Science.gov

Sample records for administered ad libitum

  1. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  2. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive, directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Eleven cannabis smokers resided in a closed research unit for 51 days, and underwent four, 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00 h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00-22:00 h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over the study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (Δtime; range, 0.0-17.4 h) and ≥88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30 min of smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689 µg/L, 116 µg/L, and 147 ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4 µg/L, 2.4 µg/L, and 87.6 ng/L after 10 h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by Δtime and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance. PMID:25220020

  3. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum cannabis smoking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Oral fluid (OF) offers a simple, non-invasive, directly observable sample collection for clinical and forensic drug testing. Given that chronic cannabis smokers often engage in drug administration multiple times daily, evaluating OF cannabinoid pharmacokinetics during ad libitum smoking is important for practical development of analytical methods and informed interpretation of test results. Eleven cannabis smokers resided in a closed research unit for 51 days, and underwent four, 5-day oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatments. Each medication period was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking from 12:00 to 23:00 h daily. Ten OF samples were collected from 9:00-22:00 h on each of the last ad libitum smoking days (Study Days 4, 18, 32, and 46). As the number of cannabis cigarettes smoked increased over the study days, OF THC, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) also increased with a significant effect of time since last smoking (Δtime; range, 0.0-17.4 h) and ≥88% detection rates; concentrations on Day 4 were significantly lower than those on Days 32 and 46 but not Day 18. Within 30 min of smoking, median THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations were 689 µg/L, 116 µg/L, and 147 ng/L, respectively, decreasing to 19.4 µg/L, 2.4 µg/L, and 87.6 ng/L after 10 h. Cannabidiol and 11-hydroxy-THC showed overall lower detection rates of 29 and 8.6%, respectively. Cannabinoid disposition in OF was highly influenced by Δtime and composition of smoked cannabis. Furthermore, cannabinoid OF concentrations increased over ad libitum smoking days, in parallel with increased cannabis self-administration, possibly reflecting development of increased cannabis tolerance.

  4. Brisk walking reduces ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters during a workplace simulation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hwajung; Taylor, Adrian H

    2012-02-01

    Workplace snacking can contribute to obesity. Exercise reduces chocolate cravings but effects on chocolate consumption are unknown. This study investigated the effect of brief exercise on ad libitum consumption during breaks in a computerised task. Seventy-eight regular chocolate eaters, age: 24.90±8.15 years, BMI: 23.56±3.78 kg/m(2) abstained for 2 days. They were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, involving either a 15 min brisk walk or quiet rest, and then computerised Stroop tasks with low or high demanding conditions, in three 180 s blocks with a 90 s interval. Throughout, a pre-weighed bowl of chocolates was available for ad libitum eating. A two-way ANOVA revealed no interaction effect of exercise and stress on total chocolate consumption, or main effect of stress, but a main effect of exercise [F(1, 74)=7.12, p<.01]. Mean (SD) chocolate consumption was less (t(73.5)=2.69, 95% CI for difference 3.4-22.9, ES=0.61) for the exercise (15.6 g) than control (28.8 g) group. Exercise also increased affective activation, but there was no mediating effect of change in affect on chocolate consumption. A brief walk may help to reduce ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters. PMID:22100187

  5. Walking reduces cue-elicited cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and delays ad libitum smoking.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adrian; Katomeri, Magdalena

    2007-11-01

    Stress and exposure to smoking cues influence smoking cravings and behavior. Exercise appears to reduce cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms, but no study has investigated the effects of exercise on cue-elicited cravings and withdrawal symptoms, or ad libitum smoking behavior. In this study, 60 regular smokers, invited by public advertisements, were assessed at baseline following 2 hr of abstinence, and randomized to a 15-min brisk walk or passive condition. Both groups then completed three tasks (Stroop color-word interference task, speech task, and handling a lit cigarette). Cravings were assessed with two single items, and withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the seven-item Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale. After the laboratory session, ad libitum smoking was determined from the subject's cell phone text message. Exercise (mean heart rate reserve = 24%) attenuated increases in strength of desire to smoke, tension, poor concentration, and stress, in response to a lit cigarette, but had minimal effects on increases in cravings and withdrawal symptoms in response to the stressors. Absolute levels of cravings and withdrawal symptoms were reduced during and following exercise. Exercisers engaged in ad libitum smoking a net 57 min (CI = 31-83) later than those in the passive condition. A 15-min brisk walk not only reduced cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms but also could attenuate increases in cue-elicited cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and increase the time between cigarettes smoked.

  6. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake.

  7. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise. PMID:24971700

  8. Effect of exercise on cigarette cravings and ad libitum smoking following concurrent stressors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Angela J; De Jesus, Stefanie; Bray, Steven R; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-10-01

    The health consequences of smoking are well documented, yet quit rates are modest. While exercise has supported decreased cravings and withdrawal symptoms in temporarily abstinent smokers, it has yet to be applied when smokers are experiencing concurrent stressors. This study examined the effect of an acute bout of moderate intensity exercise on cravings (primary outcome) and ad libitum smoking (secondary outcome) following concurrent stressors (i.e., temporary abstinence and environmental manipulation-Stroop cognitive task+cue-elicited smoking stimuli). Twenty-five smokers (>10cig/day; Mean age=37.4years) were randomized into either exercise (n=12) or passive sitting conditions. A repeated measure (RM) ANOVA showed that psychological withdrawal symptoms (a measure of distress) were significantly exacerbated after temporary abstinence and then again after the environmental manipulation for all participants (p<.0001, η(2)=.50). Furthermore, a treatment by time RM ANOVA revealed decreases in psychological withdrawal symptoms for only the exercise condition (p<.001, η(2)=.42). A treatment by time RM ANOVA also revealed craving reductions for only the exercise condition (p<.0001, η(2)=.82). Exercise had no effect on ad libitum smoking. This is the first study to use a lab-based scenario with high ecological validity to show that an acute bout of exercise can reduce cravings following concurrent stressors. Future work is now needed where momentary assessment is used in people's natural environment to examine changes in cigarette cravings following acute bouts of exercise.

  9. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics After Controlled Smoking and Ad libitum Cannabis Smoking in Chronic Frequent Users.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J; Queiroz, Regina H C; Vandrey, Ryan; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-10-01

    More Americans are dependent on cannabis than any other illicit drug. The main analytes for cannabis testing include the primary psychoactive constituent, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), equipotent 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Eleven adult chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit with unlimited access to 5.9% THC cannabis cigarettes from 12:00 to 23:00 during two ad libitum smoking phases, followed by a 5-day abstinence period in seven participants. A single cigarette was smoked under controlled topography on the last day of the smoking and abstinence phases. Plasma cannabinoids were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Median plasma maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 28.3 (THC), 3.9 (11-OH-THC) and 47.0 μg/L (THCCOOH) 0.5 h after controlled single cannabis smoking. Median Cmax 0.2-0.5 h after ad libitum smoking was higher for all analytes: 83.5 (THC), 14.2 (11-OH-THC) and 155 μg/L (THCCOOH). All 11 participants' plasma samples were THC and THCCOOH-positive, 58.3% had THC ≥5 μg/L and 79.2% were 11-OH-THC-positive 8.1-14 h after last cannabis smoking. Cannabinoid detection rates in seven participants 106-112 h (4-5 days) after last smoking were 92.9 (THC), 35.7 (11-OH-THC) and 100% (THCCOOH), with limits of quantification of 0.5 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH, and 1.0 μg/L for 11-OH-THC. These data greatly expand prior research findings on cannabinoid excretion profiles in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum smoking. Smoking multiple cannabis cigarettes led to higher Cmax and AUC compared with smoking a single cigarette. The chronic frequent cannabis smokers exhibited extended detection windows for plasma cannabinoids, reflecting a large cannabinoid body burden. PMID:26378131

  10. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics After Controlled Smoking and Ad libitum Cannabis Smoking in Chronic Frequent Users

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J.; Queiroz, Regina H.C.; Vandrey, Ryan; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    More Americans are dependent on cannabis than any other illicit drug. The main analytes for cannabis testing include the primary psychoactive constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), equipotent 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Eleven adult chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit with unlimited access to 5.9% THC cannabis cigarettes from 12:00 to 23:00 during two ad libitum smoking phases, followed by a 5-day abstinence period in seven participants. A single cigarette was smoked under controlled topography on the last day of the smoking and abstinence phases. Plasma cannabinoids were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Median plasma maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 28.3 (THC), 3.9 (11-OH-THC) and 47.0 μg/L (THCCOOH) 0.5 h after controlled single cannabis smoking. Median Cmax 0.2–0.5 h after ad libitum smoking was higher for all analytes: 83.5 (THC), 14.2 (11-OH-THC) and 155 μg/L (THCCOOH). All 11 participants' plasma samples were THC and THCCOOH-positive, 58.3% had THC ≥5 μg/L and 79.2% were 11-OH-THC-positive 8.1–14 h after last cannabis smoking. Cannabinoid detection rates in seven participants 106–112 h (4–5 days) after last smoking were 92.9 (THC), 35.7 (11-OH-THC) and 100% (THCCOOH), with limits of quantification of 0.5 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH, and 1.0 μg/L for 11-OH-THC. These data greatly expand prior research findings on cannabinoid excretion profiles in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum smoking. Smoking multiple cannabis cigarettes led to higher Cmax and AUC compared with smoking a single cigarette. The chronic frequent cannabis smokers exhibited extended detection windows for plasma cannabinoids, reflecting a large cannabinoid body burden. PMID:26378131

  11. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics After Controlled Smoking and Ad libitum Cannabis Smoking in Chronic Frequent Users.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J; Queiroz, Regina H C; Vandrey, Ryan; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-10-01

    More Americans are dependent on cannabis than any other illicit drug. The main analytes for cannabis testing include the primary psychoactive constituent, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), equipotent 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Eleven adult chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit with unlimited access to 5.9% THC cannabis cigarettes from 12:00 to 23:00 during two ad libitum smoking phases, followed by a 5-day abstinence period in seven participants. A single cigarette was smoked under controlled topography on the last day of the smoking and abstinence phases. Plasma cannabinoids were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Median plasma maximum concentrations (Cmax) were 28.3 (THC), 3.9 (11-OH-THC) and 47.0 μg/L (THCCOOH) 0.5 h after controlled single cannabis smoking. Median Cmax 0.2-0.5 h after ad libitum smoking was higher for all analytes: 83.5 (THC), 14.2 (11-OH-THC) and 155 μg/L (THCCOOH). All 11 participants' plasma samples were THC and THCCOOH-positive, 58.3% had THC ≥5 μg/L and 79.2% were 11-OH-THC-positive 8.1-14 h after last cannabis smoking. Cannabinoid detection rates in seven participants 106-112 h (4-5 days) after last smoking were 92.9 (THC), 35.7 (11-OH-THC) and 100% (THCCOOH), with limits of quantification of 0.5 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH, and 1.0 μg/L for 11-OH-THC. These data greatly expand prior research findings on cannabinoid excretion profiles in chronic frequent cannabis smokers during ad libitum smoking. Smoking multiple cannabis cigarettes led to higher Cmax and AUC compared with smoking a single cigarette. The chronic frequent cannabis smokers exhibited extended detection windows for plasma cannabinoids, reflecting a large cannabinoid body burden.

  12. Spending one's time: the hedonic principle in ad libitum viewing of pictures.

    PubMed

    Kron, Assaf; Pilkiw, Maryna; Goldstein, Ariel; Lee, Daniel H; Gardhouse, Katherine; Anderson, Adam K

    2014-12-01

    The hedonic principle maintains that humans strive to maximize pleasant feelings and avoid unpleasant feelings. Surprisingly, and contrary to hedonic logic, previous experiments have demonstrated a relationship between picture viewing time and arousal (activation) but not with valence (pleasure vs. displeasure), suggesting that arousal rather than the hedonic principle accounts for how individuals choose to spend their time. In 2 experiments we investigated the arousal and hedonic principles underlying viewing time behavior while controlling for familiarity with stimuli, picture complexity, and demand characteristics. Under ad libitum conditions of picture viewing, we found strong relationships between viewing time, valence, and facial corrugator electomyographic (EMG) activity with familiar but not novel pictures. Viewing time of novel stimuli was largely associated with arousal and visual complexity. We conclude that only after initial information about the stimulus is gathered, where we choose to spend our time is guided by the hedonic principle.

  13. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat.

    PubMed

    Berkulo, Meriam A R; Bol, Susan; Levels, Koen; Lamberts, Robert P; Daanen, Hein A M; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and two 40-km cycling TTs hypohydrated. During one hypohydrated trial no fluid was ingested (HYPO), during the other trial ad-libitum water ingestion was allowed (FLUID). Ambient temperature was 35.2 ± 0.2 °C, relative humidity 51 ± 3% and airflow 7 m·s(-1). Body mass (BM) was determined at the start of the test, and before and after the TT. During the TT, power output, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thermal comfort and thirst sensation were measured. Prior to the start of the TT, BM was 1.2% lower in HYPO and FLUID compared to EU. During the TT, BM loss in FLUID was lower compared to EU and HYPO (1.0 ± 0.8%, 2.7 ± 0.2% and 2.6 ± 0.3%, respectively). Hydration status had no effect on power output (EU: 223 ± 32 W, HYPO: 217 ± 39 W, FLUID: 224 ± 35 W), HR, gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, RPE, thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Thirst sensation was higher in HYPO than in EU and FLUID. It was concluded that hypohydration did not adversely affect performance during a 40-km cycling TT in the heat. Therefore, whether or not participants consumed fluid during exercise did not influence their TT performance.

  14. Comparison of behaviour, performance and mortality in restricted and ad libitum-fed growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, A; Abdel-Khalek, A M; Ramon, J; Piles, M; Sanchez, J P; Velarde, A; Rafel, O

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether rabbits fed in a restricted regimen (75%) showed increased competition for feeding, drinking and use of specific areas of the cages as compared with those provided feed ad libitum. This evaluation was carried out by measuring their space utilisation in the cage, the incidence of agonistic behaviour and rates of mortality. In total, 504 rabbits between 31 and 66 days of age were used in this study. A total of 200 heavy-weight rabbits and 56 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 32 cages, each cage containing eight rabbits: 25 cages housing heavy rabbits and seven cages housing the light-weight ones. They were all fed ad libitum (AD). In addition, a total of 208 heavy-weight rabbits and 40 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 31 cages, each of them containing eight rabbits: 26 cages housing heavy weight rabbits and five cages housing light-weight ones. They were all fed a restricted diet (R) regimen. The restriction was calculated to be 75% of the feed consumed by the AD group. The total space available in the cage was 3252 cm(2), with a stocking density of 24.6 animals/m(2). Animals between 32 and 60 days of age from 20 different cages were observed nine times per week (morning or afternoon) by means of scan and focal sampling by one observer. During each period, cages were assessed for 5 min, registering every minute the position of all the animals in relation to Area A (feeder), Area B (central part) or Area C (back and drinker area). The incidence of agonistic behaviour such as displacement, biting and jumping on each other was also assessed. Performance variables such as daily gain and feed conversion ratio, in addition to general health status and mortality rates, were recorded for all rabbits. When the rabbits were under restricted feeding, the competition for feed and drink increased with clear signs of agonistic behaviour such as biting, displacement and animals jumping on top of each other

  15. Comparison of behaviour, performance and mortality in restricted and ad libitum-fed growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, A; Abdel-Khalek, A M; Ramon, J; Piles, M; Sanchez, J P; Velarde, A; Rafel, O

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether rabbits fed in a restricted regimen (75%) showed increased competition for feeding, drinking and use of specific areas of the cages as compared with those provided feed ad libitum. This evaluation was carried out by measuring their space utilisation in the cage, the incidence of agonistic behaviour and rates of mortality. In total, 504 rabbits between 31 and 66 days of age were used in this study. A total of 200 heavy-weight rabbits and 56 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 32 cages, each cage containing eight rabbits: 25 cages housing heavy rabbits and seven cages housing the light-weight ones. They were all fed ad libitum (AD). In addition, a total of 208 heavy-weight rabbits and 40 light-weight rabbits were randomly housed in 31 cages, each of them containing eight rabbits: 26 cages housing heavy weight rabbits and five cages housing light-weight ones. They were all fed a restricted diet (R) regimen. The restriction was calculated to be 75% of the feed consumed by the AD group. The total space available in the cage was 3252 cm(2), with a stocking density of 24.6 animals/m(2). Animals between 32 and 60 days of age from 20 different cages were observed nine times per week (morning or afternoon) by means of scan and focal sampling by one observer. During each period, cages were assessed for 5 min, registering every minute the position of all the animals in relation to Area A (feeder), Area B (central part) or Area C (back and drinker area). The incidence of agonistic behaviour such as displacement, biting and jumping on each other was also assessed. Performance variables such as daily gain and feed conversion ratio, in addition to general health status and mortality rates, were recorded for all rabbits. When the rabbits were under restricted feeding, the competition for feed and drink increased with clear signs of agonistic behaviour such as biting, displacement and animals jumping on top of each other

  16. Evidence for hepatic involvement in control of ad libitum food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M I; Sawchenko, P E

    1984-07-01

    Sectioning the hepatic branch of the anterior abdominal vagal trunk attenuated but did not abolish the normal nocturnal bias in the day-night distribution of food intake in female rats. Neither total daily food intake nor body weight was affected by hepatic vagotomy. This effect appeared to be specific to the hepatic branch of the nerve because sectioning the remaining (gastric and celiac) abdominal vagal branches did not influence daily feeding rhythms and appeared to be specific to feeding behavior, because the day-night rhythms of drinking behavior and wheel-running activity were not affected by hepatic vagotomy. In male rats, hepatic vagotomy also produced an increase in daytime food consumption but without commensurate reduction in nighttime eating. As a result, male rats with hepatic vagotomy displayed a modest chronic hyperphagia and body weight gain, which was associated primarily with increased linear growth. The effect of nerve section on daytime food intake was expressed quite rapidly. Daytime food intake increased within 8 h after hepatic vagotomy, which was produced at light onset by pulling on a previously implanted suture. Collectively, these results demonstrate that hepatic vagotomy changes daily feeding rhythms and suggest that the liver and perhaps its vagal innervation are involved in the control of ad libitum eating behavior.

  17. Predicting ad libitum dry matter intake and yields of Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Holter, J B; West, J W; McGilliard, M L; Pell, A N

    1996-05-01

    Two data files were used that contained weekly mean values for ad libitum DMI of lactating Jersey cows along with appropriate cow, ration, and environmental traits for predicting DMI. One data file (n = 666) was used to develop prediction equations for DMI because that file represented a number of separate experiments and contained more diversity in potential predictors, especially those related to ration, such as forage type. The other data file (n = 1613) was used primarily to verify these equations. Milk protein yield displaced 4% FCM output as a prediction variable and improved the R2 by several units but was not used in the final equations, however, for the sake of simplicity. All equations contained adjustments for the effects of heat stress, parity (1 vs. > 1), DIM > 15, BW, use of recombinant bST, and other significant independent variables. Equations were developed to predict DMI of cows fed individually or in groups and to predict daily yields of 4% FCM and milk protein; equations accounted for 0.69, 0.74, 0.81, and 0.76 of the variation in the dependent variables with standard deviations of 1.7, 1.6, 2.7, and 0.084 kg/ d, respectively. These equations should be applied to the development of software for computerized dairy ration balancing.

  18. Food intake and blood glucose in normal and diabetic cats fed ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Martin, G J; Rand, J S

    1999-12-01

    Ten diabetic cats were studied at intervals for up to 12 months with twice-daily insulin injections. Ten clinically healthy cats were also studied. Diets fed were based on the individual cat's performance, using mainly commercial dry or canned cat foods and fresh meat. In most cases more than one food was offered. Food was given fresh twice daily, and the cats allowed to eat ad libitum. The food intake and blood glucose were measured every 2 h in diabetic cats after insulin injection and in diabetic and normal cats without insulin injections. Food was quantified by the energy consumed (kJ ME), crude protein (g), crude fat (g), and carbohydrate (g). The blood glucose in 10 diabetic cats was measured for 2 h following a 20-min meal. Both diabetic cats and normal cats showed similar patterns of eating, with a higher food intake in the 2 h after fresh food was placed. Both groups of cats ate multiple small meals spread through the day and night. There was little or no correlation between the blood glucose and the amount of food consumed over the previous 2-h period, in insulin- or non-insulin-treated diabetic cats, or in normal cats. An overnight fast did not significantly alter morning blood glucose in diabetic cats. No demonstrable appetite stimulation occurred following an occurrence of low blood glucose; however, recorded incidences were few. No post-prandial hyperglycaemia was seen in the 10 diabetic cats during a 2-h period following the ingestion of typical cat foods.

  19. Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.

    PubMed

    Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in exercise and rest conditions (1648 ± 950, 1216 ± 633 kcal, respectively) compared with women (591 ± 183, 590 ± 231 kcal, respectively). Relative energy intake was significantly lower (P < 0.05) after exercise compared with rest in men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex.

  20. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity. PMID:26647154

  1. A return to ad libitum feeding following caloric restriction promotes hepatic steatosis in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Linden, Melissa A; Fletcher, Justin A; Meers, Grace M; Thyfault, John P; Laughlin, M Harold; Rector, R Scott

    2016-09-01

    Hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats develop obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but lifestyle modifications, such as caloric restriction (CR), can prevent these conditions. We sought to determine if prior CR had protective effects on metabolic health and NAFLD development following a 4-wk return to ad libitum (AL) feeding. Four-week-old male OLETF rats (n = 8-10/group) were fed AL for 16 wk (O-AL), CR for 16 wk (O-CR; ∼70% kcal of O-AL), or CR for 12 wk followed by 4 wk of AL feeding (O-AL4wk). CR-induced benefit in prevention of NAFLD, including reduced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and markers of Kupffer cell activation/number, was largely lost in AL4wk rats. These findings occurred in conjunction with a partial loss of CR-induced beneficial effects on obesity and serum triglycerides in O-AL4wk rats, but in the absence of changes in serum glucose or insulin. CR-induced increases in hepatic mitochondrial respiration remained significantly elevated (P < 0.01) in O-AL4wk compared with O-AL rats, while mitochondrial [1-(14)C]palmitate oxidation, citrate synthase activity, and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity did not differ among OLETF groups. NAFLD development in O-AL4wk rats was accompanied by increases in the protein content of the de novo lipogenesis markers fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and decreases in phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC)/ACC compared with O-CR rats (P < 0.05 for each). The beneficial effects of chronic CR on NAFLD development were largely lost with 4 wk of AL feeding in the hyperphagic OLETF rat, highlighting the importance of maintaining energy balance in the prevention of NAFLD. PMID:27445343

  2. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity.

  3. The interdependence of glycolytic and pentose cycle intermediates in ad libitum fed rats.

    PubMed

    Casazza, J P; Veech, R L

    1986-01-15

    .0008. These data indicate the interdependence of the liver content of glycolytic intermediates and pentose cycle intermediates in ad libitum fed rats.

  4. Biomedical responses of rats to chronic exposure to dietary cadmium fed in ad libitum and equalized regimes.

    PubMed

    Cousins, R J; Squibb, K S; Feldman, S L; de Bari, A; Silbon, B L

    1977-03-01

    Forty 100 g male rats were fed, in groups of eight, either 0, 5, or 25 ppm cadmium in a purified diet for 14 wk. Three groups were fed each of the levels of cadmium on an ad libitum basis. Two other groups were fed either 0 or 5 ppm cadmium in amounts that were equalized to that consumed by the 25 ppm group fed ad libitum. Cadmium ingestion decreased daily diet consumption, weight gain, and terminal body weight. These parameters were not significantly different in rats whose diet consumption was equalized. Packed cell volume and serum iron as well as serum zinc were decreased in the rats fed 25 ppm cadmium. These effects were not related to diet intake. No major differences were observed in serum ceruloplasmin, glucose, protein, leucine aminopeptidase activity, or copper in any of the groups. Blood urea nitrogen and renal leucine aminopeptidase activity were decreased by cadmium ingestion in the rats fed ad libitum only. In contrast, serum alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated by cadmium in the equalized-intake groups only. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were elevated and the iron concentration was decreased in the kidney, liver, and intestinal mucosa of the cadmium-fed rats irrespective of level of diet consumption. The increased uptake of cadmium in these tissues was coincident with the increased content of the cadmium-binding protein, metallothionein, in the cytosol fraction. The results indicate that some parameters of chronic cadmium toxicity are associated with diet consumption whereas others are not.

  5. On-demand antimicrobial release from a temperature-sensitive polymer - comparison with ad libitum release from central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Sjollema, Jelmer; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Abeln, Caroline; van der Mei, Henny C; van Asseldonk, Dirk; Busscher, Henk J

    2014-08-28

    Antimicrobial releasing biomaterial coatings have found application for instance in the fixation of orthopedic joint prostheses and central venous catheters. Most frequently, the release kinetics is such that antimicrobially-effective concentrations are only reached within the first days to weeks after implantation, leaving no local antimicrobial release available when a biomaterial-associated infection occurs later. Here we compare the ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a central venous catheter with their release from a new, on-demand release coating consisting of a temperature-sensitive copolymer of styrene and n-butyl (meth)acrylate. The copolymer can be loaded with an antimicrobial, which is released when the temperature is raised above its glass transition temperature. Ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a commercially-purchased catheter and associated antimicrobial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus was limited to 16days. Consecutive temperature-triggers of our on-demand coating yielded little or no antimicrobial efficacy of silver-acetate release, but antimicrobially-effective chlorhexidine concentrations were observed over a time period of 60-80days. This attests to the clear advantage of on-demand coatings above ad libitum releasing coatings, that may have released their antimicrobial content before it is actually needed. Importantly, glass transition temperature of chlorhexidine loaded copolymers was lower (48°C) than of silver loaded ones (61°C), facilitating their clinical use. PMID:24950430

  6. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Nicotine Following Single and Ad Libitum Use of a Tobacco Heating System or Combustible Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Picavet, Patrick; Haziza, Christelle; Lama, Nicola; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of nicotine between the heat-not-burn Tobacco Heating System 2.1 (THS 2.1) and combustible cigarettes (CCs). We also examined whether the subjective urge to smoke was associated with the pharmacokinetics of nicotine. Methods: This open-label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence crossover study conducted in 28 healthy smokers assessed the pharmacokinetics of nicotine after single and ad libitum use of the THS 2.1 or CCs. During the 7-day confinement period, blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis. Subjective effects related to THS 2.1 or CC use were assessed using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU-Brief). Results: The nicotine delivery rate was similar with the THS 2.1 and CCs after single and ad libitum use. The time to the maximum nicotine concentration was 8 minutes after single use of the THS 2.1 and CCs. The time to the peak concentration following ad libitum use was similar between the THS 2.1 and CCs. The maximum plasma nicotine concentration after single use of the THS 2.1 was 8.4ng/mL, 70.3% of that obtained with CCs. A transient reduction from baseline in the urge to smoke of 40% was observed 15 minutes after the single use of both the THS 2.1 and CCs. The mean QSU-Brief total scores following single and ad libitum use were similar for the THS 2.1 and CCs. Conclusions: These results suggest that the THS 2.1 effectively delivers nicotine and achieves similar pharmacokinetic profiles to CCs. The THS 2.1 also reduced the urge to smoke similarly to CCs. Implications: Reducing exposure to toxicants and safer delivery of nicotine are among the strategies that may reduce the harm of smoking-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of nicotine and their effects on the urge to smoke using the THS 2.1. It was developed to replicate the ritual of smoking as closely as possible by providing nicotine in a way that mimics CC smoking, but limits pyrolysis and

  7. Fattening Holstein heifers by feeding high-moisture corn (whole or ground) ad libitum separately from concentrate and straw.

    PubMed

    Devant, M; Quintana, B; Aris, A; Bach, A

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of high-moisture corn (HMC), either whole or ground, fed separately from concentrate and straw on feeding behavior, rumen fermentation, whole tract digestibility, and nitrogen balance. Twenty-four Holstein heifers (199 ± 5.5 kg BW and 157 ± 6.9 d age) housed in individual pens were assigned to 3 treatments: 1) whole (unprocessed) HMC fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (WHMC); 2) HMC ground through a 0.4-cm screen before ensiling and fed along with concentrate and barley straw, all fed separately and ad libitum (GHMC); and 3) a concentrate composed of mainly corn meal, ground through a roller mill with screen openings of 6 mm, and barley straw, both fed separately and ad libitum (Control). Concentrate, HMC, and straw were offered separately ad libitum in a free-choice situation and consumption was recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. Apparent nutrient digestibility and N balance were determined at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. At the same time points, rumen fluid was collected through rumenocentesis to determine rumen pH and VFA concentrations. Feeding behavior was monitored throughout the study. Animals were harvested after 134 d and HCW, rumen and cecum wall lesions, and liver abscesses were recorded. Treatment did not affect total DMI, feed efficiency, ADG, final BW, and carcass weight or classification. Concentrate consumption (6.6 ± 0.35 kg/d) of Control heifers was greater ( < 0.001) than that of GHMC (4.1 ± 0.35 kg/d) and WHMC heifers (2.8 ± 0.35 kg/d), and GHMC heifers consumed less ( < 0.001) HMC than WHMC heifers (2.3 ± 0.31 and 4.2 ± 0.31 kg/d, respectively). Dietary treatments did not affect rumination, self-grooming, nonnutritive oral behaviors, and rumen pH. However, rumen acetate to propionate ratio decreased when heifers received HMC (1.77 ± 0.276) compared with when heifers received the Control (2.82 ± 0.276). Total

  8. The Ratio of Macronutrients, Not Caloric Intake, Dictates Cardiometabolic Health, Aging, and Longevity in Ad Libitum-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M.; McMahon, Aisling C.; Ballard, J. William O.; Ruohonen, Kari; Wu, Lindsay E.; Cogger, Victoria C.; Warren, Alessandra; Huang, Xin; Pichaud, Nicolas; Melvin, Richard G.; Gokarn, Rahul; Khalil, Mamdouh; Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J.; Sinclair, David A.; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The fundamental questions of what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet and how this maintains health and longevity remain unanswered. Here, the Geometric Framework, a state-space nutritional modeling method, was used to measure interactive effects of dietary energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate on food intake, cardiometabolic phenotype, and longevity in mice fed one of 25 diets ad libitum. Food intake was regulated primarily by protein and carbohydrate content. Longevity and health were optimized when protein was replaced with carbohydrate to limit compensatory feeding for protein and suppress protein intake. These consequences are associated with hepatic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and mitochondrial function and, in turn, related to circulating branched-chain amino acids and glucose. Calorie restriction achieved by high-protein diets or dietary dilution had no beneficial effects on lifespan. The results suggest that longevity can be extended in ad libitum-fed animals by manipulating the ratio of macronutrients to inhibit mTOR activation. PMID:24606899

  9. Quantifying hepatic glycogen synthesis by direct and indirect pathways in rats under normal ad libitum feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana F; Viega, Francisco J; Carvalho, Rui A; Jones, John G

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic glycogen synthesis from intact hexose (direct pathway) relative to that from gluconeogenic precursors (indirect pathway) was quantified in ad libitum-fed rats. Following (2)H(2)O administration and overnight feeding, the livers were removed and glycogen (2)H-enrichment was measured by (2)H NMR. Six controls and six rats rendered hyperglycemic by streptozotocin (STZ; fasting blood glucose = 385 +/- 31 mg/dl) were studied. The indirect pathway contribution, estimated as glycogen hydrogen 5 relative to hydrogen 2 enrichment, was 54% +/- 4% for control rats-similar to values from healthy, meal-fed humans. In STZ-treated rats, the indirect pathway contribution was significantly higher (68% +/- 4%, P < 0.05 vs. controls), similar to that of Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients. In conclusion, sources of hepatic glycogen synthesis in rats during ad libitum nocturnal feeding were quantified by analysis of glycogen enrichment from (2)H(2)O. STZ caused alterations resembling the pathophysiology of hepatic glycogen synthesis in T1D patients.

  10. Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, E A; Richardson, J D; Tsintzas, K; Thompson, D; Betts, J A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. Subjects/Methods: In a randomised cross-over design, 24 obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183±393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 h post lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures. Results: Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95% confidence interval −54 kJ, 490 kJ; P=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=−1964 kJ, 95% confidence interval −1645 kJ, −2281 kJ; P<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine–tyrosine and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (P⩽0.06). Plasma-acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (P<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (P⩾0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (P=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 h after lunch (P<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 h post lunch (P=0.09). Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of

  11. Higher Daily Energy Expenditure and Respiratory Quotient, Rather Than Fat-Free Mass, Independently Determine Greater ad Libitum Overeating

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Body fat-free mass (FFM), energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ) are known predictors of daily food intake. Because FFM largely determines EE, it is unclear whether body composition per se or the underlying metabolism drives dietary intake. Objective: The objective of the study was to test whether 24-hour measures of EE and RQ and their components influence ad libitum food intake independently of FFM. Design and Participants: One hundred seven healthy individuals (62 males/45 females, 84 Native Americans/23 whites; age 33 ± 8 y; body mass index 33 ± 8 kg/m2; body fat 31% ± 8%) had 24-hour measures of EE in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance, followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake using computerized vending machine systems. Body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Main Outcome Measures: FFM, 24-hour EE, RQ, spontaneous physical activity, sleeping EE (sleeping metabolic rate), awake and fed thermogenesis, and ad libitum food intake (INTAKE) were measured. Results: Higher 24-hour RQ (P < .001, partial R2 = 16%) and EE (P = .01, partial R2 = 7%), but not FFM (P = .65), were independent predictors of INTAKE. Mediation analysis demonstrated that 24-hour EE is responsible for 80% of the FFM effect on INTAKE (44.5 ± 16.9 kcal ingested per kilogram of FFM, P= .01), whereas the unique effect due to solely FFM was negligible (10.6 ± 23.2, P = .65). Spontaneous physical activity (r = 0.33, P = .001), but not sleeping metabolic rate (P = .71), positively predicted INTAKE, whereas higher awake and fed thermogenesis determined greater INTAKE only in subjects with a body mass index of 29 kg/m2 or less (r = 0.44, P = .01). Conclusions: EE and RQ, rather than FFM, independently determine INTAKE, suggesting that competitive energy-sensing mechanisms driven by the preferential macronutrient oxidation and total energy demands may regulate food intake. PMID:26086330

  12. Influence of a high-protein diet on energy balance in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food.

    PubMed

    Wei, A; Fascetti, A J; Liu, K J; Villaverde, C; Green, A S; Manzanilla, E G; Havel, P J; Ramsey, J J

    2011-06-01

    The influence of a high-protein [HP, 47% of metabolizable energy (ME)] diet on energy balance was evaluated in obese cats allowed ad libitum access to food. Energy intake, body weight, body composition, energy expenditure, and concentrations of hormones and metabolites associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and leptin) were measured in cats after consuming either a moderate protein (MP, 27% of ME) or HP diet for 4 months. Indirect respiration calorimetry showed that resting and total energy expenditure (kJ/day) adjusted for either body weight or lean body mass was increased in cats consuming the HP in relation to MP diets. However, voluntary energy intake also was increased in the HP treatment and, thus, there was no difference in body weight between animals consuming the two diets. Body composition measurements using deuterium oxide dilution showed that dietary protein content did not alter amounts of either lean body mass or fat mass. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the two treatment groups for blood glucose, free fatty acid or leptin concentrations, although there was a trend (p = 0.054) towards an increase of serum insulin concentrations in the cats eating the HP diet. This study showed that short-term ad libitum feeding of an HP diet did not reduce food intake or promote weight loss in obese cats. However, energy expenditure was increased in the HP diet group and it is possible that this effect of HP might help promote weight loss when energy intake is restricted. PMID:21039925

  13. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741

  14. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  15. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake. PMID:24744741

  16. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P < 0.0001) and DMI (P < 0.0001) were both greater in the silage than in the hay treatment. Ewes in the semi-restricted treatment spent less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  17. Data on the phospholipid fatty acyl composition of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue in ad libitum fed and fasted mice

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Kristin A.; Marvyn, Phillip M.; Henao, Juan J. Aristizabal; Bradley, Ryan M.; Stark, Ken D.; Duncan, Robin E.

    2016-01-01

    Data are presented on the fatty acyl composition of phospholipid from retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of female mice that were either given ad libitum access to food or fasted for 16 h overnight prior to sacrifice. Our data show that total adipose phospholipid concentrations were more than 2-fold higher in the fasted animals compared with the fed animals (33.48±7.40 versus 16.57±4.43 μg phospholipid fatty acids/100 mg tissue). Concentrations of several individual phospholipid fatty acyl species, including palmitic acid (16:0), vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), as well as total phospholipid saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, were significantly higher in adipose tissue from the fasted animals compared with the fed animals. However, when the relative abundance of phospholipid fatty acyl species was analyzed, only 20:4n-6 was specifically enriched (by ~2.5-fold) in adipose phospholipid with fasting. PMID:27014729

  18. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P < .05) LPL activity than fat from the other depots. Generally, there were no differences (P > .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P < .05) than those for T and R. Marbling was greatest (P < .05) for S and did not differ (P > .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle. PMID:9535321

  19. Sensory-specific satiety for a food is unaffected by the ad libitum intake of other foods during a meal. Is SSS subject to dishabituation?

    PubMed

    Meillon, S; Thomas, A; Havermans, R; Pénicaud, L; Brondel, L

    2013-04-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is defined as a decrease in the pleasantness of a specific food that has just been eaten to satiation, while other non-eaten foods remain pleasant. The objectives of this study were the following: (1) to investigate whether SSS for a food is affected by the ad libitum intake of other foods presented sequentially during a meal, (2) to compare the development of SSS when foods are presented simultaneously or sequentially during a meal, and (3) to examine whether SSS is modified when foods are presented in an unusual order within a meal. Twelve participants participated in three tasting sessions. In session A, SSS for protein-, fat- and carbohydrate-rich sandwiches was measured after the ad libitum consumption of single type of each of these foods. In session B, SSS was measured for the same three foods consumed ad libitum but presented simultaneously. Session C was identical to session A, except that the presentation order of the three foods was reversed. The results indicate that once SSS for a given food is reached, the ad libitum consumption of other foods with different sensory characteristics does not decrease SSS, regardless of the order in which the foods are presented. Once reached, SSS is thus not subject to dishabituation during a meal.

  20. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    PubMed

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P < .05) LPL activity than fat from the other depots. Generally, there were no differences (P > .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P < .05) than those for T and R. Marbling was greatest (P < .05) for S and did not differ (P > .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle.

  1. Effects of feeding wheat straw or orchardgrass at ad libitum or restricted intake during the dry period on postpartum performance and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Weich, W D; Hansen, W P; Linn, J G

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of forage source [wheat straw (WS) or orchardgrass hay (OG)] and total amount of diet dry matter fed [ad libitum or restricted to 70% of predicted dry matter intake (DMI)] prepartum on postpartum performance. The study design was a 2×2 factorial design with 10 cows per treatment. Treatments were WS total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum, OG TMR ad libitum, WS TMR restricted, and OG TMR restricted. The WS TMR (dry matter basis) contained 30% WS, 20.7% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 18.2% ground corn, 16.8% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses mineral mix (14.7% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 37.0% neutral detergent fiber). The OG TMR contained 30% OG, 46.2% corn silage, 10.0% alfalfa hay, 9.5% soybean meal, and 4.3% molasses (14.2% CP, 1.5 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 41.0% neutral detergent fiber). Cows received 1 lactation diet after calving (17.7% CP, 1.6 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, 27.3% neutral detergent fiber). Total diet DMI prepartum was higher for ad libitum than for restricted as designed, but forage source had no effect on DMI. Total tract apparent digestibilities of DM and NDF were greater for OG than for WS. Postpartum DMI expressed as a percentage of body weight for the first week of lactation was higher for ad libitum than for restricted diets. Postpartum DMI during the first 30 d of lactation was higher for OG than for WS, but no effect was observed for the amount fed prepartum. Milk yield during the first week of lactation was higher for OG than for WS; however, during the first 30 d, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield and yield of milk fat were highest for OG TMR restricted and WS TMR ad libitum. Prepartum treatments had a limited effect on pre- and postpartum lipid metabolism; however, cows fed WS TMR ad libitum had the highest postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate. Eating behavior was observed by 10-min video scans of 24-h video surveillance for 5d pre- and postpartum

  2. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  3. Ad libitum fluid intake leads to no leg swelling in male Ironman triathletes – an observational field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and limb swelling has been described for 100-km ultra-marathoners. We investigated a potential development of peripheral oedemata in Ironman triathletes competing over 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.2 km running. Methods In 15 male Ironman triathletes, fluid intake, changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, limb volumes and skinfold thickness were measured. Changes in renal function, parameters of skeletal muscle damage, hematologic parameters and osmolality in both serum and urine were determined. Skinfold thicknesses at hands and feet were measured using LIPOMETER® and changes of limb volumes were measured using plethysmography. Results The athletes consumed a total of 8.6 ± 4.4 L of fluids, equal to 0.79 ± 0.43 L/h. Body mass, skeletal muscle mass and the volume of the lower leg decreased (p <0.05), fat mass, skinfold thicknesses and the volume of the arm remained unchanged (p >0.05). The decrease in skeletal muscle mass was associated with the decrease in body mass (p <0.05). The decrease in the lower leg volume was unrelated to fluid intake (p >0.05). Haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum sodium remained unchanged (p >0.05). Osmolality in serum and urine increased (p <0.05). The change in body mass was related to post-race serum sodium concentration ([Na+]) (r = −0.52, p <0.05) and post-race serum osmolality (r = −0.60, p <0.05). Conclusions In these Ironman triathletes, ad libitum fluid intake maintained plasma [Na+] and plasma osmolality and led to no peripheral oedemata. The volume of the lower leg decreased and the decrease was unrelated to fluid intake. Future studies may investigate ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running to find an association between fluid intake and the development of peripheral oedemata. PMID:22937792

  4. Circadian variation in heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and EEG of immature broiler breeder chickens in restricted-fed and ad libitum-fed states.

    PubMed

    Savory, C J; Kostal, L; Nevison, I M

    2006-10-01

    1. Heart rate, intra-aortic blood pressure, deep body temperature and telencephalic EEG were monitored by radiotelemetry in 6 freely moving immature broiler breeders (three in each of two years), during routine food restriction and then ad libitum feeding, over two 24-h periods in each feeding state.2. Heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature were all higher during ad libitum than restricted feeding, and heart rate and body temperature were higher by day (12 h) than at night (12 h). The decreases in heart rate and body temperature at night were greater during restricted than ad libitum feeding. Blood pressure tended to be higher at night, except in year 2 during restricted feeding. Body temperature and ambient temperature were higher in year 2 than year 1.3. During restricted feeding, marked peaks in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature in the 15 min after provision of the daily food ration at 09:00 h, when birds were eating, were equivalent to corresponding values seen during ad libitum feeding.4. Relative powers in delta (1 to 4 Hz) and theta (4 to 8 Hz) frequency bands of the EEG power spectrum were higher at night in year 2 only, while power in the alpha (8 to 12 Hz) band was higher at night in both years.5. It is concluded that most of the variation in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature between feeding states and times of day/night can be accounted for in terms of variation in food intake and energy expenditure. The greater slow wave (delta, theta) EEG activity seen after lights-off in year 2 may reflect non-paradoxical sleep at that time.

  5. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

  6. Ad libitum Pasture Feeding in Late Pregnancy Does Not Improve the Performance of Twin-bearing Ewes and Their Lambs.

    PubMed

    Corner-Thomas, R A; Back, P J; Kenyon, P R; Hickson, R E; Ridler, A L; Stafford, K J; Morris, S T

    2015-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of controlled ryegrass-white clover herbage availability from day 128 until day 142 of pregnancy in comparison to unrestricted availability, on the performance of twin-bearing ewes of varying body condition score (BCS; 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0) and their lambs. It was hypothesised that under conditions of controlled herbage availability, the performance of lambs born to ewes with a greater BCS would be greater than those born to ewes with a lower BCS. During the period that the nutritional regimens were imposed, the pre- and post-grazing herbage masses of the Control regimen (1,070±69 and 801±30 kg dry matter [DM]/ha) were lower than the ad libitum regimen (1,784±69 and 1,333±33 kg DM/ha; p<0.05). The average herbage masses during lactation were 1,410±31 kg DM/ha. Nutritional regimen had no effect on ewe live weight, BCS and back fat depth or on lamb live weight, indices of colostrum uptake, maximal heat production, total litter weight weaned or survival to weaning (p>0.05). The difference in ewe BCSs and back fats observed among body condition groups was maintained throughout pregnancy (p<0.05). At weaning, ewes from the BCS2.0 group had lower BCS and live weight (2.4±0.2, 74.3±2.6 kg) than both the BCS2.5 (2.6±0.2, 78.6±2.4 kg) and BCS3.0 ewes (2.7±0.2, 79.0±2.6 kg; p<0.05), which did not differ (p>0.05). Ewe BCS group had no effect on lamb live weight at birth or weaning or on maximal heat production (p>0.05). Serum gamma glutamyl transferase concentrations of lambs born to BCS3.0 ewes were higher within 36 hours of birth than lambs born to BCS2.0 ewes and BCS2.5 ewes (51.8±1.9 vs 46.5±1.9 and 45.6±1.9 IU/mL, respectively [p<0.05]). There was, however, no effect of ewe body condition on lamb plasma glucose concentration (p>0.05). Lamb survival was the only lamb parameter that showed an interaction between ewe nutritional regimen and ewe BCS whereby survival of lambs born to BCS2.5 and BCS3.0 ewes differed but only

  7. Ad libitum food intake on a "cafeteria diet" in Native American women: relations with body composition and 24-h energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Larson, D E; Tataranni, P A; Ferraro, R T; Ravussin, E

    1995-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies consistently report associations between obesity and dietary fat but not total energy intake. We measured ad libitum food intake in a laboratory setting and evaluated its relation to body weight and composition, energy expenditure, and macronutrient utilization in 28 women of Pima-Papago heritage (aged 27 +/- 7 y, 85.3 +/- 19.0 kg, 44 +/- 6% body fat; means +/- SD). All women were studied during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. After a 4-d weight-maintenance period, the volunteers selected their food for 5 d from computerized vending machines offering a variety of familiar and preferred foods, ie, a "cafeteria diet". Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured in a respiratory chamber on the 4th d o weight maintenance and the 5th d of ad libitum intake. Average ad libitum intake was 13,732 +/- 4238 kJ/d (11 +/- 1% protein, 40 +/- 1% fat, 49 +/- 4% carbohydrate), ie, moderate overeating by 27 +/- 37% above weight maintenance requirements (range: -27% to 124%). Percent body fat correlated with daily energy intake (r = 0.53, P < 0.01), the degree of overeating (r = 0.41, P < 0.05), and the selection of a diet higher in fat and lower in carbohydrate (r = 0.70 and r = -0.63, respectively, P < 0.001). Excess carbohydrate intake caused an increase in carbohydrate oxidation (r = 0.51, P < 0.01), whereas excess fat intake resulted in a decrease in fat oxidation (r = -0.53, P < 0.01) and thus a positive fat balance of 85 +/- 65 g/d. The positive relations among degrees of obesity, dietary fat intake and overeating, and the fact that dietary fat does not induce fat oxidation, support the hypothesis that dietary fat promotes obesity in women. PMID:7572735

  8. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism. PMID:26004166

  9. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, P< 0.01) but incompletely compensated for the omitted breakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, P< 0.001). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both P< 0.05) but neither acylated/total ghrelin concentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all P< 0.05). Insulin concentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all P< 0.01). There were no differences between trials in subjective appetite during the afternoon. In conclusion, morning fasting caused incomplete energy compensation at an ad libitum lunch. Breakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

  10. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  11. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake. PMID:26394259

  12. Validating growth and development of a seabird as an indicator of food availability: captive-reared Caspian Tern chicks fed ad libitum and restricted diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    For seabirds raising young under conditions of limited food availability, reducing chick provisioning and chick growth rates are the primary means available to avoid abandonment of a breeding effort. For most seabirds, however, baseline data characterizing chick growth and development under known feeding conditions are unavailable, so it is difficult to evaluate chick nutritional status as it relates to foraging conditions near breeding colonies. To address this need, we examined the growth and development of young Caspian Terns (Hydroprogne caspia), a cosmopolitan, generalist piscivore, reared in captivity and fed ad libitum and restricted (ca. one-third lower caloric intake) diets. Ad libitum-fed chicks grew at similar rates and achieved a similar size at fledging as previously documented for chicks in the wild and had energetic demands that closely matched allometric predictions. We identified three general characteristics of food-restricted Caspian Tern chicks compared to ad libitum chicks: (1) lower age-specific body mass, (2) lower age-specific skeletal and feather size, such as wing chord length, and (3) heightened levels of corticosterone in blood, both for baseline levels and in response to acute stress. Effects of diet restriction on feather growth (10-11% slower growth in diet-restricted chicks) were less pronounced than effects on structural growth (37-52% slower growth) and body mass (24% lower at fledging age), apparently due to preferential allocation of food resources to maintain plumage growth. Our results suggest that measurements of chick body mass and feather development (e.g., wing chord or primary length) or measurement of corticosterone levels in the blood would allow useful evaluation of the nutritional status of chicks reared in the wild and of food availability in the foraging range of adults. Such evaluations could also inform demography studies (e.g., predict future recruitment) and assist in evaluating designated piscivorous waterbird

  13. Impact of fluid restriction and ad libitum water intake or an 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on skill performance of elite adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Oliveira, Bruno; Barros, Renata; Padrão, Patricia; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vitor Hugo

    2011-06-01

    Twelve adolescent athletes underwent, in a crossover-design study, 3 separate 90-min training sessions in the following conditions: no fluid ingestion allowed (NF), ad libitum ingestion of water (W), and ad libitum ingestion of a commercial 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte sports beverage (CSB). After each session athletes performed a set of basketball drills (2-point, 3-point, and free-throw shootout, suicide sprints, and defensive zigzags). Body weight (before and after sessions), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), urine color, and beverage acceptability were determined in each session. Athletes also completed a survey about their knowledge and behaviors regarding hydration and fluid replacement. The percentage of weight loss was significantly higher in NF (2.46% ± 0.87%) than in the other 2 conditions (W, 1.08% ± 0.67%, p = .006; CSB, 0.65% ± 0.62%, p = .001) but also higher in W than CSB (p = .012). RPE was higher in NF (16.8 ± 1.96) than in the W (14.2 ± 1.99, p = .004) and CSB (13.3 ± 2.06, p = .002) trials. Athletes' fluid intake was positively correlated with proper self-reported behaviors (r = .75, p = .005) and knowledge (r = .76, p = .004) about fluid and hydration. In conclusion, fluid restriction during exercise was associated with a greater level of dehydration and increased perceived exertion but had no impact on basketball performance compared with ad libitum drinking of water or a CSB. Athletes with more knowledge about hydration and better self-reported hydration behaviors ingested more fluids during training sessions.

  14. Exercise Does Not Protect against Peripheral and Central Effects of a High Cholesterol Diet Given Ad libitum in Old ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Di Cataldo, Vanessa; Géloën, Alain; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Chauveau, Fabien; Thézé, Benoît; Hubert, Violaine; Wiart, Marlène; Chirico, Erica N.; Rieusset, Jennifer; Vidal, Hubert; Pialoux, Vincent; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE−/− mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE−/− mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta, and brain were then assessed. Results: In EX ApoE−/− mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE−/− EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during 12 weeks), brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r2 = 0.87; p = 0.049) with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE−/−mice. Conclusion: We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE−/− animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status) but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation) did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE−/− mice. PMID:27766082

  15. Maintained total body water content and serum sodium concentrations despite body mass loss in female ultra-runners drinking ad libitum during a 100 km race.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Senn, Oliver; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Joleska, Irena; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in 11 female ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run, the association between fluid intake and prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in a cross-sectional study. Athletes drank ad libitum and recorded their fluid intake. They competed at 8.0 (1.0) km/h and finished within 762 (91) min. Fluid intake was 4.1 (1.3) L during the race, equal to 0.3 (0.1) L/h. Body mass decreased by 1.5 kg (p< 0.01); pre race body mass was related to speed in the race (r = -0.78, p< 0.05); and change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with speed in the race. Change in body mass was positively (r = 0.70; p< 0.05), and Delta urinary specific gravity negatively (r = -0.67; p< 0.05), correlated to Delta percent total body water. Changes in body mass were not related to fluid intake during the race. Fluid intake was not correlated to running speed and showed no association with either Delta percent total body water nor Delta [Na] in plasma. Fluid intake showed no relationship with both Delta haematocrit and Delta plasma volume. No exercise-associated hyponatremia occurred. Female ultra- runners consuming fluids ad libitum during the race experienced no fluid overload, and ad libitum drinking protects against exercise-associated hyponatremia. The reported higher incidence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in women is not really a gender effect but due to women being more prone to overdrink. PMID:20199991

  16. Repeated consumption of a large volume of liquid and semi-solid foods increases ad libitum intake, but does not change expected satiety.

    PubMed

    Hogenkamp, P S; Mars, M; Stafleu, A; de Graaf, C

    2012-10-01

    Food intake and a food's expected satiating effect initially rely on sensory attributes. People will learn about the food's satiating capacity by exposure. We investigated whether repeated consumption changed the expected satiety effects and intake of iso-energetic liquid and semi-solid foods. In a randomised cross-over study, participants (n=53; age: 21±2.9 y; BMI: 21.8±2.0 kg/m²) consumed one of two iso-energetic dairy foods (liquid or semi-solid) for breakfast in each 5-day test condition. Expectations regarding satiety were measured on days 1, 2, and 5. Foods were offered ad libitum on days 1 and 5 and in a fixed volume on days 2-4. Appetite sensations were rated up to 180 min after the start of the session on fixed time points. Expected satiety effects of the semi-solid food were higher than of the liquid food on all days (p<0.0001). Ad libitum intake of the liquid food was higher than of the semi-solid food on day 1 (liquid: 391±177 g, semi-solid: 277±98 g; p<0.0001) and day 5 (liquid: 477±161 g, semi-solid: 375±148 g; p<0.0001). On day 2, hunger was rated lower and fullness rated higher after the semi-solid compared with the liquid food; on day 4, no differences were observed (significant product∗ exposure interaction AUC). Changes in hunger and fullness indicated that the fixed volumes of liquid and solid food were perceived to be equally satiating after repeated consumption, but this did not result in the anticipated changes: expected satiety effects remained lower, and ad libitum intake higher for the liquid compared with the semi-solid food. The effect of texture on a food's expected satiety effects and its ad libitum intake appears to be large, also after repeated consumption. Expectations based on sensory cues are not easily changed.

  17. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts. PMID:26435259

  18. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts.

  19. Total Body Water, Electrolyte, and Thermoregulatory Responses to Ad Libitum Water Replacement Using Two Different Water Delivery Systems During a 19-km Route March.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Nolte, Kim; van der Meulen, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Hands-free hydration systems are often advocated for improved hydration and performance in military populations. The aim was to assess whether such systems indeed result in improved hydration in exercising soldiers. Subjects were required to complete a route march while consuming water ad libitum from either a hydration bladder (BG) or traditional canteen (CG). Water intakes of 538 ml·h⁻¹ (BG) and 533 ml·h⁻¹ (CG) resulted in no differences for changes in body mass, serum [Na], plasma osmolality, total body water, or time required to complete the march. There were no differences between peak exercise core temperature of the BG (38.9° C) and CG (38.7° C) groups. There were no differences between the groups for fluid balance, thermoregulation, or performance. This is a not a surprising finding because the amount of fluid consumed ad libitum is determined by changes in serum osmolality and not the fluid delivery system as often proposed. PMID:26506205

  20. Voluntary feed intake and leptin sensitivity in ad libitum fed obese ponies following a period of restricted feeding: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Weyenberg, S; Buyse, J; Kalmar, I D; Swennen, Q; Janssens, G P J

    2013-08-01

    The relation between plasma leptin and daily ad libitum roughage intake was evaluated during a 14-day period in eight obese Shetland ponies. When the feeding strategy was changed from maintenance feeding to ad libitum feeding, feed intake increased the first day, decreased the second day and increased again during the following days to reach a constant level after 8 days. Plasma leptin concentration increased during the first 2 days, but remained constant afterwards. Although the same pattern was found in all ponies, the magnitude of the increase in leptin on day 1 and the resulting decrease in feed intake on day 2 differed between ponies. A lower anorectic effect was seen in ponies with higher initial leptin concentration, suggesting the presence of different degrees in leptin sensitivity in obese ponies. High leptin production in a attempt to compensate for the decrease in leptin sensitivity might explain large variations in plasma leptin among obese ponies with similar body condition score. Further research is necessary to clarify whether the reduced leptin sensitivity precedes obesity in equines or vice versa.

  1. Effects of feed consumption rate of beef cattle offered a diet supplemented with nitrate ad libitum or restrictively on potential toxicity of nitrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of feed consumption rate on potential toxicity, rumen fermentation, and eating behavior when beef heifers were fed a diet supplemented with nitrate (NI). Twelve ruminally cannulated heifers (827 ± 65.5 kg BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment consisted of 10-d adaptation, 8-d urea-feeding, and 3-d nitrate-feeding periods. All heifers were fed a diet supplemented with urea (UR) during the adaptation and urea-feeding periods, whereas the NI diet (1.09% NO in dietary DM) was fed during the nitrate-feeding period. After adaptation, heifers were randomly assigned to ad libitum or restrictive feeding (about 80% of ad libitum intake) for the urea- and nitrate-feeding periods. Ad libitum DMI decreased (14.1 vs. 15.1 kg/d; < 0.01) when heifers were fed the NI diet compared with the UR diet. The amount of feed consumed increased ( < 0.01) at 0 to 3 h and decreased ( ≤ 0.03) at 3 to 24 h for restrictive vs. ad libitum feeding of both the UR and NI diets. Compared to the UR diet, the NI diet decreased ( < 0.01) feed consumption at 0 to 3 h and increased ( < 0.02) feed consumption at 3 to 24 h (except feed consumption at 9 to 12 h; = 0.90), indicating nitrate feeding changed the consumption pattern (a more even distribution of feed intake over the day). The increased feed consumption from 0 to 3 h after feeding the NI diet restrictively vs. ad libitum numerically decreased ( = 0.11) rumen pH and numerically or significantly increased ( = 0.01 to 0.28) rumen ammonia, NO, and NO; blood methemoglobin; and plasma NO and NO at 3 h. Regression analysis indicated that increased feed consumption (0 to 3 h) exponentially elevated ( < 0.01; = 0.75) blood methemoglobin, and plasma NO + NO among other rumen and blood variables had the greatest correlation (sigmoid response; < 0.01, = 0.47) with feed consumption (0 to 3 h). Particle size distribution of orts was partially altered ( = 0.02 to 0

  2. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p < .05) and trended toward being lower compared with the first Powerade trial (P1 = 1057 ± 699 ml vs. S1, p = .067 and vs. S2, p = .061). No significant differences in net fluid balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss.

  3. The Effect of Ad Libitum Consumption of a Milk-Based Liquid Meal Supplement vs. a Traditional Sports Drink on Fluid Balance After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Brenton; Zilujko, Jessica; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ad libitum intake of a milk-based liquid meal supplement against a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink following exercise induced fluid loss. Seven male participants (age 22.3 ± 3.4 years, height 179.3 ± 7.9 cm, body mass 74.3 ± 7.3 kg; mean ± SD) completed 4 separate trials and lost 1.89 ± 0.44% body mass through moderate intensity exercise in the laboratory. After exercise, participants consumed ad libitum over 2 h a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport) on two of the trials (S1, S2) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink (Powerade) on two of the trials (P1, P2), with an additional 1 hr observational period. Measures of body mass, urine output, gastrointestinal tolerance and palatability were collected throughout the recovery period. Participants consumed significantly more Powerade than Sustagen Sport over the 2 h rehydration period (P1 = 2225 ± 888 ml, P2 = 2602 ± 1119 mL, S1 = 1375 ± 711 mL, S2 = 1447 ± 857 ml). Total urine output on both Sustagen trails was significantly lower than the second Powerade trial (P2 = 1447 ± 656 ml, S1 = 153 ± 62 ml, S2 = 182 ± 118 mL; p < .05) and trended toward being lower compared with the first Powerade trial (P1 = 1057 ± 699 ml vs. S1, p = .067 and vs. S2, p = .061). No significant differences in net fluid balance were observed between any of the drinks at the conclusion of each trial (P1 = -0.50 ±0. 46 kg, P2 = -0.40 ± 0.35 kg, S1 = -0.61 ± 0.74 kg, S2 = -0.45 ± 0.58 kg). Gastrointestinal tolerance and beverage palatability measures indicated Powerade to be preferred as a rehydration beverage. Ad libitum milk-based liquid meal supplement results in similar net fluid balance as a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink after exercise induced fluid loss. PMID:26693643

  4. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: I. Production traits and gut microbiota characteristics.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Achard, C S; Zemb, O; Molette, C; Gidenne, T; Larzul, C; Ruesche, J; Tircazes, A; Segura, M; Bouchez, T; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Balmisse, E; Garreau, H; Gilbert, H

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding (-20% of voluntary intake). The first objective of this study was to evaluate, after 9 generations of selection, the direct and correlated responses to selection on production traits in the 2 lines for traits recorded during growth. Second, applying the 2 feeding conditions used for selection to both selected lines plus the control unselected line (generation 0, G0) in a 2 × 3 factorial trial, the line performances were compared and the gut microbiota of the lines was characterized. The correlated responses in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were remarkably equivalent in both selected lines (-2.74 genetic σ) but correlated responses in other traits were notably different. In the ConsoResidual line, selection for decreased RFI resulted in a small negative correlated response in BW at 63 d old (BW63) and in a null response in ADG. In the ADGrestrict line, on the contrary, the correlated response in BW63 was substantial (+1.59 σ). The 2 selected lines had a FCR reduced by 0.2 point compared with the G0 line, and the same difference was found in both feeding regimens ( < 0.001). Indeed, selection on ADG would lead to heavier animals with no significant reduction of feed costs, whereas selection on RFI leads to lower feed costs and no increase of animal BW under ad libitum feeding. Altogether, our results do not suggest any genotype × environment interaction in the response to feeding regimens. The intestinal microbial communities from efficient rabbits differed from their unselected counterparts in terms of fermentation end products and microbial phylotypes, suggesting a central role of these microbes in the better feed efficiency of the rabbits.

  5. Postprandial appetite ratings are reproducible and moderately related to total day energy intakes, but not ad libitum lunch energy intakes, in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Amy J; Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility and validity testing of appetite ratings and energy intakes are needed in experimental and natural settings. Eighteen healthy young women ate a standardized breakfast for 8 days. Days 1 and 8, they rated their appetite (Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat, Prospective Food Consumption (PFC)) over a 3.5 h period using visual analogue scales, consumed an ad libitum lunch, left the research center and recorded food intake for the remainder of the day. Days 2-7, participants rated their at-home Hunger at 0 and 30 min post-breakfast and recorded food intake for the day. Total area under the curve (AUC) over the 180 min period before lunch, and energy intakes were calculated. Reproducibility of satiety measures between days was evaluated using coefficients of repeatability (CR), coefficients of variation (CV) and intra-class coefficients (ri). Correlation analysis was used to examine validity between satiety measures. AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC (ri = 0.73-0.78), ad libitum energy intakes (ri = 0.81) and total day energy intakes (ri​ = 0.48) were reproducible; fasted ratings were not. Average AUCs for Hunger, Desire to Eat and PFC, Desire to Eat at nadir and PFC at fasting, nadir and 180 min were correlated to total day energy intakes (r = 0.50-0.77, P < 0.05), but no ratings were correlated to lunch consumption. At-home Hunger ratings were weakly reproducible but not correlated to reported total energy intakes. Satiety ratings did not concur with next meal intake but PFC ratings may be useful predictors of intake. Overall, this study adds to the limited satiety research on women and challenges the accepted measures of satiety in an experimental setting. PMID:26763471

  6. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, N T; Belza, A; Jensen, M G; Ritz, C; Bitz, C; Hels, O; Frandsen, E; Mela, D J; Astrup, A

    2013-02-14

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard in a meal on 4 h postprandial DIT. The secondary aim was to examine the effects on subjective appetite measures, ad libitum EI and energy balance. In a five-way placebo-controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial, twenty-two young (age 24·9 (SD 4·6) years), normal-weight (BMI 21·8 (SD 2·1) kg/m²) males were randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (SE 3) v. 52 (SE 2) kJ/h, respectively, P=0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P=0·63) and energy balance (P=0·67) also did not differ between the treatments. Finally, horseradish decreased heart rate (P=0·048) and increased diastolic blood pressure (P= 0·049) compared with placebo. In conclusion, no reliable treatment effects on appetite, EI or energy balance were observed, although mustard tended to be thermogenic at this dose. Further studies should explore the possible strength and mechanisms of the potential thermogenic effect of mustard actives, and potential enhancement by, for example, combinations with other food components.

  7. CH4 and N2O emissions from China's beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-01

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N2O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH4 from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N2O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH4 emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198gCH4animal(-1)d(-1) and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH4 conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N2O emission rates (21.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1)) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N2O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2g N2Oanimal(-1)d(-1) and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N2O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China's beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH4 conversion factors.

  8. Demonstration of tank effect on growth indices of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during an ad libitum feeding trial.

    PubMed

    Speare, D J; MacNair, N; Hammell, K L

    1995-10-01

    Growth indices were examined in 24 identically managed tanks, each containing 120 diploid juvenile rainbow trout (initial mean body weight, 9.3 g) during a 12-week study to examine tank effects associated with tank location in a multi user research facility. Growth indices included mean body weight, feed intake, feed conversion index, and specific growth rate. The null hypothesis that tank effect had no effect on growth over the 12-week period was rejected (P = 0.038), and mean weight in individual tanks differed by as much as 18.7%). During the study it was determined that the proximity of tanks to common-use walkways in the facility could affect growth indices. This was indicated by significant differences in the mean fish weights among blocks of tanks served by different header tanks after 4 (P = 0.001) and 8 (P = 0.024) week. The block containing tanks of fish with the highest them weight was nearest to the 2 common-use walkways in the facility. Fish in this block of tanks, compared with those in other blocks, had significantly greater feed intake but no significant differences in conversion efficiency. Compensatory growth, a well known growth attribute in fishes, diminished the difference in mean weight be tween these blocks of tanks by the end of the study. Comparison of paired ranks within header tank blocks indicated that fish in those located nearest to walkways had higher feeding rates over the 12-week period (P = 0.048), but less efficient feed conversion (P = 0.040) than did fish in matched tanks located farthest from walkways. However, there were no differences in mean weight of fish. Results of this trial document the risks involved in identifying fish in a tank as the experimental unit when treatments are administered to the tank of fish, the latter being the true experimental unit.

  9. Effects of dietary vanadium on growth and lipid storage in a larval anuran: results from studies employing ad libitum and rationed feeding.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hopkins, William

    2009-01-31

    Vanadium (V) exerts a variety of effects related to metabolic function in vertebrates, including modifying glycolytic pathways and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about toxicity of V to wildlife in natural systems. We conducted parallel, independent studies to evaluate the effect of dietary exposure to vanadium on survival, metabolism, growth, and lipid storage of larval leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala). In one study ("Ad lib") larvae were fed unlimited food and in the other ("Ration") larvae were fed a restricted diet. Experimental diets contained 10 ppm dw V(total) (Control, "C"), 109 ppm (Low, "L"), and 363 ppm (High, "H"). In neither study did V affect metabolic rate or survival to forelimb emergence. However, in the Ration study, 31% of individuals in H that had initiated metamorphosis died prior to completion of metamorphosis, compared with 22% in M and 9% in C, however the difference was not significant at alpha=0.05. Mortality during metamorphosis in the Ad lib study was more variable, yet followed a similar trend (26, 14, and 12% mortality in H, L, and C). In both studies, individuals that died during the metamorphic period were smaller at the time of forelimb emergence than those that survived. In the Ration study, individuals in H also had significantly lower growth rates, delayed metamorphosis, and reduced lipid content at metamorphosis compared to C and L. Growth was not affected by V in the Ad lib study. Our results suggest that habitat contamination by V may present risks to amphibians during the metamorphic period attributable to energetic responses influencing size at the initiation of metamorphosis and body lipid stores. Furthermore, while we cannot make formal comparisons between the studies, our results imply that protocols that employ ad libitum feeding regimes could fail to capture the effects of contaminants as they may be expressed in natural situations in which resources are typically more limited.

  10. CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots with ad libitum and restricted feeding in fall and spring seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhi; Liao, Wenhua; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Dianwu; Cao, Yufeng; Li, Jianguo; Cai, Zhenjiang

    2015-04-15

    Accurately quantifying methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef operations in China is necessary to evaluate the contribution of beef cattle to greenhouse gas budgets at the national and global level. Methane and N{sub 2}O emissions from two intensive beef feedlots in the North China Plain, one with a restricted feeding strategy and high manure collection frequency and the other with an ad libitum feeding strategy and low manure collection frequency, were quantified in the fall and spring seasons using an inverse dispersion technique. The diel pattern of CH{sub 4} from the beef feedlot with an ad libitum feed strategy (single peak during a day) differed from that under a restricted feeding condition (multiple peaks during a day), but little difference in the diel pattern of N{sub 2}O emissions between two feeding strategies was observed. The two-season average CH{sub 4} emission rates of the two intensive feedlots were 230 and 198 g CH{sub 4} animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and accounted for 6.7% and 6.8% of the gross energy intake, respectively, indicating little impact of the feeding strategy and manure collection frequency on the CH{sub 4} conversion factor at the feedlot level. However, the average N{sub 2}O emission rates (21.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1}) and conversion factor (8.5%) of the feedlot with low manure collection frequency were approximately 131% and 174% greater, respectively, than the feedlot under high frequency conditions, which had a N{sub 2}O emission rate and conversion factor of 9.2 g N{sub 2}O animal{sup −1} d{sup −1} and 3.1%, respectively, indicating that increasing manure collection frequency played an important role in reducing N{sub 2}O emissions from beef feedlots. In addition, comparison indicated that China’s beef and dairy cattle in feedlots appeared to have similar CH{sub 4} conversion factors. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from China’s beef feedlots were

  11. Effect of prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage on transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue in dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Kokkonen, T; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K

    2015-08-01

    Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal [55:40:5 (CON), 109 MJ/d of ME, n=8] during the dry period (58.2±4.89 d, mean ± standard deviation). Tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected at -14 (±4.98), 1, and 7 d relative to the actual parturition date. The HE cows had greater total dry matter intake, ME intake, and ME balance during the dry period than the CON cows. Compared with CON, the increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in HE during the dry period. Milk yield during the first 2 wk of lactation was not different between the groups. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ between the groups during the transition period. Dietary treatment did not affect hepatic triglyceride content; however, a delayed increase in hepatic total lipid content was observed in the HE cows at d 1 postpartum. Hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA expression was lower in HE than in CON at d 1 and 7 postpartum. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA abundance tended to be lower in SAT of HE than CON. Lower lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA abundances were observed at d 7 postpartum in SAT of the HE cows compared with the CON cows. We concluded that prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage may decrease insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in SAT during peripartal period and may attenuate the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from

  12. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: II. Carcass and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Molette, C; Gilbert, H; Larzul, C; Balmisse, E; Ruesche, J; Manse, H; Tircazes, A; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Gidenne, T; Garreau, H; Drouilhet, L

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact on carcass and meat quality of the genetic selections. This comparison was performed using 2 different feeding strategies corresponding to the selection design. Carcass and meat quality traits were recorded for the 3 lines (ConsoResidual, ADGrestrict, and an unselected control [generation 0 {G0}]) in the 2 feeding systems (ad libitum and restricted) for 163 animals. Concerning the line effect, the BW at 63 d old was higher for the ADGrestrict line compared with the G0 and ConsoResidual lines ( < 0.0001). There was no line effect on the gastrointestinal tract. The rabbits did not exhibit a different carcass yield but showed different carcass traits. Indeed, the ConsoResidual rabbits had a higher hind leg yield ( < 0.0001) but no difference in the meat-to-bone ratio of the hind leg. On the contrary, the ADGrestrict line had a higher proportion of forelegs plus thoracic cage ( = 0.03). We also found lower perirenal ( < 0.0001) and scapular fat yields ( < 0.0001) in ConsoResidual rabbits. The ADGrestrict line had an intermediate perirenal fat yield compared with the other 2 lines. The G0 line always exhibited higher fat yields. Concerning meat quality, the ConsoResidual rabbits showed a lower ultimate pH ( < 0.0001) and higher water loss (drip and cooking loss; < 0.002) compared with the G0 and ADGrestrict rabbits. The feeding level had a strong effect on the gastrointestinal tract ( = 0.0004) and the carcass yield ( = 0.001). The latter was decreased in restricted rabbits. The effects of feeding strategy on meat quality were detrimental in the case of restricted feeding. Even if the ultimate pH was slightly higher in restricted rabbits ( = 0.0002), the carcass

  13. Effect of prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage on transcriptional adaptations of the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue in dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Selim, S; Kokkonen, T; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K

    2015-08-01

    Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal [55:40:5 (CON), 109 MJ/d of ME, n=8] during the dry period (58.2±4.89 d, mean ± standard deviation). Tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected at -14 (±4.98), 1, and 7 d relative to the actual parturition date. The HE cows had greater total dry matter intake, ME intake, and ME balance during the dry period than the CON cows. Compared with CON, the increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in HE during the dry period. Milk yield during the first 2 wk of lactation was not different between the groups. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ between the groups during the transition period. Dietary treatment did not affect hepatic triglyceride content; however, a delayed increase in hepatic total lipid content was observed in the HE cows at d 1 postpartum. Hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA expression was lower in HE than in CON at d 1 and 7 postpartum. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA abundance tended to be lower in SAT of HE than CON. Lower lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA abundances were observed at d 7 postpartum in SAT of the HE cows compared with the CON cows. We concluded that prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage may decrease insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in SAT during peripartal period and may attenuate the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from

  14. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, R. Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F.; Tamer, Gregory G.; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A.; Talavage, Thomas M.; McCrory, Megan A.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  15. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.

  16. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  17. Exercise and food ad libitum reduce the impact of early in life nutritional inbalances on nitrergic activity of hippocampus and striatum.

    PubMed

    Viana, Lane Coelho; Torres, João Bento; Farias, José Augusto; Kawhage, Rafael; Lins, Nara; Passos, Aline; Quintairos, Amanda; Trévia, Nonata; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo; Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional imbalances were produced by varying litter size pups per dam: 3 (small), 6 (medium), and 12 (large). On the 21st day, 4 subjects of each litter, were sacrificed and the remaining were grouped, 2 per cage, with or without running wheels, with food and water ad libitum. Adult subjects were tested in water maze, their brains processed for NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry and quantified by densitometry. No differences were detected in water maze. At 21st day, S and L compared with M presented reduced NADPH-d in the stratum molecular of dentate gyrus (DG), stratum lacunosum of CA1 and in all CA3 layers but not in the striatum. On the 58th day, actvity remained low in S and L in CA3 and striatum and L in CA1 and DG. Voluntary exercise increased NADPH-d in DG, CA1, CA3, and striatum in S, and in the stratum lacunosum of CA1 and CA3 in L.

  18. Increased restrictive feeding practices are associated with reduced energy density in 4–6-year-old, multi-ethnic children at ad libitum laboratory test-meals✩

    PubMed Central

    Sud, Shama; Tamayo, Nina Carmela; Faith, Myles S.; Keller, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased reports of restrictive feeding have shown positive relationships to child obesity, however, the mechanism between the two has not been elucidated. This study examined the relationship between reported use of restrictive feeding practices and 4–6-year-old children’s self-selected energy density (ED) and total energy intake from an ad libitum, laboratory dinner including macaroni and cheese, string beans, grapes, baby carrots, cheese sticks, pudding, milks, and a variety of sweetened beverages. A second objective explored the relationship between ED and child body mass index (BMI) z-score. Seventy (n = 70) healthy children from primarily non-Caucasian and lower socioeconomic status families participated. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to assess restrictive feeding practices. Energy density (kcal/g) values for both foods and drinks (EDfood+drink) and ED for foods only (EDfoods) were calculated by dividing the average number of calories consumed by the average weight eaten across 4 meals. Higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood+drink. In overweight and obese children only, higher maternal restriction was associated with lower EDfood. There was a non-significant trend for both ED measures to be negatively associated with child BMI z-score. Overall, restrictive feeding practices were not associated with child BMI z-score. However, when analyzing separate aspects of restriction, parents reported higher use of restricting access to palatable foods but lower use of using palatable foods as rewards with heavier children. Previous reports of positive associations between child obesity and restrictive feeding practices may not apply in predominantly non-Caucasian, lower socioeconomic status cohorts of children. PMID:20594990

  19. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated with the intake of snack food in ad libitum fed rats.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Non-homeostatic hyperphagia, which is a major contributor to obesity-related hyperalimentation, is associated with the diet's molecular composition influencing, for example, the energy content. Thus, specific food items such as snack food may induce food intake independent from the state of satiety. To elucidate mechanisms how snack food may induce non-homeostatic food intake, it was tested if manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) was suitable for mapping the whole brain activity related to standard and snack food intake under normal behavioral situation. Application of the MnCl2 solution by osmotic pumps ensured that food intake was not significantly affected by the treatment. After z-score normalization and a non-affine three-dimensional registration to a rat brain atlas, significantly different grey values of 80 predefined brain structures were recorded in ad libitum fed rats after the intake of potato chips compared to standard chow at the group level. Ten of these areas had previously been connected to food intake, in particular to hyperphagia (e.g., dorsomedial hypothalamus or the anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus) or to the satiety system (e.g., arcuate hypothalamic nucleus or solitary tract); 27 areas were related to reward/addiction including the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, the ventral pallidum and the ventral striatum (caudate and putamen). Eleven areas associated to sleep displayed significantly reduced Mn2+ -accumulation and six areas related to locomotor activity showed significantly increased Mn2+ -accumulation after the intake of potato chips. The latter changes were associated with an observed significantly higher locomotor activity. Osmotic pump-assisted MEMRI proved to be a promising technique for functional mapping of whole brain activity patterns associated to nutritional intake under normal behavior. PMID:23408973

  20. The effect of an incremental increase in exercise on appetite, eating behaviour and energy balance in lean men and women feeding ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Whybrow, Stephen; Hughes, Darren A; Ritz, Patrick; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Horgan, Graham W; King, Neil; Blundell, John E; Stubbs, R James

    2008-11-01

    The effects of incremental exercise on appetite, energy intake (EI), expenditure (EE) and balance (EB) in lean men and women were examined. Six men (age 29.7 (SD 5.9) years, weight 75.2 (SD 15.3) kg, height 1.75 (SD 0.11) m) and six women (age 24.7 (SD 5.9) years, weight 66.7 (SD 9.10) kg, height 1.70 (SD 0.09) m) were each studied three times during a 16 d protocol, corresponding to no additional exercise (Nex), moderate-intensity exercise (Mex; 1.5-2.0 MJ/d) and high-intensity exercise (Hex; 3.0-4.0 MJ/d) regimens. Subjects were fed to EB during days 1-2, and during days 3-16 they fed ad libitum from a medium-fat diet of constant composition. Daily EE, assessed using the doubly labelled water method, was 9.2, 11.6 and 13.7 MJ/d (P < 0.001; SED 0.45) for the women and 12.2, 14.0 and 16.7 MJ/d (P = 0.007; SED 1.11) for the men on the Nex, Mex and Hex treatments, respectively. EI was 8.3, 8.6 and 9.9 MJ/d (P = 0.118; SED 0.72) for the women and 10.6, 11.6 and 12.0 MJ/d (P = 0.031; SED 0.47) for the men, respectively. On average, subjects compensated for about 30 % of the exercise-induced energy deficit. However, the degree of compensation varied considerably among individuals. The present study captured the initial compensation in EI for exercise-induced energy deficits. Total compensation would take a matter of weeks.

  1. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  2. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  3. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily energy intake or macronutrient composition in healthy adults? Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990–January 2013) for studies that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise, physical activity or change in response to exercise. Ninety-nine articles (103 studies) were included. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on energy and/or macronutrient intake by level of exercise or physical activity or changes in energy or macronutrient intake in response to acute exercise or exercise training in healthy (non-athlete) adults (mean age 18–64 years). Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Articles were grouped by study design: cross-sectional, acute/short term, non-randomized, and randomized trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed within study groups for several important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and presented by study design. Results No effect of physical activity, exercise or exercise training on energy intake was shown in 59% of cross-sectional studies (n = 17), 69% of acute (n = 40), 50% of short-term (n = 10), 92% of non-randomized (n = 12) and 75% of randomized trials (n = 24). Ninety-four percent of acute, 57% of short-term, 100% of non-randomized and 74% of randomized trials found no effect of exercise on macronutrient intake. Forty-six percent of cross-sectional trials found lower fat intake with increased physical activity. Limitations The literature is limited by the lack of adequately powered trials of sufficient duration, which have prescribed and measured exercise energy expenditure

  4. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  5. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  6. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  7. Effect of CSN1S1 genotype and its interaction with diet energy level on milk production and quality in Girgentana goats fed ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Renato Italo; Pennisi, Pietro; Valenti, Bernardo; Lanza, Massimiliano; Di Trana, Adriana; Di Gregorio, Paola; De Angelis, Anna; Avondo, Marcella

    2010-05-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate how the energy level of the diet can affect milk production and quality in Girgentana lactating goats in relation to polymorphism at the alphas1-casein (CSN1S1) genotype locus. Twenty-seven goats, homogeneous for milk production (1.5+/-0.3 kg/d), days of lactation (90+/-10 d) and body weight (35.8+/-5.5 kg) were selected on the basis of their CSN1S1 genotype, as follows: nine goats homozygous for strong (AA) alleles, nine goats homozygous for weak alleles (FF) and nine goats heterozygous (AF). The goats were used in a 3x3 factorial arrangement of treatments, with three genotypes (AA, FF, AF) and three diets at different energy levels (100%, 65% and 30% of hay inclusion). The experiment consisted of three simultaneous 3x3 Latin squares for the three genotypes, with one square for each level of hay inclusion in the diet. All the animals were housed in individual pens. Each experimental period lasted 23 d and consisted of 15 d for adaptation and 8 d for data and sample collection, during which the goats received the scheduled diet ad libitum. The animals were fed three different diets designed to have the same crude protein content (about 15%) but different energy levels: a pelleted alfalfa hay (H100) and two feeds including 65% (H65) and 30% (H30) of alfalfa hay (respectively 1099, 1386 and 1590 kcal NE for lactation/kg DM). All the diets were ground and pelleted (6 mm diameter). AA goats were more productive than AF and FF goats (respectively: 1419 v. 1145 and 1014 g/d; P=0.002). Indeed the interaction energy levelxgenotype was significant (P=0.018): in fact AA goats showed their milk increase only when fed with concentrates. Differences in protein and in casein levels between the three genotypes were in line with results expected from the different allele contribution to alphas1-casein synthesis. Milk urea levels were significantly lower in AA goats compared with AF and FF genotypes (respectively 32.7 v. 40.4 and 40.4 mg/dl; P=0

  8. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  9. Long-term effects of ad libitum whole milk prior to weaning and prepubertal protein supplementation on skeletal growth rate and first-lactation milk production.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U; Werner, D; Lehrer, H; Zachut, M; Livshitz, L; Yakoby, S; Shamay, A

    2010-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of rapid growth rate during the preweaning period and prepubertal protein supplementation on long-term growth pattern and milk production during the first lactation. Forty-six Israeli Holstein heifer calves were fed either milk replacer (MR) or whole milk (WM) from 4 to 60 d age. Calves had free access to WM or MR for 30 min twice daily and free-choice water and starter mix for the entire day. From weaning until 150 d of age, all heifers were fed the same ration. At 150 d of age the heifers were divided into 2 subgroups, with one subgroup supplemented with an additional 2% protein until 320 d of age. Thereafter, all heifers were housed and fed together until calving. Another cluster of 20 heifers was raised on MR and WM treatments and 3 animals from each nursery treatment were slaughtered at 60 d and 10 mo age to determine effects of nursery treatment on organ and adipose tissue mass. Prior to weaning, the MR heifers consumed 0.12 kg/d more DM than the WM heifers, but metabolizable energy intake was not different. Body weight at weaning and average daily gain during the preweaning period were 3.1 kg and 0.074 kg/d higher, respectively, in the WM treatment than in the MR treatment, with no differences in other measurements. Nursery feeding treatment and added protein had no effect on growth rate in the prepubertal period, but the postweaning difference in BW between the WM and MR heifers remained throughout the entire rearing period. The age at first insemination was 23 d earlier and age at pregnancy and first calving was numerically lower for the WM heifers than for the MR heifers. Adipose tissue weights at weaning were doubled in the WM calves. First-lactation milk production and 4% fat-corrected milk were 10.3 and 7.1% higher, respectively, for WM heifers than for MR heifers, whereas prepubertal added protein tended to increase milk yield. In conclusion, preweaning WM at high feeding rates appears to have long

  10. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  11. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    PubMed

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  12. Fate of systemically administered cocaine in nonhuman primates treated with the dAd5GNE anticocaine vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Martin J; Kaminsky, Stephen M; De, Bishnu P; Rosenberg, Jonathan B; Evans, Suzette M; Foltin, Richard W; Andrenyak, David M; Moody, David E; Koob, George F; Janda, Kim D; Ricart Arbona, Rodolfo J; Lepherd, Michelle L; Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-03-01

    Cocaine use disorders are mediated by the cocaine blockade of the dopamine transporter in the central nervous system (CNS). On the basis of the concept that these effects could be obviated if cocaine were prevented from reaching its cognate receptors in the CNS, we have developed an anticocaine vaccine, dAd5GNE, based on a cocaine analog covalently linked to capsid proteins of an E1(-)E3(-) serotype 5 adenovirus. While the vaccine effectively blocks systemically administered cocaine from reaching the brain by mediating sequestration of the cocaine in the blood, the fact that cocaine also has significant peripheral effects raises concerns that vaccination-mediated redistribution could lead to adverse effects in the visceral organs. The distribution of systemically administered cocaine at a weight-adjusted typical human dose was evaluated along with cocaine metabolites in both dAd5GNE-vaccinated and control nonhuman primates. dAd5GNE sequestration of cocaine to the blood not only prevented cocaine access to the CNS, but also limited access of both the drug and its metabolites to other cocaine-sensitive organs. The levels of cocaine in the blood of vaccinated animals rapidly decreased, suggesting that while the antibody limits access of the drug and its active metabolites to the brain and sensitive organs of the periphery, it does not prolong drug levels in the blood compartment. Gross and histopathology of major organs found no vaccine-mediated untoward effects. These results build on our earlier measures of efficacy and demonstrate that the dAd5GNE vaccine-mediated redistribution of administered cocaine is not likely to impact the vaccine safety profile.

  13. Fate of Systemically Administered Cocaine in Nonhuman Primates Treated with the dAd5GNE Anticocaine Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Martin J.; Kaminsky, Stephen M.; De, Bishnu P.; Rosenberg, Jonathan B.; Evans, Suzette M.; Foltin, Richard W.; Andrenyak, David M.; Moody, David E.; Koob, George F.; Janda, Kim D.; Ricart Arbona, Rodolfo J.; Lepherd, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cocaine use disorders are mediated by the cocaine blockade of the dopamine transporter in the central nervous system (CNS). On the basis of the concept that these effects could be obviated if cocaine were prevented from reaching its cognate receptors in the CNS, we have developed an anticocaine vaccine, dAd5GNE, based on a cocaine analog covalently linked to capsid proteins of an E1−E3− serotype 5 adenovirus. While the vaccine effectively blocks systemically administered cocaine from reaching the brain by mediating sequestration of the cocaine in the blood, the fact that cocaine also has significant peripheral effects raises concerns that vaccination-mediated redistribution could lead to adverse effects in the visceral organs. The distribution of systemically administered cocaine at a weight-adjusted typical human dose was evaluated along with cocaine metabolites in both dAd5GNE-vaccinated and control nonhuman primates. dAd5GNE sequestration of cocaine to the blood not only prevented cocaine access to the CNS, but also limited access of both the drug and its metabolites to other cocaine-sensitive organs. The levels of cocaine in the blood of vaccinated animals rapidly decreased, suggesting that while the antibody limits access of the drug and its active metabolites to the brain and sensitive organs of the periphery, it does not prolong drug levels in the blood compartment. Gross and histopathology of major organs found no vaccine-mediated untoward effects. These results build on our earlier measures of efficacy and demonstrate that the dAd5GNE vaccine-mediated redistribution of administered cocaine is not likely to impact the vaccine safety profile. PMID:24649839

  14. Fate of systemically administered cocaine in nonhuman primates treated with the dAd5GNE anticocaine vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Martin J; Kaminsky, Stephen M; De, Bishnu P; Rosenberg, Jonathan B; Evans, Suzette M; Foltin, Richard W; Andrenyak, David M; Moody, David E; Koob, George F; Janda, Kim D; Ricart Arbona, Rodolfo J; Lepherd, Michelle L; Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-03-01

    Cocaine use disorders are mediated by the cocaine blockade of the dopamine transporter in the central nervous system (CNS). On the basis of the concept that these effects could be obviated if cocaine were prevented from reaching its cognate receptors in the CNS, we have developed an anticocaine vaccine, dAd5GNE, based on a cocaine analog covalently linked to capsid proteins of an E1(-)E3(-) serotype 5 adenovirus. While the vaccine effectively blocks systemically administered cocaine from reaching the brain by mediating sequestration of the cocaine in the blood, the fact that cocaine also has significant peripheral effects raises concerns that vaccination-mediated redistribution could lead to adverse effects in the visceral organs. The distribution of systemically administered cocaine at a weight-adjusted typical human dose was evaluated along with cocaine metabolites in both dAd5GNE-vaccinated and control nonhuman primates. dAd5GNE sequestration of cocaine to the blood not only prevented cocaine access to the CNS, but also limited access of both the drug and its metabolites to other cocaine-sensitive organs. The levels of cocaine in the blood of vaccinated animals rapidly decreased, suggesting that while the antibody limits access of the drug and its active metabolites to the brain and sensitive organs of the periphery, it does not prolong drug levels in the blood compartment. Gross and histopathology of major organs found no vaccine-mediated untoward effects. These results build on our earlier measures of efficacy and demonstrate that the dAd5GNE vaccine-mediated redistribution of administered cocaine is not likely to impact the vaccine safety profile. PMID:24649839

  15. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights. PMID:25084314

  16. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights.

  17. Differential effects of methamphetamine on expression of neuropeptide Y mRNA in hypothalamus and on serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations in ad libitum-fed and schedule-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Crowley, W R; Ramoz, G; Keefe, K A; Torto, R; Kalra, S P; Hanson, G R

    2005-01-01

    Relatively little is known concerning the interaction of psychostimulants with hypothalamic neuropeptide systems or metabolic hormones implicated in regulation of energy balance. The present studies tested whether methamphetamine alters the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), two important orexigenic neuropeptides, or proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor for the anorexigenic peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, or the secretion of leptin, insulin and ghrelin, concomitant with inhibition of food intake. Female rats were either fed ad libitum (AL) or placed on a scheduled feeding (SF) regimen, with access to food limited to 4 h/day. Administration of (+/-)-methamphetamine (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 2 h prior to food presentation significantly inhibited food intake in SF animals, but did not affect intake in AL animals. In a separate study, AL and SF animals were killed just prior to expected food presentation, and expression of NPY, AgRP and POMC mRNAs in hypothalamus was determined using in situ hybridisation; concentrations of leptin, insulin and ghrelin in serum were determined with radioimmunoassays. In saline-treated, SF controls, NPY and AgRP mRNA expression in arcuate nucleus and serum ghrelin were significantly elevated, and serum leptin and insulin were significantly reduced. Methamphetamine reversed the up-regulation of NPY mRNA expression observed in the SF condition, without affecting AgRP mRNA or the serum concentrations of metabolic hormones. However, in AL animals, NPY mRNA expression in arcuate and dorsomedial nuclei was significantly increased by methamphetamine, which also reduced serum leptin and insulin and increased serum ghrelin concentrations. These findings suggest that the inhibition of NPY expression in SF animals may be a mechanism underlying the anorexigenic effect of methamphetamine seen in this condition. The increase in NPY expression produced by methamphetamine in AL animals may be mediated by the

  18. Peripherally administered sera antibodies recognizing amyloid-β oligomers mitigate Alzheimer's disease-like pathology and cognitive decline in aged 3× Tg-AD mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Chao; Yu, Yun-Zhou; Liu, Si; Zhao, Meng; Xu, Qing

    2016-04-01

    Active and passive immunotherapy targeting amyloid-β (Aβ) may be the most promising strategy to prevent or treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, immunization with the recombinant 6Aβ15-T antigen generated robust anti-Aβ serum antibodies that strongly recognized Aβ42 oligomers in different mice, markedly reduced the amyloid burden, and improved behavioral performance of immunized older AD mice. Here, we further determined that these anti-6Aβ15-T serum antibodies from different strains of mice displayed anti-Aβ antibody responses against the same epitopes in the Aβ1-15 region. Peripheral administration of anti-6Aβ15-T serum antibodies was also effective to mitigate AD-like pathology and cognitive decline in aged 3× Tg-AD mice. Specifically, the levels of Aβ and tau in the brains of 3× Tg-AD mice were significantly reduced after passive immunotherapy, which seemed necessary or beneficial to ameliorate memory impairment. In addition, our results showed that this immunotherapy also prevented presynaptic dynamin 1 degradation, which might help to further protect synaptic functions and allow functional recovery of cognition. Moreover, immunization with 6Aβ15-T in rabbits induced a similar antibody response as that in mice, and the rabbit serum antibodies reacted strongly with Aβ42 oligomers and inhibited oligomer-mediated neurotoxicity. We concluded that passive immunization with Aβ42 oligomer conformation-sensitive anti-6Aβ15-T serum antibodies is effective in providing potentially therapeutic effects in aged 3× Tg-AD mice by reducing Aβ and tau.

  19. Subchronic dispositional and toxicological effects of arsenate administered in drinking water to mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.F.; Thompson, D.J.

    1996-10-11

    Exposure to the drinking water contaminant arsenate is a daily occurrence and there are concerns that this exposure may lead to cancer. Although the acute dispositional effects of arsenate have been studied in detail, there is minimal information on the disposition and toxicological effects of it after continuous exposure. The objective of this study was to examine in mice the effect of a 4-wk treatment with arsenate administered in drinking water. Female B6C3F1 mice were housed in metabolism cages and given water and food ad libitum. Two groups (A,B) of mice were treated with distilled water or water containing 0.025 mg/L (L) or 2.5 mg/L (H) arsenate. Several toxicological effects were observed in animals administered arsenate in drinking water, but no changes in the disposition of this arsenical were detected at the doses used in this study. 86 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Lactational response of Jersey cows to bovine somatotropin administered daily or in a sustained-release formulation.

    PubMed

    Jenny, B F; Grimes, L W; Pardue, F E; Rock, D W; Patterson, D L

    1992-12-01

    Twenty-four Jersey cows were administered either 0 or 15.5 mg of bST/d or 310 mg of bST/14 d to determine the effect on milk yield, milk composition, feed intake, and body weight. Administration of bST was from wk 14 through 42 postpartum. Cows were housed in a tie-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake a TMR adjusted to one of two energy protein densities according to milk yield. Milk yield of cows administered bST daily or by sustained-released vehicle increased 27.6 and 24.7%, respectively, over that of control cows; FCM increased by 30.3 and 26.7%. Percentages of fat and protein in milk were unaffected by bST treatment. Dry matter intake of cows administered bST was greater than that of control cows, whether expressed as kilograms per day or as a percentage of body weight. Apparent efficiency of yield increased in cows administered bST. No significant change in body weight occurred; however, cows administered bST had lower body condition scores at 42 wk postpartum. This trial demonstrated comparable effects of bST on lactational performance when administered daily or in a 14-d sustained-release vehicle.

  1. Improved single pellet grasping using automated ad libitum full-time training robot.

    PubMed

    Fenrich, Keith K; May, Zacnicte; Hurd, Caitlin; Boychuk, Carolyn E; Kowalczewski, Jan; Bennett, David J; Whishaw, Ian Q; Fouad, Karim

    2015-03-15

    The single pellet grasping (SPG) task is a skilled forelimb motor task commonly used to evaluate reaching and grasp kinematics and recovery of forelimb function in rodent models of CNS injuries and diseases. To train rats in the SPG task, the animals are usually food restricted then placed in an SPG task enclosure and presented food pellets on a platform located beyond a slit located at the front of the task enclosure for 10-30 min, normally every weekday for several weeks. When the SPG task is applied in studies involving various experimental groups, training quickly becomes labor intensive, and can yield results with significant day-to-day variability. Furthermore, training is frequently done during the animals' light-cycle, which for nocturnal rodents such as mice and rats could affect performance. Here we describe an automated pellet presentation (APP) robotic system to train and test rats in the SPG task that reduces some of the procedural weaknesses of manual training. We found that APP trained rats performed significantly more trials per 24 h period, and had higher success rates with less daily and weekly variability than manually trained rats. Moreover, the results show that success rates are positively correlated with the number of dark-cycle trials, suggesting that dark-cycle training has a positive effect on success rates. These results demonstrate that automated training is an effective method for evaluating and training skilled reaching performance of rats, opening up the possibility for new approaches to investigating the role of motor systems in enabling skilled forelimb use and new approaches to investigating rehabilitation following CNS injury. PMID:25523027

  2. Improved single pellet grasping using automated ad libitum full-time training robot.

    PubMed

    Fenrich, Keith K; May, Zacnicte; Hurd, Caitlin; Boychuk, Carolyn E; Kowalczewski, Jan; Bennett, David J; Whishaw, Ian Q; Fouad, Karim

    2015-03-15

    The single pellet grasping (SPG) task is a skilled forelimb motor task commonly used to evaluate reaching and grasp kinematics and recovery of forelimb function in rodent models of CNS injuries and diseases. To train rats in the SPG task, the animals are usually food restricted then placed in an SPG task enclosure and presented food pellets on a platform located beyond a slit located at the front of the task enclosure for 10-30 min, normally every weekday for several weeks. When the SPG task is applied in studies involving various experimental groups, training quickly becomes labor intensive, and can yield results with significant day-to-day variability. Furthermore, training is frequently done during the animals' light-cycle, which for nocturnal rodents such as mice and rats could affect performance. Here we describe an automated pellet presentation (APP) robotic system to train and test rats in the SPG task that reduces some of the procedural weaknesses of manual training. We found that APP trained rats performed significantly more trials per 24 h period, and had higher success rates with less daily and weekly variability than manually trained rats. Moreover, the results show that success rates are positively correlated with the number of dark-cycle trials, suggesting that dark-cycle training has a positive effect on success rates. These results demonstrate that automated training is an effective method for evaluating and training skilled reaching performance of rats, opening up the possibility for new approaches to investigating the role of motor systems in enabling skilled forelimb use and new approaches to investigating rehabilitation following CNS injury.

  3. The social behavior of male rats administered an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    PubMed

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2009-03-23

    The behavioral outcomes of a calorie restricted diet are often neglected in favour of a more physiological examination of the consequences of calorie restriction (CR). This is especially the case with social behavior. A few findings within the maternal CR literature suggest that adult male social behavior is altered by this regimen. Despite the paucity of findings within the maternal CR literature, a systematic investigation of the behavioral phenotype of males administered an adult-onset CR is completely lacking and was the focus of the current study. Adult male hooded Wistar rats were administered a three week CR, with one group receiving a 25% CR and another group receiving a 50% CR before male-to-male social behavior was examined and compared with ad libitium fed males. Various behavioral elements were modulated by CR, both the CR25% and 50% group initiated contact sooner and engaged in greater social activity compared to the ad libitum fed controls. The CR25% group also demonstrated less non-social (self-grooming) behavior and a greater frequency of walkovers compared to all groups, indicating a propensity towards dominance. The CR50% group demonstrated greater environmental assessment/exploration, as measured by the frequency of rearing. As with the maternal CR literature, an adult-onset chronic CR induces a more socially active behavioral phenotype and reduces interest in non-social behavior in the moderately CR group. Taken together, the social behavioral phenotype can be modulated by a CR initiated and maintained during adulthood.

  4. Sprouting responsiveness in the dentate gyrus is reduced by ethanol administered following but not preceding an entorhinal lesion.

    PubMed

    Tjossem, H H; Goodlett, C R; West, J R

    1987-09-01

    We examined the effect of ethanol on lesion-induced sprouting in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Adult rats were fed a liquid diet containing either ethanol or sucrose for 14 days before and 9 days following unilateral entorhinal cortex lesions. One group was provided the ethanol diet ad libitum during both the pre- and postlesion period. Three other groups were pair-fed to the latter group; one consumed ethanol prelesion, one postlesion, and one did not receive ethanol. Sections through the rostral hippocampus were stained for histochemical localization of acetylcholinesterase. Following the entorhinal lesion the pale-staining commissural/associational zone ipsilateral to the lesion typically expands and exhibits decreased acetylcholinesterase staining. When ethanol was administered after the lesion, expansion of the commissural/associational zone was significantly diminished compared with the two groups that received the control diet after the lesion. Ethanol administered for 2 weeks before the lesion had no measurable effect on commissural/associational zone expansion. These findings imply that, at least for short-term exposure, ethanol reduces the sprouting responsiveness of systems in the dentate gyrus only during the postlesion period when sprouting normally occurs.

  5. Changes in Medications Administered in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Johnson, Shella; Roman, Jaclyn; Zimmerman, M. Bridget

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to determine if there have been changes in the type and number of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) medications administered in schools since the introduction of long-acting stimulants. A survey was sent to 1,000 school nurses randomly selected from the National Association…

  6. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food.

  7. Chocolate versions of the Food Cravings Questionnaires. Associations with chocolate exposure-induced salivary flow and ad libitum chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; Hormes, Julia M

    2015-08-01

    The Food Cravings Questionnaires are the most commonly used instruments for the assessment of trait and state food craving. Chocolate is the most frequently craved food in Western societies. In the current studies, the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) and the Food Cravings Questionnaire-State (FCQ-S) were adapted to capture strong urges for chocolate. In study 1, students (n = 492; 81.3% female) completed chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S among other measures online. The FCQ-T-r (α = .94) comprised two subscales representing lack of control (α = .91) and thoughts about chocolate (α = .91). The FCQ-S (α = .87) comprised two subscales representing chocolate craving (α = .90) and hunger (α = .85). FCQ-T-r scores were significantly and positively correlated with self-reported frequency of consuming chocolate and with scores on the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire, indicating good convergent validity. In study 2, students (n = 76; 73.7% female) underwent a chocolate exposure in the laboratory. FCQ-S scores increased during chocolate exposure and increases in momentary chocolate craving were significantly positively correlated with increases in salivary flow. Higher momentary chocolate craving was positively correlated with higher laboratory chocolate consumption. Exploratory analyses revealed that increases in salivary flow were only associated with increased chocolate consumption in participants scoring high, but not low on trait chocolate craving. The chocolate versions of the FCQ-T-r and FCQ-S represent reliable and valid self-report measures for the assessment of trait and state chocolate craving.

  8. Food branding influences ad libitum intake differently in children depending on weight status. Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jamie; Halford, Jason C G; Summe, Heather; MacDougall, Megan; Keller, Kathleen L

    2009-08-01

    Environmental changes have facilitated the rapid increase in childhood obesity. One such change is increased presence of food marketing which promotes intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods. This study tested the hypotheses that overweight (OW) children are more sensitive to the intake-enhancing effects of food branding than non-OW children, and that the relationship between weight status and intake of branded foods is mediated by level of food brand awareness. Forty-three non-OW (n = 23) and OW (n = 20) children from diverse ethnic backgrounds participated in four dinnertime visits to test their intake of meals where food brands were present ("branded") or absent ("unbranded"). Food brand awareness was assessed by testing children's abilities to match food brand logos with correct foods and name specific brands from recall. Weight and height were measured on the first visit to determine BMI z-score and weight status. OW children consumed significantly more energy per meal than non-OW. Child age and brand awareness were positively associated. OW children consumed an additional 40 kcal in branded vs. unbranded meals whereas non-OW children consumed 45 kcal less in branded meals. Overweight children showed greater responsiveness to food branding, and they may be at risk in environments that are highly inundated with messages about food. PMID:19481125

  9. Orally administered grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Taudorf, E; Weeke, B

    1983-11-01

    In 1900 it was claimed that oral administration of ragweed could be used for the hyposensitization of hay fever patients. Several uncontrolled trials have been published, all showing an effect of oral hyposensitization. Only one study was controlled and showed no effect of oral hyposensitization. It was decided to undertake controlled clinical trials to determine the safety and effectiveness of orally administered enteric-coated grass pollen tablets in patients with hay fever. The actual grass pollen dose in the first trial was 30 times the dose that is normally recommended for preseasonal oral pollen hyposensitization using pollen aqueous solution or pollen powder. The safety study will be described here. Twelve young adults with a history of grass pollen hay fever positive skin prick test and positive nasal provocation test with extracts of timothy grass pollen were randomly allocated to one of the treatment groups with four patients in each group taking enteric-coated Conjuvac Timothy tablets or enteric-coated Whole Timothy pollen tablets or enteric-coated placebo tablets. The study was double blind. Preseasonally, the patients received 342,500 PNU and in total they received 4,500,000 PNU during 6 months. The patients receiving active treatment did not have any side effects. No significant changes were shown in the skin and nasal reactivity to grass pollen during the study. Neither were there any changes in timothy-specific IgE, IgG, total IgE nor histamine liberation from basophils.

  10. The antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine administered through the drinking water of rats.

    PubMed

    Jessen, L; Christensen, S; Bjerrum, O J

    2007-04-01

    Postoperative pain management in laboratory animals is important for animal welfare and required under law in many countries. Frequent injection of analgesics to rodents after surgery is stressful for the animals and labour-intensive for animal care personnel. An alternative dosing scheme such as administration of analgesics in the drinking water would be desirable. However, the efficacy of a chronic oral analgesic treatment via this route has not yet been documented. This study investigated the antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine administered ad libitum via the drinking water of laboratory rats. The antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine in drinking water was compared with repeated subcutaneous injections. A comparison was also made between buprenorphine in drinking water and the combination of one single subcutaneous injection of buprenorphine followed by buprenorphine in drinking water. Antinociception was assessed by use of an analgesiometric model measuring the rats' latency time to withdrawal from a noxious heat stimulus applied to the plantar surface of the paw. Results revealed that buprenorphine in drinking water (0.056 mg/mL) induced significant increases in paw withdrawal latency times during a three-day period of administration with a maximal effect at 39 h after the start of buprenorphine administration. One single injection of buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) followed by buprenorphine in the drinking water (0.056 mg/mL) induced an earlier onset of antinociception than buprenorphine in drinking water alone. In contrast, buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) injected every 8 h over a period of three days did not result in significant increases in paw withdrawal latency times. In conclusion, our results suggest that one single subcutaneous injection of buprenorphine followed by buprenorphine in drinking water may be a viable treatment option for the relief of pain in laboratory rats, but at the doses used in this study in pain-free rats it was associated

  11. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  12. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  13. Developmental toxicity evaluation of sodium fluoride administered to rats and rabbits in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Heindel, J J; Bates, H K; Price, C J; Marr, M C; Myers, C B; Schwetz, B A

    1996-04-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF; Cas No. 7681-49-4) is used in fluoridating municipal water supplies, resulting in chronic exposure of millions of people worldwide. Because of a lack of pertinent developmental toxicity studies in the literature, sodium fluoride was administered ad libitum in deionized/filtered drinking water (to mimic human exposure) to Sprague-Dawley-derived rats (26/group) on Gestation Days (GD) 6 through 15 at levels of 0, 50, 150, or 300 ppm and New Zealand White rabbits (26/group) on GD 6 through 19 at levels of 0, 100, 200, or 400 ppm. Higher concentrations via drinking water were not practicable due to the poor palatability of sodium fluoride. Drinking water (vehicle) contained less than 0.6 ppm sodium fluoride (limit of detection) and sodium fluoride content of the feed was 12.4 ppm fluoride (rats) and 15.6 ppm fluoride (rabbits). Maternal food, water, body weights, and clinical signs were recorded at regular intervals throughout these studies. Animals were killed on GD 20 (rats) or 30 (rabbits) and examined for implant status, fetal weight, sex, and morphological development. In the high-dose group of both studies there was an initial decreased maternal body weight gain which recovered over time and a decreased water consumption--attributed to decreased palatability. No clear clinical signs of toxicity were observed. Maternal exposure to sodium fluoride during organogenesis did not significantly affect the frequency of postimplantation loss, mean fetal body weight/litter, or external, visceral or skeletal malformations in either the rat or the rabbit. The NOAEL for maternal toxicity was 150 ppm sodium fluoride in drinking water (approximately 18 mg/kg/day) for rats, and 200 ppm (approximately 18/mg/kg/day rabbits. The NOAEL for developmental toxicity was > or = 300 ppm sodium fluoride (approximately 27 mg/kg/day) for rats and > or = 400 ppm (approximately 29 mg/kg/day) for rabbits administered during organogenesis in drinking water. The total

  14. Influence of coagulation factor x on in vitro and in vivo gene delivery by adenovirus (Ad) 5, Ad35, and chimeric Ad5/Ad35 vectors.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Buckley, Suzanne Mk; Waddington, Simon N; Parker, Alan L; Bhella, David; Pink, Rebecca; Rahim, Ahad A; Morita, Takashi; Nicklin, Stuart A; McVey, John H; Baker, Andrew H

    2009-10-01

    The binding of coagulation factor X (FX) to the hexon of adenovirus (Ad) 5 is pivotal for hepatocyte transduction. However, vectors based on Ad35, a subspecies B Ad, are in development for cancer gene therapy, as Ad35 utilizes CD46 (which is upregulated in many cancers) for transduction. We investigated whether interaction of Ad35 with FX influenced vector tropism using Ad5, Ad35, and Ad5/Ad35 chimeras: Ad5/fiber(f)35, Ad5/penton(p)35/f35, and Ad35/f5. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) revealed that Ad35 and Ad35/f5 bound FX with approximately tenfold lower affinities than Ad5 hexon-containing viruses, and electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) demonstrated a direct Ad35 hexon:FX interaction. The presence of physiological levels of FX significantly inhibited transduction of vectors containing Ad35 fibers (Ad5/f35, Ad5/p35/f35, and Ad35) in CD46-positive cells. Vectors were intravenously administered to CD46 transgenic mice in the presence and absence of FX-binding protein (X-bp), resulting in reduced liver accumulation for all vectors. Moreover, Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35 efficiently accumulated in the lung, whereas Ad5 demonstrated poor lung targeting. Additionally, X-bp significantly reduced lung genome accumulation for Ad5/f35 and Ad5/p35/f35, whereas Ad35 was significantly enhanced. In summary, vectors based on the full Ad35 serotype will be useful vectors for selective gene transfer via CD46 due to a weaker FX interaction compared to Ad5.

  15. Performance, meat quality, meat mineral contents and caecal microbial population responses to humic substances administered in drinking water in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, E; Coskun, I; Ocak, N; Erener, G; Dervisoglu, M; Turhan, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of humic substances (HS) administered in drinking water on caecal microflora and mineral composition and colour characteristics of breast and thigh meats and the growth performance, carcass and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits of broiler chicks. A total of 480 3-d-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 cages per treatment and 30 bird (15 males and 15 females) chicks per cage. All birds were fed on commercial basal diet. The control birds (HS0) received drinking water with no additions, whereas birds in the other treatment groups received a drinking water with 7.5 (HS7.5), 15.0 (HS15.0) and 22.5 (HS22.5) g/kg HS. Mush feed were provided on an ad libitum basis. Body weight and feed intake of broilers were determined at d 0, 21, and 42, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. On d 42, 4 broilers (2 males and 2 females) from each cage were slaughtered and the breast and thigh meats were collected for mineral composition and quality measurements. Performance, carcass and GIT traits and caecal microbial population of broiler chicks at d 42 were not affected by the dietary treatments. The lightness (L*) of breast and thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water. Although the redness (a*) of breast meat increased, yellowness of thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS administration in drinking water can be applied for broiler chicks to maintain growth performance and improve meat quality without changing caecal microflora.

  16. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  17. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  18. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  19. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  20. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  1. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  2. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) METHODS: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) RESULTS: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (-1.99 kg, 95% CI -2.9, -1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (-14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI -19.5, -9.7), sodium (-1055 mg/day, 95% CI -1593, -518), calcium (-292 mg/day 95% CI -486.0, -99.0) and iodine (-47.9 μg/day, 95% CI -79.2, -16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  3. The clinical effect of dentifrices containing stabilized stannous fluoride on plaque formation and gingivitis--a six-month study with ad libitum brushing.

    PubMed

    Beiswanger, B B; Doyle, P M; Jackson, R D; Mallatt, M E; Mau, M s; Bollmer, B W; Crisanti, M M; Guay, C B; Lanzalaco, A C; Lukacovic, M F

    1995-01-01

    The effects of stabilized 0.454% stannous fluoride dentifrices on supragingival plaque, gingival inflammation and gingival bleeding were studied in 549 adult male and female subjects who completed a six-month, double blind clinical study. Following an oral prophylaxis, subjects were randomly assigned to brush with one of the following dentifrices: 1) 0.454% SnF2 stabilized with 2.08% sodium gluconate, 2) 0.454% SnF2 stabilized with 4.16% sodium gluconate, 3) an experimental dentifrice, or 4) 0.243% NaF control dentifrice. Follow-up examinations were conducted at 3 and 6 months. Compared to the control dentifrice at 6 months, stannous fluoride dentifrices stabilized with 2.08% or 4.16% sodium gluconate significantly reduced gingivitis by 18.8% and 18.0%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two stabilized SnF2 groups with respect to their beneficial effects on gingival health. Gingival bleeding was also reduced, relative to the control dentifrice, for both stabilized SnF2 dentifrices. However, these differences were not statistically significant at p=0.05. The stabilized SnF2 dentifrices were not significantly different from the control dentifrice in their effects on supragingival plaque. No significant differences in adverse oral soft tissue effects were observed between the test and control groups. As expected, accumulation of extrinsic tooth stain increased in the stabilized SnF2 groups. However, the difficulty in removing accumulated dental stain was similar between the control and stabilized SnF2 dentifrices. Since use of SnF2 dentifrices has been reported to produce tooth stain, gingivitis examinations were done with and without custom-made tooth covers to evaluate the potential for examiner bias. Comparable gingivitis and gingival bleeding benefits were observed when the evaluations were conducted with or without the tooth covers. Results from this study support that 0.454% stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrices can provide an important adjunct to the prevention and control of gingivitis when used in combination with regular personal oral hygiene procedures and professional care.

  4. Dietary protein level and source differentially affect bone metabolism, strength, and intestinal calcium transporter expression during ad libitum and food-restricted conditions in male rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High protein diets may attenuate bone loss during energy restriction (ER). The objective of the current study was to determine whether high protein diets suppress bone turnover and improve bone quality in rats during ER and whether dietary protein source affects this relationship. Eighty 12-week o...

  5. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) Results: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (−1.99 kg, 95% CI −2.9, −1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (−14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI −19.5, −9.7), sodium (−1055 mg/day, 95% CI −1593, −518), calcium (−292 mg/day 95% CI −486.0, −99.0) and iodine (−47.9 μg/day, 95% CI −79.2, −16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  6. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the Effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms (P<0.05). Pepsin activity of TR fish also showed a significant daily rhythm (P<0.05) with the acrophase at the second feed and a decrease over the next 12 h. Average daily trypsin, lipase and amylase levels of FA fish were significantly lower than those of TR fish (P<0.01); however, the growth performance of both groups was similar (P>0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  7. Drinking guidelines for exercise: what evidence is there that athletes should drink "as much as tolerable", "to replace the weight lost during exercise" or "ad libitum"?

    PubMed

    Noakes, T D

    2007-05-01

    The most recent (1996) drinking guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) propose that athletes should drink "as much as tolerable" during exercise. Since some individuals can tolerate rates of free water ingestion that exceed their rates of free water loss during exercise, this advice has caused some to overdrink leading to water retention, weight gain and, in a few, death from exercise-associated hyponatraemic encephalopathy. The new drinking guidelines of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), recently re-published in this Journal, continue to argue that athletes must drink enough to replace all their weight lost during exercise and to ingest sodium chloride since sodium is "the electrolyte most critical to performance and health". In this rebuttal to that Consensus Document, I argue that these new guidelines, like their predecessors, lack an adequate, scientifically proven evidence base. Nor have they been properly evaluated in appropriately controlled, randomized, prospective clinical trials. In particular, these new guidelines provide erroneous recommendations on five topics. If novel universal guidelines for fluid ingestion during exercise are to be promulgated by important international bodies including the IOC, they should first be properly evaluated in appropriately controlled, randomized, prospective clinical trials conducted under environmental and other conditions that match those found in "out-of-doors" exercise. This, and the potential influence of commercial interests on scientific independence and objectivity, are the two most important lessons to be learned from the premature adoption of those 1996 ACSM drinking guidelines that are not evidence-based. These concerns need to be addressed before the novel IOC guidelines are accepted uncritically. Otherwise the predictable consequences of the premature adoption of the 1996 ACSM guidelines will be repeated.

  8. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  9. Polarised black holes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  10. Relaxation processes in administered-rate pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Arnold, Michael R.

    2000-10-01

    We show how the theory of anelasticity unifies the observed dynamics and proposed models of administered-rate products. This theory yields a straightforward approach to rate model construction that we illustrate by simulating the observed relaxation dynamics of two administered rate products. We also demonstrate how the use of this formalism leads to a natural definition of market friction.

  11. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  12. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  13. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  14. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  15. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  16. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  17. Agricultural Education: Value Adding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This issue develops the theme of "Agricultural Education--Value Adding." The concept value adding has been a staple in the world of agricultural business for describing adding value to a commodity that would profit the producer and the local community. Agricultural education should add value to individuals and society to justify agricultural…

  18. Teaching Students to Administer the WISC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kathleen Yost

    1977-01-01

    A college level psychology course is described in which students were trained by both traditional and experimental methods to administer individual intelligence tests. Comparative analysis of performance by each group indicates that student motivation and performance is not greatly influenced by teaching method and that videotape demonstrations…

  19. Adding flavor to AdS4/CFT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, Martin; Erdmenger, Johanna; Meyer, René; O'Bannon, Andy; Wrase, Timm

    2009-11-01

    Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis, and Maldacena have proposed that the low-energy description of multiple M2-branes at a Bbb C4/Bbb Zk singularity is a (2+1)-dimensional Script N = 6 supersymmetric U(Nc) × U(Nc) Chern-Simons matter theory, the ABJM theory. In the large-Nc limit, its holographic dual is supergravity in AdS4 × S7/Bbb Zk. We study various ways to add fields that transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge groups, i.e. flavor fields, to the ABJM theory. We work in a probe limit and perform analyses in both the supergravity and field theory descriptions. In the supergravity description we find a large class of supersymmetric embeddings of probe flavor branes. In the field theory description, we present a general method to determine the couplings of the flavor fields to the fields of the ABJM theory. We then study four examples in detail: codimension-zero Script N = 3 supersymmetric flavor, described in supergravity by Kaluza-Klein monopoles or D6-branes; codimension-one Script N = (0,6) supersymmetric chiral flavor, described by D8-branes; codimension-one Script N = (3,3) supersymmetric non-chiral flavor, described by M5/D4-branes; codimension-two Script N = 4 supersymmetric flavor, described by M2/D2-branes. Finally we discuss special physical equivalences between brane embeddings in M-theory, and their interpretation in the field theory description.

  20. Twistor methods for AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, Tim; Skinner, David; Williams, Jack

    2016-08-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS5 is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  1. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  2. Shadows, currents, and AdS fields

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2008-11-15

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. A gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. A realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields are studied. The bulk fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields, and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.

  3. Trials of intranasally administered rubella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hillary, I B

    1971-12-01

    No evidence of vaccine virus transmission was found in two studies where Wistar RA 27/3 rubella vaccine was administered intranasally. Vaccine was immunogenic in all of 23 vaccinated children in one study, while in the other only 5 of the 11 vaccinees developed antibody. The reduced seroconversion rate in the latter study appears to have been caused by one or a combination of factors, including the vaccination technique, the presence of infective nasal conditions in vaccinees and the titre of vaccine used.

  4. Ocular toxicity from systemically administered xenobiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gokulgandhi, Mitan R; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The eye is considered as the most privileged organ because of the blood–ocular barrier that acts as a barrier to systemically administered xenobiotics. However, there has been a significant increase in the number of reports on systemic drug-induced ocular complications. If such complications are left untreated, then it may cause permanent damage to vision. Hence, knowledge of most recent updates on ever-increasing reports of such toxicities has become imperative to develop better therapy while minimizing toxicities. Areas covered The article is mainly divided into anterior and posterior segment manifestations caused by systemically administered drugs. The anterior segment is further elaborated on corneal complications where as the posterior segment is focused on optic nerve, retinal and vitreous complications. Furthermore, this article includes recent updates on acute and chronic ocular predicaments, in addition to discussing various associated symptoms caused by drugs. Expert opinion Direct correlation of ocular toxicities due to systemic drug therapy is evident from current literature. Therefore, it is necessary to have detailed documentation of these complications to improve understanding and predict toxicities. We made an attempt to ensure that the reader is aware of the characteristic ocular complications, the potential for irreversible drug toxicity and indications for cessation. PMID:22803583

  5. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  6. Absorption of orally administered amphotericin B lozenges.

    PubMed

    Ching, M S; Raymond, K; Bury, R W; Mashford, M L; Morgan, D J

    1983-07-01

    The systemic absorption of amphotericin B, administered as a 10 mg lozenge, was investigated in 14 patients with malignancies, who received three or four doses daily during chronic administration. The mean plasma amphotericin B concentration, measured 3 h after the morning dose on from 1-20 occasions over a 1-80 day period, ranged among subjects from 46 +/- 13 ng/ml (s.d., n = 20) to 136 +/- 25 ng/ml (n = 19). Using the previously reported intravenous clearance of the drug, the fraction of the dose absorbed was estimated at 8.3-9.9%. This is considerably greater than that estimated from earlier reports (0.2-0.9%), which used much higher oral doses (2-10 g/day). PMID:6882617

  7. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Evans, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  8. Efficacy of intravenously administered ibandronate in postmenopausal Korean women with insufficient response to orally administered bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Beom-Jun; Lim, Kyeong Hye; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Hong Kyu; Kim, Ghi Su; Koh, Jung-Min

    2012-09-01

    We investigated rates of insufficient and over-responsiveness to orally administered bisphosphonates in postmenopausal women, and tested the efficacy of intravenous ibandronate in patients with insufficient response to orally administered bisphosphonates. Postmenopausal women were treated with either alendronate (70 mg/week; n = 88) or risedronate (35 mg/week; n = 84) for 1 year, and their response to orally administered bisphosphonates was assessed using serum C-telopeptide (CTX) levels. Insufficient responders were changed to once-quarterly intravenous ibandronate 3 mg injection (n = 13) or maintained on orally administered bisphosphonates (n = 19), according to patients' preference, for an additional 1 year. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between two orally administered bisphosphonate groups except the bone mineral density values at the lumbar spine. Insufficient rate was higher in the risedronate group (19.0 %) than in the alendronate group (8.0 %), using the premenopausal serum CTX median as a cut-off (P = 0.043). The over-response rate among the alendronate group (59.1 %) was significantly higher than that in the risedronate group (38.1 %), based on a serum CTX cut-off value of 0.100 ng/ml (P = 0.006). Intravenous ibandronate suppressed serum CTX levels to a significantly greater degree at 7 days after the second dosing (0.191 ± 0.110 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and 3 months after the fourth dosing (0.274 ± 0.159 ng/mL; P = 0.004) among insufficient responders, compared with post-oral/pre-intravenous levels (0.450 ± 0.134 ng/mL). Rates of insufficient and over-responsiveness to orally administered bisphosphonates were considerable, and a change to intravenous bisphosphonates may be considered in patients showing an insufficient response to orally administered bisphosphonates.

  9. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  10. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  14. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... examination. The administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee...

  15. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee to comply with...

  16. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... examination. The administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee...

  17. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... examination. The administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee...

  18. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... examination. The administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee...

  19. 40 CFR 147.2351 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia § 147.2351 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Virginia, including all Indian lands, is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2351 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia § 147.2351 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Virginia, including all Indian lands, is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40...

  1. 40 CFR 147.2351 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia § 147.2351 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Virginia, including all Indian lands, is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40...

  2. 40 CFR 147.2351 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia § 147.2351 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Virginia, including all Indian lands, is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40...

  3. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  4. Process for Administering Distributed Academic Competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Feibush, Eliot

    2010-02-04

    Currently, academic-type competitions are scored using a combination of timer clocks, entries on paper, and individual computers to consolidate individual entries. Such a system is unwieldy, time-consuming, and depends on the individual computer skills that might be present amount the competition administrators. The new Academic Competition Software combines digital clocks, along with a scoring system that permits different point values for different types of questions. Bonus or ‚Âœtoss-up‚ questions can be monitored during the competition, using a subtimer system. All data is consolidated on the fly and the system can be operated by a single person. Results from different sites (rooms) can be added in as well. As such, the software is extremely flexible. It is anticipated that this new software will be useful for‚Science or Science Olympiad type competitions held in many high schools and colleges, as well as for preparation and training for such competitions.

  5. Introducing ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  6. Targeted Lung Delivery of Nasally Administered Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Geng; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2014-01-01

    Using the nasal route to deliver pharmaceutical aerosols to the lungs has a number of advantages including co-administration during non-invasive ventilation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and deposition characteristics of nasally administered aerosol throughout the conducting airways based on delivery with streamlined interfaces implementing two forms of controlled condensational growth technology. Characteristic conducting airways were considered including a nose-mouth-throat (NMT) geometry, complete upper tracheobronchial (TB) model through the third bifurcation (B3), and stochastic individual path (SIP) model to the terminal bronchioles (B15). Previously developed streamlined nasal cannula interfaces were used for the delivery of submicrometer particles using either enhanced condensational growth (ECG) or excipient enhanced growth (EEG) techniques. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations predicted aerosol transport, growth and deposition for a control (4.7 μm) and three submicrometer condensational aerosols with budesonide as a model insoluble drug. Depositional losses with condensational aerosols in the cannula and NMT were less than 5% of the initial dose, which represents an order-of-magnitude reduction compared to the control. The condensational growth techniques increased the TB dose by a factor of 1.1–2.6x, delivered at least 70% of the dose to the alveolar region, and produced final aerosol sizes ≥2.5 μm. Compared to multiple commercial orally inhaled products, the nose-to-lung delivery approach increased dose to the biologically important lower TB region by factors as large as 35x. In conclusion, nose-to-lung delivery with streamlined nasal cannulas and condensational aerosols was highly efficient and targeted deposition to the lower TB and alveolar regions. PMID:24932058

  7. Who Should Administer Energy-Efficiency Programs?

    SciTech Connect

    Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen L.

    2003-05-01

    The restructuring of the electric utility industry in the US created a crisis in the administration of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs. Before restructuring, nearly all energy-efficiency programs in the US were administered by utilities and funded from utility rates. Restructuring called these arrangements into question in two ways. First, the separation of generation from transmission and distribution undermined a key rationale for utility administration. This was the Integrated Resource Planning approach in which the vertically integrated utility was given incentives to provide energy services at least cost. Second, questions were raised as to whether funding through utility rates could be sustained in a competitive environment and most states that restructured their electricity industry adopted a system benefits charge. The crisis in administration of energy-efficiency programs produced a variety of responses in the eight years since restructuring in the US began in earn est. These responses have included new rationales for energy-efficiency programs, new mechanisms for funding programs, and new mechanisms for program administration and governance. This paper focuses on issues related to program administration. It describes the administrative functions and some of the options for accomplishing them. Then it discusses criteria for choosing among the options. Examples are given that highlight some of the states that have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved. The conclusion attempts to summarize lessons learned.

  8. Burnout Levels of Teachers of Students with AD/HD in Turkey: Comparison with Teachers of Non-AD/HD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the difference between the burnout level of teachers of students with AD/HD and teachers of non-AD/HD students in Turkey. The Turkish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was administered to a total of 78 Turkish elementary school teachers. Overall findings revealed that there were no significant differences…

  9. Process for Administering Distributed Academic Competitions

    2010-02-04

    Currently, academic-type competitions are scored using a combination of timer clocks, entries on paper, and individual computers to consolidate individual entries. Such a system is unwieldy, time-consuming, and depends on the individual computer skills that might be present amount the competition administrators. The new Academic Competition Software combines digital clocks, along with a scoring system that permits different point values for different types of questions. Bonus or ‚Âœtoss-up‚ questions can be monitored during the competition,more » using a subtimer system. All data is consolidated on the fly and the system can be operated by a single person. Results from different sites (rooms) can be added in as well. As such, the software is extremely flexible. It is anticipated that this new software will be useful for‚Science or Science Olympiad type competitions held in many high schools and colleges, as well as for preparation and training for such competitions.« less

  10. Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Kač-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

  11. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

    2012-12-03

    -99% pure population of leukocytes. Viability was assessed using Trypan blue histological analysis. We successfully isolated and labeled ~25-30 x 10{sup 7} CD34+ lymphocytes in cytokine mobilized progenitor cell apharesis harvests. Cells were also subjected to a stat gram stain to look for bacterial contamination, stat endotoxin LAL to look for endotoxin contamination, flow cytometry for evaluation of the purity of the cells and 14-day sterility culture. Colony forming assays confirm the capacity of these cells to proliferate and function ex-vivo with CFU-GM values of 26 colonies/ 1 x 10{sup 4} cells plated and 97% viability in cytokine augmented methylcellulose at 10-14 days in CO{sub 2} incubation. We developed a closed-processing system for the product labeling prior to infusion to maintain autologous cell integrity and sterility. Release criteria for the labeled product were documented for viability, cell count and differential, and measured radiolabel. We were successful in labeling the cells with up to 500 uCi/10{sup 8} cells, with viability of >98%. However, due to delays in getting the protocol approved by the FDA, the cells were not infused in humans in this location (although we did successfully use CD34+ cells in humans in a study in Australia). The approach developed should permit labeling of progenitor cells that can be administered to human subjects for tracking. The labeling approach should be useful for all progenitor cell types, although this would need to be verified since different cell lines may have differential radiosensitivity.

  12. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  13. Nonlinear realization of local symmetries of AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.; Nitta, Muneto; Veldhuis, T. ter

    2005-10-15

    Coset methods are used to construct the action describing the dynamics associated with the spontaneous breaking of the local symmetries of AdS{sub d+1} space due to the embedding of an AdS{sub d} brane. The resulting action is an SO(2,d) invariant AdS form of the Einstein-Hilbert action, which in addition to the AdS{sub d} gravitational vielbein, also includes a massive vector field localized on the brane. Its long wavelength dynamics is the same as a massive Abelian vector field coupled to gravity in AdS{sub d} space.

  14. Improving the Reliability and Interpretability of Value-Added Scores for Post-Secondary Institutional Assessment Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steedle, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Tests of college learning are often administered to obtain value-added scores indicating whether score gains are below, near, or above typical performance for students of given entering academic ability. This study compares the qualities of value-added scores generated by the original Collegiate Learning Assessment value-added approach and a new…

  15. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

  16. Bubbling geometries for AdS2× S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunin, Oleg

    2015-10-01

    We construct BPS geometries describing normalizable excitations of AdS2×S2. All regular horizon-free solutions are parameterized by two harmonic functions in R 3 with sources along closed curves. This local structure is reminiscent of the "bubbling solutions" for the other AdS p ×S q cases, however, due to peculiar asymptotic properties of AdS2, one copy of R 3 does not cover the entire space, and we discuss the procedure for analytic continuation, which leads to a nontrivial topological structure of the new geometries. We also study supersymmetric brane probes on the new geometries, which represent the AdS2×S2 counterparts of the giant gravitons.

  17. 24 CFR 982.51 - PHA authority to administer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PHA authority to administer program. 982.51 Section 982.51 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... PHA Plan for Administration of Program § 982.51 PHA authority to administer program. (a) The PHA...

  18. 40 CFR 147.150 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.150 Section 147.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona §...

  19. 40 CFR 147.150 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.150 Section 147.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona §...

  20. 40 CFR 147.150 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.150 Section 147.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona §...

  1. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  3. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  4. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  5. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  6. 40 CFR 147.1650 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1650 Section 147.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS New York §...

  7. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  8. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  9. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  10. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  11. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  12. 40 CFR 147.2350 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.2350 Section 147.2350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia §...

  13. 40 CFR 147.2350 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.2350 Section 147.2350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia §...

  14. 40 CFR 147.2350 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.2350 Section 147.2350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia §...

  15. 40 CFR 147.2350 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.2350 Section 147.2350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia §...

  16. 49 CFR 7.22 - Who administers this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who administers this subpart? 7.22 Section 7.22 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Availability of Reasonably Described Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 7.22 Who administers this subpart? (a) A Chief FOIA Officer is appointed...

  17. 40 CFR 147.3000 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administered by EPA. (The term “Indian lands” is defined at 40 CFR 144.3.) The Navajo Indian lands are in the... Utah. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3000 EPA-administered program. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 147.3000 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administered by EPA. (The term “Indian lands” is defined at 40 CFR 144.3.) The Navajo Indian lands are in the... Utah. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3000 EPA-administered program. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1550 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register on June 25, 1984. (1) Water Pollution Control Act, New Jersey Statutes... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS New Jersey § 147.1550 State-administered program. The UIC program for all classes of wells in the State of New Jersey,...

  20. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions, a student…

  1. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  2. Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF**6) is a commonly used method for measuring CH**4 enteric emissions in ruminants. Studies using SF**6 have shown large variation in CH**4 emissions data, inconsistencies in CH**4 emissions across studies, and potential methodological errors. Therefore, th...

  3. Superstring theory in AdS(3) and plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, John Sang Won

    This thesis is devoted to the study of string theory in AdS 3 and its applications to recent developments in string theory. The difficulties associated with formulating a consistent string theory in AdS3 and its underlying SL(2, R) WZW model are explained. We describe how these difficulties can be overcome by assuming that the SL(2, R) WZW model contains spectral flow symmetry. The existence of spectral flow symmetry in the fully quantum treatment is proved by a calculation of the one-loop string partition function. We consider Euclidean AdS 3 with the time direction periodically identified, and compute the torus partition function in this background. The string spectrum can be reproduced by viewing the one-loop calculation as the free energy of a gas of strings, thus providing a rigorous proof of the results based on spectral flow arguments. Next, we turn to spacetimes that are quotients of AdS 3, which include the BTZ black hole and conical spaces. Strings propagating in the conical space are described by taking an orbifold of strings in AdS3. We show that the twisted states of these orbifolds can be obtained by fractional spectral flow. We show that the shift in the ground state energy usually associated with orbifold twists is absent in this case, and offer a unified framework in which to view spectral flow. Lastly, we consider the RNS superstrings in AdS 3 x S3 x M , where M may be K3 or T 4, based on supersymmetric extensions of SL(2, R) and SU(2) WZW models. We construct the physical states and calculate the spectrum. A subsector of this theory describes strings propagating in the six dimensional plane wave obtained by the Penrose limit of AdS3 x S3 x M . We reproduce the plane wave spectrum by taking J and the radius to infinity. We show that the plane wave spectrum actually coincides with the large J spectrum at fixed radius, i.e. in AdS3 x S3. Relation to some recent topics of interest such as the Frolov-Tseytlin string and strings with critical tension

  4. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  5. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  6. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    PubMed

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  7. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Jai-akson, Puttarak

    2016-04-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  8. 40 CFR 147.1651 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Indian lands, is administered by EPA. The program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR... Seneca Indian Tribe is June 25, 1984. The effective date for the UIC program for the lands of the...

  9. Findings from Survey Administered to Weatherization Training Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Conlon, Brian; Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes results of a survey administered to directors of weatherization training centers that receive funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The survey presents results related to questions on training offered and future plans.

  10. Holography and AdS4 self-gravitating dyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, A. R.; Moreno, E. F.; Schaposnik, F. A.

    2010-11-01

    We present a self-gravitating dyon solution of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations of motion in asymptotically AdS space. The back reaction of gauge and Higgs fields on the space-time geometry leads to the metric of an asymptotically AdS black hole. Using the gauge/gravity correspondence we analyze relevant properties of the finite temperature quantum field theory defined on the boundary. In particular we identify an order operator, characterize a phase transition of the dual theory on the border and also compute the expectation value of the finite temperature Wilson loop.

  11. AdS box graphs, unitarity and operator product expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Mesref, L.; Rühl, W.

    2000-11-01

    We develop a method of singularity analysis for conformal graphs which, in particular, is applicable to the holographic image of AdS supergravity theory. It can be used to determine the critical exponents for any such graph in a given channel. These exponents determine the towers of conformal blocks that are exchanged in this channel. We analyze the scalar AdS box graph and show that it has the same critical exponents as the corresponding CFT box graph. Thus pairs of external fields couple to the same exchanged conformal blocks in both theories. This is looked upon as a general structural argument supporting the Maldacena hypothesis.

  12. Phases of global AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P. N. Bala

    2016-06-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime ( AdS 4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  13. The forecaster's added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use, that is, the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  14. D-branes on AdS flux compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerber, Paul; Martucci, Luca

    2008-01-01

    We study D-branes in Script N = 1 flux compactifications to AdS4. We derive their supersymmetry conditions and express them in terms of background generalized calibrations. Basically because AdS has a boundary, the analysis of stability is more subtle and qualitatively different from the usual case of Minkowski compactifications. For instance, stable D-branes filling AdS4 may wrap trivial internal cycles. Our analysis gives a geometric realization of the four-dimensional field theory approach of Freedman and collaborators. Furthermore, the one-to-one correspondence between the supersymmetry conditions of the background and the existence of generalized calibrations for D-branes is clarified and extended to any supersymmetric flux background that admits a time-like Killing vector and for which all fields are time-independent with respect to the associated time. As explicit examples, we discuss supersymmetric D-branes on IIA nearly Kähler AdS4 flux compactifications.

  15. Dyonic AdS black holes from magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldarelli, Marco M.; Dias, Óscar J. C.; Klemm, Dietmar

    2009-03-01

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to argue that large dyonic black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime are dual to stationary solutions of the equations of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics on the conformal boundary of AdS. The dyonic Kerr-Newman-AdS4 solution corresponds to a charged diamagnetic fluid not subject to any net Lorentz force, due to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields compensating each other. The conserved charges, stress tensor and R-current of the fluid are shown to be in exact agreement with the corresponding quantities of the black hole. Furthermore, we obtain stationary solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in four dimensions, which yield predictions for (yet to be constructed) charged rotating black strings in AdS5 carrying nonvanishing momentum along the string. Finally, we consider Scherk-Schwarz reduced AdS gravity on a circle. In this theory, large black holes and black strings are dual to lumps of deconfined plasma of the associated CFT. We analyze the effects that a magnetic field introduces in the Rayleigh-Plateau instability of a plasma tube, which is holographically dual to the Gregory-Laflamme instability of a magnetically charged black string.

  16. AdS Branes from Partial Breaking of Superconformal Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, E.A.

    2005-10-01

    It is shown how the static-gauge world-volume superfield actions of diverse superbranes on the AdS{sub d+1} superbackgrounds can be systematically derived from nonlinear realizations of the appropriate AdS supersymmetries. The latter are treated as superconformal symmetries of flat Minkowski superspaces of the bosonic dimension d. Examples include the N = 1 AdS{sub 4} supermembrane, which is associated with the 1/2 partial breaking of the OSp(1|4) supersymmetry down to the N = 1, d = 3 Poincare supersymmetry, and the T-duality related L3-brane on AdS{sub 5} and scalar 3-brane on AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 1}, which are associated with two different patterns of 1/2 breaking of the SU(2, 2|1) supersymmetry. Another (closely related) topic is the AdS/CFT equivalence transformation. It maps the world-volume actions of the codimension-one AdS{sub d+1} (super)branes onto the actions of the appropriate Minkowski (super)conformal field theories in the dimension d.

  17. Worldsheet dilatation operator for the AdS superstring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Israel; Vallilo, Brenno Carlini

    2016-05-01

    In this work we propose a systematic way to compute the logarithmic divergences of composite operators in the pure spinor description of the AdS 5 × S 5 superstring. The computations of these divergences can be summarized in terms of a dilatation operator acting on the local operators. We check our results with some important composite operators of the formalism.

  18. Method for loading lipsomes with ionizable phosphorylated hydrophobic compounds, pharmaceutical preparations and a method for administering the preparations

    DOEpatents

    Mehlhorn, Rolf Joachim

    1998-10-27

    A method of entrapping ionizable compounds, preferably phosphorylated hydrophobic compounds, into liposomes having transmembrane gradients is disclosed. The procedures involve forming liposomes in an acidic medium or a basic medium, adding to the acidic medium a cationic compound or to the basic medium an anionic compound and then adding a base to the cationic-containing medium or an acid to the anionic-containing medium, thereby inducing the ionizable compound into the liposomes' internal aqueous phase. The compound-entrapped liposomes prepared in accordance with the disclosed methods may be used as pharmaceutical preparations. Methods of administering such pharmaceutical preparations are also disclosed.

  19. Method for loading lipsomes with ionizable phosphorylated hydrophobic compounds, pharmaceutical preparations and a method for administering the preparations

    DOEpatents

    Mehlhorn, R.J.

    1998-10-27

    A method of entrapping ionizable compounds, preferably phosphorylated hydrophobic compounds, into liposomes having transmembrane gradients is disclosed. The procedures involve forming liposomes in an acidic medium or a basic medium, adding to the acidic medium a cationic compound or to the basic medium an anionic compound and then adding a base to the cationic-containing medium or an acid to the anionic-containing medium, thereby inducing the ionizable compound into the liposomes` internal aqueous phase. The compound-entrapped liposomes prepared in accordance with the disclosed methods may be used as pharmaceutical preparations. Methods of administering such pharmaceutical preparations are also disclosed. 2 figs.

  20. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  1. Effective Ad-Hoc Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David G.

    1983-01-01

    Ad-hoc committees may be symbolic, informational, or action committees. A literature survey indicates such committees' structural components include a suprasystem and three subsystems involving linkages, production, and implementation. Other variables include size, personal factors, and timing. All the factors carry implications about ad-hoc…

  2. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  3. One-loop diagrams in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Hung Lingyan; Shang Yanwen

    2011-01-15

    We study the complex scalar loop corrections to the boundary-boundary gauge two-point function in pure AdS space in Poincare coordinates, in the presence of boundary quadratic perturbations to the scalar. These perturbations correspond to double-trace perturbations in the dual CFT and modify the boundary conditions of the bulk scalars in AdS. We find that, in addition to the usual UV divergences, the one-loop calculation suffers from a divergence originating in the limit as the loop vertices approach the AdS horizon. We show that this type of divergence is independent of the boundary coupling; making use of this we extract the finite relative variation of the imaginary part of the loop via Cutkosky rules as the boundary perturbation varies. Applying our methods to compute the effects of a time-dependent impurity to the conductivities using the replica trick in AdS/CFT, we find that generally an IR-relevant disorder reduces the conductivity and that in the extreme low frequency limit the correction due to the impurities overwhelms the planar CFT result even though it is supposedly 1/N{sup 2} suppressed. We also comment on the more physical scenario of a time-independent impurity.

  4. Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum in AdS gravitational collapse.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, H P; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A; Rodrigues, E L

    2013-08-01

    We study black hole formation during the gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field in asymptotically D-dimensional anti-de Sitter AdS(D) spacetimes for D = 4, 5. We conclude that spherically symmetric gravitational collapse in asymptotically AdS spaces is turbulent and characterized by a Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum. Namely, we find that after an initial period of weakly nonlinear evolution, there is a regime where the power spectrum of the Ricci scalar evolves as ω(-s) with the frequency, ω, and s ≈ 1.7 ± 0.1.

  5. Determinants of nurses' intention to administer opioids for pain relief.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H E; Nash, R E; Najman, J M; Yates, P M; Fentiman, B J; Dewar, A; Walsh, A M; McDowell, J K; Skerman, H M

    2001-09-01

    A statewide cross-sectional survey was conducted in Australia to identify the determinants of registered nurses' intention to administer opioids to patients with pain. Attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control, the key determinants of the Theory of Planned Behavior, were found to independently predict nurses' intention to administer opioids to these patients. Perceived control was the strongest predictor. Nurses reported positive overall attitudes towards opioids and their use in pain management. However, many negative attitudes were identified; for example, administering the least amount of opioid and encouraging patients to have non-opioids rather than opioids for pain relief. The findings related to specific attitudes and normative pressures provide insight into registered nurses' management of pain for hospitalized patients and the direction for educational interventions to improve registered nurses' administration of opioids for pain management.

  6. Pediatric nurses' thinking in response to vignettes on administering analgesics.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle Vincent, Catherine; Gaddy, Erica J

    2009-10-01

    Pediatric nurses are not administering available and recommended analgesics to hospitalized children after surgery. This descriptive study was conducted to examine 30 pediatric nurses' thinking-in response to case study vignettes-about pain assessment and morphine administration for children experiencing postoperative pain. Nurses considered numerous factors when assessing and managing children's pain, including pain level, vital signs, and facial expression. Nurses frequently relied, however, on behavioral and physiological manifestations, as opposed to self-report, when choosing whether to administer morphine. Nurses demonstrated misconceptions about pharmacokinetics and unwarranted concerns about the adverse effects of morphine. These findings partly explain why children continue to report high levels of pain after surgery and why nurses may not administer adequate analgesics to relieve children's pain. PMID:19504564

  7. Systemic Effects of Vaginally Administered Estrogen Therapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Megan; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Richter, Holly E.; Snyder, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Hormone Therapy (HT) was considered the standard of care prior to the publication of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). After the study was published, the use of systemic HT dramatically decreased resulting in an increased incidence of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia experienced by women. Use of vaginal estrogen offers women a unique alternative for relief of these symptoms. This article reviews the systemic effects of vaginally administered estrogen. Effects on serum hormone levels, vasomotor symptoms, lipid profiles and use in women with breast cancer are reviewed. An accompanying review examines the local effects of vaginally administered estrogen. PMID:22453284

  8. Semiclassical Virasoro blocks from AdS3 gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijano, Eliot; Kraus, Per; Perlmutter, Eric; Snively, River

    2015-12-01

    We present a unified framework for the holographic computation of Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge. In particular, we provide bulk constructions that correctly reproduce all semiclassical Virasoro blocks that are known explicitly from conformal field theory computations. The results revolve around the use of geodesic Witten diagrams, recently introduced in [1], evaluated in locally AdS3 geometries generated by backreaction of heavy operators. We also provide an alternative computation of the heavy-light semiclassical block — in which two external operators become parametrically heavy — as a certain scattering process involving higher spin gauge fields in AdS3; this approach highlights the chiral nature of Virasoro blocks. These techniques may be systematically extended to compute corrections to these blocks and to interpolate amongst the different semiclassical regimes.

  9. AdS6 solutions of type II supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Passias, Achilleas; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    Very few AdS6 × M 4 supersymmetric solutions are known: one in massive IIA, and two IIB solutions dual to it. The IIA solution is known to be unique; in this paper, we use the pure spinor approach to give a classification for IIB supergravity. We reduce the problem to two PDEs on a two-dimensional space Σ. M 4 is then a fibration of S 2 over Σ; the metric and fluxes are completely determined in terms of the solution to the PDEs. The results seem likely to accommodate near-horizon limits of ( p, q)-fivebrane webs studied in the literature as a source of CFT5's. We also show that there are no AdS6 solutions in eleven-dimensional supergravity.

  10. Conserved higher-spin charges in AdS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfond, O. A.; Vasiliev, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Gauge invariant conserved conformal currents built from massless fields of all spins in 4d Minkowski space-time and AdS4 are described in the unfolded dynamics approach. The current cohomology associated with non-zero conserved charges is found. The resulting list of charges is shown to match the space of parameters of the conformal higher-spin symmetry algebra in four dimensions.

  11. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; Wang, Junpu

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  12. A Mobile Platform for Administering Questionnaires and Synchronizing Their Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginardi, Maria Germana; Lanzola, Giordano

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a platform for administering questionnaires on smart-phones and tablets. The project arises from the need of acquiring data for monitoring the outcomes of different homecare interventions. First a model has been defined for representing questionnaires, able to support adaptivity in the dialog with the user and enforce some…

  13. 40 CFR 282.88 - Pennsylvania State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Bureau of Land Recycling and Waste Management, Storage Tank Program, Rachel Carson State Office Building... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.88 Pennsylvania State-Administered Program. (a) The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's underground storage...

  14. 40 CFR 147.2300 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Underground Water Source Protection Program Pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act and 40 CFR 145... was approved by the Director of the Federal Register July 6, 1984. (1) Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 10... are part of the approved State-administered program: (1) Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 10, sections 1251...

  15. 40 CFR 147.2300 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Underground Water Source Protection Program Pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act and 40 CFR 145... was approved by the Director of the Federal Register July 6, 1984. (1) Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 10... are part of the approved State-administered program: (1) Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 10, sections 1251...

  16. 40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Minnesota obtains... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minnesota State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.73...

  17. 40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Minnesota obtains... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minnesota State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.73...

  18. 40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Minnesota obtains... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minnesota State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.73...

  19. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  20. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  1. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  2. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  3. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  4. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  5. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  6. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  7. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  8. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  9. Microcomputer-Administered Research: What it Means for Educational Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig W.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the microcomputer offers advantages for behavioral science and educational research. Among the potentials of microcomputer use are enhanced capacities for precise replication and extension, measurement, and experimental control and randomization, and the relative economy that microcomputer-administered experimental treatments…

  10. 40 CFR 282.94 - Utah State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Utah obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant to... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Utah State-Administered Program. 282.94 Section 282.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  11. 40 CFR 282.61 - Hawaii State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Hawaii obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii State-Administered Program. 282.61 Section 282.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  12. 40 CFR 282.61 - Hawaii State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Hawaii obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaii State-Administered Program. 282.61 Section 282.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1100 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 147.1100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS..., except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Massachusetts Department of... Department of Environmental Quality Engineering, signed by the EPA Regional Administrator on August 18,...

  14. 40 CFR 282.53 - Arkansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U... Pollution Control and Ecology, 8001 National Drive, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913. (1) State statutes...

  15. 40 CFR 282.53 - Arkansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U... Pollution Control and Ecology, 8001 National Drive, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913. (1) State statutes...

  16. 40 CFR 282.53 - Arkansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U... Pollution Control and Ecology, 8001 National Drive, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913. (1) State statutes...

  17. 40 CFR 282.53 - Arkansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U... Pollution Control and Ecology, 8001 National Drive, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913. (1) State statutes...

  18. 40 CFR 282.53 - Arkansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U... Pollution Control and Ecology, 8001 National Drive, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913. (1) State statutes...

  19. 24 CFR 511.51 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATION GRANT PROGRAM State Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State-administered program. 511.51 Section 511.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  20. 24 CFR 511.51 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATON GRANT PROGRAM State Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true State-administered program. 511.51 Section 511.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  1. 24 CFR 511.51 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATION GRANT PROGRAM State Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State-administered program. 511.51 Section 511.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  2. 24 CFR 511.51 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATON GRANT PROGRAM State Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State-administered program. 511.51 Section 511.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  3. 24 CFR 511.51 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATION GRANT PROGRAM State Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true State-administered program. 511.51 Section 511.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  4. 40 CFR 282.96 - Virginia State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virginia State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.96...

  5. 40 CFR 282.96 - Virginia State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virginia State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.96...

  6. 40 CFR 147.3000 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administered by EPA. (The term “Indian lands” is defined at 40 CFR 144.3.) The Navajo Indian lands are in the.... The UIC program for Navajo Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which..., except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA has granted the Navajo Nation primacy......

  7. 40 CFR 147.3000 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administered by EPA. (The term “Indian lands” is defined at 40 CFR 144.3.) The Navajo Indian lands are in the.... The UIC program for Navajo Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which..., except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA has granted the Navajo Nation primacy......

  8. 40 CFR 147.3000 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administered by EPA. (The term “Indian lands” is defined at 40 CFR 144.3.) The Navajo Indian lands are in the.... The UIC program for Navajo Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which..., except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA has granted the Navajo Nation primacy......

  9. 40 CFR 147.151 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navajo Indian lands consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any..., including those on Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA has granted... administered by EPA. The UIC program for Navajo Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian......

  10. 40 CFR 147.151 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navajo Indian lands consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any..., including those on Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA has granted... administered by EPA. The UIC program for Navajo Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian......

  11. 40 CFR 147.151 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navajo Indian lands consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any..., including those on Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA has granted... administered by EPA. The UIC program for Navajo Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian......

  12. 40 CFR 147.151 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navajo Indian lands consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any..., including those on Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA has granted... administered by EPA. The UIC program for Navajo Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian......

  13. 32 CFR 637.11 - Authority to administer oaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Authority to administer oaths. 637.11 Section 637.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.11 Authority...

  14. 32 CFR 637.11 - Authority to administer oaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to administer oaths. 637.11 Section 637.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.11 Authority...

  15. 32 CFR 637.11 - Authority to administer oaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Authority to administer oaths. 637.11 Section 637.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.11 Authority...

  16. 32 CFR 637.11 - Authority to administer oaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authority to administer oaths. 637.11 Section 637.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.11 Authority...

  17. 32 CFR 637.11 - Authority to administer oaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to administer oaths. 637.11 Section 637.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.11 Authority...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1450 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... of Nevada, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Nevada Division of... Protection Agency, Region IX, 215 Fremont Street, San Francisco, California 99105, or at the...

  19. Teaching Auction Strategy Using Experiments Administered Via the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asker, John; Grosskopf, Brit; McKinney, C. Nicholas; Niederle, Muriel; Roth, Alvin E.; Weizsacker, Georg

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an experimental design used to teach concepts in the economics of auctions and implications for e-Business procurement. The experiment is easily administered and can be adapted to many different treatments. The chief innovation is that it does not require the use of a lab or class time. Instead, the design can be implemented on…

  20. 40 CFR 147.1300 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1300...) Opinion Letter No. 63 and attached Memorandum Opinion, signed by Attorney General of Missouri, March 16, 1982; (2) Addendum to Opinion Letter No. 63 (1982), signed by Attorney General of Missouri, October...

  1. Evaluation of coagulation via thromboelastography in healthy horses administered dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Jenna; Wagg, Catherine R.; Boysen, Søren R.; Leguillette, Renaud; Mizen, Kyle; Roy, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone was administered to healthy horses daily for 7 days. Blood samples were collected at 3 time points from both treatment and non-treatment groups, and analyzed via thromboelastography (TEG). There were no significant differences in TEG parameters between treated and untreated horses, or within treatment groups over time. PMID:26677262

  2. 8 CFR 337.8 - Oath administered by the courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... naturalization not subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of 8 CFR 310.2(d) must notify USCIS at the time of the... from the list of eligible persons as provided in 8 CFR 335.5 and the court will not administer the oath... naturalization not subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of 8 CFR 310.3(d) who has elected to have......

  3. 40 CFR 147.950 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Drilling Mud and Salt Water Generated from Drilling and Production of Oil and Gas Wells..., 1985 and January 20, 1986; (3)(i) Statewide Order Governing the Drilling for and Producing of Oil and... State-administered program. The UIC program for Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells in the State...

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Taste Disorder in Oxaliplatin-administered Rats.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Taste disorder is one of the adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy resulting in a loss of appetite, leading to malnutrition and a decrease in the quality of life of the patient. Oxaliplatin, a platinum anticancer drug, has a critical role in colon cancer chemotherapy and is known to induce taste disorder. Here, we evaluated the taste functions in oxaliplatin-administered rats. Among the taste receptors, expression levels of T1R2, one of the sweet receptor subunits, increased in the circumvallate papillae of the oxaliplatin-administered rats. In a brief-access test, i.e., behavioral analysis of the taste response, oxaliplatin-administered rats showed a decreased response to sweet taste. However, we did not detect any differences in the plasma levels of zinc, number of taste cells, or morphology of taste buds between control and oxaliplatin-administered rats. In conclusion, the decreased response to sweet taste by oxaliplatin administration may be due to the upregulation of T1R2 expression. PMID:27374965

  5. 40 CFR 147.151 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona § 147.151 EPA... the Navajo Nation primacy for the SDWA Class II UIC program (as defined in § 147.3400), is... for which EPA has granted the Navajo Nation primacy for the SDWA Class II UIC program, consists of...

  6. 40 CFR 147.1700 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the OFR in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR...-administered program: (1) N.C. ADMIN. CODE, Title 15, r. 02L.0100 et seq. Groundwater Classification...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1700 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the OFR in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR...-administered program: (1) N.C. ADMIN. CODE, Title 15, r. 02L.0100 et seq. Groundwater Classification...

  8. 40 CFR 147.1700 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the OFR in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR...-administered program: (1) N.C. ADMIN. CODE, Title 15, r. 02L.0100 et seq. Groundwater Classification...

  9. 40 CFR 147.2500 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the OFR in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... Disposal of Liquid Industrial Wastes and By-Products, Wisconsin Administrative Code §§ 214.03 and 214.08... State-administered program: (1) Chapter 144, Water, Sewage, Refuse, Mining and Air Pollution,...

  10. Systemically Administered, Target Organ-Specific Therapies for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tero A. H.; May, Ulrike; Prince, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors and other agents that could potentially enhance tissue regeneration have been identified, but their therapeutic value in clinical medicine has been limited for reasons such as difficulty to maintain bioactivity of locally applied therapeutics in the protease-rich environment of regenerating tissues. Although human diseases are treated with systemically administered drugs in general, all current efforts aimed at enhancing tissue repair with biological drugs have been based on their local application. The systemic administration of growth factors has been ruled out due to concerns about their safety. These concerns are warranted. In addition, only a small proportion of systemically administered drugs reach their intended target. Selective delivery of the drug to the target tissue and use of functional protein domains capable of penetrating cells and tissues could alleviate these problems in certain circumstances. We will present in this review a novel approach utilizing unique molecular fingerprints (“Zip/postal codes”) in the vasculature of regenerating tissues that allows target organ-specific delivery of systemically administered therapeutic molecules by affinity-based physical targeting (using peptides or antibodies as an “address tag”) to injured tissues undergoing repair. The desired outcome of targeted therapies is increased local accumulation and lower systemic concentration of the therapeutic payload. We believe that the physical targeting of systemically administered therapeutic molecules could be rapidly adapted in the field of regenerative medicine. PMID:26437400

  11. ADS/CFT and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U. /SLAC

    2007-02-21

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation.

  12. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  13. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  14. Most general AdS3 boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumiller, Daniel; Riegler, Max

    2016-10-01

    We consider the most general asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant. The metric contains in total twelve independent functions, six of which are interpreted as chemical potentials (or non-normalizable fluctuations) and the other half as canonical boundary charges (or normalizable fluctuations). Their presence modifies the usual Fefferman-Graham expansion. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of two sl{(2)}_k current algebras, the levels of which are given by k = ℓ/(4 G N ), where ℓ is the AdS radius and G N the three-dimensional Newton constant.

  15. [Research on preparation techniques for drugs administered through catheters by intensive care nursing].

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Carolina de Deus; da Silva, Lolita Dopico; de Matos, Guacira Corrêa

    2013-02-01

    The goals of the research were to assess the pharmaceutical form of medicinal preparations administered through catheters and identify the profile of errors that occur during their preparation. This is a cross-sectional study of an observational nature, conducted in an intensive care unit with a sample of 350 doses of medication prepared by 56 nursing technicians. Data collection occurred in March 2010. The results showed that 92% of the drugs were in the solid form. The errors were divided into two categories for liquid forms: dilution and mixing, and grinding was added as an error possibility for a solid form. The error rates were greater than 40% in all categories. The conclusions are that grinding can compromise the therapeutic effect of coated controlled-release tablets, not diluting syrups may contribute to the obstruction of catheters, and mixing medication during grinding may increase the risk of drug interactions. PMID:23515803

  16. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  17. Intravenously administered nanoparticles increase survival following blast trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lashof-Sullivan, Margaret M.; Shoffstall, Erin; Atkins, Kristyn T.; Keane, Nickolas; Bir, Cynthia; VandeVord, Pamela; Lavik, Erin B.

    2014-01-01

    Explosions account for 79% of combat-related injuries, leading to multiorgan hemorrhage and uncontrolled bleeding. Uncontrolled bleeding is the leading cause of death in battlefield traumas as well as in civilian life. We need to stop the bleeding quickly to save lives, but, shockingly, there are no treatments to stop internal bleeding. A therapy that halts bleeding in a site-specific manner and is safe, stable at room temperature, and easily administered is critical for the advancement of trauma care. To address this need, we have developed hemostatic nanoparticles that are administered intravenously. When tested in a model of blast trauma with multiorgan hemorrhaging, i.v. administration of the hemostatic nanoparticles led to a significant improvement in survival over the short term (1 h postblast). No complications from this treatment were apparent out to 3 wk. This work demonstrates that these particles have the potential to save lives and fundamentally change trauma care. PMID:24982180

  18. Analgesic efficacy of orally administered buprenorphine in rats.

    PubMed

    Martin, L B; Thompson, A C; Martin, T; Kristal, M B

    2001-02-01

    The analgesic effect of orally administered buprenorphine was compared with that induced by a standard therapeutic injected dose (0.05 mg/kg of body weight, s.c.) in male Long-Evans rats. Analgesia was assessed by measuring pain threshold, using the hot-water tail-flick assay before and after administration of buprenorphine. The results suggest that a commonly used formula for oral buprenorphine in flavored gelatin, at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, does not increase pain threshold in rats. Instead, oral buprenorphine doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg were necessary to induce significant increases in pain threshold. However, these doses had to be administered by orogastric infusion because the rats would not voluntarily eat flavored gelatin containing this much buprenorphine. The depth of analgesia induced by these infused doses was comparable to that induced by the clinically effective s.c. treatment (0.05 mg/kg).

  19. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  20. 40 CFR 282.69 - Maine State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Maine obtains approval for the... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Maine..., 7003, 9005 and 9006 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6927, 6973, 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other...

  1. 40 CFR 282.69 - Maine State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Maine obtains approval for the... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Maine..., 7003, 9005 and 9006 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6927, 6973, 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other...

  2. 40 CFR 282.69 - Maine State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Maine obtains approval for the... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Maine..., 7003, 9005 and 9006 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6927, 6973, 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other...

  3. 40 CFR 282.69 - Maine State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Maine obtains approval for the... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Maine..., 7003, 9005 and 9006 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6927, 6973, 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other...

  4. 40 CFR 282.69 - Maine State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Maine obtains approval for the... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Maine..., 7003, 9005 and 9006 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6927, 6973, 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other...

  5. Nursing takes time: workload associated with administering cancer protocols.

    PubMed

    de Raad, Johan; van Gool, Kees; Haas, Marion; Haywood, Philip; Faedo, Margaret; Gallego, Gisselle; Pearson, Sallie; Ward, Robyn

    2010-12-01

    New medicines and therapeutic combinations are tested and marketed every year. Healthcare decision makers have to make explicit choices about adopting new treatments and deal with the resource consequences of their choices. The aim of this article is to examine the nursing workload of administering alternative chemotherapy protocols as a driver of costs. Data collection (focus groups with chemotherapy nurses and a survey of nurse unit managers) was conducted to ascertain the time required to undertake chemotherapy-related tasks and the sources of variability in six chemotherapy centers in New South Wales, Australia. Four task types (patient education, patient assessment, administration, and patient communication) were identified as being associated with administering chemotherapy. On average, patient education required 48 minutes during the first visit and 18.5 minutes thereafter, patient assessment took 20.3 minutes, administration averaged 23 minutes, and patient communication required 24.2 minutes. Each center treated an average of 14 patients per day. Each patient received 3.3 hours of staff time (1.7 hours of direct contact time and 1.6 hours of noncontact time). The result of this research will allow healthcare decision makers and evaluators to predict the amount of nursing time required to administer chemotherapy based on the characteristics of a wide range of chemotherapy protocols.

  6. Added Value in Electronic Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothma, Theo J. D.

    Electronic publications are flooding the market. Some of these publications are created specifically for the electronic environment, but many are conversions of existing material to electronic format. It is not worth the time and effort merely to publish existing material in electronic format if no value is added in the conversion process. The…

  7. The Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinter, James L., III

    1994-01-01

    During the period 1 September 1993 - 31 August 1994, further development of the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) was conducted at the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA) of the Institute of Global Environment and Society, Inc. (IGES) under subcontract 5555-31 from the University Space Research Association (USRA) administered by The Center of Excellence in Space Data and Information Sciences (CESDIS). This final report documents progress made under this subcontract and provides directions on how to access the software and documentation developed therein. A short description of GrADS is provided followed by summary of progress completed and a summary of the distribution of the software to date and the establishment of research collaborations.

  8. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  9. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  10. Superconformal algebras on the boundary of AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen

    1999-07-01

    Motivated by recent progress on the correspondence between string theory on nti-de Sitter space and conformal field theory, we provide an explicit construction of an infinite dimensional class of superconformal algebras on the boundary of AdS3. These space-time algebras are N extended superconformal algebras of the kind obtainable by hamiltonian reduction of affine SL(2|N/2) current superalgebras for N even, and are induced by the same current superalgebras residing on the world sheet. Thus, such an extended superconformal algebra is generated by N supercurrents and an SL(N/2) current algebra in addition to a U(1) current algebra. The results are obtained within the framework of free field realizations.

  11. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  12. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of tetraplatin administered intraperitoneally with reduced glutathione in mice.

    PubMed

    Kido, Y; Khokhar, A R; Yoshida, M; Thai, G W; Siddik, Z H

    1994-01-01

    Tetraplatin (Ormaplatin) has been developed as a second generation platinum complex because of its good antitumor activity against some cisplatin-resistant tumor cell lines. It is currently in clinical trials. Its reduction to diaminocyclohexane (DACH)-dichloroplatinum(II) [DACH-Pt(II)Cl2] or closely similar species is essential for binding to DNA to produce the desired antitumor effects. We have studied the pharmacokinetics of tetraplatin in mice after intraperitoneal administration with the reducing agent glutathione (GSH). The systemic absorption of tetraplatin (5 mg/kg) with GSH (31 mg/kg) was faster than of tetraplatin alone. Peak plasma platinum (Pt) levels of 0.89 and 1.44 micrograms Pt/ml were observed at 15 min and 2 hr after administration of tetraplatin with and without GSH, respectively, and the Pt then decayed biphasically when administered with GSH and monophasically when administered alone. The plasma Pt level was 4-fold lower (0.17 vs. 0.71 micrograms Pt/ml) by 24 hr when tetraplatin was administered with GSH compared with its administration alone. DACH-Pt(II)Cl2 (4.21 mg/kg, ip) gave similar plasma Pt kinetics to that seen with the combination of tetraplatin and GSH. Pt levels in kidney 24 hr after administration of tetraplatin+GSH or of DACH-Pt(II)Cl2 were lower (1.6-fold) than after tetraplatin alone. Plasma and ascitic fluid from tumor-bearing mice demonstrated equivalent abilities to reduce tetraplatin rapidly. However, tetraplatin treatment of intraperitoneal-inoculated L1210/0 (parent) or L1210/DDP (cisplatin-resistant) tumor cells was unaffected by GSH. As GSH lowered systemic tetraplatin exposure in vivo without compromising antitumor activity against peritoneal tumor models, the combination of thiol and tetraplatin may be clinically useful in the treatment of intraperitoneal disseminated cancers. PMID:8013287

  14. Administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A; Miller, Douglas R

    2014-03-18

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access that include: initiating, by an origin application messaging module on an origin compute node, one or more data transfers to a target compute node for the epoch; initiating, by the origin application messaging module after initiating the data transfers, a closing stage for the epoch, including rejecting any new data transfers after initiating the closing stage for the epoch; determining, by the origin application messaging module, whether the data transfers have completed; and closing, by the origin application messaging module, the epoch if the data transfers have completed.

  15. Administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A; Miller, Douglas R

    2012-10-23

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access that include: initiating, by an origin application messaging module on an origin compute node, one or more data transfers to a target compute node for the epoch; initiating, by the origin application messaging module after initiating the data transfers, a closing stage for the epoch, including rejecting any new data transfers after initiating the closing stage for the epoch; determining, by the origin application messaging module, whether the data transfers have completed; and closing, by the origin application messaging module, the epoch if the data transfers have completed.

  16. Administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Miller, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access that include: initiating, by an origin application messaging module on an origin compute node, one or more data transfers to a target compute node for the epoch; initiating, by the origin application messaging module after initiating the data transfers, a closing stage for the epoch, including rejecting any new data transfers after initiating the closing stage for the epoch; determining, by the origin application messaging module, whether the data transfers have completed; and closing, by the origin application messaging module, the epoch if the data transfers have completed.

  17. Absorption and distribution of orally administered jojoba wax in mice.

    PubMed

    Yaron, A; Samoiloff, V; Benzioni, A

    1982-03-01

    The liquid wax obtained from the seeds of the arid-land shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is finding increasing use in skin treatment preparations. The fate of this wax upon reaching the digestive tract was studied. 14C-Labeled wax was administered intragastrically to mice, and the distribution of the label in the body was determined as a function of time. Most of the wax was excreted, but a small amount was absorbed, as was indicated by the distribution of label in the internal organs and the epididymal fat. The label was incorporated into the body lipids and was found to diminish with time.

  18. 40 CFR 282.86 - Oklahoma State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to adopt new changes to the federal subtitle I program which make it more stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Oklahoma obtains... statutory and regulatory provisions will be added to this subpart and notice of any change will be...

  19. ADS's Dexter Data Extraction Applet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Accomazzi, A.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this process. Dexter's basic functionality is to let the user manually digitize a plot by marking points and defining the coordinate transformation from the logical to the physical coordinate system. Advanced features include automatic identification of axes, tracing lines and finding points matching a template. This contribution both describes the operation of Dexter from a user's point of view and discusses some of the architectural issues we faced during implementation.

  20. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  1. Magnetic mass in 4D AdS gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, René; Aros, Rodrigo; Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    We provide a fully covariant expression for the diffeomorphic charge in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity, when the Gauss-Bonnet and Pontryagin terms are added to the action. The couplings of these topological invariants are such that the Weyl tensor and its dual appear in the on-shell variation of the action and such that the action is stationary for asymptotic (anti-)self-dual solutions in the Weyl tensor. In analogy with Euclidean electromagnetism, whenever the self-duality condition is global, both the action and the total charge are identically vanishing. Therefore, for such configurations, the magnetic mass equals the Ashtekhar-Magnon-Das definition.

  2. Canonical energy and hairy AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-08-01

    We propose the modified version of the canonical energy which was introduced originally by Hollands and Wald. Our construction depends only on the Euler-Lagrange expression of the system and thus is independent of the ambiguity in the Lagrangian. After some comments on our construction, we briefly mention on the relevance of our construction to the boundary information metric in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also study the stability of three-dimensional hairy extremal black holes by using our construction.

  3. Lifshitz-like systems and AdS null deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, K.

    2011-10-15

    Following K. Balasubramanian and K. Narayan [J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 014], we discuss certain lightlike deformations of AdS{sub 5}xX{sup 5} in type IIB string theory sourced by a lightlike dilaton {Phi}(x{sup +}) dual to the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with a lightlike varying gauge coupling. We argue that, in the case where the x{sup +} direction is noncompact, these solutions describe anisotropic 3+1-dim Lifshitz-like systems with a potential in the x{sup +} direction generated by the lightlike dilaton. We then describe solutions of this sort with a linear dilaton. This enables a detailed calculation of two-point correlation functions of operators dual to bulk scalars and helps illustrate the spatial structure of these theories. Following this, we discuss a nongeometric string construction involving a compactification along the x{sup +} direction of this linear dilaton system. We also point out similar IIB axionic solutions. Similar bulk arguments for x{sup +}-noncompact can be carried out for deformations of AdS{sub 4}xX{sup 7} in M theory.

  4. AdS black holes from duality in gauged supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halmagyi, Nick; Vanel, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    We study and utilize duality transformations in a particular STU-model of four dimensional gauged supergravity. This model is a truncation of the de Wit-Nicolai =8 theory and as such has a lift to eleven-dimensional supergravity on the seven-sphere. Our duality group is U(1)3 and while it can be applied to any solution of this theory, we consider known asymptotically AdS4, supersymmetric black holes and focus on duality transformations which preserve supersymmetry. For static black holes we generalize the supersymmetric solutions of Cacciatori and Klemm from three magnetic charges to include two additional electric charges and argue that this is co-dimension one in the full space of supersymmetric static black holes in the STU-model. These new static black holes have nontrivial profiles for axions. For rotating black holes, we generalize the known two-parameter supersymmetric solution to include an additional parameter. When lifted to M-theory, these black holes correspond to the near horizon geometry of a stack of BPS rotating M2-branes, spinning on an S 7 which is fibered non-trivially over a Riemann surface.

  5. Stability of charged global AdS4 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Raúl; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    We study linear and nonlinear stability of asymptotically AdS4 solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. After summarizing the set of static solutions we first examine thermodynamical stability in the grand canonical ensemble and the phase transitions that occur among them. In the second part of the paper we focus on nonlinear stability in the microcanonical ensemble by evolving radial perturbations numerically. We find hints of an instability corner for vanishingly small perturbations of the same kind as the ones present in the uncharged case. Collapses are avoided, instead, if the charge and mass of the perturbations come to close the line of solitons. Finally we examine the soliton solutions. The linear spectrum of normal modes is not resonant and instability turns on at extrema of the mass curve. Linear stability extends to nonlinear stability up to some threshold for the amplitude of the perturbation. Beyond that, the soliton is destroyed and collapses to a hairy black hole. The relative width of this stability band scales down with the charge Q, and does not survive the blow up limit to a planar geometry.

  6. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  7. Comparison of Interviewer-Administered and Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recalls in 3 Diverse Integrated Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Dixit-Joshi, Sujata; Potischman, Nancy; Dodd, Kevin W; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Kushi, Lawrence H; Alexander, Gwen L; Coleman, Laura A; Zimmerman, Thea P; Sundaram, Maria E; Clancy, Heather A; Groesbeck, Michelle; Douglass, Deirdre; George, Stephanie M; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Subar, Amy F

    2015-06-15

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls provide high-quality intake data but have been prohibitively expensive for large epidemiologic studies. This study's goal was to assess whether the web-based Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) performs similarly enough to the standard interviewer-administered, Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM) 24-hour dietary recall to be considered a viable alternative. In 2010-2011, 1,081 adults from 3 integrated health systems in Detroit, Michigan; Marshfield, Wisconsin; and Kaiser-Permanente Northern California participated in a field trial. A quota design ensured a diverse sample by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Each participant was asked to complete 2 recalls and was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols differing by type of recall and administration order. For energy, the mean intakes were 2,425 versus 2,374 kcal for men and 1,876 versus 1,906 kcal for women by AMPM and ASA24, respectively. Of 20 nutrients/food groups analyzed and controlling for false discovery rate, 87% were judged equivalent at the 20% bound. ASA24 was preferred over AMPM by 70% of the respondents. Attrition was lower in the ASA24/AMPM study group than in the AMPM/ASA24 group, and it was lower in the ASA24/ASA24 group than in the AMPM/AMPM group. ASA24 offers the potential to collect high-quality dietary intake information at low cost with less attrition.

  8. Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-12-09

    Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface (`PMI`) of a parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PMI and through a data communications network, including: sending, through the PMI on a source compute node, a quantity of data from the source compute node to a destination compute node; specifying, by an application on the destination compute node, a portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application on the destination compute node and a portion of the quantity of data to be discarded; receiving, by the PMI on the destination compute node, all of the quantity of data; providing, by the PMI on the destination compute node to the application on the destination compute node, only the portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application; and discarding, by the PMI on the destination compute node, the portion of the quantity of data to be discarded.

  9. Analgesic and cardiovascular effects of centrally administered substance P.

    PubMed

    Clint, B D; Lipton, J M; Giesecke, A H

    1988-01-01

    Substance P (SP) injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into rabbits caused dose-related thermal analgesia with the maximum effect after 2 micrograms. The analgesia was measured by timing the withdrawal of the rabbit's ear from an infrared beam. Equimolar amounts of the related peptides physalaemin and eledoisin-related peptide also caused analgesia, but the SP N-terminal fragment (1-9) was inactive. This suggests that the analgesic message of SP resides within the C-terminal fragment. The analgesia caused by each peptide developed more rapidly but did not last as long as that after central injection of beta-endorphin. In separate experiments, 2 micrograms SP injected ICV increased blood pressure and decreased heart rate. The analgesic, bradycardic and pressor responses to central administration of SP were opposite to effects of peripherally administered SP, described previously. These results indicate that the effect induced by SP depends upon its specific neuroanatomical site of action.

  10. [Spontaneous reporting system data analysis of parenterally administered Shenmai].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Xin; Xiang, Yong-Yang; Xie, Yan-Ming; Shen, Hao; Ai, Qing-Hua

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous reporting system (SRS) datais currently an important source of monitoring and finding ADRs signals throughout the world. This method can promptly and effectively discover ADR signals, thus preventing and avoiding ADRs effectively. Parenterally administered Shenmai has the functions of benefiting vital energy, nourishing Yin and generating body fluids, and activating the pulse. Clinically it is used in various diseases including shock, coronary heart disease, viral myocarditis, chronic pulmonary heart disease, and granulocytopenia. The large, national SRS database of ADRs needs effective evaluation methods. We report on the use of Bayesian confidence propagation neural network method (BCPNN) and proportional reporting ration (PRR) with propensity score to control for confounding variables. Early warning signs of an ADR are, a feeling of suffocation (difficulty exhaling), anaphylactoid reactions and flushing. Furthermore, relevant relationships between the different factors is analysed by association rules (AR). It is found that there is a close relationship between past history of ADRs, a family history of ADRs and itching. PMID:24471317

  11. Human metabolism of orally administered radioactive cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Holstein, H; Ranebo, Y; Rääf, C L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the human gastrointestinal uptake (f1) and subsequent whole-body retention of orally administered inorganic radioactive cobalt. Of eight adult volunteers aged between 24 and 68 years, seven were given solutions of (57)Co (T1/2 = 272 d) containing a stable cobalt carrier, and six were given carrier-free (58)Co (T1/2 = 71 d). The administered activities ranged between 25 and 103 kBq. The observed mean f1, based on 6 days accumulated urinary excretion sampling and whole-body counting, was 0.028 ± 0.0048 for carrier-free (58)Co, and 0.016 ± 0.0021 for carrier-associated (57)Co. These values were in reasonable agreement with values reported from previous studies involving a single intake of inorganic cobalt. The time pattern of the total retention (including residual cobalt in the GI tract) included a short-term component with a biological half-time of 0.71 ± 0.03 d (average ± 1 standard error of the mean for the two nuclides), an intermediate component with a mean half-time of 32 ± 8.5 d, and a long-term component (observed in two volunteers) with half-times ranging from 80 to 720 d for the two isotopes. From the present data we conclude that for the short-lived (57)Co and (58)Co, more than 95% of the internal absorbed dose was delivered within 7 days following oral intake, with a high individual variation influenced by the transit time of the unabsorbed cobalt through the gastro-intestinal tract.

  12. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine.

    PubMed

    Ettenberg, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse.

  13. Safety of florfenicol administered in feed to tilapia (Oreochromis sp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Schleis, Susan M.; Tuomari, Darrell; Endris, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    The safety of Aquaflor® (50% w/w florfenicol [FFC]) incorporated in feed then administered to tilapia for 20 days (2x the recommended duration) at 0, 15, 45, or 75 mg/kg body weight/day (0, 1, 3, or 5x the recommended dose of 15 mg FFC/kg BW/d) was investigated. Mortality, behavioral change, feed consumption, body size, and gross and microscopic lesions were determined. Estimated delivered doses were >96.9% of target. Three unscheduled mortalities occurred but were considered incidental since FFC-related findings were not identified. Feed consumption was only affected during the last 10 dosing days when the 45 and 75 mg/kg groups consumed only 62.5% and 55.3% of the feed offered, respectively. There were significant, dose-dependent reductions in body size in the FFC-dose groups relative to the controls. Treatment-related histopathological findings included increased severity of lamellar epithelial hyperplasia, increased incidence of lamellar adhesions, decreased incidence of lamellar telangiectasis in the gills, increased glycogen-type and lipid-type hepatocellular vacuolation in the liver, decreased lymphocytes, increased blast cells, and increased individual cell necrosis in the anterior kidney, and tubular epithelial degeneration and mineralization in the posterior kidney. These changes are likely to be of minimal clinical relevance, given the lack of mortality or morbidity observed. This study has shown that FFC, when administered in feed to tilapia at the recommended dose (15 mg FFC/kg BW/day) for 10 days would be well tolerated.

  14. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine.

    PubMed

    Ettenberg, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse. PMID:15019422

  15. Evaluation of a Self-Administered Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

    PubMed Central

    Bethel, M. Angelyn; Price, Hermione C.; Sourij, Harald; White, Sarah; Coleman, Ruth L.; Ring, Arne; Kennedy, Irene E.C.; Tucker, Lynne; Holman, Rury R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the feasibility of using a disposable, self-administered, capillary blood sampling oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) device in a community setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eighteen healthy and 12 type 2 diabetic volunteers underwent six 75-g OGTTs using a prototype device in the following three settings: unaided at home (twice); unaided but observed in clinic (twice); and performed by a nurse with simultaneous laboratory glucose assays of 0- and 120-min venous plasma samples (twice). The device displayed no results. A detachable data recorder returned to the clinic provided plasma-equivalent 0- and 120-min glucose values and key parameters, including test date, start and end times, and time taken to consume the glucose drink. RESULTS The device was universally popular with participants and was perceived as easy to use, and the ability to test at home was well liked. Device failures meant that 0- and 120-min glucose values were obtained for only 141 (78%) of the 180 OGTTs performed, independent of setting. Device glucose measurements showed a mean bias compared with laboratory-measured values of +0.9 at 5.0 mmol/L increasing to +4.4 at 15.0 mmol/L. Paired device glucose values were equally reproducible across settings, with repeat testing showing no training effect regardless of setting order. CONCLUSIONS Self-administered OGTTs can be performed successfully by untrained individuals in a community setting. With improved device reliability and appropriate calibration, this novel technology could be used in routine practice to screen people who might need a formal OGTT to confirm the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. PMID:23321216

  16. Condom ads slated for TV.

    PubMed

    1987-02-20

    3 CBS-owned television stations and NBC's New York television station announced yesterday that they would begin accepting condom advertising. In addition, the ABC network announced it will begin running a 30-second public service message with Dr. C. Everett Koop, the US surgeon general, saying that condoms are the best protection against sexual transmission of AIDS. CBS said it will allow the 4 television stations and 18 radio stations it owns to accept condom advertising based on the attitudes of the local viewing or listening community. WCBS-TV in New York, WCAU-TV in Philadelphia and KCBS-TV in Los Angeles said they would accept such ads. CBS also owns a television station in Chicago. WCAU will air condom ads after 11 p.m. only, beginning probably next week, said Paul Webb, a station spokesman. "We recognize the legitimate sensitivities of some members of the community in regard to this issue," said Steve Cohen, the WCAU general manager. "However, it is the judgment of this station that the importance of providing information about the AIDS epidemic and means of prevention is an overriding consideration." NBC's New York television station, WNBC, announced that it will accept condom advertising and public service announcements. PMID:12269166

  17. Tanshinone IIA Alleviates the AD Phenotypes in APP and PS1 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fengling; Han, Guosheng; Wu, Kexiang

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still deficient. To find active compounds from herbal medicine is of interest in the alleviation of AD symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Tanshinone IIA (TIIA) on memory performance and synaptic plasticity in a transgenic AD model at the early phase. 25–100 mg/kg TIIA (intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) was administered to the six-month-old APP and PS1 transgenic mice for 30 consecutive days. After treatment, spatial memory, synaptic plasticity, and related mechanisms were investigated. Our result showed that memory impairment in AD mice was mitigated by 50 and 100 mg/kg TIIA treatments. Hippocampal long-term potentiation was impaired in AD model but rescued by 100 mg/kg TIIA treatment. Mechanically, TIIA treatment reduced the accumulations of beta-amyloid 1–42, C-terminal fragments (CTFs), and p-Tau in the AD model. TIIA did not affect basal BDNF but promoted depolarization-induced BDNF synthesis in the AD mice. Taken together, TIIA repairs hippocampal LTP and memory, likely, through facilitating the clearance of AD-related proteins and activating synaptic BDNF synthesis. TIIA might be a candidate drug for AD treatment. PMID:27274990

  18. 40 CFR 147.1852 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma... lands in Oklahoma, except Class II wells on the lands of the Five Civilized Tribes, is administered...

  19. 43 CFR 420.25 - Reclamation lands administered by other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE Designated Areas and Permitted Events § 420.25 Reclamation lands administered by other agencies. (a) Off-road vehicle use will be administered in...

  20. Administering and Detecting Protein Marks on Arthropods for Dispersal Research.

    PubMed

    Hagler, James R; Machtley, Scott A

    2016-01-28

    Monitoring arthropod movement is often required to better understand associated population dynamics, dispersal patterns, host plant preferences, and other ecological interactions. Arthropods are usually tracked in nature by tagging them with a unique mark and then re-collecting them over time and space to determine their dispersal capabilities. In addition to actual physical tags, such as colored dust or paint, various types of proteins have proven very effective for marking arthropods for ecological research. Proteins can be administered internally and/or externally. The proteins can then be detected on recaptured arthropods with a protein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe protocols for externally and internally tagging arthropods with protein. Two simple experimental examples are demonstrated: (1) an internal protein mark introduced to an insect by providing a protein-enriched diet and (2) an external protein mark topically applied to an insect using a medical nebulizer. We then relate a step-by-step guide of the sandwich and indirect ELISA methods used to detect protein marks on the insects. In this demonstration, various aspects of the acquisition and detection of protein markers on arthropods for mark-release-recapture, mark-capture, and self-mark-capture types of research are discussed, along with the various ways that the immunomarking procedure has been adapted to suit a wide variety of research objectives.

  1. A non-specific effect of orally administered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gardlik, Roman

    2011-01-01

    A number of genetically modified bacteria able to deliver a therapeutic gene into target cells has already been tested. Apart from the expected effects of bacterial therapy, the therapeutic bacterial strain also mediates a non-specific effect independent of the gene to be delivered. In this regard, we have recently shown that oral administration of the bacterial strain Escherichia coli XL1-Blue via gastric gavage to rats leads to a non-specific decrease in expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in intestinal wall without corresponding changes in other parameters. We tried to adopt a model of intestinal ischemia and to treat the subsequent hypoxic condition using a strain carrying the effector plasmid encoding hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha), as well as the helper plasmid encoding invasion and listeriolysin O. However, the model was ineffective, as obvious from macroscopic and molecular observations. We hypothesize that a competitive behavior of the administered strain in the intestinal microbiota leads to a decrease in activity of HIF-1alpha and reduction in expression of VEGF. Also, a functional disease model would be necessary for the invasion-expressing therapeutic strain to be effective. A different approach using bacterial protein delivery would possibly circumvent these bactofection-related problems.

  2. Hemodynamic effects of centrally administered, norcocaine in the rat.

    PubMed

    Barber, D A; Tackett, R L

    1992-01-01

    Norcocaine is the N-demethylated metabolite of cocaine. It is present in the CNS and is reported to be pharmacologically active. The present study was designed to evaluate the cardiovascular actions of norcocaine following central administration. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital and instrumented for measurement of blood pressure and renal and hindlimb blood flow (via Doppler flowprobes). A cerebroventricular cannula was placed in the lateral ventricle for drug administration. Cocaine or norcocaine was administered centrally in a dose range of 0.025 to 4.0 mg/kg. Under the above experimental conditions, 4.0 mg/kg of norcocaine decreased blood pressure without a significant change in either hind limb or renal blood flow. Central administration of cocaine also produced a similar depressor response. In conscious, unrestrained rats, cocaine produced a pressor response while norcocaine did not significantly alter blood pressure. The depressor response to both cocaine and norcocaine in the anesthetized animal is speculated to be due to the local anesthetic properties of the drugs.

  3. Inducing and Administering Tregs to Treat Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Perdigoto, Ana Luisa; Chatenoud, Lucienne; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Herold, Kevan C.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) control unwanted immune responses, including those that mediate tolerance to self as well as to foreign antigens. Their mechanisms of action include direct and indirect effects on effector T cells and important functions in tissue repair and homeostasis. Tregs express a number of cell surface markers and transcriptional factors that have been instrumental in defining their origins and potentially their function. A number of immune therapies, such as rapamycin, IL-2, and anti-T cell antibodies, are able to induce Tregs and are being tested for their efficacy in diverse clinical settings with exciting preliminary results. However, a balance exists with the use of some, such as IL-2, that may have effects on unwanted populations as well as promoting expansion and survival of Tregs requiring careful selection of dose for clinical use. The use of cell surface markers has enabled investigators to isolate and expand ex vivo Tregs more than 500-fold routinely. Clinical trials have begun, administering these expanded Tregs to patients as a means of suppressing autoimmune and alloimmune responses and potentially inducing immune tolerance. Studies in the future are likely to build on these initial technical achievements and use combinations of agents to improve the survival and functional capacity of Tregs. PMID:26834735

  4. Absorption Kinetics of Subcutaneously Administered Ceftazidime in Hypoperfused Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ebihara, Tsuyoshi; Oshima, Shinji; Okita, Mitsuyoshi; Shiina, Sayumi; Negishi, Akio; Ohara, Kousuke; Ohshima, Shigeru; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Yoneyama, Akira; Kitazumi, Eiji; Kobayashi, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the most common cause of death in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID), and intravenous ceftazidime (CAZ) is a widely used treatment for such infections. However, intravenous administration in patients with SMID may be difficult because of insufficient vascular development. Objectives The aim of our study was to determine the feasibility of subcutaneous drug administration by mentholated warm compresses (WMCs) as an alternative delivery method for ceftazidime in patients with SMID. Methods CAZ was subcutaneously administered to the abdominal region of naphazoline-treated hypoperfused guinea pigs, which were used as a hemodynamic model of patients with SMID. MWCs or warm compresses (WCs) were applied to the injection site to increase blood flow. We calculated the cumulative CAZ absorption over time by using the deconvolution method. Results Application of MWCs or WCs increased blood flow at the administration site and increased CAZ plasma levels. Application of MWCs or WCs after subcutaneous CAZ injection led to higher CAZ plasma levels than the mutant prevention concentration for a longer period than was observed for CAZ administration without the application of MWCs or WCs. Conclusions The application of MWCs or WCs enhanced subcutaneous CAZ absorption by increasing blood flow. MWCs and WCs are considered to be safe and routine methods to induce defecation after surgery on the digestive system; thus, the combination of these methods and subcutaneous CAZ administration is a potential method for treating pneumonia in patients with SMID. PMID:26649076

  5. Experiences of administering and receiving therapeutic touch in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Cox, C; Hayes, J

    1998-10-01

    This article describes the experiences of a practitioner who administered therapeutic touch (TT) to two patients in an intensive care unit and the experiences of the two patients who received TT. The experiences are presented as two case studies. Each of the patients presented in the case studies received either five or ten treatments of TT lasting five minutes each. Following each administration of TT the practitioner described what she sensed verbally and in writing. However, owing to the medical conditions of the patients, only brief interviews were conducted in which the patients were asked to describe their experiences of receiving TT. The experiences, which have been reflected in the case studies, indicate TT assists patients to relax, brings comfort and a sense of peace. Much like meditation, TT helps patients become more in touch with themselves. They come to understand more about themselves and reality. TT is recommended as a practice which could contribute to the psychological well-being of patients in intensive care as it promotes relaxation, comfort and a sense of peace.

  6. Nicotine elicits methamphetamine-seeking in rats previously administered nicotine.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, N M; Harrod, S B; Bardo, M T

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, it was assessed whether nicotine-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior and nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization require that nicotine be temporally paired with the methamphetamine self-administration session or the locomotor activity chamber. Nicotine acutely decreased methamphetamine self-administration, but did not persistently alter responding during the maintenance of methamphetamine self-administration. However, following extinction of methamphetamine self-administration, nicotine administration reinstated methamphetamine-seeking behavior only in rats that had previously been administered nicotine. Nicotine-induced reinstatement and expression of locomotor sensitization were not dependent on a temporal pairing of nicotine with either the methamphetamine self-administration session or the locomotor activity chamber, respectively. These results indicate that nicotine may be acting, at least in part, through a non-associative mechanism to reinstate methamphetamine-seeking behavior.

  7. Recovery of cholinesterase activity in mallard ducklings administered organophosphorus pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Bradbury, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Oral doses of the organophosphorus pesticides acephate, dicrotophos, fensulfothion, fonofos, malathion, and parathion were administered to mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos), and brain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities were determined for up to 77 d after dosing. In vivo recovery of brain ChE activity to within 2 standard deviations of the mean activity of undosed birds occurred within 8 d, after being depressed an average of 25-58% at 24 h after dosing. In vivo recovery of plasma ChE appeared as fast as or faster than that of brain, but the pattern of recovery was more erratic and therefore statistical comparison with brain ChE recovery was not attempted. In vitro tests indicated that the potential for dephosphorylation to contribute to in vivo recovery of inhibited brain ChE differed among chemical treatments. Some ducklings died as a result of organophosphate dosing. In an experiment in which ducklings within each treatment group received the same dose (mg/kg), the brain ChE activity in birds that died was less than that in birds that survived. Brain ChE activities in ducklings that died were significantly different among pesticide treatments: fensulfothion > parathion> acephate > malathion (p < 0.05).

  8. Suppression of reagin synthesis in rabbits by passively administered antibody

    PubMed Central

    Strannegård, Ö.; Belin, L.

    1970-01-01

    The formation of rabbit antibodies, capable of sensitizing homologous skin, (reagins), was completely inhibited by passive administration of serum containing large quantities of 7S antibody 24 hours before or after antigen injection. No evident effect on reagin formation was noted when passive antibody was administered 8 days after antigen injection although some suppression of agglutinating antibody synthesis was observed. In rabbits not treated with passive antibody the injection of haemocyanin resulted in the formation of reagins reaching maximum serum concentrations 1 and 3 weeks following antigen injection. Both the `early' and `late' reagins persisted for a long time in the skin of injected rabbits, they appeared to have similar molecular size and both were devoid of PCA activity when injected into decomplemented rabbits. There was some indication that the `early' reagins may be more heat-labile than the `late' ones. A secondary reagin response was obtained in several animals which had shown a primary reagin response, but not in rabbits with inhibited primary response. The reagins formed in response to secondary antigen stimulation disappeared rapidly from the circulation, simultaneously with the rise in agglutinating antibody titres. The possible implications of the findings for the immunological treatment of allergic disorders is discussed. PMID:5420728

  9. Effects of Systemically Administered Hydrocortisone on the Human Immunome

    PubMed Central

    Olnes, Matthew J.; Kotliarov, Yuri; Biancotto, Angélique; Cheung, Foo; Chen, Jinguo; Shi, Rongye; Zhou, Huizhi; Wang, Ena; Tsang, John S.; Nussenblatt, Robert; Dickler, Howard B.; Hourigan, Christopher S.; Marincola, Francesco M.; McCoy, J. Phillip; Perl, Shira; Schum, Paula; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Valdez, Janet; Young, Neal S.

    2016-01-01

    Corticosteroids have been used for decades to modulate inflammation therapeutically, yet there is a paucity of data on their effects in humans. We examined the changes in cellular and molecular immune system parameters, or “immunome”, in healthy humans after systemic corticosteroid administration. We used multiplexed techniques to query the immunome in 20 volunteers at baseline, and after intravenous hydrocortisone (HC) administered at moderate (250 mg) and low (50 mg) doses, to provide insight into how corticosteroids exert their effects. We performed comprehensive phenotyping of 120 lymphocyte subsets by high dimensional flow cytometry, and observed a decline in circulating specific B and T cell subsets, which reached their nadir 4–8 hours after administration of HC. However, B and T cells rebounded above baseline 24 hours after HC infusion, while NK cell numbers remained stable. Whole transcriptome profiling revealed down regulation of NF-κB signaling, apoptosis, and cell death signaling transcripts that preceded lymphocyte population changes, with activation of NK cell and glucocorticoid receptor signaling transcripts. Our study is the first to systematically characterize the effects of corticosteroids on the human immunome, and we demonstrate that HC exerts differential effects on B and T lymphocytes and natural killer cells in humans. PMID:26972611

  10. Correlation between administered treatment and patient’s living will

    PubMed Central

    Andreoni, B; Goldhirsch, A; Orecchia, R; Venturino, M; Spirito, R; Tadini, L; Corbellini, C; Bertani, E; Veronesi, U

    2009-01-01

    Respecting the wishes of an adequately informed patient should be a priority in any health structure. A patient with advanced or terminal cancer should be allowed to express their will during the most important phases of their illness. Unfortunately, this is seldom the case, and in general instructions regarding an individual’s medical care preferences, i.e., their ‘living will’, expressed when healthy, often change with the onset of a serious illness. At the European Institute of Oncology (IEO), a clinical study is ongoing to verify whether, during clinical practice, the patient is adequately informed to sign an ‘informed consent’, in a fully aware manner, that will allow the patient and doctor to share in the decisions regarding complex treatment strategies (living will). A further aim of the study is to verify if health workers, both in hospital and at home, respect the patient’s will. The observational study ‘Respecting the patient’s wishes: Correlation between administered treatment and that accepted by the patient in their Living Will’ was approved by the IEO Ethical Committee in April 2008. PMID:22276019

  11. [What lipid emulsion should be administered to ICU patients?].

    PubMed

    Kreymann, G

    2014-01-01

    The review deals with a question what lipid emulsion should be administered to ICU patients according to recently published official parenteral and enteral nutrition guidelines. Classic lipid emulsions based on omega-6 fatty acids are immunosuppressive and should not be used with ICU patients. The olive/soy emulsion is immunoneutral and can be used for most patients. Many ICU patients are in an inflammatory state (e.g. sepsis, ARDS, pancreatitis). A common belief is that this "hyperinflammed patient population" would profit from an anti-inflammatory lipid component of their parenteral nutrition solution, such as fish oil. On the other hand, every anti-inflammatory therapy has the disadvantage of also being immunosuppressive. Inflammation is a necessary part of the host defense against infection and any correct anti-inflammatory medication presupposes the exact immunologic knowledge that there is too much inflammation for a given situation. This "too much" is certainly not fulfilled in every patient with sepsis, ARDS or pancreatitis. At the bedside it is nearly impossible to determine the degree of "hyper" inflammation. In reality, a number of these patients may be adequately inflamed or, in fact, even hypoinflammed. Specific emulsions which can be used in hyper- or hypoinflammation should be developed in the future. As long as these difficulties in the immunologic diagnosis prevail, the clinician might be best advised to use an immunoneutral lipid emulsion when choosing a lipid preparation for the ICU patients. PMID:25306684

  12. Macroscopic and microscopic biodistribution of intravenously administered iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Adwiteeya; Petryk, Alicia A.; Strawbridge, Rendall R.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) are being developed for use as a cancer treatment. They have demonstrated efficacy when used either as a monotherapy or in conjunction with conventional chemotherapy and radiation. The success of IONP as a therapeutic tool depends on the delivery of a safe and controlled cytotoxic thermal dose to tumor tissue following activation with an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Prior to clinical approval, knowledge of IONP toxicity, biodistribution and physiological clearance is essential. This preliminary time-course study determines the acute toxicity and biodistribution of 110 nm dextran-coated IONP (iron) in mice, 7 days post systemic, at doses of 0.4, 0.6, and 1.0 mg Fe/ g mouse bodyweight. Acute toxicity, manifested as changes in the behavior of mice, was only observed temporarily at 1.0 mg Fe/ g mouse bodyweight, the highest dose administered. Regardless of dose, mass spectrometry and histological analysis demonstrated over 3 mg Fe/g tissue in organs within the reticuloendotheilial system (i.e. liver, spleen, and lymph nodes). Other organs (brain, heart, lungs, and kidney) had less than 0.5 mg Fe/g tissue with iron predominantly confined to the organ vasculature.

  13. 21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.07 Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. (a) A practitioner may administer or dispense directly (but not prescribe) a narcotic drug listed in any schedule to...

  14. 21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.07 Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. (a) A practitioner may administer or dispense directly (but not prescribe) a narcotic drug listed in any schedule to...

  15. 21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.07 Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. (a) A practitioner may administer or dispense directly (but not prescribe) a narcotic drug listed in any schedule to...

  16. 21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.07 Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. (a) A practitioner may administer or dispense directly (but not prescribe) a narcotic drug listed in any schedule to...

  17. 21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs... PRESCRIPTIONS General Information § 1306.07 Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. (a) A practitioner may administer or dispense directly (but not prescribe) a narcotic drug listed in any schedule to...

  18. 40 CFR 147.2601 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....2601 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for Indian lands in the territory of Guam is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian...

  19. 40 CFR 147.2510 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 147.2510 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for Indian lands in the State of Wisconsin is administered by EPA. This program consists of 40 CFR parts 144 and 146 and... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2601 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....2601 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for Indian lands in the territory of Guam is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian...

  1. 40 CFR 147.2510 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 147.2510 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for Indian lands in the State of Wisconsin is administered by EPA. This program consists of 40 CFR parts 144 and 146 and... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian...

  2. 45 CFR 400.66 - Eligibility and payment levels in a publicly-administered RCA program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.66 Eligibility and payment levels in a publicly-administered RCA program. (a) In administering a publicly-administered refugee cash assistance program,...

  3. 77 FR 19425 - Prescription Drugs Not Administered During Treatment; Update to Administrative Cost for Calendar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... AFFAIRS Prescription Drugs Not Administered During Treatment; Update to Administrative Cost for Calendar... purposes of calculating VA's charges for prescription drugs that were not administered during treatment but... administered during treatment for: (1) A nonservice-connected disability for which the veteran is entitled...

  4. 34 CFR 461.1 - What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic Grant Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM General § 461.1 What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic...

  5. 34 CFR 461.1 - What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic Grant Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM General § 461.1 What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic...

  6. 34 CFR 461.1 - What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic Grant Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM General § 461.1 What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic...

  7. 34 CFR 461.1 - What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic Grant Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM General § 461.1 What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic...

  8. 34 CFR 461.1 - What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic Grant Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM General § 461.1 What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic...

  9. The New York Times ad.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E; Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    Feminization of patriarchal institutions is necessary in order to eliminate the exclusivity and mutuality of hierarchical, gender, class, and race stratification. The aim of this paper is to explain the history and activities surrounding the New York Times ad on Sunday, October 7, 1984 (the Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion signed by Barbara Ferraro and Patricia Hussey of the Sisters of Note Dame de Namur, Rose Dominic Trapasso of the Maryknoll Sisters, and 67 other signers). The significance of this ad for Roman Catholic feminists and suggestions for new models of relationships between feminists is given. The Statement was written by Daniel Maguire and Frances Kissling and reviewed by 20 Roman Catholic ethicists. A sponsoring committee of early signers sought other support. Catholics for a Free Choice sponsored the funding for circulation of the Statement among professional societies, but not necessarily canonical communities. Publication of the entire statement in the Times was at the height of the presidential campaign. Conservative Bishops Bernard Law of Boston and John O'Connor of Boston publicly denounced Ferraro's position. The first institutional church response came on November 14, 1984, and stated that the Statement was personal opinion and contradictory to clear and constant church teachings about abortion. On November 30, 1984, Cardinal Jean Jerome Hamer of the Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes responded to most presidents of canonical communities to request a public retraction from signers under threat of dismissal. The issue was obedience to the church. Several members of the canonical community and priests published retractions; negotiations with the Vatican began. Freedom of conscience and empowerment of canonical communities, as agents of their own lives, were given as reasons for the challenge to paternalism. The response was that women were subject to obedience within their communities and had taken public vows and were

  10. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  11. Does administering iodine in radiological procedures increase patient doses?

    SciTech Connect

    He, Wenjun; Yao, Hai; Huda, Walter; Mah, Eugene

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the changes in the pattern of energy deposition in tissue equivalent phantoms following the introduction of iodinated contrast media. Methods: The phantom consisted of a small “contrast sphere,” filled with water or iodinated contrast, located at the center of a 28 cm diameter water sphere. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using MCNP5 codes, validated by simulating irradiations with analytical solutions. Monoenergetic x-rays ranging from 35 to 150 keV were used to simulate exposures to spheres containing contrast agent with iodine concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 mg/ml. Relative values of energy imparted to the contrast sphere, as well as to the whole phantom, were calculated. Changes in patterns of energy deposition around the contrast sphere were also investigated. Results: Small contrast spheres can increase local absorbed dose by a factor of 13, but the corresponding increase in total energy absorbed was negligible (<1%). The highest localized dose increases were found to occur at incident photon energies of about 60 keV. For a concentration of about 10 mg/ml, typical of clinical practice, localized absorbed doses were generally increased by about a factor of two. At this concentration of 10 mg/ml, the maximum increase in total energy deposition in the phantom was only 6%. These simulations demonstrated that increases in contrast sphere doses were offset by corresponding dose reductions at distal and posterior locations. Conclusions: Adding iodine can result in values of localized absorbed dose increasing by more than an order of magnitude, but the total energy deposition is generally very modest (i.e., <10%). Their data show that adding iodine primarily changes the pattern of energy deposition in the irradiated region, rather than increasing patient doses per se.

  12. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads. PMID:12345946

  13. Condom ads promote illicit sex.

    PubMed

    Kippley, J F

    1994-01-01

    Written in 1987, this opinion was republished in the wake of US President Bill Clinton's AIDS prevention media campaign promoting condom use which began January 1994, targeted at young adults aged 18-25. The author staunchly opposes condom use even though he admits that people do not consider abstinence from sex to be a serious option for the prevention of HIV/STD infection. He believes that there is no moral use of sex with a condom and that condoms have always been a sign of immorality, be it prostitution, adultery, fornication, or marital contraception. Likewise, the author laments the success enjoyed by Planned Parenthood in achieving the social acceptance of marital contraception and sex outside of marriage. The complete social acceptance of homosexual activity, however, remains to be achieved. Magazines, newspapers, and television receive income in exchange for publishing or airing advertisements. Finding offensive advertisements which promote the use of condoms against HIV infection, the author recommends writing letters of complaint to the responsible media sources. If the television stations or publications in question continue to advertise condoms to the public, stop watching them or end one's subscriptions to the particular printed media. Such action taken collectively among many individuals will reduce product sales and income, and potentially sway corporate policy against condom ads.

  14. 27 CFR 19.456 - Adding denaturants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adding denaturants. 19.456... Denaturation § 19.456 Adding denaturants. Denaturants and spirits shall be mixed in packages, tanks, or bulk... proprietor shall submit a flow diagram of the intended process or method of adding denaturants. (Sec....

  15. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  16. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  17. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  18. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  19. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insulation ads. 460.18 Section 460.18 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation...

  20. New Features in the ADS Abstract Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Accomazzi, Alberto; Grant, Carolyn S.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Thompson, Donna M.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA-ADS Abstract Service provides a sophisticated search capability for the literature in Astronomy, Planetary Sciences, Physics/Geophysics, and Space Instrumentation. The ADS is funded by NASA and access to the ADS services is free to anybody world-wide without restrictions. It allows the user to search the literature by author, title, and abstract text.

  1. Value Added and Other Related Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitla, Dean K.

    The term "value added" refers to the assessment of the amount of learning that takes place during the college years. Two experiments, Value Added I and Value Added II, attempted to measure college students' attainment of eight liberal education objectives: (1) writing ability; (2) analytical ability; (3) sensitivity to ethics, morals, and values;…

  2. Liver regeneration in rats administered high levels of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Gershbein, L L

    1976-01-01

    Partially hepatectomized male rats were administered high levels of carbohydrates by drinker, in a casein-cellulose synthetic medium and in a commercial meal over a period of 10 days after surgery and the amount of liver regenerating or the increment ascertained; representative hepatic glycogen changes were also followed. Of the carbohydrate solutions, 5% levulose, 5% levulose+5% glucose and 10% sucrose increased the extent of liver regeneration as was also the case with the synthetic diet suplemented with 30 and 60% glucose, 30 and 60% levulose, 30% levulose+30% glucose, 30% each of galactose and the arabinoglactan, Stractan and 60% each of sucrose, honey and unsulphured molasses. The liver increments and glycogen contents were in the control range for animals fed the synthetic diet containing 30% each of lactose, sorbitol, corn starch and raffinose pentahydrate, 5% ascorbic acid and 15% L-arabinose but the liver glycogen was depressed with 30% xylose, a diet which was poorly tolerated; 15% mannitol caused a decrease inthe increment. The incorporation of several sugars into the commercial rat meal, including xylose (11%), raffinose (15%), L-arabinose (8%), D-arabinose (5%), L-sorbose (17%), galactosamine (0.20%) and galactono-gamma-lactone (10%), led to little change over the control increments. In intact rats fed the synthetic diet containing 30% each of glucose, lactose, galactose, sucrose and levulose for an interval of 10 days, the wet and dry liver--body weight ratios were significantly elevated only with the last two sugars but liver glycogen was increased in each instance.

  3. Maternal Satisfaction with Administering Infant Interventions in the NICU

    PubMed Central

    Holditch-Davis, Diane; White-Traut, Rosemary; Levy, Janet; Williams, Kristi L.; Ryan, Donna; Vonderheid, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine mothers’ satisfaction with administering interventions for their preterm infants and with the helpfulness of the study nurse by comparing the ATVV intervention (massage with auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular stimulation), kangaroo care, and education about equipment needed at home. Secondarily, to explore whether mother and infant characteristics affected maternal satisfaction ratings. Design Three-group experimental design. Setting Four NICUs (two in North Carolina, two in Illinois). Participants 208 preterm infants and their mothers. Methods When the infant was no longer critically ill, mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to ATVV, kangaroo care, or the education group, all taught by study nurses. At discharge and 2 months corrected age, mothers completed questionnaires. Results All groups were satisfied with the intervention and with nurse helpfulness, and the degree of satisfaction did not differ among them. Intervention satisfaction, but not nurse helpfulness, was related to recruitment site. Older, married, and minority mothers were less satisfied with the intervention but only at 2 months. Higher anxiety was related to lower intervention satisfaction at discharge and lower ratings of nurse helpfulness at discharge and 2 months. More depressive symptoms were related to lower nurse helpfulness ratings at 2 months. Conclusions Mothers were satisfied with providing interventions for their infants regardless of the intervention performed. Maternal satisfaction with the intervention was related to recruitment site, maternal demographic characteristics, and maternal psychological distress, especially at 2 months. Thus, nursing interventions that provide mothers with a role to play in the infant’s care during hospitalization are particularly likely to be appreciated by mothers. PMID:25803213

  4. High energy QCD from Planckian scattering in AdS space and the Froissart bound

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Kyungsik; Nastase, Horatiu

    2005-11-15

    We reanalyze high-energy QCD scattering regimes from scattering in cutoff AdS space via gravity-gauge dualities (a la Polchinski-Strassler). We look at 't Hooft scattering, Regge behavior, and black hole creation in AdS space. Black hole creation in the gravity dual is analyzed via gravitational shockwave collisions. We prove the saturation of the QCD Froissart unitarity bound, corresponding to the creation of black holes of AdS size, as suggested by Giddings.

  5. The accuracy of a patient or parent-administered bleeding assessment tool administered in a paediatric haematology clinic.

    PubMed

    Lang, A T; Sturm, M S; Koch, T; Walsh, M; Grooms, L P; O'Brien, S H

    2014-11-01

    Classifying and describing bleeding symptoms is essential in the diagnosis and management of patients with mild bleeding disorders (MBDs). There has been increased interest in the use of bleeding assessment tools (BATs) to more objectively quantify the presence and severity of bleeding symptoms. To date, the administration of BATs has been performed almost exclusively by clinicians; the accuracy of a parent-proxy BAT has not been studied. Our objective was to determine the accuracy of a parent-administered BAT by measuring the level of agreement between parent and clinician responses to the Condensed MCMDM-1VWD Bleeding Questionnaire. Our cross-sectional study included children 0-21 years presenting to a haematology clinic for initial evaluation of a suspected MBD or follow-up evaluation of a previously diagnosed MBD. The parent/caregiver completed a modified version of the BAT; the clinician separately completed the BAT through interview. The mean parent-report bleeding score (BS) was 6.09 (range: -2 to 25); the mean clinician report BS was 4.54 (range: -1 to 17). The mean percentage of agreement across all bleeding symptoms was 78% (mean κ = 0.40; Gwet's AC1 = 0.74). Eighty percent of the population had an abnormal BS (defined as ≥2) when rated by parents and 76% had an abnormal score when rated by clinicians (86% agreement, κ = 0.59, Gwet's AC1 = 0.79). While parents tended to over-report bleeding as compared to clinicians, overall, BSs were similar between groups. These results lend support for further study of a modified proxy-report BAT as a clinical and research tool.

  6. Influence of intravenously administered ciprofloxacin on aerobic intestinal microflora and fecal drug levels when administered simultaneously with sucralfate.

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, W A; Ruckdeschel, G; Unertl, K

    1997-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin, when given intravenously (i.v.), is secreted in significant amounts via the mucosa into the intestinal lumen. Sucralfate inhibits the antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin. The effect of combined therapy on the intestinal flora was investigated in 16 healthy volunteers. They were randomly assigned to two groups. Group A received 2 g of sucralfate orally three times a day for 7 days and 400 mg of ciprofloxacin i.v. twice a day (b.i.d.) starting 3 days after the sucralfate administration began. Group B was given only 400 mg of ciprofloxacin i.v. b.i.d. for 4 days. A total of 9 stool samples were collected from each subject beginning the week before ciprofloxacin was administered and on days -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 or 11 after commencement of the infusion period. The aerobic fecal flora was determined by standard microbiological methods. Measurements of fecal ciprofloxacin levels were based on high-performance liquid chromatography. Counts of bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae decreased in all subjects and were below 10(2) CFU/g in eight of eight subjects (group A) and six of eight subjects (group B) on day 4, but they returned to normal in all but one subject (group A) 10 days after the last infusion. The decreases in levels of bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae were not significantly different in groups A and B (Kaplan-Meier test). Staphylococci and nonfermenters responded variably, enterococci and lactobacilli remained unchanged, and candida levels increased transiently in four subjects (two in each group). Maximum fecal drug levels ranged from 251 to 811 microg/g. No significant difference could be found between the two groups. The i.v. application of ciprofloxacin eliminates intestinal bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae in a rapid and selective manner. This effect is not affected by simultaneous oral application of sucralfate. PMID:9257749

  7. Federal Government Printing and Publishing: Policy Issues. Report of the Ad Hoc Advisory Committee on Revision of Title 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Committee on Printing, Washington, DC.

    Designed to present a better understanding of the government's system of printing and distributing information and to highlight problems, alternatives, and important policy questions, this report synthesizes 13 weeks of the Ad Hoc Advisory Committee hearings on six topics: (1) Administration of policy--who should establish and administer policy in…

  8. Oxidant and antioxidant status of cadmium administered rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toplan, S.; Ozcelik, D.; Dariyerli, N.; Akyolcu, M. C.

    2003-05-01

    Cadmium is one of the industrial elements that lead environmental pollution. Biological half-life of cadmium is relatively longer, so its clearance from tissue is considerably long. In present study, oxidant stress and antioxidant defense mechanism due to exposure to cadmium in rats wanted to be investigated. For such a purpose adult female wistar albino rats were divided into two as control and experimental groups. During experimental period while both group animals were fed by standard fodder, cadmium added (20 μg Cd/ml as cadmium sulfate) drinking water was given to experimental group for four weeks. At the end of four weeks blood samples were drawn from animals under ether anesthesia. As a Last product of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) level, superoxide dismutas (SOD) activity which is sign of antioxidant defense enzyme activity and glutathione levels (GSH) were measured. Increase in lipid peroxidation has been observed by increased MDA levels in experimental group (p<0.001). SOD enzyme activity was also found to be significantly lower in experimental group (p<0.001). Glutathione level of experimental group found to be decreased according to control group values (p<0.01). As a result of present study it may be concluded that cadmium may lead to increase in lipid peroxidation. On the other hand SOD activity and glutathione levels may also be decreased by effect of cadmium in erythrocytes. So the resultant would be the disturbed antioxidant mechanism

  9. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2013-10-25

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 minutes for 240 minutes followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  10. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2013-10-25

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 minutes for 240 minutes followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing. PMID:24512899

  11. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing. PMID:24511620

  12. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    PubMed

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.01) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased hunger (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P < 0.001) compared to wheat flour sausages. Furthermore, rye bran sausages increased satiety (P < 0.05) and fullness (P < 0.02) and decreased prospective consumption (P < 0.01) compared to rye bran bread. No differences in subsequent energy intake were observed. In conclusion, wheat and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  13. LWR (Light Water Reactor) power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Chien, C.J.; Jang, J.Y.; Lin, H.C.; Mallen, A.N.; Wang, S.J.; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan; Tawian Power Co., Taipei; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan )

    1989-01-01

    Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed under the auspices of international cooperation. Modeling and simulation methods are presented with emphasis on the simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System. Results are presented for BWR simulation and performance characteristics are compared of the AD10 and AD100 systems. It will be shown that the AD100 simulates two times faster than two AD10 processors operating in parallel and that the computing capacity of one AD100 (with FMU processor) is twice as large as that of two AD10 processors. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Comparative capacity of orally administered amoxicillin and parenterally administered penicillin-streptomycin to protect rabbits against experimentally induced streptococcal endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Pujadas, R; Escriva, E; Jane, J; Fernandez, F; Fava, P; Garau, J

    1986-01-01

    A single-intramuscular-dose immunization regimen with a penicillin G-streptomycin combination was compared with three oral-dose amoxicillin regimens for the capacity to prevent Streptococcus sanguis infections of experimentally induced valvular heart lesions in rabbits. Challenge doses of 10(4), 10(6), and 10(8) CFU of a strain of S. sanguis equally susceptible to penicillin and amoxicillin were used in this study. Measured by recovery of test organisms from endocardial lesions, the lowest concentration of these inocula was infective for 60% of the recipients; the two higher-concentration inocula were infective for all recipients. The penicillin G-streptomycin combination provided complete protection against infection with inocula of all sizes. A single-oral-dose amoxicillin regimen (50 mg/kg of body weight) prevented endocarditis when rabbits were challenged with 10(4) CFU, but protection diminished with increasing inoculum concentrations. Similar results were achieved when five oral doses of amoxicillin (8.5 mg/kg of body weight) added at 8-h intervals were included in the single-oral-dose regimen. In contrast, when rabbits received two oral doses of amoxicillin (50 mg/kg of body weight) with a 10-h interval between doses, prophylaxis was fully effective with even the highest inoculum concentration. PMID:3729348

  15. Inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongrong; Li Fuli; Zhu Shiyao

    2007-06-15

    The inseparability of photon-added Gaussian states which are generated from two-mode Gaussian states by adding photons is investigated. According to the established inseparability conditions [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], we find that even if a two-mode Gaussian state is separable, the photon-added Gaussian state becomes entangled when the purity of the Gaussian state is larger than a certain value. The lower bound of entanglement of symmetric photon-added Gaussian states is derived. The result shows that entanglement of the photon-added Gaussian states is involved with high-order moment correlations. We find that fidelity of teleporting coherent states cannot be raised by employing the photon-added Gaussian states as a quantum channel of teleportation.

  16. Comparison of total costs of administering calcium polycarbophil and psyllium mucilloid in an institutional setting.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, R; Cimino, J A; Cooperman, J M; Kugel, R

    1990-01-01

    The total cost of administering calcium polycarbophil per unit dose (two tablets) was compared with that of administering psyllium mucilloid (one packet dissolved in 8 oz of water) in 20 elderly nursing-home residents. Times for printing labels, checking and initialing labels, gathering materials needed, and preparing and administering the medications were recorded during at least 50 observations in each treatment group. Total cost included nurses' and pharmacists' time, materials, and medications. Calcium polycarbophil doses were prepared and administered more quickly (mean, 49.5 sec) than psyllium mucilloid (105.3 sec). The mean cost of preparing and administering a unit dose was 28.2 for calcium polycarbophil tablets and 59.9 for psyllium mucilloid. The results suggest that the use of calcium polycarbophil tablets would save time and money in institutions in which laxatives are frequently administered.

  17. Feasibility and Acceptability of the Informant AD8 for Cognitive Screening in Primary Healthcare: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, YanHong; Tsou, Keith Yu Kei; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The utility of informant AD8 for case finding of cognitive impairment at primary healthcare settings is unknown and therefore its feasibility and acceptability for targeted screening at a primary healthcare clinic should be investigated. Methods. The informants of older adult patients attending a primary healthcare clinic in Singapore were administered the AD8. Positive screening findings were provided to patients' primary care physicians for referrals to specialist memory clinics. The acceptability of AD8 was evaluated by collecting feedbacks from the informants and primary care physicians. Results. 205 patients and their informants were recruited. However, 6 (2.9%) informants were uncontactable, while the majority of the remaining 199 patients with completed AD8 (96.5%, n = 192) found it acceptable where 59 (29.6%) patients were deemed cognitively impaired (AD8 ≥ 2). Clinicians (100%, n = 5) found the AD8 helpful in facilitating referrals to memory clinics. However, most referral recommendations (81.4%, n = 48) were declined by patients and/or informant due to limited insight of implications of cognitive impairment. Conclusions. The AD8 can be easily administered and is well tolerated. It detected cognitive impairment in one-third of older adult patients and therefore may be useful for case finding of cognitive impairment in the primary healthcare. PMID:25548780

  18. On shape dependence of holographic entanglement entropy in AdS4/CFT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Piermarco; Seminara, Domenico; Tonni, Erik

    2015-12-01

    We study the finite term of the holographic entanglement entropy of finite domains with smooth shapes and for four dimensional gravitational backgrounds. Analytic expressions depending on the unit vectors normal to the minimal area surface are obtained for both stationary and time dependent spacetimes. The special cases of AdS4, asymptotically AdS4 black holes, domain wall geometries and Vaidya-AdS backgrounds have been analysed explicitly. When the bulk spacetime is AdS4, the finite term is the Willmore energy of the minimal area surface viewed as a submanifold of the three dimensional flat Euclidean space. For the static spacetimes, some numerical checks involving spatial regions delimited by ellipses and non convex domains have been performed. In the case of AdS4, the infinite wedge has been also considered, recovering the known analytic formula for the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence.

  19. Kaon Decays from AdS/QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Schvellinger, Martin

    2008-07-28

    We briefly review one of the current applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence known as AdS/QCD and discuss about the calculation of four-point quark-flavour current correlation functions and their applications to the calculation of observables related to neutral kaon decays and neutral kaon mixing processes.

  20. Next-Generation A/D Sampler ADS3000+ for VLBI2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Koyama, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    A high-speed A/D sampler, called ADS3000+, has been developed in 2008, which can sample one analog signal up to 4 Gbps to versatile Linux PC. After A/D conversion, the ADS3000+ can perform digital signal processing such as real-time DBBC (Digital Base Band Conversion) and FIR filtering such as simple CW RFI filtering using the installed FPGAs. A 4 Gsps fringe test with the ADS3000+ has been successfully performed. The ADS3000+ will not exclusively be used for VLBI but will also be employed in other applications.

  1. An improved AFS phase for AdS3 string integrability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Michael C.; Aniceto, Inês

    2015-04-01

    We propose a number of modifications to the classical term in the dressing phase for integrable strings in AdS3 ×S3 ×S3 ×S1, and check these against existing perturbative calculations, crossing symmetry, and the semiclassical limit of the Bethe equations. The principal change is that the phase for different masses should start with a term Q1Q2, like the one-loop AdS3 dressing phase, rather than Q2Q3 as for the original AdS5 AFS phase.

  2. On circular strings in (AdS3 × S 3)ϰ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Aritra; Panigrahi, Kamal L.

    2016-09-01

    The so called one-parameter (often called ϰ) deformed AdS string sigma models have attracted a lot of attention lately in the study of integrability in string theory. We construct various circular string solutions in the (AdS3 × S 3) ϰ background and describe the characteristics of such solutions qualitatively. We study the Bohr-Sommerfeld like quantization for these string states to characterise the motion. Further we find a `long' string limit of such circular strings in the ϰ-deformed AdS3 and find a novel dependence of the oscillation number on the energy in the next to leading order expansion.

  3. The eleven observations of comets between 687 AD and 1114 AD recorded in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardon, E. G.; Williams, J.; Mardon, A. A.

    1992-01-01

    This research paper is an examination of the eleven cometary references (679AD, 729AD, 892AD, 950AD, 975AD, 995AD, 1066AD, 1097AD, 1106AD, 1110AD and 1114AD) found in the various manuscripts of The Anglo Saxon Chronicle between 678 AD and 1114 AD. The manuscripts contain more than 35 celestial observations. This is an examination of astronomical phenomena and other climatic or natural events, that are described in The Anglo Saxon Chronicle, which is also referred to as The Old English Annals.

  4. Inflation in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Freivogel, Ben; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Maloney, Alexander; Myers, Rob; Rangamani, Mukund; Shenker, Stephen; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-10-07

    We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.We study the realization of inflation within the AdS/CFT correspondence. We assume the existence of a string landscape containing at least one stable AdS vacuum and a (nearby) metastable de Sitter state. Standard arguments imply that the bulk physics in the vicinity of the AdS minimum is described by a boundary CFT. We argue that large enough bubbles of the dS phase, including those able to inflate, are described by mixed states in the CFT. Inflating degrees of freedom are traced over and do not appear explicitly in the boundary description. They nevertheless leave a distinct imprint on the mixed state. Analytic continuation allows us, in principle, to recover a large amount of nonperturbatively defined information about the inflating regime. Our work also shows that no scattering process can create an inflating region, even by quantum tunneling, since a pure state can never evolve into a mixed state under unitary evolution.

  5. Superradiance instability of small rotating AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delice, Ã.-zgür; Durǧut, Türküler

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the stability of D dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this paper we analytically prove that rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also shows superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and spacetime dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in the Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.

  6. 34 CFR 406.1 - What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program? 406.1 Section 406.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED...

  7. 34 CFR 406.1 - What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program? 406.1 Section 406.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED...

  8. 34 CFR 406.1 - What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program? 406.1 Section 406.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED...

  9. 34 CFR 406.1 - What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the State-Administered Tech-Prep Education Program? 406.1 Section 406.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED...

  10. 7 CFR 4280.195 - Awarding and administering energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Awarding and administering energy audit and renewable... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.195 Awarding and administering energy audit and...

  11. 7 CFR 4280.195 - Awarding and administering energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Awarding and administering energy audit and renewable... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.195 Awarding and administering energy audit and...

  12. 7 CFR 4280.195 - Awarding and administering energy audit and renewable energy development assistance grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Awarding and administering energy audit and renewable... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Energy for America Program General Energy Audit and Renewable Energy Development Assistance Grants § 4280.195 Awarding and administering energy audit and...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Oklahoma § 147.1851 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Oklahoma, including the lands of the Five Civilized Tribes, but not including those on other Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission approved by EPA...

  14. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Oklahoma § 147.1851 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Oklahoma, including the lands of the Five Civilized Tribes, but not including those on other Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission approved by EPA...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Oklahoma § 147.1851 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Oklahoma, including the lands of the Five Civilized Tribes, but not including those on other Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission approved by EPA...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Oklahoma § 147.1851 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of Oklahoma, including the lands of the Five Civilized Tribes, but not including those on other Indian lands, is the program administered by the Oklahoma Corporation Commission approved by EPA...

  17. 40 CFR 282.83 - North Carolina State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Carolina State-Administered Program. 282.83 Section 282.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.83 North Carolina State-Administered Program. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 282.98 - West Virginia State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false West Virginia State-Administered Program. 282.98 Section 282.98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.98 West Virginia State-Administered Program. (a)...

  19. 20 CFR 672.200 - How are YouthBuild grants funded and administered?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How are YouthBuild grants funded and... How are YouthBuild grants funded and administered? The Secretary uses funds authorized for appropriation under sec. 173A of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) to administer YouthBuild as a...

  20. 20 CFR 672.200 - How are YouthBuild grants funded and administered?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How are YouthBuild grants funded and... How are YouthBuild grants funded and administered? The Secretary uses funds authorized for appropriation under sec. 173A of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) to administer YouthBuild as a...

  1. 20 CFR 672.200 - How are YouthBuild grants funded and administered?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How are YouthBuild grants funded and... How are YouthBuild grants funded and administered? The Secretary uses funds authorized for appropriation under sec. 173A of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) to administer YouthBuild as a...

  2. 40 CFR 272.151 - Arizona State-administered program: Final authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arizona State-administered program... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Arizona § 272.151 Arizona State-administered program: Final authorization. (a) Pursuant to section 3006(b) of RCRA, 42...

  3. 40 CFR 272.151 - Arizona State-administered program: Final authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arizona State-administered program... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Arizona § 272.151 Arizona State-administered program: Final authorization. (a) Pursuant to section 3006(b) of RCRA, 42...

  4. 40 CFR 272.151 - Arizona State-administered program: Final authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arizona State-administered program... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Arizona § 272.151 Arizona State-administered program: Final authorization. (a) Pursuant to section 3006(b) of RCRA, 42...

  5. 40 CFR 272.1201 - Minnesota State-administered program; Final authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minnesota State-administered program... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Minnesota § 272.1201 Minnesota State-administered program; Final authorization. Pursuant to section 3006(b) of RCRA, 42...

  6. 40 CFR 272.1201 - Minnesota State-administered program; Final authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minnesota State-administered program... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Minnesota § 272.1201 Minnesota State-administered program; Final authorization. Pursuant to section 3006(b) of RCRA, 42...

  7. 40 CFR 272.1201 - Minnesota State-administered program; Final authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minnesota State-administered program... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Minnesota § 272.1201 Minnesota State-administered program; Final authorization. Pursuant to section 3006(b) of RCRA, 42...

  8. 40 CFR 272.1201 - Minnesota State-administered program; Final authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minnesota State-administered program... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Minnesota § 272.1201 Minnesota State-administered program; Final authorization. Pursuant to section 3006(b) of RCRA, 42...

  9. 40 CFR 272.1201 - Minnesota State-administered program; Final authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minnesota State-administered program... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Minnesota § 272.1201 Minnesota State-administered program; Final authorization. Pursuant to section 3006(b) of RCRA, 42...

  10. 40 CFR 147.1451 - EPA administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1451 EPA administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1703 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... Carolina § 147.1703 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  12. 40 CFR 147.2001 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... Island § 147.2001 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1053 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1053 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  14. 40 CFR 147.2253 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wells on Indian lands consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands....2253 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of wells...

  15. 40 CFR 147.60 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148 and any additional requirements set forth in the remainder of... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.60 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1752 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... Dakota § 147.1752 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  17. 40 CFR 147.2651 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148 and any additional requirements set... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.2651 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1703 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... Carolina § 147.1703 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1403 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1403 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2553 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.2553 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  1. 40 CFR 147.2453 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... Virginia § 147.2453 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  2. 40 CFR 147.2403 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... except those of the Colville Tribe, consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.2403 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  3. 40 CFR 147.2001 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... Island § 147.2001 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  4. 40 CFR 147.651 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the remainder of... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands....651 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of wells...

  5. 40 CFR 147.1551 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1551 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  6. 40 CFR 147.1303 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 145, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1303 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  7. 40 CFR 147.2253 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wells on Indian lands consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands....2253 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of wells...

  8. 40 CFR 147.205 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148 and any additional requirements set forth in this subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.205 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  9. 40 CFR 147.860 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.860 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  10. 40 CFR 147.2403 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... except those of the Colville Tribe, consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.2403 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1805 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the remainder of... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands....1805 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of wells...

  12. 40 CFR 147.205 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148 and any additional requirements set forth in this subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.205 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  13. 40 CFR 147.60 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148 and any additional requirements set forth in the remainder of... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.60 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  14. 40 CFR 147.703 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.703 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1752 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... Dakota § 147.1752 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  16. 40 CFR 147.553 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.553 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  17. 40 CFR 147.1805 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the remainder of... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands....1805 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of wells...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1901 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1901 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  19. 40 CFR 147.2205 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the remainder of... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands....2205 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of wells...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2303 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.2303 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  1. 40 CFR 147.1053 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1053 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1252 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1252 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  3. 40 CFR 147.1001 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the remainder of... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands....1001 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of wells...

  4. 40 CFR 147.403 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the remainder of... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.403 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  5. 40 CFR 147.2051 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... Carolina § 147.2051 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  6. 40 CFR 147.1852 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1852 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all wells on Indian... forth in subpart GGG of this part. The UIC program for all other wells on Indian lands consists of...

  7. 40 CFR 147.2651 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148 and any additional requirements set... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.2651 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  8. 40 CFR 147.2303 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.2303 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  9. 40 CFR 147.1101 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... Massachusetts § 147.1101 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  10. 40 CFR 147.703 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.703 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  11. 40 CFR 147.353 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the remainder of... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.353 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1403 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1403 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1501 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... Hampshire § 147.1501 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  14. 40 CFR 147.2051 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... Carolina § 147.2051 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1303 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 145, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1303 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1101 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... Massachusetts § 147.1101 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  17. 40 CFR 147.1451 - EPA administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1451 EPA administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  18. 40 CFR 147.860 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.860 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1252 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1252 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  20. 40 CFR 147.1001 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the remainder of... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands....1001 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of wells...

  1. 40 CFR 147.2205 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the remainder of... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands....2205 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of wells...

  2. 40 CFR 147.951 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.951 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  3. 40 CFR 147.2453 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... Virginia § 147.2453 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  4. 40 CFR 147.1603 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1603 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of wells on Indian lands in New Mexico, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA...

  5. 40 CFR 147.553 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.553 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  6. 40 CFR 147.651 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the remainder of... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands....651 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of wells...

  7. 40 CFR 147.353 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the remainder of... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.353 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  8. 40 CFR 147.403 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the remainder of... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.403 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  9. 40 CFR 147.1551 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1551 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  10. 40 CFR 147.1501 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... Hampshire § 147.1501 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  11. 40 CFR 147.951 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.951 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1901 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1901 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  13. 40 CFR 147.2553 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any additional requirements set forth in the... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.2553 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes of...

  14. 40 CFR 147.1852 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands... § 147.1852 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all wells on Indian... forth in subpart GGG of this part. The UIC program for all other wells on Indian lands consists of...

  15. 47 CFR 64.1110 - State notification of election to administer FCC rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State notification of election to administer FCC rules. 64.1110 Section 64.1110 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Telecommunications Service Providers § 64.1110 State notification of election to administer FCC rules. (a)...

  16. 42 CFR 2a.5 - Contents of application; research projects in which drugs will be administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents of application; research projects in which... application; research projects in which drugs will be administered. (a) In addition to the information... for an authorization of confidentiality for a research project which involves the administering of...

  17. 42 CFR 2a.5 - Contents of application; research projects in which drugs will be administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents of application; research projects in which... application; research projects in which drugs will be administered. (a) In addition to the information... for an authorization of confidentiality for a research project which involves the administering of...

  18. 42 CFR 2a.5 - Contents of application; research projects in which drugs will be administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents of application; research projects in which... application; research projects in which drugs will be administered. (a) In addition to the information... for an authorization of confidentiality for a research project which involves the administering of...

  19. 40 CFR 272.501 - Florida State-administered program: Final authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Florida State-administered program... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Florida § 272.501 Florida State-administered program: Final authorization. (a) Pursuant to section 3006(b) of RCRA, 42...

  20. 40 CFR 282.98 - West Virginia State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... it more stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false West Virginia State-Administered... Virginia State-Administered Program. (a) The State of West Virginia's underground storage tank program...