Science.gov

Sample records for adme absorption distribution

  1. Identification of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Genes Relevant to Steatosis Using a Differential Gene Expression Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) parameters represent important connections between exposure to chemicals and the activation of molecular initiating events of Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) in cellular, tissue, and organ level targets. ADME parameters u...

  2. Use of In Vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Data in Bioaccumulation Assessments for Fish

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, John W.; Erhardt, Susan; Dyer, Scott; James, Margaret O.; Moore, Margo; Plotzke, Kathleen; Segner, Helmut; Schultz, Irvin R.; Thomas, Karluss; Vasiluk, Luba; Weisbrod, Anne V.

    2007-11-01

    A scientific workshop was held in 2006 to discuss the use of in vitro Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) data in chemical bioaccumulation assessments for fish. Computer-based (in silico) modeling tools are widely used to estimate chemical bioaccumulation. These in silico methods have inherent limitations that result in inaccurate estimates for many compounds. Based on a review of the science workshop participants concluded that two factors, absorption and metabolism, represent the greatest sources of uncertainty in current bioaccumulation models. Both factors can be investigated experimentally using in vitro test systems.

  3. The role of ABC transporters in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME-Tox).

    PubMed

    Szakács, Gergely; Váradi, András; Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2008-05-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters play an important role in cancer drug resistance, protection against xenobiotics, and in general in the passage of drugs through cellular and tissue barriers. This review explores how human ABC transporters modulate the pharmacological effects of various drugs, and how this predictable ADME-TOX modulation can be used during the process of drug discovery and development. We provide a description of the relevant human ABC drug transporters and review the models and assay systems that can be applied for the analysis of their expected drug interactions. The use of the in vitro, in vivo, in silico models, their combination, and the emerging clinical information are evaluated with respect to their potential application in early drug screening.

  4. THE ACQUISITION AND APPLICATION OF ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION (ADME) DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-sector international group of government, academic, and industry scientists has developed a proposal for an improved testing scheme for assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. Incorporation of pharmacokinetic studies describing the absorption, distribution, me...

  5. A (14)C-leucine absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) study in adult Sprague-Dawley rat reveals β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate as a metabolite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anthony J; Beno, David W A; Zhang, Xiaolin; Shapiro, Robin; Mason, Mark; Mason-Bright, Tanita; Surber, Bruce; Edens, Neilé K

    2015-05-01

    Leucine is an essential branched-chain amino acid that acts as a substrate for protein synthesis and as a signaling molecule. Leucine not incorporated into muscle protein is ultimately oxidized through intermediates such as β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) which itself is reported to enhance muscle mass and function in rats and humans. HMB has been reported in the plasma following oral leucine administration in sheep and pigs but not in Sprague-Dawley rats, the standard preclinical model. Therefore, we conducted radiolabeled absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies in rats using a low (3 mg/kg) or high dose (1,000 mg/kg) of (14)C-leucine. Blood, tissue, and urine samples were analyzed for (14)C-leucine and its metabolites by HPLC-MS. Our results show for the first time that (14)C-HMB appears in plasma and urine of rats following an oral dose of (14)C-leucine. (14)C-leucine appears in plasma as (14)C-α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) with a slower time course than (14)C-HMB, a putative product of KIC. Further, two novel metabolites of leucine were detected in urine, N-acetyl leucine and glycyl leucine. Mass balance studies demonstrate that excretory routes accounted for no more than 0.9 % of the radiolabel and approximately 61 % of the dose was recovered in the carcass. Approximately 65 % of the dose was recovered in total, suggesting that approximately one-third of the leucine dose is oxidized to CO2. In conclusion, this study demonstrates endogenous production of HMB from leucine in adult rats, a standard preclinical model used to guide design of clinical trials in nutrition.

  6. Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystals using ADM (absorption distribution model)

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Z M; Spaeth, M L; Manes, K; Adams, J J; Carr, C W

    2010-02-26

    We present an empirical model that describes the experimentally observed laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning behavior in deuterated Potassium dihydrogen Phosphate (DKDP) crystals in a self-consistent way. The model expands on an existing nanoabsorber precursor model and the multi-step absorption mechanism to include two populations of absorbing defects, one with linear absorption and another with nonlinear absorption. We show that this model connects previously uncorrelated small-beam damage initiation probability data to large-beam damage density measurements over a range of ns pulse widths relevant to ICF lasers such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In addition, this work predicts the damage behavior of laser-conditioned DKDP and explains the upper limit to the laser conditioning effect. The ADM model has been successfully used during the commissioning and early operation of the NIF.

  7. Key factors influencing ADME properties of therapeutic proteins: A need for ADME characterization in drug discovery and development

    PubMed Central

    Tibbitts, Jay; Canter, David; Graff, Ryan; Smith, Alison; Khawli, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    abstract Protein therapeutics represent a diverse array of biologics including antibodies, fusion proteins, and therapeutic replacement enzymes. Since their inception, they have revolutionized the treatment of a wide range of diseases including respiratory, vascular, autoimmune, inflammatory, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cancer. While in vivo pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and efficacy studies are routinely carried out for protein therapeutics, studies that identify key factors governing their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties have not been fully investigated. Thorough characterization and in-depth study of their ADME properties are critical in order to support drug discovery and development processes for the production of safer and more effective biotherapeutics. In this review, we discuss the main factors affecting the ADME characteristics of these large macromolecular therapies. We also give an overview of the current tools, technologies, and approaches available to investigate key factors that influence the ADME of recombinant biotherapeutic drugs, and demonstrate how ADME studies will facilitate their future development. PMID:26636901

  8. ADME-Tox profiles of some food additives and pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciun, Dana; Modra, Dorina; Isvoran, Adriana

    2015-12-01

    Within this study we compute the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity (ADME-Tox) profiles of several commonly used food additives and some pesticides. As expected, all the food additives considered in this study provided to be safe, their ADME-Tox profiles indicating that they have a good oral bioavailability and they do not produce phosphoslipidosis. The ADME-Tox profiles of the pesticides indicate that, with a few exceptions, they are highly toxic (some of them being not approved in the EU, but still used in other countries) and may cause many diseases. Our results are in good agreement with published data concerning the considered food additives and pesticides revealing that the ADME-Tox profiling method may be successfully used to test other chemicals than drug candidates.

  9. Characterization of ADME gene variation in 21 populations by exome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hovelson, Daniel H.; Xue, Zhengyu; Zawistowski, Matthew; Ehm, Margaret G.; Harris, Elizabeth C.; Stocker, Sophie L.; Gross, Annette S.; Jang, In-Jin; Ieiri, Ichiro; Lee, Jong-Eun; Cardon, Lon R.; Chissoe, Stephanie L.; Abecasis, Gonçalo

    2017-01-01

    Objective Proteins involving absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) play a critical role in drug pharmacokinetics. The type and frequency of genetic variation in the ADME genes differ among populations. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate common and rare ADME coding variation in diverse ethnic populations by exome sequencing. Materials and methods Data derived from commercial exome capture arrays and next-generation sequencing were used to characterize coding variation in 298 ADME genes in 251 Northeast Asians and 1181 individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project. Results Approximately 75% of the ADME coding sequence was captured at high quality across the joint samples harboring more than 8000 variants, with 49% of individuals carrying at least one ‘knockout’ allele. ADME genes carried 50% more nonsynonymous variation than non-ADME genes (P=8.2×10–13) and showed significantly greater levels of population differentiation (P=7.6×10–11). Out of the 2135 variants identified that were predicted to be deleterious, 633 were not on commercially available ADME or general-purpose genotyping arrays. Forty deleterious variants within important ADME genes, with frequencies of at least 2% in at least one population, were identified as candidates for future pharmacogenetic studies. Conclusion Exome sequencing was effective in accurately genotyping most ADME variants important for pharmacogenetic research, in addition to identifying rare or potentially de novo coding variants that may be clinically meaningful. Furthermore, as a class, ADME genes are more variable and less sensitive to purifying selection than non-ADME genes. PMID:27984508

  10. Current Approaches for Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion Characterization of Antibody-Drug Conjugates: An Industry White Paper.

    PubMed

    Kraynov, Eugenia; Kamath, Amrita V; Walles, Markus; Tarcsa, Edit; Deslandes, Antoine; Iyer, Ramaswamy A; Datta-Mannan, Amita; Sriraman, Priya; Bairlein, Michaela; Yang, Johnny J; Barfield, Matthew; Xiao, Guangqing; Escandon, Enrique; Wang, Weirong; Rock, Dan A; Chemuturi, Nagendra V; Moore, David J

    2016-05-01

    An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) is a unique therapeutic modality composed of a highly potent drug molecule conjugated to a monoclonal antibody. As the number of ADCs in various stages of nonclinical and clinical development has been increasing, pharmaceutical companies have been exploring diverse approaches to understanding the disposition of ADCs. To identify the key absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) issues worth examining when developing an ADC and to find optimal scientifically based approaches to evaluate ADC ADME, the International Consortium for Innovation and Quality in Pharmaceutical Development launched an ADC ADME working group in early 2014. This white paper contains observations from the working group and provides an initial framework on issues and approaches to consider when evaluating the ADME of ADCs.

  11. An “ADME Module” in the Adverse Outcome Pathway ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework has generated intense interest for its utility to organize knowledge on the toxicity mechanisms, starting from a molecular initiating event (MIE) to an adverse outcome across various levels of biological organization. While the AOP framework is designed to be chemical agnostic, it is widely recognized that considering chemicals’ absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) behaviors is critical in applying the AOP framework in chemical-specific risk assessment. Currently, information being generated as part of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) AOP Development Programme is being consolidated into an AOP Knowledgebase (http://aopwiki.org). To enhance the use of this Knowledgebase in risk assessment, an ADME Module has been developed to contain the ADME information needed to connect MIEs and other key events in an AOP for specific chemicals. The conceptual structure of this module characterizes the potential of a chemical to reach the target MIE based on either its structure-based features or relative rates of ADME. The key features of this module include (1) a framework for connecting biology-based AOP to biochemical-based ADME and chemical/human activity-based exposure pathways; (2) links to qualitative tools (e.g., structure-based cheminformatic model) that screen for chemicals that could potentially reach the target MIE; (3) links to quantitative tools (e.g., dose-r

  12. In Silico Approaches for Predicting Adme Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Judith C.

    A drug requires a suitable pharmacokinetic profile to be efficacious in vivo in humans. The relevant pharmacokinetic properties include the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profile of the drug. This chapter provides an overview of the definition and meaning of key ADME properties, recent models developed to predict these properties, and a guide as to how to select the most appropriate model(s) for a given query. Many tools using the state-of-the-art in silico methodology are now available to users, and it is anticipated that the continual evolution of these tools will provide greater ability to predict ADME properties in the future. However, caution must be exercised in applying these tools as data are generally available only for "successful" drugs, i.e., those that reach the marketplace, and little supplementary information, such as that for drugs that have a poor pharmacokinetic profile, is available. The possibilities of using these methods and possible integration into toxicity prediction are explored.

  13. The Affymetrix DMET Plus Platform Reveals Unique Distribution of ADME-Related Variants in Ethnic Arabs

    PubMed Central

    Wakil, Salma M.; Nguyen, Cao; Muiya, Nzioka P.; Andres, Editha; Lykowska-Tarnowska, Agnieszka; Baz, Batoul; Meyer, Brian F.; Morahan, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Affymetrix Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) Plus Premier Pack has been designed to genotype 1936 gene variants thought to be essential for screening patients in personalized drug therapy. These variants include the cytochrome P450s (CYP450s), the key metabolizing enzymes, many other enzymes involved in phase I and phase II pharmacokinetic reactions, and signaling mediators associated with variability in clinical response to numerous drugs not only among individuals, but also between ethnic populations. Materials and Methods. We genotyped 600 Saudi individuals for 1936 variants on the DMET platform to evaluate their clinical potential in personalized medicine in ethnic Arabs. Results. Approximately 49% each of the 437 CYP450 variants, 56% of the 581 transporters, 56% of 419 transferases, 48% of the 104 dehydrogenases, and 58% of the remaining 390 variants were detected. Several variants, such as rs3740071, rs6193, rs258751, rs6199, rs11568421, and rs8187797, exhibited significantly either higher or lower minor allele frequencies (MAFs) than those in other ethnic groups. Discussion. The present study revealed some unique distribution trends for several variants in Arabs, which displayed partly inverse allelic prevalence compared to other ethnic populations. The results point therefore to the need to verify and ascertain the prevalence of a variant as a prerequisite for engaging it in clinical routine screening in personalized medicine in any given population. PMID:25802476

  14. ADME properties of herbal medicines in humans: evidence, challenges and strategies.

    PubMed

    He, Shu-Ming; Chan, Eli; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Herbal medicines, an important group of multicomponent therapeutics, are widely and increasignly used worldwide. Despite the popularitiy of herbal medicines, the clinical evidence that support the use of most herbal medicines is weak. Pharmacokinetic and absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies have been integrated into modern drug development, but ADME studies are generally not needed for herbal remedy discovery and development. For the majority of herbal medicines, data on their ADME and pharmacokinetic properties in humans are lacking or scant. An extensive literature search indicates that there are limited data on ADME properties of herbal medicines in humans. Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1/ABCB1) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are critical determining factors for the in vivo ADME processes of herbal remedies. There are increasing ADME studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal medicines including St John's wort, milk thistle, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. For an herbal medicine, the pharmacological activity is gained when the active agents or the active metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and ADME processes of active herbal components in the body govern their target-site concentrations and thus the therapeutic responses. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a full understanding of their ADME profiles. To optimize the use of herbal remedies, further studies to explore their ADME properties in humans are certainly warranted.

  15. In silico ADME/T modelling for rational drug design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulan; Xing, Jing; Xu, Yuan; Zhou, Nannan; Peng, Jianlong; Xiong, Zhaoping; Liu, Xian; Luo, Xiaomin; Luo, Cheng; Chen, Kaixian; Zheng, Mingyue; Jiang, Hualiang

    2015-11-01

    In recent decades, in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME), and toxicity (T) modelling as a tool for rational drug design has received considerable attention from pharmaceutical scientists, and various ADME/T-related prediction models have been reported. The high-throughput and low-cost nature of these models permits a more streamlined drug development process in which the identification of hits or their structural optimization can be guided based on a parallel investigation of bioavailability and safety, along with activity. However, the effectiveness of these tools is highly dependent on their capacity to cope with needs at different stages, e.g. their use in candidate selection has been limited due to their lack of the required predictability. For some events or endpoints involving more complex mechanisms, the current in silico approaches still need further improvement. In this review, we will briefly introduce the development of in silico models for some physicochemical parameters, ADME properties and toxicity evaluation, with an emphasis on the modelling approaches thereof, their application in drug discovery, and the potential merits or deficiencies of these models. Finally, the outlook for future ADME/T modelling based on big data analysis and systems sciences will be discussed.

  16. The effects of microRNA on the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs

    PubMed Central

    He, Y; Chevillet, J R; Liu, G; Kim, T K; Wang, K

    2015-01-01

    The importance of genetic factors (e.g. sequence variation) in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) and overall efficacy of therapeutic agents is well established. Our ability to identify, interpret and utilize these factors is the subject of much clinical investigation and therapeutic development. However, drug ADME and efficacy are also heavily influenced by epigenetic factors such as DNA/histone methylation and non-coding RNAs [especially microRNAs (miRNAs)]. Results from studies using tools, such as in silico miRNA target prediction, in vitro functional assays, nucleic acid profiling/sequencing and high-throughput proteomics, are rapidly expanding our knowledge of these factors and their effects on drug metabolism. Although these studies reveal a complex regulation of drug ADME, an increased understanding of the molecular interplay between the genome, epigenome and transcriptome has the potential to provide practically useful strategies to facilitate drug development, optimize therapeutic efficacy, circumvent adverse effects, yield novel diagnostics and ultimately become an integral component of personalized medicine. PMID:25296724

  17. Distributed Bragg Reflectors With Reduced Optical Absorption

    DOEpatents

    Klem, John F.

    2005-08-16

    A new class of distributed Bragg reflectors has been developed. These distributed Bragg reflectors comprise interlayers positioned between sets of high-index and low-index quarter-wave plates. The presence of these interlayers is to reduce photon absorption resulting from spatially indirect photon-assisted electronic transitions between the high-index and low-index quarter wave plates. The distributed Bragg reflectors have applications for use in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for use at 1.55 .mu.m and at other wavelengths of interest.

  18. ADME transcriptome in Hispanic versus White donor livers: evidence of a globally enhanced NR1I3 (CAR, constitutive androstane receptor) gene signature in Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, D; Lamba, V; Assem, M; Rengelshausen, J; Yasuda, K; Strom, S; Schuetz, E

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have found that, compared with Whites, Hispanic donor livers had elevated expression of CYP2 enzymes, gene products regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). The objectives of the current study were to determine (1) the CAR activation signature in human liver (2) whether other drug detoxification (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME)) genes were differentially expressed in Hispanic versus White livers, and (3) the extent of overlap in the CAR and Hispanic liver transcriptomes. The CAR transcriptome (ADME genes differentially expressed following phenobarbital versus vehicle treatment of human hepatocytes) and the Hispanic liver transcriptome (ADME genes differentially expressed in Hispanic versus White livers) were identified using Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to verify candidate genes in a larger sample size. Comparison of the CAR and Hispanic liver ADME transcriptomes revealed a significant association between the gene changes. Sixty-four per cent of the ADME genes induced more than twofold by phenobarbital were also induced in Hispanics, and 14% of the ADME genes repressed more than twofold by phenobarbital were repressed in Hispanics. In conclusion, compared with Whites, Hispanic donor livers have increased expression of many genes that are transcriptionally regulated by CAR. This result has practical implications to the drug treatment of Hispanic patients.

  19. Pharmacokinetic properties and in silico ADME modeling in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Honório, Kathia M; Moda, Tiago L; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2013-03-01

    The discovery and development of a new drug are time-consuming, difficult and expensive. This complex process has evolved from classical methods into an integration of modern technologies and innovative strategies addressed to the design of new chemical entities to treat a variety of diseases. The development of new drug candidates is often limited by initial compounds lacking reasonable chemical and biological properties for further lead optimization. Huge libraries of compounds are frequently selected for biological screening using a variety of techniques and standard models to assess potency, affinity and selectivity. In this context, it is very important to study the pharmacokinetic profile of the compounds under investigation. Recent advances have been made in the collection of data and the development of models to assess and predict pharmacokinetic properties (ADME--absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) of bioactive compounds in the early stages of drug discovery projects. This paper provides a brief perspective on the evolution of in silico ADME tools, addressing challenges, limitations, and opportunities in medicinal chemistry.

  20. ABSORPTION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION IN Mrk 509

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, T. P.; Różańska, A.; Sobolewska, M.; Czerny, B.

    2015-12-20

    In this paper we model the observed absorption measure distribution (AMD) in Mrk 509, which spans three orders of magnitude in ionization level with a single-zone absorber in pressure equilibrium. AMD is usually constructed from observations of narrow absorption lines in radio-quiet active galaxies with warm absorbers. We study the properties of the warm absorber in Mrk 509 using recently published broadband spectral energy distribution observed with different instruments. This spectrum is an input in radiative transfer computations with full photoionization treatment using the titan code. We show that the simplest way to fully reproduce the shape of AMD is to assume that the warm absorber is a single zone under constant total pressure. With this assumption, we found theoretical AMD that matches the observed AMD determined on the basis of the 600 ks reflection grating spectrometer XMM-Newton spectrum of Mrk 509. The softness of the source spectrum and the important role of the free–free emission breaks the usual degeneracy in the ionization state calculations, and the explicit dependence of the depths of AMD dips on density open a new path to the density diagnostic for the warm absorber. In Mrk 509, the implied density is of the order of 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3}.

  1. The Acquisition and Application of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Data in Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, H. A.; Pastoor, Timothy P.; Baetcke, Karl; Chambers, Janice E.; Diliberto, Janet; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Driver, Jeffrey H.; Hastings, Charles E.; Iyengar, Seshadri; Krieger, Robert; Stahl, Bernhard; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-01-01

    The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) formed the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee in the year 2000 to design a toxicity testing scheme that would incorporate current understanding of pesticide toxicology and exposure and recognize the specificity of agricultural products. The purpose of and background for the ACSA project are described in detail in the companion paper by Carmichael et al. (2006). As the proposed tiered testing approach for agricultural chemical safety assessment evolved, the ACSA Technical Committee and its task forces (Carmichael et al., 2006; Cooper et al., 2006; Doe et al., 2006) worked toward the following objectives: (1) Provide information that can be applied to a range of relevant human exposure situations. (2) Characterize effects that have the potential to damage human health at exposure levels approximating those that might be encountered in the use of these compounds. (3) Avoid high doses that cause unnecessary public concern (e.g., safety assessments should focus on doses that are relevant to realistic human exposures while maintaining adequate power for the experimental studies to detect toxicity). (4) Use the minimum number of animals necessary to produce a thorough safety assessment of the chemicals of interest. (5) Inflict the minimum amount of distress on animals. (6) Minimize excessive and unnecessary use of resources by regulatory authorities and industry, which could be used to address other issues of concern. (7) Increase both the efficiency and relevance of the current safety assessment process.

  2. Identification of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Genes Relevant to Steatosis Using a Systems Biology Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ensuring chemical safety and sustainability form a main priority of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This entails efforts on multiple fronts to characterize the potential hazard posed by chemicals currently in use and those to be commercialized in the future. The use of ...

  3. Evaluation of in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and mitraphylline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is a popular herb in Southeast Asia which is traditionally used to treat withdrawal symptoms associated with opiate addiction. Mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine and mitraphylline are reported to be the central nervous system (CNS) active alkaloids which bind to the opiat...

  4. The use of machine learning and nonlinear statistical tools for ADME prediction.

    PubMed

    Sakiyama, Yojiro

    2009-02-01

    Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME)-related failure of drug candidates is a major issue for the pharmaceutical industry today. Prediction of ADME by in silico tools has now become an inevitable paradigm to reduce cost and enhance efficiency in pharmaceutical research. Recently, machine learning as well as nonlinear statistical tools has been widely applied to predict routine ADME end points. To achieve accurate and reliable predictions, it would be a prerequisite to understand the concepts, mechanisms and limitations of these tools. Here, we have devised a small synthetic nonlinear data set to help understand the mechanism of machine learning by 2D-visualisation. We applied six new machine learning methods to four different data sets. The methods include Naive Bayes classifier, classification and regression tree, random forest, Gaussian process, support vector machine and k nearest neighbour. The results demonstrated that ensemble learning and kernel machine displayed greater accuracy of prediction than classical methods irrespective of the data set size. The importance of interaction with the engineering field is also addressed. The results described here provide insights into the mechanism of machine learning, which will enable appropriate usage in the future.

  5. Towards a new age of virtual ADME/TOX and multidimensional drug discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekins, Sean; Boulanger, Bruno; Swaan, Peter W.; Hupcey, Maggie A. Z.

    2002-05-01

    With the continual pressure to ensure follow-up molecules to billion dollar blockbuster drugs, there is a hurdle in profitability and growth for pharmaceutical companies in the next decades. With each success and failure we increasingly appreciate that a key to the success of synthesized molecules through the research and development process is the possession of drug-like properties. These properties include an adequate bioactivity as well as adequate solubility, an ability to cross critical membranes (intestinal and sometimes blood-brain barrier), reasonable metabolic stability and of course safety in humans. Dependent on the therapeutic area being investigated it might also be desirable to avoid certain enzymes or transporters to circumvent potential drug-drug interactions. It may also be important to limit the induction of these same proteins that can result in further toxicities. We have clearly moved the assessment of in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/TOX) parameters much earlier in the discovery organization than a decade ago with the inclusion of higher throughput systems. We are also now faced with huge amounts of ADME/TOX data for each molecule that need interpretation and also provide a valuable resource for generating predictive computational models for future drug discovery. The present review aims to show what tools exist today for visualizing and modeling ADME/TOX data, what tools need to be developed, and how both the present and future tools are valuable for virtual filtering using ADME/TOX and bioactivity properties in parallel as a viable addition to present practices.

  6. How to report and discuss ADME data in medicinal chemistry publications: in vitro data or in vivo extrapolations?

    PubMed

    Svennebring, Andreas M

    2015-01-01

    Early drug discovery projects often utilize data from ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) assays to benchmark data and guide discussion, rather than the predicted in vivo consequences of these data. Here, the two paradigms are compared, using evaluations of metabolic stability based on either microsomal clearance assay data or from the predicted in vivo hepatic clearance and half-life calculated through the combination of the venous well-stirred model and Øie-Tozer's model. The need for a shift in paradigm is presented, and its implications discussed. It is suggested that discussions about ADME data should revolve around potential clinical problems that are most likely to surface during the development phase, each benchmarked with a suitable variable derived from the assay data.

  7. An evaluation of human ADME and mass balance studies using regular or low doses of radiocarbon.

    PubMed

    Roffel, A F; van Marle, S P; van Lier, J J; Hartstra, J; van Hoogdalem, E-J

    2016-12-01

    There has been increased interest in conducting human absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies with low doses (up to 0.1 MBq) as opposed to regular doses (1.85-3.7 MBq) of radiocarbon ((14) C). This is due to the fact that low-dose human ADME studies may be conducted without dosimetry calculations and will lead to lower human radiation exposure. Here, we sought to compare the outcomes of low-dose versus regular-dose human ADME studies in healthy volunteers. Forty oral human ADME studies conducted at PRA were surveyed, among which 12 were low-dose studies. The fraction of drug material absorbed was 67% ± 7% in the regular-dose studies (data for 13 studies) versus 39% ± 16% in the low-dose studies (data for 5 studies). The average total recovery of (14) C in excreta was 93% ± 5% for regular-dose studies, and 21 of 28 such studies showed recoveries more than 90%. For low-dose studies, average total recovery was 89% ± 9%, and 6 of 12 studies showed recoveries more than 90%. Metabolite profiling was successful in all cases reported (13 regular-dose studies and 5 low-dose studies). There was no obvious relationship between the total recoveries of (14) C in excreta and the proportion of (14) C excreted in feces, or between the total recoveries and the plasma elimination half-lives for parent or total (14) C, neither in the low-dose nor the regular-dose studies. A significant correlation was found between the fraction absorbed and the recovery in feces in the low-dose but not in the regular-dose studies, and no correlation was found between the fractions absorbed and the total recoveries in both types of studies. Low-dose studies were more often conducted on drugs that had a plasma elimination half-life of parent drug more than 100 hours (5 of 12 studies) than regular-dose studies (1 of 26 studies). We conclude that both low-dose as well as regular-dose human ADME studies provide adequate data to support decision making for further

  8. Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zezhang; Jiang, Yurong; Jiang, Lulu; Ma, Heng

    2016-01-15

    In this work, the terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of a set of nematic liquid crystals were studied using the density functional theories (DFT). An accurate assignment of the vibrational modes corresponding to absorption frequencies were performed using potential energy distribution (PED) in a frequency range of 0-3 THz. The impacts of different core structures on THz absorption spectra were discussed. The results indicate that scope of application must be considered in the LC-based THz device designing. This proposed work may give a useful suggestion on the design of novel liquid crystal material in THz wave.

  9. Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zezhang; Jiang, Yurong; Jiang, Lulu; Ma, Heng

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of a set of nematic liquid crystals were studied using the density functional theories (DFT). An accurate assignment of the vibrational modes corresponding to absorption frequencies were performed using potential energy distribution (PED) in a frequency range of 0-3 THz. The impacts of different core structures on THz absorption spectra were discussed. The results indicate that scope of application must be considered in the LC-based THz device designing. This proposed work may give a useful suggestion on the design of novel liquid crystal material in THz wave.

  10. Open Source Bayesian Models. 1. Application to ADME/Tox and Drug Discovery Datasets

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    On the order of hundreds of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADME/Tox) models have been described in the literature in the past decade which are more often than not inaccessible to anyone but their authors. Public accessibility is also an issue with computational models for bioactivity, and the ability to share such models still remains a major challenge limiting drug discovery. We describe the creation of a reference implementation of a Bayesian model-building software module, which we have released as an open source component that is now included in the Chemistry Development Kit (CDK) project, as well as implemented in the CDD Vault and in several mobile apps. We use this implementation to build an array of Bayesian models for ADME/Tox, in vitro and in vivo bioactivity, and other physicochemical properties. We show that these models possess cross-validation receiver operator curve values comparable to those generated previously in prior publications using alternative tools. We have now described how the implementation of Bayesian models with FCFP6 descriptors generated in the CDD Vault enables the rapid production of robust machine learning models from public data or the user’s own datasets. The current study sets the stage for generating models in proprietary software (such as CDD) and exporting these models in a format that could be run in open source software using CDK components. This work also demonstrates that we can enable biocomputation across distributed private or public datasets to enhance drug discovery. PMID:25994950

  11. Exploring different strategies for imbalanced ADME data problem: case study on Caco-2 permeability modeling.

    PubMed

    Pham-The, Hai; Casañola-Martin, Gerardo; Garrigues, Teresa; Bermejo, Marival; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Nguyen-Hai, Nam; Cabrera-Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Le-Thi-Thu, Huong

    2016-02-01

    In many absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) modeling problems, imbalanced data could negatively affect classification performance of machine learning algorithms. Solutions for handling imbalanced dataset have been proposed, but their application for ADME modeling tasks is underexplored. In this paper, various strategies including cost-sensitive learning and resampling methods were studied to tackle the moderate imbalance problem of a large Caco-2 cell permeability database. Simple physicochemical molecular descriptors were utilized for data modeling. Support vector machine classifiers were constructed and compared using multiple comparison tests. Results showed that the models developed on the basis of resampling strategies displayed better performance than the cost-sensitive classification models, especially in the case of oversampling data where misclassification rates for minority class have values of 0.11 and 0.14 for training and test set, respectively. A consensus model with enhanced applicability domain was subsequently constructed and showed improved performance. This model was used to predict a set of randomly selected high-permeability reference drugs according to the biopharmaceutics classification system. Overall, this study provides a comparison of numerous rebalancing strategies and displays the effectiveness of oversampling methods to deal with imbalanced permeability data problems.

  12. High-throughput pKa screening and prediction amenable for ADME profiling.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hong; Ulander, Johan

    2006-02-01

    Recent technological advances have made it possible for several new pK(a) assays to be used in drug screening. In this review, a critical overview is provided of current new methodologies for high-throughput screening and prediction of pK(a). Typical applications of using pK(a )constants and charge state for absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) profiling and quantitative structure-activity relationship modelling complements the methodological comparisons and discussions. The experimental methods discussed include high-throughput screening of pK(a) by multiplexed capillary with ultraviolet absorbance detection on a 96-capillary format instrument, capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (CEMS) based on sample pooling, determination of pK(a) by pH gradient high-performance liquid chromatography, and measurement of pK(a) by a mixed-buffer liner pH gradient system. Comparisons of the different experimental assays are made with emphasis on the newly developed CEMS method. The current status and recent progress in computational approaches to pK(a) prediction are also discussed. In particular, the accuracy limits of simple fragment-based approaches as well as quantum mechanical methods are addressed. Examples of pK(a) prediction from in-house drug candidates as well as commercially available drug molecules are shown and an outline is provided for how drug discovery companies can integrate experiments with computational approaches for increased applications for ADME profiling.

  13. Predicting ADME properties and side effects: the BioPrint approach.

    PubMed

    Krejsa, Cecile M; Horvath, Dragos; Rogalski, Sherri L; Penzotti, Julie E; Mao, Boryeu; Barbosa, Frédérique; Migeon, Jacques C

    2003-07-01

    Computational methods are increasingly used to streamline and enhance the lead discovery and optimization process. However, accurate prediction of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) and adverse drug reactions (ADR) is often difficult, due to the complexity of underlying physiological mechanisms. Modeling approaches have been hampered by the lack of large, robust and standardized training datasets. In an extensive effort to build such a dataset, the BioPrint database was constructed by systematic profiling of nearly all drugs available on the market, as well as numerous reference compounds. The database is composed of several large datasets: compound structures and molecular descriptors, in vitro ADME and pharmacology profiles, and complementary clinical data including therapeutic use information, pharmacokinetics profiles and ADR profiles. These data have allowed the development of computational tools designed to integrate a program of computational chemistry into library design and lead development. Models based on chemical structure are strengthened by in vitro results that can be used as additional compound descriptors to predict complex in vivo endpoints. The BioPrint pharmacoinformatics platform represents a systematic effort to accelerate the process of drug discovery, improve quantitative structure-activity relationships and develop in vitro/in vivo associations. In this review, we will discuss the importance of training set size and diversity in model development, the implementation of linear and neighborhood modeling approaches, and the use of in silico methods to predict potential clinical liabilities.

  14. Physiologically based pharmacokinetics joined with in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of ADME: a marriage under the arch of systems pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Rostami-Hodjegan, A

    2012-07-01

    Classic pharmacokinetics (PK) rarely takes into account the full knowledge of physiology and biology of the human body. However, physiologically based PK (PBPK) is built mainly from drug-independent "system" information. PBPK is not a new concept, but it has shown a very rapid rise in recent years. This has been attributed to a greater connectivity to in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) techniques for predicting drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) and their variability in humans. The marriage between PBPK and IVIVE under the overarching umbrella of "systems biology" has removed many constraints related to cutoff approaches on prediction of ADME. PBPK-IVIVE linked models have repeatedly shown their value in guiding decisions when predicting the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on PK of drugs. A review of the achievements and shortcomings of the models might suggest better strategies in extending the success of PBPK-IVIVE to pharmacodynamics (PD) and drug safety.

  15. The distribution of absorptive power dissipation in irradiated nanoparticulate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiayu; Yang, Jian; Gu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge of local radiant absorption is important to the nanostructure optimization, it is beneficial to the applications in energy harvesting, optical heating, photocatalysis, etc. In this paper, FDTD model is constructed for the distribution of absorptive power dissipation in irradiated nanoparticulate system. The theoretical model extended from Mie theory is used to examine the FDTD model, the parameters and conditions set for FDTD simulation are confirmed based on the comparison. Then, the influence of Ag nanoparticle on the absorptive properties of nearby TiO2 nanoparticle is investigated by FDTD simulation at the wavelength of 0.25 μm. It is indicated that suitable distance between TiO2 and Ag particles is beneficial to the spectral radiant absorption of TiO2 particle. Considering the agglomeration of nanoparticles and the oxidation at the TiO2-Ag interface, the Ag core coated with Al2O3 shell is suggested, and the simulated results indicated that the shell thickness and the Ag core size need to be optimized for enhancing the radiant absorption of TiO2 particle.

  16. Determination of ADME and bioavailability following intravenous, oral, and dermal routes of exposure.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Shakil A

    2009-08-01

    Humans are exposed to chemicals either voluntarily or involuntarily through several routes. Therapeutic drugs are introduced into the human system via a number of routes including, but not limited to, oral, inhalation, intravenous (i.v.), topical, and subcutaneous. For occupational and environmental chemicals, the major routes of human exposure are inhalation, dermal, and oral. To determine the extent of exposure to chemicals, the concentration of the active molecules is measured in a biological medium. Determination of absolute and/or relative bioavailability of occupational and environmental chemical exposure through different routes is critical in understanding the risk to the general population of a low-level exposure to these chemicals. This unit describes typical protocol designs to generate data for the calculation of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) and absolute and relative bioavailability of chemicals when exposed through i.v., oral, and dermal routes.

  17. Sound propagation and absorption in foam - A distributed parameter model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, L.; Lieberman, S.

    1971-01-01

    Liquid-base foams are highly effective sound absorbers. A better understanding of the mechanisms of sound absorption in foams was sought by exploration of a mathematical model of bubble pulsation and coupling and the development of a distributed-parameter mechanical analog. A solution by electric-circuit analogy was thus obtained and transmission-line theory was used to relate the physical properties of the foams to the characteristic impedance and propagation constants of the analog transmission line. Comparison of measured physical properties of the foam with values obtained from measured acoustic impedance and propagation constants and the transmission-line theory showed good agreement. We may therefore conclude that the sound propagation and absorption mechanisms in foam are accurately described by the resonant response of individual bubbles coupled to neighboring bubbles.

  18. Measurements of parallel electron velocity distributions using whistler wave absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Thuecks, D. J.; Skiff, F.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2012-08-15

    We describe a diagnostic to measure the parallel electron velocity distribution in a magnetized plasma that is overdense ({omega}{sub pe} > {omega}{sub ce}). This technique utilizes resonant absorption of whistler waves by electrons with velocities parallel to a background magnetic field. The whistler waves were launched and received by a pair of dipole antennas immersed in a cylindrical discharge plasma at two positions along an axial background magnetic field. The whistler wave frequency was swept from somewhat below and up to the electron cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub ce}. As the frequency was swept, the wave was resonantly absorbed by the part of the electron phase space density which was Doppler shifted into resonance according to the relation {omega}-k{sub ||v||} = {omega}{sub ce}. The measured absorption is directly related to the reduced parallel electron distribution function integrated along the wave trajectory. The background theory and initial results from this diagnostic are presented here. Though this diagnostic is best suited to detect tail populations of the parallel electron distribution function, these first results show that this diagnostic is also rather successful in measuring the bulk plasma density and temperature both during the plasma discharge and into the afterglow.

  19. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  20. Regulatory perspective on the importance of ADME assessment of nanoscale material containing drugs.

    PubMed

    Zolnik, Banu S; Sadrieh, Nakissa

    2009-06-21

    The promise of nanoscale material containing drug products to treat complex diseases is mounting. According to the literature, in addition to the liposomes, micelles, emulsions, there are novel drug delivery systems such as dendrimers and metal colloids at different stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. With the anticipation that more nanoscale material containing drug products will be submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval in the future, FDA formed a Nanotechnology Task Force in 2006 to determine the critical regulatory issues regarding nanomaterials. As a result, all centers within the FDA are considering the development of guidance documents to address nanomaterial specific issues. It is well established in the literature that physico-chemical characterization (PCC) studies are crucial for nanomaterial containing drug products. However, this paper addresses the equally important topic of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) studies for nanomaterials and provides examples of how physical properties affect biodistribution (i.e. the state of agglomeration, or aggregation, surface characteristics, stability of PEG). This paper also attempts to highlight some of the ADME study design issues related to nanomaterials such as the need for conducting biodistribution studies on each moiety of the multifunctional nanoparticles, dual labeled pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, and comparative PK studies on the free versus encapsulated drugs. In addition, this paper underlines the importance of long-term biodistribution and mass balance studies to understand the nanoparticle accumulation profile which may help to assess the safety and efficacy of the nanomaterial containing drug products. This review also lists some of the pre-clinical guidance documents that may help sponsors get started in developing data for inclusion in an initial investigational new drug application package for nanoscale material containing drug

  1. SwissADME: a free web tool to evaluate pharmacokinetics, drug-likeness and medicinal chemistry friendliness of small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Daina, Antoine; Michielin, Olivier; Zoete, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    To be effective as a drug, a potent molecule must reach its target in the body in sufficient concentration, and stay there in a bioactive form long enough for the expected biologic events to occur. Drug development involves assessment of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) increasingly earlier in the discovery process, at a stage when considered compounds are numerous but access to the physical samples is limited. In that context, computer models constitute valid alternatives to experiments. Here, we present the new SwissADME web tool that gives free access to a pool of fast yet robust predictive models for physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, drug-likeness and medicinal chemistry friendliness, among which in-house proficient methods such as the BOILED-Egg, iLOGP and Bioavailability Radar. Easy efficient input and interpretation are ensured thanks to a user-friendly interface through the login-free website http://www.swissadme.ch. Specialists, but also nonexpert in cheminformatics or computational chemistry can predict rapidly key parameters for a collection of molecules to support their drug discovery endeavours. PMID:28256516

  2. SwissADME: a free web tool to evaluate pharmacokinetics, drug-likeness and medicinal chemistry friendliness of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Daina, Antoine; Michielin, Olivier; Zoete, Vincent

    2017-03-03

    To be effective as a drug, a potent molecule must reach its target in the body in sufficient concentration, and stay there in a bioactive form long enough for the expected biologic events to occur. Drug development involves assessment of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) increasingly earlier in the discovery process, at a stage when considered compounds are numerous but access to the physical samples is limited. In that context, computer models constitute valid alternatives to experiments. Here, we present the new SwissADME web tool that gives free access to a pool of fast yet robust predictive models for physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, drug-likeness and medicinal chemistry friendliness, among which in-house proficient methods such as the BOILED-Egg, iLOGP and Bioavailability Radar. Easy efficient input and interpretation are ensured thanks to a user-friendly interface through the login-free website http://www.swissadme.ch. Specialists, but also nonexpert in cheminformatics or computational chemistry can predict rapidly key parameters for a collection of molecules to support their drug discovery endeavours.

  3. Analysis of Global and Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Elimination Gene Expression in the Progressive Stages of Human Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver DiseaseS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lake, April D.; Novak, Petr; Fisher, Craig D.; Jackson, Jonathan P.; Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Billheimer, D. Dean; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by a series of pathological changes that range from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The objective of this study is to describe changes in global gene expression associated with the progression of human NAFLD. This study is focused on the expression levels of genes responsible for the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of drugs. Differential gene expression between three clinically defined pathological groups—normal, steatosis, and NASH—was analyzed. Genome-wide mRNA levels in samples of human liver tissue were assayed with Affymetrix GeneChip Human 1.0ST arrays. A total of 11,633 genes exhibited altered expression out of 33,252 genes at a 5% false discovery rate. Most gene expression changes occurred in the progression from steatosis to NASH. Principal component analysis revealed that hepatic disease status was the major determinant of differential ADME gene expression rather than age or sex of sample donors. Among the 515 drug transporters and 258 drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) examined, uptake transporters but not efflux transporters or DMEs were significantly over-represented in the number of genes down-regulated. These results suggest that uptake transporter genes are coordinately targeted for down-regulation at the global level during the pathological development of NASH and that these patients may have decreased drug uptake capacity. This coordinated regulation of uptake transporter genes is indicative of a hepatoprotective mechanism acting to prevent accumulation of toxic intermediates in disease-compromised hepatocytes. PMID:21737566

  4. Accounting for the effects of Sastrugi in the CERES Clear-Sky Antarctic shortwave ADMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, J.; Su, W.

    2015-01-01

    The Cloud and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Instruments on NASA's Terra, Aqua and Soumi-NPP satellites are used to provide a long-term measurement of the Earth's energy budget. To accomplish this, the radiances measured by the instruments must be inverted to fluxes by the use of a scene-type dependent angular distribution model (ADM). For permanent snow scenes over Antarctica, shortwave ADMs are created by compositing radiance measurements over the full viewing zenith and azimuth range. However, the presence of small-scale wind blown roughness features called sastrugi cause the BRDF of the snow to vary significantly based upon the solar azimuth angle and location. This can result in monthly regional biases as large as ±15 Wm-2 in the inverted TOA SW flux. In this paper we created a set of ADMs that account for the sastrugi effect by using measurements from the Multi-Angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instrument to derive statistical relationships between radiance from different viewing angles. These ADMs reduce the monthly regional biases to ±5 Wm-2 and the monthly-mean biases are reduced by up to 50%. These improved ADMs are used as part of the next edition of the CERES data.

  5. Distribution, synthesis, and absorption of kynurenic acid in plants.

    PubMed

    Turski, Michal P; Turska, Monika; Zgrajka, Wojciech; Bartnik, Magdalena; Kocki, Tomasz; Turski, Waldemar A

    2011-05-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of the ionotropic glutamate receptors and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as well as an agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR35. In this study, KYNA distribution and synthesis in plants as well as its absorption was researched. KYNA level was determined by means of the high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. KYNA was found in leaves, flowers, and roots of tested medicinal herbs: dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), common nettle (Urtica dioica), and greater celandine (Chelidoniummajus). The highest concentration of this compound was detected in leaves of dandelion--a mean value of 0.49 µg/g wet weight. It was shown that KYNA can be synthesized enzymatically in plants from its precursor, L-kynurenine, or absorbed by plants from the soil. Finally, the content of KYNA was investigated in 21 herbal tablets, herbal tea, herbs in sachets, and single herbs in bags. The highest content of KYNA in a maximum daily dose of herbal medicines appeared in St. John's wort--33.75 µg (tablets) or 32.60 µg (sachets). The pharmacological properties of KYNA and its presence in high concentrations in medicinal herbs may suggest that it possesses therapeutic potential, especially in the digestive system and should be considered a new valuable dietary supplement.

  6. Sequestering ADM ethanol plant carbon dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, R.J.; Riddle, D.

    2008-01-01

    Archer Daniels Midland Co. (ADM) and the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) are collaborating on a project in confirming that a rock formation can store carbon dioxide from the plant in its pores. The project aimed to sequester the gas underground permanently to minimize release of the greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. It is also designed to store one million tons of carbon dioxide over a three-year period. The project is worth $84.3M, funded by $66.7M from the US Department Energy, supplemented by co-funding from ADM and other corporate and state resources. The project will start drilling of wells to an expected depth over 6500 feet into the Mount Simon Sandstone formation.

  7. Duality, entropy, and ADM mass in supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Zumino, Bruno; Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio

    2009-06-15

    We consider the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area formula in four dimensional extended ungauged supergravity and its electric-magnetic duality property. Symmetries of both 'large' and 'small' extremal black holes are considered, as well as the ADM mass formula for N=4 and N=8 supergravity, preserving different fraction of supersymmetry. The interplay between BPS conditions and duality properties is an important aspect of this investigation.

  8. Duality, Entropy and ADM Mass in Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio; Zumino, Bruno

    2009-02-23

    We consider the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area formula in four dimensional extended ungauged supergravity and its electric-magnetic duality property. Symmetries of both"large" and"small" extremal black holes are considered, as well as the ADM mass formula for N=4 and N=8 supergravity, preserving different fraction of supersymmetry. The interplay between BPS conditions and duality properties is an important aspect of this investigation.

  9. Absorption, distribution and mechanism of action of SYSADOAS.

    PubMed

    du Souich, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Symptomatic Slow Acting Drugs for Osteoarthritis (SYSADOA), such as hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and glucosamine (GlcN) are natural compounds, composed of repeating disaccharides, used to treat patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Many questions about the kinetics and mechanism of action of SYSADOA remain poorly answered. This review examines the data supporting oral absorption and body distribution of SYSADOA, and discusses their mechanism of action. SYSADOA are absorbed in the small intestine with a bioavailability ranging from 5 to 45% and accumulate in articular tissues. The mechanism of action of HA and CS differs in several aspects from that of GlcN. Being large molecules, HA and CS do not penetrate into chondrocytes, synoviocytes, osteoblast, osteoclast and osteocytes, and so elicit the anti-inflammatory effect by engaging membrane receptors, e.g. CD44, TLR4, and ICAM1, with a resulting dual effect: impede the fragments of extracellular matrix engaging these receptors, cause of inflammatory reaction, and block the signal transduction pathways activated by the fragments and so diminish the nuclear translocation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors. GlcN penetrates into cells by means of glucose transporters. The primary effect of GlcN is associated to its ability to O-GlcNAcylate proteins and as a consequence, modulates their activity, e.g. decrease nuclear factor-κB nuclear translocation. GlcN may also affect the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines by epigenetic mechanisms. The characteristics of the mechanism of action support the use of CS combined with GlcN, and suggest that HA and CS shall be more effective in initial phases of OA.

  10. Netupitant PET imaging and ADME studies in humans

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Tulla; Calcagnile, Selma; Giuliano, Claudio; Rossi, Giorgia; Lanzarotti, Corinna; Mair, Stuart; Stevens, Lloyd; Nisbet, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Netupitant is a new, selective NK1 receptor antagonist under development for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the brain receptor occupancy (RO) and disposition (ADME) of netupitant in humans. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the NK1 receptor-binding–selective tracer [11C]-GR205171 was used to evaluate the brain penetration of different doses of netupitant (100, 300, and 450 mg) and to determine the NK1-RO duration. A NK1-RO of 90% or higher was achieved with all doses in the majority of the tested brain regions at Cmax, with a long duration of RO. The netupitant minimal plasma concentration predicted to achieve a NK1-RO of 90%, C90%, in the striatum was 225 ng/mL; after administration of netupitant 300 mg, concentrations exceeded the C90%. In the ADME study, a single nominal dose of [14C]-netupitant 300 mg was used to assess its disposition. Absorption was rapid and netupitant was extensively metabolized via Phase I and II hepatic metabolism. Elimination of >90% was predicted at day 29 and was principally via hepatic/biliary route (>85%) with a minor contribution of the renal route (<5%). In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that netupitant is a potent agent targeting NK1 receptors with long lasting RO. In addition, netupitant is extensively metabolized and is mainly eliminated through the hepatic/biliary route and to a lesser extent via the kidneys. PMID:24122871

  11. Abelian Ashtekar formulation from the ADM action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Ernesto; Leal, Lorenzo

    2014-03-01

    We study the Ashtekar formulation of linear gravity starting from the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) first-order action of the exact theory, linearizing it, and performing a canonical transformation that coordinatizes the phase-space in terms of the already linearized Ashtekar variables. A quantum geometrical representation, based on the realization of the transverse-traceless part of the linear canonical variables, is presented, and its relationship with previous attempts is discussed. A related geometric representation that realizes directly the observables of the Fierz-Pauli theory, without resorting to deal with the linearized Ashtekar variables, is also discussed.

  12. ADM energy and infra-gravitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, A. P.; Qureshi, Babar

    2017-03-01

    In QED and QCD [1,2], infrared photons and gluons alter the Hilbert space of the theory so that the in and out states live in a Hilbert space carrying a representation of basic commutation relations which is non-equivalent to the standard Fock representation, leading to spontaneous breakdown of Lorentz symmetry and physical effects. These results are generalized here to quantum gravity regarded as an SL (2 , C) gauge theory and the shift of the ADM energy density and mass from infrared spin connection (the spin cloud) is discussed.

  13. Pump absorption and temperature distribution in erbium-doped double-clad fluoride-glass fibers.

    PubMed

    Gorjan, Martin; Marincek, Marko; Copic, Martin

    2009-10-26

    We investigate diode pump absorption and temperature distribution in three erbium-doped double-clad fluoride fibers. Absorption is measured via fluorescence intensity and temperature distribution is measured with thermal imaging. Ray-tracing calculations of absorption and heat-equation modeling of temperature distribution are also conducted. We found excellent agreement between measurements and calculations for all fibers. Results indicate that erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers have already reached maximum output powers allowed under natural convection cooling, with fiber end being the most critical. We propose cooling and fiber design optimizations that may allow an order-of-magnitude further power-scaling.

  14. Effect of Clouds on the Calculated Vertical Distribution of Shortwave Absorption in the Tropics

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Mather, James H.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Liu, Zheng

    2008-09-23

    High vertical resolution profiles of cloud properties were obtained from cloud radars operated by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program on the islands of Nauru and Manus in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP). Broadband flux calculations using a correlated k-distribution model were performed to estimate the effect of clouds on the total column and vertical distribution of shortwave absorption at these tropical sites. Sensitivity studies were performed to examine the role of precipitable water vapor, cloud vertical location, optical depth, and particle size on the SW column absorption. On average, observed clouds had little impact on the calculated total SW column absorption at the two sites, but a significant impact on the vertical distribution of SW absorption. Differences in the column amount, vertical profiles, and diurnal cycle of SW absorption at the two sites were due primarily to differences in cirrus cloud frequency.

  15. Cyclotron-absorption measurement of the runaway-electron distribution in a tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zvonkov, A.V.; Suvorov, E.V.; Timofeev, A.V.; Fraiman, A.A.

    1983-03-01

    The distribution function of runaway electrons in a tokamak can be determined in the slightly relativistic region from measurements of the absorption coefficient corresponding to electron cyclotron waves. The plasma should be probed in the vertical direction.

  16. PBTK modelling platforms and parameter estimation tools to enable animal-free risk assessment: recommendations from a joint EPAA--EURL ECVAM ADME workshop.

    PubMed

    Bessems, Jos G; Loizou, George; Krishnan, Kannan; Clewell, Harvey J; Bernasconi, Camilla; Bois, Frederic; Coecke, Sandra; Collnot, Eva-Maria; Diembeck, Walter; Farcal, Lucian Romeo; Geraets, Liesbeth; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Kramer, Nynke; Küsters, Gabriele; Leite, Sofia B; Pelkonen, Olavi R; Schröder, Klaus; Testai, Emanuela; Wilk-Zasadna, Iwona; Zaldívar-Comenges, José-Manuel

    2014-02-01

    Information on toxicokinetics is critical for animal-free human risk assessment. Human external exposure must be translated into human tissue doses and compared with in vitro actual cell exposure associated to effects (in vitro-in vivo comparison). Data on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in humans (ADME) could be generated using in vitro and QSAR tools. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) computer modelling could serve to integrate disparate in vitro and in silico findings. However, there are only few freely-available PBTK platforms currently available. And although some ADME parameters can be reasonably estimated in vitro or in silico, important gaps exist. Examples include unknown or limited applicability domains and lack of (high-throughput) tools to measure penetration of barriers, partitioning between blood and tissues and metabolic clearance. This paper is based on a joint EPAA--EURL ECVAM expert meeting. It provides a state-of-the-art overview of the availability of PBTK platforms as well as the in vitro and in silico methods to parameterise basic (Tier 1) PBTK models. Five high-priority issues are presented that provide the prerequisites for wider use of non-animal based PBTK modelling for animal-free chemical risk assessment.

  17. Differences in excitability properties of FDI and ADM motor axons.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong Seok; Sawai, Setsu; Misawa, Sonoko; Kanai, Kazuaki; Isose, Sagiri; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2009-03-01

    The first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles are innervated by the same ulnar nerve, but studies have shown that the former is much more severely affected in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this study, threshold tracking was used to investigate whether membrane properties differ between FDI and ADM motor axons. In 12 normal subjects, compound muscle action potentials were recorded from FDI and ADM after ulnar nerve stimulation at the wrist. The strength-duration time constant was significantly longer in the FDI axons than in the ADM axons, and latent addition studies showed greater threshold changes at the conditioning-test stimulus of 0.2 ms in FDI than in ADM axons. These findings suggest that nodal persistent sodium conductances are more prominent in FDI axons than in ADM axons, and therefore excitability is physiologically higher in FDI axons. Even in the same nerve at the same sites, membrane properties of FDI and ADM motor axons differ significantly, and thus their axonal/neuronal responses to disease may also differ.

  18. Characterization of preclinical in vitro and in vivo ADME properties and prediction of human PK using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for YQA-14, a new dopamine D3 receptor antagonist candidate for treatment of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Zhuang, Xiaomei; Yang, Cuiping; Li, Zheng; Xiong, Shan; Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Jin; Lu, Chuang; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2014-07-01

    YQA-14 is a novel and selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, with potential for the treatment of drug addiction. However, earlier compounds in its structural class tend to have poor oral bioavailability. The objectives of this study were to characterize the preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties and pharmacokinetics (PK) of YQA-14, then to simulate the clinical PK of YQA-14 using a physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model to assess the likelihood of developing YQA-14 as a clinical candidate. For human PK prediction, PBPK models were first built in preclinical species, rats and dogs, for validation purposes. The model was then modified by input of human in vitro ADME data obtained from in vitro studies. The study data showed that YQA-14 is a basic lipophilic compound, with rapid absorption (Tmax ~ 1 h) in both rats and dogs. Liver microsomal clearances and in vivo clearances were moderate in rats and dogs consistent with the moderate bioavailability observed in both species. The PBPK models built for rats and dogs simulated the observed PK data well in both species. The PBPK model refined with human data predicted that YQA-14 would have a clearance of 8.0 ml/min/kg, a volume distribution of 1.7 l/kg and a bioavailability of 16.9%. These acceptable PK properties make YQA-14 an improved candidate for further research and development as a potential dopamine D3R antagonism for the treatment of drug addiction in the clinic.

  19. Optical absorptions in ZnO/a-Si distributed Bragg reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aqing; Chen, Zhian; Zhu, Kaigui; Ji, Zhenguo

    2017-01-01

    The distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) consisting of alternating layers of ZnO and heavy doped amorphous silicon (a-Si) have been fabricated by magnetron sputtering. It is novel to find that the optical absorptions exist in the stopband of the DBRs, and that many discrete strong optical absorption peaks exist in the wavelength range of visible to near-infrared. The calculated results by FDTD show that the absorptions in the stopband mainly exist in the first a-Si layer, and that the light absorbed by other a-Si layers inside contributes to the two absorption peaks in near-infrared range. The strong absorptions ranged from visible to infrared open new possibilities to the enhancement of the performance of amorphous silicon solar cells.

  20. Radial Distribution of Absorption in a Cesium Heat Pipe with Axial Laser Heating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    medium is cesium while the laser is tuned to the D1 line for cesium mentioned later. Pulsed and CW DPALs have been compared in recent demonstrations by...RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ABSORPTION IN A CESIUM HEAT PIPE WITH AXIAL LASER HEATING THESIS...ABSORPTION IN A CESIUM HEAT PIPE WITH AXIAL LASER HEATING THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics Graduate School

  1. Estimating optical absorption, scattering, and Grueneisen distributions with multiple-illumination photoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Shao, Peng; Cox, Ben; Zemp, Roger J

    2011-07-01

    While photoacoustic methods offer significant promise for high-resolution optical contrast imaging, quantification has thus far proved challenging. In this paper, a noniterative reconstruction technique for producing quantitative photoacoustic images of both absorption and scattering perturbations is introduced for the case when the optical properties of the turbid background are known and multiple optical illumination locations are used. Through theoretical developments and computational examples, it is demonstrated that multiple-illumination photoacoustic tomography (MI-PAT) can alleviate ill-posedness due to absorption-scattering nonuniqueness and produce quantitative high-resolution reconstructions of optical absorption, scattering, and Gruneisen parameter distributions. While numerical challenges still exist, we show that the linearized MI-PAT framework that we propose has orders of magnitude improved condition number compared with CW diffuse optical tomography.

  2. Role of ADME characteristics in drug discovery and their in silico evaluation: in silico screening of chemicals for their metabolic stability.

    PubMed

    Gombar, Vijay K; Silver, Ivin S; Zhao, Zhiyang

    2003-01-01

    Drug discovery is a long, arduous process broadly grouped into disease target identification, target validation, high-throughput identification of "hits" and "leads", lead optimization, and pre-clinical and clinical evaluation. Each area is a vast discipline in itself. However, all but the first two stages involve, to varying degrees, the characterization of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, (ADME), and toxicity (T) of the molecules being pursued as potential drug candidates. Clinical failures of about 50% of the Investigational New Drug (IND) filings are attributed to their inadequate ADMET attributes. It is, therefore, no surprise that, in the current climate of social and regulatory pressure on healthcare costs, the pharmaceutical industry is searching for any means to minimize this attrition. Building mathematical models, called in silico screens, to reliably predict ADMET attributes solely from molecular structure is at the heart of this effort in reducing costs as well as development cycle times. This article reviews the emerging field of in silico evaluation of ADME characteristics. For different approaches that have been employed in this area, a critique of the scope and limitations of their descriptors, statistical methods, and reliability are presented. For instance, are geometry-based descriptors absolutely essential or is lower-level structure quantification equally good? What advantages, if any, do we have for methods like artificial neural networks over the least squares optimization methods with rigorous statistical diagnostics? Is any in silico screen worth application, let alone interpretation, if it is not adequately validated? Once deemed acceptable, what good is an in silico screen if it cannot be made available at the workbench of drug discovery teams distributed across the globe throughout multi-national pharmaceutical companies? These are not mere discussion points, rather this article embarks on the stepwise mechanics of

  3. Imaging heterogeneous absorption distribution of advanced breast cancer by optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zhu, Quing

    2010-01-01

    Tumor vascular patterns of advanced breast cancers are complex and heterogeneous. Two typical light absorption patterns of periphery enhancement and posterior shadowing have been observed when imaging these advanced cancers using optical tomography guided by ultrasound. We perform a series simulation and phantom experiments to systemically evaluate the effects of target parameters, target locations, and target optical properties on imaging periphery enhancement absorption distribution using reflection geometry. Large tumors are modeled as concentric semiellipsoidal targets of different outer shell and inner core optical properties. We show that larger targets of more than 3 to 4 cm diameter with outer shell thicknesses less than 1 cm can be resolved at a depth less than 3 cm. A clinical example is given to show the complex vasculature distributions seen from an advanced cancer. PMID:21198181

  4. Calculated slant-path absorption and distribution of atmospheric water vapor.

    PubMed

    Calfee, R F; Gates, D M

    1966-02-01

    A procedure is described for determining the amount and distribution of water vapor along a slant path through the atmosphere above 13.7 km. A multilayer analysis is used in which the transmittance of each layer is calculated and the accumulative effect obtained at the altitude of observation. The method depends upon the contribution of each line to the absorptance in a finite spectral region.

  5. Distribution Surge Arrester Failures due to Winter Lightning and Measurement of Energy Absorption Capability of Arresters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko; Kado, Hiroyuki

    Surge arresters and distribution equipments with zinc-oxide elements are used for lightning protection of overhead power distribution lines in Japan. However, these surge arresters are sometimes damaged by direct lightning strokes, especially in winter. Increasing of surge arrester failures in winter is attributed to a very large electric charge of winter lightning than that of summer lightning. For improvement of surge arresters, we have measured the energy absorption capability of surge arresters using a half cycle of alternating current with a frequency of 50Hz for simulating a winter lightning current. The mean values of arrester failure energy increased in proportion to the volume of zinc-oxide element, however the values of arrester failure energy were quite uneven. We also have observed the aspects of damaged zinc-oxide elements, and have investigated the relationship between the arrester failure energy and the failure types of zinc-oxide elements. From these results, we suggest the improvement of the energy absorption capability of distribution surge arresters, especially for the uniform energy absorption capability.

  6. Recent progresses in the exploration of machine learning methods as in-silico ADME prediction tools.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Zhang, P; Qin, C; Chen, S Y; Zhang, C; Chen, Z; Zhu, F; Yang, S Y; Wei, Y Q; Chen, Y Z

    2015-06-23

    In-silico methods have been explored as potential tools for assessing ADME and ADME regulatory properties particularly in early drug discovery stages. Machine learning methods, with their ability in classifying diverse structures and complex mechanisms, are well suited for predicting ADME and ADME regulatory properties. Recent efforts have been directed at the broadening of application scopes and the improvement of predictive performance with particular focuses on the coverage of ADME properties, and exploration of more diversified training data, appropriate molecular features, and consensus modeling. Moreover, several online machine learning ADME prediction servers have emerged. Here we review these progresses and discuss the performances, application prospects and challenges of exploring machine learning methods as useful tools in predicting ADME and ADME regulatory properties.

  7. ADME studies and preliminary safety pharmacology of LDT5, a lead compound for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Noël, F.; Nascimento-Viana, J.B.; Romeiro, L.A.S.; Silva, R.O.; Lemes, L.F.N.; Oliveira, A.S.; Giorno, T.B.S.; Fernandes, P.D.; Silva, C.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties and safety of LDT5, a lead compound for oral treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia that has previously been characterized as a multi-target antagonist of α1A-, α1D-adrenoceptors and 5-HT1A receptors. The preclinical characterization of this compound comprised the evaluation of its in vitro properties, including plasma, microsomal and hepatocytes stability, cytochrome P450 metabolism and inhibition, plasma protein binding, and permeability using MDCK-MDR1 cells. De-risking and preliminary safety pharmacology assays were performed through screening of 44 off-target receptors and in vivo tests in mice (rota-rod and single dose toxicity). LDT5 is stable in rat and human plasma, human liver microsomes and hepatocytes, but unstable in rat liver microsomes and hepatocytes (half-life of 11 min). LDT5 is highly permeable across the MDCK-MDR1 monolayer (Papp ∼32×10-6 cm/s), indicating good intestinal absorption and putative brain penetration. LDT5 is not extensively protein-bound and is a substrate of human CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 but not of CYP3A4 (half-life >60 min), and did not significantly influence the activities of any of the human cytochrome P450 isoforms screened. LDT5 was considered safe albeit new studies are necessary to rule out putative central adverse effects through D2, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2B receptors, after chronic use. This work highlights the drug-likeness properties of LDT5 and supports its further preclinical development. PMID:27901175

  8. Matrix trace operators: from spectral moments of molecular graphs and complex networks to perturbations in synthetic reactions, micelle nanoparticles, and drug ADME processes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Juan, Asier Gomez-San; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Ruso, Juan M; Luan, Feng; Cordeiro, Maria Natalia Dias Soeiro

    2014-01-01

    The study of quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) is important to study complex networks of chemical reactions in drug synthesis or metabolism or drug-target interaction networks. A difficult but possible goal is the prediction of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) process with a single QSPR model. For this QSPR modelers need to use flexible structural parameters useful for the description of many different systems at different structural scales (multi-scale parameters). Also they need to use powerful analytical methods able to link in a single multi-scale hypothesis structural parameters of different target systems (multi-target modeling) with different experimental properties of these systems (multi-output models). In this sense, the QSPR study of complex bio-molecular systems may benefit substantially from the combined application of spectral moments of graph representations of complex systems with perturbation theory methods. On one hand, spectral moments are almost universal parameters that can be calculated to many different matrices used to represent the structure of the states of different systems. On the other hand, perturbation methods can be used to add "small" variation terms to parameters of a known state of a given system in order to approach to a solution of another state of the same or similar system with unknown properties. Here we present one state-of-art review about the different applications of spectral moments to describe complex bio-molecular systems. Next, we give some general ideas and formulate plausible linear models for a general-purpose perturbation theory of QSPR problems of complex systems. Last, we develop three new QSPR-Perturbation theory models based on spectral moments for three different problems with multiple in-out boundary conditions that are relevant to biomolecular sciences. The three models developed correctly classify more than pairs 115,600; 48,000; 134,900 cases of the

  9. Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Genistein: Mechanistic Studies on its ADME

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Kulkarni, Kaustubh; Zhu, Wei; Hu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Genistein, one of the most active natural flavonoids, exerts various biological effects including chemoprevention, antioxidation, antiproliferation and anticancer. More than 30 clinical trials of genistein with various disease indications have been conducted to evaluate its clinical efficacy. Based on many animals and human pharmacokinetic studies, it is well known that the most challenge issue for developing genistein as a chemoprevention agent is the low oral bioavailability, which may be the major reason relating to its ambiguous therapeutic effects and large interindividual variations in clinical trials. In order to better correlate pharmacokinetic to pharmacodynamics results in animals and clinical studies, an in-depth understanding of pharmacokinetic behavior of genistein and its ADME properties are needed. Numerous in vitro/in vivo ADME studies had been conducted to reveal the main factors contributing to the low oral bioavailability of genistein. Therefore, this review focuses on summarizing the most recent progress on mechanistic studies of genistein ADME and provides a systemic view of these processes to explain genistein pharmacokinetic behaviors in vivo. The better understanding of genistein ADME property may lead to development of proper strategy to improve genistein oral bioavailability via mechanism-based approaches. PMID:22583407

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS
    Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2
    1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA.
    2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA.

    A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

  11. ADM. Tanks: from left to right: fuel oil tank, fuel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Tanks: from left to right: fuel oil tank, fuel pump house (TAN-611), engine fuel tank, water pump house, water storage tank. Camera facing northwest. Not edge of shielding berm at left of view. Date: November 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 9217 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Locking distributed feedback laser diode frequency to gas absorption lines based on genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Wei; Li, Guanghui; Fang, Zishan; Zhai, Yueyang; Li, Xinyi; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Distributed feedback laser is widely used as the pump beam and probe beam in atomic physical and quantum experiments. As the frequency stability is a vital characteristic to the laser diode in these experiments, a saturated absorption frequency stabilization method assisted with the function of current and frequency is proposed. The relationship between the current and frequency is acquired based on the genetic programming (GP) algorithm. To verify the feasibility of the method, the frequency stabilization system is comprised of two parts that are modeling the relation between the current and frequency by GP and processing the saturated absorption signal. The results of the frequency stabilization experiment proved that this method can not only narrow the frequency searching range near the atomic line center but also compensate for the phase delay between the saturated absorption peak and the zero crossing point of the differential error signal. The reduced phase delay increases the locking probability and makes the wavelength drift only 0.015 pm/h, which converted to frequency drift is 7 MHz/h after frequency locking on the Rb absorption line.

  13. Dural repair using porcine ADM: two cases and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Skovsted Yde, Simon; Brunbjerg, Mette Eline; Gudmundsdottir, Gudrun; Bazys, Mindaugas; Heje, Martin; Engberg Damsgaard, Tine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The use of acellular dermal matrices (ADM) for dural repair is very scantily described in the literature. We report two cases of dural repair using porcine ADM and a literature review. ADM and especially StratticeTM pliable may be a useful alternative to other dural substitutes. Further evaluation would be favorable. PMID:28164146

  14. Impact of inhomogeneous optical scattering coefficient distribution on recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps using tomographic photoacoustic data.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-02-21

    We present a study through extensive simulation that considers the impact of inhomogeneous optical scattering coefficient distribution on recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps using tomographic photoacoustic data collected from media mimicking breast tissue. We found that while the impact of scattering heterogeneities/targets is modest on photoacoustic recovery of optical absorption coefficients, the impact of scattering contrast caused by adipose tissue, a layer of normal tissue along the boundary of the breast, is dramatic on reconstruction of optical absorption coefficients using photoacoustic data-up to 25.8% relative error in recovering the absorption coefficient is estimated in such cases. To overcome this problem, we propose a new method to enhance photoacoustic recovery of the optical absorption coefficient in heterogeneous media by considering inhomogeneous scattering coefficient distribution provided by diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Results from extensive simulations show that photoacoustic recovery of absorption coefficient maps can be improved considerably with a priori scattering information from DOT.

  15. [Studies on the absorption, excretion and distribution of aclacinomycin A: absorption, excretion and distribution of aclacinomycin A in mice, rabbits and dogs by photometric assay (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Iguchi, H; Matsushita, Y; Ohmori, K; Hirano, S; Kiyosaki, T; Hori, S; Tone, H; Oki, T

    1980-02-01

    An anthracycline antitumor antibiotic, aclacinomycin A, was given to mice, rabbits or dogs intravenously to study the pharmacokinetics by photometric assay based on the absorption of anthracycline ring. The drug was rapidly eliminated from the blood in these animals. Drug levels were much higher in the blood cells than in the plasma. Tissue levels in dogs were 50 approximately 100 times higher than the blood levels, which showed the drug was rapidly transferred from the blood to tissues after administration. Higher levels were observed in the lungs, spleen and lymph nodes, where the drug was present as aclacinomycin A itself and the glycoside-type metabolites that were biologically active. The active form was also detected in the pancreas, heart, thymus, bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract. In the liver and kidneys, biologically inactive aglycone-type metabolites were observed. About 2 approximately 4% of the drug given to rabbits or dogs was recovered in the urine by 72 hours after administration, in which only 10% of the excreted drug was active form in rabbits but about 65% in dogs. The rest was inactive aglycone-type metabolites that were excreted almost in the conjugated form. Biliary excretion also contributed to the total clearance of the drug. Aclacinomycin A was absorbed even by oral administration in rabbits and dogs. Tissue distribution of the drug orally given to dogs was similar to that in intravenous administration, except that higher levels of active form were detected in the gastrointestinal tract and of inactive form in the liver.

  16. Longitudinal distribution of ozone absorption in the lung: quiet respiration in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hu, S C; Ben-Jebria, A; Ultman, J S

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a bolus-response method for the noninvasive determination of O3 distribution in the human lung. A previously developed O3 analyzer and bolus generator were incorporated in a computer-controlled inhalation system, and measurements of O3 absorption from inhaled 10-ml boluses with a peak O3 concentration of 4 ppm were carried out on nine previously unexposed healthy male subjects engaged in quiet oral breathing. The fraction of O3 absorbed during a single breath was measured over a range of airway penetrations from 20 to 200 ml, with inspiratory and expiratory flows fixed at a nominal value of 250 ml/s. The resulting data indicated that 50% of the inhaled O3 was absorbed at a penetration of 70 ml, which roughly corresponds to the upper airways, and essentially complete absorption occurred at a penetration of 180 ml, which roughly corresponds to the 16th airway generation, the beginning of the proximal alveolar region. This compares favorably with the results of direct-sampling methods, which indicated that 40.4% of continuously inhaled O3 is removed by the extrathoracic airways (Gerrity et al. J. Appl. Physiol. 65: 393-400, 1988). The computation of an absorption rate constant, Ka, revealed that the efficiency of O3 uptake increased with longitudinal position throughout most of the conducting airways but began to fall off at a penetration of 160 ml.

  17. Solvent dependence of structure, charge distribution, and absorption spectrum in the photochromic merocyanine-spiropyran pair.

    PubMed

    Murugan, N Arul; Chakrabarti, Swapan; Ågren, Hans

    2011-04-14

    We have studied the structures and absorption spectra of merocyanine, the photoresponsive isomer of the spiropyran (SP)-merocyanine (MC) pair, in chloroform and in water solvents using a combined hybrid QM/MM Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CP-QM/MM) and ZINDO approach. We report remarkable differences in the molecular structure and charge distribution of MC between the two solvents; the molecular structure of MC remains in neutral form in chloroform while it becomes charge-separated, zwitterionic, in water. The dipole moment of MC in water is about 50% larger than in chloroform, while the value for SP in water is in between, suggesting that the solvent is more influential than the conformation itself in deciding the dipole moment for the merocyanine-spiropyran pair. The calculations could reproduce the experimentally reported blue shift in the absorption spectra of MC when going from the nonpolar to the polar solvent, though the actual value of the absorption maximum is overestimated in chloroform solvent. We find that the CP-QM/MM approach is appropriate for structure modeling of solvatochromic and thermochromic molecules as this approach is able to capture the solvent and thermal-induced structural changes within the solute important for an accurate assessment of the properties.

  18. [Absorption, distribution and elimination of a labelled extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves in the rat].

    PubMed

    Moreau, J P; Eck, C R; McCabe, J; Skinner, S

    1986-09-25

    The absorption, distribution and elimination of a radiolabelled 14C extract prepared from Ginkgo biloba leaves have been studied in rats. Following oral administration, expired 14C-CO2 represented 16% of the administered dose excreted within the first 3 hours post-dose out of a total of 38% after 72 hours. An additional 21% of the administered dose was eliminated in the urine. The absorption of the radiolabelled Ginkgo biloba extract was at least 60%. The pharmacokinetics of the drug, based on blood specific activity data versus time course, were characteristic of a two-compartment model with an apparent first order phase and a biological half-life of approximatively 4.5 h. During the first 3 hours, radioactivity was primarily associated with the plasma, but through a gradual uptake after 48 h. The specific activity in erythrocytes matched that of plasma. A site of absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract is suspected since specific activity in blood peaked after 1.5 hours. Glandular and neuronal tissues and eyes showed a high affinity for the labelled substance. These results provide the first tentative link between the therapeutic effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba extract and the biological fate of some of its constituents.

  19. Absorption, distribution and excretion of the colour fraction of Caramel Colour IV in the rat.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Chappel, C I; Schoenig, G P

    1992-05-01

    Caramel Colour IV prepared from [U-14C]glucose was ultrafiltered in order to isolate the high molecular weight colour fraction (HMCF). The colour fraction that was non-permeable to a 10,000-Da porosity membrane, contained 84% of the colour, 22% of the solids and 24% of the radioactivity of the [14C]Caramel Colour IV. The absorption, distribution and excretion of [14C]HMCF were evaluated in male rats after administration of single or multiple oral doses of the material at a dosage level of 2.5 g/kg body weight. Rats on the multiple oral dosage regimen were given unlabelled HMCF in their drinking water for 13 days before the administration of a bolus dose of [14C]HMCF on day 14. On both dosage regimens, the predominant route of excretion was by way of the faeces. Less than 3% of the administered radioactivity was excreted in the urine and only a negligible amount was found in the expired air. More than 99% of the administered radioactivity was excreted within 96 hr. The principal tissues in which radioactivity was found were the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, kidney and tissues of the gastro-intestinal tract. No major differences were observed in the absorption, distribution or excretion patterns between the single and multiple oral dose regimens.

  20. Modeling the cumulative distribution of absorption coefficients of gases using the generalized k-moment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Frédéric; Solovjov, Vladimir; Vaillon, Rodolphe; Lemonnier, Denis

    2013-07-01

    The generalized k-moment method is formulated in terms of Cutteridge-Devyatov polynomials (CDP). In this novel approach, the moments involved are spectral averages of integer powers of the logarithm of the absorption coefficient. The technique to obtain k-distributions from those generalized moments is detailed both theoretically and from a practical point of view. Its outputs are afterward assessed against reference data in several test cases of increasing complexity. Indeed, the first ones involve single lines in the Lorentz, Doppler and Voigt regimes. The most sophisticated situations investigated in this work concern applications of the method to high resolution LBL data for pure CO2 at temperatures between 300K and 2300K and at atmospheric pressure. In any case, the CDP solution to the generalized k-moment problem is found to provide very accurate results. The present technique outperforms our previous approach to k-moment modeling of the cumulative distribution of absorption coefficients of gases that were based on first, second, first inverse and logarithmic moments, in all the situations investigated. Equations required to apply the model are provided in the paper, both over narrow bands and the full spectrum.

  1. Similarity based SAR (SIBAR) as tool for early ADME profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Christian; Kaiser, Dominik; Kopp, Stephan; Chiba, Peter; Ecker, Gerhard F.

    2002-11-01

    Estimation of bioavailability and toxicity at the very beginning of the drug development process is one of the big challenges in drug discovery. Most of the processes involved in ADME are driven by rather unspecific interactions between drugs and biological macromolecules. Within the past decade, drug transport pumps such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) have gained increasing interest in the early ADME profiling process. Due to the high structural diversity of ligands of Pgp, traditional QSAR methods were only successful within analogous series of compounds. We used an approach based on similarity calculations to predict Pgp-inhibitory activity of a series of propafenone analogues. This SIBAR approach is based on selection of a highly diverse reference compound set and calculation of similarity values to these reference compounds. The similarity values (denoted as SIBAR descriptors) are then used for PLS analysis. Our results show, that for a set of 131 propafenone type compounds, models with good predictivity were obtained both in cross validation procedures and with a 31-compound external test set. Thus, these new descriptors might be a versatile tool for generation of predictive ADME models.

  2. Longitudinal dose distribution and energy absorption in PMMA and water cylinders undergoing CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The knowledge of longitudinal dose distribution provides the most direct view of the accumulated dose in computed tomography (CT) scanning. The purpose of this work was to perform a comprehensive study of dose distribution width and energy absorption with a wide range of subject sizes and beam irradiated lengths. Methods: Cumulative dose distribution along the z-axis was calculated based on the previously published CT dose equilibration data by Li, Zhang, and Liu [Med. Phys. 40, 031903 (10pp.) (2013)] and a mechanism for computing dose on axial lines by Li, Zhang, and Liu [Med. Phys. 39, 5347–5352 (2012)]. Full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at tenth maximum (FWTM), the total energy (E) absorbed in a small cylinder of unit mass per centimeter square about the central or peripheral axis, and the energy (E{sub in}) absorbed inside irradiated length (L) were subsequently extracted from the dose distribution. Results: Extensive results of FWHM, FWTM, and E{sub in}/E were presented on the central and peripheral axes of infinitely long PMMA (diameters 6–50 cm) and water (diameters 6–55 cm) cylinders with L < 100 cm. FWHM was greater than the primary beam width only on the central axes of large phantoms and also with L ranging from a few centimeter to about 33 cm. FWTM generally increased with phantom diameter, and could be up to 32 cm longer than irradiated length, depending on L, phantom diameter and axis, but was insensitive to phantom material (PMMA or water). E{sub in}/E increased with L and asymptotically approached unity for large L. As phantom diameter increased, E{sub in}/E generally decreased, but asymptotically approached constant levels on the peripheral axes of large phantoms. A heuristic explanation of dose distribution width results was presented. Conclusions: This study enables the reader to gain a comprehensive view of dose distribution width and energy absorption and provides useful data for estimating doses to organs inside or

  3. Saharan Dust: Particle Size Distributions and Light Absorption From Measurements During PRIDE and AEROCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoie, D. L.; Maring, H. B.

    2001-12-01

    During July 2000, the Office of Naval Reseach and NASA co-sponsored the Puerto Rican Dust Experiment (PRIDE) to assess the physical and optical properties of Saharan dust over the western Atlantic. Numerous aerosol characterization instruments were deployed on Isla Cabras (18.21 N, 65.60 W) in the Roosevelt Roads Naval Station at the eastern end of Puerto Rico. As part of AEROCE (Atmosphere/Ocean Chemistry Experiment), we had previously made similar measurements over the eastern Atlantic at Izana, Tenerife, Canary Islands (28.30 N, 16.48 W). Instrumentation included a TSI APS33 aerodynamic particle sizer, a Ruprecht and Patashnick Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM), and a Radiance Research particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP). At the same locations, daily, high-volume, bulk aerosol samples were collected and analyzed for mineral dust, sea-salt, nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium and for aerosol light absorption (every 10 nm from 300 to 1100 nm via total diffuse reflectance measurements). With the concurrent aerosol chemistry, variations in the in-situ aerosol physical and optical properties can be linked to variations in the concentrations of particles from specific sources. High concentrations of Saharan dust were present at Izana during the last half of July 1995. The APS data at Izana are almost exclusively from dust as there is no sea-salt at this free troposphere site. We used the measured particle size distributions for high dust periods from this campaign to establish an average dust size distribution. Because of the nearly zero correlation between sea-salt and dust, the APS size distributions during PRIDE could be reasonably well resolved between these two components. In contrast to the situation at Izana, there were virtually no particles larger than 10 um geometric diameter at Puerto Rico. Progressively lesser fractions of particles were lost between the eastern and western Atlantic as the particle size decreased. With the natural

  4. Enhancement of light absorption in polyazomethines due to plasmon excitation on randomly distributed metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, P.; Antosiewicz, T. J.; Stefaniuk, T.; Ciesielski, A.; Iwan, A.; Wronkowska, A. A.; Wronkowski, A.; Szoplik, T.

    2015-05-01

    In photovoltaic devices, metal nanoparticles embedded in a semiconductor layer allow the enhancement of solar-toelectric energy conversion efficiency due to enhanced light absorption via a prolonged optical path, enhanced electric fields near the metallic inclusions, direct injection of hot electrons, or local heating. Here we pursue the first two avenues. In the first, light scattered at an angle beyond the critical angle for reflection is coupled into the semiconductor layer and confined within such planar waveguide up to possible exciton generation. In the second, light is trapped by the excitation of localized surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles leading to enhanced near-field plasmon-exciton coupling at the peak of the plasmon resonance. We report on results of a numerical experiment on light absorption in polymer- (fullerene derivative) blends, using the 3D FDTD method, where exact optical parameters of the materials involved are taken from our recent measurements. In simulations we investigate light absorption in randomly distributed metal nanoparticles dispersed in polyazomethine-(fullerene derivative) blends, which serve as active layers in bulkheterojunction polymer solar cells. In the study Ag and Al nanoparticles of different diameters and fill factors are diffused in two air-stable aromatic polyazomethines with different chemical structures (abbreviated S9POF and S15POF) mixed with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM). The mixtures are spin coated on a 100 nm thick Al layer deposited on a fused silica substrate. Optical constants of the active layers are taken from spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectance measurements using a rotating analyzer type ellipsometer with auto-retarder performed in the wavelength range from 225 nm to 2200 nm. The permittivities of Ag and Al particles of diameters from 20 to 60 nm are assumed to be equal to those measured on 100 to 200 nm thick metal films.

  5. COMPARING SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOLAR PROMINENCE MASS DERIVED FROM CORONAL ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Kucera, Therese; Alexander, David

    2011-01-20

    In a previous study, Gilbert et al. derived the column density and total mass of solar prominences using a new technique, which measures how much coronal radiation in the Fe XII (195 A) spectral band is absorbed by prominence material, while considering the effects of both foreground and background radiation. In the present work, we apply this method to a sample of prominence observations in three different wavelength regimes: one in which only H{sup 0} is ionized (504 A < {lambda} < 911 A), a second where both H{sup 0} and He{sup 0} are ionized (228 A < {lambda} < 504 A), and finally at wavelengths where H{sup 0}, He{sup 0}, and He{sup +} are all ionized ({lambda} < 228 A). This approach, first suggested by Kucera et al., permits the separation of the contributions of neutral hydrogen and helium to the total column density in prominences. Additionally, an enhancement of the technique allowed the calculation of the two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution of the column density from the continuum absorption in each extreme-ultraviolet observation. We find the total prominence mass is consistently lower in the 625 A observations compared to lines in the other wavelength regimes. There is a significant difference in total mass between the 625 A and 195 A lines, indicating the much higher opacity at 625 A is causing a saturation of the continuum absorption and thus, a potentially large underestimation of mass.

  6. Oral absorption and tissue distribution of a new squalenoyl anticancer nanomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harivardhan Reddy, L.; Ferreira, Humberto; Dubernet, Catherine; Mouelhi, Sinda Lepetre; Desmaële, Didier; Rousseau, Bernard; Couvreur, Patrick

    2008-05-01

    Recently, we had discovered that the linkage of nucleoside analogues to squalene, a precursor in the sterol biosynthesis, led to amphiphilic molecules, which self-organized in water as nanoassemblies of 100-300 nm in diameter, irrespective of the nucleoside analogue used. Thus, it was observed that the 4-( N)-trisnorsqualenoylgemcitabine (SQdFdC), the squalenoyl prodrug of the anticancer nucleoside analogue gemcitabine, was impressively more active than its parent compound gemcitabine, both in vitro and in vivo on experimental leukaemia. Since squalene, which is a natural constituent of shark liver and olive oil, is known to be absorbed orally, we investigated in this short note the absorption and tissue distribution of 3H-radiolabelled SQdFdC nanoassemblies comparatively to 3H-gemcitabine after oral administration to mice. Whereas gemcitabine was found to be rapidly absorbed ( t max = 1 h), this compound underwent a rapid clearance from the plasma. Conversely, the SQdFdC nanoassemblies displayed slower absorption followed by the progressive tissue accumulation, and they exhibited a lower clearance rate. The accumulation of the SQdFdC nanoassemblies in tissues such as pancreas, thymus, lung, liver and spleen (except at 1 h post-administration) was similar to that of the gemcitabine, yet exhibited significantly greater penetration and retention into the stomach and intestinal tissues comparatively to gemcitabine. Thus, the SQdFdC nanoassemblies could be of potential interest in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumours by oral route.

  7. The velocity distribution of interstellar gas observed in strong UV absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; York, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of three strong interstellar UV absorption lines of N I (1199 A), N II (1083 A), and Si III (1206 A) in 47 stars of widely varying distance and a variety of spectral types are analyzed to obtain a velocity distribution function for the interstellar gas. A technique based on the maximum and minimum velocities observed along a line of sight is adopted because of heavy line blending, and results are discussed for both power-law and exponential distribution functions. The expected distribution of radiative-phase supernova remnants (SNRs) in the interstellar medium is calculated as a function of SNR birthrate and of the interstellar density in which they evolve. The results are combined with observed distance estimates, and it is shown that an interstellar density in excess of 0.1 per cu cm would be required to keep the SNRs sufficiently confined so that their cross sections are consistent with the observed number of components. The alternative possibility is considered that SNRs do not enter the radiative phase before escaping from the Galaxy or colliding with neighboring remnants.

  8. Breaking of symmetrical charge distribution in xanthylocyanine chromophores detecting by their absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyluk, S. V.; Viniychuk, O. O.; Poronik, Ye. M.; Kovtun, Yu. P.; Shandura, M. P.; Yashchuk, V. M.; Kachkovsky, O. D.

    2011-03-01

    A detailed experimental investigation and quantum-chemical analysis of symmetrical cyanines with xanthylium and its substituted derivatives and with different polymethine chain (containing 1 and 2 vinylene groups) have been performed with the goal of understanding the nature of the electronic transitions in molecules. It is established electronic transitions in carbocyanines are similar to that in the typical Brooker's cyanines. In contrast, the absorption spectra of dicarbocyanines demonstrate a strong solvent dependence and substantial band broadening represented by the growth of the short wavelength shoulder. Basing on the results of the quantum-chemical calculation and conception of the mobile solitonic-like charge waves, we have concluded that the dicarbocyanines exist in two charged forms in the ground state with symmetrical and unsymmetrical distributions of the charge density. These are the examples of the cationic cyanines with the shortest chain when the symmetry breaking occurs.

  9. Absorption, distribution, and elimination of graded oral doses of methylmercury in juvenile white sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Fadel, James G; Lin, Pinpin; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Hung, Silas S O

    2012-10-15

    Mercury (Hg) is toxic and is released into the environment from a wide variety of anthropogenic sources. Methylmercury (MeHg), a product of microbial methylation, enables rapid Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the biota. Methylmercury is sequestered and made available to the rest of the biota through the benthic-detrital component leading to the high risk of exposure to benthic fish species, such as white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). In the present study, a combined technique of stomach intubation, dorsal aorta cannulation, and urinary catheterization was utilized to characterize the absorption, distribution, and elimination of Hg in white sturgeon over a 48h exposure. Mercury, as methylmercury chloride, at either 0, 250, 500, or 1000 μg Hg/kg body weight, was orally intubated into white sturgeon, in groups of five. The blood was repeatedly sampled and urine collected from the fish over the 48h post intubation period, and at 48h, the fish were sacrificed for Hg tissue concentration and distribution determinations. The fractional rate of absorption (K), blood Hg concentration (μg/ml), tissue concentration (μg/g dry weight) and distribution (%), and urinary Hg elimination flux (μg/kg/h) are significantly different (p<0.05) among the MeHg doses. Complete blood uptake of Hg was observed in all MeHg treated fish by 12h. The maximal observed blood Hg concentration peaks are 0.56±0.02, 0.70±0.02, and 2.19±0.07 μg/ml (mean±SEM) for the 250, 500, and 1000 μgHg/kg body weight dose groups, respectively. Changes in blood Hg profiles can be described by a monomolecular function in all of the MeHg treated fish. The Hg concentration asymptote (A) and K are dose dependent. The relationship between A and the intubation dose, however, is nonlinear. Mercury levels in certain tissues are comparable to field data and longer-term study, indicating that the lower doses used in the current study are ecologically relevant for the species. Tissue Hg concentrations

  10. ADM-CLE Approach for Detecting Slow Variables in Continuous Time Markov Chains and Dynamic Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    method for detecting intrinsic slow variables in high-dimensional stochastic chemical reaction networks is developed and analyzed. It combines anisotropic...diffusion maps (ADM) with approximations based on the chemical Langevin equation (CLE). The resulting approach, called ADM-CLE, has the potential of...being more efficient than the ADM method for a large class of chemical reaction systems, because it replaces the computationally most expensive step of

  11. [The inhibitory effect and the mechanism of ethanol absorption by L-carnosine zinc complex in mouse gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Natsuki, R; Nozaki, M; Fujimura, H

    1998-12-01

    The effect of L-carnosine-zinc complex(Car-Zn) on ethanol absorption was investigated after oral administration(adm) to mice. One hour after oral adm of Car-Zn, and 14C-ethanol was given orally or intraperitoneally(i.p.). After passage of time, the blood was drawn from the tail vein, and 14C-radioactivities determined. The Car-Zn showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the appearance of 14C-radioactivities in blood following oral 14C-ethanol loading, while Zn acetate did not induce any alteration as compared with control. Car-Zn pretreatment did not induce any change in the blood 14C-radioactivity when ethanol was given i.p. The 14C-radioactivity and zinc in gastrointestinal tract after oral adm of Car-Zn and 14C-ethanol showed significantly higher levels than those of control for 7 hr. Distribution of 14C-radioactivities in other organs of Car-Zn treated mice were lower than those of control 3 hr after adm, while it was similar or higher than those of control 7 hr after adm. The excretions of 14C-radioactivity through expiration in Car-Zn group was a lower than that of control. Also, the urinary and fecal excretions of 14C-radioactivity were low values at 5.0% and 0.5% of the administered dose 72 hr after adm, respectively. Also, the 14C-radioactivities remaining in the organs did not detect or were very low values. In vitro study, Car-Zn stimulated the metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde and acetic acid in 9,000 g supernatant of small intestine. The major route of excretions of 14C-radioactivity may be excreted into the expired air. The results suggest that Car-Zn shows a long-term adhesive and permeable action on gastrointestinal tract in the mouse; as a result, this may inhibited ethanol absorption.

  12. ADM. Aerial view of administration area. Camera facing westerly. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Aerial view of administration area. Camera facing westerly. From left to right in foregound: Substation (TAN-605), Warehouse (TAN-628), Gate House (TAN-601), Administration Building (TAN-602). Left to right middle ground: Service Building (TAN-603), Warehouse (later known as Maintenance Shop or Craft Shop, TAN-604), Water Well Pump Houses, Fuel Tanks and Fuel Pump Houses, and Water Storage Tanks. Change House (TAN-606) on near side of berm. Large building beyond berm is A&M. Building, TAN-607. Railroad tracks beyond lead from (unseen) turntable to the IET. Date: June 6, 1955. INEEL negative no. 13201 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Electric field distribution and energy absorption in anisotropic and dispersive red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, J L; Muñoz, S; Sancho, M; Alvarez, G; Miranda, J M

    2007-12-07

    We have studied the influence of the anisotropic and dispersive nature of the red blood cell structure on the energy absorption and electric field distribution within the cell exposed to electromagnetic fields of frequencies in the range from 50 kHz to 10 GHz. For this purpose we have generated a realistic model of a multilayered erythrocyte cell from a set of parametric equations in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. The effect of dipole relaxations and anisotropic conductivities is taken into account in the dispersion equations for the conductivity and permittivity of each layer (cytoplasmic and extra-cellular bound waters, membrane, cytoplasm and external medium). Using a finite element numerical technique, we have found that the electric field distribution and the energy absorbed in the membrane show well-defined maxima for both normal and parallel orientations of the external field with respect to the symmetry axis of the cell. The normal and tangential conductivities and permittivities of the membrane are shown to be responsible for the different peak amplitudes and frequency shifts of the maxima. A previously unnoticed effect is that the cell shape combined with the dispersion of the membrane permittivity and the influence of bound water layers leads to a very high amplification factor (greater than 300) of the electric field in the membrane at frequencies in the megahertz range.

  14. Determination of mercury distribution inside spent compact fluorescent lamps by atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rey-Raap, Natalia; Gallardo, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    In this study, spent compact fluorescent lamps were characterized to determine the distribution of mercury. The procedure used in this research allowed mercury to be extracted in the vapor phase, from the phosphor powder, and the glass matrix. Mercury concentration in the three phases was determined by the method known as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Median values obtained in the study showed that a compact fluorescent lamp contained 24.52±0.4ppb of mercury in the vapor phase, 204.16±8.9ppb of mercury in the phosphor powder, and 18.74±0.5ppb of mercury in the glass matrix. There are differences in mercury concentration between the lamps since the year of manufacture or the hours of operation affect both mercury content and its distribution. The 85.76% of the mercury introduced into a compact fluorescent lamp becomes a component of the phosphor powder, while more than 13.66% is diffused through the glass matrix. By washing and eliminating all phosphor powder attached to the glass surface it is possible to classified the glass as a non-hazardous waste.

  15. Comparing Spatial Distributions of Solar Prominence Mass Derived from Coronal Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Alexander, David; Kucera, Therese

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we extend the use of this mass-inference technique to a sample of prominences observed in at least two coronal lines. This approach, in theory, allows a direct calculation of prominence mass and helium abundance and how these properties vary spatially and temporally. Our motivation is two-fold: to obtain a He(exp 0)/H(exp 0) abundance ratio, and to determine how the relative spatial distribution of the two species varies in prominences. The first of these relies on the theoretical expectation that the amount of absorption at each EUV wavelength is well-characterized. However, in this work we show that due to a saturation of the continuum absorption in the 625 A and 368 A lines (which have much higher opacity compared to 195 A-) the uncertainties in obtaining the relative abundances are too high to give meaningful estimates. This is an important finding because of its impact on future studies in this area. The comparison of the spatial distribution of helium and hydrogen presented here augments previous observational work indicating that cross-field diffusion of neutrals is an important mechanism for mass loss. Significantly different loss timescales for neutral He and H (helium drains much more rapidly than hydrogen) can impact prominence structure, and both the present and past studies suggest this mechanism is playing a role in structure and possibly dynamics. Section 2 of this paper contains a description of the observations and Section 3 summarizes the method used to infer mass along with the criteria imposed in choosing prominences appropriate for this study. Section 3 also contains a discussion of the problems due to limitations of the available data and the implications for determining relative abundances. We present our results in Section 4, including plots of radial-like scans of prominence mass in different lines to show the spatial distribution of the different species. The last section contains a discussion summarizing the importance

  16. Nanodelivery of bioactive components for food applications: types of delivery systems, properties, and their effect on ADME profiles and toxicity of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Borel, T; Sabliov, C M

    2014-01-01

    Food bioactives are known to prevent aging, cancer, and other diseases for an overall improved health of the consumer. Nanodelivery provides a means to control stability, solubility, and bioavailability, and also provides controlled release of food bioactives. There are two main types of nanodelivery systems, liquid and solid. Liquid nanodelivery systems include nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, and nanopolymersomes. Solid nanodelivery systems include nanocrystals, lipid nanoparticles, and polymeric nanoparticles. Each type of nanodelivery system offers distinct benefits depending on the compatibility of nanoparticle properties with the properties of the bioactive and the desired application. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles such as size, charge, hydrophobicity, and targeting molecules affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of nanodelivery systems. The fate of the bioactive depends on its physicochemical properties and the location of its release. The safety of nanodelivery systems for use in food applications is largely unknown. Toxicological studies consisting of a combination of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo studies are needed to reveal the safety of nanodelivery systems for successful applications in food and agriculture.

  17. X-ray-absorption spectroscopy and n-body distribution functions in condensed matter. I. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipponi, Adriano; di Cicco, Andrea; Natoli, Calogero Renzo

    1995-12-01

    The general theoretical framework underlying the GNXAS multiple-scattering (MS) data-analysis method for x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is presented. The main approximations leading to the reduction of the many-body process in that of a photoelectron scattering in an effective potential are summarized. The methods available to expand the extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure χ(k) into physically meaningful terms are described. In particular, emphasis is given to the definition of the irreducible n-body signals γ(n) that can be calculated directly by means of linear combinations of continued fractions, or by using their respective multiple-scattering series. It is found that even for an infinite system the expansion of the χ(k) signal in terms of γ(n) has a better convergence rate than the MS series. Simple expressions for performing the configurational averages of the structural signals in the presence of thermal and structural disorder are derived. These can be used for the structural analysis of molecular, crystalline, or moderately disordered systems. It is shown that in the case of highly disordered systems the expansion in terms of the γ(n) signals is the natural framework for the interpretation of the XAS signal. General equations for the ensemble-averaged χ(k) signal as a function of a series of integrals over the n-body n>~2 distribution functions gn are provided and the possible use of advanced strategies for the inversion of the structural information is suggested.

  18. Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) Intensity Distributions from INL's Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    Greenwood, R. E.

    A 252Cf fission-product source and the INL on-line isotope separator were used to supply isotope-separated fission-product nuclides to a total absorption -ray spectrometer. This spectrometer consisted of a large (25.4-cm diameter x 30.5-cm long) NaI(Tl) detector with a 20.3-cm deep axial well in which is placed a 300-mm2 x 1.0-mm Si detector. The spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector are collected both in the singles mode and in coincidence with the B-events detected in the Si detector. Ideally, this detector would sum all the energy of the B- rays in each cascade following the population of daughter level by B- decay, so that the event could be directly associated with a particular daughter level. However, there are losses of energy from attenuation of the rays before they reach the detector, transmission of rays through the detector, escape of secondary photons from Compton scattering, escape of rays through the detector well, internal conversion, etc., and the measured spectra are thus more complicated than the ideal case and the analysis is more complex. Analysis methods have been developed to simulate all of these processes and thus provide a direct measure of the B- intensity distribution as a function of the excitation energy in the daughter nucleus. These data yield more accurate information on the B- distribution than conventional decay-scheme studies for complex decay schemes with large decay energies, because in the latter there are generally many unobserved and observed but unplaced rays. The TAGS data have been analyzed and published [R. E. Greenwood et al., Nucl Instr. and metho. A390(1997)] for 40 fission product-nuclides to determine the B- intensity distributions. [Copied from the TAGS page at http://www.inl.gov/gammaray/spectrometry/tags.shtml]. Those values are listed on this page for quick reference.

  19. Distributed nerve gases sensor based on IR absorption in hollow optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, R.; Liberatore, N.; Luciani, D.; Mengali, S.; Pierno, L.

    2010-10-01

    The Nerve gases are persistent gases that appear as very challenging menace in homeland security scenarios, due to the low pressure vapor at ambient temperature, and the very low lethal concentrations. A novel approach to the detection and identification of these very hazardous volatile compounds in large areas such as airports, underground stations, big events arenas, aimed to a high selectivity (Low false alarm probability), has been explored under the SENSEFIB Corporate Project of Finmeccanica S.p.A. The technical demonstrator under development within the Project is presented. It is based on distributed line sensors performing infrared absorption measurements to reveal even trace amounts of target compounds from the retrieval of their spectral fingerprint. The line sensor is essentially constituted by a widely tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL), coupled to IR thermoelectrically cooled MCT fast detectors by means of a infrared hollow core fibers (HCF). The air is sampled through several micro-holes along the HCF, by means of a micropump, while the infrared radiation travels inside the fiber from the source to the detector, that are optically coupled with the opposite apertures of the HCF. The architecture of the sensor and its principle of operation, in order to cover large areas with a few line sensors instead of with a grid of many point sensors, are illustrated. The sensor is designed to use the HCF as an absorption cell, exploiting long path length and very small volume, (e.g fast response), at the same time. Furthermore the distributed sensor allows to cover large areas and/or not easily accessible locations, like air ducts, with a single line sensor by extending the HCF for several tens of meters. The main components implemented in the sensor are described, in particular: the EC-QCL source to span the spectral range of wavelength between 9.15um and 9.85um; and the hollow core fiber, exhibiting a suitably low optical loss in this spectral

  20. Total ozone column distribution over peninsular Malaysia from scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric cartography (SCIAMACHY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. C.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.

    2012-10-01

    Increasing of atmospheric ozone concentrations have received great attention around the whole because of its characteristic, in order to degrade air quality and brings hazard to human health and ecosystems. Ozone, one of the most pollutants source and brings a variety of adverse effects on plant life and human being. Continuous monitoring on ozone concentrations at atmosphere provide information and precautions for the high ozone level, which we need to be established. Satellite observation of ozone has been identified that it can provide the precise and accurate data globally, which sensitive to the small regional biases. We present measurements from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) included on the European environmental satellite ENVISAT, launched on 1st of March 2002. Main objective of this study is to examine the ozone distribution over Peninsular Malaysia using SCIAMACHY level-2 of total ozone column WFMD version 1.0 with spatial resolution 1° x 1.25°. Maps of time averaged (yearly, tri-monthly) ozone was generated and analyzed over Peninsular Malaysia for the year 2003 using PCI Geomatica 10.3 image processing software. It was retrieved using the interpolation technique. The concentration changes within boundary layer at all altitude levels are equally sensitive through the SCIAMACHY nearinfrared nadir observations. Hence, we can make observation of ozone at surface source region. The results successfully identify the area with highest and lowest concentration of ozone at Peninsular Malaysia using SCIAMACHY data. Therefore, the study is suitable to examine the distribution of ozone at tropical region.

  1. Determination of mercury distribution inside spent compact fluorescent lamps by atomic absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rey-Raap, Natalia

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New treatments for CFL are required considering the aim of Directive 202/96/CE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is shown that most of the mercury introduced into a CFL is in the phosphor powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental conditions for microwave-assisted sample digestion followed by AAS measurements are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By washing the glass it is possible to reduce the concentration below legal limits. - Abstract: In this study, spent compact fluorescent lamps were characterized to determine the distribution of mercury. The procedure used in this research allowed mercury to be extracted in the vapor phase, from the phosphor powder, and the glass matrix. Mercury concentration in the three phases was determined by the method known as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Median values obtained in the study showed that a compact fluorescent lamp contained 24.52 {+-} 0.4 ppb of mercury in the vapor phase, 204.16 {+-} 8.9 ppb of mercury in the phosphor powder, and 18.74 {+-} 0.5 ppb of mercury in the glass matrix. There are differences in mercury concentration between the lamps since the year of manufacture or the hours of operation affect both mercury content and its distribution. The 85.76% of the mercury introduced into a compact fluorescent lamp becomes a component of the phosphor powder, while more than 13.66% is diffused through the glass matrix. By washing and eliminating all phosphor powder attached to the glass surface it is possible to classified the glass as a non-hazardous waste.

  2. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of 3-MCPD 1-Monopalmitate after Oral Administration in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Boyan; Liu, Man; Huang, Guoren; Zhang, Zhongfei; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Thomas T Y; Zhang, Yaqiong; Liu, Jie; Yu, Liangli

    2017-03-15

    Fatty acid esters of monochloropropane 1,2-diol (3-MCPD) are processing-induced toxicants and have been detected in several food categories. This study investigated the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of 3-MCPD esters in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate as the probe compound. The kinetics of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate in plasma was investigated using SD rats, and the results indicated that 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate was absorbed directly in vivo and metabolized. Its primary metabolites in the liver, kidney, testis, brain, plasma, and urine were tentatively identified and measured at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after oral administration. Structures were proposed for eight metabolites. 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate was converted to free 3-MCPD, which formed the phase II metabolites. All of the metabolites were chlorine-related chemical components; most of them existed in urine, reflecting the excretion pattern of 3-MCPD esters. Understanding the metabolism of 3-MCPD esters in vivo is critical for assessing their toxicities.

  3. Signatures of a conical intersection in photofragment distributions and absorption spectra: Photodissociation in the Hartley band of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2014-08-21

    Photodissociation of ozone in the near UV is studied quantum mechanically in two excited electronic states coupled at a conical intersection located outside the Franck-Condon zone. The calculations, performed using recent ab initio PESs, provide an accurate description of the photodissociation dynamics across the Hartley/Huggins absorption bands. The observed photofragment distributions are reproduced in the two electronic dissociation channels. The room temperature absorption spectrum, constructed as a Boltzmann average of many absorption spectra of rotationally excited parent ozone, agrees with experiment in terms of widths and intensities of diffuse structures. The exit channel conical intersection contributes to the coherent broadening of the absorption spectrum and directly affects the product vibrational and translational distributions. The photon energy dependences of these distributions are strikingly different for fragments created along the adiabatic and the diabatic paths through the intersection. They can be used to reverse engineer the most probable geometry of the non-adiabatic transition. The angular distributions, quantified in terms of the anisotropy parameter β, are substantially different in the two channels due to a strong anticorrelation between β and the rotational angular momentum of the fragment O{sub 2}.

  4. Characterization of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) prepared by two different methods.

    PubMed

    Walter, R J; Matsuda, T; Reyes, H M; Walter, J M; Hanumadass, M

    1998-03-01

    The efficacy of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in the treatment of full-thickness skin injuries as a dermal substitute depends on its low antigenicity, capacity for rapid vascularization, and stability as a dermal template. These properties will be determined largely by the final composition of the ADM. We have treated human skin with either Dispase followed by Triton X-100 detergent or NaCl followed by SDS detergent, cryosectioned the resulting ADMs, and then characterized them immunohistochemically. Staining for cell-associated antigens (HLA-ABC, HLA-DR, vimentin, desmin, talin), extracellular matrix components (chondroitin sulfate, fibronectin, laminin, vitronectin, hyaluronic acid), elastin, and collagen type VII was dramatically reduced or absent from ADMs prepared by both methods. However, significant amounts of elastin, keratan sulfate, laminin, and collagen types III and IV were still observed in both ADMs. Both methods of ADM preparation resulted in extensive extraction of both cellular and extracellular components of the skin but retention of the basic dermal architecture. In general, ADM prepared by the NaCl-SDS method retained larger amounts of each antigen than did that prepared by the Dispase-Triton method. This was most evident for laminin and type VII collagen but larger amounts of type IV collagen, fibronectin, desmin, elastin, and HLA-DR were also evident in the NaCl-SDS ADM.

  5. Conference report: a hitchhiker's guide to outsourcing ADME studies: the inside of outsourcing.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, J Fred; Anderson, Shelby R; Breuckner, Claudia; Premkumar, Noel D; Polli, Joseph W

    2013-02-01

    This report gives a summary of the key points raised during a roundtable discussion convened at the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2012 Annual Meeting and Exposition held in Chicago on 17 October 2012. The science of ADME continues to grow, as does the impact of these studies on drug development. Understanding ADME requires efforts from several scientific specialties. With reductions in pharmaceutical company R&D staff there has been a corresponding growth in CROs with the capabilities and expertise to perform ADME work. This roundtable explored the challenges inherent in understanding ADME and the issues that arise when ADME studies shift from in-house study directors to external scientists working within the business model of a CRO. Pharmaceutical industry scientists and procurement specialists can satisfy their expectations by awareness of the growing expertise within CROs and the need for open communication among all partners involved in outsourced work.

  6. Reconstruction of combustion temperature and gas concentration distributions using line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Pengshuai; Pang, Tao; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhe; Han, Luo; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-07-01

    Spatial temperature and gas concentration distributions are crucial for combustion studies to characterize the combustion position and to evaluate the combustion regime and the released heat quantity. Optical computer tomography (CT) enables the reconstruction of temperature and gas concentration fields in a flame on the basis of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS). A pair of H2O absorption lines at wavelengths 1395.51 and 1395.69 nm is selected. Temperature and H2O concentration distributions for a flat flame furnace are calculated by superimposing two absorption peaks with a discrete algebraic iterative algorithm and a mathematical fitting algorithm. By comparison, direct absorption spectroscopy measurements agree well with the thermocouple measurements and yield a good correlation. The CT reconstruction data of different air-to-fuel ratio combustion conditions (incomplete combustion and full combustion) and three different types of burners (one, two, and three flat flame furnaces) demonstrate that TDLAS has the potential of short response time and enables real-time temperature and gas concentration distribution measurements for combustion diagnosis.

  7. Novel Ferroptosis Inhibitors with Improved Potency and ADME Properties.

    PubMed

    Hofmans, Sam; Vanden Berghe, Tom; Devisscher, Lars; Hassannia, Behrouz; Lyssens, Sophie; Joossens, Jurgen; Van Der Veken, Pieter; Vandenabeele, Peter; Augustyns, Koen

    2016-03-10

    Ferroptosis is a nonapoptotic, iron-catalyzed form of regulated necrosis that is critically dependent on glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). It has been shown to contribute to liver and kidney ischemia reperfusion injury in mice. A chemical inhibitor discovered by high-throughput screening displayed inhibition of ferroptosis with nanomolar activity and was dubbed ferrostatin-1 (fer-1). Ferrostatins inhibit oxidative lipid damage, but suffer from inherent stability problems due to the presence of an ester moiety. This limits the application of these molecules in vivo, due to rapid hydrolysis of the ester into the inactive carboxylic acid. Previous studies highlighted the importance of the ethyl ester and suggested steric modifications of the ester for generating improved molecules. In this study, we report the synthesis of novel ferroptosis inhibitors containing amide and sulfonamide moieties with improved stability, single digit nanomolar antiferroptotic activity, and good ADME properties suitable for application in in vivo disease models.

  8. The Use of Rule-Based and QSPR Approaches in ADME Profiling: A Case Study on Caco-2 Permeability.

    PubMed

    Pham-The, Hai; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Bermejo, Marival; Garrigues, Teresa; Le-Thi-Thu, Huong; Cabrera-Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-06-01

    During the early ADME profiling the development of simple, interpretable and reliable in silico tools is very important. In this study, rule-based and QSPR approaches were investigated using a large Caco-2 permeability database. Three permeability classes were determined: high (H), moderate (M) and low (L). The main physicochemical properties related with permeability were ranked as follows: Polar Surface Area (PSA)>Lipophilicity (logP/logD)>Molecular Weight (MW)>number of Hydrogen Bond donors and acceptors>Ionization State>number of Rotatable Bonds>number of Rings. The best rule, based on the combination of PSA-MW-logD (3PRule), was able to identify the H, M and L classes with accuracy of 72.2, 72.9 and 70.6 %, respectively. Subsequently, a consensus system based on three voting binary classification trees was constructed. It accurately predicted 78.4/76.1/79.1 % of H/M/L compounds on training and 78.6/71.1/77.6 % on test set. Finally, the 3PRule and multiclassifier were validated with 23 drugs in a Caco-2 assay. The rule is very useful to improve assay design and prioritize the high absorption candidates. Meanwhile the QSPR model exhibits appropriate classification performance. Due to the simplicity, easy interpretation and accuracy, the 3PRule and consensus model developed here can be used in early ADME profiling.

  9. A Systems Biology-Based Approach to Uncovering the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Effects of Dragon's Blood Tablet in Colitis, Involving the Integration of Chemical Analysis, ADME Prediction, and Network Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiumei; Zhai, Huaqiang; Lin, Na; Tang, Shihuan; Liang, Rixin; Ma, Yan; Li, Defeng; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Guangrong; Yang, Hongjun; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest East Asian medical systems. The present study adopted a systems biology-based approach to provide new insights relating to the active constituents and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of dragon's blood (DB) tablets for the treatment of colitis. This study integrated chemical analysis, prediction of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME), and network pharmacology. Firstly, a rapid, reliable, and accurate ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method was employed to identify 48 components of DB tablets. In silico prediction of the passive absorption of these compounds, based on Caco-2 cell permeability, and their P450 metabolism enabled the identification of 22 potentially absorbed components and 8 metabolites. Finally, networks were constructed to analyze interactions between these DB components/metabolites absorbed and their putative targets, and between the putative DB targets and known therapeutic targets for colitis. This study provided a great opportunity to deepen the understanding of the complex pharmacological mechanisms underlying the effects of DB in colitis treatment. PMID:25068885

  10. Imaging of droplets and vapor distributions in a diesel fuel spray by means of a laser absorption-scattering technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y Y; Yoshizaki, T; Nishida, K

    2000-11-20

    The droplets and vapor distributions in a fuel spray were imaged by a dual-wavelength laser absorption-scattering technique. 1,3-dimethylnaphthalene, which has physical properties similar to those of Diesel fuel, strongly absorbs the ultraviolet light near the fourth harmonic (266 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser but is nearly transparent to the visible light near the second harmonic (532 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser. Therefore, droplets and vapor distributions in a Diesel spray can be visualized by an imaging system that uses a Nd:YAG laser as the incident light and 1,3-dimethylnaphthalene as the test fuel. For a quantitative application consideration, the absorption coefficients of dimethylnapthalene vapor at different temperatures and pressures were examined with an optical spectrometer. The findings of this study suggest that this imaging technique has great promise for simultaneously obtaining quantitative information of droplet density and vapor concentration in Diesel fuel spray.

  11. Intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary excretion of the rare sugar D-psicose

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Hirata, Yuko; Dong, Youyi; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Sui, Li; Nonaka, Machiko; Ueno, Masaki; Nishimoto, Kazuyuki; Suda, Hirofumi; Morimoto, Kenji; Shimonishi, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Madoka; Song, Tao; Konishi, Ryoji; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary elimination of the rare sugar D-psicose, a 3-carbon stereoisomer of D-fructose that is currently being investigated and which has been found to be strongly effective against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Methods This study was performed using radioactive D-psicose, which was synthesized enzymatically from radioactive D-allose. Concentrations in whole blood, urine, and organs were measured at different time points until 2 hours after both oral and intravenous administrations and 7 days after a single oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats. Autoradiography was also performed by injecting 100 mg/kg body weight of 14C-labeled D-psicose or glucose intravenously to C3H mice. Results Following oral administration, D-psicose easily moved to blood. The maximum blood concentration (48.5±15.6 μg/g) was observed at 1 hour. Excretion to urine was 20% within 1 hour and 33% within 2 hours. Accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Following intravenous administration, blood concentration was decreased with the half-life=57 minutes, and the excretion to urine was up to almost 50% within 1 hour. Similarly to the results obtained with oral administration, accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Seven days after the single-dose oral administration, the remaining amounts in the whole body were less than 1%. Autoradiography of mice showed results similar to those in rats. High signals of 14C-labeled D-psicose were observed in liver, kidney, and bladder. Interestingly, no accumulation of D-psicose was observed in the brain. Conclusion D-psicose was absorbed well after oral administration and eliminated rapidly after both oral and intravenous administrations, with short duration of action. The study provides valuable pharmacokinetic data for further drug development of D-psicose. Because the findings were mainly based on animal

  12. Differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics between the paediatric and adult populations.

    PubMed

    Strolin Benedetti, M; Whomsley, R; Baltes, E L

    2005-10-01

    In children, the therapeutic benefits and potential risks associated with drug treatment may be different from those in adults and will depend on the exposure, receptor sensitivity and relationship between effect and exposure. In this paper, key factors undergoing maturational changes accounting for differences in drug metabolism and disposition in the paediatric population compared with adults are reviewed. Gastric and duodenal pH, gastric emptying time, intestinal transit time, secretion and activity of bile and pancreatic fluid, bacterial colonisation and transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), are important factors for drug absorption, whereas key factors explaining differences in drug distribution between the paediatric population and adults are organ size, membrane permeability, plasma protein concentration and characteristics, endogenous substances in plasma, total body and extracellular water, fat content, regional blood flow and transporters such as P-gp, which is present not only in the gut, but also in liver, kidney, brain and other tissues. As far as drug metabolism is concerned, important differences have been found in the paediatric population compared with adults both for phase I enzymes (oxidative [e.g., cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A2, and CYP3A7 versus -3A4], reductive and hydrolytic enzymes) and phase II enzymes (e.g., N-methyltransferases and glucuronosyltransferases). Generally, the major enzyme differences observed in comparison with the adult age are in newborn infants, although for some enzymes (e.g., glucuronosyltransferases and other phase II enzymes) important differences still exist between infants and toddlers and adults. Finally, key factors undergoing maturational changes accounting for differences in renal excretion in the paediatric population compared with adults are glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. The ranking of the key factors varies according to the chemical structure and physicochemical properties of the drug

  13. Strategies for conducting ADME studies during lead generation in the drug discovery process.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Jeffrey W; Mattioni, Brian E; Savin, Kenneth A

    2010-12-01

    Although the benefit of early ADME screening is widely recognized in the pharmaceutical industry, the implementation of this paradigm is often performed with insufficient resources and poor collaboration between functions. Dedicated and consistent integration efforts of ADME knowledge during the lead generation (LG) phase of drug discovery enables informed resourcing decisions and also increases the quality of initial starting points for discovery projects. To facilitate the efficient and consistent application of ADME resources to early projects at Eli Lilly and Co, a team of scientists was formed to provide dedicated ADME support to the LG phase of the discovery portfolio. This feature review discusses the working construct of the team, the general philosophy that was employed, and the outcomes of this endeavor.

  14. Essential Set of Molecular Descriptors for ADME Prediction in Drug and Environmental Chemical Space

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically, the disciplines of pharmacology and toxicology have embraced quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) and quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) to predict ADME properties or biological activities of untested chemicals. The question arises ...

  15. Can one ADM quantize relativistic bosonicstrings and membranes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncrief, Vincent

    2006-04-01

    The standard methods for quantizing relativistic strings diverge significantly from the Dirac-Wheeler-DeWitt program for quantization of generally covariant systems and one wonders whether the latter could be successfully implemented as an alternative to the former. As a first step in this direction, we consider the possibility of quantizing strings (and also relativistic membranes) via a partially gauge-fixed ADM (Arnowitt, Deser and Misner) formulation of the reduced field equations for these systems. By exploiting some (Euclidean signature) Hamilton-Jacobi techniques that Mike Ryan and I had developed previously for the quantization of Bianchi IX cosmological models, I show how to construct Diff( S 1)-invariant (or Diff(Σ)-invariant in the case of membranes) ground state wave functionals for the cases of co-dimension one strings and membranes embedded in Minkowski spacetime. I also show that the reduced Hamiltonian density operators for these systems weakly commute when applied to physical (i.e. Diff( S 1) or Diff(Σ)-invariant) states. While many open questions remain, these preliminary results seem to encourage further research along the same lines.

  16. Application of the ADM1 model to advanced anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Parker, Wayne J

    2005-11-01

    In this paper the ADM1 model that has been developed by the IWA Task Group for Mathematical Modelling of Anaerobic Digestion Processes is summarized. The model was applied to a variety of anaerobic digestion scenarios that are presented in the literature and for each data set the model predictions were compared to experimental values. Based upon the model applications it was apparent that for accurate model simulations the influent sludge should be well characterized in terms of biodegradable and recalcitrant COD and also nitrogenous compounds. In almost all cases the model was able to reflect the trends that were observed in the experimental data however the concentrations of VFAs were consistently over-predicted in digesters with short SRTs. It would appear that the inhibition functions associated with low pH values tend to overestimate the impact of pH on biokinetic rates for the acid-consuming bacteria. Application of the model with flow through of active biomass between digesters in series in temperature-phased systems needs to be further evaluated in the future.

  17. A measurement plan of gas concentration and temperature distribution reconstruction based on the tunable diode laser absorption tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhao-ran; Jin, Xing; Wang, Guang-yu; Song, Jun-ling

    2014-11-01

    Based on the tunable diode laser absorption tomography, gas concentration and temperature two-dimensional distribution reconstruction is realized using algebraic iterative reconstruction technique (ART). A measurement plan is proposed based on the beam splitting lens, and the corresponding beam arrangement is put forward. The beam splitting lenses are used in the plan to making one laser beam cross the measurement area repeatedly. Thus can raise the utilization ratio of laser beam and simplify the structure of measurement platform. A model for H2O vapor concentration and temperature distribution is assumed, and numerical simulation is utilized using two absorption transitions. The feasibility of the measurement plan is proved by the simulation experiment. The influences of initial beam angle, the number of beams and grids on the reconstructed results are analyzed numerically. A concept of phantom description method using in simulation experiments is proposed in order to getting closer to the real experiments. The phantom description method is used in the numerical simulation to evaluating concentration and temperature field reconstruction. Through this method, expected data is sampled from initial data, and reconstructed result is obtained by interpolation. The influence of random errors in projections on distribution reconstruction is also analyzed. The measurement plan can reconstruct the gas concentration and temperature distribution with a simplified measurement platform using beam splitting lenses. The feasibility of the phantom description method is also proved by the simulation experiment.

  18. Effect of quantum dot size and size distribution on the intersublevel transitions and absorption coefficients of III-V semiconductor quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Kabi, Sanjib; Perera, A. G. Unil

    2015-03-28

    The intersublevel absorption peak energy and absorption coefficient of non-uniform quantum dot (QD) ensembles are calculated analytically. The effect of size variations and size distribution of QDs on their energy states is analyzed. The dots are considered as a quantum box with finite potential at the barriers and the size distribution described by a Gaussian function. The influence of the aspect ratio (base to height ratio) of the QDs on the optical transitions is studied. Our model predicts the dot size (height and base) accurately to determine the absorption peaks and corresponding absorption coefficient. We also compute the absorption coefficient of the QD with different size distributions to verify the results calculated using this model with the reported experimental and other theoretical results.

  19. Precompetitive preclinical ADME/Tox data: set it free on the web to facilitate computational model building and assist drug development.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Sean; Williams, Antony J

    2010-01-07

    Web-based technologies coupled with a drive for improved communication between scientists have resulted in the proliferation of scientific opinion, data and knowledge at an ever-increasing rate. The increasing array of chemistry-related computer-based resources now available provides chemists with a direct path to the discovery of information, once previously accessed via library services and limited to commercial and costly resources. We propose that preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity data as well as pharmacokinetic properties from studies published in the literature (which use animal or human tissues in vitro or from in vivo studies) are precompetitive in nature and should be freely available on the web. This could be made possible by curating the literature and patents, data donations from pharmaceutical companies and by expanding the currently freely available ChemSpider database of over 21 million molecules with physicochemical properties. This will require linkage to PubMed, PubChem and Wikipedia as well as other frequently used public databases that are currently used, mining the full text publications to extract the pertinent experimental data. These data will need to be extracted using automated and manual methods, cleaned and then published to the ChemSpider or other database such that it will be freely available to the biomedical research and clinical communities. The value of the data being accessible will improve development of drug molecules with good ADME/Tox properties, facilitate computational model building for these properties and enable researchers to not repeat the failures of past drug discovery studies.

  20. High Resolution X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Distribution of Matter in and around Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert; MIT/CAT Team

    2015-10-01

    The chemical evolution of the Universe embraces aspects that reachdeep into modern astrophysics and cosmology. We want to know how present and past matter is affected by various levels and types of nucleo-synthesis and stellar evolution. Three major categories were be identified: 1. The study of pre-mordial star formation including periods of super-massive black hole formation, 2. The embedded evolution of the intergalactic medium IGM, 3. The status and evolution of stars and the interstellar medium ISM in galaxies. Today a fourth category relates to our understanding of dark matter in relationwith these three categories. The X-ray band is particularly sensitive to K- and L-shell absorption and scattering from high abundant elements like C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S,Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni. Like the Lyman alpha forest in the optical band, absorbers in the IGM produce an X-ray line forest along the line of sight in the X-rayspectrum of a background quasar. Similary bright X-ray sources within galaxies and the Milky Way produce a continuum, which is being absorbed by elements invarious phases of the ISM. High resolution X-ray absorption surveys are possible with technologies ready for flight within decade. == high efficiency X-ray optics with optical performance 3== high resolution X-ray gratings with R 3000 for E 1.5 keV== X-ray micro-calorimeters with R 2000 for E 1.5 keV. The vision for the next decade needs to lead to means and strategies which allows us to perform such absorption surveys as effectively as surveys are now or in very near future quite common in astronomy pursued in other wave length bands such as optical, IR, and sub-mm.

  1. Electromagnetic Energy Absorption and Its Distribution for Man and Animals at Different Frequencies under Various Conditions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    whole-body absorption for the other t ~o configurations (major length oriented along the direction of propagation (kil ) or along the (continued over) D...IFO1473 EDITION OF I NOV GS IS OBSOLETE SECURITY CLASSIFICATION Ol T IS DAGE (WhIn Data Antered) • L .. . . ... |R -.L..jITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS...Gandhi, "Conditions of Strongest Electromagnetic Power Deposi- tion in Man and Animals", IE T !’ 7Ia’ract~nc on .ioraoe ,heoro and Techniques, Vol. MTT

  2. Monitoring drug-serum protein interactions for early ADME prediction through Surface Plasmon Resonance technology.

    PubMed

    Fabini, Edoardo; Danielson, U Helena

    2017-03-28

    Many molecules fail to reach the market due to poor pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, rendering the potential drug virtually unavailable for the primary target despite efficient administration to the body. PK properties of endogenous and exogenous compounds in mammals are dependent, among other factors, on their ability to interact with serum proteins. The extent of binding can greatly influence their ADME (adsorption, distribution, metabolism and execration) profile. Reliable and cost-effective bioavailability studies, early in the drug discovery process, can lead to an improvement of the success rate for compounds entering clinical trials. Optical biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection emerged as an efficient approach to obtain large amounts of information about the binding of small molecules to serum proteins. Simple, automated and fast assays provide a good throughput, versatility and highly informative data output, rendering the methodology particularly suited for early screening. The ability to provide basic information on PK can be easily coupled to structure-activity relationship analysis. In this review, features of the technology and its employment for the study of serum protein-small molecule interactions are presented and discussed.

  3. SYNCHROTRON POLARIZATION AND SYNCHROTRON SELF-ABSORPTION SPECTRA FOR A POWER-LAW PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION WITH FINITE ENERGY RANGE

    SciTech Connect

    Fouka, M.; Ouichaoui, S. E-mail: souichaoui@usthb.dz

    2011-12-10

    We have derived asymptotic forms for the degree of polarization of the optically thin synchrotron and for synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) spectra assuming a power-law particle distribution of the form N({gamma}) {approx} {gamma}{sup -p} with {gamma}{sub 1} < {gamma} < {gamma}{sub 2}, especially for a finite high-energy limit, {gamma}{sub 2}, in the case of an arbitrary pitch angle. The new results inferred concern more especially the high-frequency range x >> {eta}{sup 2} with parameter {eta} = {gamma}{sub 2}/{gamma}{sub 1}. The calculated SSA spectra concern instantaneous photon emission where cooling effects are not considered. They have been obtained by also ignoring likely effects such as Comptonization, pair creation and annihilation, as well as magnetic photon splitting. To that aim, in addition to the two usual absorption frequencies, a third possible one has been derived and expressed in terms of the Lambert W function based on the analytical asymptotic form of the absorption coefficient, {alpha}{sub {nu}}, for the high-frequency range {nu} >> {nu}{sub 2} (with {nu}{sub 2} the synchrotron frequency corresponding to {gamma}{sub 2}). We have shown that the latter frequency may not have realistic applications in astrophysics, except in the case of an adequate set of parameters allowing one to neglect Comptonization effects. More detailed calculations and discussions are presented.

  4. Synchrotron Polarization and Synchrotron Self-absorption Spectra for a Power-law Particle Distribution with Finite Energy Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouka, M.; Ouichaoui, S.

    2011-12-01

    We have derived asymptotic forms for the degree of polarization of the optically thin synchrotron and for synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) spectra assuming a power-law particle distribution of the form N(γ) ~ γ-p with γ1 < γ < γ2, especially for a finite high-energy limit, γ2, in the case of an arbitrary pitch angle. The new results inferred concern more especially the high-frequency range x Gt η2 with parameter η = γ2/γ1. The calculated SSA spectra concern instantaneous photon emission where cooling effects are not considered. They have been obtained by also ignoring likely effects such as Comptonization, pair creation and annihilation, as well as magnetic photon splitting. To that aim, in addition to the two usual absorption frequencies, a third possible one has been derived and expressed in terms of the Lambert W function based on the analytical asymptotic form of the absorption coefficient, αν, for the high-frequency range ν Gt ν2 (with ν2 the synchrotron frequency corresponding to γ2). We have shown that the latter frequency may not have realistic applications in astrophysics, except in the case of an adequate set of parameters allowing one to neglect Comptonization effects. More detailed calculations and discussions are presented.

  5. SMART-DS: Synthetic Models for Advanced, Realistic Testing: Distribution Systems and Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Palmintier, Bryan

    2016-03-03

    This presentation provides an overview of full-scale, high-quality, synthetic distribution system data set(s) for testing distribution automation algorithms, distributed control approaches, ADMS capabilities, and other emerging distribution technologies.

  6. Determination of Spatial Distribution of Air Pollution by Dye Laser Measurement of Differential Absorption of Elastic Backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, S. A.; Gergely, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analytical study of a lidar system which uses tunable organic dye lasers to accurately determine spatial distribution of molecular air pollutants. Also described will be experimental work to date on simultaneous multiwavelength output dye laser sources for this system. Basically the scheme determines the concentration of air pollutants by measuring the differential absorption of an (at least) two wavelength lidar signal elastically backscattered by the atmosphere. Only relative measurements of the backscattered intensity at each of the two wavelengths, one on and one off the resonance absorption of the pollutant in question, are required. The various parameters of the scheme are examined and the component elements required for a system of this type discussed, with emphasis on the dye laser source. Potential advantages of simultaneous multiwavelength outputs are described. The use of correlation spectroscopy in this context is examined. Comparisons are also made for the use of infrared probing wavelengths and sources instead of dye lasers. Estimates of the sensitivity and accuracy of a practical dye laser system of this type, made for specific pollutants, snow it to have inherent advantages over other schemes for determining pollutant spatial distribution.

  7. Studies on Nonoxynol-9. II. Intravaginal absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chvapil, M; Eskelson, C D; Stiffel, V; Owen, J A; Droegemueller, W

    1980-09-01

    Some pharmacological aspects of Igepal CO-630, used by some pharmaceutical companies as the source of nonylphenoxypoly (ethyleneoxy) ethanol (Nonoxynol-9, N-9) in various spermicidal formulations, were studied. It was found that Igepal CO-630 contains at least 13 components, 70% having molecular weights near that of N-9. After intravaginal administration, the detergent is rapidly and quantitatively absorbed through the vaginal wall into the systemic circulation. The rate of vaginal absorption of N-9 depends on the vehicle in which the detergent is carried. Once in the blood, N-9 is excreted by liver-bile-feces and the kidney-urine routes, the first being more effective in rats, the latter in rabbits. Following intravaginal or intraperitoneal injection of radioactive N-9, the highest content of radioactivity was found in the liver and kidney. The detergent was detected in the milk of lactating rats and the serum of their pups within two hours after the intravaginal dose.

  8. The effects of unsaturated dietary fats on absorption, excretion, synthesis, and distribution of cholesterol in man

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Scott M.; Ahrens, E. H.

    1970-01-01

    Cholesterol balance studies were carried out in 11 patients with various types of hyperlipoproteinemia to determine the mechanism by which unsaturated fats lower plasma cholesterol. Unsaturated fats produced no increase in fecal endogenous neutral steroids in 10 of 11 patients and no decrease in absorption of exogenous cholesterol in 5 patients who received cholesterol in the diet. In 8 of 11 patients no changes occurred in excretion of bile acids during the period on unsaturated fat when plasma cholesterol was declining. However, in 3 of 11 patients small but significant increases in bile acid excretion were found during this transitional period; in 2 others increases also occurred after plasma cholesterol had become constant at lower levels on unsaturated fat. Since the majority of patients showed no change in cholesterol or bile acid excretions during the transitional period, we propose that when excretion changes did occur they were probably not the cause of the plasma cholesterol change. Furthermore, turnover data and specific activity curves suggested that cholesterol synthesis was not influenced by exchange of dietary fats. Thus, excluding changes in excretion and synthesis, we conclude that it is most likely that unsaturated fats cause plasma cholesterol to be redistributed into tissue pools. We have also examined the possibility that cholesterol which is redistributed into tissues could be secondarily excreted as neutral steroids or bile acids. In at least 5 of 11 patients excretion patterns were consistent with this explanation. However, we cannot rule out that excretion changes may have been due to alterations in transit time, to changes in bacterial flora, or to transitory changes in absorption or synthesis of cholesterol or bile acids. Our conclusion that unsaturated fats cause a redistribution of cholesterol between plasma and tissue pools points to the necessity in future to explore where cholesterol is stored, to what extent stored cholesterol can

  9. Absorption and distribution kinetics of the 13C-labeled tomato carotenoid phytoene in healthy adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoene is a tomato carotenoid which may contribute to the apparent health benefits of tomato consumption. While phytoene is a less prominent tomato carotenoid than lycopene, it is a major carotenoid in various human tissues. Phytoene distribution to plasma lipoproteins and tissues differs from lyc...

  10. Temporal and spatial temperature distributions in transversely heated graphite tube atomizers and their analytical characteristics for atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, Michael; Welz, Bernard; Hertzberg, Joachim; Rieck, Christof; Marowsky, Gerd

    1996-07-01

    The important role which temperature plays in atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) for the formation and detection of atoms in the absorption volume is discussed and the literature is reviewed. Non-homogeneous temperature distribution in the absorption volume is in contradiction to one of the prerequisites for the application of Beer's law used in AAS to convert absorbance into analyte concentration or mass, and is particularly troublesome for an "absolute analysis" envisaged for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is used to study the gas-phase temperature distribution in a state-of-the-art transversely heated graphite tube atomizer (THGA). The effect of the internal gas flow on the size of the heated atmosphere is studied by steady-state temperature measurements. Temporally and spatially resolved measurements make it possible to study the temperature field within the atomizer volume in all three dimensions during the rapid heating of the furnace to final temperatures in the range 2173-2673 K. The role of the integrated platform of the THGA on the temperature field is investigated by temperature measurements of the gas phase in the presence and absence of the platform. The platform is identified as the major source of temperature gradients inside the tube volume, which may be as high as 1000 K in the radial direction during rapid heating. These gradients are most pronounced for heating cycles starting at room temperature and gradually decrease with increasing starting temperature. Shortly after the tube wall reaches its final temperature, the gas-phase temperature equilibrates and approaches the wall temperature. Because of the unavoidable contact with the cold environment at the open ends of the tube, minor temperature gradients are observed in the gas phase also in longitudinal direction, which can be further reduced by restricting the openings with end caps. The results obtained for the THGA are

  11. Analysis for nonlinear inversion technique developed to estimate depth-distribution of absorption by spatially resolved backscattering measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kazuhiro; Namita, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Shimizu, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    We have proposed a new nonlinear inversion technique to estimate the spatial distribution of the absorption coefficient (μa) in the depth direction of a turbid medium by spatially resolved backscattering measurement. With this technique, we can obtain cross-sectional image of μa as deep as the backscattered light traveled even when the transmitted light through the medium cannot be detected. In this technique, the depth distribution of absorption coefficient is determined by iterative calculation using the spatial path-length distribution (SPD) of traveled photons as a function of source-detector distance. In this calculation, the variance of path-length of many photons in each layer is also required. The SPD and the variance of path-length are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation using a known reduced scattering coefficient (μs'). Therefore, we need to know the μs' of the turbid medium beforehand. We have shown in computer simulation that this technique works well when the μs' is the typical values of mammalian body tissue, or 1.0 /mm. In this study, the accuracy of the μa estimation was analyzed and its dependence on the μs' was clarified quantitatively in various situations expected in practice. 10% deviations in μs' resulted in about 30% error in μa estimation, in average. This suggested that the measurement or the appropriate estimation of μs' is required to utilize the proposed technique effectively. Through this analysis, the effectiveness and the limitation of the newly proposed technique were clarified, and the problems to be solved were identified.

  12. Absorption, retention and tissue distribution of radiocaesium in reindeer: effects of diet and radiocaesium source.

    PubMed

    Skuterud, L; Pedersen, Ø; Staaland, H; Røed, K H; Salbu, B; Liken, A; Hove, K

    2004-12-01

    Radiocaesium absorption and retention in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) calves was compared in groups fed diets containing different proportions of lichen and concentrates, and different chemical forms of radiocaesium ((134)CsCl in solution or fallout from the Chernobyl accident). Daily intakes of fallout radiocaesium were 15-23 kBq, while daily intakes of (134)CsCl ranged from 70 kBq to 1,160 kBq. The half-life for radiocaesium in red blood cells (RBC) in animals fed with a pure lichen diet exceeded that in animals fed with a combined diet of lichen and concentrates by 40% (17.8+/-0.7 days vs. 12.7+/-0.4 days). Corresponding differences in the half-lives for urinary and faecal excretion were about 60% and 40%, respectively. Transfer coefficients (F(f)) to reindeer meat were estimated to be 0.25+/-0.01 days kg(-1) for fallout radiocaesium and 1.04+/-0.03 days kg(-1) for (134)CsCl, reflecting differences in both radiocaesium bioavailability and retention. The bioavailability of the Chernobyl radiocaesium in lichen in 1988 was estimated at ca. 35% compared to (134)CsCl.

  13. Heterocyclic replacements for benzene: Maximising ADME benefits by considering individual ring isomers.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Timothy J; Macdonald, Simon J F

    2016-11-29

    The impact of replacing a mono-substituted benzene (phenyl) ring with thirty three aromatic and nine aliphatic heterocycles on nine ADME-related screens (solubility, lipophilicity, permeability, protein binding CYP450 inhibition and metabolic clearance) was assessed using matched molecular pair analysis. The results indicate that the influence on the ADME profile can differ significantly depending on the ring identity and importantly on the individual regioisomers that are possible for some rings. This information enables the medicinal chemist to make an informed choice about which rings and regioisomers to employ as mono-substituted benzene replacements, based upon the knowledge of how such replacements are likely to influence ADME-related parameters, for example to target higher solubility whilst avoiding CYP450 liabilities.

  14. Well-posed ADM equivalent of the Bondi-Sachs problem

    SciTech Connect

    Frittelli, Simonetta

    2006-06-15

    Every well-posed hyperbolic problem has an associated characteristic representation. In the case of the Einstein equations, traditionally, characteristic problems have been stated in the Bondi-Sachs form, whereas initial-value problems have been represented in the ADM form, both being looked upon as independent versions of the Einstein equations. Under the restriction of spherical symmetry, we provide an ADM version of the Einstein equations that functions as the initial-value representation of the Bondi-Sachs equations. The ADM version allows us to interpret the Bondi-Sachs variables precisely in terms of characteristic fields of the Cauchy problem. The Bondi-Sachs version thus leads us to a version of the Cauchy problem that is first order in time (with no need for reduction) and automatically well posed.

  15. Improved ADM1 model for anaerobic digestion process considering physico-chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Piccard, Sarah; Zhou, Wen

    2015-11-01

    The "Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1" (ADM1) was modified in the study by improving the bio-chemical framework and integrating a more detailed physico-chemical framework. Inorganic carbon and nitrogen balance terms were introduced to resolve the discrepancies in the original bio-chemical framework between the carbon and nitrogen contents in the degraders and substrates. More inorganic components and solids precipitation processes were included in the physico-chemical framework of ADM1. The modified ADM1 was validated with the experimental data and used to investigate the effects of calcium ions, magnesium ions, inorganic phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen on anaerobic digestion in batch reactor. It was found that the entire anaerobic digestion process might exist an optimal initial concentration of inorganic nitrogen for methane gas production in the presence of calcium ions, magnesium ions and inorganic phosphorus.

  16. Longitudinal distribution of ozone absorption in the lung: Effect of continuous inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Asplund, P.T.; Rigas, M.L.; Ultman, J.S.; Ben-Jebria, A. |

    1996-11-01

    The effect of continuous exposure to ozone on the absorption of ozone in the conducting airways of human lungs was investigated with a bolus-response method. Eleven healthy nonsmoking college students (8 males, 3 females) were exposed at rest for 2 h on 3 separate days to air containing 0 ppm, 0.12 ppm, and 0.36 ppm ozone. A personal inhalation chamber equipped with a head-only clear plastic dome was used for exposure. Every 30 min a subject removed the dome and orally inhaled a series of five ozone-air boluses, each in a separate breath. Penetration of the boluses distal to the lips was targeted in the range of 70-120 ml (corresponding to the central conducting airways). By integrating the inhaled and exhaled-ozone concentration curves, we obtained the absorbed fraction {Lambda} and the dispersion ({sigma}{sup 2}) of the ozone bolus for each test breath. In addition, the subtraction of baseline measurements made just before exposure enabled us to determine the changes in absorbed fraction ({Delta}{Lambda}) and in dispersion ({Delta}{sigma}{sup 2}) that resulted from exposure alone. Absorbed fraction decreased, but {sigma}{sup 2} increased during O{sub 3} exposure, and the differences in {Delta}{Lambda} and in {Delta}{sigma}{sup 2} between breathing air and exposure to either 0.12 ppm or 0.36 ppm O{sub 3} were significant. We concluded that exposure of the conducting airways to O{sub 3} reduced their capacity to absorb O{sub 3}, possibly by the depletion of biochemical substrates that are normally oxidized by O{sub 3}. 20 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Algebraic dynamic multilevel (ADM) method for fully implicit simulations of multiphase flow in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusini, Matteo; van Kruijsdijk, Cor; Hajibeygi, Hadi

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the development of an algebraic dynamic multilevel method (ADM) for fully implicit simulations of multiphase flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media. Built on the fine-scale fully implicit (FIM) discrete system, ADM constructs a multilevel FIM system describing the coupled process on a dynamically defined grid of hierarchical nested topology. The multilevel adaptive resolution is determined at each time step on the basis of an error criterion. Once the grid resolution is established, ADM employs sequences of restriction and prolongation operators in order to map the FIM system across the considered resolutions. Several choices can be considered for prolongation (interpolation) operators, e.g., constant, bilinear and multiscale basis functions, all of which form partition of unity. The adaptive multilevel restriction operators, on the other hand, are constructed using a finite-volume scheme. This ensures mass conservation of the ADM solutions, and as such, the stability and accuracy of the simulations with multiphase transport. For several homogeneous and heterogeneous test cases, it is shown that ADM applies only a small fraction of the full FIM fine-scale grid cells in order to provide accurate solutions. The sensitivity of the solutions with respect to the employed fraction of grid cells (determined automatically based on the threshold value of the error criterion) is investigated for all test cases. ADM is a significant step forward in the application of dynamic local grid refinement methods, in the sense that it is algebraic, allows for systematic mapping across different scales, and applicable to heterogeneous test cases without any upscaling of fine-scale high resolution quantities. It also develops a novel multilevel multiscale method for FIM multiphase flow simulations in natural subsurface formations.

  18. Digestion, absorption and tissue distribution of ovalbumin and palmitoyl-ovalbumin: impact on immune responses triggered by orally administered antigens.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, F M; Dos Santos, E M; Alves, A C; Campana-Pereira, M A; Ramaldes, G A; Cardoso, V N; Ruiz-de-Souza, V; Gontijo, C M

    2007-02-01

    Previous work in this laboratory has demonstrated that ovalbumin coupled to palmitoyl residues (palmitoyl-Ova) does not induce oral tolerance. The present study sought to determine whether this coupling affects digestion, absorption and transfer of antigen. Ova and palmitoyl-Ova were shown to be digested differently in vitro by proteolytic enzymes and presented different tissue distribution kinetics after being labelled with (99m)technetium and orally administered to animals. Palmitoyl-Ova remained longer in the stomach, while native Ova was quickly transferred to the gut and other organs. After 3 h, higher levels of palmitoyl-Ova were found in the blood, Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and, especially, the spleen, which appears to be essential for immunization with palmitoyl-Ova. In fact, splenectomized mice treated orally with palmitoyl-Ova became tolerant, while tolerance to Ova was not affected. Thus, palmitoyl coupling was demonstrated to affect antigen digestion, absorption and transport. This is the first time that the spleen has been shown to be required for oral immunization with palmitoyl-Ova.

  19. Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namjou, K.; Roller, C. B.; Reich, T. E.; Jeffers, J. D.; McMillen, G. L.; McCann, P. J.; Camp, M. A.

    2006-11-01

    A liquid-nitrogen free mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system equipped with a folded-optical-path astigmatic Herriott cell was used to measure levels of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and exhaled carbon dioxide (eCO2) in breath. Quantification of absolute eNO concentrations was performed using NO/CO2 absorption ratios measured by the TDLAS system coupled with absolute eCO2 concentrations measured with a non-dispersive infrared sensor. This technique eliminated the need for routine calibrations using standard cylinder gases. The TDLAS system was used to measure eNO in children and adults (n=799, ages 5 to 64) over a period of more than one year as part of a field study. Volunteers for the study self-reported data including age, height, weight, and health status. The resulting data were used to assess system performance and to generate eNO and eCO2 distributions, which were found to be log-normal and Gaussian, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in mean eNO levels for males and females as well as for healthy and steroid naïve asthmatic volunteers not taking corticosteroid therapies. Ambient NO levels affected measured eNO concentrations only slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant.

  20. Principles and techniques in the design of ADMS+. [advanced data-base management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Kang, Hyunchul

    1986-01-01

    'ADMS+/-' is an advanced data base management system whose architecture integrates the ADSM+ mainframe data base system with a large number of work station data base systems, designated ADMS-; no communications exist between these work stations. The use of this system radically decreases the response time of locally processed queries, since the work station runs in a single-user mode, and no dynamic security checking is required for the downloaded portion of the data base. The deferred update strategy used reduces overhead due to update synchronization in message traffic.

  1. The Dirac-ADM Quantization of the Brane-World Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, M. D.; Fernandes, M. C. B.

    The ADM canonical formulation of the gravitational field is extended to four-dimensional space-times embedded in a higher-dimensional bulk space. The embedding is justified as a means to remove the ambiguity of the Riemann curvature. Using Nash's perturbative embedding theorem, we derive a simple generalization of the ADM canonical structure without breaking the diffeomorphism invariance and with a non-vanishing Hamiltonian. Nash's perturbations also allows us to define the functional derivative in Schwinger's equation, leading to a Schrödinger-like quantum equation describing the wave function of the embedded space-time.

  2. Approximating the imbibition and absorption behavior of a distribution of matrix blocks by an equivalent spherical block

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1994-03-01

    A theoretical study is presented of the effect of matrix block shape and matrix block size distribution on liquid imbibition and solute absorption in a fractured rock mass. It is shown that the behavior of an individual irregularly-shaped matrix block can be modeled with reasonable accuracy by using the results for a spherical matrix block, if one uses an effective radius {tilde a} = 3V/A, where V is the volume of the block and A is its surface area. In the early-time regime of matrix imbibition, it is shown that a collection of blocks of different sizes can be modeled by a single equivalent block, with an equivalent radius of {sup {minus}1}, where the average is taken on a volumetrically-weighted basis. In an intermediate time regime, it is shown for the case where the radii are normally distributed that the equivalent radius is reasonably well approximated by the mean radius . In the long-time limit, where no equivalent radius can be rigorously defined, an asymptotic expression is derived for the cumulative diffusion as a function of the mean and the standard deviation of the radius distribution function.

  3. Experimental analysis of distributed pump absorption and refractive index changes in Yb-doped fibers using acousto-optic interaction.

    PubMed

    Alcusa-Sáez, E P; Díez, A; Andrés, M V

    2015-03-01

    In-fiber acousto-optic interaction is used to characterize the refractive index changes at the C band in a single-mode ytterbium-doped optical fiber under 980 nm pumping. The transmission notch created by the acoustic-induced coupling between the core mode and a cladding mode shifts to longer wavelengths when the pump is delivered to the fiber. The electronic contribution to the refractive index change is quantified from the wavelength shift. Using a time-resolved acousto-optic method, we investigate the distribution of pump absorption, and the resulting refractive index change profile, along sections of ytterbium-doped fiber exceeding 1 m long under different pump power levels.

  4. Investigations on temperature distribution of satellite surfaces affected by solar absorptivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Pan, X. X.; Li, G. H.; Liu, X.; Jiang, L. X.

    2010-09-01

    Based on the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method, the network coefficients of thermal network model describing the radiation heat transfer among satellite surfaces is solved by considering the surface material optical characters. It is superiority to the conventional Gebhart's method in view of the grey body and the diffuse reflection assumptions. The zone leveling method is used to discrete the governing equations and the solar absorpivity is separated and considered to be an important correction parameter. Effects of the solar incidence round angle, the zenith angle and the ratio of absorpivity to emissivity (RAE) on temperature distribution are numerically simulated and discussed in detail. The higher or the lower the RAE may be lead to the alternative heating and cooling tend with a larger heating or cooling velocity of main body surfaces than the solar array surfaces. Furthermore, maximum temperature of main body is almost larger than solar arrays. Under the same RAE, solar incidence angle make a great effect on the uniform character of temperature distribution.

  5. Simulation studies of multi-line line-of-sight tunable-diode-laser absorption spectroscopy performance in measuring temperature probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-Le; Liu, Jian-Guo; Kan, Rui-Feng; Xu, Zhen-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Line-of-sight tunable-diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS) with multiple absorption lines is introduced for non-uniform temperature measurement. Temperature binning method combined with Gauss—Seidel iteration method is used to measure temperature probability distribution function (PDF) along the line-of-sight (LOS). Through 100 simulated measurements, the variation of measurement accuracy is investigated with the number of absorption lines, the number of temperature bins and the magnitude of temperature non-uniformity. A field model with 2-T temperature distribution and 15 well-selected absorption lines are used for the simulation study. The Gauss—Seidel iteration method is discussed for its reliability. The investigation result about the variation of measurement accuracy with the number of temperature bins is different from the previous research results.

  6. Lead transfer in maternal milk, and the absorption, retention, distribution and excretion of lead in suckling mice

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Charles Arthur

    1980-01-01

    Suckling mice were found to absorb and retain a greater fraction of an oral lead dose than did adult mice. Pinocytotic activity and lead uptake (in vivo) were found to be greatest in the distal small intestinal tissue. Cortisone pretreatment results in precocious cessation of pinocytotic activity in the intestine of suckling mice. Cortisone pretreatment of adult mice had no effect on whole body lead retention or intestinal tissue content of lead following an oral dose. The data indicate that the distal small intestine is the site of active pinocytosis of lead, and that pinocytosis is the major mechanism involved in lead absorption in suckling mice. Developmental differences were also observed in the percentage of lead retained in the whole body. Both groups exhibited dose-independent lead retention, indicating a first-order absorption process for each age group. Lead distribution and elimination from organs also differed between suckling and adult mice. Developmental differences were observed in organ lead concentration for kidneys and brain following oral doses. Relative distribution of lead to the brains of suckling mice were greater than to adult brains. Whole body and bone lead elimination rates were reduced in suckling compared to adult mice. Brain lead elimination rates did not differ in suckling and adult mice. A lactating mouse model was developed to study lead transfer to suckling offspring. Lead was transferred in milk to suckling offspring from mothers which had previously ingested lead in the drinking water. Relative lead transfer to suckled offspring during lactation greatly exceeded transfer to fetuses during gestation. Lactation resulted in an increased rate of maternal lead elimination. Lead concentration in milk exceeded plasma concentration by a factor of approximately 25. (ERB)

  7. Development of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography for Determination of Spatially Resolved Distributions of Water Vapor Temperature and Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryner, Elliott

    Optical diagnostic techniques used in high speed, high enthalpy flows, such as in a supersonic ramjet (scramjet) combustor, allow direct measurement of temperature and species concentration. Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) is a common laser based measurement technique for measuring temperature and species concentration in harsh environments such as chemically reacting flows. TDLAS is a one-dimensional, path integrated measurement that provides average values of the measured quantities and can be affected by gradients in the measurement space. By combining TDLAS with tomographic image reconstruction a two-dimensional spatially resolved distribution can be obtained. This technique is called Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Tomography. TDLAT has been developed for the purpose of making temperature and species concentration measurements on the supersonic combustion facility at the Aerospace Research Laboratory. TDLAT has been developed for the purpose of making two-dimensional measurements of water vapor concentration, which when combined with Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry can be used to calculate supersonic combustion efficiency of a scramjet combustor. This measurement system has been used in measurements of a flat flame burner from which two-dimensional distributions of temperature and water vapor concentration have been calculated. The calculated temperatures were then compared to measurements made on the same flat flame burner. Reconstructions of temperature and concentration show the structure of the flat flame burner, resolving regions of ambient room air, nitrogen co-flow, mixing layer and hot burner core. The TDLAT system was then installed on the supersonic combustion facility, where measurements were made for a known mole fraction of steam injected into the free stream. The TDLAT system was then used to measure water vapor concentration and temperature for clean-air combustion for an equivalence ratio of 0.17. The resulting values

  8. Ammonia concentration distribution measurements in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel engine based on limited data absorption tomography.

    PubMed

    Stritzke, Felix; van der Kley, Sani; Feiling, Alexander; Dreizler, Andreas; Wagner, Steven

    2017-04-03

    A multichannel tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer is used to measure absolute ammonia concentrations and their distributions in exhaust gas applications with intense CO2 and H2O background. Designed for in situ diagnostics in SCR after treatment systems with temperatures up to 800 K, the system employs a fiber coupled near-infrared distributed feedback diode laser. With the laser split into eight coplanar beams crossing the exhaust pipe, the sensor provides eight concentration measurements simultaneously. Three ammonia ro-vibrational transitions coinciding near 2200.5 nm with rather weak temperature dependency and negligible CO2/H2O interference were probed during the measurements. The line-of-sight averaged channel concentrations are transformed into 2-D ammonia distributions using limited data IR species tomography based on Tikhonov regularization. This spectrometer was successfully applied in the exhaust system of a 340 kW heavy duty diesel engine operated without oxidation catalyst or particulate filter. In this harsh environment the multi-channel sensor achieved single path ammonia detection limits of 25 to 80 ppmV with a temporal resolution of 1 Hz whereas, while operated as a single-channel sensor, these characteristics improved to 10 ppmV and 100 Hz. Spatial averaging of the reconstructed 2-D ammonia distributions shows good agreement to cross-sectional extractive measurements. In contrast to extractive methods more information about spatial inhomogeneities and transient operating conditions can be derived from the new spectrometer.

  9. Absorption, distribution, and excretion of 8-methoxypsoralen in HRA/Skh mice

    SciTech Connect

    Muni, I.A.; Schneider, F.H.; Olsson, T.A. III; King, M.

    1984-12-01

    The tissue distribution and excretion of (/sup 3/H)8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), a well-accepted therapeutic agent for the treatment of psoriasis, was studied in hairless HRA/Skh female mice. Mice were given single oral doses of 6 mg of (/sup 3/H)8-MOP or 5-(/sup 14/C)8-MOP/kg in corn oil. Radiochemical analyses of tissues and excreta were accomplished by liquid scintillation counting. The 8-MOP appeared to be rapidly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, where the tritium levels were highest, followed by skin, blood, and liver; levels were lowest in fat (adipose tissue). In female HRA/Skh mice which had not been irradiated with UVA (320-400 nm), 84% of the carbon-14 and 58% of the tritium were recovered in the urine and feces within 24 hours of oral administration of 5-(/sup 14/C)8-MOP or (/sup 3/H)8-MOP, respectively. Animals that were exposed to UVA and received (3H)8-MOP excreted approximately 12% less tritium in the urine and feces compared with the animals which received no UVA.

  10. Fast Spatially Resolved Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Distribution Measurements in an Internal Combustion Engine Using Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P.

    2015-09-01

    One effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines. But, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder nonuniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. Furthermore, a sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. Our study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  11. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  12. Fast Spatially Resolved Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Distribution Measurements in an Internal Combustion Engine Using Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; ...

    2015-09-01

    One effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines. But, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder nonuniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. Furthermore, a sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in themore » intake manifold. Our study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.« less

  13. ADM. Water well pump houses (TAN612 and TAN613). Plans, elevations, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Water well pump houses (TAN-612 and TAN-613). Plans, elevations, floor and other details. Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANP-612-613-A S & P 82. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0612-00-693-106743 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Implementing ADM1 for plant-wide benchmark simulations in Matlab/Simulink.

    PubMed

    Rosen, C; Vrecko, D; Gernaey, K V; Pons, M N; Jeppsson, U

    2006-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 (ADM1) was presented in 2002 and is expected to represent the state-of-the-art model within this field in the future. Due to its complexity the implementation of the model is not a simple task and several computational aspects need to be considered, in particular if the ADM1 is to be included in dynamic simulations of plant-wide or even integrated systems. In this paper, the experiences gained from a Matlab/Simulink implementation of ADM1 into the extended COST/IWA Benchmark Simulation Model (BSM2) are presented. Aspects related to system stiffness, model interfacing with the ASM family, mass balances, acid-base equilibrium and algebraic solvers for pH and other troublesome state variables, numerical solvers and simulation time are discussed. The main conclusion is that if implemented properly, the ADM1 will also produce high-quality results in dynamic plant-wide simulations including noise, discrete sub-systems, etc. without imposing any major restrictions due to extensive computational efforts.

  15. ADM. Warehouse (TAN604) Floor plan. General warehouse and chemical storage. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Warehouse (TAN-604) Floor plan. General warehouse and chemical storage. Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANP-604-A 55. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0604-00-693-106727 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. ADM. Service Building (TAN603). Floor plan. Names of functional areas. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Service Building (TAN-603). Floor plan. Names of functional areas. Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANY-603-A 43. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 033-0603-00-693-106718 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. ADM. Warehouse (TAN604). Elevations and sections. Ralph M. Parsons 9022ANP604A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Warehouse (TAN-604). Elevations and sections. Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANP-604-A 56. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0604-00-693-106728 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. ADM. Change House (TAN606). Elevations and floor plan. Room Names. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Change House (TAN-606). Elevations and floor plan. Room Names. Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANP-606-A 65. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0606-00-693-106733 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. ADM. Administration Building (TAN602). Early room layout, door and room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Administration Building (TAN-602). Early room layout, door and room schedules. Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANP-602-A 31. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 033-0602-00-693-106710 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. ADM. Administration Building (TAN602). Elevations, sections, details. Shows areas that ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Administration Building (TAN-602). Elevations, sections, details. Shows areas that were soon remodeled or added onto. Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANP-602-A 32 Date: August 1955. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 033-0602-00-693-106711 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. ADM. Fuel Pump House (TAN611). Elevations, floor plan. Drawing includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Fuel Pump House (TAN-611). Elevations, floor plan. Drawing includes elevation and plans for "H.M." structures (Hose Storage?). Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANP-611-A 78 Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0611-00-693-106741 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. ADM. Water System Pump House (TAN610). Elevations, plan, and sections. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Water System Pump House (TAN-610). Elevations, plan, and sections. Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANP-610-A 74. Date: February 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0610-00-693-106739 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. ADM. Pump House (TAN612) for well no. 1 as completed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Pump House (TAN-612) for well no. 1 as completed. It is identical to pump house (TAN-613) for well no. 2, which is not shown in this report. Date: October 19, 1954. INEEL negative no. 12576 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Evaluation of Nuclear Research Corporation’s ADM-300 Radiation Detection, Indication, and Computation (RADIAC) Instrument

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    SOURCES USED FOR RADIATION TESTING Nominal Decayed Source Set Nuclide Source No. Activity (liCi) Activity (ICi)a Amersham #2087 Am-241 20154 11.97...SOURCES8 Exposure ADM-300 Reading (u.R/min) Serial Energy Rate W.indw QJx Window Closed Source Number (keV) gIR/min Avg Ratio Avg Ratio Am-241 20154 60

  5. GRBs Radiative Processes: Synchrotron and Synchrotron Self-Absorption From a Power Law Electrons Distribution with Finite Energy Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouka, M.; Ouichaoui, S.

    2010-10-01

    Synchrotron emission behind relativistic magnetic internal-external shocks in gamma-ray bursts cosmological explosions is assumed to be the basic emission mechanism for prompt and afterglow emissions. Inverse Compton from relativistic electrons can also have appreciable effects by upscattering initial synchrotron or blackbody photons or other photons fields up to GeV-TeV energies. For extreme physical conditions such as high magnetic fields (e.g., B>105 Gauss) self-absorption is not negligible and can hardly affect spectra at least for the low energy range. In this paper we present calculations of the synchrotron power, Pν, and their asymptotic forms, generated by a power law relativistic electron distribution of type Ne(γ) = Cγ-p with γ1<γ<γ2, especially for finite values of the higher limit γ2. For this aim we defined the dimensionless parametric function Zp(x,ɛ) with x = ν/ν1 and ɛ = γ2/γ1 so that Pν~Zp(ν/ν1,ɛ), with ν1 = (3/4π)γ12qBsinθ/mc (θ being the pitch angle). Asymptotic forms of this later are derived for three different frequency ranges, i.e., x<<1, 1<>ɛ2. These results are then used to calculate the absorption coefficient, αν, and the source function, Sν, together with their asymptotic forms through the dimensionless parametric functions Hp(x,ɛ) and Yp(x,ɛ), respectively. Further calculation details are also presented and discussed.

  6. Upregulating miR-146a by physcion reverses multidrug resistance in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562/ADM cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenjun; He, Juan; Yang, Yiling; Guo, Qulian; Gao, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of miR-146a in the drug resistance of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells (K562/ADM) and to investigate the reversal effect of physcion, a natural compound, on the multidrug-resistance in CML. Our results showed that miR-146a was significantly downregulated in drug-resistant K562 cells and the overexpression of miR-146a in K562/ADM cells could restore the sensitivity to adriamycin (ADM). In addition, our results showed that the downregulation of miR-146a was associated with increase in CXCR4 expression, which was a direct target of miR-146a. Moreover, our findings also provided experimental evidence that physcion could enhance the anti-proliferative effect of ADM in K562/ADM cells by upregulating miR-146a. In conclusion, this present study showed that miR-146a conferred ADM resistance in CML cells and physcion could improve the sensitivity of K562/ADM cells by enhancing apoptosis via upregulating miR-146a. PMID:27904770

  7. Absorption and distribution of cadmium in mice fed diets containing either inorganic or oyster-incorporated cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.F.; Hardy, J.T.; Miller, B.M.; Buschbom, R.L.; Siewicki, T.C.

    1984-02-01

    To determine the absorption, organ distribution, and retention of organically bound cadmium (Cd) and the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) on Cd metabolism, groups of mice were fed five different diets. The organic Cd used in the diets was in the form of lyophilized oyster (Crassostrea virginica) that had accumulated radiolabeled 109Cd through a plankton food chain. The mice were fed either a standard basal mouse diet (AIN-76) or diets containing five or eight times the Zn concentration of the basal diet. The source of Zn was either oyster tissue or ZnCO3. The concentration of organic and inorganic Cd provided a dose of approximately 0.4 mg/kg. Diets prepared from oyster tissue probably contained all of the Cd and 85% of the Zn in organic form. Diets prepared with inorganic metals contained about the same Cd and Zn concentrations as the diets prepared with oyster. There was very little difference between the retention of Cd by mice that ingested organic (oyster bound) Cd and those fed inorganic Cd (CdCl2). However, when the Cd retained in the intestine was excluded, retention of organic Cd was significantly greater than that of inorganic Cd. The organ distribution of Cd differed significantly according to the chemical form of Cd fed (organic or inorganic) and the Zn level in the diet. The kidneys of mice fed organically bound Cd retained a higher percentage of the metal than the kidneys of those fed inorganic Cd. On the other hand, the livers of animals fed a low-Zn diet retained a higher percentage of the Cd than the livers of those fed a high-Zn diet, regardless of the dietary source of Cd.

  8. Quantitative description of the absorption spectra of the coenzyme in glycogen phosphorylases based on log-normal distribution curves.

    PubMed Central

    Donoso, J; Muñoz, F; Garcia Blanco, F

    1993-01-01

    The absorption spectra of the coenzyme [pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)] in glycogen phosphorylase a (GPha), glycogen phosphorylase b (GPhb) and of the latter bound to various effectors and substrates were analysed on the basis of log-normal distribution curves. The results obtained showed that the ionization state of the PLP and GPha environment differs from that of GPhb. This divergence was interpreted in terms of tautomeric equilibria between some forms of the Schiff base of PLP and enzymic Lys-679. The ionic forms are slightly more predominant in GPha than they are in GPhb, so ionic and/or hydrogen-bonding interactions between the aromatic ring of PLP and GPha must be stronger than with GPhb. This confirms the purely structural role of the aromatic ring of the coenzyme. Binding of GPhb to AMP and Mg2+ results in the coenzyme adopting a similar state as in GPha. On the other hand, binding to IMP gives rise to no detectable changes in the tautomeric equilibrium of the coenzyme. PMID:8503849

  9. Porous nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffold containing drug-loaded ADM-PLGA microspheres for bone cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Rong, Zi-Jie; Yang, Lian-Jun; Cai, Bao-Ta; Zhu, Li-Xin; Cao, Yan-Lin; Wu, Guo-Feng; Zhang, Zan-Jie

    2016-05-01

    To develop adriamycin (ADM)-encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles in a porous nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffold (ADM-PLGA-NHAC). To provide novel strategies for future treatment of osteosarcoma, the properties of the scaffold, including its in vitro extended-release properties, the inhibition effects of ADM-PLGA-NHAC on the osteosarcoma MG63 cells, and its bone repair capacity, were investigated in vivo and in vitro. The PLGA copolymer was utilized as a drug carrier to deliver ADM-PLGA nanoparticles (ADM-PLGA-NP). Porous nano-hydroxyapatite and collagen were used to materials to produce the porous nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffold (NHAC), into which the ADM-PLGA-NP was loaded. The performance of the drug-carrying scaffold was assessed using multiple techniques, including scanning electron microscopy and in vitro extended release. The antineoplastic activities of scaffold extracts on the human osteosarcoma MG63 cell line were evaluated in vitro using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) method and live-dead cell staining. The bone repair ability of the scaffold was assessed based on the establishment of a femoral condyle defect model in rabbits. ADM-PLGA-NHAC and NHAC were implanted into the rat muscle bag for immune response experiments. A tumor-bearing nude mice model was created, and the TUNEL and HE staining results were observed under optical microscopy to evaluate the antineoplastic activity and toxic side effects of the scaffold. The composite scaffold demonstrated extraordinary extended-release properties, and its extracts also exhibited significant inhibition of the growth of osteosarcoma MG63 cells. In the bone repair experiment, no significant difference was observed between ADM-PLGA-NHAC and NHAC by itself. In the immune response experiments, ADM-PLGA-NHAC exhibited remarkable biocompatibility. The in vivo antitumor experiment revealed that the implantation of ADM-PLGA-NHAC in the tumor resulted in a improved antineoplastic

  10. Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2)/intermedin (IMD) in rat ovary: changes in estrous cycle and pregnancy and its role in ovulation and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Madhu; Balakrishnan, Meena; Blesson, Chellakkan S; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2015-02-01

    Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2) is reported to facilitate embryo implantation and placental development. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to identify if ADM2 has a functional role in ovary to facilitate its reproductive actions. This study shows that the expression of ADM2 is differentially regulated in rat estrous cycle and that ADM2 increases the synthesis and secretion of 17beta-estradiol accompanied with an increase in the expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1), estrogen receptor Esr1, and enzymes involved in steroidogenesis in equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)-treated rat ovaries. In addition, inhibition of endogenous ADM2 function in eCG-treated immature rats caused impaired ovulation. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of Adm2 and receptor activity modifying protein 3 is higher in the ovary on Day 18 compared to nonpregnant and pregnant rats on Day 22. ADM2-like immunoreactivity is localized in granulosa cells, blood vessels, oocytes, cumulous oophorus, and corpus luteum of pregnant ovaries, suggesting a potential role for ADM2 in the ovary. This is supported by the presence of ADM2-like immunoreactivity in the corpus luteum during pregnancy and a decline in aromatase immunoreactivity in corpus luteum on Day 9 of gestation in rats infused with ADM2 antagonist during implantation and decidualization phase. Taken together, this study suggests a potential involvement of ADM2 in the rat ovary in regulating synthesis of estradiol to support ovulation and facilitate efficient implantation and placental development for a successful pregnancy.

  11. Determination of absorption changes from moments of distributions of times of flight of photons: optimization of measurement conditions for a two-layered tissue model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebert, Adam; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Elster, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy allows for depth-selective determination of absorption changes in the adult human head that facilitates separation between cerebral and extra-cerebral responses to brain activation. The aim of the present work is to analyze which combinations of moments of measured distributions of times of flight (DTOF) of photons and source-detector separations are optimal for the reconstruction of absorption changes in a two-layered tissue model corresponding to extra- and intra-cerebral compartments. To this end we calculated the standard deviations of the derived absorption changes in both layers by considering photon noise and a linear relation between the absorption changes and the DTOF moments. The results show that the standard deviation of the absorption change in the deeper (superficial) layer increases (decreases) with the thickness of the superficial layer. It is confirmed that for the deeper layer the use of higher moments, in particular the variance of the DTOF, leads to an improvement. For example, when measurements at four different source-detector separations between 8 and 35 mm are available and a realistic thickness of the upper layer of 12 mm is assumed, the inclusion of the change in mean time of flight, in addition to the change in attenuation, leads to a reduction of the standard deviation of the absorption change in the deeper tissue layer by a factor of 2.5. A reduction by another 4% can be achieved by additionally including the change in variance.

  12. The BREASTrial Stage II: ADM Breast Reconstruction Outcomes from Definitive Reconstruction to 3 Months Postoperative

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Shaun D.; Anderson, Layla A.; Ying, Jian; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Neumayer, Leigh A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Breast Reconstruction Evaluation of Acellular Dermal Matrix as a Sling Trial is a prospective randomized trial comparing outcomes of tissue expander breast reconstruction using either AlloDerm or DermaMatrix. The trial was divided into 3 outcome stages; this study reports stage II outcomes, which are those from the time of definitive reconstruction to 3 months postoperative. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted to compare complication rates between AlloDerm and DermaMatrix groups. The impact of matrix type, age, obesity, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and reconstruction type on complications was analyzed with regression models. Results: Of the 128 patients (199 breasts) who were randomly assigned into the trial, 111 patients (173 breasts) were available for analysis in stage II. There was no difference in overall rates of complications (15.4% vs 18.3%, P = 0.8) or implant loss (2.2% vs 3.7%, P = 0.5) between the AlloDerm and DermaMatrix groups, respectively. Obesity was the only significant predictor of complications on regression analysis (odds ratio, 4.31, P = 0.007). Matrix type, age, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or reconstruction type had no impact on the incidence/severity of complications. Conclusions: Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) will likely continue to have a role in breast reconstructive surgery; however, caution should be taken when using ADM because of relatively high complication rates, especially in obese patients. The particular ADM product should be selected based on individual surgeon preference, experience, and success rates. These data and forthcoming long-term outcomes from the Breast Reconstruction Evaluation of Acellular Dermal Matrix as a Sling Trial will enable surgeons to carefully weigh the risks and benefits of ADM use in breast reconstruction. PMID:28203509

  13. ADM. Service Building (TAN603). Elevations of all facades with door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Service Building (TAN-603). Elevations of all facades with door details and detail of kitchen. Section through garage area shows second level of steel decking. Equipment and laboratory furniture schedule. Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANP-603-A 44. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 033-0603-00-693-106719 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Enabling the Distributed Generation Market of High Temperature Fuel Cell and Absorption Chiller Systems to Support Critical and Commercial Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMola, Ashley M.

    Buildings account for over 18% of the world's anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. As a result, a technology that can offset GHG emissions associated with buildings has the potential to save over 9 Giga-tons of GHG emissions per year. High temperature fuel cell and absorption chiller (HTFC/AC) technology offers a relatively low-carbon option for meeting cooling and electric loads for buildings while producing almost no criteria pollutants. GHG emissions in the state of California would decrease by 7.48 million metric tons per year if every commercial building in the State used HTFC/AC technology to meet its power and cooling requirements. In order to realize the benefits of HTFC/AC technology on a wide scale, the distributed generation market needs to be exposed to the technology and informed of its economic viability and real-world potential. This work characterizes the economics associated with HTFC/AC technology using select scenarios that are representative of realistic applications. The financial impacts of various input factors are evaluated and the HTFC/AC simulations are compared to the economics of traditional building utilities. It is shown that, in addition to the emissions reductions derived from the systems, HTFC/AC technology is financially preferable in all of the scenarios evaluated. This work also presents the design of a showcase environment, centered on a beta-test application, that presents (1) system operating data gathered using a custom data acquisition module, and (2) HTFC/AC technology in a clear and approachable manner in order to serve the target audience of market stakeholders.

  15. Absorption and Distribution Kinetics of the 13C-Labeled Tomato Carotenoid Phytoene in Healthy Adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Kenneth M; Rogers, Randy B; Grainger, Elizabeth M; Erdman, John W; Clinton, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Phytoene is a tomato carotenoid that may contribute to the apparent health benefits of tomato consumption. Although phytoene is a less prominent tomato carotenoid than lycopene, it is a major carotenoid in various human tissues. Phytoene distribution to plasma lipoproteins and tissues differs from lycopene, suggesting the kinetics of phytoene and lycopene differ. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize the kinetic parameters of phytoene absorption, distribution, and excretion in adults, to better understand why biodistribution of phytoene differs from lycopene. Methods: Four adults (2 males, 2 females) maintained a controlled phytoene diet (1–5 mg/d) for 42 d. On day 14, each consumed 3.2 mg 13C-phytoene, produced using tomato cell suspension culture technology. Blood samples were collected at 0, 1–15, 17, 21, and 24 h and 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, and 28 d after 13C-phytoene consumption. Plasma-unlabeled and plasma-labeled phytoene concentrations were determined using ultra-HPLC–quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry, and data were fit to a 7-compartment carotenoid kinetic model using WinSAAM 3.0.7 software. Results: Subjects were compliant with a controlled phytoene diet, consuming a mean ± SE of 2.5 ± 0.6 mg/d, resulting in a plasma unlabeled phytoene concentration of 71 ± 14 nmol/L. A maximal plasma 13C-phytoene concentration of 55.6 ± 5.9 nM was achieved 19.8 ± 9.2 h after consumption, and the plasma half-life was 2.3 ± 0.2 d. Compared with previous results for lycopene, phytoene bioavailability was nearly double at 58% ± 19%, the clearance rate from chylomicrons was slower, and the rates of deposition into and utilization by the slow turnover tissue compartment were nearly 3 times greater. Conclusions: Although only differing from lycopene by 4 double bonds, phytoene exhibits markedly different kinetic characteristics in human plasma, providing insight into metabolic processes contributing to phytoene

  16. Diagnostic and prognostic role of procalcitonin (PCT) and MR-pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, Silvia; Spoto, Silvia; Fogolari, Marta; Cortigiani, Marco; Fioravanti, Marta; De Florio, Lucia; Curcio, Brunella; Cavalieri, Danilo; Costantino, Sebastiano; Dicuonzo, Giordano

    2015-09-01

    Rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections is crucial for adequate antibiotic treatment. Serum molecules such as Procalcitonin (PCT) have been used as biomarkers of infection. Recently, the mid-regional pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) has been evaluated in combination with PCT for sepsis diagnosis. The diagnostic role of PCT and MR-proADM both in sepsis and in localized infections together with their contribution to effective antibiotic therapy has been evaluated. One hundred and eighty-two patients with bacterial infection has been enrolled: PCT and MR-proADM were measured at admission (T = 0), at 12-24 h (T = 1) and in the third or fifth day of antibiotic therapy (T = 3-5). ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic) and post-test probability were calculated. MR-proADM increased with the severity of the infection. PCT resulted significantly higher in sepsis than localized infection. After antibiotic therapy, PCT significantly decreased in localized respiratory infections and in sepsis, while MR-proADM decreased significantly after antibiotic therapy only in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock. The threshold values of PCT and MR-proADM were >0.1 ng/mL and >0.8 nmol/L, respectively. The combined use of PCT and MR-proADM increased the post-test probability of the diagnosis of bacterial infections compared to PCT alone. In conclusion, PCT and MR-proADM combination improves the diagnosis of bacterial infection and contribute to prognosis and antibiotic therapy effectiveness.

  17. Inner-shell resonant absorption effects on evolution dynamics of the charge state distribution in a neon atom interacting with ultraintense x-ray pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Wenjun; Gao, Cheng; Fu, Yongsheng; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2012-12-01

    Inner-shell resonant absorption (IRA) effects were investigated on evolution dynamics of charge state distribution (CSD) in the interaction of ultraintense x-ray pulses with a neon atom. IRA is the physical origin of the large discrepancies found between theory and experiment at a photon energy of 1050 eV [L. Young , Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature09177 466, 56 (2010)], where the rates of K-shell resonant absorption 1s→4p of Ne6+ and 1s→3p of Ne7+ are larger than the direct single-photon ionization rates by more than one order of magnitude, and hence IRA becomes the dominant absorption mechanism. Only when the IRA effects are properly taken into account can we correctly explain the observed CSD.

  18. Measurements of axisymmetric temperature and H2O concentration distributions on a circular flat flame burner based on tunable diode laser absorption tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Huihui; Kan, Ruifeng; Xu, Zhenyu; Liu, Jianguo; He, Yabai; Yang, Chenguang; Chen, Bing; Wei, Min; Yao, Lu; Zhang, Guangle

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the reconstruction of axisymmetric temperature and H2O concentration distributions in a flat flame burner is realized by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm. Two H2O absorption transitions (7154.354/7154.353 cm-1 and 7467.769 cm-1) are selected as line pair for temperature measurement, and time division multiplexing technology is adopted to scan this two H2O absorption transitions simultaneously at 1 kHz repetition rate. In the experiment, FBP algorithm can be used for reconstructing axisymmetric distributions of flow field parameters with only single view parallel-beam TDLAS measurements, and the same data sets from the given parallel beam are used for other virtual projection angles and beams scattered between 0° and 180°. The real-time online measurements of projection data, i.e., integrated absorbance both for pre-selected transitions on CH4/air flat flame burner are realized by Voigt on-line fitting, and the fitting residuals are less than 0.2%. By analyzing the projection data from different views based on FBP algorithm, the distributions of temperature and concentration along radial direction can be known instantly. The results demonstrate that the system and the proposed innovative FBP algorithm are capable for accurate reconstruction of axisymmetric temperature and H2O concentration distribution in combustion systems and facilities.

  19. Consensus hologram QSAR modeling for the prediction of human intestinal absorption.

    PubMed

    Moda, Tiago L; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2012-04-15

    Consistent in silico models for ADME properties are useful tools in early drug discovery. Here, we report the hologram QSAR modeling of human intestinal absorption using a dataset of 638 compounds with experimental data associated. The final validated models are consistent and robust for the consensus prediction of this important pharmacokinetic property and are suitable for virtual screening applications.

  20. Enhanced visible-light absorption and dopant distribution of iodine-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles synthesized by a new facile two-step hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Xiaoting; Luo Zhiping; Batteas, James D.

    2011-08-15

    In order to prepare visible-light responsive iodine-doped TiO{sub 2}, a new facile synthetic approach was proposed, which started with the cost-efficient and environmentally friendly precursor of undoped anatase TiO{sub 2} to form nanotube structures as templates that collapsed and recrystallized into I-TiO{sub 2} nanopowders in HIO{sub 3} solution, followed by annealing at different temperatures. The modification of TiO{sub 2} to incorporate iodine and form titanium dioxide with significantly enhanced absorption in the visible range of the spectrum was investigated. The extent of iodine dopant incorporation was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and was found to be homogenously distributed on each nanostructure as determined by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) elemental mapping and EDX spectroscopy. The modified TiO{sub 2} exhibits a dramatically extended absorption edge beyond 800 nm as compared to the original and unmodified TiO{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: As-synthesized I-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles show significantly enhanced visible-light absorption, with the dopant iodine homogenously dispersed on each I-TiO{sub 2} nanostructure based on EELS elemental mapping. Highlights: > Iodine-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles by a new facile two-step hydrothermal method. > Significantly enhanced light absorption in the visible range of the spectrum. > Homogenous dopant distribution within each nanostructure.

  1. In-solution hybrid capture of bisulfite-converted DNA for targeted bisulfite sequencing of 174 ADME genes

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Maxim; Kals, Mart; Kacevska, Marina; Metspalu, Andres; Milani, Lili

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic alterations involved in the control of gene expression. Bisulfite sequencing of genomic DNA is currently the only method to study DNA methylation patterns at single-nucleotide resolution. Hence, next-generation sequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA is the method of choice to investigate DNA methylation profiles at the genome-wide scale. Nevertheless, whole genome sequencing for analysis of human methylomes is expensive, and a method for targeted gene analysis would provide a good alternative in many cases where the primary interest is restricted to a set of genes. Here, we report the successful use of a custom Agilent SureSelect Target Enrichment system for the hybrid capture of bisulfite-converted DNA. We prepared bisulfite-converted next-generation sequencing libraries, which are enriched for the coding and regulatory regions of 174 ADME genes (i.e. genes involved in the metabolism and distribution of drugs). Sequencing of these libraries on Illumina’s HiSeq2000 revealed that the method allows a reliable quantification of methylation levels of CpG sites in the selected genes, and validation of the method using pyrosequencing and the Illumina 450K methylation BeadChips revealed good concordance. PMID:23325842

  2. Regional distribution and variation of gamma-globulin absorption from the small intestine of the neonatal calf

    SciTech Connect

    Fetcher, A.; Gay, C.C.; McGuire, T.C.; Barbee, D.D.; Parish, S.M.

    1983-11-01

    125I-labeled immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 in colostral whey was used to determine the region of maximum absorption of Ig from the small intestine of the neonatal calf and the variation in Ig absorption among calves at the intestinal level. In experiment 1, 5 segments (approx 5%, 35%, 60%, 80%, and 95% of the duodenocecal length) were formed in the small intestine of 9 colostrum-deprived calves shortly after birth. These segments were injected with colostral whey containing 125I-IgG1 4 hours after birth, and uptake, transfer, and absorption (defined as uptake plus transfer) were determined for each segment 2 hours later. Raw data were adjusted for the milligrams of IgG1 injected per gram of intestinal tissue to obtain the least squares mean (LSM) value. The LSM values for absorption of IgG1 from distal segments 3, 4, and 5 were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than those values for proximal segments 1 and 2. The region of the maximum IgG1 absorption was the lower small intestine, 60% to 80% of the duodenocecal length. There was also an indication of independence between uptake and transfer in each of the segments. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) were present among calves in the LSM values for uptake and absorption, but not for transfer. In experiment 2, thoracic ducts of 8 newborn calves were cannulated 4 to 5 hours after birth. At 6 hours after birth, colostral whey with 125I-IgG1 was injected into an intestinal segment (approx 60% to 80% of the duodenocecal length).

  3. Modified ADM1 for modeling free ammonia inhibition in anaerobic acidogenic fermentation with high-solid sludge.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jie; Liu, He; Yin, Bo; Ma, Huijun; Chen, Xinchun

    2017-02-01

    Anaerobic acidogenic fermentation with high-solid sludge is a promising method for volatile fatty acid (VFA) production to realize resource recovery. In this study, to model inhibition by free ammonia in high-solid sludge fermentation, the anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1) was modified to simulate the VFA generation in batch, semi-continuous and full scale sludge. The ADM1 was operated on the platform AQUASIM 2.0. Three kinds of inhibition forms, e.g., simple inhibition, Monod and non-inhibition forms, were integrated into the ADM1 and tested with the real experimental data for batch and semi-continuous fermentation, respectively. The improved particle swarm optimization technique was used for kinetic parameter estimation using the software MATLAB 7.0. In the modified ADM1, the Ks of acetate is 0.025, the km,ac is 12.51, and the KI_NH3 is 0.02, respectively. The results showed that the simple inhibition model could simulate the VFA generation accurately while the Monod model was the better inhibition kinetics form in semi-continuous fermentation at pH10.0. Finally, the modified ADM1 could successfully describe the VFA generation and ammonia accumulation in a 30m(3) full-scale sludge fermentation reactor, indicating that the developed model can be applicable in high-solid sludge anaerobic fermentation.

  4. Development of formulae for estimating amylose content, amylopectin chain length distribution, and resistant starch content based on the iodine absorption curve of rice starch.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Not only amylose but also amylopectin greatly affects the gelatinization properties of rice starch and the quality of cooked rice grains. We here characterized the starches of 32 rice cultivars and evaluated the relationship between their iodine absorption curve, apparent amylose content (AAC), pasting property, resistant starch (RS) content, and chain length distribution of amylopectin. We found that the iodine absorption curve differed among the various sample rice cultivars. Using the wavelength at which absorbance becomes maximum on iodine staining of starch (λmax), we propose a novel index, "new λmax" (AAC/(λmax of sample rice starches-λmax of glutinous rice starch)). We developed the novel estimation formulae for AAC, RS contents, and amylopectin fractions with the use of λmax and "new λmax." These formulae would lead to the improved method for estimating starch properties using an easy and rapid iodine colorimetric method.

  5. Single-frequency Sb-based distributed-feedback lasers emitting at 2.3 microm above room temperature for application in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Salhi, Abdelmagid; Barat, David; Romanini, Daniele; Rouillard, Yves; Ouvrard, Aimeric; Werner, Ralph; Seufert, Jochen; Koeth, Johannes; Vicet, Aurore; Garnache, Arnaud

    2006-07-10

    GaInAsSb/GaAlAsSb/GaSb distributed-feedback (DFB) laser diodes based on a type I active region were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy at the Centre d'Electronique et de Micro-Optoélectronique de Montpellier (CEM2). The DFB processing was done by Nanoplus Nanosystems and Technologies GmbH. The devices work in the continuous-wave regime above room temperature around an emission wavelength of 2.3 microm with a side-mode suppression ratio greater than 25 dB and as great as 10 mW of output power. The laser devices are fully characterized in terms of optical and electrical properties. Their tuning properties made them adaptable to tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy because they exhibit more than 220 GHz of continuous tuning by temperature or current. The direct absorption of CH4 is demonstrated to be possible with high spectral selectivity.

  6. Intensity-Stabilized Fast-Scanned Direct Absorption Spectroscopy Instrumentation Based on a Distributed Feedback Laser with Detection Sensitivity down to 4 × 10−6

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Gang; Tan, Wei; Jia, Mengyuan; Hou, Jiajuan; Ma, Weiguang; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wu, Xuechun; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Axner, Ove; Jia, Suotang

    2016-01-01

    A novel, intensity-stabilized, fast-scanned, direct absorption spectroscopy (IS-FS-DAS) instrumentation, based on a distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser, is developed. A fiber-coupled polarization rotator and a fiber-coupled polarizer are used to stabilize the intensity of the laser, which significantly reduces its relative intensity noise (RIN). The influence of white noise is reduced by fast scanning over the spectral feature (at 1 kHz), followed by averaging. By combining these two noise-reducing techniques, it is demonstrated that direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) can be swiftly performed down to a limit of detection (LOD) (1σ) of 4 × 10−6, which opens up a number of new applications. PMID:27657082

  7. In vivo skin absorption and distribution of the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl-S-[2(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) in the domestic white pig.

    PubMed

    Chilcott, R P; Dalton, C H; Hill, I; Davison, C M; Blohm, K L; Clarkson, E D; Hamilton, M G

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the skin absorption and distribution of VX (O-ethyl-S-[2 (diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) in the domestic pig in order to evaluate the animal as a potential model for assessing pretreatments against toxic anti-cholinesterase compounds. A liquid droplet (equivalent to a 2 x LD50 dose) of radiolabelled VX was applied to the inner ear-skin of each anaesthetized animal. Blood and tissue samples (liver, lung, kidney, heart and skin exposure sites) were obtained post-mortem. The amount of radioactivity in each sample was measured by liquid scintillation counting, from which the skin absorption rate and dose distribution of VX were calculated. A substantial proportion (22 +/- 3%) of the applied dose remained within the skin at the site of application. It is conceivable that strategies to minimize or remove this reservoir may be of benefit in the early treatment of VX-exposed casualties. Image analysis of autoradiographs of exposed skin sites indicated that each milligram of radioactive VX covered an area of 1.2 +/- 0.5 cm2. The average skin absorption rate of 14C-VX was 661 +/- 126 microg/cm2 per hour. Comparison of these data with previous studies suggests that human skin is less permeable to VX than pig skin, but VX spreads over a greater surface area when applied to human skin. Thus, paradoxically, while pig-ear skin is more permeable than human skin, the difference in skin surface spreading may lead to the absorption of an equivalent systemic dose.

  8. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+641. 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km/s) spectrum of the broad-absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 angstroms, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III lambda977, Ly-beta, O VI lambda-lambda-1032,1038, Ly-alpha, N V lambda-lambda-1238,1242, Si IV lambda-lambda-1393,1402, and C IV lambda-lambda-1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km/s with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly-alpha flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The ultraviolet continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 angstroms in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21)/s, unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  9. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+64. 3.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J. X.; Brotherton, M.; Oegerle, W. R.; Blair, W. P.; Davidsen, A. F.; Green, R. F.; Hutchings, J. B.; Kaiser, M. E.; Fisher, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (approximately 20 km s(exp -1) spectrum of the mini broad absorption line QSO PG 1351+64 between 915-1180 A, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional low-resolution spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of C III (lambda)977, Ly(beta), O VI (lambda)(lambda)1032,1038, Ly(alpha), N V (lambda)(lambda)1238,1242, Si IV (lambda)(lambda)1393,1402, and C IV (lambda)(lambda)1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of approximately -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km s(exp -1) with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The O VI emission feature is very weak, and the O VI/Ly(alpha) flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The UV (ultraviolet) continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 A in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observed weak X-ray flux level. The absorbers' properties are similar to those of high-redshift broad absorption-line QSOs. The derived total column density of the UV absorbers is on the order of 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2), unlikely to produce significant opacity above 1 keV in the X-ray. Unless there is a separate, high-ionization X-ray absorber, the QSO's weak X-ray flux may be intrinsic. The ionization level of the absorbing components is comparable to that anticipated in the broad-line region, therefore the absorbers may be related to broad-line clouds along the line of sight.

  10. Total Structure Determination of Au21(S-Adm)15 and Geometrical/Electronic Structure Evolution of Thiolated Gold Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Xiong, Lin; Wang, Shuxin; Ma, Zhongyun; Jin, Shan; Sheng, Hongting; Pei, Yong; Zhu, Manzhou

    2016-08-31

    The larger size gold nanoparticles typically adopt a face-centered cubic (fcc) atomic packing, while in the ultrasmall nanoclusters the packing styles of Au atoms are diverse, including fcc, hexagonal close packing (hcp), and body-centered cubic (bcc), depending on the ligand protection. The possible conversion between these packing structures is largely unknown. Herein, we report the growth of a new Au21(S-Adm)15 nanocluster (S-Adm = adamantanethiolate) from Au18(SR)14 (SR = cyclohexylthiol), with the total structure determined by X-ray crystallography. It is discovered that the hcp Au9-core in Au18(SR)14 is transformed to a fcc Au10-core in Au21(S-Adm)15. Combining with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we provide critical information about the growth mechanism (geometrical and electronic structure) and the origin of fcc-structure formation for the thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters.

  11. Modified ADM1 for modelling an UASB reactor laboratory plant treating starch wastewater and synthetic substrate load tests.

    PubMed

    Hinken, L; Huber, M; Weichgrebe, D; Rosenwinkel, K-H

    2014-11-01

    A laboratory plant consisting of two UASB reactors was used for the treatment of industrial wastewater from the wheat starch industry. Several load tests were carried out with starch wastewater and the synthetic substrates glucose, acetate, cellulose, butyrate and propionate to observe the impact of changing loads on gas yield and effluent quality. The measurement data sets were used for calibration and validation of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). For a precise simulation of the detected glucose degradation during load tests with starch wastewater and glucose, it was necessary to incorporate the complete lactic acid fermentation into the ADM1, which contains the formation and degradation of lactate and a non-competitive inhibition function. The modelling results of both reactors based on the modified ADM1 confirm an accurate calculation of the produced gas and the effluent concentrations. Especially, the modelled lactate effluent concentrations for the load cases are similar to the measurements and justified by literature.

  12. A waste characterisation procedure for ADM1 implementation based on degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Girault, R; Bridoux, G; Nauleau, F; Poullain, C; Buffet, J; Steyer, J-P; Sadowski, A G; Béline, F

    2012-09-01

    In this study, a procedure accounting for degradation kinetics was developed to split the total COD of a substrate into each input state variable required for Anaerobic Digestion Model n°1. The procedure is based on the combination of batch experimental degradation tests ("anaerobic respirometry") and numerical interpretation of the results obtained (optimisation of the ADM1 input state variable set). The effects of the main operating parameters, such as the substrate to inoculum ratio in batch experiments and the origin of the inoculum, were investigated. Combined with biochemical fractionation of the total COD of substrates, this method enabled determination of an ADM1-consistent input state variable set for each substrate with affordable identifiability. The substrate to inoculum ratio in the batch experiments and the origin of the inoculum influenced input state variables. However, based on results modelled for a CSTR fed with the substrate concerned, these effects were not significant. Indeed, if the optimal ranges of these operational parameters are respected, uncertainty in COD fractionation is mainly limited to temporal variability of the properties of the substrates. As the method is based on kinetics and is easy to implement for a wide range of substrates, it is a very promising way to numerically predict the effect of design parameters on the efficiency of an anaerobic CSTR. This method thus promotes the use of modelling for the design and optimisation of anaerobic processes.

  13. Variation of ADM1 by using temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) operation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung-Yeol; Suh, Chang-Won; Ahn, Yong-Tae; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2009-06-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) developed by the IWA task group for mathematical modelling of anaerobic process. Lab-scale temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) process were operated continuously, and were fed with co-substrate composed of dog food and flour. The model platform implemented in the simulation was a derivative of the ADM1. Sensitivity analysis showed that k(m.process) (maximum specific uptake rate) and K(S.process) (half saturation value) had high sensitivities to model components. Important parameters including maximum uptake rate for propionate utilisers (k(m.pro)) and half saturation constant for acetate utilisers (K(S.ac)) in the thermophilic digester and maximum uptake rate for acetate utilisers (k(m.ac)) in the mesophilic digester were estimated using iterative methods, which optimized the parameters with experimental results. Simulation with estimated parameters showed good agreement with experimental results in the case of methane production, uptake of acetate, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD). Under these conditions, the model predicted reasonably well the dynamic behavior of the TPAD process for verifying the model.

  14. Long-term laser irradiation tests of optical elements for ESA mission ADM-Aeolus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinhos, Uwe; Mann, Klaus; Bayer, Armin; Endemann, Martin; Wernham, Denny; Pettazzi, Federico; Thibault, Dominique

    2010-08-01

    The European Space Agency ESA is running a series of earth observation missions. In order to perform global windprofile observation based on Doppler-LIDAR, the satellite ADM-Aelolus will be launched in April 2011 and injected into an orbit 400 km above Earth's surface. ADM-Aeolus will be the first satellite ever that is equipped with a UV-laser (emitting at 355 nm) and a reflector telescope. At LLG, a setup was developed that allows monitoring transmission, reflection and fluorescence of laser-irradiated optical components, in order to assess their possible optical degradation due to radiation-induced contaminant deposition in orbit. For both a high-reflecting mirror and an anti-reflective coated window long-term irradiation tests (up to 500 million laser pulses) were performed at a base pressure < 10-9 mbar, using a XeF excimer laser (wavelength 351 nm, repetition rate 1kHz). At this, samples of polymers used inside the satellite (insulators for cabling, adhesives, etc.) were installed into the chamber, and the interaction of their degassing with the sample surfaces under laser irradiation was investigated. Various paramters were varied including pulse repetition rate, view factor and coatings. Optical degradation associated with contaminant adsorption was detected on the irradiated sample sites.

  15. High throughput screening of physicochemical properties and in vitro ADME profiling in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hong; Holmén, Anders G

    2009-03-01

    Current advances of new technologies with robotic automated assays combined with highly selective and sensitive LC-MS enable high-speed screening of lead series libraries in many in vitro assays. In this review, we summarize state of the art high throughput assays for screening of key physicochemical properties such as solubility, lipophilicity, pKa, drug-plasma protein binding and brain tissue binding as well as in vitro ADME profiling. We discuss two primary approaches for high throughput screening of solubility, i.e. an automated 96-well plate assay integrated with LC-MS and a rapid multi-wavelength UV plate reader. We address the advantages of newly developed miniaturized techniques for high throughput pKa screening by capillary electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry (CE-MS) with automated data analysis flow. Several new lipophilicity approaches other than octanol-water partitioning are critically reviewed, including rapid liquid chromatographic retention based approach, immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) partitioning and liposome, and potential microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) for accurate screening of LogP. We highlight the sample pooling (namely cassette dosing, all-in-one, cocktail) as an efficient approach for high throughput screening of physicochemical properties and in vitro ADME profiling with emphasis on the benefit of on-line quality control. This cassette dosing approach has been widely adapted in drug discovery for rapid screening of in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters with significantly increased capacity and dramatically reduced animal usage.

  16. ESA's Spaceborne Lidar Mission ADM-Aeolus; Recent Achievements and Preparations for Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grete Straume, Anne; Elfving, Anders; Wernham, Denny; Culoma, Alain; Mondin, Linda; de Bruin, Frank; Kanitz, Thomas; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Buscaglione, Fabio; Dehn, Angelika

    2016-06-01

    Within ESA's Living Planet Programme, the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus) was chosen as the second Earth Explorer Core mission in 1999. It shall demonstrate the potential of high spectral resolution Doppler Wind lidars for operational measurements of wind profiles and their use in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). Spin-off products are profiles of cloud and aerosol optical properties. ADM-Aeolus carries the novel Doppler Wind lidar instrument ALADIN. Recently the two ALADIN laser transmitters were successfully qualified and delivered for further instrument integration. The instrument delivery will follow later this year and the satellite qualification and launch readiness is scheduled for 2016. In February 2015, an Aeolus Science and Calibration and Validation (CAL/VAL) Workshop was held in ESA-ESRIN, Frascati, Italy, bringing industry, the user community and ESA together to prepare for the Aeolus Commissioning and Operational Phases. During the Workshop the science, instrument and product status, commissioning phase planning and the extensive number of proposals submitted in response to the Aeolus CAL/VAL call in 2014 were presented and discussed. A special session was dedicated to the Aeolus CAL/VAL Implementation Plan. In this paper, the Aeolus mission, status and launch preparation activities are described.

  17. Aggregated distance metric learning (ADM) for image classification in presence of limited training data.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gaoyu; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-01-01

    The focus of image classification through supervised distance metric learning is to find an appropriate measure of similarity between images. Although this approach is effective in the presence of large amounts of training data, classification accuracy will deteriorate when the number of training samples is small, which, unfortunately, is often the situation in several medical applications. We present a novel image classification method called aggregated distance metric (ADM) learning for situations where the training image data are limited. Our approach is novel in that it combines the merits of boosted distance metric learning (BDM, a recently published learning scheme) and bagging theory. This approach involves selecting several sub-sets of the original training data to form a number of new training sets and then performing BDM on each of these training sub-sets. The distance metrics learned from each of the training sets are then combined for image classification. We present a theoretical proof of the superiority of classification by ADM over BDM. Using both clinical (X-ray) and non-clinical (toy car) images in our experiments (with altogether 10 sets of different parameters) and image classification accuracy as the measure, our method is shown to be more accurate than BDM and the traditional bagging strategy.

  18. Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2)/Intermedin (IMD) in Rat Ovary: Changes in Estrous Cycle and Pregnancy and Its Role in Ovulation and Steroidogenesis1

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Madhu; Balakrishnan, Meena; Blesson, Chellakkan S.; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adrenomedullin2 (ADM2) is reported to facilitate embryo implantation and placental development. Therefore, the current study was undertaken to identify if ADM2 has a functional role in ovary to facilitate its reproductive actions. This study shows that the expression of ADM2 is differentially regulated in rat estrous cycle and that ADM2 increases the synthesis and secretion of 17beta-estradiol accompanied with an increase in the expression of steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1), estrogen receptor Esr1, and enzymes involved in steroidogenesis in equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)-treated rat ovaries. In addition, inhibition of endogenous ADM2 function in eCG-treated immature rats caused impaired ovulation. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of Adm2 and receptor activity modifying protein 3 is higher in the ovary on Day 18 compared to nonpregnant and pregnant rats on Day 22. ADM2-like immunoreactivity is localized in granulosa cells, blood vessels, oocytes, cumulous oophorus, and corpus luteum of pregnant ovaries, suggesting a potential role for ADM2 in the ovary. This is supported by the presence of ADM2-like immunoreactivity in the corpus luteum during pregnancy and a decline in aromatase immunoreactivity in corpus luteum on Day 9 of gestation in rats infused with ADM2 antagonist during implantation and decidualization phase. Taken together, this study suggests a potential involvement of ADM2 in the rat ovary in regulating synthesis of estradiol to support ovulation and facilitate efficient implantation and placental development for a successful pregnancy. PMID:25395681

  19. The ℓ-distribution method for modeling non-gray absorption in uniform and non-uniform gaseous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    The ℓ-distribution modeling is proposed for radiative heat transfer in uniform and non-uniform non-gray gaseous media. The method is partly based on the application of results from the k-moment method. It combines this technique with several concepts from probability theory: the notion of rank transmutation maps allows extending the k-moment method to an infinite number of k-moments; copula models appear naturally to extend the method from uniform to non-uniform gas paths. The ℓ-distribution approach is shown to provide results: (1) more accurate - up to three orders of magnitude - than usual k-distribution approaches in uniform media, (2) as precise as correlated-k models in non-uniform situations. All these results are obtained at a computational cost lower than k-distribution models. Differences and similarities between k- and ℓ-distribution methods are discussed.

  20. Dipolar-Distribution Cavity γ-Fe2 O3 @C@α-MnO2 Nanospindle with Broadened Microwave Absorption Bandwidth by Chemically Etching.

    PubMed

    You, Wenbin; Bi, Han; She, Wen; Zhang, Yu; Che, Renchao

    2017-02-01

    Developing microwave absorption materials with ultrawide bandwidth and low density still remains a challenge, which restricts their actual application in electromagnetic signal anticontamination and defense stealth technology. Here a series of olive-like γ-Fe2 O3 @C core-shell spindles with different shell thickness and γ-Fe2 O3 @C@α-MnO2 spindles with different volumes of dipolar-distribution cavities were successfully prepared. Both series of absorbers exhibit excellent absorption properties. The γ-Fe2 O3 @C@α-MnO2 spindle with controllable cavity volume exhibits an effective absorption (<-10 dB) bandwidth as wide as 9.2 GHz due to the chemically dipolar etching of the core. Reflection loss of the γ-Fe2 O3 @C spindle reaches as high as -45 dB because of the optimized electromagnetic impedance balance between polymer shell and γ-Fe2 O3 core. Intrinsic ferromagnetism of the anisotropy spindle is confirmed by electron holography. Strong coupling of magnetic flux stray lines between spindles is directly imaged. This unique morphology and facile etching technique might facilitate the study of core-shell type microwave absorbers.

  1. Correlation between octanol/water and liposome/water distribution coefficients and drug absorption of a set of pharmacologically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Freddy; Moutinho, Carla; Matos, Carla

    2013-06-01

    Absorption and consequent therapeutic action are key issues in the development of new drugs by the pharmaceutical industry. In this sense, different models can be used to simulate biological membranes to predict the absorption of a drug. This work compared the octanol/water and the liposome/water models. The parameters used to relate the two models were the distribution coefficients between liposomes and water and octanol and water and the fraction of drug orally absorbed. For this study, 66 drugs were collected from literature sources and divided into four groups according to charge and ionization degree: neutral; positively charged; negatively charged; and partially ionized/zwitterionic. The results show a satisfactory linear correlation between the octanol and liposome systems for the neutral (R²= 0.9324) and partially ionized compounds (R²= 0.9367), contrary to the positive (R²= 0.4684) and negatively charged compounds (R²= 0.1487). In the case of neutral drugs, results were similar in both models because of the high fraction orally absorbed. However, for the charged drugs (positively, negatively, and partially ionized/zwitterionic), the liposomal model has a more-appropriate correlation with absorption than the octanol model. These results show that the neutral compounds only interact with membranes through hydrophobic bonds, whereas charged drugs favor electrostatic interactions established with the liposomes. With this work, we concluded that liposomes may be a more-appropriate biomembrane model than octanol for charged compounds.

  2. Spatial distribution of carbon dioxide absorption and emission in Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea using RS and GIS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Ki; Na, Sang-il; Park, Jong-Hwa

    2011-11-01

    Climate change has been an important issue particularly in recent years. Climate change has been reported as a phenomena caused by human activities as identified in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) in 2007, and in order to prevent negative impacts to our planet, conscious efforts to reduce greenhouse gases are necessary worldwide. In addition, Korea's interest in global climate change is growing. In reality, symptoms of global warming on the Korean Peninsula are visible in the air, on the land and in changes patterns to the normal levels and contents of Korea's oceans. Impacts of global warming result in abnormal temperature fluctuation, typhoons, regional flooding and desertification with such extreme and that are arguably more frequent occurrences of natural disasters quickly becoming a general problem for the community as a whole. On the other hand, the development of IT technology and the improvement and use of satellite technology have ensured better access to RS technique and utilization. Due to RS technology is ability to monitor it has become widely used in farming applications, environment prediction and planning and ecology studies and analysis. The purpose of this study is to assess emission and absorption in relation to geographical features and to be better able to deliver environment information to produce a spatial map of carbon dioxide in Chungbuk by using RS and GIS with a focus on carbon dioxide emission and its direct absorption caused by tree growth according to energy consumption.

  3. Effect of lead in the laboratory mouse. 1. Influence of pregnancy upon absorption, retention, and tissue distribution of radiolabeled lead

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, J.M.; Cutler, M.G.; Moore, M.R.

    1986-12-01

    Whole-body retention and excretion following a single oral dose of radiolabeled lead (/sup 203/Pb) in chronically lead-exposed pregnant BK:W mice were examined over 10-13 days. This was compared with values in similarly treated nonpregnant females and in ip injected females. Whole-body and bone retention were greater in injected than in orally dosed nonpregnant females; gastrointestinal absorption was estimated from this difference. Whole-body retention in the pups was measured at birth and at the end of the experiment. Whole-body retentions in pregnant females and in their pups at birth were significantly raised after treatment at Gestational Day 17, but not after treatment at Gestational Day 11, 14, 20, 23, or 26. Pup body burdens at birth were significantly and positively correlated with maternal retention. Measurement of radioactivity in bone, kidney, brain, heart, and liver of adults at the end of the experiments showed significantly increased levels in bone and kidney from females treated at Gestational Day 17 and in bone from females treated at Gestational Day 11. Lead excretion did not differ significantly among the groups but the total lead content of the femur was significantly raised in females treated at Gestational Days 17 and 26. Thus, these experiments provide evidence that lead absorption and retention in mice are markedly increased in the latter stages of pregnancy.

  4. Arbaclofen placarbil, a novel R-baclofen prodrug: improved absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination properties compared with R-baclofen.

    PubMed

    Lal, Ritu; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Tai, Ezra H L; Upadhyay, Shubhra; Yao, Fenmei; Warren, Mark S; Luo, Wendy; Bu, Lin; Nguyen, Son; Zamora, Jeanelle; Peng, Ge; Dias, Tracy; Bao, Ying; Ludwikow, Maria; Phan, Thu; Scheuerman, Randall A; Yan, Hui; Gao, Mark; Wu, Quincey Q; Annamalai, Thamil; Raillard, Stephen P; Koller, Kerry; Gallop, Mark A; Cundy, Kenneth C

    2009-09-01

    Baclofen is a racemic GABA(B) receptor agonist that has a number of significant pharmacokinetic limitations, including a narrow window of absorption in the upper small intestine and rapid clearance from the blood. Arbaclofen placarbil is a novel transported prodrug of the pharmacologically active R-isomer of baclofen designed to be absorbed throughout the intestine by both passive and active mechanisms via the monocarboxylate type 1 transporter. Arbaclofen placarbil is rapidly converted to R-baclofen in human and animal tissues in vitro. This conversion seems to be primarily catalyzed in human tissues by human carboxylesterase-2, a major carboxylesterase expressed at high levels in various tissues including human intestinal cells. Arbaclofen placarbil was efficiently absorbed and rapidly converted to R-baclofen after oral dosing in rats, dogs, and monkeys. Exposure to R-baclofen was proportional to arbaclofen placarbil dose, whereas exposure to intact prodrug was low. Arbaclofen placarbil demonstrated enhanced colonic absorption, i.e., 5-fold higher R-baclofen exposure in rats and 12-fold higher in monkeys compared with intracolonic administration of R-baclofen. Sustained release formulations of arbaclofen placarbil demonstrated sustained R-baclofen exposure in dogs with bioavailability up to 68%. In clinical use, arbaclofen placarbil may improve the treatment of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, spasticity, and numerous other conditions by prolonging exposure and decreasing the fluctuations in plasma levels of R-baclofen.

  5. Measurement of vapor/liquid distributions in a binary-component fuel spray using laser imaging of droplet scattering and vapor absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiyan; Zhang, Yuyin; Wu, Shenqi; Xu, Bin

    2014-08-01

    Fuel volatility has a great effect on its evaporation processes and the mixture formation and thus combustion and emissions formation processes in internal combustion engines. To date, however, instead of the actual gasoline or diesel fuel, many researchers have been using single-component fuel in their studies, because the composition of the former is too complicated to understand the real physics behind the evaporation and combustion characteristics. Several research groups have reported their results on droplets evaporation in a spray of multi-component fuel, carried out both numerically and experimentally. However, there are plenty of difficulties in quantitative determination of vapor concentration and droplet distributions of each component in a multicomponent fuel spray. In this study, to determine the vapor phase concentration and droplet distributions in an evaporating binary component fuel spray, a laser diagnostics based on laser extinction by droplet scattering and vapor absorption was developed. In practice, measurements of the vapor concentration distributions of the lower (n-tridencane) and higher (n-octane) volatility components in the binary component fuel sprays have been carried out at ambient temperatures of 473K and 573K, by substituting p-xylene for noctane or α-methylnaphthalene for n-tridecane. p-Xylene and α-methylnaphthalene were selected as the substitutes is because they have strong absorption band near 266nm and transparent near 532nm and, their thermo-physical properties are similar to those of the original component. As a demonstration experiment, vapor/liquid distribution of the lower boiling point (LBP) and higher boiling point (HBP) components in the binary component fuel spray have been obtained.

  6. Automatic QSAR modeling of ADME properties: blood-brain barrier penetration and aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Obrezanova, Olga; Gola, Joelle M R; Champness, Edmund J; Segall, Matthew D

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present an automatic model generation process for building QSAR models using Gaussian Processes, a powerful machine learning modeling method. We describe the stages of the process that ensure models are built and validated within a rigorous framework: descriptor calculation, splitting data into training, validation and test sets, descriptor filtering, application of modeling techniques and selection of the best model. We apply this automatic process to data sets of blood-brain barrier penetration and aqueous solubility and compare the resulting automatically generated models with 'manually' built models using external test sets. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the automatic model generation process for two types of data sets commonly encountered in building ADME QSAR models, a small set of in vivo data and a large set of physico-chemical data.

  7. Automatic QSAR modeling of ADME properties: blood brain barrier penetration and aqueous solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrezanova, Olga; Gola, Joelle M. R.; Champness, Edmund J.; Segall, Matthew D.

    2008-06-01

    In this article, we present an automatic model generation process for building QSAR models using Gaussian Processes, a powerful machine learning modeling method. We describe the stages of the process that ensure models are built and validated within a rigorous framework: descriptor calculation, splitting data into training, validation and test sets, descriptor filtering, application of modeling techniques and selection of the best model. We apply this automatic process to data sets of blood-brain barrier penetration and aqueous solubility and compare the resulting automatically generated models with `manually' built models using external test sets. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the automatic model generation process for two types of data sets commonly encountered in building ADME QSAR models, a small set of in vivo data and a large set of physico-chemical data.

  8. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of an investigational anticancer gallium(III) drug: interaction with serum proteins, elemental distribution pattern, and coordination of the compound in tissue.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Alfred A; Bartel, Caroline; Arion, Vladimir B; Jakupec, Michael A; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Geraki, Tina; Quinn, Paul D; Mijovilovich, Ana; Keppler, Bernhard K; Rompel, Annette

    2012-06-14

    Tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III) (1, KP46) is a very promising investigational anticancer drug. Its interaction with serum proteins, elemental distribution, and coordination in tissue were investigated with X-ray absorption (XAS) methods. Model compounds with mixed O, N, and/or S donor atoms are reported. The coordination and structure of 1 in cell culture medium (minimum essential medium, MEM) and fetal calf serum (FCS) were probed by XANES and EXAFS. The interaction of 1 with the serum proteins apotransferrin (apoTf) and human serum albumin (HSA) was addressed as well. By application of micro-XAS to tissue samples from mice treated with 1, the gallium distribution pattern was analyzed and compared to those of physiological trace elements. The complex 1 turned out to be very stable under physiological conditions, in cell culture media and in tissue samples. The coordination environment of the metal center remains intact in the presence of apoTf and HSA. The gallium distribution pattern in tumor and liver tissue revealed high similarities to the distribution patterns of Zn and Fe, minor similarities to Cu and Ni, and no similarity to Ca.

  9. Distribution and speciation of bromine in mammalian tissue and fluids by X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Melanie J; Hummitzsch, Katja; Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Bonner, Wendy; James, Simon A; Kirby, Jason K; Rodgers, Raymond J; Harris, Hugh H

    2015-05-01

    Bromine is one of the most abundant and ubiquitous trace elements in the biosphere and until recently had not been shown to perform any essential biological function in animals. A recent study demonstrated that bromine is required as a cofactor for peroxidasin-catalysed formation of sulfilimine crosslinks in Drosophila. In addition, bromine dietary deficiency is lethal in Drosophila, whereas bromine replenishment restores viability. The aim of this study was to examine the distribution and speciation of bromine in mammalian tissues and fluids to provide further insights into the role and function of this element in biological systems. In this study we used X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to examine the distribution of bromine in bovine ovarian tissue samples, follicular fluid and aortic serum, as well as human whole blood and serum and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the chemical species of bromine in a range of mammalian tissue (bovine, ovine, porcine and murine), whole blood and serum samples (bovine, ovine, porcine, murine and human), and marine samples (salmon (Salmo salar), kingfish (Seriola lalandi) and Scleractinian coral). Bromine was found to be widely distributed across all tissues and fluids examined. In the bovine ovary in particular it was more concentrated in the sub-endothelial regions of arterioles. Statistical comparison of the near-edge region of the X-ray absorption spectra with a library of bromine standards led to the conclusion that the major form of bromine in all samples analysed was bromide.

  10. [Absorption and distribution of nitrogen from 15N labelled urea applied at core-hardening stage in winter jujube].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dengchao; Jiang, Yuanmao; Peng, Futian; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Xu; Ju, Xiaotang; Zhang, Fusuo

    2006-01-01

    The study with pot experiment showed that at the rapid-swelling stage of winter jujube fruit, the percent of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff%) was the highest (10.64%) in fine roots, followed by new-growth nutritive organs. The absorbed urea-15N decreased in leaves and deciduous supers, and accumulated preferentially in root systems after harvest. The Ndff% in coarse roots was the highest (3.69%) before budding stage, while that in new-growth organs (new branches, deciduous supers, leaves and flowers) was the highest at full-blooming stage. The urea-15N applied at core-hardening stage mainly allocated in nutritive organs (leaves, deciduous supers, roots) in the first year, with the distribution rate 54.01% in root systems in winter, which was higher than that in branches (45.99%). The 15N stored in main branches changed drastically from post-harvest to budding stage. Main branches could be regarded as the 'target organs' of N storage, while coarse roots were the 'long-term sink' of N storage. The N reserve distributed preferentially in contiguity organs, and the distribution center changed with the growth and development of winter jujube in next spring.

  11. The H + OCS hot atom reaction - CO state distributions and translational energy from time-resolved infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickolaisen, Scott L.; Cartland, Harry E.

    1993-01-01

    Time-resolved infrared diode laser spectroscopy has been used to probe CO internal and translational excitation from the reaction of hot H atoms with OCS. Product distributions should be strongly biased toward the maximum 1.4 eV collision energy obtained from 278 nm pulsed photolysis of HI. Rotations and vibrations are both colder than predicted by statistical density of states theory, as evidenced by large positive surprisal parameters. The bias against rotation is stronger than that against vibration, with measurable population as high as v = 4. The average CO internal excitation is 1920/cm, accounting for only 13 percent of the available energy. Of the energy balance, time-resolved sub-Doppler line shape measurements show that more than 38 percent appears as relative translation of the separating CO and SH fragments. Studies of the relaxation kinetics indicate that some rotational energy transfer occurs on the time scale of our measurements, but the distributions do not relax sufficiently to alter our conclusions. Vibrational distributions are nascent, though vibrational relaxation of excited CO is unusually fast in the OCS bath, with rates approaching 3 percent of gas kinetic for v = 1.

  12. H I 21-cm absorption survey of quasar-galaxy pairs: distribution of cold gas around z < 0.4 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, R.; Srianand, R.; Gupta, N.; Momjian, E.; Noterdaeme, P.; Petitjean, P.; Rahmani, H.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results from our survey of H I 21-cm absorption, using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, Very Large Array and Westerbork Radio Synthesis Telescope, in a sample of 55 z < 0.4 galaxies towards radio sources with impact parameters (b) in the range ˜0-35 kpc. In our primary sample (defined for statistical analyses) of 40 quasar-galaxy pairs, probed by 45 sightlines, we have found seven H I 21-cm absorption detections, two of which are reported here for the first time. Combining our primary sample with measurements having similar optical depth sensitivity (∫τdv ≤ 0.3 km s-1) from the literature, we find a weak anti-correlation (rank correlation coefficient = -0.20 at 2.42σ level) between ∫τdv and b, consistent with previous literature results. The covering factor of H I 21-cm absorbers (C21) is estimated to be 0.24^{+0.12}_{-0.08} at b ≤ 15 kpc and 0.06^{+0.09}_{-0.04} at b = 15-35 kpc. ∫τdv and C21 show similar declining trend with radial distance along the galaxy's major axis and distances scaled with the effective H I radius. There is also tentative indication that most of the H I 21-cm absorbers could be co-planar with the extended H I discs. No significant dependence of ∫τdv and C21 on galaxy luminosity, stellar mass, colour and star formation rate is found, though the H I 21-cm absorbing gas cross-section may be larger for the luminous galaxies. The higher detection rate (by a factor of ˜4) of H I 21-cm absorption in z < 1 damped Lyman-α systems compared to the quasar-galaxy pairs indicates towards small covering factor and patchy distribution of cold gas clouds around low-z galaxies.

  13. [Studies on the absorption, excretion and distribution of aclacinomycin A: absorption, excretion and distribution of 14C- or 3H-aclacinomycin A in mice, rats and rabbits (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Iguchi, H; Seryu, Y; Kiyosaki, T; Hori, S; Tone, H; Oki, T

    1980-02-01

    A new anthracycline antitumor antibiotic, aclacinomycin A, was labeled with 3H uniformly or with 14C simultaneously at the anthracycline nucleus and L-rhodosamine. These labeled drugs were administered intravenously to normal dd mice, solid type Sarcoma 180 tumor-bearing ICR mice, normal or pregnant Wistar rats and normal rabbits, respectively. 14C-Aclacinomycin A given to rabbits (5 mg/kg) was rapidly cleared from the blood and transferred to tissues. But low level of radioactivity (equivalent to about 0.5 mcg/ml) was remained in the blood even 8 approximately 10 hours after administration. About 45% of the radioactivity were recovered from the urine and 20% from the feces by 72 hours after administration. Tissue levels of 3H-14C-aclacinomycin A given to normal and tumor-bearing mice were highest in the lungs and spleen. Higher distribution was observed also in the liver and kidneys 2 hours after administration. Bioassay revealed that the drug was present in the lungs and spleen in biologically active form and in the liver and kidneys in inactive form, respectively. In the tumor tissue the radioactivity was low but it persisted for 48 hours. Autoradiography with 14C-aclacinomycin A in rats demonstrated that radioactivity due to the drug distributed in the lungs, spleen, kidneys, thymus, intestine, lymph nodes, bone marrow, salivary gland, hypophysis and pineal body but it was rapidly cleared. About 0.2% of radioactivity given to a pregnant rat were transferred to a fetus when 14C-aclacinomycin A was administered intravenously on the 18 approximately 19th day of pregnancy.

  14. Dynamics of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol exposure in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): absorption, tissue distribution, and hepatic gene expression pattern.

    PubMed

    Skillman, Ann D; Nagler, James J; Hook, Sharon E; Small, Jack A; Schultz, Irvin R

    2006-11-01

    17alpha-Ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic estrogen identified in sewage effluents. To understand better the absorption kinetics of EE2 and the induction of vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mRNA, we subjected male rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) to continuous water exposures of 125 ng/L of EE2 for up to 61 d. Trout were either repetitively sampled for blood plasma or serially killed at selected time intervals. Vitellogenin, ERalpha mRNA, and EE2 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. In separate experiments, trout were exposed to EE2 for 7 d, and hepatic gene expression was assessed using a low- and high-density cDNA microarray. The EE2 was rapidly absorbed by the trout, with an apparent equilibrium at 16 h in plasma and liver. The ERalpha mRNA levels also increased rapidly, reaching near-peak levels by 48 h. In contrast, plasma levels of VTG continuously increased for 19 d. After 61 d, tissues with the highest levels of VTG were the liver, kidney, and testes. Microarray-based gene expression studies provided unexpected results. In some cases, known estrogen-responsive genes (e.g., ERalpha) were unresponsive, whereas many of the genes that have no apparent link to estrogen function or EE2 toxicity were significantly altered in expression. Of the two microarray approaches tested in the present study, the high-density array appeared to be superior because of the improved quality of the hybridization signal and the robustness of the response in terms of the number of genes identified as being EE2 responsive.

  15. ADM-1, a protein with metalloprotease- and disintegrin-like domains, is expressed in syncytial organs, sperm, and sheath cells of sensory organs in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Podbilewicz, B

    1996-01-01

    A search was carried out for homologues of possible fusogenic proteins to study their function in a genetically tractable animal. The isolation, molecular, and cellular characterization of the Caenorhabditis elegans adm-1 gene (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) are described. A glycoprotein analogous to viral fusion proteins has been identified on the surface of guinea pig sperm (PH-30/fertilin) and is implicated in sperm-egg fusion. adm-1 is the first reported invertebrate gene related to PH-30 and a family of proteins containing snake venom disintegrin- and metalloprotease-like domains. ADM-1 shows a domain organization identical to PH-30. It contains prepro, metalloprotease, disintegrin, cysteine rich with putative fusion peptide, epidermal growth factor-like repeat, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains. Antibodies which recognize ADM-1 protein in immunoblots were generated. Using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, the products of adm-1 have been detected in specific cells during different stages of development. The localization of ADM-1 to the plasma membrane of embryonic cells and to the sheath cells of sensory organs suggests a function in cell adhesion. ADM-1 expression in the hypodermis, pharynx, vulva, and mature sperm is consistent with a putative role in somatic and gamete cell fusions. Images PMID:8970152

  16. Enhanced visible-light absorption and dopant distribution of iodine-TiO 2 nanoparticles synthesized by a new facile two-step hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xiaoting; Luo, Zhiping; Batteas, James D.

    2011-08-01

    In order to prepare visible-light responsive iodine-doped TiO 2, a new facile synthetic approach was proposed, which started with the cost-efficient and environmentally friendly precursor of undoped anatase TiO 2 to form nanotube structures as templates that collapsed and recrystallized into I-TiO 2 nanopowders in HIO 3 solution, followed by annealing at different temperatures. The modification of TiO 2 to incorporate iodine and form titanium dioxide with significantly enhanced absorption in the visible range of the spectrum was investigated. The extent of iodine dopant incorporation was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and was found to be homogenously distributed on each nanostructure as determined by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) elemental mapping and EDX spectroscopy. The modified TiO 2 exhibits a dramatically extended absorption edge beyond 800 nm as compared to the original and unmodified TiO 2.

  17. Mechanism of modulated microwave absorption and flux distribution in granular YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} under high field sweep

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, T.; Yan, H.; Nagase, S.

    1995-04-01

    The mechanism of modulated microwave absorption (MMA) is suggested from the modulation (H{sub m}) dependence in granular YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} superconductor under high-field sweep. It is proposed that the MMA signal S be decomposed into three shape factors to interpret the experimental result. The VN factor arises from the difference in the number of vortices between the add (A) mode and the subtract (S) mode corresponding to the alternating field. The CT factor arises from the appearance of the transition region of the shielding current in the S-mode where the absorption is less. The SS factor arises from the difference in the surface slope of the flux distribution between the two modes. With increasing H{sub m}, the positive VN increases linearly. The positive CT increases initially and then decreases. The slope for the A-mode is very gentle, so that SS is negative, and it initially increases rapidly and then saturates. These factors can reproduce the complex behavior of the H{sub m} dependence of S fairly well.

  18. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. V. NONLINEAR ABSORPTION-LINE INDEX VERSUS METALLICITY RELATIONS AND BIMODAL INDEX DISTRIBUTIONS OF M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook; Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Kang, Yongbeom; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2013-05-10

    Recent spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of M31 with unprecedented precision witnessed a clear bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of old GCs. Such division of extragalactic GCs, so far asserted mainly by photometric color bimodality, has been viewed as the presence of merely two distinct metallicity subgroups within individual galaxies and forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Given that spectroscopy is a more detailed probe into stellar population than photometry, the discovery of index bimodality may point to the very existence of dual GC populations. However, here we show that the observed spectroscopic dichotomy of M31 GCs emerges due to the nonlinear nature of metallicity-to-index conversion and thus one does not necessarily have to invoke two separate GC subsystems. We take this as a close analogy to the recent view that metallicity-color nonlinearity is primarily responsible for observed GC color bimodality. We also demonstrate that the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line displays non-negligible metallicity-index nonlinearity and Balmer lines show rather strong nonlinearity. This gives rise to bimodal index distributions, which are routinely interpreted as bimodal metallicity distributions, not considering metallicity-index nonlinearity. Our findings give a new insight into the constitution of M31's GC system, which could change much of the current thought on the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  19. Colloidal mercury (Hg) distribution in soil samples by sedimentation field-flow fractionation coupled to mercury cold vapour generation atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, A; Terzano, R; Medici, L; Beciani, M; Pagnoni, A; Blo, G

    2012-01-01

    Diverse analytical techniques are available to determine the particle size distribution of potentially toxic elements in matrices of environmental interest such as soil, sediments, freshwater and groundwater. However, a single technique is often not exhaustive enough to determine both particle size distribution and element concentration. In the present work, the investigation of mercury in soil samples collected from a polluted industrial site was performed by using a new analytical approach which makes use of sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF) coupled to cold vapour generation electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-ETAAS). The Hg concentration in the SdFFF fractions revealed a broad distribution from about 0.1 to 1 μm, roughly following the particle size distributions, presenting a maximum at about 400-700 nm in diameter. A correlation between the concentration of Hg in the colloidal fraction and organic matter (O.M.) content in the soil samples was also found. However, this correlation is less likely to be related to Hg sorption to soil O.M. but rather to the presence of colloidal mercuric sulfide particles whose size is probably controlled by the occurrence of dissolved O.M. The presence of O.M. could have prevented the aggregation of smaller particles, leading to an accumulation of mercuric sulfides in the colloidal fraction. In this respect, particle size distribution of soil samples can help to understand the role played by colloidal particles in mobilising mercury (also as insoluble compounds) and provide a significant contribution in determining the environmental impact of this toxic element.

  20. Flavonoid interactions during digestion, absorption, distribution and metabolism: a sequential structure-activity/property relationship-based approach in the study of bioavailability and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Smagghe, Guy; Grootaert, Charlotte; Zotti, Moises; Raes, Katleen; Van Camp, John

    2015-05-01

    Flavonoids are a group of polyphenols that provide health-promoting benefits upon consumption. However, poor bioavailability has been a major hurdle in their use as drugs or nutraceuticals. Low bioavailability has been associated with flavonoid interactions at various stages of the digestion, absorption and distribution process, which is strongly affected by their molecular structure. In this review, we use structure-activity/property relationship to discuss various flavonoid interactions with food matrices, digestive enzymes, intestinal transporters and blood proteins. This approach reveals specific bioactive properties of flavonoids in the gastrointestinal tract as well as various barriers for their bioavailability. In the last part of this review, we use these insights to determine the effect of different structural characteristics on the overall bioavailability of flavonoids. Such information is crucial when flavonoid or flavonoid derivatives are used as active ingredients in foods or drugs.

  1. Evaluation of the absorption line blackbody distribution function of CO2 and H2O using the proper orthogonal decomposition and hyperbolic correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Chu, H.; Zhou, H.; Smallwood, G. J.

    2013-10-01

    Databases of the absorption line blackbody distribution function (ALBDF) of CO2 and H2O were generated over a wide range of gas and blackbody temperatures and the full range of gas concentration from line-by-line (LBL) calculations using the latest version of HITEMP. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the hyperbolic correlations (HC) were then used for rapid calculation the ALBDF value at an arbitrary combination of gas and blackbody temperatures and gas concentration. A novel hyperbolic correlation for H2O was proposed to fully account for the self-broadening effect. The accuracy of POD and the HC was evaluated by comparing the ALBDF values and the total gas emissivities from these two approximate methods at several selected conditions against those from LBL calculations. POD is significantly more accurate than HC at essentially no extra computational costs.

  2. Kinetin increases chromium absorption, modulates its distribution, and changes the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in Mexican Palo Verde

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Lopez-Moreno, Martha L.; Ren, Minghua; Saupe, Geoffrey; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    This report shows, for the first time, the effectiveness of the phytohormone kinetin (KN) in increasing Cr translocation from roots to stems in Mexican Palo Verde. Fifteen-day-old seedlings, germinated in soil spiked with Cr(III) and (VI) at 60 and 10 mg kg−1, respectively, were watered every other day for 30 days with a KN solution at 250 μM. Samples were analyzed for catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) activities, Cr concentration, and Cr distribution in tissues. Results showed that KN reduced CAT but increased APOX in the roots of Cr(VI)-treated plants. In the leaves, KN reduced both CAT and APOX in Cr(III) but not in Cr(VI)-treated plants. However, KN increased total Cr concentration in roots, stems, and leaves by 45%, 103%, and 72%, respectively, compared to Cr(III) alone. For Cr(VI), KN increased Cr concentrations in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, by 53%, 129%, and 168%, compared to Cr(VI) alone. The electron probe microanalyzer results showed that Cr was mainly located at the cortex section in the root, and Cr distribution was essentially homogenous in stems. However, proven through X-ray images, Cr(VI)-treated roots and stems had more Cr accumulation than Cr(III) counterparts. KN increased the Cr translocation from roots to stems. PMID:21174467

  3. The distribution of carotenoids in hens fed on biofortified maize is influenced by feed composition, absorption, resource allocation and storage

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Jose Antonio; Díaz-Gómez, Joana; Nogareda, Carmina; Angulo, Eduardo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Serrano, José C. E.; Twyman, Richard M.; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are important dietary nutrients with health-promoting effects. The biofortification of staple foods with carotenoids provides an efficient delivery strategy but little is known about the fate and distribution of carotenoids supplied in this manner. The chicken provides a good model of human carotenoid metabolism so we supplemented the diets of laying hens using two biofortified maize varieties with distinct carotenoid profiles and compared the fate of the different carotenoids in terms of distribution in the feed, the hen’s livers and the eggs. We found that after a period of depletion, pro-vitamin A (PVA) carotenoids were preferentially diverted to the liver and relatively depleted in the eggs, whereas other carotenoids were transported to the eggs even when the liver remained depleted. When retinol was included in the diet, it accumulated more in the eggs than the livers, whereas PVA carotenoids showed the opposite profile. Our data suggest that a transport nexus from the intestinal lumen to the eggs introduces bottlenecks that cause chemically-distinct classes of carotenoids to be partitioned in different ways. This nexus model will allow us to optimize animal feed and human diets to ensure that the health benefits of carotenoids are delivered in the most effective manner. PMID:27739479

  4. A rapid method to derive horizontal distributions of trace gases and aerosols near the surface using multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Li, A.; Xie, P. H.; Wagner, T.; Chen, H.; Liu, W. Q.; Liu, J. G.

    2014-06-01

    We apply a novel experimental procedure for the rapid measurement of the average volume mixing ratios (VMRs) and horizontal distributions of trace gases such as NO2, SO2, and HCHO in the boundary layer, which was recently suggested by Sinreich et al. (2013). The method is based on two-dimensional scanning multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). It makes use of two facts (Sinreich et al., 2013): first, the light path for observations at 1° elevation angle traverses mainly air masses located close to the ground (typically < 200 m); second, the light path length can be calculated using the simultaneous measured absorption of the oxygen dimer O4. Thus, the average value of the trace gas VMR in the atmospheric layer between the surface and the particular altitude, for which this observation was sensitive, can be calculated. Compared to the originally proposed method, we introduce several important modifications and improvements: We apply the method only to measurements at 1° elevation angle (besides zenith view), for which the uncertainties of the retrieved values of the VMRs and surface extinctions are especially small. Using only 1° elevation angle for off-axis observation also allows an increased temporal resolution. We determine (and apply) correction factors (and their uncertainties) directly as function of the measured O4 absorption. Finally, the method is extended to trace gases analysed at other wavelengths and also to the retrieval of aerosol extinction. Depending on atmospheric visibility, the typical uncertainty of the results ranges from about 20% to 30%. We apply the rapid method to observations of a newly-developed ground-based multifunctional passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy (GM-DOAS) instrument in the north-west outskirts near Hefei in China. We report NO2, SO2, and HCHO VMRs and aerosol extinction for four azimuth angles and compare these results with those from simultaneous long-path DOAS observations

  5. A rapid method to derive horizontal distributions of trace gases and aerosols near the surface using multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Li, A.; Xie, P. H.; Wagner, T.; Chen, H.; Liu, W. Q.; Liu, J. G.

    2013-09-01

    We apply a novel experimental procedure for the rapid measurement of the average volume mixing ratios (VMRs) and horizontal distributions of trace gases such as NO2, SO2, and HCHO in the boundary layer, which was recently suggested by Sinreich et al. (2013). The method is based on two-dimensional scanning multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). It makes use of two facts (Sinreich et al. 2013): First, the light path for observations at 1° elevation angle traverses mainly air masses located close to the ground (typically < 200 m). Second, the light path length can be calculated using the simultaneous measured absorption of the oxygen dimer O4. Thus, the average value of the trace gas VMR in the atmospheric layer between the surface and the altitude, for which this observation was sensitive, can be calculated. Compared to the originally proposed method, we introduce several important modifications and improvements: We apply the method only to measurements at 1° elevation angles, for which the uncertainties are especially small. Using only 1 elevation angle also allows an increased temporal resolution. We apply correction factors (and their uncertainties) as function of the simultaneously modelled O4 absorption. In this way the correction factors can be directly determined according to the measured O4 dAMF. Finally, the method is extended to trace gases analysed at other wavelengths and also to the retrieval of the aerosol extinction. Depending on the atmospheric visibility, the typical uncertainty of the results ranges from about 15 to 30%. We apply the rapid method to observations of a newly developed ground-based multifunctional passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy (GM-DOAS) instrument in the north-west outskirt near Hefei City in China. We report NO2, SO2, and HCHO VMRs and aerosol extinction for four azimuth angles and compare these results with those from simultaneous long-path DOAS observations. Good agreement is

  6. With no interaction, knockdown of Apollon and MDR1 reverse the multidrug resistance of human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562/ADM cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Ru; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Hong; Yi, Ying-Jie; Li, You-Jie

    2017-03-29

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment method for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and has achieved marked results. However, the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR) has seriously affected the quality of life and survival rate of patients. The overexpression of the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the two main causes of MDR. Apollon and MDR1 are the most important and representative members, respectively, among the IAPs and ABC transporters. In the present study, we investigated the role of Apollon and MDR1 in chemotherapy resistance and their mechanism of interaction. We respectively knocked down the expression of Apollon and MDR1 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in adriamycin (ADM) resistant human CML K562 cells and examined the drug sensitivity, the consequences with regard to ADM accumulation and the alterations in the expression of Apollon and MDR1. The expression levels of Apollon and MDR1 mRNA were higher in the K562/ADM cells compared with the parental K562 cells as determined by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The plasmids of Apollon and MDR1 shRNA were respectively stably transfected into K562/ADM cells using Lipofectamine 2000. The transfection efficiency was detected by fluorescence microscopy. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay revealed that Apollon or MDR1 knockdown significantly increased the chemosensitivity of the K562/ADM cells to ADM. Flow cytometric assay revealed that K562/ADM/shMDR1 cells exhibited a significantly increased intracellular accumulation of ADM, and that changes were not found in the K562/ADM/shApollon cells. Compared with the parental K562/ADM cells, a significantly decreased expression of Apollon mRNA and protein was determined in the K562/ADM/shApollon cells without affecting the expression of MDR1 as determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. Likewise, the expression levels of MDR1 m

  7. Disposition of the Highly Fat Distributed Compound 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-4-(2,2,4,6,7-Pentamethyl -2,3-Dihydro-1-Benzofuran-5-yl)Piperazine (TAK-357) in Rats and Dogs.

    PubMed

    Goto, A; Moriya, Y; Mandai, T; Wakabayashi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Tagawa, Y; Kondo, T; Asahi, S

    2017-01-01

    The non-clinical pharmacokinetics (PK) of TAK-357, a highly lipophilic (clogP>6) potential agent for the amelioration of Alzheimer's disease, was investigated in rats and dogs. A long half-life (t1/2) in plasma was observed in animals and a low total body clearance with high distribution volume was consistent with the long t1/2. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies using radiolabeled TAK-357 revealed that the total radioactivity was highly distributed to the adipose tissues and sustained with high concentration for over 4 weeks after oral administration. The metabolite analysis also revealed that the main component in the plasma and adipose tissues was unchanged TAK-357. The major elimination route of absorbed TAK-357 was suggested to be by metabolism. An ADME study indicated that the adipose tissue is the main depot of remaining TAK-357 in the body and slow release from the adipose tissues contributes to the long t1/2. The PK of highly lipophilic compounds have a tendency to be affected by body weight changes especially changes in the adipose tissues. Therefore, it is considered that the relationship between the plasma levels of TAK-357 and the body weight should be evaluated carefully during the clinical trials.

  8. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm-1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm-1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  9. Absorption and distribution characteristics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) after an application to the liver surface in rats in order to reduce systemic side effects.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yukinobu; Fumoto, Shintaro; Nishi, Junya; Nakashima, Mikiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Junzo; Nishida, Koyo

    2008-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the absorption and distribution characteristics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) after its application to the liver surface in rats to examine the possibility of reducing the systemic side effects of this agent. 5-FU was applied to the surface of the liver by employing a cylindrical diffusion cell. Approximately 69% of the dose was absorbed in 360 min. The time course of the change in the amount of 5-FU remaining in the diffusion cell obeyed first-order kinetics. Also, a linear relationship was observed between the apparent permeability coefficient, P app, and the reciprocal of the square root of the molecular weight of several compounds including 5-FU. The estimated P app value of 5-FU was in good agreement with the experimental value. The plasma concentration of 5-FU was low (<1.2 microg/ml) until 360 min after the application. Following i.v. administration, 5-FU was rapidly eliminated from the plasma and could not be detected at 120 min. In the analysis of tissue distribution, the liver was divided into three sites; the region under the diffusion cell attachment site (site 1), the treated lobe excluding site 1 (site 2), and untreated lobes (site 3). After being administered i.v., 5-FU mainly distributed in the kidney, and the concentration in the liver was significantly lower than that in kidney, spleen, or heart. After its application to the liver surface, however, 5-FU preferentially distributed at site 1, and was not detected at the other sites or in other tissues. Thus, these results suggested the possibility of a reduction in the systemic side effect of 5-FU on its application to the liver surface.

  10. Thermal pretreatment and hydraulic retention time in continuous digesters fed with sewage sludge: assessment using the ADM1.

    PubMed

    Souza, Theo S O; Ferreira, Liliana Catarina; Sapkaite, Ieva; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Thermal pretreatment is an interesting technique not only for increasing sludge biodegradability, leading to higher methane productivity, but also for improving degradation rates, allowing full-scale plants to reduce the size of digesters. In this study, the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was used as a tool to assess the effects of thermal pretreatment and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the performance of three pilot-scale digesters fed with mixed sludge with/without pretreatment applied to the waste activated sludge fraction. Calibration procedures using batch tests showed an increase of up to five times in the model disintegration coefficient due to the pretreatment, and the validations performed presented good accuracy with the experimental data, with under/overestimation lower than 15% in both average and global accumulated CH4 productions. Therefore, the ADM1 demonstrated its feasibility and usefulness in predicting and assessing the behavior of the digesters under these conditions.

  11. Improvements, testing and development of the ADM-τ sub-grid surface tension model for two-phase LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aniszewski, Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a specific subgrid term occurring in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of two-phase flows is investigated. This and other subgrid terms are presented, we subsequently elaborate on the existing models for those and re-formulate the ADM-τ model for sub-grid surface tension previously published by these authors. This paper presents a substantial, conceptual simplification over the original model version, accompanied by a decrease in its computational cost. At the same time, it addresses the issues the original model version faced, e.g. introduces non-isotropic applicability criteria based on resolved interface's principal curvature radii. Additionally, this paper introduces more throughout testing of the ADM-τ, in both simple and complex flows.

  12. Optimization of a novel class of benzimidazole-based farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists to improve physicochemical and ADME properties.

    PubMed

    Richter, Hans G F; Benson, G M; Bleicher, K H; Blum, D; Chaput, E; Clemann, N; Feng, S; Gardes, C; Grether, U; Hartman, P; Kuhn, B; Martin, R E; Plancher, J-M; Rudolph, M G; Schuler, F; Taylor, S

    2011-02-15

    Structure-guided lead optimization of recently described benzimidazolyl acetamides addressed the key liabilities of the previous lead compound 1. These efforts culminated in the discovery of 4-{(S)-2-[2-(4-chloro-phenyl)-5,6-difluoro-benzoimidazol-1-yl]-2-cyclohexyl-acetylamino}-3-fluoro-benzoic acid 7g, a highly potent and selective FXR agonist with excellent physicochemical and ADME properties and potent lipid lowering activity after oral administration to LDL receptor deficient mice.

  13. A Bottom-Up Whole-Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Mechanistically Predict Tissue Distribution and the Rate of Subcutaneous Absorption of Therapeutic Proteins.

    PubMed

    Gill, Katherine L; Gardner, Iain; Li, Linzhong; Jamei, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    The ability to predict subcutaneous (SC) absorption rate and tissue distribution of therapeutic proteins (TPs) using a bottom-up approach is highly desirable early in the drug development process prior to clinical data being available. A whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, requiring only a few drug parameters, to predict plasma and interstitial fluid concentrations of TPs in humans after intravenous and subcutaneous dosing has been developed. Movement of TPs between vascular and interstitial spaces was described by considering both convection and diffusion processes using a 2-pore framework. The model was optimised using a variety of literature sources, such as tissue lymph/plasma concentration ratios in humans and animals, information on the percentage of dose absorbed following SC dosing via lymph in animals and data showing loss of radiolabelled IgG from the SC dosing site in humans. The resultant model was used to predict t max and plasma concentration profiles for 12 TPs (molecular weight 8-150 kDa) following SC dosing. The predicted plasma concentration profiles were generally comparable to observed data. t max was predicted within 3-fold of reported values, with one third of the predictions within 0.8-1.25-fold. There was no systematic bias in simulated C max values, although a general trend for underprediction of t max was observed. No clear trend between prediction accuracy of t max and TP isoelectric point or molecular size was apparent. The mechanistic whole-body PBPK model described here can be applied to predict absorption rate of TPs into blood and movement into target tissues following SC dosing.

  14. Modelling anaerobic digestion in an industrial biogas digester: Application of lactate-including ADM1 model (Part II).

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Preseela; Biernacki, Piotr; Cypionka, Heribert; Steinigeweg, Sven

    2016-12-05

    A modified Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1xp) including lactate was applied to a full-scale biogas plant. This model considers monosaccharides to degrade through lactic acid, which further degrades majorly into acetate followed by propionate and butyrate. Experimental data were derived from the previous works in the same laboratory, and the proposed parameters were validated against batch experiments. After successful validation, the biogas plant bearing a fermenter size of 7 dam(3) and operated with food waste and cattle manure was simulated. The biogas production and methane content were reliably simulated, and a good fit could be obtained against the experimental data with an average difference of less than 1%. When compared to the original ADM1 model, the performance of the lactate-incorporated model was found to be improved. Inclusion of lactate as a parameter in the ADM1xp model is recommended for an increased sensitivity and enhanced prediction principally for systems dealing with high carbohydrate and lactate loads.

  15. Modelling anaerobic digestion in a biogas reactor: ADM1 model development with lactate as an intermediate (Part I).

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Preseela; Biernacki, Piotr; Uhlenhut, Frank; Cypionka, Heribert; Steinigeweg, Sven

    2016-12-05

    The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was extended to include lactate, a crucial metabolic product during sugar fermentation. This study tests the validity of the modified ADM1 model in improving the predictions of a standard biogas reactor. This reactor was prepared in the laboratory with simple organic substrates with an intention to represent an 'average biogas plant'. Kinetic parameters were determined from a lactic acid enriched steady-state reactor. The parameters were adjusted further in order to acquire satisfying simulation results systematically with the batch experiments and then against the standard biogas reactor. Arresting methanogenesis revealed that lactate degradation occurred majorly via acetate followed by propionate, and a non-negligible proportion of butyrate too was found, which were further updated in the model. The modified ADM1 provided a successful correlation with the experimental results for the batch and continuous experiments. We justified that inclusion of lactate in the model resulted in optimized simulation for both biogas and methane content in the standard biogas reactor.

  16. Photodynamic therapy with recombinant adenovirus AdmIL-12 enhances anti-tumour therapy efficacy in human papillomavirus 16 (E6/E7) infected tumour model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Kyung; Bae, Su-Mi; Kwak, Sun-Young; Lee, Sung Jong; Kim, Yong-Wook; Han, Chan-Hee; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kim, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapy with photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers great promise as a new alternative for cancer treatment; however, its use remains experimental. Here we investigated the utility of adenoviral delivery of interleukin-12 (AdmIL-12) as an adjuvant for PDT in mouse tumour challenge model. PDT was performed by irradiating Radachlorin in C57BL/6 mice transplanted with TC-1 cells. PDT plus AdmIL-12 treatment for tumour suppression as well as specific immune responses were evaluated with the following tests: in vitro and in vivo tumour growth inhibition, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) assay, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) assay. Direct intratumoral injection of AdmIL-12 resulted in a significant suppression of tumour growth compared to the control group. Treatment of PDT along with AdmIL-12 further enhanced antitumour effects significantly higher than either AdmIL-12 or PDT alone. This combined treatment resulted in complete regression of 9-mm sized tumour in every animal. We also evaluated immune responses induced by these treatments. Combined treatment significantly increased the production level of IFN-γ and TNF-α compared with that by AdmIL-12 or PDT alone. PDT plus AdmIL-12 enhanced antitumour immunity through increased expansion of the CTL subset mediated by CD8+ T cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the high anti-cancer activity of PDT with AdmIL-12 is a powerful tool against cancer therapy and is a promising subject for further investigation. PMID:18397271

  17. Ligand-based design, in silico ADME-Tox filtering, synthesis and biological evaluation to discover new soluble 1,4-DHP-based CFTR activators.

    PubMed

    Visentin, Sonja; Ermondi, Giuseppe; Medana, Claudio; Pedemonte, Nicoletta; Galietta, Luis; Caron, Giulia

    2012-09-01

    The altered gating of the mutant CFTR chloride channel cystic fibrosis (CF) may be corrected by small molecules called potentiators. We present a molecular scale simulation system for the discovery of ΔF508-CFTR soluble potentiators. Results report the design, ADME-Tox prediction, synthesis, solubility determination and in vitro biological evaluation of two 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs). Compound 1 shows a promising ADME-Tox profile and good potency.

  18. The role of ADME pharmacogenomics in early clinical trials: perspective of the Industry Pharmacogenomics Working Group (I-PWG).

    PubMed

    Tremaine, Larry; Brian, William; DelMonte, Terrye; Francke, Stephan; Groenen, Peter; Johnson, Keith; Li, Lei; Pearson, Kimberly; Marshall, Jean-Claude

    2015-12-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters have been shown to significantly impact the exposure of drugs having a high dependence on a single mechanism for their absorption, distribution or clearance, such that genotyping can lead to actionable steps in disease treatment. Recently, global regulatory agencies have provided guidance for assessment of pharmacogenomics during early stages of drug development, both in the form of formal guidance and perspectives published in scientific journals. The Industry Pharmacogenomics Working Group (I-PWG), conducted a survey among member companies to assess the practices relating to absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion pharmacogenomics) during early stages of clinical development, to assess the impact of the recent Regulatory Guidance issued by the US FDA and EMA on Industry practices.

  19. Epigenetic regulation of ADME-related genes: focus on drug metabolism and transport.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiao-bo; Leeder, J Steven

    2013-10-01

    Epigenetic regulation of gene expression refers to heritable factors that are functionally relevant genomic modifications but that do not involve changes in DNA sequence. Examples of such modifications include DNA methylation, histone modifications, noncoding RNAs, and chromatin architecture. Epigenetic modifications are crucial for packaging and interpreting the genome, and they have fundamental functions in regulating gene expression and activity under the influence of physiologic and environmental factors. Recently, epigenetics has become one of the fastest-growing areas of science and has now become a central issue in biologic studies of development and disease pathogenesis. The interest in epigenetics is also true for studies of drug metabolism and transport. In this issue of Drug Metabolism and Disposition, a series of articles is presented to demonstrate the role of epigenetic factors in regulating the expression of genes involved in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in organ development, tissue-specific gene expression, sexual dimorphism, and in the adaptive response to xenobiotic exposure, both therapeutic and toxic. The articles also demonstrate that, in addition to genetic polymorphisms, epigenetics may also contribute to wide interindividual variations in drug metabolism and transport. Identification of functionally relevant epigenetic biomarkers in human specimens has the potential to improve prediction of drug responses based on patient's epigenetic profiles.

  20. Spatial distribution and speciation of arsenic in peat studied with Microfocused X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Langner, Peggy; Mikutta, Christian; Suess, Elke; Marcus, Matthew A; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2013-09-03

    Arsenic binding by sulfhydryl groups of natural organic matter (NOM) was recently identified as an important As sequestration pathway in the naturally As-enriched minerotrophic peatland Gola di Lago, Switzerland. Here, we explore the microscale distribution, elemental correlations, and chemical speciation of As in the Gola di Lago peat. Thin sections of undisturbed peat samples from 0-37 cm and 200-249 cm depth were analyzed by synchrotron microfocused X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μ-XAS). Additionally, peat samples were studied by bulk As, Fe, and S K-edge XAS. Micro-XRF analyses showed that As in the near-surface peat was mainly concentrated in 10-50 μm sized hotspots, identified by μ-XAS as realgar (α-As4S4). In the deep peat layer samples, however, As was more diffusely distributed and mostly associated with particulate NOM of varying decomposition stages. The NOM-associated As was present as trivalent As bound by sulfhydryl groups. Arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and arsenian pyrite (FeAsxS2-x) of <25 μm size, which have escaped detection by bulk As and Fe K-edge XAS, were found as minor As species in the peat. Bulk S K-edge XAS revealed that the deep peat layers were significantly enriched in reduced organic S species. Our findings suggest an authigenic formation of realgar and arsenopyrite in strongly reducing microenvironments of the peat and indicate that As(III)-NOM complexes are formed by the passive sorption of As(III) to NOM. This reaction appears to be favored by a combination of abundant reduced organic S and comparatively low As solution concentrations preventing the formation of secondary As-bearing sulfides.

  1. Spectroscopic verification of zinc absorption and distribution in the desert plant Prosopis juliflora-velutina (velvet mesquite) treated with ZnO nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Viezcas, J.A.; Castillo-Michel, H.; Servin, A.D.; Peralta-Videa, J.R.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on biological systems, especially plants, is still not well understood. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs in velvet mesquite (Prosopis juliflora-velutina). Mesquite seedlings were grown for 15 days in hydroponics with ZnO NPs (10 nm) at concentrations varying from 500 to 4000 mg L−1. Zinc concentrations in roots, stems and leaves were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Plant stress was examined by the specific activity of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX); while the biotransformation of ZnO NPs and Zn distribution in tissues was determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF), respectively. ICP-OES results showed that Zn concentrations in tissues (2102 ± 87, 1135 ± 56, and 628 ± 130 mg kg−1 d wt in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively) were found at 2000 mg ZnO NPs L−1. Stress tests showed that ZnO NPs increased CAT in roots, stems, and leaves, while APOX increased only in stems and leaves. XANES spectra demonstrated that ZnO NPs were not present in mesquite tissues, while Zn was found as Zn(II), resembling the spectra of Zn(NO3)2. The μXRF analysis confirmed the presence of Zn in the vascular system of roots and leaves in ZnO NP treated plants. PMID:22820414

  2. Thermal structure and CO distribution for the Venus mesosphere/lower thermosphere: 2001-2009 inferior conjunction sub-millimeter CO absorption line observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Sandor, Brad J.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald

    2012-02-01

    Sub-millimeter 12CO (346 GHz) and 13CO (330 GHz) line absorptions, formed in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere of Venus (70-120 km), have been mapped across the nightside Venus disk during 2001-2009 inferior conjunctions, employing the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Radiative transfer analysis of these thermal line absorptions supports temperature and CO mixing profile retrievals, as well as Doppler wind fields (described in the companion paper, Clancy et al., 2012). Temporal sampling over the hourly, daily, weekly and interannual timescales was obtained over 2001-2009. On timescales inferred as several weeks, we observe changes between very distinctive CO and temperature nightside distributions. Retrieved nightside CO, temperature distributions for January 2006 and August 2007 observations display strong local time, latitudinal gradients consistent with early morning (2-3 am), low-to-mid latitude (0-40NS) peaks of 100-200% in CO and 20-30 K in temperature. The temperature increases are most pronounced above 100 km altitudes, whereas CO variations extend from 105 km (top altitude of retrieval) down to below 80 km in the mesosphere. In contrast, the 2004 and 2009 periods of observation display modest temperature (5-10 K) and CO (30-60%) increases, that are centered on antisolar (midnight) local times and equatorial latitudes. Doppler wind derived global (zonal and should be SSAS) circulations from the same data do not exhibit variations correlated with these CO, temperature short-term variations. However, large-scale residual wind fields not fit by the zonal, SSAS circulations are observed in concert with the strong temperature, CO gradients observed in 2006 and 2007 (Clancy et al., 2010). These short term variations in nightside CO, temperature distributions may also be related to observed nightside variations in O 2 airglow (Hueso, H., Sánchez-Lavega, A., Piccioni, G., Drossart, P., Gérard, J.C., Khatuntsev, I., Zasova, L., Migliorini, A. [2008]. J

  3. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy for mapping nano-scale distribution of organic carbon forms in soil: Application to black carbon particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Johannes; Liang, Biqing; Solomon, Dawit; Lerotic, Mirna; LuizãO, Flavio; Kinyangi, James; SchäFer, Thorsten; Wirick, Sue; Jacobsen, Chris

    2005-03-01

    Small-scale heterogeneity of organic carbon (C) forms in soils is poorly quantified since appropriate analytical techniques were not available up to now. Specifically, tools for the identification of functional groups on the surface of micrometer-sized black C particles were not available up to now. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) using synchrotron radiation was used in conjunction with Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to investigate nano-scale distribution (50-nm resolution) of C forms in black C particles and compared to synchrotron-based FTIR spectroscopy. A new embedding technique was developed that did not build on a C-based embedding medium and did not pose the risk of heat damage to the sample. Elemental sulfur (S) was melted to 220°C until it polymerized and quenched with liquid N2 to obtain a very viscous plastic S in which the black C could be embedded until it hardened to a noncrystalline state and was ultrasectioned. Principal component and cluster analysis followed by singular value decomposition was able to resolve distinct areas in a black carbon particle. The core of the studied biomass-derived black C particles was highly aromatic even after thousands of years of exposure in soil and resembled the spectral characteristics of fresh charcoal. Surrounding this core and on the surface of the black C particle, however, much larger proportions of carboxylic and phenolic C forms were identified that were spatially and structurally distinct from the core of the particle. Cluster analysis provided evidence for both oxidation of the black C particle itself as well as adsorption of non-black C. NEXAFS spectroscopy has great potential to allow new insight into black C properties with important implications for biogeochemical cycles such as mineralization of black C in soils and sediments, and adsorption of C, nutrients, and pollutants as well as transport in the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.

  4. The vertical distribution of BrO and aerosols in the Arctic: Measurements by active and passive differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieß, U.; Sihler, H.; Sander, R.; PöHler, D.; Yilmaz, S.; Platt, U.

    2011-07-01

    We present results from multiaxis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and long-path DOAS (LP-DOAS) measurements performed at the North Slope of Alaska from February to April 2009 as part of the Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea Ice-Snowpack Barrow 2009 campaign. For the first time, vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and BrO in the boundary layer were retrieved simultaneously from MAX-DOAS measurements using the method of optimal estimation. Even at very low visibility, retrieved extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness are in good agreement with colocated ceilometer and Sun photometer measurements, respectively. BrO surface concentrations measured by MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS are in very good agreement, and it has been found that useful information on the BrO vertical distribution can be retrieved from MAX-DOAS even in cases when blowing snow strongly reduces visibility. The retrieved BrO and extinction vertical profiles allow for a thorough characterization of the vertical structure of the boundary layer during numerous ozone depletion events observed during Barrow 2009. High BrO concentrations are usually present during the onset of ozone depletion events, and BrO disappears as ozone concentrations approach zero. The finding that elevated BrO concentrations occur mainly in the presence of high extinction near the surface strongly suggests that release of reactive bromine from airborne aerosols and/or ice particles at high wind speed plays an important role. Back trajectory calculations indicate that the particles were transported from the frozen ocean to the measurement site and that the release of reactive bromine from sea ice and/or frost flowers occurs when low temperatures (<250 K) prevail in the regions where reactive bromine is emitted.

  5. Expression of peptide fragments from proADM and involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in pulmonary remodeling induced by high pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Guo, Aili; Wang, Lijuan; Kong, Qingyu; Wang, Rong; Han, Li; Zhao, Cuifen

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease characterized by progressive pulmonary arterial remodeling and right ventricular failure. Despite recent advances in pathophysiological mechanism exploration and new therapeutic approaches, PAH remains a challenging condition. In this study, we investigated the roles of the peptide fragments from proadrenomedullin (proADM) such as adrenomedullin (ADM), adrenotensin (ADT), and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) during pulmonary remodeling caused by high pulmonary blood flow, and probed the possible involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways. Sixteen rat models of PAH were artificially established by surgically connecting the left common carotid artery to the external jugular vein. We subcutaneously injected an extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) inhibitor, PD98059, in eight rats, treated another eight rats with an equal volume of saline. Eight rats without connections served as the control group. We observed that mRNA expression levels of ADM, stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), and ERK1/2 were significantly elevated in the shunted rats; furthermore, ERK1/2 levels were significantly inhibited by PD98059. Protein levels of ADM, PAMP, p-SAPK, and p-ERK1/2 were significantly higher ADT was lower, and p-p38 remained unchanged in the rat models compared with the controls. However, the protein expression of both ADM and p-ERK1/2 was significantly inhibited by PD98059. Our results suggest that levels of ADM, ADT, and PAMP respond to pulmonary remodeling, and that activation of the SAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways is involved in pulmonary hypertension and artery remodeling caused by high pulmonary blood flow.

  6. PERITONEAL ABSORPTION

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, P. F.; Miller, L. L.; Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Bale, W. F.; Whipple, G. H.

    1944-01-01

    The absorption of red cells from the normal peritoneum of the dog can be demonstrated by means of red cells labeled with radio-iron incorporated in the hemoglobin of these red cells. Absorption in normal dogs runs from 20 to 100 per cent of the amount given within 24 hours. Dogs rendered anemic by bleeding absorb red cells a little less rapidly—ranging from 5 to 80 per cent of the injected red cells. Doubly depleted dogs (anemic and hypoproteinemic) absorb even less in the three experiments recorded. This peritoneal absorption varies widely in different dogs and even in the same dog at different times. We do not know the factors responsible for these variations but there is no question about active peritoneal absorption. The intact red cells pass readily from the peritoneal cavity into lymph spaces in diaphragm and other areas of the peritoneum. The red cells move along the lymphatics and through the lymph glands with little or no phagocytosis and eventually into the large veins through the thoracic ducts. PMID:19871404

  7. Nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Deborah C

    2004-03-01

    Our understanding of nutrient absorption continues to grow, from the development of unique animal models and from studies in which cutting-edge molecular and cellular biologic approaches have been used to analyze the structure and function of relevant molecules. Studies of the molecular genetics of inherited disorders have also provided many new insights into these processes. A major advance in lipid absorption has been the cloning and characterization of several intestinal acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferases; these may provide new targets for antiobesity drug therapy. Studies of intestinal cholesterol absorption and reverse cholesterol transport have encouraged the development of novel potential treatments for hyperlipidemia. Observations in genetically modified mice and in humans with mutations in glucose transporter 2 suggest the importance of a separate microsomal membrane transport pathway for glucose transport. The study of iron metabolism has advanced greatly with the identification of the hemochromatosis gene and the continued examination of the genetic regulation of iron absorptive pathways. Several human thiamine transporters have been identified, and their specific roles in different tissues are being explored.

  8. Design and development of a probe-based multiplexed multi-species absorption spectroscopy sensor for characterizing transient gas-parameter distributions in the intake systems of I.C. engines

    DOE PAGES

    Jatana, Gurneesh; Geckler, Sam; Koeberlein, David; ...

    2016-09-01

    We designed and developed a 4-probe multiplexed multi-species absorption spectroscopy sensor system for gas property measurements on the intake side of commercial multi-cylinder internal-combustion (I.C.) engines; the resulting cycle- and cylinder-resolved concentration, temperature and pressure measurements are applicable for assessing spatial and temporal variations in the recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) distribution at various locations along the intake gas path, which in turn is relevant to assessing cylinder charge uniformity, control strategies, and CFD models. Furthermore, the diagnostic is based on absorption spectroscopy and includes an H2O absorption system (utilizing a 1.39 m distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser) for measuring gasmore » temperature, pressure, and H2O concentration, and a CO2 absorption system (utilizing a 2.7 m DFB laser) for measuring CO2 concentration. The various lasers, optical components and detectors were housed in an instrument box, and the 1.39- m and 2.7- m lasers were guided to and from the engine-mounted probes via optical fibers and hollow waveguides, respectively. The 5kHz measurement bandwidth allows for near-crank angle resolved measurements, with a resolution of 1.2 crank angle degrees at 1000 RPM. Our use of compact stainless steel measurement probes enables simultaneous multi-point measurements at various locations on the engine with minimal changes to the base engine hardware; in addition to resolving large-scale spatial variations via simultaneous multi-probe measurements, local spatial gradients can be resolved by translating individual probes. Along with details of various sensor design features and performance, we also demonstrate validation of the spectral parameters of the associated CO2 absorption transitions using both a multi-pass heated cell and the sensor probes.« less

  9. Design and development of a probe-based multiplexed multi-species absorption spectroscopy sensor for characterizing transient gas-parameter distributions in the intake systems of I.C. engines

    SciTech Connect

    Jatana, Gurneesh; Geckler, Sam; Koeberlein, David; Partridge, William

    2016-09-01

    We designed and developed a 4-probe multiplexed multi-species absorption spectroscopy sensor system for gas property measurements on the intake side of commercial multi-cylinder internal-combustion (I.C.) engines; the resulting cycle- and cylinder-resolved concentration, temperature and pressure measurements are applicable for assessing spatial and temporal variations in the recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) distribution at various locations along the intake gas path, which in turn is relevant to assessing cylinder charge uniformity, control strategies, and CFD models. Furthermore, the diagnostic is based on absorption spectroscopy and includes an H2O absorption system (utilizing a 1.39 m distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser) for measuring gas temperature, pressure, and H2O concentration, and a CO2 absorption system (utilizing a 2.7 m DFB laser) for measuring CO2 concentration. The various lasers, optical components and detectors were housed in an instrument box, and the 1.39- m and 2.7- m lasers were guided to and from the engine-mounted probes via optical fibers and hollow waveguides, respectively. The 5kHz measurement bandwidth allows for near-crank angle resolved measurements, with a resolution of 1.2 crank angle degrees at 1000 RPM. Our use of compact stainless steel measurement probes enables simultaneous multi-point measurements at various locations on the engine with minimal changes to the base engine hardware; in addition to resolving large-scale spatial variations via simultaneous multi-probe measurements, local spatial gradients can be resolved by translating individual probes. Along with details of various sensor design features and performance, we also demonstrate validation of the spectral parameters of the associated CO2 absorption transitions using both a multi-pass heated cell and the sensor probes.

  10. Ground-based Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar: design, observations and proposal for ADM-Aeolus cal/val

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaykin, Sergey; Hauchecorne, Alain; Porteneuve, Jacques; Mariscal, Jean-François; D'Almeida, Eric; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Keckhut, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    A unique Rayleigh-Mie Doppler wind lidar, measuring Doppler shift between the emitted and backscattered light by means of a Fabry-Perot interferometer is deployed at Observatory of Haute-Provence (Southern France) and at Reunion island (tropical Indian Ocean). The technique was shown capable of wind measurements between 5 and 50 km with accuracy better than 1 m/s up to 30 km. The system consists of a monomode Nd:Yag laser operating at 532 nm, three telescopes and a double-edge Fabry-Perot interferometer. The laser light is sent alternatively in the vertical as well as zonal and meridional directions at 45° from the zenith using a rotating mirror. The two components of the horizontal wind are obtained from the measurement of the Doppler shift of the return signal spectrally filtered by a double-edge Fabry-Pérot etalon. The vertical pointing is used to obtain zero Doppler shift. After demonstration of the method in 1989 at Observatory of Haute-Provence the measurements were used for studying mesoscale wind fluctuations and intertia-gravity waves in the mid-stratosphere as well as for constructing wind climatology up to 50 km altitude. A new system, featuring a more compact design was installed at Maïdo observatory at Reunion island (22° S). The design of the instrument, the results of observations and comparisons against GPS radiosondes are presented. The European Space Agency (ESA) Atmospheric Dynamic Mission (ADM-Aeolus) aimed at providing global observations of wind in the lower and middle atmosphere using 355 nm Doppler lidar ALADIN is expected to be launched in late-2015. A similarity of the measurements techniques exploited by ALADIN system and by the French ground-based Doppler lidar makes the latter an attractive mean for Aeolus validation. We present a proposal for ADM-Aeolus cal/val activities based on the operations of two wind lidars operating at mid-latitude and tropical sites. These activities include a pre-cal/val phase aimed at development of a

  11. Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Wayne A.

    This monograph was written for the Conference of the New Instructional Materials in Physics, held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for students who have had an introductory college physics course. It seeks to provide an introduction to the idea of distributions in general, and to some aspects of the subject in…

  12. Modelling of the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater with olive mill solid waste using anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1).

    PubMed

    Boubaker, Fezzani; Ridha, Ben Cheikh

    2008-09-01

    The anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1), conceived by the international water association (IWA) task group for mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion processes is a structured generic model which includes multiples steps describing biochemical and physicochemical processes encountered in the anaerobic degradation of complex organic substrates and a common platform for further model enhancement and validation of dynamic simulations for a variety of anaerobic processes. In this study the ADM1 model was modified and applied to simulate the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with olive mill solid waste (OMSW). The ADM1 equations were coded and implemented using the simulation software package MATLAB/Simulink. The most sensitive parameters were calibrated and validated using updated experimental data of our previous work. The results indicated that the ADM1 model could simulate with good accuracy: gas flows, methane and carbon-dioxide contents, pH and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentrations of effluents for various feed concentrations digested at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and especially at HRTs of 36 and 24 days. Furthermore, effluent alkalinity and ammonium nitrogen were successfully predicted by the model at HRTs of 12 and 24 days for some feed concentrations.

  13. Modelling mono-digestion of grass silage in a 2-stage CSTR anaerobic digester using ADM1.

    PubMed

    Thamsiriroj, T; Murphy, J D

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines 174 days of experimental data and modelling of mono-digestion of grass silage in a two stage wet process with recirculation of liquor; the two vessels have an effective volume of 312 L each. The organic loading rate is initiated at 0.5 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) (first 74 days) and subsequently increased to 1 kg VS m(-3) d(-1). The experimental data was used to generate a mathematical model (ADM1) which was calibrated over the first 74 days of operation. Good accuracy with experimental data was found for the subsequent 100 days. Results of the model would suggest starting the process without recirculation and thus building up the solids content of the liquor. As the level of VFA increases, recirculation should be employed to control VFA. Recirculation also controls solids content and pH. Methane production was estimated at 88% of maximum theoretical production.

  14. Verification for robustness to laser-induced damage for the Aladin instrument on the ADM-Aeolus satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernham, Denny; Ciapponi, Alessandra; Riede, Wolfgang; Allenspacher, Paul; Era, Fabio; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Thibault, Dominique

    2016-12-01

    The Aladin instrument will fly on the European Space Agency's ADM Aeolus satellite. The instrument is a Doppler wind LIDAR, primarily designed to measure global wind profiles to improve the accuracy of numerical weather prediction models. At the heart of the instrument is a frequency stabilized 355nm laser which will emit approximately 100mJ of energy in the form of 20ns pulses with a fluence around 1Jcm-2. The pulse repetition frequency is 50Hz meaning that Aladin will eventually have to accumulate 5Gshots over its 3 years planned lifetime in orbit. Due to anomalies that have occurred on previous spaceborne lasers, as well as a number of failures that we have observed in previous tests, an extensive development and verification campaign was undertaken in order to ensure that the Aladin instrument is robust enough to survive the mission. In this paper, we shall report the logic and the results of this verification campaign.

  15. The TRIAGE-ProADM Score for an Early Risk Stratification of Medical Patients in the Emergency Department - Development Based on a Multi-National, Prospective, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Hausfater, Pierre; Amin, Devendra; Amin, Adina; Canavaggio, Pauline; Sauvin, Gabrielle; Bernard, Maguy; Conca, Antoinette; Haubitz, Sebastian; Struja, Tristan; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The inflammatory biomarker pro-adrenomedullin (ProADM) provides additional prognostic information for the risk stratification of general medical emergency department (ED) patients. The aim of this analysis was to develop a triage algorithm for improved prognostication and later use in an interventional trial. Methods We used data from the multi-national, prospective, observational TRIAGE trial including consecutive medical ED patients from Switzerland, France and the United States. We investigated triage effects when adding ProADM at two established cut-offs to a five-level ED triage score with respect to adverse clinical outcome. Results Mortality in the 6586 ED patients showed a step-wise, 25-fold increase from 0.6% to 4.5% and 15.4%, respectively, at the two ProADM cut-offs (≤0.75nmol/L, >0.75–1.5nmol/L, >1.5nmol/L, p ANOVA <0.0001). Risk stratification by combining ProADM within cut-off groups and the triage score resulted in the identification of 1662 patients (25.2% of the population) at a very low risk of mortality (0.3%, n = 5) and 425 patients (6.5% of the population) at very high risk of mortality (19.3%, n = 82). Risk estimation by using ProADM and the triage score from a logistic regression model allowed for a more accurate risk estimation in the whole population with a classification of 3255 patients (49.4% of the population) in the low risk group (0.3% mortality, n = 9) and 1673 (25.4% of the population) in the high-risk group (15.1% mortality, n = 252). Conclusions Within this large international multicenter study, a combined triage score based on ProADM and established triage scores allowed a more accurate mortality risk discrimination. The TRIAGE-ProADM score improved identification of both patients at the highest risk of mortality who may benefit from early therapeutic interventions (rule in), and low risk patients where deferred treatment without negatively affecting outcome may be possible (rule out). PMID:28005916

  16. Single-frequency Sb-based distributed-feedback lasers emitting at 2.3 μm above room temperature for application in tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salhi, Abdelmagid; Barat, David; Romanini, Daniele; Rouillard, Yves; Ouvrard, Aimeric; Werner, Ralph; Seufert, Jochen; Koeth, Johannes; Vicet, Aurore; Garnache, Arnaud

    2006-07-01

    GaInAsSb/GaAlAsSb/GaSb distributed-feedback (DFB) laser diodes based on a type I active region were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy at the Centre d'Electronique et de Micro-Optoélectronique de Montpellier (CEM2). The DFB processing was done by Nanoplus Nanosystems and Technologies GmbH. The devices work in the continuous-wave regime above room temperature around an emission wavelength of 2.3 μm with a side-mode suppression ratio greater than 25 dB and as great as 10 mW of output power. The laser devices are fully characterized in terms of optical and electrical properties. Their tuning properties made them adaptable to tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy because they exhibit more than 220 GHz of continuous tuning by temperature or current. The direct absorption of CH4 is demonstrated to be possible with high spectral selectivity.

  17. [Cloning and function identification of gene 'admA' and up-stream regulatory sequence related to antagonistic activity of Enterobacter cloacae B8].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun-Li; Li, De-Bao; Yu, Xu-Ping

    2012-04-01

    To reveal the antagonistic mechanism of B8 strain to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, transposon tagging method and chromosome walking were deployed to clone antagonistic related fragments around Tn5 insertion site in the mutant strain B8B. The function of up-stream regulatory sequence of gene 'admA' involved in the antagonistic activity was further identified by gene knocking out technique. An antagonistic related left fragment of Tn5 insertion site, 2 608 bp in length, was obtained by tagging with Kan resistance gene of Tn5. A 2 354 bp right fragment of Tn5 insertion site was amplified with 2 rounds of chromosome walking. The length of the B contig around the Tn5 insertion site was 4 611 bp, containing 7 open reading frames (ORFs). Bioinformatic analysis revealed that these ORFs corresponded to the partial coding regions of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, two LysR family transcriptional regulators, hypothetical protein VSWAT3-20465 of Vibrionales and admA, admB, and partial sequence of admC gene of Pantoea agglomerans biosynthetic gene cluster, respectively. Tn5 was inserted in the up-stream of 200 bp or 894 bp of the sequence corresponding to anrP ORF or admA gene on B8B, respectively. The B-1 and B-2 mutants that lost antagonistic activity were selected by homeologuous recombination technology in association with knocking out plasmid pMB-BG. These results suggested that the transcription and expression of anrP gene might be disrupted as a result of the knocking out of up-stream regulatory sequence by Tn5 in B8B strain, further causing biosythesis regulation of the antagonistic related gene cluster. Thus, the antagonistic related genes in B8 strain is a gene family similar as andrimid biosynthetic gene cluster, and the upstream regulatory region appears to be critical for the antibiotics biosynthesis.

  18. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-04-01

    Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

  19. Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Terra Satellite. Part 1; Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Loukachine, K.; Smith, N. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) provides coincident global cloud and aerosol properties together with reflected solar, emitted terrestrial longwave and infrared window radiative fluxes. These data are needed to improve our understanding and modeling of the interaction between clouds, aerosols and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, surface, and within the atmosphere. This paper describes the approach used to estimate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from instantaneous CERES radiance measurements on the Terra satellite. A key component involves the development of empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that account for the angular dependence of Earth's radiation field at the TOA. The CERES Terra ADMs are developed using 24 months of CERES radiances, coincident cloud and aerosol retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and meteorological parameters from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMA0) s Goddard Earth Observing System DAS (GEOS-DAS V4.0.3) product. Scene information for the ADMs is from MODIS retrievals and GEOS-DAS V4.0.3 properties over ocean, land, desert and snow, for both clear and cloudy conditions. Because the CERES Terra ADMs are global, and far more CERES data is available on Terra than was available from CERES on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the methodology used to define CERES Terra ADMs is different in many respects from that used to develop CERES TRMM ADMs, particularly over snow/sea-ice, under cloudy conditions, and for clear scenes over land and desert.

  20. [Distribution and speciation of Pb in Arabidopsis thaliana shoot and rhizosphere soil by in situ synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure].

    PubMed

    Shen, Ya-Ting

    2014-03-01

    In order to investigate plant reacting mechanism with heavy metal stress in organ and tissue level, synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-SRXRF) was used to determine element distribution characteristics of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb in an Arabidopsis thaliana seedling grown in tailing dam soil taken from a lead-zinc mine exploration area. The results showed a regular distribution characters of K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn, while Pb appeared not only in root, but also in a leaf bud which was beyond previously understanding that Pb mainly appeared in plant root. Pb competed with Mn in the distribution of the whole seedling. Pb may cause the increase of oxidative stress in root and leaf bud, and restrict Mn absorption and utilization which explained the phenomenon of seedling death in this tailing damp soil. Speciation of Pb in Arabidopsis thaliana and tailing damp rhizosphere soil were also presented after using PbL3 micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES). By comparison of PbL3 XANES peak shape and peak position between standard samples and rhizosphere soil sample, it was demonstrated that the tailing damp soil was mainly formed by amorphous forms like PbO (64.2%), Pb (OH)2 (28.8%) and Pb3O4 (6.3%) rather than mineral or organic Pb speciations. The low plant bioavailability of Pb demonstrated a further research focusing on Pb absorption and speciation conversion is needed, especially the role of dissolve organic matter in soil which may enhance Pb bioavailability.

  1. Biosynthesis of the acetyl‐CoA carboxylase‐inhibiting antibiotic, andrimid in Serratia is regulated by Hfq and the LysR‐type transcriptional regulator, AdmX

    PubMed Central

    Nogellova, Veronika; Morel, Bertrand; Krell, Tino

    2016-01-01

    Summary Infections due to multidrug‐resistant bacteria represent a major global health challenge. To combat this problem, new antibiotics are urgently needed and some plant‐associated bacteria are a promising source. The rhizobacterium Serratia plymuthica A153 produces several bioactive secondary metabolites, including the anti‐oomycete and antifungal haterumalide, oocydin A and the broad spectrum polyamine antibiotic, zeamine. In this study, we show that A153 produces a second broad spectrum antibiotic, andrimid. Using genome sequencing, comparative genomics and mutagenesis, we defined new genes involved in andrimid (adm) biosynthesis. Both the expression of the adm gene cluster and regulation of andrimid synthesis were investigated. The biosynthetic cluster is operonic and its expression is modulated by various environmental cues, including temperature and carbon source. Analysis of the genome context of the adm operon revealed a gene encoding a predicted LysR‐type regulator, AdmX, apparently unique to Serratia strains. Mutagenesis and gene expression assays demonstrated that AdmX is a transcriptional activator of the adm gene cluster. At the post‐transcriptional level, the expression of the adm cluster is positively regulated by the RNA chaperone, Hfq, in an RpoS‐independent manner. Our results highlight the complexity of andrimid biosynthesis – an antibiotic with potential clinical and agricultural utility. PMID:26914969

  2. Highlights From the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists/ International Transporter Consortium Joint Workshop on Drug Transporters in Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion: From the Bench to the Bedside - Clinical Pharmacology Considerations.

    PubMed

    Ronaldson, P T; Bauer, B; El-Kattan, A F; Shen, H; Salphati, L; Louie, S W

    2016-11-01

    The American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists/International Transporter Consortium Joint Workshop on Drug Transporters in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion was held with the objective of discussing innovative advances in transporter pharmacology. Specific topics included (i) transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB); (ii) emerging transport proteins; (iii) recent advances in achieving hepatoselectivity and optimizing clearance for organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) substrates; (iv) utility of animal models for transporter studies; and (v) clinical correlation of transporter polymorphisms. Here, we present state-of-the-art highlights from this workshop in these key areas of focus.

  3. Next-Generation Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Calculation from the CERES Instruments: Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, W.; Corbett, J.; Eitzen, Z.; Liang, L.

    2015-01-01

    The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes are critical components to advancing our understanding of the Earth's radiative energy balance, radiative effects of clouds and aerosols, and climate feedback. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments provide broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements. These radiances are converted to fluxes by using scene-type-dependent angular distribution models (ADMs). This paper describes the next-generation ADMs that are developed for Terra and Aqua using all available CERES rotating azimuth plane radiance measurements. Coincident cloud and aerosol retrievals, and radiance measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and meteorological parameters from Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) data assimilation version 5.4.1 are used to define scene type. CERES radiance measurements are stratified by scene type and by other parameters that are important for determining the anisotropy of the given scene type. Anisotropic factors are then defined either for discrete intervals of relevant parameters or as a continuous functions of combined parameters, depending on the scene type. Significant differences between the ADMs described in this paper and the existing ADMs are over clear-sky scene types and polar scene types. Over clear ocean, we developed a set of shortwave (SW) ADMs that explicitly account for aerosols. Over clear land, the SW ADMs are developed for every 1 latitude1 longitude region for every calendar month using a kernel-based bidirectional reflectance model. Over clear Antarctic scenes, SW ADMs are developed by accounting the effects of sastrugi on anisotropy. Over sea ice, a sea-ice brightness index is used to classify the scene type. Under cloudy conditions over all surface types, the longwave (LW) and window (WN) ADMs are developed by combining surface and cloud-top temperature, surface and cloud emissivity, cloud fraction, and precipitable water

  4. Next-generation angular distribution models for top-of-atmosphere radiative flux calculation from CERES instruments: methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, W.; Corbett, J.; Eitzen, Z.; Liang, L.

    2015-02-01

    The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes are critical components to advancing our understanding of the Earth's radiative energy balance, radiative effects of clouds and aerosols, and climate feedback. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments provide broadband shortwave and longwave radiance measurements. These radiances are converted to fluxes by using scene-type-dependent angular distribution models (ADMs). This paper describes the next-generation ADMs that are developed for Terra and Aqua using all available CERES rotating azimuth plane radiance measurements. Coincident cloud and aerosol retrievals, and radiance measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and meteorological parameters from Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) data assimilation version 5.4.1 are used to define scene type. CERES radiance measurements are stratified by scene type and by other parameters that are important for determining the anisotropy of the given scene type. Anisotropic factors are then defined either for discrete intervals of relevant parameters or as a continuous functions of combined parameters, depending on the scene type. Significant differences between the ADMs described in this paper and the existing ADMs are over clear-sky scene types and polar scene types. Over clear ocean, we developed a set of shortwave (SW) ADMs that explicitly account for aerosols. Over clear land, the SW ADMs are developed for every 1° latitude × 1° longitude region for every calendar month using a kernel-based bidirectional reflectance model. Over clear Antarctic scenes, SW ADMs are developed by accounting the effects of sastrugi on anisotropy. Over sea ice, a sea-ice brightness index is used to classify the scene type. Under cloudy conditions over all surface types, the longwave (LW) and window (WN) ADMs are developed by combining surface and cloud-top temperature, surface and cloud emissivity, cloud fraction, and precipitable

  5. The potent and selective α4β2*/α6*-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist 2-[5-[5-((S)Azetidin-2-ylmethoxy)-3-pyridinyl]-3-isoxazolyl]ethanol demonstrates antidepressive-like behavior in animal models and a favorable ADME-tox profile.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li-Fang; Brek Eaton, J; Zhang, Han-Kun; Sabath, Emily; Hanania, Taleen; Li, Guan-Nan; van Breemen, Richard B; Whiteaker, Paul; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Jie; Chang, Yong-Chang; Lukas, Ronald J; Brunner, Dani; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2014-04-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrated that the inhibition of cholinergic supersensitivity through nicotinic antagonists and partial agonists can be used successfully to treat depressed patients, especially those who are poor responders to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In our effort to develop novel antidepressant drugs, LF-3-88 was identified as a potent nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist with subnanomolar to nanomolar affinities for β2-containing nAChRs (α2β2, α3β2, α4β2, and α4β2*) and superior selectivity away from α3β4 - (K i > 10(4) nmol/L) and α7-nAChRs (K i > 10(4) nmol/L) as well as 51 other central nervous system (CNS)-related neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. Functional activities at different nAChR subtypes were characterized utilizing (86)Rb(+) ion efflux assays, two-electrode voltage-clamp (TEVC) recording in oocytes, and whole-cell current recording measurements. In mouse models, administration of LF-3-88 resulted in antidepressive-like behavioral signatures 15 min post injection in the SmartCube® test (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.; about 45-min session), decreased immobility in the forced swim test (1-3 mg/kg, i.p.; 1-10 mg/kg, p.o.; 30 min pretreatment, 6-min trial), and decreased latency to approach food in the novelty-suppressed feeding test after 29 days chronic administration once daily (5 mg/kg but not 10 mg/kg, p.o.; 15-min trial). In addition, LF-3-88 exhibited a favorable profile in pharmacokinetic/ADME-Tox (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) assays. This compound was also shown to cause no mortality in wild-type Balb/CJ mice when tested at 300 mg/kg. These results further support the potential of potent and selective nicotinic partial agonists for use in the treatment of depression.

  6. The potent and selective α4β2*/α6*-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist 2-[5-[5-((S)Azetidin-2-ylmethoxy)-3-pyridinyl]-3-isoxazolyl]ethanol demonstrates antidepressive-like behavior in animal models and a favorable ADME-tox profile

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li-Fang; Brek Eaton, J; Zhang, Han-Kun; Sabath, Emily; Hanania, Taleen; Li, Guan-Nan; van Breemen, Richard B; Whiteaker, Paul; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Jie; Chang, Yong-Chang; Lukas, Ronald J; Brunner, Dani; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrated that the inhibition of cholinergic supersensitivity through nicotinic antagonists and partial agonists can be used successfully to treat depressed patients, especially those who are poor responders to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In our effort to develop novel antidepressant drugs, LF-3-88 was identified as a potent nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist with subnanomolar to nanomolar affinities for β2-containing nAChRs (α2β2, α3β2, α4β2, and α4β2*) and superior selectivity away from α3β4 − (Ki > 104 nmol/L) and α7-nAChRs (Ki > 104 nmol/L) as well as 51 other central nervous system (CNS)-related neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. Functional activities at different nAChR subtypes were characterized utilizing 86Rb+ ion efflux assays, two-electrode voltage-clamp (TEVC) recording in oocytes, and whole-cell current recording measurements. In mouse models, administration of LF-3-88 resulted in antidepressive-like behavioral signatures 15 min post injection in the SmartCube® test (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.; about 45-min session), decreased immobility in the forced swim test (1–3 mg/kg, i.p.; 1–10 mg/kg, p.o.; 30 min pretreatment, 6-min trial), and decreased latency to approach food in the novelty-suppressed feeding test after 29 days chronic administration once daily (5 mg/kg but not 10 mg/kg, p.o.; 15-min trial). In addition, LF-3-88 exhibited a favorable profile in pharmacokinetic/ADME-Tox (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) assays. This compound was also shown to cause no mortality in wild-type Balb/CJ mice when tested at 300 mg/kg. These results further support the potential of potent and selective nicotinic partial agonists for use in the treatment of depression. PMID:25505580

  7. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  8. Utility of Procalcitonin (PCT) and Mid regional pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in risk stratification of critically ill febrile patients in Emergency Department (ED). A comparison with APACHE II score

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of MR-proADM and PCT levels in febrile patients in the ED in comparison with a disease severity index score, the APACHE II score. We also evaluated the ability of MR-proADM and PCT to predict hospitalization. Methods This was an observational, multicentric study. We enrolled 128 patients referred to the ED with high fever and a suspicion of severe infection such as sepsis, lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, soft tissue infections, central nervous system infections, or osteomyelitis. The APACHE II score was calculated for each patient. Results MR-proADM median values in controls were 0.5 nmol/l as compared with 0.85 nmol/l in patients (P < 0.0001), while PCT values in controls were 0.06 ng/ml versus 0.56 ng/ml in patients (P < 0.0001). In all patients there was a statistically significant stepwise increase in MR-proADM levels in accordance with PCT values (P < 0.0001). MR-proADM and PCT levels were significantly increased in accordance with the Apache II quartiles (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0012 respectively). In the respiratory infections, urinary infections, and sepsis-septic shock groups we found a correlation between the Apache II and MR-proADM respectively and MR-proADM and PCT respectively. We evaluated the ability of MR-proADM and PCT to predict hospitalization in patients admitted to our emergency departments complaining of fever. MR-proADM alone had an AUC of 0.694, while PCT alone had an AUC of 0.763. The combined use of PCT and MR-proADM instead showed an AUC of 0.79. Conclusions The present study highlights the way in which MR-proADM and PCT may be helpful to the febrile patient’s care in the ED. Our data support the prognostic role of MR-proADM and PCT in that setting, as demonstrated by the correlation with the APACHE II score. The combined use of the two biomarkers can predict a subsequent

  9. Effect of colchicine on rat small intestinal absorptive cells. II. Distribution of label after incorporation of (/sup 3/H)fucose into plasma membrane glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ellinger, A.; Pavelka, M.; Gangl, A.

    1983-12-01

    By means of radioautography the influence was tested of various periods (5, 15, 30, 40 min, 2 hr) of pretreatment with colchicine, administered intraperitoneally to rats at a dosage of 0.5 mg/100 g of body weight, on the intracellular pathway of (/sup 3/H)fucose in absorptive cells of the small intestine. Administration of colchicine for 30 min and longer time intervals causes delay in the insertion of (/sup 3/H)fucose into the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates in the Golgi apparatus, and results in redistribution of the label apparent over the different portions of the plasma membrane. In controls, at 2 and 4 hr after administration of (/sup 3/H)fucose the apical plasma membrane is strongly labeled. Colchicine causes equalization of the reaction of apical and basolateral regions of the plasma membrane: the number of silver grains attributable to the apical plasma membrane is reduced; following treatment with colchicine, apical portions of the plasma membrane comprise 31.6 +/- 1.8% of the silver grains, 38.6 +/- 3.8% are attributable to basolateral membrane regions. The colchicine-induced equalization of the density of label of apical and basolateral regions of the plasma membrane, in addition to the occurrence of basolateral microvillus borders, suggests microtubules to be important in the maintenance of the polar organization of small intestinal absorptive cells.

  10. Combination of batch experiments with continuous reactor data for ADM1 calibration: application to anaerobic digestion of pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Girault, R; Rousseau, P; Steyer, J P; Bernet, N; Béline, F

    2011-01-01

    Modelling anaerobic digestion processes is a key aspect of studying and optimizing digesters and related waste streams. However, for the satisfactory prediction of biogas production and effluent characteristics, some parameters have to be calibrated according to the characteristics of the substrates. This article describes a calibration procedure for the IWA 'Anaerobic Digestion Model no. 1' applied to the modelling of a digester for treatment of pig slurry. The most sensitive parameters were selected and calibrated combining results from a continuous digester and from batch trials run with the sludge sampled from the digester and the addition of specific substrates. According to the sensitivity analysis, acetoclastic methanogenesis, acetogenesis of propionate and acidogenesis of sugars were identified as the main sensitive steps in our case. The calibration procedure led us to modify slightly acetogenesis of propionate kinetic. However, acetoclastic methanogenesis and acidogenesis of sugars kinetics were significantly reduced by decreasing km and increasing Ks. Indeed, for instance, a decrease of km_ac from 8 to 7 day(-1) combined with an increase of Ks_ac from 0.15 to 1.5 kgCOD/m3 was necessary. After calibration, ADM1 provides an accurate simulation of the continuous reactor results.

  11. ADM1-based modeling of methane production from acidified sweet sorghum extract in a two stage process.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N; Skiadas, Ioannis V; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2012-02-01

    The present study focused on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 on the methane production from acidified sorghum extract generated from a hydrogen producing bioreactor in a two-stage anaerobic process. The kinetic parameters for hydrogen and volatile fatty acids consumption were estimated through fitting of the model equations to the data obtained from batch experiments. The simulation of the continuous reactor performance at all HRTs tested (20, 15, and 10d) was very satisfactory. Specifically, the largest deviation of the theoretical predictions against the experimental data was 12% for the methane production rate at the HRT of 20d while the deviation values for the 15 and 10d HRT were 1.9% and 1.1%, respectively. The model predictions regarding pH, methane percentage in the gas phase and COD removal were in very good agreement with the experimental data with a deviation less than 5% for all steady states. Therefore, the ADM1 is a valuable tool for process design in the case of a two-stage anaerobic process as well.

  12. Modelling of two-stage anaerobic digestion using the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1).

    PubMed

    Blumensaat, F; Keller, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study presented was to implement a process model to simulate the dynamic behaviour of a pilot-scale process for anaerobic two-stage digestion of sewage sludge. The model implemented was initiated to support experimental investigations of the anaerobic two-stage digestion process. The model concept implemented in the simulation software package MATLAB/Simulink is a derivative of the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 (ADM1) that has been developed by the IWA task group for mathematical modelling of anaerobic processes. In the present study the original model concept has been adapted and applied to replicate a two-stage digestion process. Testing procedures, including balance checks and 'benchmarking' tests were carried out to verify the accuracy of the implementation. These combined measures ensured a faultless model implementation without numerical inconsistencies. Parameters for both, the thermophilic and the mesophilic process stage, have been estimated successfully using data from lab-scale experiments described in literature. Due to the high number of parameters in the structured model, it was necessary to develop a customised procedure that limited the range of parameters to be estimated. The accuracy of the optimised parameter sets has been assessed against experimental data from pilot-scale experiments. Under these conditions, the model predicted reasonably well the dynamic behaviour of a two-stage digestion process in pilot scale.

  13. Biofilm inhibition of linezolid-like Schiff bases: synthesis, biological activity, molecular docking and in silico ADME prediction.

    PubMed

    Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N; Khan, Firoz A Kalam; Patil, Rajendra H; Marathe, Sayali D; Gade, Wasudev N; Shinde, Devanand B

    2015-02-15

    Herein, we report the synthesis and screening of linezolid-like Schiff bases as inhibitors of biofilm formation. The result of biofilm inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggested that compounds 5h (IC50 value=12.97±0.33μM) and 5i (IC50 value=15.63±0.20μM) had more inhibitory activity when compared with standard linezolid (IC50=15.93±0.18μM) without affecting the growth of cells (and thus behave as anti-quorum sensing agents). The compounds 5h (MIC range=2.5-10μg/mL) and 5i (MIC range=3.5-10μg/mL) with 2-chloroquinolinyl and 2-chloro-8-methylquinolinyl motif, respectively, showed antibacterial activity in comparable range of linezolid (MIC range=2-3μg/mL) and were more potent when compared with ciprofloxacin (MIC range=25-50μg/mL). Thus, the active derivatives were not only potent inhibitors of P. aeruginosa biofilm growth but also efficient antibacterial agents. The docking study of most active compounds 5h and 5i against PqsD enzyme of P. aeruginosa exhibited good binding properties. In silico ADME properties of synthesized compounds were also analyzed and showed potential to develop as good oral drug candidates.

  14. Electronic structure, bonding, charge distribution, and x-ray absorption spectra of the (001) surfaces of fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulis, Paul; Yao, Hongzhi; Ouyang, Lizhi; Ching, W. Y.

    2007-12-01

    Fluorapatite (FAP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) are two very important bioceramic crystals. The (001) surfaces of FAP and HAP crystals are studied by ab initio density functional calculations using a supercell slab geometry. It is shown that in both crystals, the O-terminated (001) surface is more stable with calculated surface energies of 0.865 and 0.871J/m2 for FAP and HAP, respectively. In FAP, the two surfaces are symmetric. In HAP, the orientation of the OH group along the c axis reduces the symmetry such that the top and bottom surfaces are no longer symmetric. It is revealed that the atoms near the surface and subsurface are significantly relaxed especially in the case of HAP. The largest relaxations occurred via the lateral movements of the O ions at the subsurface level. The electronic structures of the surface models in the form of layer-by-layer resolved partial density of states for all the atoms show systematic variation from the surface region toward the bulk region. The calculated Mulliken effective charge on each type of atom and the bond order values between cations (Ca, P) and anions (O, F) show different charge transfers and bond strength variations from the bulk crystal values. Electron charge density calculations show that the surfaces of both FAP and HAP crystals are mostly positively charged due to the presence of Ca ions at the surface. The positively charged surfaces have implications for the absorption on apatite surfaces of water and other organic molecules in an aqueous environment which are an important part of its bioactivity. The x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra ( Ca-K , O-K , F-K , P-K , and P-L3 edges) of both the surface models and the bulk crystals are calculated and compared. The calculations use a supercell approach which takes into account the electron-core-hole interaction. It is shown that the site-specific XANES spectra show significant differences between atoms near the surface and in the bulk and are very

  15. Knockdown of HOXA10 reverses the multidrug resistance of human chronic mylogenous leukemia K562/ADM cells by downregulating P-gp and MRP-1.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ying-Jie; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Jian-Yong; Li, You-Jie; Wang, Hong; Xie, Shu-Yang

    2016-05-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of leukemia cells is a major obstacle in chemotherapeutic treatment. The high expression and constitutive activation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP-1) have been reported to play a vital role in enhancing cell resistance to anticancer drugs in many tumors. The present study aimed to investigate the reversal of MDR by silencing homeobox A10 (HOXA10) in adriamycin (ADR)-resistant human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) K562/ADM cells by modulating the expression of P-gp and MRP-1. K562/ADM cells were stably transfected with HOXA10-targeted short hairpin RNA (shRNA). The results of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis showed that the mRNA and protein expression of HOXA10 was markedly suppressed following transfection with a shRNA-containing vector. The sensitivity of the K562/ADM cells to ADR was enhanced by the silencing of HOXA10, due to the increased intracellular accumulation of ADR. The accumulation of ADR induced by the silencing of HOXA10 may be due to the downregulation of P-gp and MRP-1. Western blot analysis revealed that downregulating HOXA10 inhibited the protein expression of P-gp and MRP-1. Taken together, these results suggest that knockdown of HOXA10 combats resistance and that HOXA10 is a potential target for resistant human CML.

  16. Derivation of local-in-time fourth post-Newtonian ADM Hamiltonian for spinless compact binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaranowski, Piotr; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    The paper gives full details of the computation within the canonical formalism of Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner of the local-in-time part of the fourth post-Newtonian, i.e. of power eight in one over speed of light, conservative Hamiltonian of spinless compact binary systems. The Hamiltonian depends only on the bodies' positions and momenta. Dirac delta distributions are taken as source functions. Their full control is furnished by dimensional continuation, by means of which the occurring ultraviolet (UV) divergences are uniquely regularized. The applied near-zone expansion of the time-symmetric Green function leads to infrared (IR) divergences. Their analytic regularization results in one single ambiguity parameter. Unique fixation of it was successfully performed in T. Damour, P. Jaranowski, and G. Schäfer, Phys. Rev. D 89, 064058 (2014) through far-zone matching. Technically as well as conceptually (backscatter binding energy), the level of the Lamb shift in quantum electrodynamics is reached. In a first run a computation of all terms is performed in three-dimensional space using analytic Riesz-Hadamard regularization techniques. Then divergences are treated locally (i.e., around particles' positions for UV and in the vicinity of spatial infinity for IR divergences) by means of combined dimensional and analytic regularization. Various evolved analytic expressions are presented for the first time. The breakdown of the Leibniz rule for distributional derivatives is addressed as well as the in general nondistributive law when regularizing value of products of functions evaluated at their singular point.

  17. Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: use of the junge power-law aerosol size distribution with variable refractive index to handle aerosol absorption.

    PubMed

    Chomko, R M; Gordon, H R

    1998-08-20

    When strongly absorbing aerosols are present in the atmosphere, the usual two-step procedure of processing ocean color data-(1) atmospheric correction to provide the water-leaving reflectance (rho(w)), followed by (2) relating rho(w) to the water constituents-fails and simultaneous estimation of the ocean and aerosol optical properties is necessary. We explore the efficacy of using a simple model of the aerosol-a Junge power-law size distribution consisting of homogeneous spheres with arbitrary refractive index-in a nonlinear optimization procedure for estimating the relevant oceanic and atmospheric parameters for case 1 waters. Using simulated test data generated from more realistic aerosol size distributions (sums of log-normally distributed components with different compositions), we show that the ocean's pigment concentration (C) can be retrieved with good accuracy in the presence of weakly or strongly absorbing aerosols. However, because of significant differences in the scattering phase functions for the test and power-law distributions, large error is possible in the estimate of the aerosol optical thickness. The positive result for C suggests that the detailed shape of the aerosol-scattering phase function is not relevant to the atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. The relevant parameters are the aerosol single-scattering albedo and the spectral variation of the aerosol optical depth. We argue that the assumption of aerosol sphericity should not restrict the validity of the algorithm and suggest an avenue for including colored aerosols, e.g., wind-blown dust, in the procedure. A significant advantage of the new approach is that realistic multicomponent aerosol models are not required for the retrieval of C.

  18. 2-/sup 14/C-1-Allyl-3,5-diethyl-6-chlorouracil I: Synthesis, absorption in human skin, excretion, distribution, and metabolism in rats and rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, R.; Hempel, B.; Kiefer, G.

    1982-08-01

    With /sup 14/C-potassium cyanate as the starting material, 2-/sup 14/C-1-allyl-3,5-diethyl-6-chlorouracil was synthesized for in vitro and in vivo absorption studies in human skin and for metabolic studies in rats and rabbits. The radioactivity in the horny layer, epidermis, and dermis of the human skin was determined after different intervals of time, and the radioactivity excreted in the urine was measured by collecting samples for 5 days from a patient and also under occlusion conditions. Almost 90% of the radioactivity remained on the surface and approximately 6.28% penetrated and was systemically absorbed. Over a 5-day period, a total of 3.25% was excreted. Almost 3% was systemically absorbed and cumulated in the system. After intraperitoneal application in male and female rats, most of the radioactivity was excreted in the feces and urine, with female rats excreting more in the urine than male rats. The radioactivity rose in the organs in the first 3 hr and then decreased. At the end of 144 hr, no appreciable radioactivity could be found in the organs and tissues, except in the carcass where the cumulation was maximum (1%). After intravenous injection in rabbits, most of the radioactivity (80%) was excreted in the urine and only 4% in the feces. At the end of 96 hr, approximately 3% was cumulated in the body. The drug was quantitatively metabolized in both rats and rabbits: Metabolite 1 (70-85%), Metabolite 2 (10-15%), Metabolite 3 (5-10%), and Metabolite 4 (0.3%).

  19. A study of the distribution of aluminum in human placental tissues based on alkaline solubilization with determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Pamela C.; Schell, Lawrence M.; Stark, Alice D.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Aluminum (Al) is a nonessential element known to induce neurotoxic effects, such as dialysis dementia, in patients on hemodialysis, with compromised kidney function. The role of Al in the progression of some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is controversial, and remains unclear. The effects of Al on other vulnerable populations, such as fetuses and infants, have been infrequently studied. In the present study, Al has been measured in human placenta samples, comprising ~160 each of placenta bodies, placenta membranes, and umbilical cords, using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) after atmospheric pressure digestion with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and ethylenediaminetetraacidic acid (EDTA). The sensitivity, or characteristic mass (m0), for Al at the 309.3-nm line was found to be 30 ± 4 pg. The instrumental detection limit (IDL) (3s) for Al in solution was calculated as 0.72 μg L-1, while the method detection limit (MDL) (3s) was 0.25 μg g-1. Accuracy was assessed through analysis of quality control (QC) materials, including certified reference materials (CRMs), in-house reference materials (RMs), and spike recovery experiments, of varying matrices. Placental tissue analyses revealed geometric mean concentrations of approximately 0.5 μg g-1 Al in placenta bodies (n=165) and membranes (n=155), while Al concentrations in the umbilical cord (n=154) were about 0.3 μg g-1. Al was detected in 95% of placenta bodies, and 81% of placenta membranes, but only in 46% of umbilical cords. PMID:21072353

  20. Diurnal Variation and Spatial Distribution Effects on Sulfur Speciation in Aerosol Samples as Assessed by X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES)

    PubMed Central

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Thumanu, Kanjana; Na Pattalung, Warangkana; Hirunyatrakul, Phoosak; Kittikoon, Itthipon; Ho, Kin Fai; Cao, Junji

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on providing new results relating to the impacts of Diurnal variation, Vertical distribution, and Emission source on sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum of aerosol samples. All aerosol samples used in the diurnal variation experiment were preserved using anoxic preservation stainless cylinders (APSCs) and pressure-controlled glove boxes (PCGBs), which were specially designed to prevent oxidation of the sulfur states in PM10. Further investigation of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra revealed that PM10 samples were dominated by S(VI), even when preserved in anoxic conditions. The “Emission source effect” on the sulfur oxidation state of PM10 was examined by comparing sulfur K-edge XANES spectra collected from various emission sources in southern Thailand, while “Vertical distribution effects” on the sulfur oxidation state of PM10 were made with samples collected from three different altitudes from rooftops of the highest buildings in three major cities in Thailand. The analytical results have demonstrated that neither “Emission source” nor “Vertical distribution” appreciably contribute to the characteristic fingerprint of sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum in PM10. PMID:22988545

  1. Migrant labor absorption in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, J

    1992-01-01

    The use of migrant workers to ease labor shortages caused by rapid industrialization in Malaysia during the twentieth century is examined. "This paper will focus on: (1) the extent, composition and distribution of migrant workers; (2) the labor shortage and absorption of migrant workers; and (3) the role of migrant workers in the government's economic restructuring process."

  2. Quasistellar Objects: Intervening Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, J.; Churchill, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Every parcel of gas along the line of sight to a distant QUASAR will selectively absorb certain wavelengths of continuum light of the quasar due to the presence of the various chemical elements in the gas. Through the analysis of these quasar absorption lines we can study the spatial distributions, motions, chemical enrichment and ionization histories of gaseous structures from REDSHIFT five unti...

  3. Potential Therapeutic Targets for Oral Cancer: ADM, TP53, EGFR, LYN, CTLA4, SKIL, CTGF, CD70

    PubMed Central

    Bundela, Saurabh; Sharma, Anjana; Bisen, Prakash S.

    2014-01-01

    In India, oral cancer has consistently ranked among top three causes of cancer-related deaths, and it has emerged as a top cause for the cancer-related deaths among men. Lack of effective therapeutic options is one of the main challenges in clinical management of oral cancer patients. We interrogated large pool of samples from oral cancer gene expression studies to identify potential therapeutic targets that are involved in multiple cancer hallmark events. Therapeutic strategies directed towards such targets can be expected to effectively control cancer cells. Datasets from different gene expression studies were integrated by removing batch-effects and was used for downstream analyses, including differential expression analysis. Dependency network analysis was done to identify genes that undergo marked topological changes in oral cancer samples when compared with control samples. Causal reasoning analysis was carried out to identify significant hypotheses, which can explain gene expression profiles observed in oral cancer samples. Text-mining based approach was used to detect cancer hallmarks associated with genes significantly expressed in oral cancer. In all, 2365 genes were detected to be differentially expressed genes, which includes some of the highly differentially expressed genes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1/3/10/13), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands (IL8, CXCL-10/-11), PTHLH, SERPINE1, NELL2, S100A7A, MAL, CRNN, TGM3, CLCA4, keratins (KRT-3/4/13/76/78), SERPINB11 and serine peptidase inhibitors (SPINK-5/7). XIST, TCEAL2, NRAS and FGFR2 are some of the important genes detected by dependency and causal network analysis. Literature mining analysis annotated 1014 genes, out of which 841 genes were statistically significantly annotated. The integration of output of various analyses, resulted in the list of potential therapeutic targets for oral cancer, which included targets such as ADM, TP53, EGFR, LYN, CTLA4, SKIL, CTGF and CD70. PMID:25029526

  4. Gene expression analysis of precision-cut human liver slices indicates stable expression of ADME-Tox related genes

    SciTech Connect

    Elferink, M.G.L.; Olinga, P.; van Leeuwen, E.M.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Polman, J.; Schoonen, W.G.; Heisterkamp, S.H.; Groothuis, G.M.M.

    2011-05-15

    In the process of drug development it is of high importance to test the safety of new drugs with predictive value for human toxicity. A promising approach of toxicity testing is based on shifts in gene expression profiling of the liver. Toxicity screening based on animal liver cells cannot be directly extrapolated to humans due to species differences. The aim of this study was to evaluate precision-cut human liver slices as in vitro method for the prediction of human specific toxicity by toxicogenomics. The liver slices contain all cell types of the liver in their natural architecture. This is important since drug-induced toxicity often is a multi-cellular process. Previously we showed that toxicogenomic analysis of rat liver slices is highly predictive for rat in vivo toxicity. In this study we investigated the levels of gene expression during incubation up to 24 h with Affymetrix microarray technology. The analysis was focused on a broad spectrum of genes related to stress and toxicity, and on genes encoding for phase-I, -II and -III metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Observed changes in gene expression were associated with cytoskeleton remodeling, extracellular matrix and cell adhesion, but for the ADME-Tox related genes only minor changes were observed. PCA analysis showed that changes in gene expression were not associated with age, sex or source of the human livers. Slices treated with acetaminophen showed patterns of gene expression related to its toxicity. These results indicate that precision-cut human liver slices are relatively stable during 24 h of incubation and represent a valuable model for human in vitro hepatotoxicity testing despite the human inter-individual variability.

  5. Drug design tools--in silico, in vitro and in vivo ADME/PK prediction and interpretation: is PK in monkey an essential part of a good human PK prediction?

    PubMed

    Hosea, Natilie A

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative human pharmacokinetic (PK) predictions play a critical role in assessing the quality of potential drug candidates and in selecting a human starting dose for clinical evaluation, where the parameters of clearance, volume of distribution, and bioavailability as well as the plasma concentration time profiles are the desired endpoints. While there are numerous reports validating the use of different methods for predictions, it still remains an open question as to what animal species to include when extrapolating the animal PK to human. Given toxicological assessment is generally conducted in two species, a rodent and a non-rodent species, prior to evaluation in human subjects, rat, dog and/or monkey are typically the species ADME scientists employ to evaluate PK. However, the question is, can we achieve an adequate prediction without the use of larger species such as monkey? In the end, the data and tools utilized for human PK predictions will depend on a number of factors such as information from observed human PK for structurally related compounds; the primary mechanism of clearance, and the availability of in silico and in vitro tools applicable to the respective clearance mechanism. Despite these dependencies, for most situations, adequate predictions can be achieved without the use of monkey PK for predicting human.

  6. Accounting for the effects of sastrugi in the CERES clear-sky Antarctic shortwave angular distribution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, J.; Su, W.

    2015-08-01

    The Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on NASA's Terra, Aqua and Soumi NPP satellites are used to provide a long-term measurement of Earth's energy budget. To accomplish this, the radiances measured by the instruments must be inverted to fluxes by the use of a scene-type-dependent angular distribution model (ADM). For permanent snow scenes over Antarctica, shortwave (SW) ADMs are created by compositing radiance measurements over the full viewing zenith and azimuth range. However, the presence of small-scale wind blown roughness features called sastrugi cause the BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) of the snow to vary significantly based upon the solar azimuth angle and location. This can result in monthly regional biases between -12 and 7.5 Wm-2 in the inverted TOA (top-of-atmosphere) SW flux. The bias is assessed by comparing the CERES shortwave fluxes derived from nadir observations with those from all viewing zenith angles, as the sastrugi affect fluxes inverted from the oblique viewing angles more than for the nadir viewing angles. In this paper we further describe the clear-sky Antarctic ADMs from Su et al. (2015). These ADMs account for the sastrugi effect by using measurements from the Multi-Angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instrument to derive statistical relationships between radiance from different viewing angles. We show here that these ADMs reduce the bias and artifacts in the CERES SW flux caused by sastrugi, both locally and Antarctic-wide. The regional monthly biases from sastrugi are reduced to between -5 and 7 Wm-2, and the monthly-mean biases over Antarctica are reduced by up to 0.64 Wm-2, a decrease of 74 %. These improved ADMs are used as part of the Edition 4 CERES SSF (Single Scanner Footprint) data.

  7. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lijun Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-15

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm{sup −1} (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm{sup −1} (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  8. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the novel SARM GTx-024 [(S)-N-(4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-(4-cyanophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide] in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhyun; Wang, Ronghua; Veverka, Karen A; Dalton, James T

    2013-11-01

    1. GTx-024, a novel selective androgen receptor modulator, is currently being investigated as an oral treatment for muscle wasting disorders associated with cancer and other chronic conditions. 2. Absorption of GTx-024 was rapid and complete, with high oral bioavailability. A wide tissue distribution of [(14)C]GTx-024 derived radioactivity was observed. [(14)C]GTx-024-derived radioactivity had a moderate plasma clearance (117.7 and 74.5 mL/h/kg) and mean elimination half-life of 0.6 h and 16.4 h in male and female rats, respectively. 3. Fecal excretion was the predominant route of elimination, with ∼70% of total radioactivity recovered in feces and 21-25% in urine within 48 h. Feces of intact rats contained primarily unchanged [(14)C]GTx-024 (49.3-64.6%). Metabolites were identified in urine and feces resulting from oxidation of the cyanophenol ring (M8, 17.6%), hydrolysis and/or further conjugation of the amide moiety (M3, 8-12%) and the cyanophenol ring (M4, 1.3-1.5%), and glucuronidation of [(14)C]GTx-024 at the tertiary alcohol (M6, 3.5-3.7%). There was no quantifiable metabolite in plasma. 4. In summary, in the rat GTx-024 is completely absorbed, widely distributed, biotransformed through several metabolic pathways, and eliminated in feces primarily as an unchanged drug.

  9. Distribution of Cold (≲300 K) Atomic Gas in Galaxies: Results from the GBT H i Absorption Survey Probing the Inner Halos (ρ < 20 kpc) of Low-z Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthakur, Sanchayeeta

    2016-10-01

    We present the Green Bank Telescope absorption survey of cold atomic hydrogen (≲300 K) in the inner halo of low-redshift galaxies. The survey aims to characterize the cold gas distribution and to address where the condensation—the process where ionized gas accreted by galaxies condenses into cold gas within the disks of galaxies—occurs. Our sample consists of 16 galaxy-quasar pairs with impact parameters of ≤20 kpc. We detected an H i absorber associated with J0958+3222 (NGC 3067) and H i emission from six galaxies. We also found two Ca ii absorption systems in the archival SDSS data associated with galaxies J0958+3222 and J1228+3706. Our detection rate of H i absorbers with optical depths of ≥0.06 is ˜7%. We also find that the cold H i phase (≲300 K) is 44(±18)% of the total atomic gas in the sightline probing J0958+3222. We find no correlation between the peak optical depth and impact parameter or stellar and H i radii normalized impact parameters, ρ/R 90 and ρ/R H i . We conclude that the process of condensation of inflowing gas into cold (≲300 K) H i occurs at the ρ ≪ 20 kpc. However, the warmer phase of neutral gas (T ˜ 1000 K) can exist out to much larger distances, as seen in emission maps. Therefore, the process of condensation of warm to cold H i is likely occurring in stages from ionized to warm H i in the inner halo and then to cold H i very close to the galaxy disk. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  10. SIMAS ADM XBT Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    XBT’s sound speed values instead of temperature values. Studies show that the sound speed at the surface in a specific location varies less than...be entered at the terminal in metric or English temperatures or sound speeds. The algorithm automatically determines which form each data point was... sound speeds. Leroy’s equation is used to derive sound speed from temperature or temperature from sound speed. The previous, current, and next months

  11. Prediction of anaerobic biodegradability and bioaccessibility of municipal sludge by coupling sequential extractions with fluorescence spectroscopy: towards ADM1 variables characterization.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Julie; Gonidec, Estelle; Cacho Rivero, Jesús Andrés; Latrille, Eric; Vedrenne, Fabien; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Advanced dynamic anaerobic digestion models, such as ADM1, require both detailed organic matter characterisation and intimate knowledge of the involved metabolic pathways. In the current study, a methodology for municipal sludge characterization is investigated to describe two key parameters: biodegradability and bioaccessibility of organic matter. The methodology is based on coupling sequential chemical extractions with 3D fluorescence spectroscopy. The use of increasingly strong solvents reveals different levels of organic matter accessibility and the spectroscopy measurement leads to a detailed characterisation of the organic matter. The results obtained from testing 52 municipal sludge samples (primary, secondary, digested and thermally treated) showed a successful correlation with sludge biodegradability and bioaccessibility. The two parameters, traditionally obtained through the biochemical methane potential (BMP) lab tests, are now obtain in only 5 days compared to the 30-60 days usually required. Experimental data, obtained from two different laboratory scale reactors, were used to validate the ADM1 model. The proposed approach showed a strong application potential for reactor design and advanced control of anaerobic digestion processes.

  12. Saikosaponin A, an active glycoside from Radix bupleuri, reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells and HepG2/ADM cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Rui-Ping; Chen, Zhen-Dong

    2017-02-01

    1. The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR). Saikosaponin A (SSA) is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Radix Bupleuri. This study was mainly designed to understand effects of SSA on MDR in MCF-7/ADR and HepG2/ADM cells. 2. MDR reversal was examined as the alteration of cytotoxic drugs IC50 in resistant cells in the presence of SSA by MTT assay, and was compared with the non-resistant cells. Apoptosis and uptake of P-gp substrates in the tumor cells were detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to assay the expression of P-gp. 3. Our results demonstrate SSA could increase the chemosensitivity of P-gp overexpressing HepG2/ADM and MCF-7/ADR cells to doxorubicin (DOX), vincristine (VCR) and paclitaxel. SSA promoted apoptosis of MCF-7/ADR cells in the presence of DOX. Moreover, it could also increase the retention of P-gp substrates DOX and rhodamine 123 in MCF-7/ADR cells, and decrease digoxin efflux ratio in Caco-2 cell monolayer. Finally, a mechanistic study showed that SSA reduced P-gp expression without affecting hydrolytic activity of P-gp. 4. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SSA could be further developed for sensitizing resistant cancer cells and used as an adjuvant therapy together with anticancer drugs to improve their therapeutic efficacies.

  13. SMAS fold flap and ADM repair of the parotid bed following removal of parotid haemangiomas via pre- and retroauricular incisions to improve cosmetic outcome and prevent Frey's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiliang; Li, Jingsong; Yang, Zhaohui; Yongjie, Wang; Zhiquan, Wang; Wang, Youyuan

    2008-08-01

    The growth of parotid haemangiomas during the proliferative phase may be rapid and unpredictable. Involution often takes many years, with attendant psychological sequelae to the child. Although conservative management is usually proposed for parotid haemangiomas occurring in infancy, this may not be particularly helpful and the haemangioma difficult to conceal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliable and aesthetic benefit of using a superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) fold flap and allograft dermal matrix (ADM) repair of the parotid bed following parotid haemangiomas via pre- and retroauricular incision. Forty-three paediatric patients (33 boys and 10 girls) with haemangiomas involving the parotid gland underwent total parotidectomy using a pre- and retroauricular approach with intraoperative placement of ADM within the parotid bed. They further underwent repair of the parotid bed with SMAS fold flaps. A panel of three plastic surgeons assessed the cosmetic outcomes. All of the patients were evaluated using a short questionnaire; postoperative gustatory sweating was assessed using a modification of Minor's starch-iodine test.

  14. Equivalence of ADM Hamiltonian and Effective Field Theory approaches at next-to-next-to-leading order spin1-spin2 coupling of binary inspirals

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, Michele; Steinhoff, Jan E-mail: jan.steinhoff@ist.utl.pt

    2014-12-01

    The next-to-next-to-leading order spin1-spin2 potential for an inspiralling binary, that is essential for accuracy to fourth post-Newtonian order, if both components in the binary are spinning rapidly, has been recently derived independently via the ADM Hamiltonian and the Effective Field Theory approaches, using different gauges and variables. Here we show the complete physical equivalence of the two results, thereby we first prove the equivalence of the ADM Hamiltonian and the Effective Field Theory approaches at next-to-next-to-leading order with the inclusion of spins. The main difficulty in the spinning sectors, which also prescribes the manner in which the comparison of the two results is tackled here, is the existence of redundant unphysical spin degrees of freedom, associated with the spin gauge choice of a point within the extended spinning object for its representative worldline. After gauge fixing and eliminating the unphysical degrees of freedom of the spin and its conjugate at the level of the action, we arrive at curved spacetime generalizations of the Newton-Wigner variables in closed form, which can also be used to obtain further Hamiltonians, based on an Effective Field Theory formulation and computation. Finally, we make use of our validated result to provide gauge invariant relations among the binding energy, angular momentum, and orbital frequency of an inspiralling binary with generic compact spinning components to fourth post-Newtonian order, including all known sectors up to date.

  15. The statistical evaluation and comparison of ADMS-Urban model for the prediction of nitrogen dioxide with air quality monitoring network.

    PubMed

    Dėdelė, Audrius; Miškinytė, Auksė

    2015-09-01

    In many countries, road traffic is one of the main sources of air pollution associated with adverse effects on human health and environment. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is considered to be a measure of traffic-related air pollution, with concentrations tending to be higher near highways, along busy roads, and in the city centers, and the exceedances are mainly observed at measurement stations located close to traffic. In order to assess the air quality in the city and the air pollution impact on public health, air quality models are used. However, firstly, before the model can be used for these purposes, it is important to evaluate the accuracy of the dispersion modelling as one of the most widely used method. The monitoring and dispersion modelling are two components of air quality monitoring system (AQMS), in which statistical comparison was made in this research. The evaluation of the Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban) was made by comparing monthly modelled NO2 concentrations with the data of continuous air quality monitoring stations in Kaunas city. The statistical measures of model performance were calculated for annual and monthly concentrations of NO2 for each monitoring station site. The spatial analysis was made using geographic information systems (GIS). The calculation of statistical parameters indicated a good ADMS-Urban model performance for the prediction of NO2. The results of this study showed that the agreement of modelled values and observations was better for traffic monitoring stations compared to the background and residential stations.

  16. The HI absorption "Zoo"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geréb, K.; Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the H I 21 cm absorption in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S1.4 GHz> 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We detect H I absorption in 32 objects (30% of the sample). In a previous paper, we performed a spectral stacking analysis on the radio sources, while here we characterize the absorption spectra of the individual detections using the recently presented busy function. The H I absorption spectra show a broad variety of widths, shapes, and kinematical properties. The full width half maximum (FWHM) of the busy function fits of the detected H I lines lies in the range 32 km s-1absorption (FW20) lies in the range 63 km s-1 200 km s-1). We study the kinematical and radio source properties of each group, with the goal of identifying different morphological structures of H I. Narrow lines mostly lie at the systemic velocity and are likely produced by regularly rotating H I disks or gas clouds. More H I disks can be present among galaxies with lines of intermediate widths; however, the H I in these sources is more unsettled. We study the asymmetry parameter and blueshift/redshift distribution of the lines as a function of their width. We find a trend for which narrow profiles are also symmetric, while broad lines are the most asymmetric. Among the broadest lines, more lines appear blueshifted than redshifted, similarly to what was found by previous studies. Interestingly, symmetric broad lines are absent from the sample. We argue that if a profile is broad, it is also asymmetric and shifted relative to the systemic velocity because it is tracing unsettled H I gas. In particular, besides three of the broadest (up to FW20 = 825 km s-1

  17. Comparison of atmospheric nitrous acid measurements by annular denuder and differential optical absorption systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, B. R.; Winer, A. M.; Tokiwa, Y.; Biermann, H. W.

    As part of the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS), nitrous acid (HONO) measurements were made at Long Beach, CA during the period 11 November-12 December 1987, using two distinctly different techniqes. One of these, the annular denuder method (ADM), used two denuders in tandem, coated with an alkaline medium to obtain 4- or 6-h integrated measurements. A small FEP Tefloncoated glass cyclone preceded the denuders to exclude coarse particles while minimizing loss or artifactual formation of HONO. Nitrite recoveries from the rear denuder were used to correct for sampling artifacts. In the second method, 15 min average HONO concentrations were measured with a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) coupled to a 25 m basepath, open multiple reflection system operated at a total optical path of 800 m. Period-averaged HONO concentrations from the two techniques were highly correlated ( r = 0.94), with DOAS results averaging about 10% higher. However, ADM results were biased high at low HONO concentrations. HONO and NO concentrations showed a significant, positive correlation ( r = 0.8), consistent with a common emission source (e.g. auto exhaust) for the two pollutants.

  18. Atmospheric absorption cell characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    The measurement capability of the Avionics Laboratory IR Facility was used to evaluate an absorption cell that will be used to simulate atmospheric absorption over horizontal paths of 1 - 10 km in length. Band models were used to characterize the transmittance of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the cell. The measured transmittance was compared to the calculated values. Nitrous oxide is important in the 4 - 4.5 micron range in shaping the weak line absorption of carbon dioxide. The absorption cell is adequate for simulating atmospheric absorption over these paths.

  19. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  20. Top-of-Atmosphere Albedo Estimation from Angular Distribution Models using Scene Identification from Satellite Cloud Property Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Parol, F.; Buriez, J.-C.; Vanbauce, C.

    2000-01-01

    The next generation of Earth radiation budget satellite instruments will routinely merge estimates of global top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes with cloud properties. This information will offer many new opportunities for validating radiative transfer models and cloud parameterizations in climate models. In this study, five months of POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (POLDER) 670 nm radiance measurements are considered in order to examine how satellite cloud property retrievals can be used to define empirical Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) for estimating top-of-atmosphere (TOA) albedo. ADMs are defined for 19 scene types defined by satellite retrievals of cloud fraction and cloud optical depth. Two approaches are used to define the ADM scene types: The first assumes there are no biases in the retrieved cloud properties and defines ADMs for fixed discrete intervals of cloud fraction and cloud optical depth (fixed-tau approach). The second approach involves the same cloud fraction intervals, but uses percentile intervals of cloud optical depth instead (percentile-tau approach). Albedos generated using these methods are compared with albedos inferred directly from the mean observed reflectance field. Albedos based on ADMs that assume cloud properties are unbiased (fixed-tau approach) show a strong systematic dependence on viewing geometry. This dependence becomes more pronounced with increasing solar zenith angle, reaching approximately equals 12% (relative) between near-nadir and oblique viewing zenith angles for solar zenith angles between 60 deg and 70 deg. The cause for this bias is shown to be due to biases in the cloud optical depth retrievals. In contrast, albedos based on ADMs built using percentile intervals of cloud optical depth (percentile-tau approach) show very little viewing zenith angle dependence and are in good agreement with albedos obtained by direct integration of the mean observed reflectance field (less than 1

  1. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOEpatents

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  2. Rectal absorption of propylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Bartle, W R; Walker, S E; Silverberg, J D

    1988-06-01

    The rectal absorption of propylthiouracil (PTU) was studied and compared to oral absorption in normal volunteers. Plasma levels of PTU after administration of suppositories of PTU base and PTU diethanolamine were significantly lower compared to the oral route. Elevated plasma reverse T3 levels were demonstrated after each treatment, however, suggesting a desirable therapeutic effect at this dosage level for all preparations.

  3. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  4. Absorption-Line Studies of Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, J. Michael

    We propose to undertake a "reverberation analysis" of the variable absorption lines ill two Seyfert Galaxies (NGC 4051 and Mrk 279) to help understand the origin of intrinsic absorption lines in AGNs. Stich an analysis is a powerful tool for elucidating the radial distribution of absorbing gas in the broad-line region (BLR) and narrow-line region (NLR). Only two Seyferts have previously been studied with this technique: NGC 4151 (Bromage el al. 1985; Clavel et al. 1987) and NGC 3516 (Voit, Shull, and Begelman 1987). The absorption features have been interpreted as an outflow of ionized clouds from the nuclear region or from an accretion disk affected by UV/X-ray heating. Neither the source of the absorbing gas in these Seyferts nor the "gene" which distingishes them from other Seyferts is known. Until the 1984 onset of absorption in Mrk 279, broad self-absorbed. lines had been observed only in Seyferts of low intrinsic luminosity, such as NGC 4051. Mrk 279 is intrinsically much brighter, and therefore more quasar-like, than the other three absorptionline Seyfert I's in the CfA sample. Thus, it may show how the absorption phenomenon changes at higher luminosity and could bridge the gap between the low luminosity absorption-line Seyferts and the well-studied broad absorption-line (BAL) QSO's. In addition, Mrk 279's significant redshift will allow us to study, for the first time, the Ly-alpha line in an absorption-line Seyfert. With 3 US-1 shifts for each of these two underobserved Seyferts, we can double the number of objects in which absorption-line variability has been studied and investigate why the absorption-line strengths correlate or anti-correlate with the UV continuum.

  5. Quasar Absorption Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  6. EVALUATION OF MULTIPLE PHARMACOKINETIC MODELING STRUCTURES FOR TRICHLOROETHYLENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of PBPK models were developed for trichloroethylene (TCE) to evaluate biological processes that may affect the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of TCE and its metabolites.

  7. Infrasound absorption by atmospheric clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudoin, Michael; Coulouvrat, Francois; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2010-05-01

    A model is developed for the absorption of infrasound by atmospheric clouds made of a suspension of liquid water droplets within a gaseous mixture of water vapor and air. The model is based on the work of D.A. Gubaidullin and R.I. Nigmatulin [Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 26, 207-228, 2000], which is applied to atmospheric clouds. Three physical mechanisms are included : unsteady viscous drag associated with momentum transfers due to the translation of water droplets, unsteady thermal transfers between the liquid and gaseous phases, and mass transfers due to the evaporation or condensation of the water phase. For clouds, in the infrasonic frequency range, phase changes are the dominant mechanisms (around 1 Hz), while viscous and heat transfers become significant only around 100 Hz. Mass transfers involve two physical effects : evaporation and condensation of the water phase at the droplet surface, and diffusion of the water vapor within the gaseous phase. The first one is described through the Hertz-Knudsen-Langmuir theory based on kinetic theory. It involves a little known coefficient known as coefficient of accommodation. The second one is the classical Fick diffusion. For clouds, and unless the coefficient of accommodation is very small (far from the generally recommended value is close to one), diffusion is the main limiting effects for mass transfers. In a second stage, the sound and infrasound absorption is evaluated for various typical clouds up to about 4 km altitude. Above this altitude, the ice content of clouds is dominant compared to their water content, and the present model is not applicable. Cloud thickness, water content, and droplets size distribution are shown to be the major factors influencing the infrasound absorption. A variety of clouds have been analyzed. In most cases, it is shown that infrasound absorption within clouds is several orders larger than classical absorption (due to molecular relaxation of nitrogen and oxygen molecules in presence

  8. Estimation of molar absorptivities and pigment sizes for eumelanin and pheomelanin using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piletic, Ivan R.; Matthews, Thomas E.; Warren, Warren S.

    2009-11-01

    Fundamental optical and structural properties of melanins are not well understood due to their poor solubility characteristics and the chemical disorder present during biomolecular synthesis. We apply nonlinear transient absorption spectroscopy to quantify molar absorptivities for eumelanin and pheomelanin and thereby get an estimate for their average pigment sizes. We determine that pheomelanin exhibits a larger molar absorptivity at near IR wavelengths (750nm), which may be extended to shorter wavelengths. Using the molar absorptivities, we estimate that melanin pigments contain ˜46 and 28 monomer units for eumelanin and pheomelanin, respectively. This is considerably larger than the oligomeric species that have been recently proposed to account for the absorption spectrum of eumelanin and illustrates that larger pigments comprise a significant fraction of the pigment distribution.

  9. Estimation of molar absorptivities and pigment sizes for eumelanin and pheomelanin using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Piletic, Ivan R; Matthews, Thomas E; Warren, Warren S

    2009-11-14

    Fundamental optical and structural properties of melanins are not well understood due to their poor solubility characteristics and the chemical disorder present during biomolecular synthesis. We apply nonlinear transient absorption spectroscopy to quantify molar absorptivities for eumelanin and pheomelanin and thereby get an estimate for their average pigment sizes. We determine that pheomelanin exhibits a larger molar absorptivity at near IR wavelengths (750 nm), which may be extended to shorter wavelengths. Using the molar absorptivities, we estimate that melanin pigments contain approximately 46 and 28 monomer units for eumelanin and pheomelanin, respectively. This is considerably larger than the oligomeric species that have been recently proposed to account for the absorption spectrum of eumelanin and illustrates that larger pigments comprise a significant fraction of the pigment distribution.

  10. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  11. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  12. Soliton absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kalashnikov, V. L.; Sorokin, E.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze optical soliton propagation in the presence of weak absorption lines with much narrower linewidths as compared to the soliton spectrum width using the novel perturbation analysis technique based on an integral representation in the spectral domain. The stable soliton acquires spectral modulation that follows the associated index of refraction of the absorber. The model can be applied to ordinary soliton propagation and to an absorber inside a passively modelocked laser. In the latter case, a comparison with water vapor absorption in a femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser yields a very good agreement with experiment. Compared to the conventional absorption measurement in a cell of the same length, the signal is increased by an order of magnitude. The obtained analytical expressions allow further improving of the sensitivity and spectroscopic accuracy making the soliton absorption spectroscopy a promising novel measurement technique. PMID:21151755

  13. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  14. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Morton, Richard G.; Sawicki, Richard H.; Bissinger, Horst D.

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  15. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  16. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOEpatents

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  17. Intranasal absorption of oxymorphone.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M A; Aungst, B J

    1997-08-01

    The nasal bioavailability of oxymorphone HCI was determined. Rats were surgically prepared to isolate the nasal cavity, into which a solution of oxymorphone was administered. A reference group of rats was administered oxymorphone HCl intravenously. Plasma oxymorphone concentrations were determined by HPLC. Nasal absorption was rapid, nasal bioavailability was 43%, and the iv and nasal elimination profiles were similar. Oxymorphone HCI appears to have the solubility, potency, and absorption properties required for efficient nasal delivery, which is an alternative to injections.

  18. Opto-acoustic measurement of the local light absorption coefficient in turbid media: 1. Monte-Carlo simulation of laser fluence distribution at the beam axis beneath the surface of a turbid medium

    SciTech Connect

    Pelivanov, Ivan M; Barskaya, M I; Podymova, N B; Khokhlova, Tanya D; Karabutov, Aleksander A

    2009-09-30

    A new method for measuring the local light absorption coefficient in turbid media, for example, biological tissues, is proposed. The method is based on the fact that the amplitude of the excited opto-acoustic (OA) signal is proportional to the absorbed laser power density (the product of the light absorption coefficient and the laser fluence) at the medium interface. In the first part of the paper, the influence of the laser beam diameter, the light absorption and reduced scattering coefficients on the maximal amplitude of the laser fluence at the laser beam axis in the near-surface layer of the turbid medium is studied by using the Monte-Carlo simulation. The conditions are predicted under which the amplitude of the OA signal detected in a transparent medium in contact with the scattering medium should remain proportional to the light absorption coefficient of the medium under study, when the scattering coefficient in it changes more than twice. The results of the numerical simulation are used for the theoretical substantiation of the OA method being proposed. (measurement of parametrs of laser radiation)

  19. Pharmacokinetics, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of Omadacycline following a Single Intravenous or Oral Dose of 14C-Omadacycline in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen; Flarakos, Jimmy; Du, Yancy; Hu, Wenyu; He, Handan; Mangold, James; Tanaka, S. Ken

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of omadacycline, a first-in-class aminomethylcycline antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, anaerobic, and atypical bacteria, were evaluated in rats. Tissue distribution was investigated by quantitative whole-body autoradiography in male Long-Evans Hooded (LEH) rats. Following an intravenous (i.v.) dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight, radioactivity widely and rapidly distributed into most tissues. The highest tissue-to-blood concentration ratios (t/b) were observed in bone mineral, thyroid gland, and Harderian gland at 24 h post-i.v. dose. There was no evidence of stable accumulation in uveal tract tissue, suggesting the absence of a stable binding interaction with melanin. Following a 90 mg/kg oral dose in LEH rats, the highest t/b were observed in bone mineral, Harderian gland, liver, spleen, and salivary gland. The plasma protein binding levels were 26% in the rat and 15% to 21% in other species. Omadacycline plasma clearance was 1.2 liters/h/kg, and its half-life was 4.6 h; the steady-state volume of distribution (Vss) was 6.89 liters/kg. Major circulating components in plasma were intact omadacycline and its epimer. Consistent with observations in human, approximately 80% of the dose was excreted into the feces as unchanged omadacycline after i.v. administration. Fecal excretion was primarily the result of biliary excretion (∼40%) and direct gastrointestinal secretion (∼30%). However, urinary excretion (∼30%) was equally prominent after i.v. dosing. PMID:27821446

  20. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  1. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOEpatents

    DeVault, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.

    1989-01-01

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  2. A catalogue of absorption-line systems in QSO spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabinkov, A. I.; Kaminker, A. D.; Varshalovich, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    We present a new catalog of absorption-line systems identified in the quasar spectra. It contains data on 821 QSOs and 8558 absorption systems comprising 16 139 absorption lines with measured redshifts in the QSO spectra. The catalog includes absorption-line systems consisting of lines of heavy elements, lines of neutral hydrogen, Lyman limit systems, damped Lyα absorption systems, and broad absorption-line systems. Using the data of the present catalog we also discuss redshift distributions of absorption-line systems. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/412/707

  3. Calculation of laser absorption by metal powders in additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Boley, C D; Khairallah, S A; Rubenchik, A M

    2015-03-20

    We have calculated the absorption of laser light by a powder of metal spheres, typical of the powder employed in laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing. Using ray-trace simulations, we show that the absorption is significantly larger than its value for normal incidence on a flat surface, due to multiple scattering. We investigate the dependence of absorption on powder content (material, size distribution, and geometry) and on beam size.

  4. Less increase of copeptin and MR-proADM due to intervention with selenium and coenzyme Q10 combined: Results from a 4-year prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among elderly Swedish citizens.

    PubMed

    Alehagen, Urban; Aaseth, Jan; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Intervention with selenium and coenzyme Q10 have recently been found to reduce mortality and increase cardiac function. The mechanisms behind these effects are unclear. As selenium and coenzyme Q10 is involved in the anti-oxidative defence, the present study aimed to evaluate effects of selenium and coenzyme Q10 on copeptin and adrenomedullin as oxidative stress biomarkers. Therefore 437 elderly individuals were included and given intervention for 4 years. Clinical examination and blood samples were undertaken at start and after 18 and 48 months. Evaluations of copeptin and MR-proADM changes were performed using repeated measures of variance. Cardiovascular mortality was evaluated using a 10-year-period of follow-up, and presented in Kaplan-Meier plots. A significant increase in copeptin level could be seen in the placebo group during the intervention period (from 9.4 pmol/L to 15.3 pmol/L), compared to the active treatment group. The difference between the groups was confirmed in the repeated measurement of variance analyses (P = 0.031) with less copeptin increase in the active treatment group. Furthermore, active treatment appeared to protect against cardiovascular death both in those with high and with low copeptin levels at inclusion. Less increase of MR-proADM could also be seen during the intervention in the active treatment group compared to controls (P = 0.026). Both in those having an MR-proADM level above or below median level, significantly less cardiovascular mortality could be seen in the active treatment group (P = 0.0001, and P = 0.04 respectively). In conclusion supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 during four years resulted in less concentration of both copeptin and MR-proADM. A cardioprotective effect of the supplementation was registered, irrespective of the initial levels of these biomarkers, and this protection was recognized also after 10 years of observation.

  5. A study of the atmospheric dispersion of a high release of krypton-85 above a complex coastal terrain, comparison with the predictions of Gaussian models (Briggs, Doury, ADMS4).

    PubMed

    Leroy, C; Maro, D; Hébert, D; Solier, L; Rozet, M; Le Cavelier, S; Connan, O

    2010-11-01

    Atmospheric releases of krypton-85, from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the AREVA NC facility at La Hague (France), were used to test Gaussian models of dispersion. In 2001-2002, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) studied the atmospheric dispersion of 15 releases, using krypton-85 as a tracer for plumes emitted from two 100-m-high stacks. Krypton-85 is a chemically inert radionuclide. Krypton-85 air concentration measurements were performed on the ground in the downwind direction, at distances between 0.36 and 3.3 km from the release, by neutral or slightly unstable atmospheric conditions. The standard deviation for the horizontal dispersion of the plume and the Atmospheric Transfer Coefficient (ATC) were determined from these measurements. The experimental results were compared with calculations using first generation (Doury, Briggs) and second generation (ADMS 4.0) Gaussian models. The ADMS 4.0 model was used in two configurations; one takes account of the effect of the built-up area, and the other the effect of the roughness of the surface on the plume dispersion. Only the Briggs model correctly reproduced the measured values for the width of the plume, whereas the ADMS 4.0 model overestimated it and the Doury model underestimated it. The agreement of the models with measured values of the ATC varied according to distance from the release point. For distances less than 2 km from the release point, the ADMS 4.0 model achieved the best agreement between model and measurement; beyond this distance, the best agreement was achieved by the Briggs and Doury models.

  6. Efficient one-pot synthesis, molecular docking and in silico ADME prediction of bis-(4-hydroxycoumarin-3-yl) methane derivatives as antileishmanial agents

    PubMed Central

    Zaheer, Zahid; Khan, Firoz A. Kalam; Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N.; Patil, Rajendra H.

    2015-01-01

    Bis-(4-hydroxycoumarin-3-yl) methane derivatives 3(a-l) were synthesized from 4-hydroxycoumarin and substituted aromatic aldehydes using succinimide-N-sulfonic acid as catalyst and evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial activity against promastigotes form of Leishmania donovani. Compounds 3a (IC50= 155 μg/mL), 3g (IC50= 157.5 μg/mL) and 3l (IC50= 150 μg/mL) were shown significant antileishmanial activity when compared with standard sodium stibogluconate (IC50= 490 μg/mL). Also, synthesized compounds 3(a-l) did not show cytotoxicity against HeLa cell line upto tested concentrations. Further, molecular docking study against Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase of Leishmania donovani showed good binding interactions. ADME properties were analyzed and showed good oral drug candidate like properties. The synthesized compounds were also shown good drug likeness and drug score values when compared with drugs currently used in therapy. The present study has helped us in identifying a new lead that could be exploited as a potential antileishmanial agent. PMID:26839526

  7. Modelling the anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste - Substrate characterisation method for ADM1 using a combined biochemical and kinetic parameter estimation approach.

    PubMed

    Poggio, D; Walker, M; Nimmo, W; Ma, L; Pourkashanian, M

    2016-07-01

    This work proposes a novel and rigorous substrate characterisation methodology to be used with ADM1 to simulate the anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste. The proposed method uses data from both direct substrate analysis and the methane production from laboratory scale anaerobic digestion experiments and involves assessment of four substrate fractionation models. The models partition the organic matter into a mixture of particulate and soluble fractions with the decision on the most suitable model being made on quality of fit between experimental and simulated data and the uncertainty of the calibrated parameters. The method was tested using samples of domestic green and food waste and using experimental data from both short batch tests and longer semi-continuous trials. The results showed that in general an increased fractionation model complexity led to better fit but with increased uncertainty. When using batch test data the most suitable model for green waste included one particulate and one soluble fraction, whereas for food waste two particulate fractions were needed. With richer semi-continuous datasets, the parameter estimation resulted in less uncertainty therefore allowing the description of the substrate with a more complex model. The resulting substrate characterisations and fractionation models obtained from batch test data, for both waste samples, were used to validate the method using semi-continuous experimental data and showed good prediction of methane production, biogas composition, total and volatile solids, ammonia and alkalinity.

  8. Novel amalgamation of phthalazine-quinolines as biofilm inhibitors: One-pot synthesis, biological evaluation and in silico ADME prediction with favorable metabolic fate.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Zahid; Khan, Firoz A Kalam; Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N; Patil, Rajendra H; Lohar, K S

    2016-04-01

    A facile and highly efficient one-pot synthesis of phthalazine-quinoline derivatives is reported via four component reaction of phthalic anhydride, hydrazine hydrate, 5,5-dimethyl 1,3 cyclohexanedione and various quinoline aldehydes using PrxCoFe2-xO4 (x=0.1) nanoparticles as a catalyst. The synthesized compounds have been evaluated for anti-biofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The compounds 12a (IC50=30.0μM) and 12f (IC50=34.5μM) had shown promising anti-biofilm activity against P. aeruginosa and C. albicans, respectively, when compared with standards without affecting the growth of cells (and thus behave as anti-quorum sensing agents). Compounds 12a (MIC=45.0μg/mL) and 12f (MIC=57.5μg/mL) showed significant potent antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and C. albicans, respectively. Thus, the active derivatives were not only potent biofilm inhibitors but also efficient antimicrobial agents. In silico ADME and metabolic site prediction studies were also held out to set an effective lead candidate for the future antimicrobial drug discovery initiatives.

  9. A search for intervening HI absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Sarah N.; Sadler, Elaine M.; Allison, James R.; Koribalski, Baerbel S.; Curran, Stephen J.

    2013-03-01

    HI absorption-line studies provide a unique probe of the gas distribution and kinematics in galaxies well beyond the local universe (z ≳ 0.3). HI absorption-line surveys with next-generation radio telescopes will provide the first large-scale studies of HI in a redshift regime which is poorly understood. However, we currently lack the understanding to infer galaxy properties from absorption-line observations alone. To address this issue, we are conducting a search for intervening HI absorption in a sample of 20 nearby galaxies. Our aim is to investigate how the detection rate varies with distance from the galaxy. We target sight-lines to bright continuum sources, which intercept known gas-rich galaxies, selected from the HIPASS Bright Galaxy Catalogue (Koribalski et al. 2004). In our pilot sample, six galaxies with impact parameters < 20 kpc, we do not detect any absorption lines - although all are detected in 21cm emission. This indicates that an absorption non-detection cannot simply be interpreted as an absence of neutral gas - see Fig. 1. Our detection rate is low compared to previous surveys e.g. Gupta et al. (2010). This is, at least partially, due to the high resolution of the observations reducing the flux of the background source, which will also be an issue in future surveys, such as ASKAP-FLASH.

  10. Conception, realization and qualification of a radioactive clean room lab facility dedicated to the synthesis of radiolabeled API for human ADME studies.

    PubMed

    Loewe, Claudia; Atzrodt, Jens; Reschke, Kai; Schofield, Joe

    2016-12-01

    The human absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination study administering radiolabeled drugs to human volunteers is an important clinical study in the development program of new drug candidates. The manufacture of radiolabeled Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients is covered by national drug laws and may come within the scope of regulatory GMP requirements. Additionally, authorities may request an appropriate environmental zoning to minimize the risk of microbiological contaminations particularly during the synthesis of radiolabeled Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients intended for parenteral application. Thus, a radioactive clean room lab facility in line with both GMP and radiation safety regulations was installed and the environmental zoning validated by appropriate testing of technical parameters and microbial and particle monitoring. The considerations detailed in this paper cover only GMP aspects related to the synthesis of radioactive drug substance. The subsequent, final formulation step in the overall process for manufacturing of radioactive drug product for any kind of administration is not within the scope of this paper. Under these qualified and controlled environmental conditions, we are now in a position to provide radiolabeled drug substances for all kinds of drug administration including both po and iv.

  11. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  12. Absorption Heat Pump Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, Yoshifumi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Various advanced absorption cycles are studied, developed and invented. In this paper, their cycles are classified and arranged using the three categories: effect, stage and loop, then an outline of the cycles are explained on the Duehring diagram. Their cycles include high COP cycles for refrigerations and heat pumps, high temperature lift cycles for heat transformer, absorption-compression hybrid cycles and heat pump transformer cycle. The highest COPi is attained by the seven effect cycle. In addition, the cycles for low temperature are invented and explained. Furthermore the power generation • refrigeration cycles are illustrated.

  13. Beta Absorption Mass Monitoring of Particulates - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilienfeld, Pedro

    1971-01-01

    The theory and application of beta-radiation absorption for the measurement and monitoring of airborne particulates are discussed. The use of this technique, both for source testing and for ambient air quality monitoring is reviewed. Various particle collection methods used in conjunction with beta absorption sensing configurations are considered. State of the art and current developments of instrumentation approaches for the automated measurement of mass concentration and size distribution of aerosols by beta absorption are discussed. Methods for electronic signal processing and recording are presented. The Beta absorption technique appears as a powerful tool for the unattended measurement of the mass of particulate pollution, compatible with telemetry and central data processing methods.

  14. Two-Phonon Absorption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, M. W.

    2007-01-01

    A nonlinear aspect of the acousto-optic interaction that is analogous to multi-photon absorption is discussed. An experiment is described in which the second-order acousto-optically scattered intensity is measured and found to scale with the square of the acoustic intensity. This experiment using a commercially available acousto-optic modulator is…

  15. Water-related absorption in fibrous diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedgenizov, D. A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Kagi, H.; Navon, O.

    2003-04-01

    Cubic and coated diamonds from several localities (Brasil, Canada, Yakutia) were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. Special emphasis was put on investigation of water-related features of transmission Infra-red and Raman spectra. Presence of molecular water is inferred from broad absorption bands in IR at 3420 and 1640 cm-1. These bands were observed in many of the investigated samples. It is likely that molecular water is present in microinclusions in liquid state, since no clear indications of solid H_2O (ice VI-VII, Kagi et al., 2000) were found. Comparison of absorption by HOH and OH vibrations shows that diamonds can be separated into two principal groups: those containing liquid water (direct proportionality of OH and HOH absorption) and those with stronger absorption by OH group. Fraction of diamonds in every group depends on their provenance. There might be positive correlation between internal pressure in microinclusions (determined using quartz barometer, Navon et al., 1988) and affiliation with diamonds containing liquid water. In many cases absorption by HOH vibration is considerably lower than absorption by hydroxyl (OH) group. This may be explained if OH groups are partially present in mineral and/or melt inclusions. This hypothesis is supported by following fact: in diamonds with strong absorption by silicates and other minerals shape and position of the OH band differs from that in diamonds with low absorption by minerals. Moreover, in Raman spectra of individual inclusions sometimes the broad band at 3100 cm-1 is observed. This band is OH-related. In some samples water distribution is not homogeneous. Central part of the diamond usually contains more water than outer parts, but this is not a general rule for all the samples. Water absorption usually correlated with absorption of other components (carbonates, silicates and others). At that fibrous diamonds with relatively high content of silicates are characterized by molecular water. OH

  16. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  17. Quantum absorption refrigerator.

    PubMed

    Levy, Amikam; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2012-02-17

    A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold, and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified; the cooling power J(c) vanishes as J(c) ∝ T(c)(α), when T(c)→0, where α=d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

  18. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, D. C.; Labonte, B. J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity.

  19. Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part 1; Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Smith, N. M.; Kato, S.; Miller, W. F.; Gupta, S. K.; Minnis, P.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2003-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) investigates the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth-atmosphere system. CERES builds upon the foundation laid by previous missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, to provide highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties inferred from high-resolution imager measurements. This paper describes the method used to construct empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) for estimating shortwave, longwave, and window TOA radiative fluxes from CERES radiance measurements on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. To construct the ADMs, multiangle CERES measurements are combined with coincident high-resolution Visible Infrared Scanner measurements and meteorological parameters from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data assimilation product. The ADMs are stratified by scene types defined by parameters that have a strong influence on the angular dependence of Earth's radiation field at the TOA. Examples of how the new CERES ADMs depend upon the imager-based parameters are provided together with comparisons with existing models.

  20. Bioacoustic Absorption Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    seas in co-operation with fisheries biologists. The first planned experiment will be in the seas off California in co-operation with the Southwest... Fisheries Science Center of NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service. These experiments will be designed to investigate the “signatures” of the two major...formulating environmental adaptation strategies for tactical sonars. Fisheries applications: These results suggest that bioacoustic absorptivity can be used to

  1. Vehicular impact absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoell, A. C.; Wilson, A. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved vehicular impact absorption system characterized by a plurality of aligned crash cushions of substantially cubic configuration is described. Each consists of a plurality of voided aluminum beverage cans arranged in substantial parallelism within a plurality of superimposed tiers and a covering envelope formed of metal hardware cloth. A plurality of cables is extended through the cushions in substantial parallelism with an axis of alignment for the cushions adapted to be anchored at each of the opposite end thereof.

  2. Hydrogen Absorption by Niobium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-13

    incorporate an independent means for ascertaining surface cleanliness (e.g. AES). The form of the absorption curve in Fig. 7 appears to agree with that...very interesting study and is well within the capabilities of the systen designed, if the surface cleanliness can be assured. Wire specimens have a...assessing surface cleanliness would be an important supporting technique for understanding the results of these measurements. The simple kinetic

  3. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, b

    2004-01-28

    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  4. Comparison of ground-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and satellite DOAS measurements of NO2 distribution over Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia) during summer 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnke, Sebastian; Behrendt, Thomas; Bruse, Michael; Meixner, Franz X.; Mamtimin, Buhalqem

    2014-05-01

    Cities are immense sources of air pollutants; however, emission inventories in many of them still are highly uncertain, particularly in developing countries. Ulaanbaatar is the most populous and polluted area in Mongolia. Tropospheric NO2 is proved to be harmful to both, the atmospheric environment and human health. It might be meaningful and important to observe pollutant concentrations in an area-integrated form (satellite observations) to create a sound data basis for air quality control measures. In our study, we preliminary present the results of both satellite and ground-based Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of vertical column densities (VCDs) of NO2 in Ulaanbaatar (urban area). As a ground validation tool, the MAX-DOAS measurements carried out in Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia) summer 2013 and are applied at 3 different sites in the west of Ulaanbaatar (106.73° E / 47.83° N), the city center (106.92° E / 47.92° N) and in the east (107.12° E / 47.87° N). Additionally, Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) have been set up and ozone was measured by UV absorption technique also at the 3 sites. Preliminary results show that the NO2 column densities increase during sunset and decrease after sunrise, which is most likely caused by a longer light path resulting from high solar zenith angles (SZA). The maximum DSCDs (Differential Slant Column Densities) are observed around sunset and sunrise (up to 10^17 molec cm-², mainly a measurement effect as stated above). The daily minima of the vertical column densities (VCD) appear in the morning and in the afternoon (DSCD ~2×10^15 molec cm-²) while, around noon, a second maximum can be observed (DSCD ~4×10^16 molec cm-²). Satellite data show mean VCDs of about 3×10^15 molec cm-² in July and a varying agreement with MAX-DOAS measurements.

  5. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  6. Acoustic Absorption Characteristics of People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, H. F.; Wallace, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    The acoustic absorption characteristics of informally dressed college students in typical classroom seating are shown to differ substantially from data for formally dressed audiences in upholstered seating. Absorption data, expressed as sabins per person or absorption coefficient per square foot, shows that there is considerable variation between…

  7. An evaluation of biosurveillance grid--dynamic algorithm distribution across multiple computer nodes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Chi; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Wagner, Michael M

    2007-10-11

    Performing fast data analysis to detect disease outbreaks plays a critical role in real-time biosurveillance. In this paper, we described and evaluated an Algorithm Distribution Manager Service (ADMS) based on grid technologies, which dynamically partition and distribute detection algorithms across multiple computers. We compared the execution time to perform the analysis on a single computer and on a grid network (3 computing nodes) with and without using dynamic algorithm distribution. We found that algorithms with long runtime completed approximately three times earlier in distributed environment than in a single computer while short runtime algorithms performed worse in distributed environment. A dynamic algorithm distribution approach also performed better than static algorithm distribution approach. This pilot study shows a great potential to reduce lengthy analysis time through dynamic algorithm partitioning and parallel processing, and provides the opportunity of distributing algorithms from a client to remote computers in a grid network.

  8. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, Michael E.; Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.

    1986-01-01

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined.

  9. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOEpatents

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  10. Modular total absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Fijałkowska, A.; Rasco, B. C.; Wolińska-Cichocka, M.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Goetz, K. C.; Miller, D.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2016-11-01

    The design and performance of the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer built and commissioned at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The active volume of the detector is approximately one ton of NaI(Tl), which results in very high full γ energy peak efficiency of 71% at 6 MeV and nearly flat efficiency of around 81.5% for low energy γ-rays between 300 keV and 1 MeV. In addition to the high peak efficiency, the modular construction of the detector permits the use of a γ-coincidence technique in data analysis as well as β-delayed neutron observation.

  11. Models of isospin violating ADM

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Nobuchika; Seto, Osamu

    2014-06-24

    The isospin violating dark matter (IVDM) scenario offers an interesting possibility to reconcile conflicting results among direct dark matter search experiments for a mass range around 10 GeV. We consider two simple renormalizable IVDM models with a complex scalar dark matter and a Dirac fermion dark matter, respectively, whose stability is ensured by the conservation of “dark matter number.” Although both models successfully work as the IVDM scenario with destructive interference between effective couplings to proton and neutron, the dark matter annihilation cross section is found to exceed the cosmological/astrophysical upper bounds. Then, we propose a simple scenario to reconcile the IVDM scenario with the cosmological/astrophysical bounds, namely, the IVDM being asymmetric. We also discuss collider experimental constraints on the models and an implication to Higgs boson physics.

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of detwinned Pr{sub x}Y{sub 1{minus}x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}y} single crystals: Electronic structure and hole distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, M.; Nuecker, N.; Pellegrin, E.; Schweiss, P.; Schuppler, S.; Kielwein, M.; Knupfer, M.; Golden, M.S.; Fink, J.; Chen, C.T.; Chakarian, V.; Idzerda, Y.U.; Erb, A.

    1997-04-01

    Substituting Y in orthorhombic (Y,R)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} by any rare-earth element R has generally little effect on the superconducting properties. For R=Pr, however, superconductivity is completely suppressed. To understand this effect we have studied the unoccupied electronic structure of Pr{sub x}Y{sub 1{minus}x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}y} (x=0.0, 0.4, 0.8) using polarization-dependent O 1s near-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy of detwinned single crystals. We identify the hole states in the CuO{sub 2} planes and the CuO{sub 3} chains and give estimates of the relative contributions of the O 2p{sub x}, O 2p{sub y}, and O 2p{sub z} orbitals to these states. Along with the comparison of oxygen-rich (y{approx}0.1) to the oxygen-depleted materials (y{approx}0.9), this allows a test of the current theoretical explanations for the Pr-induced suppression of superconductivity. While we can rule out models involving hole filling or charge transfer between the planes and the chains, our data are consistent with approaches based on Pr 4f{endash}O 2p{sub {pi}} hybridization. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Effect of partial absorption on diffusion with resetting.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Justin; Evans, Martin R; Majumdar, Satya N

    2013-02-01

    The effect of partial absorption on a diffusive particle which stochastically resets its position with a finite rate r is considered. The particle is absorbed by a target at the origin with absorption "velocity" a; as the velocity a approaches ∞ the absorption property of the target approaches that of a perfectly absorbing target. The effect of partial absorption on first-passage time problems is studied, in particular, it is shown that the mean time to absorption (MTA) is increased by an additive term proportional to 1/a. The results are extended to multiparticle systems where independent searchers, initially uniformly distributed with a given density, look for a single immobile target. It is found that the average survival probability P(av) is modified by a multiplicative factor which is a function of 1/a, whereas the decay rate of the typical survival probability P(typ) is decreased by an additive term proportional to 1/a.

  14. Effect of partial absorption on diffusion with resetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, Justin; Evans, Martin R.; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2013-02-01

    The effect of partial absorption on a diffusive particle which stochastically resets its position with a finite rate r is considered. The particle is absorbed by a target at the origin with absorption “velocity” a; as the velocity a approaches ∞ the absorption property of the target approaches that of a perfectly absorbing target. The effect of partial absorption on first-passage time problems is studied, in particular, it is shown that the mean time to absorption (MTA) is increased by an additive term proportional to 1/a. The results are extended to multiparticle systems where independent searchers, initially uniformly distributed with a given density, look for a single immobile target. It is found that the average survival probability Pav is modified by a multiplicative factor which is a function of 1/a, whereas the decay rate of the typical survival probability Ptyp is decreased by an additive term proportional to 1/a.

  15. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  16. Differential optoacoustic absorption detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumate, M. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A differential optoacoustic absorption detector employed two tapered cells in tandem or in parallel. When operated in tandem, two mirrors were used at one end remote from the source of the beam of light directed into one cell back through the other, and a lens to focus the light beam into the one cell at a principal focus half way between the reflecting mirror. Each cell was tapered to conform to the shape of the beam so that the volume of one was the same as for the other, and the volume of each received maximum illumination. The axes of the cells were placed as close to each other as possible in order to connect a differential pressure detector to the cells with connecting passages of minimum length. An alternative arrangement employed a beam splitter and two lenses to operate the cells in parallel.

  17. Two absorption furosemide prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Mombrú, A W; Mariezcurrena, R A; Suescun, L; Pardo, H; Manta, E; Prandi, C

    1999-03-15

    The structures of two absorption furosemide prodrugs, hexanoyloxymethyl 4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoyl-anthranilate (C19H23CIN2O7S), (I), and benzoyloxymethyl 4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoylanthranilate (C20H17CIN2O7S), (II), are described in this paper and compared with furosemide and four other prodrugs. The molecular conformations of both compounds are similar to those of the other prodrugs; the packing and the crystal system are the primary differences. Compound (I) crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3 and compound (II) in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n. The packing of both structures is stabilized by a three-dimensional hydrogen-bond network.

  18. Flameless atomic-absorption determination of gold in geological materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Gold in geologic material is dissolved using a solution of hydrobromic acid and bromine, extracted with methyl isobutyl ketone, and determined using an atomic-absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a graphite furnace atomizer. A comparison of results obtained by this flameless atomic-absorption method on U.S. Geological Survey reference rocks and geochemical samples with reported values and with results obtained by flame atomic-absorption shows that reasonable accuracy is achieved with improved precision. The sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the method allows acquisition of data on the distribution of gold at or below its crustal abundance. ?? 1980.

  19. Importance of the green color, absorption gradient, and spectral absorption of chloroplasts for the radiative energy balance of leaves.

    PubMed

    Kume, Atsushi

    2017-03-14

    Terrestrial green plants absorb photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) but do not absorb photons evenly across the PAR waveband. The spectral absorbance of photosystems and chloroplasts is lowest for green light, which occurs within the highest irradiance waveband of direct solar radiation. We demonstrate a close relationship between this phenomenon and the safe and efficient utilization of direct solar radiation in simple biophysiological models. The effects of spectral absorptance on the photon and irradiance absorption processes are evaluated using the spectra of direct and diffuse solar radiation. The radiation absorption of a leaf arises as a consequence of the absorption of chloroplasts. The photon absorption of chloroplasts is strongly dependent on the distribution of pigment concentrations and their absorbance spectra. While chloroplast movements in response to light are important mechanisms controlling PAR absorption, they are not effective for green light because chloroplasts have the lowest spectral absorptance in the waveband. With the development of palisade tissue, the incident photons per total palisade cell surface area and the absorbed photons per chloroplast decrease. The spectral absorbance of carotenoids is effective in eliminating shortwave PAR (<520 nm), which contains much of the surplus energy that is not used for photosynthesis and is dissipated as heat. The PAR absorptance of a whole leaf shows no substantial difference based on the spectra of direct or diffuse solar radiation. However, most of the near infrared radiation is unabsorbed and heat stress is greatly reduced. The incident solar radiation is too strong to be utilized for photosynthesis under the current CO2 concentration in the terrestrial environment. Therefore, the photon absorption of a whole leaf is efficiently regulated by photosynthetic pigments with low spectral absorptance in the highest irradiance waveband and through a combination of pigment density

  20. Use of qualitative environmental and phenotypic variables in the context of allele distribution models: detecting signatures of selection in the genome of Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    Joost, Stéphane; Kalbermatten, Michael; Bezault, Etienne; Seehausen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    When searching for loci possibly under selection in the genome, an alternative to population genetics theoretical models is to establish allele distribution models (ADM) for each locus to directly correlate allelic frequencies and environmental variables such as precipitation, temperature, or sun radiation. Such an approach implementing multiple logistic regression models in parallel was implemented within a computing program named MATSAM: . Recently, this application was improved in order to support qualitative environmental predictors as well as to permit the identification of associations between genomic variation and individual phenotypes, allowing the detection of loci involved in the genetic architecture of polymorphic characters. Here, we present the corresponding methodological developments and compare the results produced by software implementing population genetics theoretical models (DFDIST: and BAYESCAN: ) and ADM (MATSAM: ) in an empirical context to detect signatures of genomic divergence associated with speciation in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

  1. AGN warm absorption with the ATHENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różańska, Agata; Gronkiewicz, Dominik; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof; Adhikari, Tek Prasad; Rataj, Mirosław; Skup, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    X-ray astronomy requires satellites to make progress in searching the distribution of hot matter in the Universe. Approximately 15 years period of time is needed for full construction of the flight instrument from the mission concept up to the launch. A new generation X-ray telescope ATHENA (the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) was approved by European Space Agency as a large mission with a launch foreseen in 2028. In this paper we show how microcalorimeter on the board of ATHENA will help us to study warm absorption observed in active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that future observations will allow us to identify hundreds of lines from highly ionized elements and to measure Galactic warm absorption with very high precision.

  2. Graphite filter atomizer in atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katskov, Dmitri A.

    2007-09-01

    Graphite filter atomizers (GFA) for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) show substantial advantages over commonly employed electrothermal vaporizers and atomizers, tube and platform furnaces, for direct determination of high and medium volatility elements in matrices associated with strong spectral and chemical interferences. Two factors provide lower limits of detection and shorter determination cycles with the GFA: the vaporization area in the GFA is separated from the absorption volume by a porous graphite partition; the sample is distributed over a large surface of a collector in the vaporization area. These factors convert the GFA into an efficient chemical reactor. The research concerning the GFA concept, technique and analytical methodology, carried out mainly in the author's laboratory in Russia and South Africa, is reviewed. Examples of analytical applications of the GFA in AAS for analysis of organic liquids and slurries, bio-samples and food products are given. Future prospects for the GFA are discussed in connection with analyses by fast multi-element AAS.

  3. Absorption of impinging water droplet in porous stones.

    PubMed

    Lee, J B; Radu, A I; Vontobel, P; Derome, D; Carmeliet, J

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation and numerical analysis of the absorption of water droplets impacting porous stones. The absorption process of an impinging droplet is here fully characterized from spreading to evaporation in terms of absorbed mass during droplet depletion and moisture content distribution in a time-resolved manner for three different natural stones. High-speed imaging and neutron radiography are used to quantify moisture absorption in porous stones of varying moisture properties from deposition until depletion. During impact and spreading, the droplet exhibits a dynamic non-wetting behavior. At maximum spreading, the droplet undergoes pinning, resulting into the contact radius remaining constant until droplet depletion. Absorption undergoes two phases: initially, absorption is hindered due a contact resistance attributed to entrapped air; afterwards, a more perfect capillary contact occurs and absorption goes on until depletion, concurrently with evaporation and further redistribution. A finite-element numerical model for isothermal unsaturated moisture transport in porous media captures the phases of mass absorption in good agreement with the experimental data. Droplet spreading and absorption are highly determined by the impact velocity of the droplet, while moisture content redistribution after depletion is much less dependent on impact conditions.

  4. Two-color excited-state absorption imaging of melanins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dan; Ye, Tong; Matthews, Thomas E.; Yurtsever, Gunay; Hong, Lian; Simon, John D.; Warren, Warren S.

    2007-02-01

    We have demonstrated a new method for imaging melanin with two-color excited state absorption microscopy. If one of two synchronized mode-locked pulse trains at different colors is intensity modulated, the modulation transfers to the other pulse train when nonlinear absorption takes place in the medium. We can easily measure 10 -6 absorption changes caused by either instantaneous two-photon absorption or relatively long lived excited state absorption with a RF lock-in amplifier. Eumelanin and pheomelanin exhibit similar excited state dynamics. However, their difference in excited state absorption and ground state absorption leads to change in the phase of the transient absorption signal. Scanning microscopic imaging is performed with B16 cells, melanoma tissue to demonstrate the 3D high resolution imaging capability. Different melanosome samples are also imaged to illustrate the differences between eumelanin and pheomelanin signals. These differences could enable us to image their respective distribution in tissue samples and provide us with valuable information in diagnosing malignant transformation of melanocytes.

  5. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  6. BASIC STUDIES IN PERCUTANEOUS ABSORPTION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FATTY ACIDS, *SKIN(ANATOMY), ABSORPTION, ALKYL RADICALS, AMIDES, DIFFUSION, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, HUMIDITY, LABORATORY ANIMALS, LIPIDS, ORGANIC SOLVENTS, PENETRATION, PRIVATION, PROTEINS, RATS, TEMPERATURE, WATER

  7. Solar Absorption in Cloudy Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harshvardhan; Ridgway, William; Ramaswamy, V.; Freidenreich, S. M.; Batey, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical computations used to compute spectral absorption of solar radiation are discussed. Radiative properties relevant to the cloud absorption problem are presented and placed in the context of radiative forcing. Implications for future measuring programs and the effect of horizontal inhomogeneities are discussed.

  8. Atmospheric absorption of sound - Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, H. E.; Sutherland, L. C.; Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    Best current expressions for the vibrational relaxation times of oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere are used to compute total absorption. The resulting graphs of total absorption as a function of frequency for different humidities should be used in lieu of the graph published earlier by Evans et al (1972).

  9. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of < 10{sup {minus}5}, Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS) is ideal for determining the absorption coefficients of thin films of transparent'' materials. We have used PDS to measure the optical absorption spectra of the conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  10. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stievenard, D.; Leveque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2012-08-01

    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  11. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  12. Gas-absorption process

    DOEpatents

    Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved gas-absorption process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.

  13. Optimization of absorption placement using geometrical acoustic models and least squares.

    PubMed

    Saksela, Kai; Botts, Jonathan; Savioja, Lauri

    2015-04-01

    Given a geometrical model of a space, the problem of optimally placing absorption in a space to match a desired impulse response is in general nonlinear. This has led some to use costly optimization procedures. This letter reformulates absorption assignment as a constrained linear least-squares problem. Regularized solutions result in direct distribution of absorption in the room and can accommodate multiple frequency bands, multiple sources and receivers, and constraints on geometrical placement of absorption. The method is demonstrated using a beam tracing model, resulting in the optimal absorption placement on the walls and ceiling of a classroom.

  14. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  15. NUMERICAL CALCULATION OF MAGNETOBREMSSTRAHLUNG EMISSION AND ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Po Kin; Gammie, Charles F.; Noble, Scott C. E-mail: gammie@illinois.edu

    2011-08-10

    Magnetobremsstrahlung (MBS) emission and absorption play a role in many astronomical systems. We describe a general numerical scheme for evaluating MBS emission and absorption coefficients for both polarized and unpolarized light in a plasma with a general distribution function. Along the way we provide an accurate scheme for evaluating Bessel functions of high order. We use our scheme to evaluate the accuracy of earlier fitting formulae and approximations. We also provide an accurate fitting formula for mildly relativistic (kT/(m{sub e}c{sup 2}) {approx}> 0.5) thermal electron emission (and therefore absorption). Our scheme is too slow, at present, for direct use in radiative transfer calculations but will be useful for anyone seeking to fit emission or absorption coefficients in a particular regime.

  16. In situ Gas Temperature Measurements by UV-Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateev, A.; Clausen, S.

    2009-02-01

    The absorption spectrum of the NO A2Σ+ ← X2Πγ-system can be used for in situ evaluation of gas temperature. Experiments were performed with a newly developed atmospheric-pressure high-temperature flow gas cell at highly uniform and stable gas temperatures over a 0.533 m path in the range from 23 °C to 1,500 °C. The gas temperature was evaluated (1) from the analysis of the structure of selected NO high-resolution γ-absorption bands and (2) from the analysis of vibrational distribution in the NO γ-absorption system in the (211-238) nm spectral range. The accuracy of both methods is discussed. Validation of the classical Lambert-Beer law has been demonstrated at NO concentrations up to 500 ppm and gas temperatures up to 1,500 °C over an optical absorption path length of 0.533 m.

  17. Collision--induced absorption in dense atmospheres of cool stars

    SciTech Connect

    Borysow, Aleksandra; Joergensen, Uffe Graae

    1999-04-01

    In the atmosphere of the Sun the major interaction between the matter and the radiation is through light absorption by ions (predominantly the negative ion of hydrogen atoms), neutral atoms and a small amount of polar molecules. The majority of stars in the universe are, however, cooler and denser than our Sun, and for a large fraction of these, the above absorption processes are very weak. Here, collision-induced absorption (CIA) becomes the dominant opacity source. The radiation is absorbed during very short mutual passages ('collisions') of two non-polar molecules (and/or atoms), while their electric charge distributions are temporarily distorted which gives rise to a transient dipole moment. We present here a review of the present-day knowledge about the impact of collision-induced absorption processes on the structure and the spectrum of such stars.

  18. Nickel absorption and kinetics in human volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Hopfer, S.M. ); Sweeney, K.R. ); Marcus, A.H.; Creason, J. ); Most, B.M. )

    1989-05-01

    Mathematical modeling of the kinetics of nickel absorption, distribution, and elimination was performed in healthy human volunteers who ingested NiSO{sub 4} drinking water (Experiment 1) or added to food (Experiment 2). Nickel was analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in serum, urine, and feces collected during 2 days before and 4 days after a specified NiSO{sub 4} dose (12 {mu}g of nickel/kg, n = 4; 18 {mu}g of nickel/kg, n = 4; or 50 {mu}g of nickel/kg, n = 1). Absorbed nickel averaged 27 {plus minus} 17% (mean {plus minus} SD) of the dose ingested in water vs. 0.7 {plus minus} 0.4% of the same dose ingested in food (a 40-fold difference); rate constants for nickel absorption, transfer, and elimination were not significantly influenced by the oral vehicle. The elimination half-time for absorbed nickel averaged 28 {plus minus} 9 hr. Renal clearance of nickel averaged 8.3 {plus minus} 2.0 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} in Experiment 1 and 5.8 {plus minus} 4.3 ml/min/1.73 m{sub 2} in Experiment 2. This study confirms that dietary constituents profoundly reduce the bioavailability of Ni{sup 2+} for alimentary absorption; approximately one-quarter of nickel ingested in drinking water after an over-night fast is absorbed from the human intestine and excreted in urine, compared with only 1% of nickel ingested in food. The compartmental model and kinetic parameters provided by this study will reduce the uncertainty of toxicologic risk assessments of human exposures to nickel in drinking water and food.

  19. MMT Survey for Intervening Mg II Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestor, Daniel B.; Turnshek, David A.; Rao, Sandhya M.

    2006-05-01

    We present the results from a spectroscopic survey for intervening Mg II absorption in the spectra of 381 background QSOs conducted at the MMT telescope. This survey complements our earlier SDSS EDR Mg II survey, extending our results to lower redshift (z~=0.15) and weaker Mg II λ2796 rest equivalent width (Wλ27960~=0.1 Å). We confirm two major results from that survey: the transition in the Wλ27960 distribution at Wλ27960~0.3 Å, and the Wλ27960-dependent evolution of the incidence of systems. The nature of ∂2N/∂z∂Wλ27960 is consistent with the idea that multiple physically distinct components/processes contribute to the incidence of Mg II absorption systems in a W0-dependent manner and evolve at different rates. A significant decrease in the total proper absorption cross section is detected in our MMT data for systems as weak as 1.0 Å<=Wλ27960<1.5 Å at z<~0.4. We discuss this W0-dependent evolution in the context of the evolution of galaxy structures, processes including superwinds and interactions, and damped-Lyα absorbers. We also consider the possibility that the observed redshift and Wλ27960 dependence of the incidence of absorption in spectroscopic surveys for low-ionization/neutral gas results from the effects of dust-induced extinction. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  20. Modification of light transmission channels by inhomogeneous absorption in random media.

    PubMed

    Liew, Seng Fatt; Cao, Hui

    2015-05-04

    Optical absorption is omnipresent and often distributed non-uniformly in space. We present a numerical study on the effects of inhomogeneous absorption on transmission eigenchannels of light in highly scattering media. In the weak absorption regime, the spatial profile of a transmission channel remains similar to that without absorption, and the effect of inhomogeneous absorption can be stronger or weaker than homogeneous absorption depending on the spatial overlap of the localized absorbing region with the field intensity maximum of the channel. In the strong absorption regime, the high transmission channels redirect the energy flows to circumvent the absorbing regions to minimize loss. The attenuation of high transmission channels by inhomogeneous absorption is lower than that by homogeneous absorption, regardless of the location of the absorbing region. The statistical distribution of transmission eigenvalues in the former becomes broader than that in the latter, due to a longer tail at high transmission. The maximum enhancement factor of total transmission increases with absorption, eventually exceeds that without absorption.

  1. Neutron absorption constraints on the composition of 4 Vesta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Beck, Andrew W.; Feldman, William C.; Hendricks, John S.; Lawrence, David J.; McCoy, Timothy J.; McSween, Harry Y.; Paplowski, Patrick N.; Reedy, Robert C.; Toplis, Michael J.; Le Corre, Lucille; Mizzon, Hugau; Reddy, Vishnu; Titus, Timothy N.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Global maps of the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section of Vesta's regolith by the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) on board the NASA Dawn spacecraft provide constraints on the abundance and distribution of Fe, Ca, Al, Mg, and other rock-forming elements. From a circular, polar low-altitude mapping orbit, GRaND sampled the regolith to decimeter depths with a spatial resolution of about 300 km. At this spatial scale, the variation in neutron absorption is about seven times lower than that of the Moon. The observed variation is consistent with the range of absorption for howardite whole-rock compositions, which further supports the connection between Vesta and the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite meteorites. We find a strong correlation between neutron absorption and the percentage of eucritic materials in howardites and polymict breccias, which enables petrologic mapping of Vesta's surface. The distribution of basaltic eucrite and diogenite determined from neutron absorption measurements is qualitatively similar to that indicated by visible and near infrared spectroscopy. The Rheasilvia basin and ejecta blanket has relatively low absorption, consistent with Mg-rich orthopyroxene. Based on a combination of Fe and neutron absorption measurements, olivine-rich lithologies are not detected on the spatial scales sampled by GRaND. The sensitivity of GRaND to the presence of mantle material is described and implications for the absence of an olivine signature are discussed. High absorption values found in Vesta's “dark” hemisphere, where exogenic hydrogen has accumulated, indicate that this region is richer in basaltic eucrite, representative of Vesta's ancient upper crust.

  2. Neutron absorption constraints on the composition of 4 Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Beck, Andrew W.; Feldman, William C.; Hendricks, John S.; Lawrence, David J.; McCoy, Timothy J.; McSween, Harry Y.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Reedy, Robert C.; Toplis, Michael J.; Corre, Lucille; Mizzon, Hugau; Reddy, Vishnu; Titus, Timothy N.; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2013-11-01

    Global maps of the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section of Vesta's regolith by the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) on board the NASA Dawn spacecraft provide constraints on the abundance and distribution of Fe, Ca, Al, Mg, and other rock-forming elements. From a circular, polar low-altitude mapping orbit, GRaND sampled the regolith to decimeter depths with a spatial resolution of about 300 km. At this spatial scale, the variation in neutron absorption is about seven times lower than that of the Moon. The observed variation is consistent with the range of absorption for howardite whole-rock compositions, which further supports the connection between Vesta and the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite meteorites. We find a strong correlation between neutron absorption and the percentage of eucritic materials in howardites and polymict breccias, which enables petrologic mapping of Vesta's surface. The distribution of basaltic eucrite and diogenite determined from neutron absorption measurements is qualitatively similar to that indicated by visible and near infrared spectroscopy. The Rheasilvia basin and ejecta blanket has relatively low absorption, consistent with Mg-rich orthopyroxene. Based on a combination of Fe and neutron absorption measurements, olivine-rich lithologies are not detected on the spatial scales sampled by GRaND. The sensitivity of GRaND to the presence of mantle material is described and implications for the absence of an olivine signature are discussed. High absorption values found in Vesta's "dark" hemisphere, where exogenic hydrogen has accumulated, indicate that this region is richer in basaltic eucrite, representative of Vesta's ancient upper crust.

  3. Microwave radiation absorption: behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, J A

    1991-07-01

    The literature contains much evidence that absorption of microwave energy will lead to behavioral changes in man and laboratory animals. The changes include simple perturbations or outright stoppage of ongoing behavior. On one extreme, intense microwave absorption can result in seizures followed by death. On the other extreme, man and animals can hear microwave pulses at very low rates of absorption. Under certain conditions of exposure, animals will avoid microwaves, while under other conditions, they will actively work to obtain warmth produced by microwaves. Some research has shown behavioral effects during chronic exposure to low-level microwaves. The specific absorption rates that produce behavioral effects seem to depend on microwave frequency, but controversy exists over thresholds and mechanism of action. In all cases, however, the behavioral disruptions cease when chronic microwave exposure is terminated. Thermal changes in man and animals during microwave exposure appear to account for all reported behavioral effects.

  4. NMR microscopy of heavy metal absorption in calcium alginate beads

    SciTech Connect

    Nestle, N.; Kimmich, R.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, heavy metal uptake by biopolymer gels, such as Cal-Alginate or chitosan, has been studied by various methods. This is of interest because such materials might be an alternative to synthetical ion-exchange resins in the treatment of industrial waste waters. Most of the work done in this field consisted of studies of equilibrium absorption of different heavy metal ions with dependence on various experimental parameters. In some publications, the kinetics of absorption were studied, too. However, no experiments on the spatial distribution of heavy metals during the absorption process are known to us. Using Cu as an example, it is demonstrated in this article that NMR microscopy is an appropriate tool for such studies. By the method presented here, it is possible to monitor the spatial distribution of heavy metal ions with a time resolution of about 5 min and a spatial resolution of 100 {mu}m or even better. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    PubMed Central

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children with bowel disorders showed incomplete absorption. Seven children were tested again with an equal amount of glucose, and in three of them also of galactose, added to the fructose. The mean maximum breath hydrogen increases were 5 and 10 ppm, respectively, compared with 103 ppm after fructose alone. In one boy several tests were performed with various sugars; fructose was the only sugar incompletely absorbed, and the effect of glucose on fructose absorption was shown to be dependent on the amount added. It is concluded that children have a limited absorptive capacity for fructose. We speculate that the enhancing effect of glucose and galactose on fructose absorption may be due to activation of the fructose carrier. Apple juice in particular contains fructose in excess of glucose and could lead to abdominal symptoms in susceptible children. PMID:6476870

  6. Reflective-tube absorption meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaneveld, J. Ronald V.; Bartz, Robert; Kitchen, James C.

    1990-09-01

    The design and calibration of a proposed in situ spectral absorption meter is evaluated using a laboratory prototype. The design includes a silver coated (second-surface) glass tube, a tungsten light source (stabilized by means of optical feedback), a monochromator, and a solid state detector. The device measures the absorption coefficient plus a portion of the volume scattering function. Theoretical analyses and laboratory experiments which explore the magnitude and variation of the errors due to scattering and internal reflections are described. Similar analyses are performed on the Cary 1 18 Spectrophotometer to allow cross calibration. Algorithms to yield the abscrption coefficient and the zenith-sun diffuse attenuation coefficient are presented and evaluated. Simultaneous measurement of the beam attenuation or backscattering coefficient allows use of algoriThms with much narrower error bands. The various methods of obtaining absorption and diffuse attenuation values are compared. Procedures for using reverse osmosis filtration to produce a clean water calibration standard are described. An absorption spectrum for pure water is obtained. Development of the absorption meter is proceeding along two lines: 1) a two-wavelength side-by-side LED is being fabricated to allow an in situ chlorophyll a absorption meter to be constructed, and 2) scientific projects using a shipboard or laboratory flow.-through pumping system are being planned.

  7. Solute dispersion in open channel flow with bed absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Chen, G. Q.

    2016-12-01

    Reactive solute dispersion is of essential significance in various ecological and environmental applications. It is only qualitatively known that boundary absorption depletes pollutant around the boundary and reduces the concentration nearby. All the existing studies on this topic have been focused on the longitudinally distributed mean concentration, far from enough to fully characterize the transport process with tremendous cross-sectional concentration nonuniformity. This work presents an analytical study of the evolution of two-dimensional concentration distribution for solute dispersion in a laminar open channel flow with bed absorption. The fourth order Aris-Gill expansion proposed in our previous study (Wang and Chen, 2016b) is further extended for the case with bed absorption to cover the transitional effects of skewness and kurtosis. Results reveal the extremely nonuniform cross-sectional concentration distribution, and demonstrate that concentration at the bed instead of the mean should be used for reliable quantification of the absorption flux. The accurate two-dimensional concentration distribution presented in this study brings important environmental implications such as risk assessment associated with peak concentration position and duration of toxic pollutant cloud in open channel waters.

  8. Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-01

    The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV absorption profile along the duodenal-colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective absorption sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common absorption pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV absorption.

  9. A simple formula for estimation of the absorption cross section of biological suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Paramonov, L.E.

    1994-10-01

    A simple formula for the absorption cross section of biological suspensions is suggested. The error introduced by the formula into the measurements of absorption cross sections of polydisperse spherical particles described by the power, quasi-Gaussian, and gamma distributions, as well as of randomly oriented spheroidal particles is estimated. A formula for the dependence of the absorption cross section on the dispersion composition of a medium is given. 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part II; Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Loukachine, K.; Wielicki, B. A.; Young, D. F.

    2003-01-01

    Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) are estimated from empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that convert instantaneous radiance measurements to TOA fluxes. This paper evaluates the accuracy of CERES TOA fluxes obtained from a new set of ADMs developed for the CERES instrument onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The uncertainty in regional monthly mean reflected shortwave (SW) and emitted longwave (LW) TOA fluxes is less than 0.5 W/sq m, based on comparisons with TOA fluxes evaluated by direct integration of the measured radiances. When stratified by viewing geometry, TOA fluxes from different angles are consistent to within 2% in the SW and 0.7% (or 2 W/sq m) in the LW. In contrast, TOA fluxes based on ADMs from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) applied to the same CERES radiance measurements show a 10% relative increase with viewing zenith angle in the SW and a 3.5% (9 W/sq m) decrease with viewing zenith angle in the LW. Based on multiangle CERES radiance measurements, 18 regional instantaneous TOA flux errors from the new CERES ADMs are estimated to be 10 W/sq m in the SW and, 3.5 W/sq m in the LW. The errors show little or no dependence on cloud phase, cloud optical depth, and cloud infrared emissivity. An analysis of cloud radiative forcing (CRF) sensitivity to differences between ERBE and CERES TRMM ADMs, scene identification, and directional models of albedo as a function of solar zenith angle shows that ADM and clear-sky scene identification differences can lead to an 8 W/sq m root-mean-square (rms) difference in 18 daily mean SW CRF and a 4 W/sq m rms difference in LW CRF. In contrast, monthly mean SW and LW CRF differences reach 3 W/sq m. CRF is found to be relatively insensitive to differences between the ERBE and CERES TRMM directional models.

  11. Distribution and source of the UV absorption in Venus' atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.; Toon, O. B.; Whitten, R. C.; Boese, R.; Ragent, B.; Tomasko, M.; Esposito, L.; Travis, L.; Wiedman, D.

    1980-01-01

    The model predictions were compared with the Pioneer Venus probes and orbiter to determine the composition of the UV absorbing materials. The simulations were carried out with radiative transfer codes which included spacecraft constraints on the aerosol and gas characteristics in the Venus atmosphere; gaseous SO2 (a source of opacity at the wavelengths below 0.32 microns), and a second absorber (which dominates above 0.32 microns) were required. The UV contrast variations are due to the optical depth changes in the upper haze layer producing brightness variations between equatorial and polar areas, and to differences in the depth over which the second UV absorber is depleted in the highest portion of the main clouds.

  12. Three-dimensional cloud effects and enhanced atmospheric absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hirok, William John

    1997-09-01

    absorption bands for overhead sun. Little change in absorption occurs in the visible spectrum. For the sun approaching the horizon, the enhanced absorption spectrally shifts to the near- infrared atmospheric windows, where increases up to 50% are observed. Additionally, the 3-D effect can produce significant overestimates in remotely sensed cloud droplet size distributions and underestimates in remotely sensed cloud optical thickness.

  13. Statistics of cosmological Lyman α absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munshi, Dipak; Coles, Peter; Viel, Matteo

    2012-12-01

    We study the effect of the non-Gaussianity induced by gravitational evolution upon the statistical properties of absorption in quasar (quasi-stellar object) spectra. Using the generic hierarchical ansatz and the lognormal approximation, we derive the analytical expressions for the one-point probability distribution function (PDF) as well as for the joint two-point PDF of transmitted fluxes in two neighbouring quasi-stellar objects. These flux PDFs are constructed in three dimensions as well as in projection (i.e. in two dimensions). The PDFs are constructed by relating the lower-order moments (i.e. cumulants and cumulant correlators) of the fluxes to the three-dimensional neutral hydrogen distribution, which is, in turn, expressed as a function of the underlying dark matter distribution. Next, the lower-order moments are modelled using a generating function formalism in the context of a minimal tree-model for the higher-order correlation hierarchy. These different approximations give nearly identical results for the range of redshifts probed, and we also find very good agreement between our predictions and the outputs of hydrodynamical simulations. The formalism developed here for the joint statistics of flux-decrements concerning two lines of sight can be extended to multiple lines of sight, which could be particularly important for the three-dimensional reconstruction of the cosmic web from the spectra of quasi-stellar objects (e.g. in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey). These statistics probe the underlying projected neutral hydrogen field and are thus linked to hotspots of absorption. The results for the PDF and the bias presented here use the same functional forms of scaling functions that have previously been employed for the modelling of other cosmological observations, such as the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect.

  14. Absorption and Metabolism of Xanthophylls

    PubMed Central

    Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Nagao, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Dietary carotenoids, especially xanthophylls, have attracted significant attention because of their characteristic biological activities, including anti-allergic, anti-cancer, and anti-obese actions. Although no less than forty carotenoids are ingested under usual dietary habits, only six carotenoids and their metabolites have been found in human tissues, suggesting selectivity in the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. Recently, facilitated diffusion in addition to simple diffusion has been reported to mediate the intestinal absorption of carotenoids in mammals. The selective absorption of carotenoids may be caused by uptake to the intestinal epithelia by the facilitated diffusion and an unknown excretion to intestinal lumen. It is well known that β-carotene can be metabolized to vitamin A after intestinal absorption of carotenoids, but little is known about the metabolic transformation of non provitamin A xanthophylls. The enzymatic oxidation of the secondary hydroxyl group leading to keto-carotenoids would occur as a common pathway of xanthophyll metabolism in mammals. This paper reviews the absorption and metabolism of xanthophylls by introducing recent advances in this field. PMID:21747746

  15. Enhanced absorption cycle computer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, G.; Wilk, M.

    1993-09-01

    Absorption heat pumps have received renewed and increasing attention in the past two decades. The rising cost of electricity has made the particular features of this heat-powered cycle attractive for both residential and industrial applications. Solar-powered absorption chillers, gas-fired domestic heat pumps, and waste-heat-powered industrial temperature boosters are a few of the applications recently subjected to intensive research and development. The absorption heat pump research community has begun to search for both advanced cycles in various multistage configurations and new working fluid combinations with potential for enhanced performance and reliability. The development of working absorption systems has created a need for reliable and effective system simulations. A computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system's components and property subroutines containing thermodynamic properties of the working fluids. The user conveys to the computer an image of his cycle by specifying the different subunits and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flow rate, concentration, pressure, and vapor fraction at each state point in the system, and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance (COP) may be determined. This report describes the code and its operation, including improvements introduced into the present version. Simulation results are described for LiBr-H2O triple-effect cycles, LiCl-H2O solar-powered open absorption cycles, and NH3-H2O single-effect and generator-absorber heat exchange cycles. An appendix contains the user's manual.

  16. Spectral dependences of extrinsic optical absorption in sillenite crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kisteneva, M G; Khudyakova, E S; Shandarov, S M; Akrestina, A S; Dyu, V G; Kargin, Yu F

    2015-07-31

    The influence of laser irradiation at wavelengths of 532 and 655 nm and annealing in air at temperatures from 200 to 370 °C on optical absorption spectra of undoped bismuth silicon oxide and bismuth germanium oxide and aluminium-doped bismuth titanium oxide crystals has been studied experimentally. The experimental data have been interpreted in terms of a model for extrinsic absorption that takes into account not only the contribution of the photoexcitation of electrons from deep donor centres with a normal distribution of their concentration with respect to ionisation energy but also that of intracentre transitions. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  17. Concerning the Optical Absorption Band of the Hydrated Electron,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    methylene blue ) showed marked nonlinear absorption due to saturation of optical transitions, no such change was observed for hydrated electrons even though the light intensity was varied by > 10 to the 7th power up to 200 photons per hydrated electron per sq cm. Consequently the photoexcited state lifetime is estimated to be than 6 x 10 to the -12th power sec. This finding is discussed briefly in terms of three possible origins for the absorption band, namely that involving excitation to a bound excited state, as a photoionization efficiency profile or as a distribution

  18. Absorption-heat-pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  19. Transient absorption spectroscopy of laser shocked explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Mcgrane, Shawn D; Dang, Nhan C; Whitley, Von H; Bolome, Cindy A; Moore, D S

    2010-01-01

    Transient absorption spectra from 390-890 nm of laser shocked RDX, PETN, sapphire, and polyvinylnitrate (PVN) at sub-nanosecond time scales are reported. RDX shows a nearly linear increase in absorption with time after shock at {approx}23 GPa. PETN is similar, but with smaller total absorption. A broad visible absorption in sapphire begins nearly immediately upon shock loading but does not build over time. PVN exhibits thin film interference in the absorption spectra along with increased absorption with time. The absorptions in RDX and PETN are suggested to originate in chemical reactions happening on picosecond time scales at these shock stresses, although further diagnostics are required to prove this interpretation.

  20. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  1. Metal powder absorptivity: Modeling and experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Boley, C. D.; Mitchell, S. C.; Rubenchik, A. M.; ...

    2016-08-10

    Here, we present results of numerical modeling and direct calorimetric measurements of the powder absorptivity for a number of metals. The modeling results generally correlate well with experiment. We show that the powder absorptivity is determined, to a great extent, by the absorptivity of a flat surface at normal incidence. Our results allow the prediction of the powder absorptivity from normal flat-surface absorptivity measurements.

  2. Equilibria and absorption spectra of tryptophanase.

    PubMed

    Metzler, C M; Viswanath, R; Metzler, D E

    1991-05-25

    Tryptophanase (tryptophan: indole-lyase) from Escherichia coli has been isolated in the holoenzyme form and its absorption spectra and acid-base chemistry have been reevaluated. Apoenzyme has been prepared by dialysis against sodium phosphate and L-alanine and molar absorptivities of the coenzyme bands have been estimated by readdition of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The spectrophotometric titration curve, whose midpoint is at pH 7.6 in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffers, indicates some degree of cooperativity in dissociation of a pair of protons. Resolution of the computed spectra of individual ionic forms of the enzyme with lognormal distribution curves shows that band shapes are similar to those of model Schiff bases and of aspartate aminotransferase. Using molar areas from the latter we estimated amounts of individual tautomeric species. In addition to ketoenamine and enolimine or covalent adduct the high pH form also appears to contain approximately 18% of a species with a dipolar ionic ring (protonated on the ring nitrogen and with phenolate -O-). We suggest that this may be the catalytically active form of the coenzyme in tryptophanase. The equilibrium between tryptophanase and L-alanine has also been reevaluated.

  3. Quasar Absorption Line Survey - Cycle 4 High

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, John

    1994-01-01

    The Absorption Line Survey of bright quasars provides a homogeneous data base for studying fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of gaseous systems in the universe. The initial results determine at small redshifts the number densities of Ly-ALPHA systems, of metal-lines and extragalactic halos, of Lyman-limit systems, of associated absorption systems, and the shapes and intensities of quasar emission lines and spectral energy distributions. The survey reveals that much of the sky is covered by high or very high velocity metal-line clouds present in the Galactic halo. A larger sample, which includes the requested Cycle 3 observations, is required to answer many important questions. For example, what is the correlation function of Ly-ALPHA systems at small redshifts? What fraction of the metal, the Ly-ALPHA, and the Ly-limit systems are associated with galaxies and what are the characteristic sizes of the outer gaseous regions of different types of galaxies? Do absorbing systems show evidence of the large-scale structure seen with galaxies and clusters of galaxies? The observations requested in Cycle 3 will extend the region of coverage of the Key Project sample from the redshift range of z = 0.0 to 1.0 (Cycles 1& 2) to z = 0.0 to 1.6 (Cycles 1-3). THIS FILE CONTAINS THE HIGH PRIORITY OBSERVATIONS FROM CYCLES 2 and 3 WHICH WERE NOT COMPLETED IN THOSE CYCLES.

  4. Analysis of data on absorption in the northern part of the milky way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polishchuk, E. P.

    1973-01-01

    The values of absorption for different galactic longitudes are obtained on the basis of star cluster data. It is found that the distance up to the point, where the straightening of the absorption distribution curve begins, depends on the limiting magnitude of the catalogue and the density of absorbing matter near the sun. The picture of absorbing matter distribution in the northern part of the Milky Way is given.

  5. Theory of graphene saturable absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, A.; Cox, J. D.; García de Abajo, F. J.

    2017-03-01

    Saturable absorption is a nonperturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon that plays a pivotal role in the generation of ultrafast light pulses. Here we show that this effect emerges in graphene at unprecedentedly low light intensities, thus opening avenues to new nonlinear physics and applications in optical technology. Specifically, we theoretically investigate saturable absorption in extended graphene by developing a semianalytical nonperturbative single-particle approach, describing electron dynamics in the atomically-thin material using the two-dimensional Dirac equation for massless Dirac fermions, which is recast in the form of generalized Bloch equations. By solving the electron dynamics nonperturbatively, we account for both interband and intraband contributions to the intensity-dependent saturated conductivity and conclude that the former dominates regardless of the intrinsic doping state of the material. We obtain results in qualitative agreement with atomistic quantum-mechanical simulations of graphene nanoribbons including electron-electron interactions, finite-size, and higher-band effects. Remarkably, such effects are found to affect mainly the linear absorption, while the predicted saturation intensities are in good quantitative agreement in the limit of extended graphene. Additionally, we find that the modulation depth of saturable absorption in graphene can be electrically manipulated through an externally applied gate voltage. Our results are relevant for the development of graphene-based optoelectronic devices, as well as for applications in mode-locking and random lasers.

  6. Oxygen Absorption in Cooling Flows.

    PubMed

    Buote

    2000-04-01

    The inhomogeneous cooling flow scenario predicts the existence of large quantities of gas in massive elliptical galaxies, groups, and clusters that have cooled and dropped out of the flow. Using spatially resolved, deprojected X-ray spectra from the ROSAT PSPC, we have detected strong absorption over energies approximately 0.4-0.8 keV intrinsic to the central approximately 1&arcmin; of the galaxy NGC 1399, the group NGC 5044, and the cluster A1795. These systems have among the largest nearby cooling flows in their respective classes and low Galactic columns. Since no excess absorption is indicated for energies below approximately 0.4 keV, the most reasonable model for the absorber is warm, collisionally ionized gas with T=105-106 K in which ionized states of oxygen provide most of the absorption. Attributing the absorption only to ionized gas reconciles the large columns of cold H and He inferred from Einstein and ASCA with the lack of such columns inferred from ROSAT and also is consistent with the negligible atomic and molecular H inferred from H i and CO observations of cooling flows. The prediction of warm ionized gas as the product of mass dropout in these and other cooling flows can be verified by Chandra and X-Ray Multimirror Mission.

  7. Neutron Absorption in Geological Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løvhøiden, G.; Andersen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Thermal neutron absorption cross section of geological samples is determined with the steady state neutron source method. Cross section measurements of North Sea sediments demonstrate that also materials with high contents of clay minerals may be investigated with the steady state method.

  8. Ultraviolet and Light Absorption Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, L. G.; Howell, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews developments in ultraviolet and light absorption spectrometry from December 1981 through November 1983, focusing on the chemistry involved in developing suitable reagents, absorbing systems, and methods of determination, and on physical aspects of the procedures. Includes lists of spectrophotometric methods for metals, non-metals, and…

  9. Slow light and saturable absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selden, A. C.

    2009-06-01

    Quantitative analysis of slow light experiments utilising coherent population oscillation (CPO) in a range of saturably absorbing media, including ruby and alexandrite, Er3+:Y2SiO5, bacteriorhodopsin, semiconductor quantum devices and erbium-doped optical fibres, shows that the observations may be more simply interpreted as saturable absorption phenomena. A basic two-level model of a saturable absorber displays all the effects normally associated with slow light, namely phase shift and modulation gain of the transmitted signal, hole burning in the modulation frequency spectrum and power broadening of the spectral hole, each arising from the finite response time of the non-linear absorption. Only where hole-burning in the optical spectrum is observed (using independent pump and probe beams), or pulse delays exceeding the limits set by saturable absorption are obtained, can reasonable confidence be placed in the observation of slow light in such experiments. Superluminal (“fast light”) phenomena in media with reverse saturable absorption (RSA) may be similarly explained.

  10. Light Absorption By Coated Soot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlacek, A. J.; Lee, J.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Cross, E. S.

    2009-12-01

    The contribution of aerosol absorption on direct radiative forcing is still an active area of research, in part, because aerosol extinction is dominated by light scattering and, in part, because the primary absorbing aerosol of interest, soot, exhibits complex aging behavior that alters its optical properties. The consequences of this can be evidenced by the work of Ramanathan and Carmichael (2008) who suggest that incorporating the atmospheric heating due to brown clouds will increase black carbon (BC) radiative forcing from the IPCC best estimate of 0.34 Wm-2 (±0.25 Wm-2) (IPCC 2007) to 0.9 Wm-2. This noteworthy degree of the uncertainty is due largely to the interdependence of BC optical properties on particle mixing state and aggregate morphology, each of which changes as the particle ages in the atmosphere and becomes encapsulated within a coating of inorganic and/or organic substances. With the advent of techniques that can directly measure aerosol light absorption without influences due to collection substrate or light scattering (e.g., photoacoustic spectroscopy (Arnott et al., 2005; Lack et al., 2006) and photothermal interferometry (Sedlacek and Lee 2007)) the potential exists for quantifying this interdependence. In July 2008, a laboratory-based measurement campaign, led by Boston College and Aerodyne, was initiated to begin addressing this interdependence. To achieve this objective measurements of both the optical and physical properties of flame-generated soot under nascent, coated and denuded conditions were conducted. In this paper, light absorption by dioctyl sebacate (DOS) encapsulated soot and sulfuric acid coated soot using the technique of photothermal interferometry will be presented. In the case of DOS-coated soot, a monotonic increase in light absorption as a function DOS coating thickness to nearly 100% is observed. This observation is consistent with a coating-induced amplification in particle light absorption. (Bond et al. 2006) However

  11. Electron heating due to resonant absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, K.; Spielman, R.B.; DeGroot, J.S.; Bollen, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Intense, p-polarized microwaves (v/sub os//v/sub eo-/<1) are incident on an imhomogeneous plasma (10/sup 2/absorption near the critical surface (where the plasma frequency equals microwave frequency). Suprathermal electrons are heated by resonantly driven electrostatic field to produce a hot Maxwellian distribution. Most of the heated electrons flow towards the overdense region and are absorbed by the anode at the far end of the overdense region. At high power (v/sub os//v/sub eo-/>0.2), strong heating of thermal electrons, large amplitude ion acoustic turbulence, and a self-consistent dc electric field are observed near the critical surface. This dc electric field is enhanced by applying a weak magnetic field (..omega../sub ce//..omega../sub o/ approx. = 10/sup -2/).

  12. Gas separation using ultrasound and light absorption

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-07-31

    An apparatus and method for separating a chosen gas from a mixture of gases having no moving parts and utilizing no chemical processing is described. The separation of particulates from fluid carriers thereof has been observed using ultrasound. In a similar manner, molecular species may be separated from carrier species. It is also known that light-induced drift may separate light-absorbing species from carrier species. Therefore, the combination of temporally pulsed absorption of light with ultrasonic concentration is expected to significantly increase the efficiency of separation by ultrasonic concentration alone. Additionally, breaking the spatial symmetry of a cylindrical acoustic concentrator decreases the spatial distribution of the concentrated particles, and increases the concentration efficiency.

  13. Optical absorptions of polyfluorene transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yvonne Y.; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2005-07-01

    Conjugated polymers are a promising class of materials for organic electronics. While the progress in device performance is impressive, the basics of charge transport still pose many open questions. Specifically, conduction at the comparatively rough polymer-polymer interface in an all-polymer field-effect transistor is expected to be different from a sharp interface with an inorganic dielectric, such as silicon dioxide. In this work, charge modulation spectroscopy (CMS) is used to study the optical absorptions in the presence of charges in situ in the transistor structure. This allows direct observation of the charge carriers in the operational device via their spectroscopic signature; the technique is by design very sensitive to the properties of the semiconductor-dielectric interface. The semiconducting copolymer poly( 9,9' -dioctyl-fluorene-co-bithiophene) (F8T2) is incorporated into a top-gate thin-film transistor structure with a polymer dielectric layer deposited by spin coating and inkjet-printed polymer electrodes. A prominent charge-induced absorption at 1.65eV is observed as well as a shoulder at 1.3eV and a tail extending toward the absorption edge. The bias dependence of the CMS signature confirms that intermixing of the polymer layers is minimal, as expected from the excellent transistor characteristics. Polarization-dependent CMS measurements on aligned transistors show that the main feature at 1.65eV is strongly polarized whereas the shoulder is unpolarized. This observation, as well as further experimental evidence, lead to the conclusion that while the main absorption is attributable to the intrinsic, polaronic absorption in F8T2, the shoulder is likely to originate from a defect state.

  14. Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    Micro gas turbines are expected as engines for the distributed co-generation systems, performing power generation and heat recovery. Waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, and it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to an absorption refrigerator. In this paper, we evaluated various single-double effect absorption cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption refrigerators, and clarified that the difference of performance among these cycles are little. We adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine, and experimented with it to get the partial load characteristics and the effect of cooling water temperature on the performance. Based on the experimental data, we developed as imulation model of the static characteristics, and studied the direction of improvement.

  15. Absorption enhancement of a dual-band metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Min; Han, Gui Ming; Liu, Shui Jie; Xu, Bang Li; Wang, Jie; Huang, Hua Qing

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose and fabricate a dual-band metamaterial absorber in 6-24 THz region. Electric field distribution reveal that the first absorption band is obtained from localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes which are excited both on inside and outside edges of each circular-patterned metal-dielectric stack, while the second absorption band is excited by LSP modes on outside edges of each stack. Measured results indicate that the absorption band width can be tuned by increasing the radius of circular-patterned layers or reducing the thickness of dielectric spacing layers. Moreover, the designed dual-band metamaterial absorber is independent on circular-patterned dielectric layer combinations.

  16. Methane absorption variations in the spectrum of Pluto

    SciTech Connect

    Buie, M.W.; Fink, U.

    1987-06-01

    The lightcurve phases of 0.18, 0.35, 0.49, and 0.98 covered by 5600-10,500 A absolute spectrophotometry of Pluto during four nights include minimum (0.98) light and one near-maximum (0.49) light. The spectra are noted to exhibit significant methane band absorption depth variations at 6200, 7200, 7900, 8400, 8600, 8900, and 10,000 A, with the minimum absorption occurring at minimum light and thereby indicating a 30-percent change in the methane column abundance in the course of three days. An attempt is made to model this absorption strength variation with rotational phase terms of an isotropic surface distribution of methane frost and a clear layer of CH4 gas. 34 references.

  17. Proton polarization from π+ absorption in 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytal-Beck, S.; Aclander, J.; Altman, A.; Ashery, D.; Hahn, H.; Moinester, M. A.; Rahav, A.; Feltham, A.; Jones, G.; Pavan, M.; Sevior, M.; Hutcheon, D.; Ottewell, D.; Smith, G. R.; Niskanen, J. A.

    1992-05-01

    We present the first polarization measurements for pion absorption on a nucleus heavier than the deuteron. The polarization of protons resulting from π+ absorption in the 3He was measured at bombarding energies of 120 and 250 MeV. Protons from absorption in a quasideuteron were selected by applying kinematical constraints. A significant discrepancy was observed between the experimental results and theoretical predictions. At 120 MeV the measured polarizations for 3He are consistent with those of the deuteron. At 250 MeV the angular distribution of the polarization is significantly different than for the deuteron, showing sensitivity to the nuclear density, and thus may be sensitive to short range correlations between nucleons.

  18. Novel N-methylsulfonamide and retro-N-methylsulfonamide derivatives as 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17β-HSD2) inhibitors with good ADME-related physicochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Perspicace, Enrico; Giorgio, Annalaura; Carotti, Angelo; Marchais-Oberwinkler, Sandrine; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2013-11-01

    Under physiological conditions healthy bones are maintained by a well tightened balance between osteoclast (OCs) and osteoblast (OBs) activity. Disruption of this balance leads to osteoporosis characterized by decline in bone function and skeletal rigidity. Inhibition of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17β-HSD2) could help maintaining the appropriate bone mass density by increasing the level of estradiol and testosterone in bone. Herein, we described the synthesis, the physicochemical properties and the biological evaluation of novel N-methylsulfonamide and retro-N-methylsulfonamide derivatives as 17β-HSD2 inhibitors showing high potency (compound 10f, IC₅₀ = 23 nM), with a good selectivity toward 17β-HSD1 (the isoenzyme responsible of the reverse reaction), and a likely good in vitro ADME profile. It was also shown that the acidity of the phenolic hydroxy correlates with the inhibitory potency, suggesting pKa as a predictive parameter for the activity of this class of inhibitors.

  19. Novel Hits in the Correction of ΔF508-Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Protein: Synthesis, Pharmacological, and ADME Evaluation of Tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines for the Potential Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pesci, Elisabetta; Bettinetti, Laura; Fanti, Paola; Galietta, Luis J V; La Rosa, Salvatore; Magnoni, Letizia; Pedemonte, Nicoletta; Sardone, Gian Luca; Maccari, Laura

    2015-12-24

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal genetic disease caused by mutations of the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) with a prevalence of the ΔF508 mutation. Whereas the detailed mechanisms underlying disease have yet to be fully elucidated, recent breakthroughs in clinical trials have demonstrated that CFTR dysfunction can be corrected by drug-like molecules. On the basis of this success, a screening campaign was carried out, seeking new drug-like compounds able to rescue ΔF508-CFTR that led to the discovery of a novel series of correctors based on a tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine core. These molecules proved to be soluble, cell-permeable, and active in a disease relevant functional-assay. The series was then further optimized with emphasis on biological data from multiple cell systems while keeping physicochemical properties under strict control. The pharmacological and ADME profile of this corrector series hold promise for the development of more efficacious compounds to be explored for therapeutic use in CF.

  20. Modeling the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse: extension of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Ernesto L; Spanjers, Henri; Solon, Kimberly; Amerlinck, Youri; Nopens, Ingmar; Dewulf, Jo

    2015-03-15

    This research presents the modeling of the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse, hereby extending the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater. Based on a sensitivity analysis, four parameters of the original ADM1 and all sulfate reduction parameters were calibrated. Although some deviations were observed between model predictions and experimental values, it was shown that sulfates, total aqueous sulfide, free sulfides, methane, carbon dioxide and sulfide in the gas phase, gas flow, propionic and acetic acids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH were accurately predicted during model validation. The model showed high (±10%) to medium (10%-30%) accuracy predictions with a mean absolute relative error ranging from 1% to 26%, and was able to predict failure of methanogenesis and sulfidogenesis when the sulfate loading rate increased. Therefore, the kinetic parameters and the model structure proposed in this work can be considered as valid for the sulfate reduction process in the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse when sulfate and organic loading rates range from 0.36 to 1.57 kg [Formula: see text]  m(-3) d(-1) and from 7.66 to 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively.

  1. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing.

    PubMed

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-06

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions' spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches).

  2. Landing gear energy absorption system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Christopher P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A landing pad system is described for absorbing horizontal and vertical impact forces upon engagement with a landing surface where circumferentially arranged landing struts respectively have a clevis which receives a slidable rod member and where the upper portion of a slidable rod member is coupled to the clevis by friction washers which are force fit onto the rod member to provide for controlled constant force energy absorption when the rod member moves relative to the clevis. The lower end of the friction rod is pivotally attached by a ball and socket to a support plate where the support plate is arranged to slide in a transverse direction relative to a housing which contains an energy absorption material for absorbing energy in a transverse direction.

  3. The Intestinal Absorption of Folates

    PubMed Central

    Visentin, Michele; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I. David

    2014-01-01

    The properties of intestinal folate absorption were documented decades ago. However, it was only recently that the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) was identified and its critical role in folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine established by the loss-of-function mutations identified in the PCFT gene in subjects with hereditary folate malabsorption and, more recently, by the Pcft-null mouse. This article reviews the current understanding of the properties of PCFT-mediated transport and how they differ from those of the reduced folate carrier. Other processes that contribute to the transport of folates across the enterocyte, along with the contribution of the enterohepatic circulation, are considered. Important unresolved issues are addressed, including the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption in the absence of PCFT and regulation of PCFT gene expression. The impact of a variety of ions, organic molecules, and drugs on PCFT-mediated folate transport is described. PMID:24512081

  4. Optical absorption in trilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Fan; Niu, Qian

    2013-03-01

    We use a low energy effective model to analyze the optical responses of trilayer graphene samples. We first show that optical absorption of the ABA-stacked trilayer has strong dependence on both the Fermi energy and optical frequency, which is in sharp contrast to that of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. Secondly, we are able to determine the possible existence of trigonal warping effects in the bandstructure of ABC-stacked trilayer graphene by a divergence in the absorption spectra at around 10 meV. In addition, we can partially distinguish the vairious broken symmetry states driven by electron-electron interactions in ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. In particular, the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state is sensitive to the polarization of the incident light, giving a way to detect its possible existence.

  5. Optical Absorption Characteristics of Aerosols.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-11

    properties of the powder as well as the thickness of the layer. For a layer that is thick enough so that no light is transmitted, the Kubelka -- Munk theory...which is a two stream radiative transfer model, relates the reflectance to the ratio of the absorption to the scattering. The Kubelka - Munk theory has...of the aerosol material is known. Under the assumptions of the Kubelka - Munk . theory, the imaginary component of the refractive index is deter- mined

  6. Photodetector with enhanced light absorption

    DOEpatents

    Kane, James

    1985-01-01

    A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

  7. Geometrical interpretation of optical absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Monzon, J. J.; Barriuso, A. G.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L.; Montesinos-Amilibia, J. M.

    2011-08-15

    We reinterpret the transfer matrix for an absorbing system in very simple geometrical terms. In appropriate variables, the system appears as performing a Lorentz transformation in a (1 + 3)-dimensional space. Using homogeneous coordinates, we map that action on the unit sphere, which is at the realm of the Klein model of hyperbolic geometry. The effects of absorption appear then as a loxodromic transformation, that is, a rhumb line crossing all the meridians at the same angle.

  8. Absorption Spectroscopy in Homogeneous and Micellar Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, S. Sadiq; Henscheid, Leonard G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment which has helped physical chemistry students learn principles of absorption spectroscopy, the effect of solvent polarity on absorption spectra, and some micellar chemistry. Background information and experimental procedures are provided. (JN)

  9. Sound absorption in nonelectrolyte aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Harumi; Honda, Kazuyuki

    2001-10-01

    We indicate that the curve fitting for Debye-type relaxation spectrum of sound absorption (SA) cannot sufficiently account for the observed data of nonelectrolyte aqueous solutions (NEAS). To solve these problems, we introduce the distribution function of relaxation time [DFRT, F(τ)] from a diffusion equation of concentration fluctuations using the fluctuation dispersion theory. The SA expression is described by four-adjustable parameters. By use of the mixtures of 1-propanol, t-butanol, and monobutyl triethylene glycol with water, our calculation of SA shows the best fit between the observed and calculated curves, compared with other models. It was found that at lower frequencies the SA behaves as the square root of frequency. The approximate expression of DFRT was expressed in terms of a power law of relaxation time, F(τ)∝τ-γ, which is the same as the expression of dielectric relaxation by Matsumoto and Higashi. Our exponent (γ) of relaxation time is varied from 5/2 in hydrophilic solutes to 3/2 in hydrophobic solutes. The power (γ) of relaxation time was regarded as a parameter to explain the hydrophobic and hydrophilic in the dissolved states of a solute. Our SA expression of γ=5/2 for solutes of a small correlation length leads to that of Romanov-Solov'ev, where the value of 5/2 is that of the Debye distribution for the relaxation time in the Romanov-Solov'ev model.

  10. The Cloud Absorption Radiometer HDF Data User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jason Y.; Arnold, G. Thomas; Meyer, Howard G.; Tsay, Si-Chee; King, Michael D.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) Instrument, methods used in the CAR Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) data processing, the structure and format of the CAR HDF data files, and methods for accessing the data. Examples of CAR applications and their results are also presented. The CAR instrument is a multiwavelength scanning radiometer that measures the angular distributions of scattered radiation.

  11. Broken-cloud enhancement of solar radiation absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.N.; Somerville, R.C.; Subasilar, B.

    1996-04-01

    Two papers recently published in Science have shown that there is more absorption of solar radiation than estimated by current atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) and that the discrepancy is associated with cloudy scenes. We have devised a simple model which explains this as an artifact of stochastic radiative transport. We first give a heuristic description, unencumbered by mathematical detail. Consider a simple case with clouds distributed at random within a single level whose upper and lower boundaries are fixed. The solar zenith angle is small to moderate; this is therefore an energetically important case. Fix the average areal liquid water content of the cloud layer, and take the statistics of the cloud distribution to be homogeneous within the layer. Furthermore, assume that all the clouds in the layer have the same liquid water content, constant throughout the cloud, and that apart from their droplet content they are identical to the surrounding clear sky. Let the clouds occupy on the average a fraction p{sub cld} of the volume of the cloudy layer, and let them have a prescribed distribution of sizes about some mean. This is not a fractal distribution, because it has a scale. Cloud shape is unimportant so long as cloud aspect ratios are not far from unity. Take the single-scattering albedo to be unity for the droplets in the clouds. All of the absorption is due to atmospheric gases, so the absorption coefficient at a point is the same for cloud and clear sky. Absorption by droplets is less than 10% effect in the numerical stochastic radiation calculations described below, so it is reasonable to neglect it at this level of idealization.

  12. Absorption, Creativity, Peak Experiences, Empathy, and Psychoticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Eugene W.; And Others

    Tellegen and Atkinson suggested that the trait of absorption may play a part in meditative skill, creativity, capacity for peak experiences, and empathy. Although the absorption-meditative skill relationship has been confirmed, other predictions have not been tested. Tellegen and Atkinson's Absorption Scale was completed by undergraduates in four…

  13. Study on Nonlinear Absorption Effect of Nanosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation for GaAs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjun; Liu, Zhongyang; Zhou, Haijiao

    2016-04-01

    In order to research nonlinear absorption effect of pulse laser irradiation for GaAs, a physical model of Gaussian distribution pulse laser irradiation for semiconductor material was established by software COMSOL Multiphysics. The thermal effects of semiconductor material GaAs was analyzed under irradiation of nanosecond pulse laser with wavelength of 1064 nm. The radial and transverse temperature distribution of semiconductor material GaAs was calculated under irradiation of nanosecond pulse laser with different power density by solving the thermal conduction equations. The contribution of one-photon absorption, two-photon absorption and free carrier absorption to temperature of GaAs material were discussed. The results show that when the pulse laser power density rises to 10(10) W/cm2, free carrier absorption played a leading role and it was more than that of one-photon absorption of material. The temperature contribution of two-photon absorption and free carrier absorption could be ignored at laser power density lower than 10(8) W/cm2. The result is basically consistent with relevant experiments, which shows that physical model constructed is valid.

  14. Correlation of cation distribution with the hyperfine and magnetic behaviour of Ni0.3Zn0.4Co0.2Cu0.1Fe2O4 nanoparticles and their microwave absorption properties when encapsulated in multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Madhumita; Mallick, Ayan; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Das, Dipankar; Chakrabarti, Pabitra K.

    2017-03-01

    Nanocrystalline samples of Ni0.3Zn0.4Co0.2Cu0.1Fe2O4 (NZCCF) are prepared by a simple co-precipitation method. To obtain nanoparticles of different sizes, the as prepared sample is annealed at 400, 600, 800 and 1000 °C. Nanoparticles of the sample annealed at 600 °C are encapsulated in multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). To confirm the crystallographic phase, x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns are analyzed by the Rietveld method and cation distribution in A- and B-sites is estimated from the analysis. Occupancy of Zn2+ ions in A-site and that of Fe3+ ions in B-site increase with the increase of annealing temperature (T A) and lattice parameters lie within 8.365-8.398 Å. Morphology of the encapsulated sample is examined by taking micrographs in high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Hyperfine behaviour of the prepared samples is studied by analyzing Mössbauer spectra recorded at room temperature (RT) and 77 K. Average values of isomer shift (IS) are found to decrease with the increase of crystallite size. Static and dynamic magnetic hysteresis loops are recorded to analyze the magnetic properties of the sample. Maximum saturation magnetization of ~75 emu g-1 is obtained for the sample of NZCCF annealed at 800 °C with crystallite size of ~48 nm. Microwave absorption capability of the encapsulated sample is measured by recording the reflection loss in X and K u bands of microwave region of frequency. Maximum value of reflection loss is  -25.71 dB observed at 15.24 GHz for a sample layer thickness of 1 mm. Moreover, the reflection loss is less than  -10 dB for the entire range of observation (8-18 GHz) which shows that MWCNT encapsulated NZCCF could be considered as a potential candidate for applications in microwave devices.

  15. Molecular absorption features in translucent clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krelowski, Jacek

    2007-12-01

    Interstellar clouds, composed of neutral hydrogen, consist about 90% of the total mass of interstellar medium. Their absorption spectra contain: continuous extinction, atomic lines, molecular features and the unidentified diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The latter are also believed to be carried by some, rather complex molecules. A vast majority of DIBs is characterized by small central depths. This is why they became observable only since the solid state detectors are widely applied in astrophysics. It is to be emphasized that interstellar absorptions, seen along the same line of sight, may be in fact originated in several, different environments (clouds). The extensive database of echelle spectra allowed to prove that the CaII column density evidently correlates with parallaxes of OB-3 stars in contrast to other interstellar species. Thus CaII is quite evenly distributed in the interstellar medium while other species (NaI, KI, CaI, CH, CN, DIB carriers) are not. This fact is of basic importance as the ob- served spectra cannot be physically interpreted if they mix features originated in different clouds, i.e. in different environments. The abundance ratios of interstellar molecules (identified and DIB carriers) differ from cloud to cloud due to different physical processes which govern their formation. High resolution, high S/N spectra, prove that also profiles of diffuse bands vary from cloud to cloud - this fact strongly supports a molecular origin of these, still nidentified, features and motivates investigation of their relations to other molecules; they can reveal physical conditions which facilitate formation of the DIB carriers and lead to their identification.

  16. Glucagon receptor antagonism induces increased cholesterol absorption[S

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hong-Ping; Yang, Xiaodong; Lu, Ku; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Castro-Perez, Jose M.; Previs, Stephen; Wright, Michael; Shah, Vinit; Herath, Kithsiri; Xie, Dan; Szeto, Daphne; Forrest, Gail; Xiao, Jing Chen; Palyha, Oksana; Sun, Li-Ping; Andryuk, Paula J.; Engel, Samuel S.; Xiong, Yusheng; Lin, Songnian; Kelley, David E.; Erion, Mark D.; Davis, Harry R.; Wang, Liangsu

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon and insulin have opposing action in governing glucose homeostasis. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), plasma glucagon is characteristically elevated, contributing to increased gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia. Therefore, glucagon receptor (GCGR) antagonism has been proposed as a pharmacologic approach to treat T2DM. In support of this concept, a potent small-molecule GCGR antagonist (GRA), MK-0893, demonstrated dose-dependent efficacy to reduce hyperglycemia, with an HbA1c reduction of 1.5% at the 80 mg dose for 12 weeks in T2DM. However, GRA treatment was associated with dose-dependent elevation of plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c). The current studies investigated the cause for increased LDL-c. We report findings that link MK-0893 with increased glucagon-like peptide 2 and cholesterol absorption. There was not, however, a GRA-related modulation of cholesterol synthesis. These findings were replicated using structurally diverse GRAs. To examine potential pharmacologic mitigation, coadministration of ezetimibe (a potent inhibitor of cholesterol absorption) in mice abrogated the GRA-associated increase of LDL-c. Although the molecular mechanism is unknown, our results provide a novel finding by which glucagon and, hence, GCGR antagonism govern cholesterol metabolism. PMID:26373568

  17. Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles

    DOEpatents

    Dao, Kim

    1990-01-01

    Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

  18. Energy Absorption of Composite Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    34 tion in a helicopter crash is accomplished Foye , et al. [4 an 5] examlnei th, primarily through three mechanisms; strok- energy absorption chara"tr...irar [3] and Foye , et al. [4]. No significant o. ’, energy release was obse:’viV-cirur, i m: rcg . . the Gr/FE tubes s .. 0T Fu!.A 4r /-e 45rK r5 1...K/E, GI/E, hybrid com- posite tubes and aluminum tubes. The 5. R. L. Foye , and W. T. H,.dg, " r following statements are based on results Results from

  19. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  20. NEUTRON ABSORPTION AND SHIELDING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Axelrad, I.R.

    1960-06-21

    A neutron absorption and shielding device is described which is adapted for mounting in a radiation shielding wall surrounding a radioactive area through which instrumentation leads and the like may safely pass without permitting gamma or neutron radiation to pass to the exterior. The shielding device comprises a container having at least one nonrectilinear tube or passageway means extending therethrough, which is adapted to contain instrumentation leads or the like, a layer of a substance capable of absorbing gamma rays, and a solid resinous composition adapted to attenuate fast-moving neutrons and capture slow- moving or thermal neutrons.

  1. Tunneling induced absorption with competing Nonlinearities

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yandong; Yang, Aihong; Xu, Yan; Wang, Peng; Yu, Yang; Guo, Hongju; Ren, Tingqi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate tunneling induced nonlinear absorption phenomena in a coupled quantum-dot system. Resonant tunneling causes constructive interference in the nonlinear absorption that leads to an increase of more than an order of magnitude over the maximum absorption in a coupled quantum dot system without tunneling. Resonant tunneling also leads to a narrowing of the linewidth of the absorption peak to a sublinewidth level. Analytical expressions show that the enhanced nonlinear absorption is largely due to the fifth-order nonlinear term. Competition between third- and fifth-order nonlinearities leads to an anomalous dispersion of the total susceptibility. PMID:27958303

  2. Absorption of CO laser radiation by NO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, R. K.; Monat, J. P.; Kruger, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes absorption calculations and measurements at selected infrared CO laser wavelengths which are nearly coincident with absorption lines in the fundamental vibration-rotation band of NO near 5.3 microns. Initial work was directed towards establishing the optimal CO laser-NO absorption line coincidence for high temperature applications. Measurements of the absorption coefficient at this optimal laser wavelength were carried out, first using a room-temperature absorption cell for high-temperature calculations and then using a shock tube, for the temperature range 630-4000 K, to validate the high temperature calculations.

  3. Method for characterizing bulk recombination using photoinduced absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Nora M.; Sandén, Simon; Sandberg, Oskar J.; Österbacka, Ronald

    2017-03-01

    The influence of reaction order and trap-assisted recombination on continuous-wave photoinduced absorption measurements is clarified through analytical calculations and numerical simulations. The results reveal the characteristic influence of different trap distributions and enable distinguishing between shallow exponential and Gaussian distributions and systems dominated by direct recombination by analyzing the temperature dependence of the in-phase and quadrature signals. The identifying features are the intensity dependence of the in-phase at high intensity, P A I ∝ I γ HI , and the frequency dependence of the quadrature at low frequency, P A Q ∝ ω γ LF . For direct recombination, γHI and γLF are temperature independent, and for an exponential distribution, they depend on the characteristic energy Ech as γ HI = 1 / ( 1 + E ch / k T ) and γ LF = k T / E ch , while a Gaussian distribution shows γHI and γLF as functions of I and ω, respectively.

  4. Five-Photon Absorption and Selective Enhancement of Multiphoton Absorption Processes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We study one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-photon absorption of three centrosymmetric molecules using density functional theory. These calculations are the first ab initio calculations of five-photon absorption. Even- and odd-order absorption processes show different trends in the absorption cross sections. The behavior of all even- and odd-photon absorption properties shows a semiquantitative similarity, which can be explained using few-state models. This analysis shows that odd-photon absorption processes are largely determined by the one-photon absorption strength, whereas all even-photon absorption strengths are largely dominated by the two-photon absorption strength, in both cases modulated by powers of the polarizability of the final excited state. We demonstrate how to selectively enhance a specific multiphoton absorption process. PMID:26120588

  5. Five-Photon Absorption and Selective Enhancement of Multiphoton Absorption Processes.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Bast, Radovan; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-05-20

    We study one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-photon absorption of three centrosymmetric molecules using density functional theory. These calculations are the first ab initio calculations of five-photon absorption. Even- and odd-order absorption processes show different trends in the absorption cross sections. The behavior of all even- and odd-photon absorption properties shows a semiquantitative similarity, which can be explained using few-state models. This analysis shows that odd-photon absorption processes are largely determined by the one-photon absorption strength, whereas all even-photon absorption strengths are largely dominated by the two-photon absorption strength, in both cases modulated by powers of the polarizability of the final excited state. We demonstrate how to selectively enhance a specific multiphoton absorption process.

  6. Emission, absorption and polarization of gyrosynchrotron radiation of mildly relativistic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.; Mctiernan, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Approximate analytic expressions are presented for the emissivity and absorption coefficient of synchrotron radiation of mildly relativistic particles with an arbitrary energy spectrum and pitch angle distribution. From these, an expression for the degree of polarization is derived. The analytic results are compared with numerical results for both thermal and non-thermal (power law) distributions of particles.

  7. Sulphate absorption across biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2016-01-01

    1. Sulphonation is unusual amongst the common Phase II (condensation; synthetic) reactions experienced by xenobiotics, in that the availability of the conjugating agent, sulphate, may become a rate-limiting factor. This sulphate is derived within the body via the oxygenation of sulphur moieties liberated from numerous ingested compounds including the sulphur-containing amino acids. Preformed inorganic sulphate also makes a considerable contribution to this pool. 2. There has been a divergence of opinion as to whether or not inorganic sulphate may be readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and this controversy still continues in some quarters. Even more so, is the vexing question of potential absorption of inorganic sulphate via the lungs and through the skin. 3. This review examines the relevant diverse literature and concludes that sulphate ions may move across biological membranes by means of specific transporters and, although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the major portal of entry, some absorption across the lungs and the skin may take place under appropriate circumstances.

  8. Formaldehyde Absorption toward W51

    SciTech Connect

    Kogut, A.; Smoot, G.F.; Bennett, C.L.; Petuchowski, S.J.

    1988-04-01

    We have measured formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) absorption toward the HII region complex W51A (G49.5-0.4) in the 6 cm and 2 cm wavelength rotational transitions with angular resolution of approximately 4 inch. The continuum HII region shows a large, previously undetected shell structure 5.5 pc along the major axis. We observe no H{sub 2}CO emission in regions of low continuum intensity. The absorption, converted to optical depth, shows a higher degree of clumping than previous maps at lower resolution. The good S/N of the maps allows accurate estimation of the complicated line profiles, showing some of the absorbing clouds to be quite patchy. We list the properties of the opacity spectra for a number of positions both in the clumps and in the more diffuse regions of the absorbing clouds, and derive column densities for the 1{sub 11} and 2{sub 12} rotational levels of ortho-formaldehyde.

  9. QED-driven laser absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Matthew; Blackburn, T.; Ratan, N.; Sadler, J.; Ridgers, C.; Kasim, M.; Ceurvorst, L.; Holloway, J.; Baring, M.; Bell, A.; Glenzer, S.; Gregori, G.; Ilderton, A.; Marklund, M.; Tabak, M.; Wilks, S.; Norreys, P.

    2016-10-01

    Absorption covers the physical processes which convert intense photon flux into energetic particles when a high-power laser (I >1018 W cm-2 where I is intensity at 1 μm wavelength) illuminates optically-thick matter. It underpins important applications of petawatt laser systems today, e.g., in isochoric heating of materials. Next-generation lasers such as ELI are anticipated to produce quantum electrodynamical (QED) bursts of γ-rays and anti-matter via the multiphoton Breit-Wheeler process which could enable scaled laboratory probes, e.g., of black hole winds. Here, applying strong-field QED to advances in plasma kinematic theory, we present a model elucidating absorption limited only by an avalanche of self-created electron-positron pairs at ultra-high-field. The model, confirmed by multidimensional QED-PIC simulations, works over six orders of magnitude in optical intensity and reveals this cascade is initiated at 1.8 x 1025 W cm-2 using a realistic linearly-polarized laser pulse. Here the laser couples its energy into highly-collimated electrons, ions, γ-rays, and positrons at 12%, 6%, 58% and 13% efficiency, respectively. We remark on attributes of the QED plasma state and possible applications.

  10. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, Massimo; Philippe, Charles; Pham, Tuan Minh; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, Ouali; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches). PMID:28067834

  11. Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

    2013-01-01

    The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. PMID:23686013

  12. Iron absorption in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

    2013-05-17

    The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration.

  13. Absorption in Extended Inhomogeneous Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Spurr, Robert; Bhartia, P. K.; Krotkov, Nick

    2008-01-01

    The launch of several different sensors, including CloudSat, into the A-train constellation of satellites allows us for the first time to compute absorption that can occur in realistic vertically inhomogeneous clouds including multiple cloud decks. CloudSat data show that these situations are common. Therefore, understanding vertically inhomogeneous clouds is important from both climate and satellite atmospheric composition remote sensing perspectives. Satellite passive sensors that operate from the near IR to the UV often rely on radiative cloud pressures derived from absorption in oxygen bands (A, B, gamma, or O2-O2 bands) or from rotational-Raman scattering in order to retrieve information about atmospheric trace gases. The radiative cloud pressure is distinct from the physical cloud top derived from thermal infrared measurements. Therefore, the combination of information from different passive sensors yields some information about the cloud vertical profile. When either or both the clouds or atmospheric absorbers (trace gases and aerosols) are vertically inhomogeneous, the use of an effective cloud pressure derived from these approaches may lead to errors. Here, we focus on several scenarios (deep convective clouds and distinct two layer clouds) based on realistic cloud optical depth vertical profiles derived from the CloudSatfMODIS combination. We focus on implications for trace-gas column amount retrievals (specifically ozone and NO2) and derived surface UV irradiance from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Atrain Aura platform.

  14. Energy absorption of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    Results of a study on the energy absorption characteristics of selected composite material systems are presented and the results compared with aluminum. Composite compression tube specimens were fabricated with both tape and woven fabric prepreg using graphite/epoxy (Gr/E), Kevlar (TM)/epoxy (K/E) and glass/epoxy (Gl/E). Chamfering and notching one end of the composite tube specimen reduced the peak load at initial failure without altering the sustained crushing load, and prevented catastrophic failure. Static compression and vertical impact tests were performed on 128 tubes. The results varied significantly as a function of material type and ply orientation. In general, the Gr/E tubes absorbed more energy than the Gl/E or K/E tubes for the same ply orientation. The 0/ + or - 15 Gr/E tubes absorbed more energy than the aluminum tubes. Gr/E and Gl/E tubes failed in a brittle mode and had negligible post crushing integrity, whereas the K/E tubes failed in an accordian buckling mode similar to the aluminum tubes. The energy absorption and post crushing integrity of hybrid composite tubes were not significantly better than that of the single material tubes.

  15. Distributed Logics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-03

    introduce distributed logics. Distributed logics lift the distribution structure of a distributed system directly into the logic, thereby parameterizing...the logic by the distribution structure itself. Each domain supports a “local modal logic.” The connections between domains are realized as...There are also multi- agent logic systems [12]. What distinguishes distributed logics from these are that the morphisms, i.e., the nbd maps, have

  16. Photonic band-edge-induced enhancement in absorption and emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummer, Karikkuzhi Variyath; Vijaya, Ramarao

    2015-01-01

    An enhancement in photonic band-edge-induced absorption and emission from rhodamine-B dye doped polystyrene pseudo gap photonic crystals is studied. The band-edge-induced enhancement in absorption is achieved by selecting the incident angle of the excitation beam so that the absorption spectrum of the emitter overlaps the photonic band edge. The band-edge-induced enhancement in emission, on the other hand, is possible with and without an enhancement in band-edge-induced absorption, depending on the collection angle of emission. Through a simple set of measurements with suitably chosen angles for excitation and emission, we achieve a maximum enhancement of 70% in emission intensity with band-edge-induced effects over and above the intrinsic emission in the case of self-assembled opals. This is a comprehensive effort to interpret tunable lasing in opals as well as to predict the wavelength of lasing arising as a result of band-edge-induced distributed feedback effects.

  17. Absorption of ac fields in amorphous indium-oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Ovadyahu, Z.

    2014-08-20

    Absorption data from applied ac fields in Anderson-localized amorphous indium-oxide (In{sub x}O) films are shown to be frequency and disorder dependent. The absorption shows a roll-off at a frequency which is much lower than the electron-electron scattering rate of the material when it is in the diffusive regime. This is interpreted as evidence for discreteness of the energy spectrum of the deeply localized regime. This is consistent with recent many-body localization scenarios. As the metal-insulator transition is approached, the absorption shifts to higher frequencies. Comparing with the previously obtained results on the crystalline version of indium-oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3−x}) implies a considerably higher inelastic electron-phonon scattering rate in the amorphous material. The range over which the absorption versus frequency decreases may indicate that a wide distribution of localization length is a common feature in these systems.

  18. Diagnostic potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Requejo, Olga Mena; Quigg, Chris

    2005-04-15

    Annihilation of extremely energetic cosmic neutrinos on the relic-neutrino background can give rise to absorption lines at energies corresponding to formation of the electroweak gauge boson Z{sup 0}. The positions of the absorption dips are set by the masses of the relic neutrinos. Suitably intense sources of extremely energetic (10{sup 21}-10{sup 25}-eV) cosmic neutrinos might therefore enable the determination of the absolute neutrino masses and the flavor composition of the mass eigenstates. Several factors--other than neutrino mass and composition--distort the absorption lines, however. We analyze the influence of the time evolution of the relic-neutrino density and the consequences of neutrino decay. We consider the sensitivity of the line shape to the age and character of extremely energetic neutrino sources, and to the thermal history of the Universe, reflected in the expansion rate. We take into account Fermi motion arising from the thermal distribution of the relic-neutrino gas. We also note the implications of Dirac vs. Majorana relics, and briefly consider unconventional neutrino histories. We ask what kinds of external information would enhance the potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy, and estimate the sensitivity required to make the technique a reality.

  19. Effects of pharmacological fiber supplements on levothyroxine absorption.

    PubMed

    Chiu, A C; Sherman, S I

    1998-08-01

    To determine the effect of pharmacological fiber supplements, we measured levothyroxine (LT4) absorption without and with simultaneous ingestion of either calcium polycarbophil or psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid. Serum thyroxine (T4) levels in 8 volunteers were measured following ingestion of 600 microg of LT4 on 3 separate occasions at 4-week intervals: (1) LT4 alone; (2) LT4 together with 1000 mg polycarbophil; and (3) LT4 together with 3.4 g psyllium. The amount of absorbed LT4 was calculated as the incremental rise in serum T4 level during the first 6 hours multiplied by the volume of distribution for the hormone, and expressed as a percentage of the dose administered. Absorption of LT4 alone averaged 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 75%-104%), occurring at a median of 180 minutes. After simultaneous ingestion of calcium polycarbophil, LT4 absorption was 86% (95% CI: 74%-97%), occurring at 180 minutes. With simultaneous ingestion of psyllium and LT4, the absorption was 80% (95% CI: 64%-95%), occurring at 240 minutes. In summary, neither calcium polycarbophil nor psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid are likely to cause malabsorption of LT4 that could be detected by these methods.

  20. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vliet, G. C.; Lawson, M. B.; Lithgow, R. A.

    1980-12-01

    A numerical model was developed for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine and was used to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The variables considered include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicates that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy.

  1. Diagnostic potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Mena Requejo, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Annihilation of extremely energetic cosmic neutrinos on the relic-neutrino background can give rise to absorption lines at energies corresponding to formation of the electroweak gauge boson Z{sup 0}. The positions of the absorption dips are set by the masses of the relic neutrinos. Suitably intense sources of extremely energetic (10{sup 21} - 10{sup 25}-eV) cosmic neutrinos might therefore enable the determination of the absolute neutrino masses and the flavor composition of the mass eigenstates. Several factors--other than neutrino mass and composition--distort the absorption lines, however. We analyze the influence of the time-evolution of the relic-neutrino density and the consequences of neutrino decay. We consider the sensitivity of the lineshape to the age and character of extremely energetic neutrino sources, and to the thermal history of the Universe, reflected in the expansion rate. We take into account Fermi motion arising from the thermal distribution of the relic-neutrino gas. We also note the implications of Dirac vs. Majorana relics, and briefly consider unconventional neutrino histories. We ask what kinds of external information would enhance the potential of cosmic-neutrino absorption spectroscopy, and estimate the sensitivity required to make the technique a reality.

  2. Scattering error corrections for in situ absorption and attenuation measurements.

    PubMed

    McKee, David; Piskozub, Jacek; Brown, Ian

    2008-11-24

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to establish a weighting function that describes the collection of angular scattering for the WETLabs AC-9 reflecting tube absorption meter. The equivalent weighting function for the AC-9 attenuation sensor is found to be well approximated by a binary step function with photons scattered between zero and the collection half-width angle contributing to the scattering error and photons scattered at larger angles making zero contribution. A new scattering error correction procedure is developed that accounts for scattering collection artifacts in both absorption and attenuation measurements. The new correction method does not assume zero absorption in the near infrared (NIR), does not assume a wavelength independent scattering phase function, but does require simultaneous measurements of spectrally matched particulate backscattering. The new method is based on an iterative approach that assumes that the scattering phase function can be adequately modeled from estimates of particulate backscattering ratio and Fournier-Forand phase functions. It is applied to sets of in situ data representative of clear ocean water, moderately turbid coastal water and highly turbid coastal water. Initial results suggest significantly higher levels of attenuation and absorption than those obtained using previously published scattering error correction procedures. Scattering signals from each correction procedure have similar magnitudes but significant differences in spectral distribution are observed.

  3. The source of 3-μm absorption in Jupiter’s clouds: Reanalysis of ISO observations using new NH3 absorption models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Fry, P. M.

    2010-11-01

    A prominent characteristic of jovian near-IR spectra is the widely distributed presence of a strong absorption at wavelengths from about 2.9 μm to 3.1 μm, first noticed in a 3-μm spectrum obtained by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) in 1996. While Brooke et al. (Brooke, T.Y., Knacke, R.F., Encrenaz, T., Drossart, P., Crisp, D., Feuchtgruber, H. [1998]. Icarus 136, 1-13) were able to fit the ISO spectrum very well using ammonia ice as the sole source of particulate absorption, Irwin et al. (Irwin, P.G.J., Weir, A.L., Taylor, F.W., Calcutt, S.B., Carlson, R.W. [2001]. Icarus 149, 397-415) noted that their best-fit cloud model implied a strong absorption at 2 μm that was not observed in Galileo NIMS spectra, raising questions about the source of the absorption. Subsequent significant revisions in ammonia gas absorption models (Bowles, N., Calcutt, S., Irwin, P., Temple, J. [2008]. Icarus 196, 612-614) also raised questions about these conclusions because ammonia gas absorption overlaps regions of ammonia ice absorption. Our reanalysis, based on improved ammonia absorption models, finds that the ISO spectrum can be well fit by models that include both NH 3 ice and solid NH 4SH, with the latter substance providing most of the absorption. The component due to NH 3 is very possibly due to NH 3 present as a coating on either large ( r ˜ 15 μm) NH 4SH particles in a deeper layer at ˜550 mb or on small ( r ˜ 0.3 μm) photochemical haze particles in a lower pressure layer at ˜370 mb. Neither option creates conflict with the lack of significant NH 3 absorption features at thermal wavelengths.

  4. Assessing the absorption of new pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, I J

    2001-11-01

    The advent of more efficient methods to synthesize and screen new chemical compounds is increasing the number of chemical leads identified in the drug discovery phase. Compounds with good biological activity may fail to become drugs due to insufficient oral absorption. Selection of drug development candidates with adequate absorption characteristics should increase the probability of success in the development phase. To assess the absorption potential of new chemical entities numerous in vitro and in vivo model systems have been used. Many laboratories rely on cell culture models of intestinal permeability such as, Caco-2, HT-29 and MDCK. To attempt to increase the throughput of permeability measurements, several physicochemical methods such as, immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) columns and parallel artificial membrane permeation assay (PAMPA) have been used. More recently, much attention has been given to the development of computational methods to predict drug absorption. However, it is clear that no single method will sufficient for studying drug absorption, but most likely a combination of systems will be needed. Higher throughput, less reliable methods could be used to discover 'loser' compounds, whereas lower throughput, more accurate methods could be used to optimize the absorption properties of lead compounds. Finally, accurate methods are needed to understand absorption mechanisms (efflux-limited absorption, carrier-mediated, intestinal metabolism) that may limit intestinal drug absorption. This information could be extremely valuable to medicinal chemists in the selection of favorable chemo-types. This review describes different techniques used for evaluating drug absorption and indicates their advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Computer programs for absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Jones, R N

    1969-03-01

    Brief descriptions are given of twenty-two modular computer programs for performing the basic numerical computations of absorption spectrophotometry. The programs, written in Fortran IV for card input and output, are available from the National Research Council of Canada. The input and output formats are standardized to permit easy interfacing to yield more complex data processing systems. Though these programs were developed for ir spectrophotometry, they are readily modified for use with digitized visual and uv spectrophotometers. The operations covered include ordinate and abscissal unit and scale interconversions, ordinate addition and subtraction, location of band maxima and minima, smoothing and differentiation, slit function convolution and deconvolution, band profile analysis and asymmetry quantification, Fourier transformation to time correlation curves, multiple overlapping band separation in terms of Cauchy (Lorentz), Gauss, Cauchy-Gauss product, and Cauchy-Gauss sum functions and cell path length determination from fringe spacing analysis.

  6. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  7. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  8. HI Absorption in Merger Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Veileux, Sylvain; Baker, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) pass through a luminous starburst phase, followed by a dust-enshrouded AGN phase, and finally evolve into optically bright "naked" quasars once they shed their gas/dust reservoirs through powerful wind events. We present the results of our recent 21- cm HI survey of 21 merger remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. These remnants were selected from the QUEST (Quasar/ULIRG Evolution Study) sample of ULIRGs and PG quasars; our targets are all bolometrically dominated by AGN and sample all phases of the proposed ULIRG -> IR-excess quasar -> optical quasar sequence. We explore whether there is an evolutionary connection between ULIRGs and quasars by looking for the occurrence of HI absorption tracing neutral gas outflows; our results will allow us to identify where along the sequence the majority of a merger's gas reservoir is expelled.

  9. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Luis A.

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N -2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  10. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps.

    PubMed

    Correa, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  11. Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators. PMID:24492860

  12. Acoustic Absorption in Porous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Johnston, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of both the areas of materials science and acoustics is necessary to successfully develop materials for acoustic absorption applications. This paper presents the basic knowledge and approaches for determining the acoustic performance of porous materials in a manner that will help materials researchers new to this area gain the understanding and skills necessary to make meaningful contributions to this field of study. Beginning with the basics and making as few assumptions as possible, this paper reviews relevant topics in the acoustic performance of porous materials, which are often used to make acoustic bulk absorbers, moving from the physics of sound wave interactions with porous materials to measurement techniques for flow resistivity, characteristic impedance, and wavenumber.

  13. Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Alonso, Daniel; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-02-01

    Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators.

  14. Cesium Absorption Spectrum Perturbed by Argon: Observation of Non-Lorentzian Wing Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    CESIUM ABSORPTION SPECTRUM PERTURBED BY ARGON : OBSERVATION OF NON-LORENTZIAN WING PROPERTIES THESIS Gordon E. Lott, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT...PERTURBED BY ARGON : OBSERVATION OF NON-LORENTZIAN WING PROPERTIES THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Physics Graduate School of...PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT / APPLPHY / ENP / 12-MOS CESIUM ABSORPTION SPECTRUM PERTURBED BY ARGON : OBSERVATION OF NON-LORENTZIAN

  15. In silico predictions of gastrointestinal drug absorption in pharmaceutical product development: application of the mechanistic absorption model GI-Sim.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, Erik; Westergren, Jan; Grant, Iain; Hanisch, Gunilla; Lindfors, Lennart; Lennernäs, Hans; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Tannergren, Christer

    2013-07-16

    Oral drug delivery is the predominant administration route for a major part of the pharmaceutical products used worldwide. Further understanding and improvement of gastrointestinal drug absorption predictions is currently a highly prioritized area of research within the pharmaceutical industry. The fraction absorbed (fabs) of an oral dose after administration of a solid dosage form is a key parameter in the estimation of the in vivo performance of an orally administrated drug formulation. This study discloses an evaluation of the predictive performance of the mechanistic physiologically based absorption model GI-Sim. GI-Sim deploys a compartmental gastrointestinal absorption and transit model as well as algorithms describing permeability, dissolution rate, salt effects, partitioning into micelles, particle and micelle drifting in the aqueous boundary layer, particle growth and amorphous or crystalline precipitation. Twelve APIs with reported or expected absorption limitations in humans, due to permeability, dissolution and/or solubility, were investigated. Predictions of the intestinal absorption for different doses and formulations were performed based on physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties, such as solubility in buffer and simulated intestinal fluid, molecular weight, pK(a), diffusivity and molecule density, measured or estimated human effective permeability and particle size distribution. The performance of GI-Sim was evaluated by comparing predicted plasma concentration-time profiles along with oral pharmacokinetic parameters originating from clinical studies in healthy individuals. The capability of GI-Sim to correctly predict impact of dose and particle size as well as the in vivo performance of nanoformulations was also investigated. The overall predictive performance of GI-Sim was good as >95% of the predicted pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max) and AUC) were within a 2-fold deviation from the clinical observations and the predicted plasma AUC

  16. Examination of the relationship between riometer-derived absorption and the integral proton flux in the context of modeling polar cap absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiori, R. A. D.; Danskin, D. W.

    2016-11-01

    Energetic protons can penetrate into the ionosphere increasing ionization in the D region causing polar cap absorption that may potentially block high-frequency radio communications for transpolar flights. The protons are guided by the geomagnetic field into the high-latitude polar cap region. Riometers monitor variations in ionospheric absorption by observing the level of background cosmic radio noise. Current polar cap absorption modeling techniques are based on the linear relationship between absorption and the square root of the integral proton flux, which has previously only been demonstrated using data from a single high-latitude polar station. The proportionality constant describing this relationship is evaluated for two different polar cap absorption events occurring 7-11 March 2012 and 23 January 2012 to 1 February 2012. Examination of the proportionality constant using data from riometers distributed between 60° and 90° magnetic latitude reveals a previously unreported latitudinal dependence for data at magnetic latitudes of ≤66.8° on the dayside and ≤70.8° on the nightside. Incorporating the latitudinal dependence into the current D Region Absorption Prediction absorption model improves the agreement between measurement-derived and modeled parameters by increasing the correlation coefficient between data sets, reducing the root-mean-square error, and reducing the bias.

  17. A new class of absorption feature in Io's near-infrared spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L. M.; Lester, D. F.; Ramseyer, T. F.; Salama, F.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    A relatively weak IR absorption feature detected at 1200 resolving power in Io at 2.1253 microns does not correspond to any gas- or solid-phase absorption expected on the basis of previously identified Io surface constituents. The source material of the feature appears to be stable and more uniformly distributed in longitude than Io's hot spots. These characteristics imply the feature's participation in a class different from those of other Io absorption spectrum features, thereby potentially serving as a major indicator of Io's atmosphere-surface composition and interactions. Results of laboratory experiments with plausible surface ices are compared with these observations.

  18. Effective photons in weakly absorptive dielectric media and the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, A. C.; Brownless, J. S.; Bhat, N. A. R.; Sipe, J. E.; Steel, M. J.; de Sterke, C. Martijn

    2014-04-01

    We derive effective photon modes that facilitate an intuitive and convenient picture of photon dynamics in a structured Kramers-Kronig dielectric in the limit of weak absorption. Each mode is associated with a mode field distribution that includes the effects of both material and structural dispersion, and an effective line-width that determines the temporal decay rate of the photon. These results are then applied to obtain an expression for the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law absorption coefficient for unidirectional propagation in structured media consisting of dispersive, weakly absorptive dielectric materials.

  19. Comparative QSAR studies on PAMPA/modified PAMPA for high throughput profiling of drug absorption potential with respect to Caco-2 cells and human intestinal absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P.; Hansch, Corwin; Selassie, Cynthia D.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in speed of synthesis and biological evaluation of new chemical entities, the number of compounds that survive the rigorous processes associated with drug development is low. Thus, an increased emphasis on thorough ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) studies based on in vitro and in silico approaches allows for early evaluation of new drugs in the development phase. Artificial membrane permeability measurements afford a high throughput, relatively low cost but labor intensive alternative for in vitro determination of drug absorption potential; parallel artificial membrane permeability assays have been extensively utilized to determine drug absorption potentials. The present study provides comparative QSAR analysis on PAMPA/modified PAMPA for high throughput profiling of drugs with respect to Caco-2 cells and human intestinal absorption.

  20. Analysis of frequency dependent pump light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlmuth, Matthias; Pflaum, Christoph

    2011-03-01

    Simulations have to accurately model thermal lensing in order to help improving resonator design of diode pumped solid state lasers. To this end, a precise description of the pump light absorption is an important prerequisite. In this paper, we discuss the frequency dependency of the pump light absorption in the laser crystal and its influence on the simulated laser performance. The results show that the pump light absorption has to include the spectral overlap of the emitting pump source and the absorbing laser material. This information can either be used for a fully frequency dependent absorption model or, at least in the shown examples, to compute an effective value for an exponential Beer-Lambert law of absorption. This is particularly significant at pump wavelengths coinciding with a peak of absorption. Consequences for laser stability and performance are analyzed for different pump wavelengths in a Nd:YAG laser.

  1. Studies of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for weak absorption gas measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liucheng; Duo, Liping; Gong, Deyu; Ma, Yanhua; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Yuanhu; Zhou, Dongjian; Jin, Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    In order to determine the concentrations of trace amount metastable species in chemical lasers, an off-axis cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer for the detection of weak absorption gases has been built with a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 1.6x10-8 cm-1. The absorption spectrum of trace amount gaseous ammonia and water vapor was obtained with a spectral resolution of about 78 MHz. A multiple-line absorption spectroscopic method to determine the temperature of gaseous ammonia has been developed by use of multiple lines of ammonia molecule absorption spectrum.

  2. Atomic absorption spectroscopy in ion channel screening.

    PubMed

    Stankovich, Larisa; Wicks, David; Despotovski, Sasko; Liang, Dong

    2004-10-01

    This article examines the utility of atomic absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with cold flux assays, to ion channel screening. The multiplicity of ion channels that can be interrogated using cold flux assays and atomic absorption spectroscopy is summarized. The importance of atomic absorption spectroscopy as a screening tool is further elaborated upon by providing examples of the relevance of ion channels to various physiological processes and targeted diseases.

  3. Absorption Coefficient of Alkaline Earth Halides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    levels . As a natural consequence, the magnitude of the absorption coefficient is the key parameter in selecting laser window materials. Over the past...of as can be achieved through improved crystal growing techniques and surface polishing. 2.5. Urbach’s Rule A central question for the development of...high absorption levels , inaccuracies progressively increasing with decreasing absorption level , a natural consequence of decreasing in instrumental

  4. Impact of MIE-Resonances on the Atmospheric Absorption of Water Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, W.; Kinne, S.; Nussenzveig, H.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Clouds strongly modulate radiative transfer processes in the Earth's atmosphere. Studies, which simulate bulk properties of clouds, such as absorption, require methods that accurately account for multiple scattering among individual cloud particles. Multiple scattering processes are well described by MIE-theory, if interacting particles have a spherical shape. This is a good assumption for water droplets. Thus, simulations for water clouds (especially for interactions with solar radiation) usually apply readily available MIE-codes. The presence of different drop-sizes, however, necessitates repetitive calculations for many sizes. The usual representation by a few sizes is likely to miss contributions from densely distributed, sharp resonances. Despite their usually narrow width, integrated over the entire size-spectrum of a cloud droplet distribution, the impact of missed resonances could add up. The consideration of these resonances tends to increase cloud extinction and cloud absorption. This mechanism for a larger (than by MIE-methods predicted) solar absorption has the potential to explain observational evidence of larger than predicted cloud absorption at solar wavelengths. The presentation will address the absorption impact of added resonances for typical properties of water clouds (e.g. drop size distributions, drop concentrations and cloud geometry). Special attention will be given to scenarios with observational evidence of law than simulated solar absorption; particularly if simultaneous measurements of cloud micro- and macrophysical properties are available.

  5. Ultra-Short Laser Absorption In Solid Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Harfouche, A.; Bendib, A.

    2008-09-23

    With the rapid development and continuously improving technology of subpicosecond laser pulse generation, new interesting physical problems are now investigated. Among them the laser light absorption in solid targets. During the interaction with solid targets, high intensity laser pulses are absorbed by electrons in optical skin depths, leading to rapid ionization before that significant ablation of solid material takes place. The ultra-short laser is absorbed in the overdense plasma through the electron-ion collisions (normal skin effect) or collisionless mechanisms (anomalous skin effect or sheath inverse bremsstrahlung). These two regimes depend on the laser intensity, the plasma temperature and the ionization state Z. In this work we solve numerically the Fokker-Planck equation to compute the electron distribution function in the skin layer. In the second step we compute the surface impedance and we deduce the absorption coefficient.

  6. An iron absorption model of gamma-ray burst spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Edison P.; Kargatis, Vincent E.

    1994-01-01

    Most gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibit deficits of X-rays below approximately 200 keV. Here we consider a spectral model in which the burst source is shielded by an optically thick layer of circumburster material (CBM) rich in iron-group elements whose photoelectric absorption opacity exceeds the Thomson opacity below approximately 120 keV. For power-law distributions of absorption depths along the lines of sight the absorbed spectrum can indeed mimic the typial GRB spectrum. This model predicts that (a) the spectrum should evolve monotonically from hard to soft during each energy release, which is observed in most bursts, especially in fast rise exponential decay bursts; (b) Fe spectral features near 7 keV may be present in some bursts; and (c) the ratio of burst distances to the CBM and to Earth should be approximately 10(exp -11) if the spectral evolution is purely due to Fe stripping by the photons.

  7. Absorption coefficient measurements of particle-laden filters using laser heating: Validation with nigrosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presser, Cary

    2012-05-01

    A laser-heating technique, referred as the laser-driven thermal reactor, was used in conjunction with laser transmissivity measurements to determine the absorption coefficient of particle-laden substrates (e.g., quartz-fiber filters). The novelty of this approach is that it analyzes a wide variety of specific samples (not just filtered samples) and overcomes measurement issues (e.g., absorption enhancement) associated with other filter-based particle absorption techniques. The absorption coefficient was determined for nigrosin-laden, quartz-fiber filters and the effect of the filter on the absorption measurements was estimated when compared to the isolated nigrosin results. The isolated nigrosin absorption coefficient compared favorably with Lorenz-Mie calculations for an idealized polydispersion of spherical particles (based on a measured nigronsin/de-ionized water suspension size distribution) dispersed throughout a volume equivalent to that of the nigrosin-laden filter. To validate the approach, the absorption coefficient of a nigrosin/de-ionized water suspension was in good agreement with results obtained from an ultraviolet/visible spectrometer. In addition, the estimated imaginary part of the refractive index from the Lorenz-Mie calculations compared well with literature values and was used to estimate the absorption coefficient of optically opaque packed nigrosin.

  8. Neural regulation of intestinal nutrient absorption.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Fadi H; Saadé, Nayef E

    2011-10-01

    The nervous system and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract share several common features including reciprocal interconnections and several neurotransmitters and peptides known as gut peptides, neuropeptides or hormones. The processes of digestion, secretion of digestive enzymes and then absorption are regulated by the neuro-endocrine system. Luminal glucose enhances its own absorption through a neuronal reflex that involves capsaicin sensitive primary afferent (CSPA) fibres. Absorbed glucose stimulates insulin release that activates hepatoenteric neural pathways leading to an increase in the expression of glucose transporters. Adrenergic innervation increases glucose absorption through α1 and β receptors and decreases absorption through activation of α2 receptors. The vagus nerve plays an important role in the regulation of diurnal variation in transporter expression and in anticipation to food intake. Vagal CSPAs exert tonic inhibitory effects on amino acid absorption. It also plays an important role in the mediation of the inhibitory effect of intestinal amino acids on their own absorption at the level of proximal or distal segment. However, chronic extrinsic denervation leads to a decrease in intestinal amino acid absorption. Conversely, adrenergic agonists as well as activation of CSPA fibres enhance peptides uptake through the peptide transporter PEPT1. Finally, intestinal innervation plays a minimal role in the absorption of fat digestion products. Intestinal absorption of nutrients is a basic vital mechanism that depends essentially on the function of intestinal mucosa. However, intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms that rely on several redundant loops are involved in immediate and long-term control of the outcome of intestinal function.

  9. Sulphur trioxide absorption apparatus and process

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, G.M.

    1987-03-31

    This patent describes a contact process for producing a concentrated sulphuric acid from dry sulphur dioxide and oxygen containing mixtures which employs the absorption of sulphur trioxide from a hot, dry gas stream containing sulphur trioxide into at least one sulphuric acid stream. The improvement described here comprises: (a) feeding the gas stream to a lower packed absorption zone contained within an absorption tower; (b) feeding a first sulphuric acid stream to the lower absorption zone to effect absorption of a major portion of the sulphur trioxide from the gas stream into the first sulphuric acid stream to produce a first enriched sulphuric acid stream and a depleted sulphur trioxide gas stream; (c) feeding the depleted sulphur trioxide gas stream to an upper packed absorption zone above the lower absorption zone within the tower; and (d) feeding a second sulphuric acid stream to the upper absorption zone to effect absorption of substantially all of the sulphur trioxide remaining in the depleted sulphur trioxide gas stream to produce a second enriched sulphuric acid stream and a substantially sulphur trioxide-free gas stream.

  10. Study of Evanescence Wave Absorption in Lindane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, A.; Prasetyo, E.; Gitrin, M. P.; Suryanti, V.

    2017-02-01

    Evanescent wave field has been studied for the purpose of tailoring fiber sensor capable of detecting lindane concentration in a solution. The mounted fiber was optically polished such that part of the fiber clad is stripped off. To study the evanescent wave field absorption in lindane solution, the unclad fiber was immersed in the solution. Light coming out of the fiber was studied at different wavelength each for different lindane concentration. It was shown that evanescent wave field absorption is stronger at wavelength corresponding to lindane absorption band as has been shown from absorption studies lindane in UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer.

  11. Terahertz wave absorption via preformed air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ji; Zhang, LiangLiang; Wu, Tong; Zhang, CunLin; Zhao, YueJin

    2016-12-01

    Terahertz wave generation from laser-induced air plasma has continued to be an exciting field of research over the course of the past decade. In this paper, we report on an investigation concerning terahertz wave absorption with preformed plasma created by another laser pulse. We examine terahertz absorption behavior by varying the pump power and then analyze the polarization effect of the preplasma beam on terahertz wave absorption. The results of experiments conducted in which a type-I beta barium borate (BBO) crystal is placed before the preformed air plasma indicate that the fundamental (ω) and second harmonic (2ω) pulses can also influence terahertz absorption.

  12. Uncertainty analysis for absorption and first-derivative EPR spectra.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2012-11-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experimental techniques produce absorption or first-derivative spectra. Uncertainty analysis provides the basis for comparison of spectra obtained by different methods. In this study it was used to derive analytical equations to relate uncertainties for integrated intensity and line widths obtained from absorption or first-derivative spectra to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), with the assumption of white noise. Predicted uncertainties for integrated intensities and line widths are in good agreement with Monte Carlo calculations for Lorentzian and Gaussian lineshapes. Conservative low-pass filtering changes the noise spectrum, which can be modeled in the Monte Carlo simulations. When noise is close to white, the analytical equations provide useful estimates of uncertainties. For example, for a Lorentzian line with white noise, the uncertainty in the number of spins obtained from the first-derivative spectrum is 2.6 times greater than from the absorption spectrum at the same SNR. Uncertainties in line widths obtained from absorption and first-derivative spectra are similar. The impact of integration or differentiation on SNR and on uncertainties in fitting parameters was analyzed. Although integration of the first-derivative spectrum improves the apparent smoothness of the spectrum, it also changes the frequency distribution of the noise. If the lineshape of the signal is known, the integrated intensity can be determined more accurately by fitting the first-derivative spectrum than by first integrating and then fitting the absorption spectrum. Uncertainties in integrated intensities and line widths are less when the parameters are determined from the original data than from spectra that have been either integrated or differentiated.

  13. Microwave Power Absorption in Materials for Ferrous Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Li, Zhizhong; Lin, Xiaolong; Yang, Mengshen; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The characteristics of microwave power absorption in materials for ferrous metallurgy, including iron oxides (Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and Fe0.925O) and bitumite, were explored by evaluating their dielectric loss ( Q E) and/or magnetic loss ( Q H) distributions in the 0.05-m-thick slabs of the corresponding materials exposed to 1.2-kW and 2.45-GHz microwave radiation at temperatures below 1100°C. It is revealed that the dielectric loss contributes primarily to the power absorption in Fe2O3, Fe0.925O and the bitumite at all of the examined temperatures. Their Q E values at room temperature and slab surface are 9.1311 × 103 W m-3, 23.7025 × 103 W m-3, and 49.5999 × 103 W m-3, respectively, showing that the materials have the following heating rate initially under microwave irradiation: bitumite > Fe0.925O > Fe2O3. Compared with the other materials, Fe3O4 has much stronger power absorption, primarily originated from its magnetic loss (e.g., Q H = 1.0615 × 106 W m-3, Q H/ Q E = 2.4185 at 24°C and slab surface), below its Curie point, above which the magnetic susceptibility approaches to zero, thereby causing a very small Q H value at even the surface ( Q H = 1.0416 × 105 W m-3 at 880°C). It is also demonstrated that inhomogeneous power distributions occur in all the slabs and become more pronounced with increasing temperature mainly due to rapid increase in permittivity. Characterizing power absorption in the oxides and the coal is expected to offer a strategic guide for improving use of microwave energy in ferrous metallurgy.

  14. Microwave Power Absorption in Materials for Ferrous Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Li, Zhizhong; Lin, Xiaolong; Yang, Mengshen; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    The characteristics of microwave power absorption in materials for ferrous metallurgy, including iron oxides (Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and Fe0.925O) and bitumite, were explored by evaluating their dielectric loss (Q E) and/or magnetic loss (Q H) distributions in the 0.05-m-thick slabs of the corresponding materials exposed to 1.2-kW and 2.45-GHz microwave radiation at temperatures below 1100°C. It is revealed that the dielectric loss contributes primarily to the power absorption in Fe2O3, Fe0.925O and the bitumite at all of the examined temperatures. Their Q E values at room temperature and slab surface are 9.1311 × 103 W m-3, 23.7025 × 103 W m-3, and 49.5999 × 103 W m-3, respectively, showing that the materials have the following heating rate initially under microwave irradiation: bitumite > Fe0.925O > Fe2O3. Compared with the other materials, Fe3O4 has much stronger power absorption, primarily originated from its magnetic loss (e.g., Q H = 1.0615 × 106 W m-3, Q H/Q E = 2.4185 at 24°C and slab surface), below its Curie point, above which the magnetic susceptibility approaches to zero, thereby causing a very small Q H value at even the surface (Q H = 1.0416 × 105 W m-3 at 880°C). It is also demonstrated that inhomogeneous power distributions occur in all the slabs and become more pronounced with increasing temperature mainly due to rapid increase in permittivity. Characterizing power absorption in the oxides and the coal is expected to offer a strategic guide for improving use of microwave energy in ferrous metallurgy.

  15. Fluid absorption solar energy receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A conventional solar dynamic system transmits solar energy to the flowing fluid of a thermodynamic cycle through structures which contain the gas and thermal energy storage material. Such a heat transfer mechanism dictates that the structure operate at a higher temperature than the fluid. This investigation reports on a fluid absorption receiver where only a part of the solar energy is transmitted to the structure. The other part is absorbed directly by the fluid. By proportioning these two heat transfer paths the energy to the structure can preheat the fluid, while the energy absorbed directly by the fluid raises the fluid to its final working temperature. The surface temperatures need not exceed the output temperature of the fluid. This makes the output temperature of the gas the maximum temperature in the system. The gas can have local maximum temperatures higher than the output working temperature. However local high temperatures are quickly equilibrated, and since the gas does not emit radiation, local high temperatures do not result in a radiative heat loss. Thermal radiation, thermal conductivity, and heat exchange with the gas all help equilibrate the surface temperature.

  16. The absorption of polymeric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řídký, R.; Popovič, M.; Rolc, S.; Drdlová, M.; Krátký, J.

    2016-06-01

    An absorption capacity of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates is important for wide range of practical applications. Nowadays there are many variants of numerical models suitable for this kind of analysis. The main difficulty is in selection of the most realistic numerical model and a correct setup of many unknown material constants. Cooperation between theoretical simulations and real testing is next crucial point in the investigation process. Standard open source material database offer material properties valid for strain rates less than 250 s-1. There are experiments suitable for analysis of material properties with strain rates close to 2000 s-1. The high strain-rate characteristics of a specific porous blast energy absorbing material measured by modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus is presented in this study. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. One of the possible solution leads to complex and frequency depended Young modulus of testing bars material. This testing technique was applied to materials composed of porous glass/ceramic filler and polymeric binder, with density of 125 - 300 kg/m3 and particle size in range of 50 µm - 2 mm. The achieved material model was verified in practical application of sandwich structure includes polymeric composites under a blast test.

  17. Extending the ADM formalism to Weyl geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Barreto, A. B.; Almeida, T. S.; Romero, C.

    2015-03-26

    In order to treat quantum cosmology in the framework of Weyl spacetimes we take the first step of extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism to Weyl geometry. We then obtain an expression of the curvature tensor in terms of spatial quantities by splitting spacetime in (3+l)-dimensional form. We next write the Lagrangian of the gravitation field based in Weyl-type gravity theory. We extend the general relativistic formalism in such a way that it can be applied to investigate the quantum cosmology of models whose spacetimes are endowed with a Weyl geometrical structure.

  18. Comparison of Laboratory Measured BCFs, BMFs, and BSAFs to Field Measured BAFs, BMFs, and BSAFs

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of workshops on bioaccumulation science and issues have been held since 2005, and the foci of these past workshops were1) Bioaccumulation Data Sources, 2) In Vitro/ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) in Bioaccumulation Assessments, and 3) Bioaccumu...

  19. Do Atoms Really "Emit" Absorption Lines?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecher, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    Presents three absorption line sources that enhance student understanding of the phenomena associated with the interaction of light with matter and help dispel the misconception that atoms "emit" absorption lines. Sources include neodymium, food coloring and other common household liquids, and fluorescent materials. (MDH)

  20. Iron absorption from intrinsically-labeled lentils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low iron (Fe) absorption from important staple foods may contribute to Fe deficiency in developing countries. To date, there are few studies examining the Fe bioavailability of pulse crops as commonly prepared and consumed by humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the Fe absorpt...