, is further hampered in aquatic animals by the lack of immunological tools in these species. Extensive trial and error-based approaches have yielded adjuvant candidates for various fish species, with acceptable safety and proven efficacy, some of which are presented. PMID:15962475

  13. Synthesis, sustained release properties of magnetically functionalized organic-inorganic materials: Amoxicillin anions intercalated magnetic layered double hydroxides via calcined precursors at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Guangchun; Li, Zhanshuang; Yang, Piaoping; Jing, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Milin; Liu, Tianfu; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2009-09-01

    Zinc-aluminum-carbonate-layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-CO 3-LDHs), loaded with magnetic substrates (Fe 3O 4), were prepared for sustained drug-targeting delivery. From the X-ray diffraction results, it was found that the magnetic substrates were successfully incorporated with LDHs and highly dispersed in the hydrotalcite structure. After intercalation with an antibiotic drug (amoxicillin) by using a calcinations-reconstruction method, the basal spacing of layered double hydroxides increased from 7.51 Å to 12.35 Å, indicating that amoxicillin was successfully intercalated into the interlay space of LDHs as a monolayer. Furthermore, in vitro drug release experiments in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) showed sustained release profiles with amoxicillin as a model drug. Magnetic measurements revealed that the composite possessed paramagnetic properties at room temperature.

  14. Experimental studies of a vaccine formulation of recombinant human VEGF antigen with aluminum phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Sánchez, Lincidio; Morera Díaz, Yanelys; Bequet-Romero, Mónica; Ramses Hernández, Gerardo; Rodríguez, Yadira; Castro Velazco, Jorge; Puente Pérez, Pedro; Ayala Avila, Marta; Gavilondo, Jorge V

    2015-01-01

    CIGB-247 is a cancer vaccine that is a formulation of a recombinant protein antigen representative of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with a bacterially-derived adjuvant (VSSP). The vaccine has shown an excellent safety profile in mice, rats, rabbits, not-human primates and in recent clinical trials in cancer patients. Response to the vaccine is characterized by specific antibody titers that neutralize VEGF/VEGFR2 binding and a cytotoxic tumor-specific response. To expand our present anti-VEGF active immunotherapy strategies, we have now studied in mice and non-human primates the effects of vaccination with a formulation of our recombinant VEGF antigen and aluminum phosphate adjuvant (hereafter denominated CIGB-247-A). Administered bi-weekly, CIGB-247-A produces high titers of anti-VEGF IgG blocking antibodies in 2 mice strains. Particularly in BALB/c, the treatment impaired subcutaneous F3II mammary tumor growth and reduced the number of spontaneous lung macro metastases, increasing animals' survival. Spleen cells from specifically immunized mice directly killed F3II tumor cells in vitro. CIGB-247-A also showed to be immunogenic in non-human primates, which developed anti-VEGF blocking antibodies and the ability for specific direct cell cytotoxic responses, all without impairing the healing of deep skin wounds or other side effect. Our results support consideration of aluminum phosphate as a suitable adjuvant for the development of new vaccine formulations using VEGF as antigen. PMID:25891359

  15. Aluminum Carbothermic Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Marshall J.

    2005-03-31

    This report documents the non-proprietary research and development conducted on the Aluminum Carbothermic Technology (ACT) project from contract inception on July 01, 2000 to termination on December 31, 2004. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new carbothermic process for producing commercial grade aluminum, designated as the ''Advanced Reactor Process'' (ARP). The scope of the program ranged from fundamental research through small scale laboratory experiments (65 kW power input) to larger scale test modules at up to 1600 kW power input. The tasks included work on four components of the process, Stages 1 and 2 of the reactor, vapor recovery and metal alloy decarbonization; development of computer models; and economic analyses of capital and operating costs. Justification for developing a new, carbothermic route to aluminum production is defined by the potential benefits in reduced energy, lower costs and more favorable environmental characteristics than the conventional Hall-Heroult process presently used by the industry. The estimated metrics for these advantages include energy rates at approximately 10 kWh/kg Al (versus over 13 kWh/kg Al for Hall-Heroult), capital costs as low as $1250 per MTY (versus 4,000 per MTY for Hall-Heroult), operating cost reductions of over 10%, and up to 37% reduction in CO2 emissions for fossil-fuel power plants. Realization of these benefits would be critical to sustaining the US aluminum industries position as a global leader in primary aluminum production. One very attractive incentive for ARP is its perceived ability to cost effectively produce metal over a range of smelter sizes, not feasible for Hall-Heroult plants which must be large, 240,000 TPY or more, to be economical. Lower capacity stand alone carbothermic smelters could be utilized to supply molten metal at fabrication facilities similar to the mini-mill concept employed by the steel industry. Major

  16. Adjuvants in micro- to nanoscale: current state and future direction.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankur; Das, Soumen; Schanen, Brian; Seal, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvants have been used in vaccines for over 70 years to promote long-lived and sterilizing immunity. Since then, various adjuvant systems were developed by combining nanotechnology with natural and/or synthetic immunomodulatory molecules. These systems are biocompatible, immunogenic, and possess higher antigen carrying capacity. This article showcases advancements made in the adjuvant systems formulations, their synthesis routes, and the improvement of these adjuvants have brought in response to combat against ongoing global health threats such as malaria, hepatitis C, universal influenza, and human immunodeficiency virus. This review also highlights the interaction of adjuvants with the delivery of antigens to cells and unfolds mechanism of actions. In addition, this review discusses the physicochemical factors responsible for the efficient interaction of nanoadjuvants with antigen receptors to develop more effective, less reactogenic, and multifunctional systems for the next generation vaccines. PMID:26053286

  17. [Adjuvants--essential components of new generation vaccines].

    PubMed

    Dzierzbicka, Krystyna; Kołodziejczyk, Aleksander M

    2006-01-01

    Adjuvants are essential components of vaccines that augment an immunological reaction of organism. New vaccines based on recombinant proteins and DNA, are more save than traditional vaccines but they are less immunogenic. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of new, improved vaccine adjuvants. There are two classes of adjuvants: vaccine delivery systems (e.g. emulsions, microparticles, immune-stimulating complexes ISCOMs, liposomes) and immunostimulatory adjuvants (e.g. lipopolysaccharide, monophosphoryl lipid A, CpG DNA, or muramylpeptides). The discovery of more potent and safer adjuvants may allow to development better prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against chronic infectious (e.g., HSV, HIV, HCV, HBV, HPV, or Helicobacter pylori) and noninfectious diseases as multiple sclerosis, insulin-dependent diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, allergy and tumors (e.g., melanoma, breast, or colon cancer). PMID:17078510

  18. Update on Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rampurwala, Murtuza M; Rocque, Gabrielle B; Burkard, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Although most women are diagnosed with early breast cancer, a substantial number recur due to persistent micro-metastatic disease. Systemic adjuvant chemotherapy improves outcomes and has advanced from first-generation regimens to modern dose-dense combinations. Although chemotherapy is the cornerstone of adjuvant therapy, new biomarkers are identifying patients who can forego such treatment. Neo-adjuvant therapy is a promising platform for drug development, but investigators should recognize the limitations of surrogate endpoints and clinical trials. Previous decades have focused on discovering, developing, and intensifying adjuvant chemotherapy. Future efforts should focus on customizing therapy and reducing chemotherapy for patients unlikely to benefit. In some cases, it may be possible to replace chemotherapy with treatments directed at specific genetic or molecular breast cancer subtypes. Yet, we anticipate that chemotherapy will remain a critical component of adjuvant therapy for years to come. PMID:25336961

  19. Near-Infrared Laser Adjuvant for Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Yuan, Jianping; Forbes, Benjamin; Hibert, Mathew L.; Lee, Eugene L. Q.; Whicher, Laura; Goudie, Calum; Yang, Yuan; Chen, Tao; Edelblute, Beth; Collette, Brian; Edington, Laurel; Trussler, James; Nezivar, Jean; Leblanc, Pierre; Bronson, Roderick; Tsukada, Kosuke; Suematsu, Makoto; Dover, Jeffrey; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Safe and effective immunologic adjuvants are often essential for vaccines. However, the choice of adjuvant for licensed vaccines is limited, especially for those that are administered intradermally. We show that non-tissue damaging, near-infrared (NIR) laser light given in short exposures to small areas of skin, without the use of additional chemical or biological agents, significantly increases immune responses to intradermal influenza vaccination without augmenting IgE. The NIR laser-adjuvanted vaccine confers increased protection in a murine influenza lethal challenge model as compared to unadjuvanted vaccine. We show that NIR laser treatment induces the expression of specific chemokines in the skin resulting in recruitment and activation of dendritic cells and is safe to use in both mice and humans. The NIR laser adjuvant technology provides a novel, safe, low-cost, simple-to-use, potentially broadly applicable and clinically feasible approach to enhancing vaccine efficacy as an alternative to chemical and biological adjuvants. PMID:24349390

  20. Pseudo-hydroxide extraction in the separation of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solutions using alkyl phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyun Ah; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Pseudo-hydroxide extraction of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solution using four alkyl phenols of nearly identical molecular weight in 1-octanol at 25 degrees C was examined to understand the effect of alkyl substituents. The order of extraction strength among the four alkyl phenols tested was 4-tert-octylphenol. 3,5-di-tertbutylphenol. 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. A good correlation with phenol pK(a) was observed, indicating that extraction strength is determined by phenol acidity, as modified by steric effects in proximity to the phenol - OH group. The effective partition ratios (P-eff) of two phenols from 1 M NaOH solution were determined, showing that the phenols remain predominantly in the 1-octanol phase even when converted to their sodium salts. However, the hydrophobicity of the tested phenols may not be sufficient for process purposes. The equilibrium constants for the governing extraction equilibria were determined by modeling the data using the program SXLSQI, supporting the cation-exchange extraction mechanism. The proposed mechanism consists of two simple sets of equilibria for a. Ion-pair extraction to give Na+OH- ion pairs and corresponding free ions in 1-octanol the phase and b. Cation exchange by monomeric phenol molecules (HAs) to form monomeric organic-phase Na(+)A(-) ion pairs and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  1. Extracting aluminum from dross tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, A. M.

    2002-11-01

    Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

  2. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum....

  3. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum....

  4. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum....

  5. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum....

  6. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum....

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of hexagonal magnesium hydroxide nanoflakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Chunhong; Guo, Ming; Sun, Lingna; Hu, Changwen

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of PEG-20,000. Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflake yielded different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes is discussed. - Highlights: • Hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of hexagonal nanostructure. • Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes show different crystalline structures at different positions. • The probable formation mechanism of hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes was reported. - Abstract: Hexagonal magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of the surfactant polyethylene glycol 20,000 (PEG-20,000). Results show that PEG-20,000 plays an important role in the formation of this kind of nanostructure. The composition, morphologies and structure of the Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The SAED patterns taken from the different positions on a single hexagonal Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflake show different crystalline structures. The structure of the nanoflakes are polycrystalline and the probable formation mechanism of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanoflakes is discussed. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis were performed to investigate the porous structure and surface area of the as-obtained nanoflakes.

  8. Inflammasome-independent role of the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) in the adjuvant effect of MF59.

    PubMed

    Ellebedy, Ali H; Lupfer, Christopher; Ghoneim, Hazem E; DeBeauchamp, Jennifer; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Webby, Richard J

    2011-02-15

    Clinical studies have indicated that subvirion inactivated vaccines against avian influenza viruses, particularly H5N1, are poorly immunogenic in humans. As a consequence, the use of adjuvants has been championed for the efficient vaccination of a naïve population against avian influenza. Aluminum salts (alum) and the oil-in-water emulsion MF59 are safe and effective adjuvants that are being used with influenza vaccines, but the mechanism underlying their stimulation of the immune system remains poorly understood. It was shown recently that activation of a cytosolic innate immune-sensing complex known as "NLR-Pyrin domain containing 3" (NLRP3) inflammasome, also known as "cryopyrin," "cold-induced autoinflammatory syndrome 1" (CIAS1), or nacht domain-, leucine-rich repeat-, and PYD-containing protein 3 (Nalp3), is essential for the adjuvant effect of alum. Here we show that the inflammasome component apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), an adapter protein within the NLRP3 inflammasome, is a crucial element in the adjuvant effect of MF59 when combined with H5N1 subunit vaccines. In the absence of ASC, H5-specific IgG antibody responses are significantly reduced, whereas the responses are intact in NLRP3(-/-) and caspase-1(-/-) mice. This defect is caused mainly by the failure of antigen-specific B cells to switch from IgM to IgG production. We conclude that ASC plays an inflammasome-independent role in the induction of antigen-specific humoral immunity after vaccination with MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccines. These findings have important implications for the rational design of next-generation adjuvants. PMID:21270336

  9. Quasicrystalline particulate reinforced aluminum composite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.E.; Biner, S.B.; Sordelet, D.J.; Unal, O.

    1997-07-01

    Particulate reinforced aluminum and aluminum alloy composites are rapidly emerging as new commercial materials for aerospace, automotive, electronic packaging and other high performance applications. However, their low processing ductility and difficulty in recyclability have been the key concern. In this study, two composite systems having the same aluminum alloy matrix, one reinforced with quasicrystals and the other reinforced with the conventional SiC reinforcements were produced with identical processing routes. Their processing characteristics and tensile mechanical properties were compared.

  10. Cathodic phenomena in aluminum electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouteillon, J.; Poignet, J. C.; Rameau, J. J.

    1993-02-01

    Although aluminum is one of the world's highest production-volume primary metals, it is particularly costly to produce for a variety of factors, not the least of which are the expenses associated with electrolytic reduction. Based on the scale of global aluminum processing, even minor improvements in the electrowinning technology can result in significant savings of resources. Thus, from this perspective, the following reviews recent studies of cathodic phenomena in aluminum electrowinning.

  11. Laser welding of aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, K.H.; Sabo, K.R.; Sanders, P.G.; Spawr, W.J.

    1997-03-01

    Recent interest in reducing the weight of automobiles to increase fuel mileage has focused attention on the use of aluminum and associated joining technologies. Laser beam welding is one of the more promising methods for high speed welding of aluminum. Consequently, substantial effort has been expended in attempting to develop a robust laser beam welding process. Early results have not been very consistent in the process requirements but more definitive data has been produced recently. This paper reviews the process parameters needed to obtain consistent laser welds on 5,000 series aluminum alloys and discusses the research necessary to make laser processing of aluminum a reality for automotive applications.

  12. Mineral of the month: aluminum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plunkert, Patricia A.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum is the second most abundant metallic element in Earth’s crust after silicon. Even so, it is a comparatively new industrial metal that has been produced in commercial quantities for little more than 100 years. Aluminum is lightweight, ductile, malleable and corrosion resistant, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Weighing about one-third as much as steel or copper per unit of volume, aluminum is used more than any other metal except iron. Aluminum can be fabricated into desired forms and shapes by every major metalworking technique to add to its versatility.

  13. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOEpatents

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-01

    Metallic aluminum may be produced by the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ at 700 to 800/sup 0/C in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  14. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOEpatents

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Loutfy, Raouf O.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1984-01-01

    Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  15. Critical properties of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Divesh; Jasper, Ahren W; Schultz, Nathan E; Siepmann, J Ilja; Truhlar, Donald G

    2006-04-01

    Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo calculations are performed using a validated embedded-atom potential to obtain the vapor-liquid coexistence curve for elemental aluminum in good agreement with available experimental data up to the boiling point. These calculations are then extended to make a reliable prediction of the critical temperature, pressure, and density of Al, which have previously been known only with very large uncertainties. This demonstrates the ability of modern simulations to predict fundamental physical properties that are extremely difficult to measure directly. PMID:16568986

  16. Glutamine synthetase predicts adjuvant TACE response in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Liwei; Jin, Zhichao; Zhang, Xinji; Xue, Feng; He, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adjuvant transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is associated with better outcome and reduced tumor recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between glutamine synthetase (GS) expression and survival of HCC patients after postoperative adjuvant TACE. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 554 HCC patients in two independent cohorts who underwent curative resection. Immunohistochemistry assay was used to investigate the expression of GS protein and evaluate the association with survival and the response to adjuvant TACE. Results: In training cohort, patients with low GS expression who received postoperative adjuvant TACE showed a better overall survival (OS) (P<0.001) and less early phase recurrence (P=0.016). Adjuvant TACE was an independent prognostic factor for 5-year OS (HR=0.408, 95% CI 0.261-0.639, P<0.001) and early phase recurrence (HR=0.592, 95% CI 0.376-0.931, P=0.023). The same result was confirmed in validation cohort. Patients with high GS expression in both cohorts did not have a significant response to adjuvant TACE in OS and early phase recurrence. Conclusions: GS status in tumor might be a useful tool in the selection of HCC patients who would be likely to benefit from postoperative adjuvant TACE. PMID:26884995

  17. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  18. Biocompatibility of Intracanal Medications Based on Calcium Hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Andolfatto, Carolina; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Cornélio, Ana Livia Gomes; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; Faria, Gisele; Bonetti-Filho, Idomeo; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat subcutaneous tissue reaction to calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medicaments, UltraCal XS (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, aqueous matrix), Hydropast (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, and propyleneglycol), and Calen (Calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, colophony, and polyethyleneglycol), used as a control. Methods. Forty-eight rats (Rattus Norvegicus Holtzman) were distributed in three groups: Calen, UltraCal XS, and Hydropast. Polyethylene tubes filled with one of the medicaments were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous. After 7 and 30 days, the implants were removed and the specimens were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Morphological and quantitative analyses were carried out in the HE-stained sections. The numerical density of inflammatory cells in the capsule was evaluated and statistical analyses were performed (P ≤ 0.05). Results. At 7 days, all materials induced an inflammatory reaction in the subcutaneous tissue adjacent to the implants. In all groups, a significant reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and giant cells was verified in the period of 30 days. Conclusion. These results indicate that the calcium hydroxide-based medicaments evaluated present biocompatibility similar to Calen. PMID:23320187

  19. Quaternized graphene oxide nanocomposites as fast hydroxide conductors.

    PubMed

    Zarrin, Hadis; Fu, Jing; Jiang, Gaopeng; Yoo, Skylar; Lenos, Jared; Fowler, Michael; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-02-24

    Nanocomposites play a key role in performance improvements of hydroxide conductors employed in a wide range of alkaline-electrochemical systems such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets are considered to be outstanding nanofillers for polymeric nanocomposites on account of their excellent physicochemical strength and electrochemical properties. In this work, a fast hydroxide conductor was developed on the basis of a chemically modified GO nanocomposite membrane. The high surface area of GO was functionalized with highly stable hydroxide-conductive groups using a dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DMAOP) precursor, named QAFGO, and then composed with porous polybenzimidazole PBI (pPBI) as a well-suited polymeric backbone. The nanocomposite exhibited outstanding hydroxide conductivity of 0.085 S cm(-1), high physicochemical strength, and electrochemical stability for 21 days. An alkaline fuel cell (AFC) setup was fabricated to determine the functionality of QAFGO/pPBI nanocomposite in an alkaline-based system. The high AFC performance with peak power density of 86.68 mW cm(-2) demonstrated that QAFGO/pPBI nanocomposite membrane has promising potential to be employed as a reliable hydroxide conductor for electrochemical systems working in alkaline conditions. PMID:25644712

  20. Active Immobilized Antibiotics Based on Metal Hydroxides1

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, John F.; Humphreys, John D.

    1976-01-01

    The water-insoluble hydroxides of zirconium (IV), titanium (IV), titanium (III), iron (II), vanadium (III), and tin (II) have been used to prepare insoluble derivatives of a cyclic peptide antibiotic by a facile chelation process. Testing of the antibacterial activities of the products against two gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria showed that in the majority of cases the water-insoluble antibiotics remained active against those bacteria susceptible to the parent antibiotic. The power of the assay system has been extended by the novel use of colored organisms to aid determinations where the growth of normal organisms could not be distinguished from the appearance of the supporting material. Insoluble derivatives of neomycin, polymyxin B, streptomycin, ampicillin, penicillin G, and chloramphenicol were prepared by chelation with zirconium hydroxide, and these derivatives similarly reflected the antibacterial activities of the parent compounds. Several of the metal hydroxides themselves possess antibacterial activity due to complex formation with the bacteria. However, the use of selected metal hydroxides can afford a simple, inexpensive, and inert matrix for antibiotic immobilization, resulting in an antibacterial product that may possess slow-release properties. The mechanisms by which the metal hydroxide-antibiotic association-dissociation may occur are discussed. PMID:949174