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Sample records for administered atropine sulfate

  1. Evaluation of atropine 1% ophthalmic solution administered sublingually for the management of terminal respiratory secretions.

    PubMed

    Protus, Bridget McCrate; Grauer, Phyllis A; Kimbrel, Jason M

    2013-06-01

    Terminal respiratory secretions (TRS) or "death rattle" is a common symptom in the dying patient. Current practice for the prevention and treatment of TRS involves the use of oral, sublingual, transdermal, or parenteral anticholinergic medications. A retrospective chart review of patients admitted to a hospice inpatient unit for terminal care and treated with sublingual atropine 1% ophthalmic drops for TRS was conducted. A total of 19 of 22 patients treated with atropine had documented reduction or resolution of TRS. This study suggests that atropine 1% ophthalmic drops administered sublingually are a reasonable option for the management of TRS. Problematic cardiac or central nervous system symptoms were not found in the present study. Results should aid hospice programs who are seeking guidance on the management of TRS with atropine 1% ophthalmic drops.

  2. Effect of topical 1% atropine sulfate on intraocular pressure in normal horses.

    PubMed

    Herring, I.P.; Pickett, J.P.; Champagne, E.S.; Troy, G.C.; Marini, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of topical 1% ophthalmic atropine sulfate on intraocular pressure (IOP) in ocular normotensive horses. Animals Studied Eleven clinically healthy horses. Procedures IOP was measured bilaterally twice daily, at 8 AM and 4 PM, for 5 days. No medication was applied for the first 2 days of the study. Thereafter, one eye of each horse was treated with 0.1 mL of topical 1% atropine sulfate ointment twice daily (7 AM and 7 PM) for 3 days. The contralateral eye served as a control. In eight of the horses, an additional IOP reading was taken 3 days following cessation of the atropine treatment. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the IOP of control vs. treatment eyes in the pretreatment period, days 1 and 2 (P = 0.97 and 0.55, respectively). During the treatment period, treated eyes of 10 of the horses had significantly lower IOP than control eyes (P = 0.03). The mean IOP reduction in treated eyes, relative to untreated eyes, was 11.2%. One horse had a significant rise in IOP in the treated eye compared to the remaining study animals. The IOP of control eyes did not vary significantly over the observation period (P = 0.27). There was no significant variation in IOP between the 8 AM and 4 PM measurement (P = 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Topical 1% atropine sulfate causes a small, but significant decline in IOP in most ocular normotensive horses. Because topical atropine may elevate IOP in some horses, it should be used with caution in the treatment of glaucoma in this species.

  3. Atropine sulfate for treatment of bradycardia in a patient with morbid obesity: what may happen when you least expect it.

    PubMed

    Carron, Michele; Veronese, Stefano

    2015-01-29

    A 74-year-old morbidly obese man was scheduled for surgical repair of an incisional ventral hernia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl, and maintained with desflurane. A second dose of fentanyl 0.2 mg, given before starting surgery, resulted in sinus bradycardia and mild decrease of arterial blood pressure. Atropine sulfate 0.5 mg was administered. One minute later, the ECG rhythm on the monitor changed to third degree atrioventricular block with a ventricular response rate of 40 beats/min associated with marked hypotension. Isoproterenol 0.02 mg reverted the atrioventricular block to sinus rhythm. Cardiac enzymes and ECG ruled out acute myocardial ischaemia. The surgical procedure and the recovery from anaesthesia were uneventful. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the fifth postoperative day. For the treatment of bradycardia atropine sulfate should be adjusted at least to lean body weight in order to avoid paradoxical heart rate response in patients with obesity.

  4. Effect of atropine sulfate on soman-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening

    SciTech Connect

    Carpentier, P.; Lallement, G.; Tarricone, A.; Blanchet, G.

    1993-05-13

    Using Evans-Blue (EB) labeled serum albumin, it was recently shown that soman may produce seizure-related and reversible BBB opening in rats. Topographically, whereas hippocampus was never damaged, protein leakage was most frequent in the thalamus, and to a lesser degree, in certain basal formations (hypothalamus, amygdala, preoptic area, corpus mammillare) and lateral septum. In the present study, the distribution of soman-induced BBB opening was similar when intoxicated rats were pretreated by atropine methyl nitrate (AMN) a muscarinic blocker which does not penetrate the BBB. On the other hand, when AMN was substituted by atropine sulfate (AS), which is known to readily cross the BBB, thalamic nuclei became totally devoid of any vascular lesions whereas EB leakage still remained in the other normally damaged brain structures listed above. Therefore, the muscarinic cholinergic system appears to play a more prominent role on BBB control in the thalamus than in other cerebral regions.

  5. Systemic Delivery of Atropine Sulfate by the MicroDose Dry-Powder Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Venkataramanan, R.; Hoffman, R.M.; George, M.P.; Petrov, A.; Richards, T.; Zhang, S.; Choi, J.; Gao, Y.Y.; Oakum, C.D.; Cook, R.O.; Donahoe, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Inhaled atropine is being developed as a systemic and pulmonary treatment for the extended recovery period after chemical weapons exposure. We performed a pharmacokinetics study comparing inhaled atropine delivery using the MicroDose Therapeutx Dry Powder Inhaler (DPIA) with intramuscular (IM) atropine delivery via auto-injector (AUTO). Methods The MicroDose DPIA utilizes a novel piezoelectric system to aerosolize drug and excipient from a foil dosing blister. Subjects inhaled a 1.95-mg atropine sulfate dose from the dry powder inhaler on one study day [5 doses×0.4 mg per dose (nominal) delivered over 12 min] and received a 2-mg IM injection via the AtroPen® auto-injector on another. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic response, and safety were studied for 12 hr. Results A total of 17 subjects were enrolled. All subjects completed IM dosing. One subject did not perform inhaled delivery due to a skin reaction from the IM dose. Pharmacokinetic results were as follows: area under the curve concentration, DPIA=20.1±5.8, AUTO=23.7±4.9 ng hr/mL (means±SD); maximum concentration reached, DPIA=7.7±3.5, AUTO=11.0±3.8 ng/mL; time to reach maximum concentration, DPIA=0.25±0.47, AUTO=0.19±0.23 hr. Pharmacodynamic results were as follows: maximum increase in heart rate, DPIA=18±12, AUTO=23±13 beats/min; average change in 1-sec forced expiratory volume at 30 min, DPIA=0.16±0.22 L, AUTO=0.11±0.29 L. The relative bioavailability for DPIA was 87% (based on output dose). Two subjects demonstrated allergic responses: one to the first dose (AUTO), which was mild and transient, and one to the second dose (DPIA), which was moderate in severity, required treatment with oral and intravenous (IV) diphenhydramine and IV steroids, and lasted more than 7 days. Conclusions Dry powder inhalation is a highly bioavailable route for attaining rapid and consistent systemic concentrations of atropine. PMID:22691110

  6. Primacy and recency effects in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a serial probe recognition task: II. Effects of atropine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Castro, C A

    1997-08-01

    Nonhuman primates display both a primacy and a recency effect when trained on a 6-item serial probe recognition task. The author has previously shown that in the rhesus monkey, diazepam (3.2 mg/kg im) interferes with the memory processes that mediate the recency effect without affecting those memory processes involved in the primacy effect (C. A. Castro, 1995). This study assessed the effects of atropine sulfate (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mg/kg im) on the primacy and recency effects in these same monkeys. Opposite the effects of diazepam, atropine disrupted the primacy component of the serial position curve and had no measurable effect on the recency component. In addition, the 2 highest doses of atropine disrupted accuracy on the nonmatching probe trials, whereas all 3 doses of atropine resulted in increased response latencies. These reports indicate that the primacy and recency effects in the nonhuman primate can be pharmacologically dissociated.

  7. Aerosolized delivery of oxime MMB-4 in combination with atropine sulfate protects against soman exposure in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Michael W; Pierre, Zdenka; Sabnekar, Praveena; Sciuto, Alfred M; Song, Jian; Soojhawon, Iswarduth; Oguntayo, Samuel; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of aerosolized acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator oxime MMB-4 in combination with the anticholinergic atropine sulfate for protection against respiratory toxicity and lung injury following microinstillation inhalation exposure to nerve agent soman (GD) in guinea pigs. Anesthetized animals were exposed to GD (841 mg/m(3), 1.2 LCt(50)) and treated with endotracheally aerosolized MMB-4 (50 µmol/kg) plus atropine sulfate (0.25 mg/kg) at 30 sec post-exposure. Treatment with MMB-4 plus atropine increased survival to 100% compared to 38% in animals exposed to GD. Decreases in the pulse rate and blood O(2) saturation following exposure to GD returned to normal levels in the treatment group. The body-weight loss and lung edema was significantly reduced in the treatment group. Similarly, bronchoalveolar cell death was significantly reduced in the treatment group while GD-induced increase in total cell count was decreased consistently but was not significant. GD-induced increase in bronchoalveolar protein was diminished after treatment with MMB-4 plus atropine. Bronchoalveolar lavage AChE and BChE activity were significantly increased in animals treated with MMB-4 plus atropine at 24 h. Lung and diaphragm tissue also showed a significant increase in AChE activity in the treatment group. Treatment with MMB-4 plus atropine sulfate normalized various respiratory dynamics parameters including respiratory frequency, tidal volume, peak inspiratory and expiratory flow, time of inspiration and expiration, enhanced pause and pause post-exposure to GD. Collectively, these results suggest that aerosolization of MMB-4 plus atropine increased survival, decreased respiratory toxicity and lung injury following GD inhalation exposure.

  8. Determination of atropine sulfate using a novel sensitive DNA-biosensor based on its interaction on a modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Nasr-Esfahani, Parisa; Heydari-Bafrooei, Esmaeil; Rezaei, B

    2015-01-01

    A novel, selective, rapid and simple electrochemical method is developed for the determination of atropine sulfate. UV-Vis and differential pulse voltammetry are used to study the interaction of atropine sulfate with salmon sperm ds-DNA on the surface of salmon sperm ds-DNA modified-pencil graphite electrode (PGE). For this purpose, a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs), and poly-dialyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) decorated with ds-DNA is tested for the determination of atropine sulfate. The electrochemical oxidation peak current of adenine and guanine bonded on the surface of ds-DNA/PDDA-TiO2NPs-MWCNTs/PGE is used to obtain the analytical signal. Decreases in the intensities of guanine and adenine oxidation signals after their interaction with atropine sulfate are used as indicator signals for the sensitive determination of atropine sulfate. Using ds-DNA/PDDA-TiO2NPs-MWCNTs/PGE and based on the guanine signal, linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.6 to 30.0 μmol L(-1) and 30.0 to 600.0 μmol L(-1) atropine sulfate with low detection limits of 30.0 nmol L(-1). The biosensor shows a good selectivity for the determination of atropine sulfate. Finally, the applicability of the biosensor is evaluated by measuring atropine sulfate in real samples with good accuracy.

  9. Effects of atropine, scopolamine and xylazine on the placement of an orally administered magnet in cows.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Gansohr, B; Flückiger, M

    2003-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether the administration of atropine, scopolamine or xylazine to cows before the administration of a magnet orally would help to position it in the reticulum. The transit time of the magnet through the oesophagus was also measured. Sixty Swiss Braunvieh cows were examined by radiography and ultrasonography to locate the reticulum. They were then divided into six groups of 10. Before the administration of the magnet, a control group received 4 ml saline solution subcutaneously, one group received 0.10 mg/kg of atropine subcutaneously, a second received 0.05 mg/kg of atropine intravenously, a third received 0.15 mg/kg of scopolamine intravenously, a fourth group received 0.02 mg/kg of xylazine intravenously, and the cows in the fifth group were positioned so that their forelimbs were 30 cm lower than their hindlimbs during the administration of the magnet. The passage of the magnet through the oesophagus was timed with a stopwatch and monitored with a compass. In the control group the magnet passed through in less than 60 seconds, but in four of the cows receiving either atropine or xylazine intravenously, or having their forelimbs positioned lower than their hindlimbs, it took longer than 60 seconds. In the cows receiving atropine subcutaneously or scopolamine intravenously, it took the same time as in the control group. All the cows were radiographed one-and-a-half hours after the administration of the magnet to determine its location. In seven of the 10 cows in the control group, the magnet was located in the reticulum, but in the other three it was in the cranial dorsal blind sac of the rumen. In the other five groups the magnet was located in the reticulum of between four and seven of the 10 cows, but in the cranial dorsal sac of the rumen, the rumen or in other sites in the other cows.

  10. Formulation and characterization of atropine sulfate in albumin-chitosan microparticles for in vivo ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Addo, Richard T; Yeboah, Kwame G; Siwale, Rodney C; Siddig, Aladin; Jones, Alphia; Ubale, Ruhi V; Akande, Janet; Nettey, Henry; Patel, Neil J; Addo, Evelyn; D'Souza, Martin J

    2015-05-01

    The overall study goal was to produce a microparticle formulation containing atropine sulfate for ocular administration with improved efficacy and lower side effects, compared with that of the standard marketed atropine solution. The objective was to prepare an atropine sulfate-loaded bovine serum albumin-chitosan microparticle that would have longer contact time on the eyes as well as better mydriatic and cycloplegic effect using a rabbit model. The microparticle formulation was prepared by method of spray-drying technique. The percent drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were assessed using a USP (I) dissolution apparatus. The particle sizes and zeta potential were determined using laser scattering technique and the surface morphology of the microparticles was determined using a scanning electron microscope. The product yield was calculated from relative amount of material used. In vitro cytotoxicity and uptake by human corneal epithelial cells were examined using AlamarBlue and confocal microscopy. The effects of the microparticle formulation on mydriasis in comparison with the marketed atropine sulfate solution were evaluated in rabbit eyes. The prepared microparticle formulation had ideal physicochemical characteristics for delivery into the eyes. The in vivo studies showed that the microparticles had superior effects on mydriasis in rabbits than the marketed solutions

  11. Determination of atropine (hyoscyamine) sulfate in commercial products by liquid chromatography with UV absorbance and fluorescence detection: multilaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Cieri, Ugo R

    2003-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method with 2 detection systems for determining atropine (hyoscyamine) sulfate in commercial products was tested in a multilaboratory study. Depending on the type of product, sample solutions are prepared in methanol or methanol-water (1 + 1). The standard solution contains about 1.0 mg atropine sulfate/100 mL and is prepared in the same solvent used in sample preparation. LC separations are performed on a 7.5 cm Novapak silica column. The mobile phase is prepared by mixing 970 mL methanol with 30 mL of a 1% aqueous solution of 1-pentanesulfonic acid, sodium salt. Detection is by 2 systems, UV absorbance detection at 220 nm and fluorescence detection with excitation at 255 nm and emission at 285 nm. The injection volume is 100 or 200 microL. The following materials were used for the study: 2 separate samples of tablets labeled to contain 0.4 mg atropine sulfate, 2 separate samples of extended-release tablets labeled to contain 0.375 mg hyoscyamine sulfate, one sample of atropine sulfate injection labeled to contain 2 mg/mL, and one sample of 1% (v/v) atropine sulfate ophthalmic. Eight participants analyzed 2 separate portions of the 6 samples by both detection systems. A ninth participant analyzed the samples in duplicate but only by UV absorbance detection because of the unavailability of a fluorescence detector. The relative standard deviation (RSD) between laboratories ranged from 1.4 to 3.3% for samples of tablets and injections but higher for ophthalmic solutions (5.1-5.2%). A linearity study was conducted in the originating laboratory before the multilaboratory study with 5 solutions ranging in concentration from 0.80 to 1.20 mg atropine sulfate in 100 mL. Average recoveries were 100.0% by UV absorbance detection and 99.9% by fluorescence detection; the RSDs were 1.1 and 1.2%, respectively.

  12. Effects of the chemical-defense antidote atropine sulfate on helicopter-pilot performance: A simulator study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F.R.; Caldwell, J.A.; Stephens, R.L.; Stone, L.W.; Carter, D.J.

    1989-07-01

    Atropine is fielded as an antidote for organophosphate poisoning where chemical nerve agents are used. However, inappropriate self-injection may lead to anticholinergic side effects detrimental to aviators in flight. To determine the scope and magnitude of these possible side effects, 12 male Army helicopter pilots in good health flew several missions in a helicopter simulator after being injected (I.M.) with either a placebo or 2mg or 4mg of atropine sulfate. Physiological effects essentially followed the classical model. The 2 mg dose of atropine caused small degradations on some of laboratory-collected measures, but often did not produce effects, which differed significantly from those produced by a placebo dose. A 4mg dose of atropine, however, exerted a variety of statistically significant effects upon flight performance, contrast sensitivity, cognitive performance, tracking accuracy, and cortical evoked responses. The flight performance evaluations (both subjective and objective) showed statistically significant changes in the subject's abilities to fly the simulator. Results obtained from other tasks in the study suggest, further, the decrements in flight performance resulted from a slowing of both information processing and psychomotor performance. Atropine effects were not of sufficient magnitude to preclude further research under actual flight conditions.

  13. Development of a Combined Solution Formulation of Atropine Sulfate and Obidoxime Chloride for Autoinjector and Evaluation of Its Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ettehadi, Hossein Ali; Ghalandari, Rouhollah; Shafaati, Alireza; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Atropine (AT) and oximes, alone or in combination, have been proven greatly valuable therapeutics in the treatment of organophosphates intoxications. An injectable mixture of AT and obidoxime (OB) was formulated for the administration by automatic self-injector. The aqueous single dose solution contained 275 mg obidoxime chloride and 2.5 mg atropine sulfate per 1 mL (220 mg and 2 mg per 0.8 effective dose, respectively). The final solution was sterilized by filtration through a 0.22 μm pore size filter. This more concentrated solution allowed to use a smaller size and lighter weight cartridge. Quality control tests, including assay of the two major compounds were performed separately, using reversed-phase HPLC methods. Besides, the stability test was carried out according to ICH guideline for the accelerated test. The obtained results showed that the proposed formulation is stable over a period of 2 years after preparation. PMID:24250669

  14. Atropine sulfate and 2-pyridine aldoxime methylchloride elicit stress-induced convulsions and lethality in mice and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Donzanti, B A; Green, M D; Shores, E I

    1985-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that dose combinations of atropine sulfate and 2-pyridine aldoxime methylchloride (2-PAM), which do not produce any overt toxic effects on the behavior of mice or guinea pigs in a stable environment, elicit clonic-tonic convulsions and death when the animals are physically stressed by cold water swimming. Phenoxybenzamine (1-6 mg/kg), diazepam (0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg) and pilocarpine (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) significantly decreased (or abolished) the occurrence of atropine and 2-PAM stressed-induced convulsions and/or lethality. In contrast, propranolol (20 mg/kg), was ineffective in preventing either convulsions or lethality. Changes in plasma glucose levels and internal body temperature did not appear to explain the precipitation of convulsions or ensuing death. These results suggest that during acute physical stress, relatively low doses of atropine and 2-PAM produce toxic and lethal effects due to the activation of alpha-adrenergic mechanisms along with a concomitant inactivation of cholinergic mechanisms.

  15. Atropine sulfate and 2-pyridine aldoxime methylchloride elicit stress-induced convulsions and lethality in mice and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Donzanti, B A; Green, M D; Shores, E I

    1985-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that dose combinations of atropine sulfate and 2-pyridine aldoxime methylchloride (2-PAM), which do not produce any overt toxic effects on the behavior of mice or guinea pigs in a stable environment, elicit clonic-tonic convulsions and death when the animals are physically stressed by cold water swimming. Phenoxybenzamine (1-6 mg/kg), diazepam (0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg) and pilocarpine (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) significantly decreased (or abolished) the occurrence of atropine and 2-PAM stressed-induced convulsions and/or lethality. In contrast, propranolol (20 mg/kg), was ineffective in preventing either convulsions or lethality. Changes in plasma glucose levels and internal body temperature did not appear to explain the precipitation of convulsions or ensuing death. These results suggest that during acute physical stress, relatively low doses of atropine and 2-PAM produce toxic and lethal effects due to the activation of alpha-adrenergic mechanisms along with a concomitant inactivation of cholinergic mechanisms. PMID:4092617

  16. Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots for the room-temperature phosphorescence detection of raceanisodamine hydrochloride and atropine sulfate in biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui; Fan, Zhefeng

    2012-05-01

    Now, the development of quantum dots (QDs)-based fluorescence sensors become very quickly, but as phosphorescence compared to fluorescent has many advantages, like longer shine time and emission wavelength. Therefore, the phosphorescence properties of QDs and their potential for phosphorescence detection have raised great concerns. In this paper, a novel room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) quenching method was developed by Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (QDs). The developed method is employed for detection of the raceanisodamine hydrochloride and atropine sulfate in biological fluids. The results showed a high selectivity of the Mn-doped ZnS QDs toward these medicines by phosphorescence quenching. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limits (3 s) for raceanisodamine hydrochloride and atropine sulfate were 0.11 μM, 0.09 μM, respectively. The relative standard deviations for eleven replicate detections of 2.0 μM were 0.92-1.6%. The recovery of spiked solutions in human urine and serum samples ranged from 95% to 104%.

  17. Absorption of magnesium from orally administered magnesium sulfate in man.

    PubMed

    Morris, M E; LeRoy, S; Sutton, S C

    1987-01-01

    The use of magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) as a cathartic in patients with impaired renal function can lead to severe toxicity due to hypermagnesemia. Although toxicity is uncommon in healthy subjects, little is known concerning the extent of absorption of magnesium after a cathartic dose of magnesium sulfate. The bioavailability of magnesium following a large oral dose of magnesium sulfate in normal volunteers was examined in the present investigation. Baseline 24-hour urinary excretion rates of magnesium and creatinine were determined over 3 consecutive days in 6 healthy men. The oral administration of 13.9 g (56.5 mmoles) magnesium sulfate U.S.P., in 4 equal hourly increments, resulted in the urinary excretion (corrected for baseline excretion rate) of 4.0 +/- 2.9% (mean +/- SD) of the dose of magnesium during the first 24 hours and 6.9 +/- 7.0% of the dose during a 72-hour interval. Magnesium sulfate administration had no effect on the 24-hour urinary excretion rate of creatinine. The baseline excretion rate of magnesium was significantly correlated with that of creatinine (r = 0.875) and inorganic sulfate (r = 0.921). All of the subjects experienced mild or moderate diarrhea. Therefore, magnesium is absorbed to a limited and variable extent in healthy adults following a cathartic dose of magnesium sulfate. PMID:3430654

  18. Effects of orally administered bovine lactoperoxidase on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kouichirou; Horigome, Ayako; Yamauchi, Koji; Takase, Mitsunori; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2008-07-01

    The effect of lactoperoxidase (LPO) on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis was examined in mice. After 9 d of colitis induction, weight loss, colon shortening, and the histological score were significantly suppressed in mice orally administered LPO (62.5 mg/body/d) as compared to a group administered bovine serum albumin. These results suggest that LPO exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Catalytic activity of ruthenium(III) on the oxidation of an anticholinergic drug-atropine sulfate monohydrate by copper(III) periodate complex in aqueous alkaline medium - decarboxylation and free radical mechanism.

    PubMed

    Byadagi, Kirthi S; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T; Chimatadar, Shivamurti A

    2013-01-01

    Atropine sulfate monohydrate (ASM) is an anticholinergic drug, having a wide spectrum of activity. Hence, the kinetics of oxidation of ASM by diperiodatocuperate (DPC) in the presence of micro (10-6) amounts of Ru(III) catalyst has been investigated spectrophotometrically in aqueous alkaline medium at I = 0.50 mol dm-3. The reaction between DPC and ASM exhibits 1:2 stoichiometry (ASM:DPC) i. e., one mole of ASM require two moles of DPC to give products. The main oxidation products were confirmed by spectral studies. The reaction is first order with respect to [DPC] and [Ru(III)], while the order with respect to [ASM] and [OH-] was less than unity. The rates decreased with increase in periodate concentration. The reaction rates revealed that Ru(III) catalyzed reaction was about seven-fold faster than the uncatalyzed reaction. The catalytic constant (KC) was also determined at different temperatures. A plausible mechanism is proposed. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were calculated and the thermodynamic quantities were also determined. Kinetic experiments suggest that [Cu(H2IO6)(H2O)2] is the reactive Cu(III) species and [Ru(H2O)5OH]2+ is the reactive Ru(III) species. PMID:24169716

  20. Neuroprotective effect of L-kynurenine sulfate administered before focal cerebral ischemia in mice and global cerebral ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Gigler, Gábor; Szénási, Gábor; Simó, Annamária; Lévay, György; Hársing, László Gábor; Sas, Katalin; Vécsei, László; Toldi, József

    2007-06-14

    Excessive stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors during ischemia contributes to apoptotic and excitotoxic nerve cell death. Kynurenic acid is a selective antagonist at the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor complex at low concentration, and it is a broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor blocker at high concentration. Kynurenic acid provides neuroprotection in animal models of cerebral ischemia only at very high doses as it hardly crosses the blood-brain barrier. The neuroprotective effect of L-kynurenine sulfate, a precursor of kynurenic acid, was therefore studied because L-kynurenine readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. L-kynurenine sulfate was administered 15 min before permanent focal cerebral ischemia produced by electrocoagulation of the distal middle cerebral artery in mice. L-kynurenine sulfate induced a small decrease in the surface area of the brain infarction (10%, P<0.05) at 30 mg/kg i.p., and it caused strong reductions in infarct size (24-25%, P<0.01) at 100 and 300 mg/kg i.p. Treatment of gerbils with L-kynurenine sulfate at 300 mg/kg i.p. 2 h before a 3-min bilateral carotid occlusion decreased (40%, P<0.01) the pyramidal cell loss in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Furthermore, L-kynurenine sulfate inhibited the ischemia-induced hypermotility (77%, P<0.001), and decreased (50%, P<0.01) the ischemia-induced deterioration of spontaneous alternation, a measure of spatial memory, without altering the rectal temperature. In conclusion, the administration of L-kynurenine can elevate the brain concentration of kynurenic acid to neuroprotective levels, suggesting the potential clinical usefulness of L-kynurenine for the prevention of neuronal loss.

  1. Atropine maintenance dosage in patients with severe organophosphate pesticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Worek, Franz; Radtke, Maria; Eyer, Peter; Eyer, Florian; Felgenhauer, Norbert; Zilker, Thomas

    2011-09-25

    Although the importance of atropine in therapy of organophosphate (OP) poisoning is generally recognized, its dosing is a matter of debate. A retrospective analysis of atropine dosing was undertaken in 34 patients who had been enrolled in a clinical study assessing obidoxime effectiveness in OP-poisoning. All patients were severely intoxicated (suicidal attempts) and required artificial ventilation. Atropine was administered routinely by intensive care physicians for life-threatening muscarinic symptoms, with the recommendation to favor low dosage. The pharmacological active enantiomere S-hyoscyamine was determined by a radioreceptor assay. When RBC-AChE activity ranged between 10% and 30%, S-hyoscyamine plasma concentrations of approx. 5 nmol L⁻¹ were sufficient. This concentration could be maintained with about 0.005 mg h⁻¹ kg⁻¹ atropine. Only when RBC-AChE was completely inhibited, therapy of cholinergic crisis required atropine doses up to 0.06 mg h⁻¹ kg⁻¹. Elimination half-life of S-hyoscyamine was 1.5 h, showing occasionally a second slow elimination phase with t(½)=12 h. Malignant arrhythmias were observed in some 10% of our cases, which occurred late and often in the absence of relevant glandular cholinergic signs, when the S-hyoscyamine concentration was below 2.5 nmol L⁻¹. Arrhythmias mostly resolved on reinstitution of atropine.

  2. Atropinic (Anticholinergic) Burden in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    De Germay, Sibylle; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Rousseau, Vanessa; Chebane, Leila; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Moulis, Florence; Durrieu, Genevieve; Bagheri, Haleh; Rascol, Olivier; Pariente, Antoine; Bégaud, Bernard; Montastruc, François

    2016-05-01

    Use of atropinic drugs remains controversial in Parkinson's disease (PD) because there is insufficient evidence about their efficacy and they can induce serious adverse drug reactions. Atropinic risk scales were developed to help to identify atropinic drugs in prescription forms and to evaluate their burden in clinical practice. In the present review, we discuss the few studies investigating atropinic burden in PD and present the results of our study indicating that atropinic drugs are still widely prescribed in PD (almost 3 of 5 prescriptions) with a clinically significant atropinic burden in around 1 of 6 PD patients. Drugs mainly responsible for high values of atropinic burden were those used for nonmotor symptoms. Clinically significant atropinic burdens were mainly induced by associations of several "low-risk" drugs. Physicians must be aware that in addition to classical atropinic antiparkinsonian drugs, many others (psychotropics) can contribute to increased atropinic burden in PD patients. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27028036

  3. Orally administered lactoperoxidase ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by up-regulating colonic interleukin-10 and maintaining peripheral regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kouichirou; Horigome, Ayako; Yamauchi, Koji; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2009-11-01

    We previously demonstrated orally administered bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. Here, we examine the mechanism of action of LPO. Three days after colitis induction, expression of interferon-gamma mRNA in colonic tissue was significantly decreased in mice administered LPO; while mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-10 and regulatory T cell (Treg) marker, Foxp3, were significantly increased. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in peripheral CD4+ T cells was also significantly elevated when LPO was administered. Nine days after colitis induction, the severity of colitis symptoms, including body weight loss and colon shortening, was reduced and expression of IL-10 mRNA was increased in mice administered LPO. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in peripheral leukocytes was also significantly elevated when LPO was administered. These results suggest LPO ameliorates colitis by up-regulating colonic anti-inflammatory cytokines and maintaining peripheral regulatory T cells.

  4. Identification and estimation of the levo isomer in raw materials and finished products containing atropine and/or hyoscyamine.

    PubMed

    Cieri, Ugo R

    2005-01-01

    The belladonna alkaloids atropine sulfate and hyoscyamine sulfate, occasionally used as anticholinergic and antimuscarinic agents, have identical molecular formulas but different stereo configurations. Hyoscyamine sulfate contains almost 100% of the levo isomer, whereas atropine sulfate is composed of equal parts of dextro and levo isomers. It is believed that the therapeutic properties of these alkaloids are due exclusively or primarily to the levo isomer. Currently available methods determine only the total amount of atropine (hyoscyamine) sulfate. A method has been developed and is reported for the identification and estimation of the levo and dextro isomers of atropine and hyoscyamine. Reference solutions are prepared in methanol at the following weights per 100 mL: 8.0 mg atropine sulfate; 4.0 mg hyoscyamine sulfate; 7.0 mg scopolamine hydrobromide; and 10.0 mg homatropine methylbromide. Samples of raw materials are similarly prepared in methanol, commercial products are also extracted or diluted with methanol, and solutions are filtered. Liquid chromatography is used for separations on a 25 cm Chirobiotic T2 column. The mobile phase is prepared by mixing 3.0 mL acetic acid and 2.0 mL triethylamine with 1000 mL methanol. The injection volume is 100 or 200 microL; the flow rate is about 0.35 mL/min. Fluorescence detection is at 255 nm excitation and 285 nm emission. Scopolamine hydrobromide and hyoscyamine eluted after 20 and 60 min, respectively. Atropine sulfate generated 2 peaks after 60 and 65 min. Homatropine methylbromide also produced 2 peaks after 70 and 85 min. Samples tested in this study included raw materials and commercial tablets or injections containing belladonna alkaloids. In all cases, the percentage calculated was that of the levo isomer relative to the total amount of atropine (hyoscyamine) present.

  5. Determination of L-hyoscyamine in atropine and D-hyoscyamine in L-hyoscyamine by chiral capillary electrophoresis as an alternative to polarimetry.

    PubMed

    Heine, Stephanie; Ebert, Kirstin; Blaschke, Gottfried

    2003-08-01

    A method for the separation of atropine enantiomers, D- and L-hyoscyamine by capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been developed and validated. The advantages of the CE method compared with polarimetry include smaller amounts of analytes and a lower limit of detection of the unwanted enantiomer. Moreover, the present method enables a baseline separation of the analytes and tropic acid, one of the typical impurities of atropine. The developed enantioseparation of atropine was performed using a commercially available sulfated beta-cyclodextrin and was validated for the determination of L-hyoscyamine in atropine as well as for the enantiomeric purity of L-hyoscyamine.

  6. A comparison of the effects of atropine on real-feeding and sham-feeding of sucrose in rats.

    PubMed

    Nissenbaum, J W; Sclafani, A

    1988-02-01

    In Experiment 1 the influence of atropine methyl nitrate on the sham-feeding response of adult female rats to a sucrose solution was determined. Atropine (1 or 5 mg/kg) reliably suppressed the sham-intake of sucrose when the drug was administered 30 or 0 min prior to, or 17 min after the start of the feeding session. The suppressive effect was less, however, when the drug was administered 30 min before testing compared to the other two injection-test conditions. In Experiment 2 atropine failed to reliably decrease the real-feeding of a sucrose solution whether it was injected 30, 15, or 0 min prior to testing. These results were replicated in Experiment 3; atropine (0 min injection-test interval) reduced the sham-intake but not the real-intake of a sucrose solution. However, atropine decreased the rate of feeding under both real- and sham-feeding conditions. The fact that atropine reduced feeding rate but not meal size in the real-feeding condition was attributed to the drug's lack of effect on postingestive satiety. The present findings along with other recent results indicate that (1) the injection-test interval is a potentially important variable in studies involving atropine; (2) results obtained with sham-feeding animals do not always generalize to real-feeding animals; and (3) cholinergically-mediated cephalic responses are of questionable importance in the control of meal size.

  7. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520... atropine. (a) Chemical name. (1) For trichlorfon: O,O-Dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl phosphonate. (2) For atropine: Atropine N.F. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  8. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520... atropine. (a) Chemical name. (1) For trichlorfon: O,O-Dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl phosphonate. (2) For atropine: Atropine N.F. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  9. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520... atropine. (a) Chemical name. (1) For trichlorfon: O,O-Dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl phosphonate. (2) For atropine: Atropine N.F. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  10. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520... atropine. (a) Chemical name. (1) For trichlorfon: O,O-Dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl phosphonate. (2) For atropine: Atropine N.F. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  11. 21 CFR 520.2520b - Trichlorfon and atropine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trichlorfon and atropine. 520.2520b Section 520... atropine. (a) Chemical name. (1) For trichlorfon: O,O-Dimethyl 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl phosphonate. (2) For atropine: Atropine N.F. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter....

  12. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Steven L.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Figueiredo, Taiza H.; Prager, Eric M.; Almeida-Suhett, Camila P.; Apland, James P.; and others

    2015-04-15

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD{sub 50} of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2 × LD{sub 50}), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. - Highlights: • The LD{sub 50} of soman was determined in postnatal-day-21 rats. • Rats with no seizures after 1.2XLD{sub 50} soman had less reduction of AChE in the amygdala. • Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, given at 20 min after

  13. Anticonvulsants for nerve agent-induced seizures: The influence of the therapeutic dose of atropine.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tsung-Ming; Rowland, Tami C; McDonough, John H

    2007-01-01

    Two guinea pig models were used to study the anticonvulsant potency of diazepam, midazolam, and scopolamine against seizures induced by the nerve agents tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl)methylphosphonothioate (VX), and O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl)-methyl phosphonothioate (VR). Animals instrumented for electroencephalogram recording were pretreated with pyridostigmine bromide (0.026 mg/kg i.m.) 30 min before challenge with 2 x LD50 (s.c.) of a nerve agent. In model A, atropine sulfate (2.0 mg/kg i.m.) and pyridine-2-aldoxime methylchloride (2-PAM; 25.0 mg/kg i.m.) were given 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the tested anticonvulsant was given (i.m.) 5 min after seizure onset. In model B, a lower dose of atropine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg i.m.) was given along with 2-PAM 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the anticonvulsant was given at seizure onset. With the lower dose of atropine, seizure occurrence increased to virtually 100% for all agents; the time to seizure onset decreased for sarin, cyclosarin, and VX; the signs of nerve agent intoxication were more severe; and coma resulted frequently with cyclosarin. The anticonvulsant ED50 doses for scopolamine or diazepam were, in general, not different between the two models, whereas the anticonvulsant ED50 values of midazolam increased 3- to 17-fold with the lower atropine dose. Seizure termination times were not systematically effected by the different doses of atropine. The order of anticonvulsant effectiveness within each model was scopolamine > or = midazolam > diazepam. The findings indicate that the dose of atropine given as antidotal therapy can significantly influence measures of nerve agent toxicity and responsiveness to anticonvulsant therapy.

  14. Anticonvulsants for nerve agent-induced seizures: The influence of the therapeutic dose of atropine.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tsung-Ming; Rowland, Tami C; McDonough, John H

    2007-01-01

    Two guinea pig models were used to study the anticonvulsant potency of diazepam, midazolam, and scopolamine against seizures induced by the nerve agents tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl)methylphosphonothioate (VX), and O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl)-methyl phosphonothioate (VR). Animals instrumented for electroencephalogram recording were pretreated with pyridostigmine bromide (0.026 mg/kg i.m.) 30 min before challenge with 2 x LD50 (s.c.) of a nerve agent. In model A, atropine sulfate (2.0 mg/kg i.m.) and pyridine-2-aldoxime methylchloride (2-PAM; 25.0 mg/kg i.m.) were given 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the tested anticonvulsant was given (i.m.) 5 min after seizure onset. In model B, a lower dose of atropine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg i.m.) was given along with 2-PAM 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the anticonvulsant was given at seizure onset. With the lower dose of atropine, seizure occurrence increased to virtually 100% for all agents; the time to seizure onset decreased for sarin, cyclosarin, and VX; the signs of nerve agent intoxication were more severe; and coma resulted frequently with cyclosarin. The anticonvulsant ED50 doses for scopolamine or diazepam were, in general, not different between the two models, whereas the anticonvulsant ED50 values of midazolam increased 3- to 17-fold with the lower atropine dose. Seizure termination times were not systematically effected by the different doses of atropine. The order of anticonvulsant effectiveness within each model was scopolamine > or = midazolam > diazepam. The findings indicate that the dose of atropine given as antidotal therapy can significantly influence measures of nerve agent toxicity and responsiveness to anticonvulsant therapy. PMID:17015638

  15. A rat model of nerve agent exposure applicable to the pediatric population: The anticonvulsant efficacies of atropine and GluK1 antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steven L.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Figueiredo, Taiza H.; Prager, Eric M.; Almeida-Suhett, Camila P.; Apland, James P.; Braga, Maria F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) after nerve agent exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. The development of countermeasures appropriate for the pediatric population requires testing of anticonvulsant treatments in immature animals. In the present study, exposure of 21-day-old (P21) rats to different doses of soman, followed by probit analysis, produced an LD50 of 62 μg/kg. The onset of behaviorally-observed SE was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in brain AChE activity; rats who did not develop SE had significantly less reduction of AChE activity in the basolateral amygdala than rats who developed SE. Atropine sulfate (ATS) at 2 mg/kg, administered 20 min after soman exposure (1.2XLD50), terminated seizures. ATS at 0.5 mg/kg, given along with an oxime within 1 min after exposure, allowed testing of anticonvulsants at delayed time-points. The AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist LY293558, or the specific GluK1 antagonist UBP302, administered 1 h post-exposure, terminated SE. There were no degenerating neurons in soman-exposed P21 rats, but both the amygdala and the hippocampus were smaller than in control rats at 30 and 90 days post-exposure; this pathology was not present in rats treated with LY293558. Behavioral deficits present at 30 days post-exposure, were also prevented by LY293558 treatment. Thus, in immature animals, a single injection of atropine is sufficient to halt nerve agent-induced seizures, if administered timely. Testing anticonvulsants at delayed time-points requires early administration of ATS at a low dose, sufficient to counteract only peripheral toxicity. LY293558 administered 1 h post-exposure, prevents brain pathology and behavioral deficits. PMID:25689173

  16. [Atropine poisoning by Mandragora autumnalis. A report of 15 cases].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Mejías, M E; Montaño-Díaz, M; López Pardo, F; Campos Jiménez, E; Martín Cordero, M C; Ayuso González, M J; González de la Puente

    1990-11-24

    Anticholinergic syndrome (AS) due to accidental poisoning is exceptional. Mandragora contains a high concentration of atropine, hiosciamine and scopolamine. We have evaluated 15 patients with AS due to poisoning by Mandragora autumnalis, distributed in two family groups. The latency period since the ingestion was 1-4 hours (Means = 2.7 +/- 0.9). The clinical features corresponded to an AS of variable severity. All patients had blurred vision and dryness of mouth, nine (60%) had difficult micturition, nine dizziness, nine headache, eight (53%) vomit, two difficult swallowing and two abdominal pain. There was no correlation between the latency period and the clinical severity. Blushing, areactive mydriasis and tachycardia were found in all, dry skin and mucosae in 14 (93%), hyperactivity/hallucination in 14 and agitation/delirium in nine (60%). One patient developed a florid psychotic episode. Prostigmine (2-6 mg) was administered to 11 patients and physostigmine (0.5-2 mg) to six. The time until a definite response was observed was variable (3-36 hours). The patients treated with physostigmine had a better reversal of the psychoneurological symptoms. Mandragora was identified intermingled with chard [correction of stalwort] (Beta vulgaris) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves, and atropine and hiosciamine were identified. PMID:2087109

  17. Atropine eye drops: an unusual homicidal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Jérémy; Escard, Emmanuel; Péoc'h, Michel; Boyer, Baptiste; Romeuf, Ludovic; Faict, Thierry; Guitton, Jérôme; Gaillard, Yvan

    2014-05-01

    In March 2009, the body of a 51-year-old man was found in the boot of his car. The body had been frozen before being dismembered at the abdomen. The autopsy failed to determine the cause of death. Systematic toxicological analyses of the victim's peripheral blood and urine showed the presence of atropine, a powerful anticholinergic. Atropine was therefore specifically detected and quantified throughout the victim's biologic samples by HPLC-MS² in the biologic fluids and UHPLC-MS² in the hair. The atropine concentrations were 887 ng/mL in the cardiac blood, 489 ng/mL in the peripheral blood, 6693 ng/mL in the gastric contents (1.1 μg), 6753 ng/mL in the urine, and 2290 pg/mg in the hair. The blood concentrations measured in the decedent were consistent with an overdose of atropine, which was determined as the cause of death. The manner of death was a homicide with criminal intent.

  18. The effect of topical atropine on the choroidal thickness of healthy children

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhengwei; Zhou, Yuanting; Xie, Zhifang; Chen, Tiantian; Gu, Yan; Lu, Shui; Wu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of topical atropine on choroidal thickness using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. A total of 30 healthy eyes from 30 children were analyzed in this study. A single drop of 1% atropine gel was administered twice daily for a week. Choroidal thickness (CT) was measured using SD-OCT, and changes in CT before and after administration of the eye drops were analyzed at the subfovea and at 1.0-mm intervals (up to 3.0 mm) from the fovea at superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal locations. Pre- and post-cycloplegic axial length (AL) was also measured using the IOLMaster. We observed that administration of 1% atropine gel led to a significant increase in the choroidal thickness under the fovea and at all intervals from the fovea. The greatest change in CT was observed in the inferior meridian, while the nasal meridian exhibited the least change. AL did not significantly differ before and after cycloplegia, and there was no significant correlation between the changes in AL and subfoveal CT. It was concluded that administration of 1% atropine gel can significantly increase CT in the eyes of young Chinese children, albeit with different magnitude at different locations. PMID:27713535

  19. Central cholinergic involvement in sequential behavior: impairments of performance by atropine in a serial multiple choice task for rats.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Stephen B; Rowan, James D; Wollan, Michael O

    2013-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether muscarinic cholinergic systems play a role in rats' ability to perform well-learned highly-structured serial response patterns, particularly focusing on rats' performance on pattern elements learned by encoding rules versus by acquisition of stimulus-response (S-R) associations. Rats performed serial patterns of responses in a serial multiple choice task in an 8-lever circular array for hypothalamic brain-stimulation reward. Two experiments examined the effects of atropine, a centrally-acting muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, on rats' ability to perform pattern elements where responses were controlled by rules versus elements, such as rule-inconsistent "violation elements" and elements following "phrasing cues," where responses were controlled by associative cues. In Experiment 1, 3-element chunks of both patterns were signaled by pauses that served as phrasing cues before chunk-boundary elements, but one pattern also included a violation element that was inconsistent with pattern structure. Once rats reached a high criterion of performance, the drug challenge was intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 50 mg/kg atropine sulfate. Atropine impaired performance on elements learned by S-R learning, namely, chunk-boundary elements and the violation element, but had no effect on performance of rule-based within-chunk elements. In Experiment 2, patterns were phrased and unphrased perfect patterns (i.e., without violation elements). To control for peripheral effects of atropine, rats were treated with a series of doses of either centrally-acting atropine or peripherally-acting atropine methyl nitrate (AMN), which does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Once rats reached a high criterion, the drug challenges were on alternate days in the order 50, 25, and 100 mg/kg of either atropine sulfate or AMN. Atropine, but not AMN, impaired performance in the phrased perfect pattern for pattern elements where S-R associations were

  20. Beneficial effects of a ketamine/atropine combination in soman-poisoned rats under a neutral thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Laure; Canini, Frédéric; Giroud, Céline; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie; Maury, Renaud; Denis, Josiane; Peinnequin, André; Dorandeu, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, such as pesticides and the chemical warfare agents (soman and sarin), respectively represents a major health problem and a threat for civilian and military communities. OP poisoning may induce seizures, status epilepticus and even brain lesions if untreated. We recently proved that a combination of atropine sulfate and ketamine, a glutamatergic antagonist, was effective as an anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant in mice and guinea-pigs exposed to soman. Since OP exposure may also occur in conditions of heat strain due to climate, wearing of protective gears or physical exercise, we previously demonstrated that ketamine/atropine association may be used in a hot environment without detrimental effects. In the present study, we assess soman toxicity and evaluate the effects of the ketamine/atropine combination on soman toxicity in a warm thermoneutral environment. Male Wistar rats, exposed to 31°C (easily reached under protective equipments), were intoxicated by soman and treated with an anesthetic dose of ketamine combined with atropine sulfate. Body core temperature and spontaneous locomotor activity were continuously monitored using telemetry. At the end of the warm exposure, blood chemistry and brain mRNA expression of some specific genes were measured. In soman-intoxicated animals, metabolic and genic modifications were related to convulsions rather than to soman intoxication by itself. In the warm environment, ketamine/atropine combination did not produce any side-effect on the assessed variables. Furthermore, the ketamine/atropine combination exhibited beneficial therapeutic effects on soman-intoxicated rats such as a limitation of convulsion-induced hyperthermia and of the increase in some blood chemistry markers.

  1. Beneficial effects of a ketamine/atropine combination in soman-poisoned rats under a neutral thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Laure; Canini, Frédéric; Giroud, Céline; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie; Maury, Renaud; Denis, Josiane; Peinnequin, André; Dorandeu, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, such as pesticides and the chemical warfare agents (soman and sarin), respectively represents a major health problem and a threat for civilian and military communities. OP poisoning may induce seizures, status epilepticus and even brain lesions if untreated. We recently proved that a combination of atropine sulfate and ketamine, a glutamatergic antagonist, was effective as an anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant in mice and guinea-pigs exposed to soman. Since OP exposure may also occur in conditions of heat strain due to climate, wearing of protective gears or physical exercise, we previously demonstrated that ketamine/atropine association may be used in a hot environment without detrimental effects. In the present study, we assess soman toxicity and evaluate the effects of the ketamine/atropine combination on soman toxicity in a warm thermoneutral environment. Male Wistar rats, exposed to 31°C (easily reached under protective equipments), were intoxicated by soman and treated with an anesthetic dose of ketamine combined with atropine sulfate. Body core temperature and spontaneous locomotor activity were continuously monitored using telemetry. At the end of the warm exposure, blood chemistry and brain mRNA expression of some specific genes were measured. In soman-intoxicated animals, metabolic and genic modifications were related to convulsions rather than to soman intoxication by itself. In the warm environment, ketamine/atropine combination did not produce any side-effect on the assessed variables. Furthermore, the ketamine/atropine combination exhibited beneficial therapeutic effects on soman-intoxicated rats such as a limitation of convulsion-induced hyperthermia and of the increase in some blood chemistry markers. PMID:26205086

  2. The effects of atropine and methotrimeprazine on the epinephrine-induced arrhythmias in halothane-anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Neto, F J; Massone, F; Luna, S P; Camacho, A A; Júnior, J R; Ishiy, H M

    2001-01-01

    The effects of atropine and methotrimeprazine on epinephrine-induced ventricular arrhythmias were evaluated in halothane-anesthetized dogs. Ten mixed-breed dogs were assigned to 3 treatments (saline, atropine, and methotrimeprazine) in a randomized complete block design. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with halothane (1.5 minimum alveolar concentration) in oxygen. Controlled ventilation was used throughout to maintain eucapnia. Saline, atropine (0.05 mg/kg, i.v.) or methotrimeprazine (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.) were administered and, 5 minutes later the arrhythmogenic dose of epinephrine (ADE) was measured by i.v. infusion of progressively increasing infusion rates of epinephrine, until the ventricular arrhythmia criterion was met (at least 4 ectopic ventricular contractions (EVCs) during a 15-second period). Data were analyzed using a student's t-test for ADE values and multivariate profile analysis for heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and rate pressure product (RPP). The ADE increased in atropine- and methotrimeprazine-treated groups, whereas 1 and 4 animals from these groups did not develop any ventricular arrhythmia, respectively. Epinephrine induced multiform premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) in the atropine group, whereas ventricular escape beats were observed in the control and methotrimeprazine groups. Heart rate and RPP decreased, and ABP increased at the time of ADE observation in the control group. Epinephrine infusion in the atropine group caused marked increases in HR, ABP, and RPP, which were associated with pulsus alternans in 2 animals. It was concluded that 1) the presence of cholinergic blockade influences the type of ventricular arrhythmia induced by epinephrine; 2) increased ADE values recorded following atropine administration must be cautiously interpreted, since in this situation the PVCs were associated with signs of increased myocardial work and ventricular failure; and 3) the use of a broader arrhythmia criterion (EVCs

  3. Pulmonary effects of intravenous atropine induce ventilation perfusion mismatch.

    PubMed

    Gaspari, Romolo J; Paydarfar, David

    2014-05-01

    Atropine is used for a number of medical conditions, predominantly for its cardiovascular effects. Cholinergic nerves that innervate pulmonary smooth muscle, glands, and vasculature may be affected by anticholinergic medications. We hypothesized that atropine causes alterations in pulmonary gas exchange. We conducted a prospective interventional study with detailed physiologic recordings in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats (n = 8). Animals breathing a normoxic gas mixture titrated to a partial arterial pressure of oxygen of 110-120 were exposed to an escalating dose of intravenous atropine (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 5.0, and 20.0 mg/kg body mass). Arterial blood gas measurements were recorded every 2 min (×5) at baseline, and following each of the 5 doses of atropine. In addition, the animals regional pulmonary blood flow was measured using neutron-activated microspheres. Oxygenation decreased immediately following intravenous administration of atropine, despite a small increase in the volume of inspired air with no change in respiratory rate. Arterial blood gas analysis showed an increase in pulmonary dysfunction, characterized by a widening of the alveolar-arteriole gradient (p < 0.003 all groups except for the lowest dose of atropine). The microsphere data demonstrates an abrupt and marked heterogeneity of pulmonary blood flow following atropine treatment. In conclusion, atropine was found to decrease pulmonary gas exchange in a dose-dependent fashion in this rat model.

  4. The therapeutic value of atropine for critical care intubation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of atropine during critical care intubation (CCI) have revealed that neonates frequently experience bradycardia, are infrequently affected by ventricular arrhythmias and conduction disturbances and deaths have not been reported in a series of studies. The indiscriminate use of atropine is unlikely to alter the outcome during neonatal CCI other than reducing the frequency of sinus tachycardia. In contrast, older children experience a similar frequency of bradycardia to neonates and are more frequently affected by ventricular arrhythmias and conduction disturbances. Mortality during CCI is in the order of 0.5%. Atropine has a beneficial effect on arrhythmias and conduction disturbances and may reduce paediatric intensive care unit mortality. The use of atropine for children >1 month of age may positively influence outcomes beyond a reduction in the frequency of sinus bradycardia. There is indirect evidence that atropine should be used for intubation during sepsis. Atropine should be considered when using suxamethonium. The reliance on heart rate as the sole measure of haemodynamic function during CCI is no longer justifiable. Randomised trials of atropine for mortality during CCI in general intensive care unit populations are unlikely to happen. As such, future research should be focused on establishing of a gold standard for haemodynamic decompensation for CCI. Cardiac output or blood pressure are the most likely candidates. The 'lost beat score' requires development but has the potential to be developed to provide an estimation of risk of haemodynamic decompensation from ECG data in real time during CCI.

  5. Inhibitory effect of orally-administered sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from ascophyllum nodosum on the growth of sarcoma-180 solid tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zedong; Abu, Ryogo; Isaka, Shogo; Nakazono, Satoru; Ueno, Mikinori; Okimura, Takasi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the antitumor activity of crude extract and ascophyllan prepared from Ascophyllum nodosum in sarcoma-180 solid tumor-bearing mice with continuous intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight/day or oral administration at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day. Ascophyllan and crude extract administered via the oral route showed greater antitumor effects than via i.p. route, and the tumor sizes in mice treated with ascopyllan and crude extract were reduced by a mean of 68.7±6.8% and 42.4±24.8% by the oral route, and 41.4±16.1% and 13.6±20.6% by i.p. route compared to control mice. Splenic natural killer cell activity in the mice treated with ascophyllan and crude extract by i.p. route was significantly enhanced, while only a slight increase of this activity was observed in orally-treated mice. Furthermore, increase in spleen weight of tumor-bearing mice was slightly suppressed by oral administration of ascophyllan, whereas i.p. administration resulted in further enlargement. Analysis of serum cytokines revealed that oral treatment with ascophyllan resulted in significant increase of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-12 levels. Since ascophyllan showed no direct cytotoxic effect on sarcoma-180 cells, orally-administered ascophyllan is suggested to exhibit its antitumor activity through the activation of the host immune system. PMID:24692695

  6. The effect of atropine or atropine methylnitrate on salt-induced hypertension in the inbred S/JR and R/JR Dahl rat.

    PubMed

    McCaughran, J A; Juno, C J

    1986-01-01

    The cholinergic antagonists atropine (ATR) and atropine methylnitrate (ATRMN) were chronically administered to inbred Dahl hypertension-sensitive (S/JR) and -resistant (R/JR) rats maintained on an 8.0% NaCl-containing diet. The effects on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and mortality were then examined during and after a four week period of treatment. Administration of ATR (7.2 mg/day) or ATRMN (2.4 mg/day) attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension (HT) in the S/JR strain but had relatively little effect on BP in the R/JR strain. HR during the treatment period was significantly greater in S/JR and R/JR rats that received ATR or ATRMN than vehicle-treated controls. Each drug also reduced HT-related mortality in S/JR rats. In general, the effects of ATR on BP and mortality were greater than those of ATRMN. However, the results suggest that the central and peripheral cholinergic systems participate in the development of salt-induced HT in the S/JR rat.

  7. Overnight orthokeratology is comparable with atropine in controlling myopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many efforts have been invested in slowing progression of myopia. Among the methods, atropine administration and orthokeratology (OK) are most widely used. This study analyzed the efficacy of atropine and OK lens in controlling myopia progression and elongation of axial length. Methods This retrospective study included 105 patients (210 eyes) who wore OK lenses and 105 patients (210 eyes) who applied 0.125% atropine every night during the 3 following period. Student t-test, linear regression analysis, repeated measure ANOVA, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results The change in axial length per year was 0.28 ± 0.08 mm, 0.30 ± 0.09 mm, and 0.27 ± 0.10 mm in the OK lens group, and 0.38 ± 0.09 mm, 0.37 ± 0.12 mm, and 0.36 ± 0.08 mm in the atropine group for years 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Linear regression analysis revealed an increase in myopia of 0.28 D and 0.34 D per year, and an increase in axial length of 0.28 mm and 0.37 mm per year in the OK lens and atropine groups, respectively. Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant differences in myopia (p = 0.001) and axial length (p < 0.001) between the atropine and OK lens groups; in astigmatism, there was no significant difference in these parameters (p = 0.320). Comparison of increases in axial length in relation to baseline myopia showed significant correlations both in the OK lens group (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r = 0.259; p < 0.001) and atropine group (r = 0.169; p = 0.014). High myopia patients benefited more from both OK lenses and atropine than did low myopia patients. The correlation of baseline myopia and myopia progression was stronger in the OK lens group then in the atropine group. Conclusions OK lens is a useful method for controlling myopia progression even in high myopia patients. PMID:24685184

  8. Characterization of soman toxicity in atropine and oxime (Hi-6 and MMB-4) treated rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.T.; Menton, R.G.; Kiser, R.C.; Hobson, D.W.

    1993-05-13

    There is a need for improved therapeutic compounds, specifically oximes, for humans exposed to organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase agents. Although pyridine-2-aldoxime (pralidoxime chloride; 2-PAM), the standard therapeutic oxime, is effective for treating exposure to certain OPs, it is only a marginally effective treatment for intoxications produced by other OPs such as pinacolylmethylphosphonofluoridate (soman; GD). Two bispyridinium oximes, HI-6 and MMB-4, have been suggested as replacements for 2-PAM in the treatment of OP intoxications in man. A study was conducted at Battelle's Medical Research and Evaluation Facility to determine the efficacies of HI-6 and MMB-4, given with atropine, in alleviating the signs of GD intoxication in monkeys. Treatments were administered 1 min after GD injection using a demonstrated efficacious dose of 0.4 mg atropine free base per kilogram of body weight, and 100 umol/kg of either candidate oxime. Although there is not a complete understanding of mechanism(s) of action, HI-6 proved more efficacious than MMB-4 in preventing lethality and in decreasing duration of clinical signs of GD intoxication.

  9. Propranolol and atropine do not alter choroidal blood flow regulation during isometric exercise in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Polska, Elzbieta; Luksch, Alexandra; Schering, Joanne; Frank, Barbara; Imhof, Andrea; Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, Gabriele; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the human choroid has a considerable capacity to keep blood flow constant despite exercise-induced increases in perfusion pressure. The mechanisms underlying this vasoconstrictor response remain unclear. We hypothesized that pharmacological modulation of the autonomic nervous system may alter the choroidal pressure/flow relationship during squatting. To test this hypothesis, we performed a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover study in 15 healthy male volunteers. Subjects received, on different study days, intravenous infusions of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, or placebo. During these infusions, subjects performed squatting for 6 min. Choroidal blood flow was assessed with laser Doppler flowmetry and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) was calculated from mean arterial pressure and intraocular pressure. As expected, propranolol reduced basal pulse rate, whereas atropine increased pulse rate, indicating that the drugs were administered at systemically effective doses. None of the drugs altered the choroidal pressure/flow relationship during isometric exercise. These data indicate that the regulatory vasoconstrictor capacity of the choroid during exercise is not affected by systemic blockade of beta-adrenoceptors or muscarinic receptors.

  10. Central muscarinic cholinergic involvement in serial pattern learning: Atropine impairs acquisition and retention in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task in rats.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Amber M; Fountain, Stephen B

    2015-09-01

    Atropine sulfate is a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist which impairs acquisition and retention performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. The present study examined the effects of atropine on acquisition and retention of a highly-structured serial pattern in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Rats were given daily intraperitoneal injections of either saline or atropine sulfate (50mg/kg) and trained in an octagonal operant chamber equipped with a lever on each wall. They learned to press the levers in a particular order (the serial pattern) for brain-stimulation reward in a discrete-trial procedure with correction. The two groups learned a pattern composed of eight 3-element chunks ending with a violation element: 123-234-345-456-567-678-781-818 where the digits represent the clock-wise positions of levers in the chamber, dashes indicate 3-s pauses, and other intertrial intervals were 1s. Central muscarinic cholinergic blockade by atropine caused profound impairments during acquisition, specifically in the encoding of chunk-boundary elements (the first element of chunks) and the violation element of the pattern, but had a significant but negligible effect on the encoding of within-chunk elements relative to saline-injected rats. These effects persisted when atropine was removed, and similar impairments were also observed in retention performance. The results indicate that intact central muscarinic cholinergic systems are necessary for learning and producing appropriate responses at places in sequences where pattern structure changes. The results also provide further evidence that multiple cognitive systems are recruited to learn and perform within-chunk, chunk-boundary, and violation elements of a serial pattern.

  11. The Role of Atropine Eye Drops in Myopia Control.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Armesto, Alejandro; Szwajkowska, Maria; Iribarren, Guillermo; Iribarren, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    High myopia is a major cause of uncorrectable visual impairment. It imposes major challenges and costs for refractive correction, and for the treatment of associated pathological complications. In the last 60 years, there has been a marked increase in the prevalence of high myopia in younger generations in developed countries in East and Southeast Asia, and there are signs of similar, but less pronounced increases in North America and Europe. In some parts of the world, 70-90% of children completing high schools are now myopic, and as many as 20% may be highly myopic. It is now clear that myopia results from excessive axial elongation of the eye, and this greater rate of axial elongation appears to be environmentally driven. Experimental studies have examined the biochemical mechanisms involved in regulation of axial elongation; and, from these studies, some options have emerged for preventing the development of myopia or slowing myopia progression. Atropine eye drops have been quite extensively used in clinical practice in Asian countries. This long-lasting treatment could be beneficial, but has clear limitations and complications. Recent reports suggest that a low concentration of atropine, which has less severe side-effects, is also effective. But, a decision to use an invasive treatment such as atropine drops, even at low doses, requires careful consideration of the risk of myopia progression. A decision to use atropine in pre-myopic patients would require even more careful consideration of the risks. Here, we review the current literature relevant to the prevention of myopia progression with atropine drops.

  12. Effectiveness study of atropine for progressive myopia in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Polling, J R; Kok, R G W; Tideman, J W L; Meskat, B; Klaver, C C W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Randomized controlled trials have shown the efficacy of atropine for progressive myopia, and this treatment has become the preferred pattern for this condition in Taiwan. This study explores the effectiveness of atropine 0.5% treatment for progressive high myopia and adherence to therapy in a non-Asian country. Methods An effectiveness study was performed in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Overall 77 children (mean age 10.3 years±2.3), of European (n=53), Asian (n=18), and African (n=6) descent with progressive myopia were prescribed atropine 0.5% eye drops daily. Both parents and children filled in a questionnaire regarding adverse events and adherence to therapy. A standardized eye examination including cycloplegic refraction and axial length was performed at baseline and 1, 4, and 12 months after initiation of therapy. Results Mean spherical equivalent at baseline was −6.6D (±3.3). The majority (60/77, 78%) of children adhered to atropine treatment for 12 months; 11 of the 17 children who discontinued therapy did so within 1 month after the start of therapy. The most prominent reported adverse events were photophobia (72%), followed by reading problems (38%), and headaches (22%). The progression rate of spherical equivalent before treatment (−1.0D/year±0.7) diminished substantially during treatment (−0.1D/year±0.7) compared to those who ceased therapy (−0.5D/year±0.6; P=0.03). Conclusions Despite the relatively high occurrence of adverse events, our study shows that atropine can be an effective and sustainable treatment for progressive high myopia in Europeans. PMID:27101751

  13. NO system dependence of atropine-induced mydriasis and L-NAME- and L-arginine-induced miosis: Reversal by the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in rats and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Antonio; Zlatar, Mirna; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Drmic, Domagoj; Radic, Radivoje; Vcev, Aleksandar; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-15

    We revealed an immediate and hours-lasting particular NO-specific parallel miotic effect of L-NAME and L-arginine in rats and guinea pigs and a stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 157-particular effect vs. that of atropine-induced mydriasis while examining the NO system role in the normal pupils responses and pupils with atropine-induced mydriasis. We also assessed the responses to BPC 157 and its possible modulation of the changes caused by L-NAME/L-arginine and atropine. We administered locally (two drops/eye) or systemically (intraperitoneally/kg) [BPC 157 (0.4µg/eye; 10µg, 10ng, 10pg/kg), L-NAME (0.1mg/eye; 5mg/kg), and L-arginine (2mg/eye; 100mg/kg) alone and combined] at 3min prior to assessment (normal pupils) or alternatively at maximal 1% atropine-induced mydriasis (30min after two drops were administered to each eye). L-NAME/L-arginine. Normal pupil. L-NAME-miosis and L-arginine-miosis shortened and attenuated each other's responses when combined (L-NAME+L-arginine) (except with guinea pigs treated locally) and were thereby NO-specific. Atropine-pupil. Both L-NAME and L-arginine counteracted atropine-induced mydriasis. With few exceptions, the atropine+L-NAME+L-arginine-animals showed a consistent shift toward the left. BPC 157. Normal pupil. Always, BPC 157 alone (both species; locally; systemically; all regimens) did not affect normal pupils. Despite specific exceptions, BPC 157 distinctively affects L-arginine-miosis (prolongation) and L-NAME-miosis (shortening). When L-arginine and L-NAME were combined (L-NAME+L-arginine+BPC 157), the effect was less pronounced. Atropine-pupil. BPC 157 alone counteracted atropine-induced mydriasis. With few exceptions (when administered with L-NAME or L-arginine or L-NAME+L-arginine), BPC 157 augments their counteracting effects. Thus, along with its l-NAME/L-arginine effects, BPC 157 participates in ocular control, potentially via NO-mediated and cholinergic mechanisms.

  14. NO system dependence of atropine-induced mydriasis and L-NAME- and L-arginine-induced miosis: Reversal by the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 in rats and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kokot, Antonio; Zlatar, Mirna; Stupnisek, Mirjana; Drmic, Domagoj; Radic, Radivoje; Vcev, Aleksandar; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-15

    We revealed an immediate and hours-lasting particular NO-specific parallel miotic effect of L-NAME and L-arginine in rats and guinea pigs and a stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 157-particular effect vs. that of atropine-induced mydriasis while examining the NO system role in the normal pupils responses and pupils with atropine-induced mydriasis. We also assessed the responses to BPC 157 and its possible modulation of the changes caused by L-NAME/L-arginine and atropine. We administered locally (two drops/eye) or systemically (intraperitoneally/kg) [BPC 157 (0.4µg/eye; 10µg, 10ng, 10pg/kg), L-NAME (0.1mg/eye; 5mg/kg), and L-arginine (2mg/eye; 100mg/kg) alone and combined] at 3min prior to assessment (normal pupils) or alternatively at maximal 1% atropine-induced mydriasis (30min after two drops were administered to each eye). L-NAME/L-arginine. Normal pupil. L-NAME-miosis and L-arginine-miosis shortened and attenuated each other's responses when combined (L-NAME+L-arginine) (except with guinea pigs treated locally) and were thereby NO-specific. Atropine-pupil. Both L-NAME and L-arginine counteracted atropine-induced mydriasis. With few exceptions, the atropine+L-NAME+L-arginine-animals showed a consistent shift toward the left. BPC 157. Normal pupil. Always, BPC 157 alone (both species; locally; systemically; all regimens) did not affect normal pupils. Despite specific exceptions, BPC 157 distinctively affects L-arginine-miosis (prolongation) and L-NAME-miosis (shortening). When L-arginine and L-NAME were combined (L-NAME+L-arginine+BPC 157), the effect was less pronounced. Atropine-pupil. BPC 157 alone counteracted atropine-induced mydriasis. With few exceptions (when administered with L-NAME or L-arginine or L-NAME+L-arginine), BPC 157 augments their counteracting effects. Thus, along with its l-NAME/L-arginine effects, BPC 157 participates in ocular control, potentially via NO-mediated and cholinergic mechanisms. PMID:26698393

  15. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... is usually manufactured from animal sources, such as shark and cow cartilage. Chondroitin sulfate is used for ... contain chondroitin sulfate, in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. Some people also inject chondroitin ...

  16. Analysis on diagnostic value of esophageal electrophysiological examination for positive atropine test.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Sun, Laiguang; Zhu, Zhenjun; Zhou, Xia; Yun, Haiyan; Wang, Zhifang

    2015-09-01

    To discuss the cause of positive atropine test and the possible reason for false positive atropine test, providing a certain aids for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Eighty patients, conducted atropine test due to sinus bradycardia, with positive results from January 2010 to June 2013, were selected. Sinus heart rate were calculated and the changes in heart rhythm were observed by tracing electrocardiogram. Esophageal electrophysiological examination and atropine test were administrated. SPSS 10.0 statistical software was adopted and x² test was applied for comparison. The positive results of atropine test and results of esophageal electrophysiological examination in different ages showed that as age grows, false positive rate of atropine test was significantly reduced, presenting statistically significant difference (x² =6.2821, P<0.05); The positive results of atropine test and results of esophageal electrophysiological examination in different heart rates showed that false positive rate of atropine test on those with bradycardia was smaller than those with significant bradycardia, presenting statistically significant difference (x² =5.1792, P<0.05). Simple sinus bradycardia is mostly caused by the increase of vagus nerve tension, almost negative in atropine test. Sick sinus syndrome (SSS) leads to abnormity in pacemaking and conduction induced by organic lesions in sinus nodes. Moreover, as the disease progresses, it is able to cause severe and persistent sinus bradycardia, almost positive in atropine test. Therefore, to identify the increase in vagus nerve tension or sinus bradycardia induced by SSS has a crucial clinical significance. Furthermore, the false positive and false negative profiles in atropine test can easily lead to misdiagnosis and mistreatment in clinic.

  17. Acute effects of a low-dose atropine/scopolamine mixture as a food contaminant in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Perharič, Lucija; Juvan, Katja Ažman; Stanovnik, Lovro

    2013-09-01

    To verify the assumptions in our previous risk assessment of an atropine/scopolamine mixture in buckwheat flour, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study in 20 healthy, adult volunteers. The volunteers ingested a traditional Slovenian buckwheat meal, made of boiled buckwheat flour to which alkaloids were added. In addition to the placebo they ingested 0.12/0.10, 0.37/0.29, 1.22/0.95, 3.58/2.81 and 12.10/9.50 µg kg(-1) body mass (BM) of the atropine/scopolamine mixture. The changes in body temperature, heart rate, salivary and sweat secretion, pupil size, near-point vision and subjective symptoms were recorded regularly for 4 h after the ingestion. Decreased salivary and sweat secretion, increased heart rate and pupil size and reduced near-point vision accompanied by characteristic subjective symptoms were observed at 12.10/9.50 µg kg(-1) BM. At doses of 0.37/0.29 and 1.22/0.95 µg kg(-1) BM, a significant decrease in the heart rate was noted, which we consider to be a critical effect of a low-dose exposure to the atropine/scopolamine mixture. Although this did not have any clinical relevance in our subjects, it may have serious implications if it occurred in people with pre-existent cardiac conditions or those on medications that may cause bradycardia. No significant changes in the observed end points were noted at 0.12/0.10 µg kg(-1) BM. We estimate that the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) for the atropine/scopolamine mixture lies between the lower two administered doses. Applying the uncertainty factor of 10, we propose a new provisional Acute Reference Doses (ARfDs) of the mixture, i.e. 0.01 µg kg(-1) BM for each alkaloid, and a further refinement using higher-tier approaches.

  18. Sublingual atropine drops for the treatment of pediatric sialorrhea.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, Adam

    2010-11-01

    Excess oral secretions or sialorrhea is a common problem affecting children and adults with neurological disorders, as well as those approaching the end of life because of a variety of underlying illnesses. Systemic anticholinergic medications are often prescribed in an attempt to improve quality of life and reduce complications; yet, response rates are variable, and a sizable proportion of patients discontinue these drugs as a result of intolerable side effects. This report describes the successful use of a local treatment, sublingually delivered ophthalmic atropine drops, to reduce sialorrhea in a child receiving palliative care. In addition, medical evidence for the safety and efficacy of traditionally prescribed systemic medications for the treatment of pediatric sialorrhea is reviewed.

  19. Atropine, diazepam, and physostigmine: Thermoregulatory effects in the heat-stressed rat

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew, C.B.; Hubbard, R.W.; Francesconi, R.P. )

    1989-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that administration of atropine (A) to unrestrained, sedentary, heat-stressed rats resulted in a dose dependent increase in heating rate. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the decrements in treadmill endurance and increments in heating rate of physostigmine (PH)-treated running rats can both be restored to control levels by pretreating the animals with A and diazepam (D). Our objective in the present work was to determine if the administration of D+PH to A-treated unrestrained, sedentary, heat-stressed rats could improve their thermal tolerance. The following drugs were administered singly via lateral tail vein: vehicle-control (C), A (200 ug/kg), D (500 ug/kg), and PH (200 ug/kg). After drug administration, the rats were heat-stressed until a core temperature of 42.6{degree}C was attained when they were removed to a 26{degree}C chamber. The heating rates ({degree}C/min) and tolerance times (min) of the respective groups were: C- 0.02, 235; A- 0.08, 58; A+D- 0.06, 94; and A+D+PH- 0.04, 143. Administration of D with A significantly decreased heating rate, and D+PH more than doubled the thermal tolerance of A-treated rats. Thus, the combination of A+D+PH not only restores PH- induced performance and thermoregulatory decrements of rats exercised in a moderate environment, but also reduces A- induced heat intolerance.

  20. Sedation of children for auditory brainstem response using ketamine-midazolam-atropine combination - a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Bocskai, Tímea; Németh, Adrienne; Bogár, Lajos; Pytel, József

    2013-12-01

    Authors investigated sedation quality in children for auditory brainstem response testing. Two-hundred and seventy-six sedation procedures were retrospectively analyzed using recorded data focusing on efficacy of sedation and complications. Intramuscular ketamine-midazolam-atropine combination was administered on sedation preceded by narcotic suppository as pre-medication. On using the combination vital parameters remained within normal range, the complication rate was minimal. Pulse rate, arterial blood pressure and pulse oxymetry readings were stable, hypoventilation developed in 4, apnoea in none of the cases, post-sedation agitation occurred in 3 and nausea and/or vomiting in 2 cases. Repeated administration of narcotic agent was necessary in a single case only. Our practice is suitable for the sedation assisting hearing examinations in children. It has no influence on the auditory brainstem testing, the conditions necessary for the test can be met entirely with minimal side-effects. Our practice provides a more lasting sedation time in children during the examination hence there is no need for the repetition of the narcotics.

  1. Molecularly imprinted photonic hydrogels for fast screening of atropine in biological samples with high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Meng, Liang; Meng, Pinjia; Tang, Bugang; Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Yanji

    2013-09-10

    Based on molecularly imprinted photonic hydrogels (MIPHs) that combined the colloidal-crystal with molecular imprinting technique, a novel label-free colorimetric chemosensor for convenient and fast efficient detection of atropine with high sensitivity and specificity was developed. Due to the special inverse opal arrays with a thin polymer wall in which the imprinted nanocavities of atropine moleculars distributed, the proposed MIPHs designed as water-compatible exhibited high sensitive (as low as 1 pg/mL), rapid responsive (less than 30 s) and specific detection of atropine in complex matrix. The unique three-dimensional, highly-ordered photonic hydrogels would be obviously swelling in response to the specific atropine molecular recognition process and the response would be directly transferred into visually perceptible optical signal (change in color) that could be detected by the naked eye through Bragg diffractive shifts of ordered macroporous arrays. With a broad concentration range varying from 1 pg/mL to 1 μg/mL of atropine, the distinct color changes of MIPHs almost covered the whole visible-light wavelength range from blue to red for semi-quantitative analysis. The smart chemosensor was successfully employed to determine the trace level atropine in human urine samples, providing a fast and effective alternative for semi-quantitative detection of atropine for clinical analysis and forensic investigations.

  2. [Gas chromatography determination of atropine, theophylline, phenobarbital and aminophenazone in tablets].

    PubMed

    Majlát, P

    1984-05-01

    A GLC method consisting of two runs has been developed for the quantitative determination of atropine, theophylline, phenobarbital and aminophenazone in tablets. By using simple extraction procedures two fractions are obtained. Atropine is silylated with BSA and homatropine is applied as the internal standard. Theophylline, phenobarbital and aminophenazone are treated with trimethylphenylammonium acetate and amobarbital is used as the internal standard. Separations are carried out on 3% OV 1 at 160 degrees C and 210 degrees C. The method is applicable for determining atropine even when its amount is 0.07% of that of the sample. The procedure presented here provides possibilities for the assay of these compounds in various dosage forms.

  3. Combinations of ketamine and atropine are neuroprotective and reduce neuroinflammation after a toxic status epilepticus in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dhote, Franck; Carpentier, Pierre; Barbier, Laure; Peinnequin, André; Baille, Valérie; Pernot, Fabien; Testylier, Guy; Beaup, Claire; Foquin, Annie; and others

    2012-03-01

    Epileptic seizures and status epilepticus (SE) induced by the poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents (OP), like soman, are accompanied by neuroinflammation whose role in seizure-related brain damage (SRBD) is not clear. Antagonists of the NMDA glutamate ionotropic receptors are currently among the few compounds able to arrest seizures and provide neuroprotection even during refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Racemic ketamine (KET), in combination with atropine sulfate (AS), was previously shown to counteract seizures and SRBD in soman-poisoned guinea-pigs. In a mouse model of severe soman-induced SE, we assessed the potentials of KET/AS combinations as a treatment for SE/RSE-induced SRBD and neuroinflammation. When starting 30 min after soman challenge, a protocol involving six injections of a sub-anesthetic dose of KET (25 mg/kg) was evaluated on body weight loss, brain damage, and neuroinflammation whereas during RSE, anesthetic protocols were considered (KET 100 mg/kg). After confirming that during RSE, KET injection was to be repeated despite some iatrogenic deaths, we used these proof-of-concept protocols to study the changes in mRNA and related protein contents of some inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules in cortex and hippocampus 48 h post-challenge. In both cases, the KET/AS combinations showed important neuroprotective effects, suppressed neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and partially suppressed glial activation. KET/AS could also reduce the increase in mRNA and related pro-inflammatory proteins provoked by the poisoning. In conclusion, the present study confirms that KET/AS treatment has a strong potential for SE/RSE management following OP poisoning. The mechanisms involved in the reduction of central neuroinflammation remain to be studied. -- Highlights: ► During soman-induced status epilepticus, ketamine-atropine limit brain damage. ► Molecular neuroinflammatory response is strongly decreased. ► Glial activation is

  4. Cytotoxicity of atropine to human corneal endothelial cells by inducing mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qian; Fan, Ting-Jun; Tian, Cheng-Lei

    2016-07-01

    Atropine, a widely used topical anticholinergic drug, might have adverse effects on human corneas in vivo. However, its cytotoxic effect on human corneal endothelium (HCE) and its possible mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigated the cytotoxicity of atropine and its underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms using an in vitro model of HCE cells and verified the cytotoxicity using cat corneal endothelium (CCE) in vivo. Our results showed that atropine at concentrations above 0.3125 g/L could induce abnormal morphology and viability decline in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro. The cytotoxicity of atropine was proven by the induced density decrease and abnormality of morphology and ultrastructure of CCE cells in vivo. Meanwhile, atropine could also induce dose- and time-dependent elevation of plasma membrane permeability, G1 phase arrest, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation of HCE cells. Moreover, 2.5 g/L atropine could also induce caspase-2/-3/-9 activation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential disruption, downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bad, and upregulation of cytoplasmic cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor. In conclusion, atropine above 1/128 of its clinical therapeutic dosage has a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to HCE cells in vitro which is confirmed by CCE cells in vivo, and its cytotoxicity is achieved by inducing HCE cell apoptosis via a death receptor-mediated mitochondrion-dependent signaling pathway. Our findings provide new insights into the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing effect of atropine which should be used with great caution in eye clinic. PMID:27022135

  5. Atropine unmasks bed-rest effect - A spectral analysis of cardiac interbeat intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Goldwater, Danielle; Bhargava, Valmik

    1986-01-01

    Heart rate spectral data obtained for 10 male subjects between 35-49 years following orthostatic tolerance testing with lower body negative pressure prebed rest and after 7-10 days of bed rest, while on placebo and after intravenous atropine are analyzed. Comparison of the spectral atropine rms for subjects prebed rest and after bed rest reveal a decrease from 63 + or - 24 ms to 40 + or - 23 ms. It is observed that heart rate interval variability for subjects after bed rest and with atropine is reduced; the heart rate at bed rest with atropine is increased from 70.4 + or - 12.4 beats/min prebed rest to 83.7 + or - 18.9 beats/min; and the exercise tolerance time for subjects in the atropine prebed-rest phase (658 + or - 352 s) is higher than the bed-rest phase (505 + or - 252 s). It is noted that bed rest impairs the cardiovascular capacity to adaptively modulate physiological responses, atropine exposes bed-rest deconditioning effects, and spectral analysis is useful for studying the effects of bed-rest deconditioning on cardiac dynamics.

  6. Cases of organophosphate poisoning treated with high-dose of atropine in an intensive care unit and the novel treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Karakus, Ali; Celik, Muhammet Murat; Karcioglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasim; Erden, Ersin Sukru; Zeren, Cem

    2014-06-01

    Organophosphate poisoning is a life-threatening condition, which is being responsible for the symptoms due to cholinergic effects. Clinical status and blood levels of cholinesterase are used its diagnosis. While atropine and pralidoxime (PAM) appear as essential medications, hemofiltration treatments and lipid solutions have been widely studied in recent years. In this study, the importance of high-dose atropine therapy and early intervention and novel treatment approaches are discussed. Records of a total of 25 patients treated for organophosphate poisoning in the intensive care unit (ICU) between April 2007 and December 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. Of the 25 patients, 14 (56%) were male and 11 (44%) were female with a mean age of 34.8 ± 17.66 years (range: 14-77 years). The patients were most frequently admitted in June (n = 4) and July (n = 4) (16%). Of the 25 patients, 22 patients (88%) were poisoned by oral intake, two (8%) by inhalation, and one (4%) by dermal route. Of them, 20 patients (80%) took organophosphates intentionally for suicidal purposes, while five (20%) cases poisoned due to accidental exposure. The scores of Glasgow Coma Scale of nine patients (36%) were below 8 point upon admission to hospital. The highest dose of atropine given was 100 mg intravenously on admission and 100 mg/h/day during follow-up. The total dose given was 11.6 g/12 days. A total of 11 patients (44%) were on mechanical ventilation for a mean duration of 5.73 ± 4.83 days. The mean duration of ICU stay was 6.52 ± 4.80 days. Of all, 23 patients (92%) were discharged in good clinical condition and one patient (4%) was referred to another hospital. This study suggests that atropine can be administered until secretions disappear and intensive care should be exerted in follow-up of these patients. In addition, in case of necessity for high doses, sufficient amounts of atropine and PAM should be available in hospitals.

  7. Is oxygen required before atropine administration in organophosphorus or carbamate pesticide poisoning? – A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Konickx, L. A.; Bingham, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early and adequate atropine administration in organophosphorus (OP) or carbamate insecticide poisoning improves outcome. However, some authors advise that oxygen must be given before atropine due to the risk of inducing ventricular dysrhythmias in hypoxic patients. Because oxygen is frequently unavailable in district hospitals of rural Asia, where the majority of patients with insecticide poisoning present, this guidance has significant implications for patient care. The published evidence for this advice is weak. We therefore performed a patient cohort analysis to look for early cardiac deaths in patients poisoned by anticholinesterase pesticides. Methods We analysed a prospective Sri Lankan cohort of OP or carbamate-poisoned patients treated with early atropine without the benefit of oxygen for evidence of early deaths. The incidence of fatal primary cardiac arrests within 3 h of admission was used as a sensitive (but non-specific) marker of possible ventricular dysrhythmias. Results The cohort consisted of 1957 patients. The incidence of a primary cardiac death within 3 h of atropine administration was 4 (0.2%) of 1957 patients. The majority of deaths occurred at a later time point from respiratory complications of poisoning. Conclusion We found no evidence of a high number of early deaths in an observational study of 1957 patients routinely given atropine before oxygen that might support guidance that oxygen must be given before atropine. The published literature indicates that early and rapid administration of atropine during resuscitation is life-saving. Therefore, whether oxygen is available or not, early atropinisation of OP- and carbamate-poisoned patients should be performed. PMID:24810796

  8. Testing for atropine and scopolamine in hair by LC-MS-MS after Datura inoxia abuse.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Barguil, Yann; Charlot, Jean-Yves; Cirimele, Vincent

    2006-09-01

    Datura inoxia belongs to the family of Solanaceae. This is a very common plant in New Caledonia that contains two main toxic alkaloids, l-atropine and l-scopolamine. In this study, we report the case of a 20-year-old male admitted to an Emergency Unit after consumption of 6 dried flowers in hot water for hallucinations, mydriasis, and agitation associated with tachycardia and increase of systolic blood pressure to 180. Full recovery was observed after one week. Three weeks later, a lock of about 80 hairs (200 mg) was collected from the subject in vertex posterior with scissors to be tested for both atropine and scopolamine. After decontamination with dichloromethane, a strand of hair was segmented into three parts, cut into small segments (< 1 mm), incubated overnight in 1 mL pH 8.4 phosphate buffer in the presence of 2.5 ng atropine-d(3), the internal standard, then extracted with 5 mL dichloromethane/isopropanol/n-heptane (50:17:33). The residue was reconstituted in 100 microL of methanol, from which 10 microL was injected into an XTerra MS C18 column (100 x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) eluted with a gradient of acetonitrile and formate buffer delivered at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. A Quattro Micro triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) was used for analyses. Ionization was achieved using electrospray in the positive ionization mode. For each compound, detection was related to two daughter ions (atropine: m/z 290.2 to 124.0 and 92.9; atropine-d(3): m/z 293.1 to 127.0 and 92.9; scopolamine: m/z 304.1 to 138.0 and 156.0). Although atropine was never detected (limit of detection = 2 pg/mg), scopolamine was identified in the three segments, in the range 14 to 48 pg/mg. The absence of atropine in hair is consistent with its very low dosage in the flower of Datura inoxia. Hair segmentation indicated that the subject was previously exposed on several occasions to the plant. Liquid chromatography-tandem MS appears to be a necessity for testing tropane alkaloids of the Datura

  9. Bilateral vagotomy or atropine pre-treatment reduces experimental diesel-soot induced lung inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, D.S. . E-mail: D.S.McQueen@ed.ac.uk; Donaldson, K.; McNeilly, J.D.; Barton, N.J.; Duffin, R.

    2007-02-15

    To investigate the role of the vagus nerve in acute inflammatory and cardiorespiratory responses to diesel particulate (DP) in the rat airway, we measured changes in respiration, blood pressure and neutrophils in lungs of urethane anesthetized Wistar rats 6-h post-instillation of DP (500 {mu}g) and studied the effect of mid-cervical vagotomy or atropine (1 mg kg{sup -1}) pre-treatment. In conscious rats, we investigated DP, with and without atropine pre-treatment. DP increased neutrophil level in BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) fluid from intact anesthetized rats to 2.5 {+-} 0.7 x 10{sup 6} cells (n = 8), compared with saline instillation (0.3 {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup 6}, n = 7; P < 0.05). Vagotomy reduced DP neutrophilia to 0.8 {+-} 0.2 x 10{sup 6} cells (n = 8; P < 0.05 vs. intact); atropine reduced DP-induced neutrophilia to 0.3 {+-} 0.2 x 10{sup 6} (n = 4; P < 0.05). In conscious rats, DP neutrophilia of 8.5 {+-} 1.8 x 10{sup 6}, n = 4, was reduced by pre-treatment with atropine to 2.2 {+-} 1.2 x 10{sup 6} cells, n = 3. Hyperventilation occurred 6 h after DP in anesthetized rats with intact vagi, but not in bilaterally vagotomized or atropine pre-treated animals and was abolished by vagotomy (P < 0.05, paired test). There were no significant differences in the other variables (mean blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability) measured before and 360 min after DP. In conclusion, DP activates a pro-inflammatory vago-vagal reflex which is reduced by atropine. Muscarinic ACh receptors in the rat lung are involved in DP-induced neutrophilia, and hence muscarinic antagonists may reduce airway and/or cardiovascular inflammation evoked by inhaled atmospheric DP in susceptible individuals.

  10. Permanent alterations in muscarinic receptors and pupil size produced by chronic atropinization in kittens

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.L.; Redburn, D.A.; Harwerth, R.S.; Maguire, G.W.

    1984-02-01

    Chronic mydriasis was induced in six kittens (four monocular, two binocular) and two adult cats (both monocular) by the daily topical application of atropine. Both the kittens and the adult cats were atropinized for a 13-week period with the treatment regimen beginning at the time of eye opening for the kittens. Pupil size measurements, obtained 1 year after the atropinization were discontinued, revealed that, although the pupils of the adult cats were normal, the pupils of the kittens' treated eyes were consistently smaller than pupils in control eyes. The status of the muscarinic receptors in the kittens' irides was investigated using /sup 3/H-QNB binding assays. In comparison with iris muscle homogenates from the control eyes, those from the treated eyes demonstrated an eightfold increase in the number of receptor binding sites. The results indicate that pupil size can be altered permanently by chronic mydriasis initiated early in the life of a kitten and that the permanent change in pupil size may result, in part, from a type of permanent supersensitivity response in the muscle following chronic blockade of muscarinic transmission by atropine.

  11. A Double-Blind Atropine Trial for Active Learning of Autonomic Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Jeffrey R.; Burr, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to…

  12. Cycloplegic effect of atropine compared with cyclopentolate-tropicamide combination in children with hypermetropia

    PubMed Central

    Sani, Rabi Yahaya; Hassan, Sadiq; Habib, Saudat Garba; Ifeanyichukwu, Ebisike Philips

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cycloplegic refraction is important in assessing children with hypermetropia. Atropine, though the gold standard cycloplegic agent for refraction in children, has a long duration of action and more severe side effects compared to short-acting cycloplegic agents. The aim of the study was to compare the cycloplegic effect of atropine with cyclopentolate and tropicamide combination in children with hypermetropia. Subjects and Methods: This was a crossover interventional study in children with hypermetropia. Cycloplegic refraction using two separate regimens of cycloplegic drugs was done on all subjects. Data were analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 22.0. The mean spherical equivalent values of regimen 1 (atropine 1%) and regimen 2 (cyclopentolate 1% and tropicamide 1%) were presented as mean and standard deviation. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: One hundred and twenty-six eyes of 63 subjects aged 5–12 years were examined. The mean spherical equivalent values for regimen 1 and regimen 2 for the right eyes were 4.73 ± 2.1 DS and 4.54 ± 1.9 DS, respectively (P = 0.59). The mean spherical equivalent values for regimens 1 and 2 for the left eyes were 4.74 ± 2.0 DS and 4.54 ± 1.8 DS, respectively (P = 0.56). Conclusion: The combination of 1% cyclopentolate and 1% tropicamide could be a useful alternative to atropine 1% for cycloplegic refraction in children with hypermetropia. PMID:27397958

  13. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time. PMID:23141569

  14. [Research on whether atropine can be substituted by the powerful cycloplegic cyclopentolate].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang-tao

    2012-09-01

    For a long time, atropine eye ointment has been widely used as the cycloplegic for children's optometry in China, while internationally, cyclopentolate gutta is widely used as the first choice for cycloplegic. In recent years, 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride ocular humor has been introduced to our country. This effective and powerful cycloplegic has already been paid close attention to by domestic pedo-ophthalmologists. According to a serious of studies both home and abroad on the therapeutic effects of the own control drugs, the cycloplegia effect of cyclopentolate is close to the atropine. Cyclopentolate can be widely used for the cycloplegia before optometry for the Chinese children. However, the effect of cyclopentolate is still not as good as atropine. So, for the children with farsightedness within 7 years old, all esotropia children, Am children, and children who suffer from decreased vision acuteness and needs to be excluded from accommodative myopia, atropine eye ointment should be routinely used for cycloplegia before optometry. In this article, we also discuss the medication dosage, medication method, possible drug adverse reactions of cyclopentolate humor ocular and the coping measures at the same time.

  15. Enhanced accumulation of atropine in Atropa belladonna transformed by Rac GTPase gene isolated from Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Asano, Kyouhei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2013-12-01

    Leaf tissues of Atropa belladonna were transformed by Sdrac2, a Rac GTPase gene, that is isolated from Scoparia dulcis, and the change in atropine concentration of the transformants was examined. Re-differentiated A. belladonna overexpressing Sdrac2 accumulated considerable concentration of atropine in the leaf tissues, whereas the leaves of plants transformed by an empty vector accumulated only a very low concentration of the compound. A. belladonna transformed by CASdrac2, a modified Sdrac2 of which translate was expected to bind guanosine triphosphate (GTP) permanently, accumulated very high concentrations of atropine (approximately 2.4-fold excess to those found in the wild-type plant in its natural habitat). In sharp contrast, the atropine concentration in transformed A. belladonna prepared with negatively modified Sdrac2, DNSdrac2, expected to bind guanosine diphosphate instead of GTP, was very low. These results suggested that Rac GTPases play an important role in the regulation of secondary metabolism in plant cells and that overexpression of the gene(s) may be capable of enhancing the production of natural products accumulated in higher plant cells. PMID:23852262

  16. Diethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diethyl sulfate ; CASRN 64 - 67 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  17. Dimethyl sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dimethyl sulfate ; CASRN 77 - 78 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  18. Mechanism of Cooperativity and Nonlinear Release Kinetics in Multivalent Dendrimer-Atropine Complexes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Jhindan; Wong, Pamela T; Tang, Shengzhuang; Gam, Kristina; Coulter, Alexa; Baker, James R; Choi, Seok Ki

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive studies on drug delivery using multivalent complexation systems, the biophysical basis for release kinetics remains poorly defined. The present study addresses this aspect involved in the complexation of a fifth generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer with atropine, an essential antidote used for treating organophosphate poisoning. First, we designed (1)H NMR titration studies for determining the molecular basis of the drug complexation with a glutarate-modified anionic dendrimer. These provide evidence pointing to a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions as the driving forces for dendrimer complexation with the alkaloid drug molecule. Second, using LC-MS/MS spectrometry, we determined the dissociation constants (KD) at steady state and also measured the drug release kinetics of atropine complexes with four negatively charged dendrimer types. Each of these dendrimers has a high payload capacity for up to ∼ 100 atropine molecules. However, the affinity of the atropine to the carrier was highly dependent on the drug to dendrimer ratio. Thus, a complex made at a lower loading ratio (≤ 0.1) displayed greater atropine affinity (KD ≈ μM) than other complexes prepared at higher ratios (>10), which showed only mM affinity. This negative cooperative variation in affinity is tightly associated with the nonlinear release kinetics observed for each complex in which drug release occurs more slowly at the later time phase at a lower loading ratio. In summary, the present study provides novel insights on the cooperativity as the mechanistic basis for nonlinear release kinetics observed in multivalent carrier systems. PMID:26485315

  19. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Koplovitz, I.; Menton, R.; Matthews, C.; Shutz, M.; Nalls, C.

    1995-12-31

    H1-6 (1-2-hydrnxyiminomethyl-1 pyridino-3-(4-carbameyl- 1--pyddino)-2- oxaprnpane dichioride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI-6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman.

  20. Opposing effects of atropine and timolol on the color and luminance emmetropization mechanisms in chicks.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Laura A; Rucker, Frances J

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the luminance and color emmetropization response in chicks treated with the nonselective parasympathetic antagonist atropine and the sympathetic β-receptor blocker timolol. Chicks were binocularly exposed (8h/day) for 4days to one of three illumination conditions: 2Hz sinusoidal luminance flicker, 2Hz sinusoidal blue/yellow color flicker, or steady light (mean 680lux). Atropine experiments involved monocular daily injections of either 20μl of atropine (18nmol) or 20μl of phosphate-buffered saline. Timolol experiments involved monocular daily applications of 2 drops of 0.5% timolol or 2 drops of distilled H2O. Changes in the experimental eye were compared with those in the fellow eye after correction for the effects of saline/water treatments. Atropine caused a reduction in axial length with both luminance flicker (-0.078±0.021mm) and color flicker (-0.054±0.017mm), and a reduction in vitreous chamber depth with luminance flicker (-0.095±0.023mm), evoking a hyperopic shift in refraction (3.40±1.77D). Timolol produced an increase in axial length with luminance flicker (0.045±0.030mm) and a myopic shift in refraction (-4.07±0.92D), while color flicker caused a significant decrease in axial length (-0.046±0.017mm) that was associated with choroidal thinning (-0.046±0.015mm). The opposing effects on growth and refraction seen with atropine and timolol suggest a balancing mechanism between the parasympathetic and β-receptor mediated sympathetic system through stimulation of the retina with luminance and color contrast. PMID:26971621

  1. Opposing effects of atropine and timolol on the color and luminance emmetropization mechanisms in chicks.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Laura A; Rucker, Frances J

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the luminance and color emmetropization response in chicks treated with the nonselective parasympathetic antagonist atropine and the sympathetic β-receptor blocker timolol. Chicks were binocularly exposed (8h/day) for 4days to one of three illumination conditions: 2Hz sinusoidal luminance flicker, 2Hz sinusoidal blue/yellow color flicker, or steady light (mean 680lux). Atropine experiments involved monocular daily injections of either 20μl of atropine (18nmol) or 20μl of phosphate-buffered saline. Timolol experiments involved monocular daily applications of 2 drops of 0.5% timolol or 2 drops of distilled H2O. Changes in the experimental eye were compared with those in the fellow eye after correction for the effects of saline/water treatments. Atropine caused a reduction in axial length with both luminance flicker (-0.078±0.021mm) and color flicker (-0.054±0.017mm), and a reduction in vitreous chamber depth with luminance flicker (-0.095±0.023mm), evoking a hyperopic shift in refraction (3.40±1.77D). Timolol produced an increase in axial length with luminance flicker (0.045±0.030mm) and a myopic shift in refraction (-4.07±0.92D), while color flicker caused a significant decrease in axial length (-0.046±0.017mm) that was associated with choroidal thinning (-0.046±0.015mm). The opposing effects on growth and refraction seen with atropine and timolol suggest a balancing mechanism between the parasympathetic and β-receptor mediated sympathetic system through stimulation of the retina with luminance and color contrast.

  2. Mechanism of Cooperativity and Nonlinear Release Kinetics in Multivalent Dendrimer-Atropine Complexes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Jhindan; Wong, Pamela T; Tang, Shengzhuang; Gam, Kristina; Coulter, Alexa; Baker, James R; Choi, Seok Ki

    2015-12-01

    Despite extensive studies on drug delivery using multivalent complexation systems, the biophysical basis for release kinetics remains poorly defined. The present study addresses this aspect involved in the complexation of a fifth generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer with atropine, an essential antidote used for treating organophosphate poisoning. First, we designed (1)H NMR titration studies for determining the molecular basis of the drug complexation with a glutarate-modified anionic dendrimer. These provide evidence pointing to a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions as the driving forces for dendrimer complexation with the alkaloid drug molecule. Second, using LC-MS/MS spectrometry, we determined the dissociation constants (KD) at steady state and also measured the drug release kinetics of atropine complexes with four negatively charged dendrimer types. Each of these dendrimers has a high payload capacity for up to ∼ 100 atropine molecules. However, the affinity of the atropine to the carrier was highly dependent on the drug to dendrimer ratio. Thus, a complex made at a lower loading ratio (≤ 0.1) displayed greater atropine affinity (KD ≈ μM) than other complexes prepared at higher ratios (>10), which showed only mM affinity. This negative cooperative variation in affinity is tightly associated with the nonlinear release kinetics observed for each complex in which drug release occurs more slowly at the later time phase at a lower loading ratio. In summary, the present study provides novel insights on the cooperativity as the mechanistic basis for nonlinear release kinetics observed in multivalent carrier systems.

  3. Cytotoxicity of atropine to human corneal epithelial cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Cheng-Lei; Wen, Qian; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Atropine is an anticholinergic drug for mydriasis in eye clinic, and its abuse might be cytotoxic to the cornea and result in blurred vision. However, the cytotoxicity of atropine to the cornea and its cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of atropine to corneal epithelium and its underlying mechanisms using an in vitro model of non-transfected human corneal epithelial (HCEP) cells. Our results showed that atropine, above the concentration of 0.3125 g/l (1/32 of its therapeutic dosage in eye clinic), had a dose- and time-dependent toxicity to HCEP cells by inducing morphological abnormality, cytopathic effect, viability decline, and proliferation retardation. Moreover, the proliferation-retarding effect of atropine on the cells was achieved by inducing G1/S phase arrest and downregulation of E-cadherin and β-catenin. Besides, atropine also had an apoptosis-inducing effect on the cells by inducing phosphatidylserine externalization, plasma membrane permeability elevation, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic body formation. Furthermore, atropine could also induce activations of caspase-2, -3 and -9, disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, upregulation of Bax and Bad, and upregulation of cytoplasmic cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor, implying a death receptor-mediated mitochondrion-dependent pathway is most probably involved in the apoptosis of HCEP cells induced by atropine. Taken together, our results suggest that atropine has remarkable cytotoxicity to HCEP cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and death receptor-mediated mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis.

  4. A double-blind atropine trial for active learning of autonomic function.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jeffrey R; Burr, Steven A

    2011-12-01

    Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to concomitantly convey the importance of bias in experimentation by adopting a double-blind placebo-controlled approach. We have used this class effectively in various forms with ∼600 students receiving atropine over the last 16 yr. This class has received favorable feedback from staff and students of medicine, pharmacy, and neuroscience, and we recommend it for such undergraduates. The learning objectives that students are expected to achieve are to be able to 1) know the ethical, safety, and hygiene requirements for using human volunteers as subjects; 2) implement and explain a double-blind placebo-controlled trial; 3) design, agree, and execute a protocol for making (and accurately recording) precise reproducible measurements of pulse rate, pupil diameter, and salivary flow; 4) evaluate the importance of predose periods and measurement consistency to detect effects (including any reversibility) after an intervention; 5) experience direct cause-and-effect relationships integrating physiology with pharmacology in people; 6) calculate appropriate summary statistics to describe the data and determine the data's statistical significance; 7) recognize normal variability both within and between subjects in baseline physiological parameters and also recognize normal variability in response to pharmacological treatment; 8) infer the distribution and role of muscarinic receptors in the autonomic nervous system with respect to the heart, eye, and mouth; 9) identify and explain the clinical significance of differences in effect due to the route and formulation of atropine; 10) produce and deliver a concise oral presentation of

  5. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Koplovitz, I; Menton, R; Matthews, C; Shutz, M; Nalls, C; Kelly, S

    1995-01-01

    HI-6 (1-2-hydroxyiminomethyl-1-pyridino-3-(4-carbamoyl-1-pyridino -2- oxapropane dichloride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman. It is concluded that 1) ATR has a large effect on the efficacy of HI-6 against OP poisoning, 2) the dose of ATR must be carefully selected in studies investigating the efficacy of HI-6 against OP poisoning, 3) the effective dose of ATR in the guinea pig is approximately 16 mg/kg, and 4) diazepam is a useful

  6. Prevention of acrylonitrile-induced gastrointestinal bleeding by sulfhydryl compounds, atropine and cimetidine

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanayem, B.I.; Ahmed, A.E.

    1986-07-01

    We have recently demonstrated that acrylonitrile (VCN) causes acute gastric hemorrhage and mucosal erosions. The current studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of the sulfhydryl-containing compounds, cysteine and cysteamine, the cholinergic blocking agent atropine and the histamine H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine on the VCN-induced gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in rats. Our data shows that pretreatment with L-cysteine, cysteamine, atropine or cimetidine has significantly protected rats against the VCN-induced GI bleeding. A possible mechanism of the VCN-induced GI bleeding may involve the interaction of VCN with critical sulfhydryl groups that, in turn, causes alteration of acetylcholine muscarinic receptors to lead to gastric hemorrhagic lesions and bleeding.

  7. Application of an enantioselective LC-ESI MS/MS procedure to determine R- and S-hyoscyamine following intravenous atropine administration in swine.

    PubMed

    John, Harald; Mikler, John; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst

    2012-01-01

    S-hyoscyamine (S-hyo) is a natural plant tropane alkaloid acting as a muscarinic receptor (MR) antagonist. Its racemic mixture (atropine) is clinically used in pre-anaesthesia, ophthalmology and for the antidotal treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning with nerve agents or pesticides even though R-hyo exhibits no effects on MR. Further investigative research is required to optimize treatment of OP poisoning. Swine are often the animal model utilized due to similarities in physiology and antidote response to humans. However, no studies have been reported that elucidated differences in the kinetics of R- and S-hyo. Therefore, the concentration-time profiles of total hyo as well as both enantiomers were analyzed in plasma after intravenous administration of atropine sulfate (Atr(2) SO(4) , 100 µg/kg) to anaesthetized swine. For quantification plasma samples were incubated separately with human serum (procedure A) and rabbit serum (procedure B). The rabbit serum used contained atropinesterase, which is suitable for stereoselective hydrolysis of S-hyo, while human serum does not hydrolyze either enantiomer. After incubation samples were precipitated and the supernatant was analyzed by RP-HPLC-ESI MS/MS. Procedure A allowed determination of total hyo and procedure B remaining R-hyo concentrations. S-hyo was calculated as the difference of the two procedures. Concentration data were regressed by a two-phase decay according to a two-compartment open model revealing similar kinetics for both enantiomers thus indicating distribution, metabolism and elimination without obvious stereoselective preference in tested swine.

  8. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide and Muscarinic Receptors: Supersensitivity Induced by Long-Term Atropine Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlund, Britta; Abens, Janis; Bartfai, Tamas

    1983-04-01

    Long-term treatment of rats with atropine induced large increases in the numbers of muscarinic receptors and receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the salivary glands. Since receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide coexist with muscarinic receptors on the same neurons in this preparation, the results suggest that a drug that alters the sensitivity of one receptor may also affect the sensitivity of the receptor for a costored transmitter and in this way contribute to the therapeutic or side effects of the drug.

  9. Atropine or glycopyrrolate with neostigmine 5 mg: a comparative dose-response study.

    PubMed Central

    Salem, M G; Ahearn, R S

    1986-01-01

    One hundred and fifteen patients, separated into 4 groups, received neostigmine 5 mg with either atropine 1.2 mg or 1.8 mg, or glycopyrrolate 0.6 mg or 0.9 mg. Those receiving 0.9 mg glycopyrrolate had insignificant changes in heart rate in the immediate postreversal period. It is recommended that when glycopyrrolate is used with 5 mg neostigmine, the optimum dose is 0.9 mg. PMID:3944815

  10. Effect of loxiglumide and atropine on erythromycin-induced reduction in gallbladder volume in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Jebbink, M C; Masclee, A A; van der Kleij, F G; Schipper, J; Rovati, L C; Jansen, J B; Lamers, C B

    1992-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of erythromycin, a motilin agonist with prokinetic activity, on fasting gallbladder volume. To evaluate the mechanism of action of erythromycin on gallbladder motility, erythromycin (3.5 mg/kg.20 min, intravenously) was infused on three separate occasions: during cholinergic blockage with atropine (0.005 mg/kg.hr), during cholecystokinin receptor blockade with loxiglumide (10 mg/kg.hr) and during saline solution infusion (control). Atropine, loxiglumide and saline solution infusions were started 3 hr before administration of erythromycin and were continued for 3 hr thereafter. Gallbladder volumes (measured by ultrasonography), plasma cholecystokinin levels (radioimmunoassay) and plasma pancreatic polypeptide levels (radioimmunoassay) were determined at regular intervals for 6 hr in six healthy volunteers. During the 3-hr infusion before administration of erythromycin, both loxiglumide and atropine significantly increased gallbladder volumes--from 18 +/- 2 to 37 +/- 3 cm3 (p less than 0.05) and from 17 +/- 3 to 24 +/- 2 cm3 (p less than 0.05), respectively--whereas saline solution did not significantly affect gallbladder volume. During control saline solution infusion, erythromycin induced prolonged gallbladder contraction that was significant (p less than 0.05) between 60 and 180 min and reached a maximum of 45% +/- 8% at 150 min. Plasma cholecystokinin levels were not affected by erythromycin. Erythromycin induced a significant (p less than 0.05) increase in plasma pancreatic polypeptide levels, from 12 +/- 1 pmol/L to 34 +/- 3 pmol/L. Loxiglumide did not prevent the erythromycin-induced reduction in gallbladder volume. Atropine markedly reduced the effect of erythromycin, causing slight but significant (p less than 0.05) gallbladder volume reductions (18% +/- 4%) between 150 and 180 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Physiological responses wearing MOPP-IV after atropine and pralidoxime administration in warm and cool environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kolka, M.A.; Cadarette, B.S.

    1988-04-01

    The effect of cholinolytic and oxime (2 mg atropine + 600 mg pralidoxime) therapy on temperature regulation was evaluated in 8 subjects wearing chemical warfare protective clothing (MOPP-level IV). Subjects were tested in two environments: 35 c, 60% rh and 13 C, 44% rh during very light physical activity (1-2 Met) over a six-hour period. Sweating was suppressed approximately 40% by atropine and pralidoxime, and heart rate increased approximately 30 beats/min with drug treatment. At 13 C, all eight subjects completed 350 minutes of exposure in both drug and control experiments. Rectal temperature (t sub re) averaged 38.24 C in both treatments when subjects terminated their exposure at 35 C. Mean skin temperature averaged 37.42 C for both groups at termination. The treatment of subjects with atropine and pralidoxime when wearing chemical protective clothing does not adversely affect the length of time individuals can remain in a cool environment during very light work. However, the wearing of chemical protective clothing will decrease exposure time significantly (approx. 40%) in both control and drug treated subjects in a warm environment.

  12. Atropine, an anticholinergic drug, impairs memory retrieval of a high consolidated avoidance response in mice.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Mariano M; Blake, Mariano G; Acosta, Gabriela B; Baratti, Carlos M

    2003-07-17

    Immediate post-training intraperitoneal administration of the centrally acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (70.0, or 150.0 microg/kg) enhanced retention of male CF-1 mice tested 48 h after training in a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task (0.8 mA, 50 Hz, 1 s footshock). The effect was observed in mice that received saline 30 min before the retention test; on the contrary, the pre-test administration of the centrally active muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, atropine (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), but not methylatropine (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), instead of saline, prevents the enhancement of retention induced by both doses of the anticholinesterase when given immediately after training. The high retention performance caused by post-training physostigmine was recovered following a second administration of the same doses of the drug, 10 min after the pre-test injections of atropine. Since, physostigmine do not influence memory retrieval when given prior to the retention test, and its post-training effects are not due to the induction of state-dependency, the recover of the high retention performance was probably due to a classical interaction between a muscarinic competitive antagonist and an indirect cholinergic agonist. Further, atropine probably does not modify the memory trace by erasing it, but by producing a poor retrieval. PMID:12821180

  13. Atropine, an anticholinergic drug, impairs memory retrieval of a high consolidated avoidance response in mice.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Mariano M; Blake, Mariano G; Acosta, Gabriela B; Baratti, Carlos M

    2003-07-17

    Immediate post-training intraperitoneal administration of the centrally acting anticholinesterase physostigmine (70.0, or 150.0 microg/kg) enhanced retention of male CF-1 mice tested 48 h after training in a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task (0.8 mA, 50 Hz, 1 s footshock). The effect was observed in mice that received saline 30 min before the retention test; on the contrary, the pre-test administration of the centrally active muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, atropine (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), but not methylatropine (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), instead of saline, prevents the enhancement of retention induced by both doses of the anticholinesterase when given immediately after training. The high retention performance caused by post-training physostigmine was recovered following a second administration of the same doses of the drug, 10 min after the pre-test injections of atropine. Since, physostigmine do not influence memory retrieval when given prior to the retention test, and its post-training effects are not due to the induction of state-dependency, the recover of the high retention performance was probably due to a classical interaction between a muscarinic competitive antagonist and an indirect cholinergic agonist. Further, atropine probably does not modify the memory trace by erasing it, but by producing a poor retrieval.

  14. The effect of atropine on the activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine3 channels in rat nodose ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Fan, P; Weight, F F

    1994-10-01

    It has been suggested that changes in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor function may contribute to some behavior disorders, such as anxiety, schizophrenia and drug abuse. We are using the whole-cell version of the patch-clamp technique to study the function of 5-hydroxytryptamine3 channels in neurons freshly dissociated from rat nodose ganglion. In these cells, 5-hydroxytryptamine elicits an inward current over the concentration range of 0.25-100 microM (EC50 = 2.62 microM) by activating 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptors. The muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine reduced the amplitude of 5-hydroxytryptamine activated inward current in a concentration-dependent manner. Other muscarinic antagonists, scopolamine, dexetimide, the M1 muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine, the M2 receptor antagonist methoctramine and the M3 receptor antagonist 4-DAMP methiodide also inhibited 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced inward current. Atropine did not appear to change the reversal potential of this current. In the presence of 5 microM atropine, the concentration-response curve for 5-hydroxytryptamine current was shifted to the right in a parallel fashion. The EC50 value for 5-hydroxytryptamine was increased from 2.62 to 8.76 microM. Schild plots of increasing atropine and 5-hydroxytryptamine concentrations revealed a pA2 value of 5.74 for atropine (apparent KD = 1.8 microM). These observations suggest that atropine competitively antagonizes the activation of a receptor for the neurotransmitter serotonin, a novel action of muscarinic antagonists in the nervous system. This effect of atropine may contribute to the clinical symptoms seen in severe atropine intoxication. PMID:7531305

  15. The influence of aerosol retention and pattern of deposition on bronchial responsiveness to atropine and methacholine in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, M.K.; Briggs, B.A.; Snashall, P.D. )

    1989-12-01

    We have examined the influence of total intrapulmonary deposition and its pattern on the bronchial response to aerosolized methacholine and atropine in 10 normal and 12 asthmatic subjects. On Day 1 we performed a dose-response challenge to methacholine and defined responsiveness as the provocative dose (PD35) needed to cause a 35% decrease in specific airway conductance (SGaw). On Day 2 we repeated methacholine challenge after premedication with aerosolized atropine, and we defined the response to atropine as dose ratio-1 (DR-1) where DR = PD35 after atropine/PD35 without atropine. On Day 3 we imaged intrapulmonary aerosol deposition by mixing 99mtechnetium with methacholine aerosol and scanning the thorax with a gamma camera during the development of bronchoconstriction. Total pulmonary aerosol deposition varied considerably between individuals (1.2 to 23.6% of nebulized dose) but there was no difference between normal and asthmatic subjects, and no correlation between deposition and baseline SGaw or PD35; there was a significant positive correlation between deposition and DR-1. Deposition of aerosol in central lung zones was inversely related to SGaw and correlated positively with DR-1; there was no significant relationship with PD35. Total intrapulmonary aerosol deposition and its pattern partially determine bronchial responsiveness to atropine, but we have not demonstrated any significant effect on responsiveness to methacholine.

  16. Efficacy of biperiden and atropine as anticonvulsant treatment for organophosphorus nerve agent intoxication.

    PubMed

    Shih, T M; McDonough, J H

    2000-05-01

    The ability of the nerve agents tabun, sarin, soman, GF, VR, and VX to produce brain seizures and the effectiveness of the anticholinergics biperiden HCl or atropine SO4 as an anticonvulsant treatment were studied in a guinea-pig model. All animals were implanted a week prior to the experiment with cortical electrodes for electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. On the day of exposure, the animals were pretreated with pyridostigmine (0.026 mg/kg, i.m.) 30 min prior to challenge with a 2 x LD50 dose (s.c.) of a given agent. In separate experiments, animals were challenged with 5 x LD50 (s.c.) of soman. One minute after agent challenge, the animals were treated intramuscularly (i.m.) with 2 mg/kg atropine SO4 admixed with 25 mg/kg 2-PAM Cl and then observed for the onset of seizure activity. Five minutes after the start of nerve agent-induced EEG seizures, animals were treated i.m. with different doses of biperiden HCl or atropine SO4 and observed for seizure termination. The anticonvulsant ED50 of biperiden HCl and atropine SO4 for termination of seizures induced by each nerve agent was calculated and compared. With equally toxic doses (2 x LD50) of these agents, continuous EEG seizures (status epilepticus) developed in all animals challenged with soman, tabun, or VR, and in more than 90% of the animals challenged with GF or sarin. In contrast, only 50% of the animals developed seizures when challenged with VX. The times to onset of seizures for soman, tabun, GF, and sarin were very similar (5-8 min) while for VR, it was about 10 min. In the case of VX, not only was the time to seizure development longer (20.7 min), but the seizure activity in 19% of the animals terminated spontaneously within 5 min after onset and did not return. Under these conditions, the anticonvulsant ED50s of biperiden HCl for soman, GF, VR, tabun, sarin, and VX were 0.57, 0.51, 0.41, 0.2, 0.1, and 0.09 mg/kg, respectively, while those of atropine SO4 for soman, VR, tabun, GF, sarin, and VX were

  17. Comparison of two commonly practiced atropinization regimens in acute organophosphorus and carbamate poisoning, doubling doses vs. ad hoc: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Perera, P M S; Shahmy, S; Gawarammana, I; Dawson, A H

    2008-06-01

    There is a wide variation and lack of evidence in current recommendations for atropine dosing schedules leading to subsequent variation in clinical practice. Therefore, we sought to examine the safety and effectiveness of a titrated vs. ad hoc atropine treatment regimen in a cohort of patients with acute cholinesterase inhibitor pesticide poisoning. A prospective cohort study was conducted in three district secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka using a structured data collection form that collected details of clinical symptoms and outcomes of cholinesterase inhibitor pesticide poisoning, atropine doses, and signs of atropinization. We compared two hospitals that used a titrated dosing protocol based on a structured monitoring sheet for atropine infusion with another hospital using an ad hoc regime. During the study, 272 symptomatic patients with anticholinesterase poisoning requiring atropine were admitted to the three hospitals. Outcomes of death and ventilation were analyzed for all patients, 226 patients were prospectively assessed for atropine toxicity. At baseline, patients in the titrated dose cohort had clinical signs consistent with greater toxicity. This in part may be due to ingestion of more toxic organophosphates. They received less pralidoxime and atropine, and were less likely to develop features of atropine toxicity, such as delirium (1% vs. 17%), hallucinations (1% vs. 35%), or either (1% vs. 35%) and need for patient restraint (3% vs. 48%) compared with the ad hoc dose regime. After adjusting for the pesticides ingested, there was no difference in mortality and ventilatory rates between protocols. Ad hoc high dose atropine regimens are associated with more frequent atropine toxicity without any obvious improvement in patient outcome compared with doses titrated to clinical effect. Atropine doses should be titrated against response and toxicity. Further education and the use of a structured monitoring sheet may assist in more appropriate

  18. Orally administered grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Taudorf, E; Weeke, B

    1983-11-01

    In 1900 it was claimed that oral administration of ragweed could be used for the hyposensitization of hay fever patients. Several uncontrolled trials have been published, all showing an effect of oral hyposensitization. Only one study was controlled and showed no effect of oral hyposensitization. It was decided to undertake controlled clinical trials to determine the safety and effectiveness of orally administered enteric-coated grass pollen tablets in patients with hay fever. The actual grass pollen dose in the first trial was 30 times the dose that is normally recommended for preseasonal oral pollen hyposensitization using pollen aqueous solution or pollen powder. The safety study will be described here. Twelve young adults with a history of grass pollen hay fever positive skin prick test and positive nasal provocation test with extracts of timothy grass pollen were randomly allocated to one of the treatment groups with four patients in each group taking enteric-coated Conjuvac Timothy tablets or enteric-coated Whole Timothy pollen tablets or enteric-coated placebo tablets. The study was double blind. Preseasonally, the patients received 342,500 PNU and in total they received 4,500,000 PNU during 6 months. The patients receiving active treatment did not have any side effects. No significant changes were shown in the skin and nasal reactivity to grass pollen during the study. Neither were there any changes in timothy-specific IgE, IgG, total IgE nor histamine liberation from basophils.

  19. Effect of an additional atropine injection during dobutamine infusion for myocardial SPET.

    PubMed

    Caner, B; Karanfil, A; Uysal, U; Tokgozoglu, L; Aksoyek, S; Ugur, O; Ciftci, I; Atalar, E; Kes, S; Bekdik, C

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the value of an additional atropine injection in patients who do not achieve an adequate heart rate during dobutamine infusion for myocardial perfusion SPET (single photon emission tomography). Patients undergoing dobutamine myocardial SPET who failed to achieve > or = 85% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate at the end of dobutamine infusion (D protocol) had a second dobutamine myocardial SPET study on a separate day with the addition of an atropine injection during the dobutamine infusion (D + A protocol). Twenty-nine patients were studied. 201Tl was used in 27 patients and 99Tc(m)-MIBI in two patients. All patients underwent coronary angiography and significant coronary artery disease was found in 19 of 29 patients. The mean heart rate obtained at the peak of dobutamine infusion in the D + A protocol was significantly higher than that in the D protocol (153.8 +/- 13.8 vs 117.5 +/- 15.3 beats min[-1]). The D + A protocol resulted in a higher diagnostic sensitivity for the detection of stenosed coronaries compared with the D protocol (87 vs 80%, P > 0.05) without changing the specificity (89% for both protocols). On the other hand, the frequency of side-effects and ECG changes during the D + A protocol was higher than that with the D protocol (32 vs 47). In conclusion, the addition of an atropine injection during dobutamine infusion resulted in a higher diagnostic sensitivity for identifying stenosed coronaries compared to dobutamine alone.

  20. Atropine and ODQ antagonize tetanic fade induced by L-arginine in cats.

    PubMed

    Cruciol-Souza, J M; Alves-Do-Prado, W

    1999-10-01

    Although it has been demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) released from sodium nitrite induces tetanic fade in the cat neuromuscular preparations, the effect of L-arginine on tetanic fade and its origin induced by NO have not been studied in these preparations. Furthermore, atropine reduces tetanic fade induced by several cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs in these preparations, whose mechanism is suggested to be mediated by the interaction of acetylcholine with inhibitory presynaptic muscarinic receptors. The present study was conducted in cats to determine the effects of L-arginine alone or after pretreatment with atropine or 1H-[1,2, 4]oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) on neuromuscular preparations indirectly stimulated at high frequency. Drugs were injected into the middle genicular artery. L-arginine (2 mg/kg) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 16 microg/kg) induced tetanic fade. The Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 2 mg/kg) alone did not produce any effect, but reduced the tetanic fade induced by L-arginine. D-arginine (2 mg/kg) did not induce changes in tetanic fade. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine or SNAP was reduced by previous injection of atropine (1.0 microg/kg) or ODQ (15 microg/kg). ODQ alone did not change tetanic fade. The data suggest that the NO-synthase-GC pathway participates in the L-arginine-induced tetanic fade in cat neuromuscular preparations. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine probably depends on the action of NO at the presynaptic level. NO may stimulate guanylate cyclase increasing acetylcholine release and thereby stimulating presynaptic muscarinic receptors.

  1. 21 CFR 520.110 - Apramycin sulfate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. A water soluble powder used to make a medicated drinking water containing apramycin sulfate equivalent to 0.375 gram of apramycin activity per gallon of drinking water. (b...) caused by strains of E. coli sensitive to apramycin. (2) It is administered for 7 days in drinking...

  2. 21 CFR 520.110 - Apramycin sulfate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. A water soluble powder used to make a medicated drinking water containing apramycin sulfate equivalent to 0.375 gram of apramycin activity per gallon of drinking water. (b...) caused by strains of E. coli sensitive to apramycin. (2) It is administered for 7 days in drinking...

  3. 21 CFR 520.110 - Apramycin sulfate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. A water soluble powder used to make a medicated drinking water containing apramycin sulfate equivalent to 0.375 gram of apramycin activity per gallon of drinking water. (b...) caused by strains of E. coli sensitive to apramycin. (2) It is administered for 7 days in drinking...

  4. 21 CFR 520.110 - Apramycin sulfate soluble powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sulfate soluble powder. (a) Specifications. A water soluble powder used to make a medicated drinking water containing apramycin sulfate equivalent to 0.375 gram of apramycin activity per gallon of drinking water. (b...) caused by strains of E. coli sensitive to apramycin. (2) It is administered for 7 days in drinking...

  5. Atropine Ophthalmic

    MedlinePlus

    ... follow these steps: Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. Check the dropper tip to make ... follow these steps: Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water. Use a mirror or have someone ...

  6. Effect of atropine on oral clearance of a radiolabeled sulfur colloid

    SciTech Connect

    LaForce, F.M.; Thompson, B.; Trow, R.

    1984-11-01

    Physical clearance is an important oral defense mechanism against gram-negative rods. The authors describe a simple technique that uses commercially available technetium-99m sulfur colloid to measure oral clearance. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid was sprayed into the mouth, and clearance was measured as the percent decrease in radiolabel counts over 2 hours using a radioisotope camera. Results using this technique compared favorably with clearance data using Tc-99m radiolabeled Escherichia coli. Atropine significantly decreased oral clearance rates of the colloid. Decreased clearance may be an important risk factor in the development of gram-negative rod colonization in hospitalized patients. 15 references, 3 figures.

  7. Effects of atropine and tetrodotoxin on neurotensin-induced ileal sodium transport in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Mailman, D.

    1988-01-01

    1. Neurotensin was infused intravenously, in the presence or absence of intravenous atropine or intraarterial tetrodotoxin, into dogs anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone. Net and unidirectional fluxes of sodium and blood flows in the ileum were measured. Arterial and mesenteric venous blood pressures, haematocrits and plasma total solids were also determined. 2. Neurotensin caused a transient increase in net sodium absorption which was not associated with significant changes in unidirectional fluxes. This was followed by prolonged net secretion which was associated with an increase in unidirectional sodium secretion and a smaller decrease in sodium absorption. Potassium secretion was also increased when net sodium secretion increased. 3. Neurotensin increased haematocrit and total solids and decreased arterial pressure at the same time that secretion occurred. 4. Atropine blocked all the cardiovascular effects of neurotensin and reduced its early effects on both absorption and secretion but not the later effects on secretion. Tetrodotoxin only blocked the increase in absorption but not the secretion or the cardiovascular effects. 5. It was concluded that there is a cholinergic step in the cardiovascular effects of neurotensin and that the early effects of neurotensin on secretion are due to active secretion supported by fluid leakage from the plasma. The later effects of neurotensin on secretion do not have a cholinergic step and are due primarily to an active secretion. The increased absorption is mediated partly through intrinsic nerves of the gut. PMID:3401630

  8. Efficacy of oxime plus atropine treatment against Soman poisoning in the atropinesterase-free rabbit. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Koplovitz, I.; Stewart, J.R.

    1992-12-31

    The oximes pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), MMB4, and HI-6 were evaluated in combination with atropine as treatments against soman poisoning in atropinesterase-free rabbits. Animals were challenged i.m. with 2 x LD50 soman and treated at the onset of toxic signs with 50 micron mol/kg of oxime and 5 or 13 mg/kg atropine. Survival and time to death were compared at 48 hours post-soman challenge. Survival rates in MMB4 and HI-6 treated animals were higher than in 2-PAM-treated animals. The increase in survival was significant at the 13 mg/kg dose of atropine. MMB4 and HI-6 also significantly delayed time to death after soman compared to 2-PAM. The results suggest that MMB4 and HI-6 have potential as useful oximes for treating soman poisoning.... Soman, Nerve agent, Treatment, Rabbit, HI-6, 2-PAM, Oxime therapy.

  9. Sulfate adsorption on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1999-10-15

    Recent spectroscopic work has suggested that only one surface species of sulfate is dominant on hematite. Sulfate is therefore a very suitable anion to test and develop adsorption models for variable charge minerals. The authors have studied sulfate adsorption on goethite covering a large range of sulfate concentrations, surface coverages, pH values, and electrolyte concentrations. Four different techniques were used to cover the entire range of conditions. For characterization at low sulfate concentrations, below the detection limit of sulfate with ICP-AES, the authors used proton-sulfate titrations at constant pH. Adsorption isotherms were studied for the intermediate sulfate concentration range. Acid-base titrations in sodium sulfate and electromobility were used for high sulfate concentrations. All the data can be modeled with one adsorbed species if it is assumed that the charge of adsorbed sulfate is spatially distributed in the interface. The charge distribution of sulfate follows directly from modeling the proton-sulfate adsorption stoichoimemtry sine this stoichiometry is independent of the intrinsic affinity constant of sulfate. The charge distribution can be related to the structure of the surface complex by use of the Pauling bond valence concept and is in accordance with the microscopic structure found by spectroscopy. The intrinsic affinity constant follows from the other measurements. Modeling of the proton-ion stoichoimetry with the commonly used 2-pK models, where adsorbed ions are treated as point charges, is possible only if at least two surface species for sulfate are used.

  10. Antimuscarinic-induced convulsions in fasted animals after food intake: evaluation of the effects of levetiracetam, topiramate and different doses of atropine.

    PubMed

    Büget, Bahar; Türkmen, Aslı Zengin; Allahverdiyev, Oruc; Enginar, Nurhan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different doses of atropine and new antiepileptics, levetiracetam and topiramate, on the development of convulsions triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals. Mice deprived of food for 24 h and treated i.p. with atropine at a dose of 2.4 or 24 mg/kg developed convulsions after being allowed to eat ad libitum. No convulsions were observed in fasted animals treated with 0.24 mg/kg atropine. There was no difference in the incidence of convulsions between the two atropine treatments, but latency to convulsions was longer in 24 mg/kg atropine treated animals. The lowest dose of atropine, 0.24 mg/kg, caused stage 1 and stage 2 activity, but did not provide the convulsive endpoint (stage 3, 4, 5 activity). Administration of levetiracetam (50 or 200 mg/kg) or topiramate (50 or 100 mg/kg) to another group of 24-h fasted mice was ineffective in reducing the incidence of convulsions developed in the animals after 2.4 mg/kg atropine treatment and food intake. However, the higher dose of levetiracetam prolonged the onset of convulsions. Present results demonstrated the efficacy of low and high doses of atropine on the development of convulsions in fasted animals and provided additional evidence for the ineffectiveness of antiepileptic treatment in these seizures.

  11. Electrochemical determination of atropine at multi-wall carbon nanotube electrode based on the enhancement effect of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Dar, Riyaz Ahmad; Brahman, Pradeep Kumar; Tiwari, Sweety; Pitre, Krishna Sadashiv

    2012-03-01

    Herein, a new electrochemical method was described for the determination of atropine based on the enhancement effect of an anionic surfactant: sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS). In pH 10.5 tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide as supporting electrolyte and in the presence of 0.4×10(-4)M SDBS, atropine yields a well-defined and sensitive oxidation peak at the multi-wall carbon nanotube electrode (MWCNTE). Compared with that in the absence of SDBS, the oxidation peak current of atropine remarkably increases in the presence of SDBS. The experimental parameters, such as supporting electrolyte, concentration of SDBS, and accumulation time, were optimized for atropine determination. The oxidation peak current is proportional to the concentration of atropine over the range from 3.98 ng/ml to 27.23 ng/ml. The detection limit is 0.449 ng/ml after 2 min of accumulation. This new voltammetric method was successfully used to determine atropine in Indian traditional medicine (seeds and leaves of Datura stramonium) with satisfactory recoveries. The developed method was also used for the analysis of atropine in pharmaceutical formulation of ophthalmic solution (eye drop). The relative standard deviations of intraday and interday analyses for atropine were 0.67% and 0.86% respectively (n=3) for the accumulation time of 120 s. PMID:22118893

  12. Effects of atropine treatment on in vitro and in vivo binding of 4-[125I]-dexetimide to central and myocardial muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Uno, Y; Matsumura, K; Scheffel, U; Wilson, A A; Dannals, R F; Wagner, H N

    1991-01-01

    Upregulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChR) after chronic atropine treatment has been described previously. The present study was designed to evaluate 4-iodine-125 dexetimide as an agent to determine changes in the number of mAChR. Rats were injected subcutaneously with atropine (500 mg/kg) either once or chronically, once daily for 10 days, and sacrificed 24 h later. In vitro binding assays with 4-[125I]-dexetimide showed significant increases in the number of mAChR in cerebra (21%) and ventricles (45%) after chronic atropine treatment but not after acute treatment. The affinity of binding to cerebral and ventricular mAChR declined after acute and chronic atropine treatment. In vivo studies were carried out involving intravenous injection of 4-[125I]-dexetimide 24 h after atropine treatment. Binding was markedly reduced in the brain and heart. Upregulation of mAChR, as seen in in vitro studies, could not be observed because of the remaining atropine. Occupancy of mAChR by atropine persisted as long as 7 days after one dose. The results of these studies indicate that 4-[125I]-dexetimide binding reflects the effects of atropine on central and peripheral muscarinic cholinergic receptors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:1915471

  13. Anesthesia of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) using a medetomidine-ketamine-atropine combination.

    PubMed

    Ward, David G; Blyde, David; Lemon, John; Johnston, Steve

    2006-06-01

    Seven captive male African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) weighing 25-32 kg each, were anesthetized by i.m. injection via hand syringe with a combination of 1.5 mg/kg ketamine, 40 microg/kg medetomidine, and 0.05 mg/kg atropine. Following endotracheal intubation, each animal was connected to a bain closed-circuit system that delivered 1.5% isoflurane and 2 L/min oxygen. Atipamezole (0.1 mg/kg i.v.; 0.1 mg/kg i.m.) was given at the end of each procedure (60 min following injection of medetomidine/ketamine/atropine). Time to sternal recumbency was 5-8 min. Times to standing after atipamezole administration were 8-20 min. This anesthetic regimen was repeated on three separate occasions (September 2000, February 2002, and October 2002) on all males to perform electroejaculation procedures. Each procedure was <80 min from injection to standing. Dogs showed excellent muscle relaxation during the procedures. Arterial blood samples were collected at 10-min intervals for blood gases in one procedure (September 2000). Separate venous samples were taken from each dog during each procedure for hematology and biochemistry. These values were within the normal range for this species. Arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) were monitored continuously in addition to other anesthesia monitoring procedures (body temperature, respiratory rate [RR], capillary refill time, blink response, pupil position, deep pain perception reflex). All dogs maintained relatively stable SpO2 profiles during monitoring, with a mean (+/-SD) SpO2 of 92% +/-5.4%. All other physiological variables (HR, RR, body temperature, blood pressure) were within normal limits. Following each procedure, normal behavior was noted in all dogs. All the dogs were reunited into the pack at completion of their anesthetic procedures. An injectable medetomidine-ketamine-atropine combination with maintenance by gaseous isoflurane and oxygen provides an inexpensive, reliable anesthetic for captive African

  14. Effects of atropine and propranolol on lung inflammation in experimental envenomation: comparison of two buthidae venoms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous works had shown that scorpion venom induced neurotransmitter elevation and an inflammatory response associated with various anatomo-pathological modifications. The most dangerous scorpions species in Algeria responsible for these effects are Androctonus australis hector (Aah) and Androctonus amoreuxi (Aam). Results Comparison of the physiopathological effects induced by the two venoms showed differences in the kinetic of cytokine release and in lung injury. The lung edema was only observed in response to Aah venom and it was correlated with cell infiltration. In order to better understand the involved mechanism in inflammatory response, we used two antagonists, atropine (non-selective muscarinic antagonist) and propranolol (β adrenergic antagonist), which lead to a decrease of cell infiltration but has no effect on edema forming. Conclusion These results suggest another pathway in the development of lung injury following envenomation with Aam or Aah venom. PMID:23849182

  15. Leaching of zinc compound from rubber stoppers into the contents of automatic atropine injectors.

    PubMed

    Ellin, R I; Kaminskis, A; Zvirblis, P; Sultan, W E; Shutz, M B; Matthews, R

    1985-07-01

    This report describes how a material within the cartridge of an automatic injector contaminated its contents. On prolonged storage, a formulation that contained atropine produced lethality in mice. The toxic material originated from zinc compounds that were present in the rubber stopper and plunger of the container and that subsequently leached into the formulation. The contents of cartridges that contained greater than or equal to 0.75 mg/mL of solubilized zinc were lethal to at least 20% of the mice tested; those that contained 0.42 mg/mL showed no lethality. The problem resulted from the physicochemical properties of the rubber, not the concentration of zinc used in the vulcanization process.

  16. In Vitro Acaricidal Activity of Atropa belladonna and Its Components, Scopolamine and Atropine, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    PubMed Central

    Godara, R.; Katoch, M.; Yadav, Anish; Parveen, S.; Vij, Bhavna; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, G.; Singh, Nirbhay K.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro efficacy of methanolic extract of Atropa belladonna and its components scopolamine and atropine was assessed against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) were used whereas scopolamine and atropine were each tested at 0.1%. In adult immersion test, the extract was lethal to ticks at 20% concentration. The LC50 and LC95 values were determined as 6.875% and 17.306%, respectively. The extract caused a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in egg mass production at 10% concentration. In larval packet test, the extract was lethal to larvae in the concentrations of 10% and 20% after 24 h, with LC50 and LC95 values of 1.321% and 4.935%, respectively. Scopolamine and atropine showed 93.3% and 60.0% mortality of adult ticks, respectively, but they caused complete (100%) blocking of hatching as well as 100% larval mortality. Scopolamine and atropine were observed to be more potent than the crude extract at an equivalent concentration in both the bioassays. PMID:25516877

  17. In vitro acaricidal activity of Atropa belladonna and its components, scopolamine and atropine, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, M; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Parveen, S; Vij, Bhavna; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, G; Singh, Nirbhay K

    2014-01-01

    In vitro efficacy of methanolic extract of Atropa belladonna and its components scopolamine and atropine was assessed against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) were used whereas scopolamine and atropine were each tested at 0.1%. In adult immersion test, the extract was lethal to ticks at 20% concentration. The LC50 and LC95 values were determined as 6.875% and 17.306%, respectively. The extract caused a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in egg mass production at 10% concentration. In larval packet test, the extract was lethal to larvae in the concentrations of 10% and 20% after 24 h, with LC50 and LC95 values of 1.321% and 4.935%, respectively. Scopolamine and atropine showed 93.3% and 60.0% mortality of adult ticks, respectively, but they caused complete (100%) blocking of hatching as well as 100% larval mortality. Scopolamine and atropine were observed to be more potent than the crude extract at an equivalent concentration in both the bioassays.

  18. In vitro acaricidal activity of Atropa belladonna and its components, scopolamine and atropine, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, M; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Parveen, S; Vij, Bhavna; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, G; Singh, Nirbhay K

    2014-01-01

    In vitro efficacy of methanolic extract of Atropa belladonna and its components scopolamine and atropine was assessed against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) were used whereas scopolamine and atropine were each tested at 0.1%. In adult immersion test, the extract was lethal to ticks at 20% concentration. The LC50 and LC95 values were determined as 6.875% and 17.306%, respectively. The extract caused a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in egg mass production at 10% concentration. In larval packet test, the extract was lethal to larvae in the concentrations of 10% and 20% after 24 h, with LC50 and LC95 values of 1.321% and 4.935%, respectively. Scopolamine and atropine showed 93.3% and 60.0% mortality of adult ticks, respectively, but they caused complete (100%) blocking of hatching as well as 100% larval mortality. Scopolamine and atropine were observed to be more potent than the crude extract at an equivalent concentration in both the bioassays. PMID:25516877

  19. Comparative Study of Atropine Combined with Sodium Nitroprusside Pretreatment to Prevent Trigemino Cardiac Reflex after Trigeminal Ganglion Compression

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhan-Ying; Cai, Chang-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Rong-Wei; Pang, Qing-Gui; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Manipulation of percutaneous compression of the trigeminal ganglion (PCTG) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) can lead to significant haemodynamic changes, which were termed trigemino cardiac reflex (TCR). Nevertheless, many studies indicated that atropine pretreatment can reduce the incidence of bradycardia and cardiac arrest, but do not take precautions against abrupt rise of blood pressure. Aim The purpose of our study was to compare control group {patients receiving Sodium Nitro-Prusside (SNP) pretreatment before PCTG} with study groups (patients receiving different doses of atropine combined with SNP pretreatment before PCTG) in cardiovascular parameters {Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) and Heart Rate (HR)} at 5 periods during Total Intravenous Anaesthesia (TIVA). Materials and Methods In total, 120 patients, who underwent PTCG, were enrolled and randomly assigned into control group {group A (SNP pretreatment before PCTG, n=29)} and study groups {group B (0.002mg /kg atropine combined with SNP pretreatment before PCTG, n=30), C (0.004mg/kg atropine pretreatment before PCTG, n=31) and D (0.006mg/kg atropine combined with SNP pretreatment before PCTG, n=30)}, the relationship between haemodynamic changes and using atropine pretreatment or not was compared. Cardiovascular parameters were measured at five periods: preoperative (T0); before puncture (T1); during compression (T2); 1 min after the compression ended (T3); and 1 min after the procedure ended (T4). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Pearson’s χ2 test were used, and a value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Compared with the group A, means of SBP and DBP in the study groups (group B, C and D) were not observed significant differences at all time points (p>0.05), the mean values of HR showed significant differences, when compared to group C and group D at T2 and T3 (p<0.001). Meanwhile, means of SBP, DBP and HR comparison in

  20. Determination of tropane alkaloids atropine and scopolamine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in plant organs of Datura species.

    PubMed

    Jakabová, Silvia; Vincze, Lajos; Farkas, Agnes; Kilár, Ferenc; Boros, Borbála; Felinger, Attila

    2012-04-01

    Hyoscyamine (atropine) and scopolamine are the predominant tropane alkaloids in the Datura genus, occurring in all plant organs. The assessment of the alkaloid content of various plant parts is essential from the viewpoint of medical use, but also as a potential risk of toxicity for humans and animals. Therefore, a reliable method for the determination of tropane alkaloid content is of high importance. The present work aimed at the elaboration of a rapid method for determination of the most abundant Datura alkaloids by LC-MS technique using a new generation of core-shell particle packed column. Tropane alkaloid content was investigated in various plant organs of four Datura taxa (D. innoxia, D. metel, D. stramonium, and D. stramonium var. tatula), grown under the same conditions, in two developmental stages. We have developed a rapid LC-MS method for the quantitative determination of atropine and scopolamine, which was successfully applied to quantify the alkaloids in different plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems, seeds) of thorn apples after a simple sample preparation step. Elaboration and validation of the method and analysis of plant extracts were done by UFLC-MS technique, employing an Ascentis Express C18 column. Detection was done in positive ionization mode (ESI+) and the method suitability was evaluated by several validation characteristics. Quantitation limits are 333 and 167 pgmL(-1) for scopolamine and atropine, respectively, and the method shows very good repeatability. The analysis of Datura extracts revealed significant differences depending on the species, the organ and the sampling period. Atropine was found to be dominant over scopolamine in three out of the four taxa investigated. D. innoxia showed the highest concentrations of scopolamine in all organs examined, whereas D. metel accumulated the lowest scopolamine levels. Hyoscyamine, measured as atropine, was the highest in D. stramonium var. tatula, and the lowest in D. innoxia. Samples

  1. Determination of tropane alkaloids atropine and scopolamine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in plant organs of Datura species.

    PubMed

    Jakabová, Silvia; Vincze, Lajos; Farkas, Agnes; Kilár, Ferenc; Boros, Borbála; Felinger, Attila

    2012-04-01

    Hyoscyamine (atropine) and scopolamine are the predominant tropane alkaloids in the Datura genus, occurring in all plant organs. The assessment of the alkaloid content of various plant parts is essential from the viewpoint of medical use, but also as a potential risk of toxicity for humans and animals. Therefore, a reliable method for the determination of tropane alkaloid content is of high importance. The present work aimed at the elaboration of a rapid method for determination of the most abundant Datura alkaloids by LC-MS technique using a new generation of core-shell particle packed column. Tropane alkaloid content was investigated in various plant organs of four Datura taxa (D. innoxia, D. metel, D. stramonium, and D. stramonium var. tatula), grown under the same conditions, in two developmental stages. We have developed a rapid LC-MS method for the quantitative determination of atropine and scopolamine, which was successfully applied to quantify the alkaloids in different plant organs (leaves, flowers, stems, seeds) of thorn apples after a simple sample preparation step. Elaboration and validation of the method and analysis of plant extracts were done by UFLC-MS technique, employing an Ascentis Express C18 column. Detection was done in positive ionization mode (ESI+) and the method suitability was evaluated by several validation characteristics. Quantitation limits are 333 and 167 pgmL(-1) for scopolamine and atropine, respectively, and the method shows very good repeatability. The analysis of Datura extracts revealed significant differences depending on the species, the organ and the sampling period. Atropine was found to be dominant over scopolamine in three out of the four taxa investigated. D. innoxia showed the highest concentrations of scopolamine in all organs examined, whereas D. metel accumulated the lowest scopolamine levels. Hyoscyamine, measured as atropine, was the highest in D. stramonium var. tatula, and the lowest in D. innoxia. Samples

  2. Gastric mucosal lesions induced by complete dopamine system failure in rats. The effects of dopamine agents, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole and pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Separovic, J; Buljat, G; Anic, T; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Mikus, D; Duplancic, B; Marovic, A; Zoricic, I; Prkacin, I; Lovric-Bencic, M; Aralica, G; Ziger, T; Perovic, D; Jelovac, N; Dodig, G; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Seiwerth, S; Turkovic, B; Grabarevic, Z; Petek, M; Rucman, R

    2000-01-01

    Up to now, for gastric lesions potentiation or induction, as well as determination of endogenous dopamine significance, dopamine antagonist or dopamine vesicle depletor were given separately. Therefore, without combination studies, the evidence for dopamine significance remains split on either blockade of dopamine post-synaptic receptor or inhibition of dopamine storage, essentially contrasting with endogenous circumstances, where both functions could be simultaneously disturbed. For this purpose, a co-administration of reserpine and haloperidol, a dopamine granule depletor combined with a dopamine antagonist with pronounced ulcerogenic effect, was tested, and the rats were sacrificed 24 h after injurious agent(s) administration. Haloperidol (5 mg x kg(-1) b.w. i.p.), given alone, produced the lesions in all rats. Reserpine (5 mg x kg(-1) b.w. i.p.), given separately, also produced lesions. When these agents were given together, the lesions were apparently larger than in the groups injured with separate administration of either haloperidol or reserpine alone. Along with our previous results, when beneficial agents were co-administered, all dopaminomimetics (bromocriptine 10 mg, apomophine 1 mg, amphetamine 20 mg x kg(-1) i.p.) apparently attenuated the otherwise consistent haloperidol-gastric lesions. Likewise, an apparent inhibition of the reserpine-lesions was noted as well. However, if they were given in rats injured with combination of haloperidol and reserpine, their otherwise prominent beneficial effects were absent. Ranitidine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg), atropine (10 mg), pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (Gly-Glu-Pro-Pro-Pro-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ala-Asp-Asp-Ala-Gly-Leu-Val) (10 microg or 10 ng x kg(-1) i.p.) evidently prevented both haloperidol-gastric lesions and reserpine-gastric lesions. Confronted with potentiated lesions following a combination of haloperidol and reserpine, these agents maintained their beneficial effects, noted in the rats treated with either

  3. Involvement of GABA transporters in atropine-treated myopic retina as revealed by iTRAQ quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Barathi, Veluchamy A; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Poidinger, Michael; Koh, Siew Kwan; Tian, Dechao; Ho, Candice; Iuvone, P Michael; Beuerman, Roger W; Zhou, Lei

    2014-11-01

    Atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, is known to inhibit myopia progression in several animal models and humans. However, the mode of action is not established yet. In this study, we compared quantitative iTRAQ proteomic analysis in the retinas collected from control and lens-induced myopic (LIM) mouse eyes treated with atropine. The myopic group received a (-15D) spectacle lens over the right eye on postnatal day 10 with or without atropine eye drops starting on postnatal day 24. Axial length was measured by optical low coherence interferometry (OLCI), AC-Master, and refraction was measured by automated infrared photorefractor at postnatal 24, 38, and 52 days. Retinal tissue samples were pooled from six eyes for each group. The experiments were repeated twice, and technical replicates were also performed for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. MetaCore was used to perform protein profiling for pathway analysis. We identified a total of 3882 unique proteins with <1% FDR by analyzing the samples in replicates for two independent experiments. This is the largest number of mouse retina proteome reported to date. Thirty proteins were found to be up-regulated (ratio for myopia/control > global mean ratio + 1 standard deviation), and 28 proteins were down-regulated (ratio for myopia/control < global mean ratio - 1 standard deviation) in myopic eyes as compared with control retinas. Pathway analysis using MetaCore revealed regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the myopic eyes. Detailed analysis of the quantitative proteomics data showed that the levels of GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) were elevated in myopic retina and significantly reduced after atropine treatment. These results were further validated with immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. In conclusion, this study provides a comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis of atropine-treated mouse retina and suggests the involvement of GABAergic signaling in the

  4. Sulfate in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies.

  5. Sulfate in fetal development.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    Sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) is an important nutrient for human growth and development, and is obtained from the diet and the intra-cellular metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, including methionine and cysteine. During pregnancy, fetal tissues have a limited capacity to produce sulfate, and rely on sulfate obtained from the maternal circulation. Sulfate enters and exits placental and fetal cells via transporters on the plasma membrane, which maintain a sufficient intracellular supply of sulfate and its universal sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for sulfate conjugation (sulfonation) reactions to function effectively. Sulfotransferases mediate sulfonation of numerous endogenous compounds, including proteins and steroids, which biotransforms their biological activities. In addition, sulfonation of proteoglycans is important for maintaining normal structure and development of tissues, as shown for reduced sulfonation of cartilage proteoglycans that leads to developmental dwarfism disorders and four different osteochondrodysplasias (diastrophic dysplasia, atelosteogenesis type II, achondrogenesis type IB and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia). The removal of sulfate via sulfatases is an important step in proteoglycan degradation, and defects in several sulfatases are linked to perturbed fetal bone development, including mesomelia-synostoses syndrome and chondrodysplasia punctata 1. In recent years, interest in sulfate and its role in developmental biology has expanded following the characterisation of sulfate transporters, sulfotransferases and sulfatases and their involvement in fetal growth. This review will focus on the physiological roles of sulfate in fetal development, with links to human and animal pathophysiologies. PMID:21419855

  6. Efficacy of antidotes (midazolam, atropine and HI-6) on nerve agent induced molecular and neuropathological changes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent alleged attacks with nerve agent sarin on civilians in Syria indicate their potential threat to both civilian and military population. Acute nerve agent exposure can cause rapid death or leads to multiple and long term neurological effects. The biochemical changes that occur following nerve agent exposure needs to be elucidated to understand the mechanisms behind their long term neurological effects and to design better therapeutic drugs to block their multiple neurotoxic effects. In the present study, we intend to study the efficacy of antidotes comprising of HI-6 (1-[[[4-(aminocarbonyl)-pyridinio]-methoxy]-methyl]-2-[(hydroxyimino) methyl] pyridinium dichloride), atropine and midazolam on soman induced neurodegeneration and the expression of c-Fos, Calpain, and Bax levels in discrete rat brain areas. Results Therapeutic regime consisting of HI-6 (50 mg/kg, i.m), atropine (10 mg/kg, i.m) and midazolam (5 mg/kg, i.m) protected animals against soman (2 × LD50, s.c) lethality completely at 2 h and 80% at 24 h. HI-6 treatment reactivated soman inhibited plasma and RBC cholinesterase up to 40%. Fluoro-Jade B (FJ-B) staining of neurodegenerative neurons showed that soman induced significant necrotic neuronal cell death, which was reduced by this antidotal treatment. Soman increased the expression of neuronal proteins including c-Fos, Bax and Calpain levels in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum regions of the brain. This therapeutic regime also reduced the soman induced Bax, Calpain expression levels to near control levels in the different brain regions studied, except a mild induction of c-Fos expression in the hippocampus. Conclusion Rats that received antidotal treatment after soman exposure were protected from mortality and showed reduction in the soman induced expression of c-Fos, Bax and Calpain and necrosis. Results highlight the need for timely administration of better antidotes than standard therapy in order to prevent the

  7. Monohydroxy bile salt sulfates: tauro-3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoate-3-sulfate induces intrahepatic cholestasis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, U.; Karlaganis, G.; Preisig, R.

    1983-09-01

    The biologic effects of sulfation of tauro-3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoate and of taurolithocholate were compared. Equimolar amounts (100 nmol/min X 100 g body wt) of the following were administered intravenously to male Sprague-Dawley rats over a 180-min period: taurolithocholate, (/sup 14/C)taurolithocholate-3-sulfate, tauro-3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoate, (/sup 14/C)tauro-3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoate-3-sulfate, its combination with taurocholate, and a saline-albumin solution (control). Sulfation of taurolithocholate and of tauro-3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoate only prevented the cholestatic effect of the former. Bile flow during infusion of (/sup 14/C)tauro-3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoate-3-sulfate was reduced by 80% at the end of the experiment. A dose-dependent bile flow reduction was demonstrated. Recovery of the administered bile acid was 3% in urine, 13% in serum, 23% in the liver tissue, and 52% in bile, respectively. Excretion of biliary cholesterol and phospholipids was significantly reduced during the first hour of infusion. Coadministration of taurocholate abolished the cholestatic effect and enhanced the renal excretion of the sulfated bile salt. These data suggest that (a) the cholestatic effect of tauro-3 beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoate-3-sulfate is comparable with or may even exceed the effect of taurolithocholate and (b) although sulfation renders some bile salts more water soluble, it does not prevent the cholestatic effect of all monohydroxy bile salts.

  8. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazin, Stephane; Lamanna, William C.; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are found at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, where they interact with a plethora of ligands. Over the last decade, new insights have emerged regarding the mechanism and biological significance of these interactions. Here, we discuss changing views on the specificity of protein–heparan sulfate binding and the activity of HSPGs as receptors and coreceptors. Although few in number, heparan sulfate proteoglycans have profound effects at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level. PMID:21690215

  9. Acute versus subchronic pyridostigmine administration: Effects on the anticholinergic properties of atropine

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew, C.B.; Glenn, J.F.; Bowers, W.D.

    1993-05-13

    Acute, subchronic and chronic exposures to cholinergic compounds may result in differing effects. The efficacy of pyridostigmine bromide (PY) prophylaxis against organophosphorus poisoning depends on post exposure atropine (AT) administration. AT induces a dose-dependent increase in rate of rise of core temperature in heat exposed humans and rats. To determine whether AT's anticholinergic potency is altered following PY administration, we examined AT's effects following acute or subchronic (2 weeks) PY administration in the sedentary heat-stressed rat. Unrestrained rats were used in the following 8 groups of 12: acute (a,2 injections via tail vein) aSAL+SAL, aSAL+AT, aPY+SAL, aPY+AT; subchronic (c, osmotic pump + tail vein) cSAL+SAL, cSAL+AT, cPY+SAL, cPY+AT (SAL- saline, AT- 200 ug/kg, aPY- 100 ug/kg, cPY- 20 ug/hr.) Fifteen minutes following the final injection, rats were subjected to an ambient temperature of 41.5 deg C until a core temperature of 42.6 deg C was attained.

  10. Effect of dorsal hippocampal lesion compared to dorsal hippocampal blockade by atropine on reference memory in vision deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Dhume, R A; Noronha, A; Nagwekar, M D; Mascarenhas, J F

    1989-10-01

    In order to study the primacy of the hippocampus in place learning function 24 male adult albino rats were hippocampally-lesioned in dorsal hippocampus involving fornical damage (group I); sham operated for comparison with group I (group II); cannulated for instillation of atropine sulphate in the same loci as group I (group III); and cannulated for instillation of saline which served as control for group III (group IV). All the animals were enucleated and their reference memory (long-term memory) was tested, using open 4-arm radial maze. There was loss of reference memory in groups I and III. However, hippocampally-lesioned animals, showed recovery of reference memory deficit within a short period of 10 days or so. Whereas atropinized animals showed persistent reference memory deficit as long as the instillation effect continued. The mechanism involved in the recovery of reference memory in hippocampally-lesioned animals and persistent deficit of reference memory in atropinized animals has been postulated to explain the primacy of hippocampus in the place learning function under normal conditions.

  11. TOPICAL 0.03% ATROPINE VS. 15% ALUMINUM CHLORIDE IN TREATING MULTIPLE ECCRINE HIDROCYSTOMAS: A RANDOMIZED SINGLE BLIND CONTROLLED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Amirhoushang, Ehsani; Mostafa, Mirshams Shashahani; Maryam, Akhyani; Pardis, Noormohamadpour; Pedram, Noormohamadpour

    2010-01-01

    Background: Multiple eccrine hidrocystomas pose a significant treatment challenge due to their facial location and tendency to scar after traditional surgical and other destructive modalities. Aims: To compare two frequently used non-destructive therapeutic modalities. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with multiple eccrine hidrocystomas were enrolled in the study. They used topical 0.03% Atropine cream and 15% AlCl3 solution on left and right sides of their face randomly for 4 weeks. All the patients were visited before commencing the therapy as well as two and four weeks later by a dermatologist, blinded to the drugs and the number of lesions. Results: Twenty nine patients (25 females, four males) completed the study. The mean reduction in the number of lesions was significantly higher with Atropine cream in comparison with AlCl3 solution, 10.2±7.4 vs. 6.2±5.3 (P < 0.05). There were no recurrences after three months follow-up in both groups. Conclusion: It seems that both Atropine and AlCl3 are useful therapies in eccrine hidrocytomas but the former might be more effective. We think that other randomized clinical trials with larger sample sizes are needed. PMID:20418978

  12. Sulfate metabolism in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Schelle, Michael W; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2006-10-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have developed numerous mechanisms to survive inside a hostile host environment. The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is thought to control the human immune response with diverse biomolecules, including a variety of exotic lipids. One prevalent M. tb-specific sulfated metabolite, termed sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), has been correlated with virulence though its specific biological function is not known. Recent advances in our understanding of SL-1 biosynthesis will help elucidate the role of this curious metabolite in M. tb infection. Furthermore, the study of SL-1 has led to questions regarding the significance of sulfation in mycobacteria. Examples of sulfated metabolites as mediators of interactions between bacteria and plants suggest that sulfation is a key modulator of extracellular signaling between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The discovery of novel sulfated metabolites in M. tb and related mycobacteria strengthens this hypothesis. Finally, mechanistic and structural data from sulfate-assimilation enzymes have revealed how M. tb controls the flux of sulfate in the cell. Mutants with defects in sulfate assimilation indicate that the fate of sulfur in M. tb is a critical survival determinant for the bacteria during infection and suggest novel targets for tuberculosis drug therapy.

  13. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1044b - Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. 520....1044b Gentamicin sulfate pig pump oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of pig pump oral.... (d) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Administer 1.15 milliliters of pig pump oral solution (5...

  18. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Pomin, Vitor H.

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein. PMID:24413804

  19. Holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS) is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  20. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... kanamycin sensitive organisms in dogs and cats. (2) It is administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Kanamycin sulfate injection. 522.1204 Section 522.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... kanamycin sensitive organisms in dogs and cats. (2) It is administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly...

  2. Visual hallucinations on eye closure associated with atropine toxicity. A neurological analysis and comparison with other visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C M

    1991-02-01

    Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium. PMID:2036612

  3. Visual hallucinations on eye closure associated with atropine toxicity. A neurological analysis and comparison with other visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C M

    1991-02-01

    Visual hallucinations of remarkable intensity began shortly after intravenous atropine and persisted for 11 days. They were present only when the eyes were closed and were associated with heightened dreaming and disturbed sleep. The patient remained lucid and described his experiences to his attendants. Our patient's hallucinations bore some resemblance to hypnagogic hallucinations and this became the basis for the hypothesis that the hallucinations originated in the sleep-dream system of the brain stem. It is speculated that a similar site--a metabolic locus minoris resistentiae may play a part in other types of visual hallucinations and in delirium.

  4. Antagonism of acetylcholine action in guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle and epithelium by pirenzepine, 4-DAMP and atropine.

    PubMed

    Orer, H S; Guc, M O; Rezaki, Y E; Ilhan, M; Kayaalp, S O

    1990-01-01

    Acetylcholine-induced guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle contraction and epithelium-derived relaxant factor release were evaluated using guinea-pig open tracheal rings and rat anococcygeus muscle bioassay to get insight into the participation of muscarinic receptor subtypes in these responses. There was a significant difference between the two pA2 values obtained in contraction and relaxation experiments for pirenzepine, but no difference was found either for atropine or for 4-DAMP. This difference seems to be due to the participation of M1-receptors in smooth muscle contraction.

  5. [The effect of atropine and diazepam on mammalian neuromuscular junction--a model of their protective action against anticholinesterase-based war and agriculture poisons].

    PubMed

    Vyskocil, Frantisek

    2006-01-01

    The effect of atropine and diazepam on the mammalian neuromuscular junction. Nicotinolytic effect of atropine on the neuromuscular junction is discussed as a main mechanism of the beneficial effect of this drug during war and agriculture poisoning by anticholinesterases. Atropine is beneficial as it reduces the amplitude of intracellularly recorded endplate potentials and, first of all, causes a marked shortening of their time course (Beránek, Vyskocil 1968, Magazanik, Vyskocil 1969). Diazepam effectively blocks trains of action potentials in individual rat diaphragm muscle fibers, apparently by elevating the chloride permeability. It is suggested that similar increase in Cl- permeability may occur in brain excitable structures and can counteract the anticholinesterase-induced prolongation of ACh-depolarization that evokes repetitive firing.

  6. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  7. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  8. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  9. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  10. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  11. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate as a new oral antithrombotic agent.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Roberto J C; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2006-12-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate is a potent anticoagulant polysaccharide extracted from sea cucumber. Its anticoagulant activity is attributed to the presence of sulfated fucose branches. We have shown that intravascular injection of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate inhibits thrombus formation in a venous and an arterial shunt model in rats. Since this compound resists digestion by enzymes that cleave mammalian glycosaminoglycans, we investigated the possibility that fucosylated chondroitin sulfate might be absorbed after oral administration. In fact, after oral administration of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate to rats, we observed a dose-dependent increase in the plasma anticoagulant activity, as assessed by assays for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin time (TT) (about 3- and 5-fold, respectively) and by anti-IIa activity. Furthermore, animals receiving daily oral doses of this glycosaminoglycan showed a decrease in thrombus weight on experimental models of venous and arterial shunt thrombosis. This antithrombotic action clearly has a strong relationship with anticoagulant activity. Similar doses of heparin administered orally had no effect on the plasma anticoagulant activity or on the thrombus weight. Finally, we observed that fucosylated chondroitin sulfate given orally to rats did not modify the bleeding time. Overall, our results indicate that fucosylated chondroitin sulfate is absorbed after oral administration and could become a promising oral anticoagulant.

  12. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Müllauer, Wolfram Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  13. Sulfate reducers can outcompete methanogens at freshwater sulfate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Lovley, D.R.; Klug, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Acetate and hydrogen metabolism by sulfate reducers and methanogens in the profundal sediments of an oligotrophic lake were examined. Inhibition of sulfate reduction with molybdate stimulated methane production from both hydrogen and acetate. Molybdate did not stimulate methane production in sediments that were preincubated to deplete the sulfate pool. Sulfate reduction accounted for 30 to 81% of the total of terminal metabolism proceeding through sulfate reduction and methane production in Eckman grab samples of surface sediments. The ability of sulfate reducers to effectively compete with methanogens for acetate was related to the sulfate reducers lower half-saturation constant for acetate metabolism at in situ sulfate concentrations. Processes other than sulfate reduction and methanogenesis consumed hydrogen at elevated hydrogen partial pressures and prevented a kinetic analysis of hydrogen uptake by sulfate reducers and methanogens. The demonstration that sulfate reducers can successfully compete with methanogens for hydrogen and acetate in sediments at in situ sulfate concentrations of 60 to 105 mM extends the known range of sediment habitats in which sulfate reduction can be a dominant terminal process.

  14. 75 FR 15642 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Exempted Prescription Product; River Edge Pharmaceutical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... hyoscyamine sulfate, atropine sulfate and scopolamine hydrobromide. The Deputy Assistant Administrator, Office..., atropine sulfate and scopolamine hydrobromide. These ingredients are not controlled substances. In...

  15. Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrazine / Hydrazine sulfate ; CASRN 302 - 01 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  16. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  17. In vitro activation of the medial septum-diagonal band complex generates atropine-sensitive and atropine-resistant hippocampal theta rhythm: an investigation using a complete septohippocampal preparation.

    PubMed

    Goutagny, Romain; Manseau, Frédéric; Jackson, Jesse; Danik, Marc; Williams, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    The medial septum and diagonal band complex (MS-DB) is believed to play a key role in generating theta oscillations in the hippocampus, a phenomenon critical for learning and memory. Although the importance of the MS-DB in hippocampal theta rhythm generation is generally accepted, it remains to be determined whether the MS-DB alone can generate hippocampal oscillations or is only a transducer of rhythmic activity from other brain areas. Secondly, it is known that hippocampal theta rhythm can be separated into an atropine-sensitive and insensitive component. However, it remains to be established if the MS-DB can generate both types of rhythm. To answer these questions, we used a new in vitro rat septohippocampal preparation placed in a hermetically separated two side recording chamber. We showed that carbachol activation of the MS-DB generated large theta oscillations in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. These oscillations were blocked by applying either the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline or the AMPA/kainate antagonist DNQX to the hippocampus. Interestingly, the application of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine produced only a partial decrease in the amplitude, without modification of the frequency, of theta. These results show for the first time, that upon optimal excitation, the MS-DB alone is able to generate hippocampal oscillations in the theta frequency band. Moreover, these MS-DB generated theta oscillations are mediated by muscarinic and nonmuscarinic receptors and have a pharmacological profile similar to theta rhythm observed in awake animals. PMID:18306282

  18. Medical Research and Evaluation Facility (MREF) and studies supporting the medical chemical defense program: Development of procedures to enhance atropine antisera production in rabbits. Final report, July 1992-July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C.T.; Miller, L.; Bhullar, B.; Benecke, H.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the production of rabbit anti-atropine antisera for future analytical studies. There were two phases to this project: evaluation of methods to enhance atropine antisera titers, and antisera production and characterization. Anti-atropine antisera were prepared using a high-density conjugate. The radioimmunoassay performance characteristics were similar for both the Battelle and Walter Reed Army Institute of Research antisera. However, a lower detection limit and a more dynamic response range were obtained with the Battelle antisera. Minor changes were made in the atropine radioimmunoassay to improve its reliability. There were approximately 250 mL of atropine antisera collected during this project, providing a useful antisera supply adequate for 250,000 tests.

  19. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dallam, R.D.

    1987-03-23

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H/sub 2//sup 35/SO/sub 4/) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants.

    PubMed

    Dallam, R D

    1987-03-23

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H2 35SO4) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide...

  2. Relaxation processes in administered-rate pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Arnold, Michael R.

    2000-10-01

    We show how the theory of anelasticity unifies the observed dynamics and proposed models of administered-rate products. This theory yields a straightforward approach to rate model construction that we illustrate by simulating the observed relaxation dynamics of two administered rate products. We also demonstrate how the use of this formalism leads to a natural definition of market friction.

  3. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  4. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  5. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  6. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  7. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  8. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-04-05

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-(14C)glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo(14C)chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo(14C) chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo(14C)chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent.

  9. Off limits: sulfate below the sulfate-methane transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Benjamin; Arnold, Gail; Røy, Hans; Müller, Inigo; Jørgensen, Bo

    2016-07-01

    One of the most intriguing recent discoveries in biogeochemistry is the ubiquity of cryptic sulfur cycling. From subglacial lakes to marine oxygen minimum zones, and in marine sediments, cryptic sulfur cycling - the simultaneous sulfate consumption and production - has been observed. Though this process does not leave an imprint in the sulfur budget of the ambient environment - thus the term cryptic - it may have a massive impact on other element cycles and fundamentally change our understanding of biogeochemical processes in the subsurface. Classically, the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) in marine sediments is considered to be the boundary that delimits sulfate reduction from methanogenesis as the predominant terminal pathway of organic matter mineralization. Two sediment cores from Aarhus Bay, Denmark reveal the constant presence of sulfate (generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM) below the SMT. The sulfur and oxygen isotope signature of this deep sulfate (34S = 18.9‰, 18O = 7.7‰) was close to the isotope signature of bottom-seawater collected from the sampling site (34S = 19.8‰, 18O = 7.3‰). In one of the cores, oxygen isotope values of sulfate at the transition from the base of the SMT to the deep sulfate pool (18O = 4.5‰ to 6.8‰) were distinctly lighter than the deep sulfate pool. Our findings are consistent with a scenario where sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O is removed at the base of the SMT and replaced with isotopically light sulfate below. Here, we explore scenarios that explain this observation, ranging from sampling artifacts, such as contamination with seawater or auto-oxidation of sulfide - to the potential of sulfate generation in a section of the sediment column where sulfate is expected to be absent which enables reductive sulfur cycling, creating the conditions under which sulfate respiration can persist in the methanic zone.

  10. Multiple animal studies for medical chemical defense program in soldier/patient decontamination and drug development on task 85-18: Conduct of pralidoxime chloride, atropine in citrate buffer and pyridostigmine bromide pharmacokinetic studies, and comparative evaluation of the efficacy of pyridostigmine plus atropine. Final report, June 1985-August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Joiner, R.L.; Kluwe, M.

    1988-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, pyridostigmine bromide, as an addition to standard therapy with atropine pralidoxime bromide, as an addition to standard therapy with atropine and pralidoxime chloride (2-PM), against the acute lethal effects of Soman, GD, using a primate model (male, Rhesus monkey). In addition, the pharmacokinetics of pyridostigmine bromide (intragastric), atropine (intramuscular), and 2-PAM (intramuscular) were individually examined in the primate model using three different dose levels for each compound. In the efficacy study, the combined prophylactic/post/challenge therapy regimen resulted in survival following an intramuscular challenge dose as high as 617 micrograms/kg in contrast to an estimated, unprotected, median lethal GD dose (LD50) of 15.3 micrograms/kg for the same animals.

  11. Sulfate scale dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

  12. Ferric sulfates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the possible existence of ferric sulfato complexes and hydroxo ferric sulfate minerals in the permafrost of Mars. A sequential combination of ten unique conditions during the cooling history of Mars is suggested which is believed to have generated an environment within Martian permafrost that has stabilized Fe(3+)-SO4(2-)-bearing species. It is argued that minerals belonging to the jarosite and copiapite groups could be present in Martian regolith analyzed in the Viking XRF measurements at Chryse and Utopia, and that maghemite suspected to be coating the Viking magnet arrays is a hydrolysate of dissolved ferric sulfato complexes from exposed Martian permafrost.

  13. Influence of dosage, consciousness, and nifedipine on the acute pressor response to intraperitoneally administered cadmium. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.E.; Hungerford, S.

    1982-05-01

    The acute pressor effect of intraperitoneally administered cadmium was explored over the dose range 0.015-2 mg/kg in both pentobarbital-anesthetized and conscious rats. The former first respondent at 0.031 mg/kg, and successive doublings of that dosage increased the highest pressures attained in a stepwise fashion until a dosage of 0.25 mg/kg, the maximally effective quantity, was reached. Arterial pressure did not rise in conscious rats until a dose of 1 mg/kg, which gave the maximum response within the range examined. Heart-rate changes with Cd were slight, and rarely significant at a given dosage, but pentobarbital invariably caused tachycardia. Anesthetized rats thus gave a graded response, while conscious animals reacted in an all-or-none fashion. The increased pressor responsiveness of rats under pentobarbital can not be ascribed to its cardiac parasympatholytic effects, since sensitivity was not conferred upon conscious rats when pretreated with atropine at a dose producing even greater tachycardia than that caused by pentobarbital. Nifedipine, which blocks calcium entry into smooth muscle cells, prevented the pressor response to cadmium when given as pretreatment and terminated an ongoing response when give intercurrently. Possible mechanisms to account for the observed behavior are considered.

  14. Adeninium cytosinium sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Cherouana, Aouatef; Bousboua, Raja; Bendjeddou, Lamia; Dahaoui, Slimane; Lecomte, Claude

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, C5H6N5 +·C4H6N3O+·SO4 2−, the adeninium (AdH+) and cytosinium (CytH+) cations and sulfate dianion are involved in a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network with four different modes, viz. AdH+⋯AdH+, AdH+⋯CytH+, AdH+⋯SO4 2− and CytH+⋯SO4 2−. The adeninium cations form N—H⋯N dimers through the Hoogsteen faces, generating a characteristic R 2 2(10) motif. This AdH+⋯AdH+ hydrogen bond in combination with AdH+⋯CytH+ H-bonds leads to two-dimensional cationic ribbons parallel to the a axis. The sulfate anions inter­link the ribbons into a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network and thus reinforce the crystal structure. PMID:21577678

  15. Pretreatment procedure for the microdetermination of chondroitin sulfate in plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shinobu; Onose, Jun-ichi; Nakamura, Haruka; Toyoda, Hidenao; Toida, Toshihiko; Imanari, Toshio; Linhardt, Robert J

    2002-03-15

    A new, simple, and rapid pretreatment method for the determination of chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronan from urine and blood plasma samples has been developed. Plasma proteins were first converted into small peptides by digestion using a nonspecific protease, actinase E, and the resulting small peptides were removed by centrifugal filtration. The retained, residual crude glycosaminoglycans, including chondroitin/dermatan sulfates and hyaluronan, were converted into unsaturated disaccharides through the action of chondroitin sulfate lyses. Next, these disaccharides were recovered and purified using centrifugal filtration together with DeltaDi-UA2S, added as an internal standard. The filtered disaccharide mixture was analyzed by HPLC with fluorometric postcolumn derivatization using 2-cyanoacetamide as a fluorogenic reagent. This method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study of chondroitin sulfate administered intravenously to mice. The half-life of the administered chondroitin sulfates, having molecular masses from 6 to 50 kDa, varied depending on their molecular sizes. This new method should be useful for studies on the metabolic fate of exogenously administered glycosaminoglycans in small experimental animals. PMID:11878794

  16. Detection and characterization of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Balcells, Georgina; Pozo, Oscar J; Garrostas, Lorena; Esquivel, Argitxu; Matabosch, Xavier; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Joglar, Jesús; Ventura, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic testosterone derivatives which undergo extensive metabolism in man. Differences in the excretion of phase II metabolites are strongly associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations. Sulfate metabolites have been described as long-term metabolites for some AAS. Clostebol is the 4-chloro derivative of testosterone and the aim of the present study was the evaluation of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population by LC-MS/MS technology. Clostebol was orally administered to four healthy Caucasian male volunteers, and excretion study urines were collected up to 31 days. Several analytical strategies (neutral loss scan, precursor ion scan and selected reaction monitoring acquisitions modes) were applied to detect sulfate metabolites in post-administration samples. Sixteen sulfate metabolites were detected, five of them having detectability times above 10 days (S1a, S2a, S3b, S3g and S4b). Interestingly, metabolite S1a could be detected up to the last collected sample of all excretion studies and it was characterized by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS as 4ξ-chloro-5α-androst-3β-ol-17-one 3β-sulfate. Thus, monitoring of S1a improves the detection time of clostebol misuse with respect to the commonly monitored metabolites, excreted in the glucuronide fraction. Importantly, this new metabolite can be incorporated into recently developed LC-MS/MS screening methods base on the direct detection of phase II metabolites. PMID:27085012

  17. Simultaneous determination of atropine, anisodamine, and scopolamine in plant extract by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemiluminescence and electrochemistry dual detection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Baiqing; Zheng, Chunying; Teng, Hong; You, Tianyan

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and simple method was demonstrated for the analysis of atropine, anisodamine, and scopolamine by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) coupled with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) and electrochemistry (EC) dual detection. The mixture of acetonitrile (ACN) and 2-propanol containing 1M acetic acid (HAc), 20mM sodium acetate (NaAc), and 2.5mM tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) was used as the electrophoretic buffer. Although a short capillary of 18cm was used, the decoupler was not needed and the separation efficiency was good. The linear ranges of atropine, anisodamine, and scopolamine were 0.5-50, 5-2000, and 50-2000microM, respectively. For six replicate measurements of 100microM scopolamine, 15microM atropine, and 200microM anisodamine, the RSDs of ECL intensity, EC current, and migration time were less than 3.6%, 4.5%, and 0.3%, respectively. In addition, because the organic buffer was used, the working electrode (Pt) was not easily fouled and did not need reactivation. The method was also applied for the determination of these three alkaloids in Flos daturae extract. PMID:19931863

  18. Simple validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of atropine and scopolamine in plasma for clinical and forensic toxicological purposes.

    PubMed

    Koželj, Gordana; Perharič, Lucija; Stanovnik, Lovro; Prosen, Helena

    2014-08-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of atropine and scopolamine in 100μL human plasma was developed and validated. Sample pretreatment consisted of protein precipitation with acetonitrile followed by a concentration step. Analytes and levobupivacaine (internal standard) were separated on a Zorbax XDB-CN column (75mm×4.6mm i.d., 3.5μm) with gradient elution (purified water, acetonitrile, formic acid). The triple quadrupole MS was operated in ESI positive mode. Matrix effect was estimated for deproteinised plasma samples. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was used for quantification in the range of 0.10-50.00ng/mL. Interday precision for both tropanes and intraday precision for atropine was <10%, intraday precision for scopolamine was <14% and <18% at lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). Mean interday and intraday accuracies for atropine were within ±7% and for scopolamine within ±11%. The method can be used for determination of therapeutic and toxic levels of both compounds and has been successfully applied to a study of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of tropanes, where plasma samples of volunteers were collected at fixed time intervals after ingestion of a buckwheat meal, spiked with five low doses of tropanes.

  19. Simultaneous determination of atropine, anisodamine, and scopolamine in plant extract by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis coupled with electrochemiluminescence and electrochemistry dual detection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Baiqing; Zheng, Chunying; Teng, Hong; You, Tianyan

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and simple method was demonstrated for the analysis of atropine, anisodamine, and scopolamine by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) coupled with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) and electrochemistry (EC) dual detection. The mixture of acetonitrile (ACN) and 2-propanol containing 1M acetic acid (HAc), 20mM sodium acetate (NaAc), and 2.5mM tetrabutylammonium perchlorate (TBAP) was used as the electrophoretic buffer. Although a short capillary of 18cm was used, the decoupler was not needed and the separation efficiency was good. The linear ranges of atropine, anisodamine, and scopolamine were 0.5-50, 5-2000, and 50-2000microM, respectively. For six replicate measurements of 100microM scopolamine, 15microM atropine, and 200microM anisodamine, the RSDs of ECL intensity, EC current, and migration time were less than 3.6%, 4.5%, and 0.3%, respectively. In addition, because the organic buffer was used, the working electrode (Pt) was not easily fouled and did not need reactivation. The method was also applied for the determination of these three alkaloids in Flos daturae extract.

  20. Glycosaminoglycan sulfation in murine splenocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, C.C.; Hart, G.W.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have studied the incorporation of /sup 35/sulfate into glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in splenocytes incubated in medium RPMI 1640 containing 3..mu..M sulfate. Addition of Concanavalin A (Con A) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused within 24 hr a 10- to 20-fold increase in incorporation into secreted GAG and a 2- to 4-fold increase in cell-retained GAG. PMA added alone caused only 2- to 4-fold increases in both fractions. Between 0 and 3 h however, PMA either alone or with Con A caused a substantial decrease in the incorporation of sulfate into the cellular GAG fraction, suggesting that an immediate effect of these agents is to cause the clearance of nascent GAG chains from the Golgi. The composition of newly sulfated lymphocyte GAG has been found to be approximately 75% chondroitin sulfate and 25% heparan sulfates in both secreted and non-secreted GAG irrespective of the presence of Con A and PMA. Amino column HPLC analysis of disaccharides released by chondroitinase ABC digestion indicates that both ..delta.. Di-4S and ..delta.. Di-6S are produced with the proportion of the latter increasing gradually from initially low levels such that at 24 h, equal proportions of the two are found. Possible mechanisms for this change in the position of sulfation will be discussed.

  1. LC-ESI MS/MS quantification of atropine and six other antimuscarinic tropane alkaloids in plasma.

    PubMed

    John, Harald; Binder, Tobias; Höchstetter, Hans; Thiermann, Horst

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a quantitative liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) procedure for the simultaneous determination of seven natural and semisynthetic tropane alkaloids in plasma: atropine (d-hyoscyamine/l-hyoscyamine), cocaine, homatropine, ipratropium, littorine, N-butylscopolamine, and scopolamine. Plasma and serum samples were precipitated for deproteinization (recovery 88-94%), followed by reversed-phase-based liquid chromatography prior to positive electrospray ionization for detection by multiple reaction monitoring using a linear ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer. All analytes were quantified using cocaine-d3 as an internal standard suitable and reliable for robust, precise (coefficient of variation 2-13%), and accurate (87-122%) measurement within a linear range of 3 orders of magnitude (0.05-50 ng/ml plasma). The method was exemplarily applied to stability studies in phosphate-buffered saline, human serum, and rabbit serum. Each alkaloid was incubated separately and samples were taken at distinct incubation time points. Supernatants of diverse alkaloids at corresponding time points were pooled and subjected to simultaneous LC-ESI MS/MS quantification. This combinatorial analysis design allowed us to analyze the stability of samples with a drastically reduced number of chromatographic runs. In the presence of rabbit serum, all tropane alkaloids tested were degraded significantly within minutes to hours, with the exception of the stable semisynthetic compounds ipratropium and N-butylscopolamine. In contrast, in the presence of equal concentrations of human serum, no degradation was observed for any of the compounds, with the exception of cocaine. Relevant enzymes involved in enzymatic degradation are discussed.

  2. Post-exposure treatment with nasal atropine methyl bromide protects against microinstillation inhalation exposure to sarin in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Che, Magnus M.; Conti, Michele; Boylan, Megan; Sabnekar, Praveena; Rezk, Peter; Sciuto, Alfred M.; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.

    2009-09-15

    We evaluated the protective efficacy of nasal atropine methyl bromide (AMB) which does not cross the blood-brain barrier against sarin inhalation exposure. Age and weight matched male guinea pigs were exposed to 846.5 mg/m{sup 3} sarin using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min. The survival rate at this dose was 20%. Post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB (2.5 mg/kg, 1 min) completely protected against sarin induced toxicity (100% survival). Development of muscular tremors was decreased in animals treated with nasal AMB. Post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB also normalized acute decrease in blood oxygen saturation and heart rate following sarin exposure. Inhibition of blood AChE and BChE activities following sarin exposure was reduced in animals treated with nasal AMB, indicating that survival increases the metabolism of sarin or expression of AChE. The body weight loss of animals exposed to sarin and treated with nasal AMB was similar to saline controls. No differences were observed in lung accessory lobe or tracheal edema following exposure to sarin and subsequent treatment with nasal AMB. Total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein, a biomarker of lung injury, showed trends similar to saline controls. Surfactant levels post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB returned to normal, similar to saline controls. Alkaline phosphatase levels post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB were decreased. Taken together, these data suggest that nasal AMB blocks the copious airway secretion and peripheral cholinergic effects and protects against lethal inhalation exposure to sarin thus increasing survival.

  3. Transthoracic measurement of left coronary artery flow reserve improves the diagnostic value of routine dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiogram

    PubMed Central

    Wejner-Mik, Paulina; Nouri, Aria; Szymczyk, Ewa; Krzemińska-Pakuła, Maria; Lipiec, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the left anterior descending artery (LAD) can be effectively measured during an accelerated dipyridamole-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE) protocol to improve the diagnostic performance of the test. Material and methods In 64 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease scheduled for coronary angiography DASE with concomitant CFR measurement in LAD was performed. Results Coronary flow reserve measurement and calculation were feasible in 83% of patients. The positive predictive value of undetectable LAD flow was 81% for severe LAD disease. Measured values of CFR were in the range 1.3–4.1 (mean: 2.2 ±0.7). Significantly lower CFR was found in patients with LAD disease (1.97 ±0.62 vs. 2.55 ±0.57, p = 0.0015). The optimal cutoff for detecting ≥ 50% stenosis was CFR ≤ 2.1 (ROC AUC 0.776), corresponding with 68% sensitivity and 84% specificity. In patients with negative DASE results 67% of patients with LAD disease had abnormal CFR, whereas in patients with a positive DASE result 92% of patients with normal LAD had normal CFR. The DASE diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) increased from 75% to 85% when CFR measurement was added to wall motion abnormality (WMA) analysis. No test with both abnormalities was false positive for the detection of coronary disease. Conclusions Incorporation of CFR measurement into WMA-based stress echocardiography is feasible even in an accelerated DASE protocol and can be translated into an approximate gain of 10% in overall test accuracy. PMID:24273560

  4. Post-exposure treatment with nasal atropine methyl bromide protects against microinstillation inhalation exposure to sarin in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Che, Magnus M; Conti, Michele; Chanda, Soma; Boylan, Megan; Sabnekar, Praveena; Rezk, Peter; Amari, Ethery; Sciuto, Alfred M; Gordon, Richard K; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2009-09-15

    We evaluated the protective efficacy of nasal atropine methyl bromide (AMB) which does not cross the blood-brain barrier against sarin inhalation exposure. Age and weight matched male guinea pigs were exposed to 846.5 mg/m(3) sarin using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min. The survival rate at this dose was 20%. Post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB (2.5 mg/kg, 1 min) completely protected against sarin induced toxicity (100% survival). Development of muscular tremors was decreased in animals treated with nasal AMB. Post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB also normalized acute decrease in blood oxygen saturation and heart rate following sarin exposure. Inhibition of blood AChE and BChE activities following sarin exposure was reduced in animals treated with nasal AMB, indicating that survival increases the metabolism of sarin or expression of AChE. The body weight loss of animals exposed to sarin and treated with nasal AMB was similar to saline controls. No differences were observed in lung accessory lobe or tracheal edema following exposure to sarin and subsequent treatment with nasal AMB. Total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein, a biomarker of lung injury, showed trends similar to saline controls. Surfactant levels post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB returned to normal, similar to saline controls. Alkaline phosphatase levels post-exposure treatment with nasal AMB were decreased. Taken together, these data suggest that nasal AMB blocks the copious airway secretion and peripheral cholinergic effects and protects against lethal inhalation exposure to sarin thus increasing survival.

  5. Teaching Students to Administer the WISC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kathleen Yost

    1977-01-01

    A college level psychology course is described in which students were trained by both traditional and experimental methods to administer individual intelligence tests. Comparative analysis of performance by each group indicates that student motivation and performance is not greatly influenced by teaching method and that videotape demonstrations…

  6. Changes in Medications Administered in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Johnson, Shella; Roman, Jaclyn; Zimmerman, M. Bridget

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to determine if there have been changes in the type and number of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) medications administered in schools since the introduction of long-acting stimulants. A survey was sent to 1,000 school nurses randomly selected from the National Association…

  7. Simultaneous quantification of cholesterol sulfate, androgen sulfates, and progestagen sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS[S

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Oji, Vinzenz; Hartmann, Michaela F.; Traupe, Heiko; Wudy, Stefan A.

    2015-01-01

    Steroids are primarily present in human fluids in their sulfated forms. Profiling of these compounds is important from both diagnostic and physiological points of view. Here, we present a novel method for the quantification of 11 intact steroid sulfates in human serum by LC-MS/MS. The compounds analyzed in our method, some of which are quantified for the first time in blood, include cholesterol sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone sulfate, 16-α-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenediol sulfate, androsterone sulfate, epiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone sulfate, epitestosterone sulfate, and dihydrotestosterone sulfate. The assay was conceived to quantify sulfated steroids in a broad range of concentrations, requiring only 300 μl of serum. The method has been validated and its performance was studied at three quality controls, selected for each compound according to its physiological concentration. The assay showed good linearity (R2 > 0.99) and recovery for all the compounds, with limits of quantification ranging between 1 and 80 ng/ml. Averaged intra-day and between-day precisions (coefficient of variation) and accuracies (relative errors) were below 10%. The method has been successfully applied to study the sulfated steroidome in diseases such as steroid sulfatase deficiency, proving its diagnostic value. This is, to our best knowledge, the most comprehensive method available for the quantification of sulfated steroids in human blood. PMID:26239050

  8. Mine Waste Technology Program. In Situ Source Control Of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of the Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 3, In Situ Source Control of Acid Generation Using Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S....

  9. 21 CFR 520.82b - Aminopropazine fumarate, neomycin sulfate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains both aminopropazine fumarate equivalent to 25 milligrams of aminopropazine base and neomycin sulfate equivalent to 50 milligrams of neomycin base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this... administered at a dosage level of one to two tablets per 10 pounds of body weight twice daily for 3 days.1...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  14. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate. 558.364 Section 558.364 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin sulfate. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated article: 325 grams per.... (c) (d) Conditions of use. Neomycin sulfate is used as follows: Neomycin Sulfate...

  15. Effect of atropine and gammahydroxybutyrate on ischemically induced changes in the level of radioactivity in (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates in gerbil brain in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wikiel, H.; Halat, G.; Strosznajder, J.

    1988-05-01

    Brain ischemia in gerbils was induced by ligation of both common carotid arteries for 1 min or 10 min. Sham-operated animals served as controls. Intracerebral injection of (3H)inositol into gerbil brain 16 hr before ischemic insult resulted in equilibration of the label between inositol lipids and water-soluble inositol phosphate. A short ischemic period (1 min) resulted in a statistically significant increase in the radioactivity of inositol triphosphate (IP3) and inositol monophosphate (IP), by about 48% and 79%, respectively, with little change in that of the intermediate inositol biphosphate (IP2), which increased by about 16%. When the ischemic period was prolonged (10 min), an increase in the radioactivity of inositol monophosphate exclusively, by about 84%, was observed. The level of radioactivity in inositol phosphates IP2 and IP3 decreased by about 50%, probably as a consequence of phosphatase activation by the ischemic insult. The agonist of the cholinergic receptor, carbachol, injected intracerebrally (40 micrograms per animal) increased accumulation of radioactivity in all inositol phosphates. The level of radioactivity in IP3, IP2, and IP was elevated by about 40, 23, and 147%, respectively. The muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, atropine, injected intraperitoneally in doses of 100 mg/kg body wt. depressed phosphoinositide metabolism in control animals. The level of radioactivity in water-soluble inositol metabolites in the brain of animals pretreated with atropine was evidently about 32% lower than in untreated animals. Pretreatment with atropine decreased the radioactivity of all inositol phosphates in the brain of animals subjected to 1-min ischemia and the radioactivity of IP in the case of 10-min brain ischemia.

  16. Lung lesions and anti-ulcer agents beneficial effect: anti-ulcer agents pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine, omeprazole and atropine ameliorate lung lesion in rats.

    PubMed

    Stancic-Rokotov, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Aralica, J; Aralica, G; Perovic, D; Staresinic, M; Gjurasin, M; Anic, T; Zoricic, I; Buljat, G; Prkacin, I; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Turkovic, B; Kokic, N; Jagic, V; Boban-Blagaic, A

    2001-01-01

    Anti-ulcer agents may likely attenuate lesions outside the gastrointestinal tract, since they had protected gastrectomized rats (a "direct cytoprotective effect"). Therefore, their therapeutic potential in lung/stomach lesions were shown. Rats received an intratracheal (i.t.) HCl instillation [1.5 ml/kg HCl (pH 1.75)] (lung lesion), and an intragastric (i.g.) instillation of 96% ethanol (gastric lesion; 1 ml/rat, 24 h after i.t. HCl instillation), then sacrificed 1 h after ethanol. Basically, in lung-injured rats, the subsequent ethanol-gastric lesion was markedly aggravated. This aggravation, however, in turn, did not affect the severity of the lung lesions in the further period, at least for 1 h of observation. Taking intratracheal HCl-instillation as time 0, a gastric pentadecapeptide, GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W.1419, coded BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg), ranitidine (10 mg), atropine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg), were given [/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] (i) once, only prophylactically [as a pre-treatment (at -1h)], or as a co-treatment [at 0)], or only therapeutically (at +18h or +24 h); (ii) repeatedly, combining prophylactic/therapeutic regimens [(-1 h)+(+24 h)] or [(0)+(+24 h)], or therapeutic/therapeutic regimens [(+18 h)+(+24 h)]. For all agents, combining their prophylactic and salutary regimens (at -1 h/+24 h, or at 0/+24 h) attenuated lung lesions; even if effect had been not seen already with a single application, it became prominent after repeated treatment. In single application studies, relative to controls, a co-treatment (except to omeprazole), a pre-treatment (at -1 h) (pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and atropine, but not ranitidine and omeprazole) regularly attenuated, while therapeutically, atropine (at +18 h), pentadecapeptide BPC 157 highest dose and omeprazole (at +24 h), reversed the otherwise more severe lung lesions. PMID:11595454

  17. Sulfate-rich Archean Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, J. L.; Choney, A. P.; Ohmoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    There is a widely held belief that prior to 2.4 Ga, the Archean oceans and atmosphere were reducing, and therefore sulfate poor (concentrations <0.1 mmol). However, there is mounting evidence from diverse rock types of Archean ages that sulfate concentrations were likely similar to those in the modern ocean (~28 mmol). In this study we demonstrate that in different lithologies, representing a wide range of marine environments, there is ubiquitous evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. One of the more apparent lines of evidence for sulfate rich Archean waters are bedded barite (BaSO4) deposits, such as those in the ~3.4 Ga Fig Tree Group, South Africa and ~3.5 Ga Dresser Formation, Western Australia (WA). These deposits are thick (>100 m), widely distributed (> km2), and contain only minor amounts of sulfides. These barite beds may have developed from reactions between Ba-rich hydrothermal fluids and evaporate bodies. Simple mass balance calculations suggest that the sulfate contents of the pre-evaporitic seawater must have been greater than ~1 mM. Some researchers have suggested that the SO4 for these beds was derived from the hydrolysis of SO2-rich magmatic fluids. However, this was unlikely as the reaction, 4SO2 + 4H2O → 3H2SO4 + H2S would have produced large amounts of sulfide, as well as sulfate minerals. Many Archean-aged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, much like those of the younger ages, record evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. As VMS deposits are most likely formed by submarine hydrothermal fluids that developed from seawater circulating through the seafloor rock, much of the seawater sulfate is reduced to from sulfides at depths. However, some residual sulfate in the hydrothermal fluids, with or without the addition of sulfate from the local seawater, can form sulfate minerals such as barite at near the seafloor. The d34S relationships between barites and pyrites in the Archean VMS deposits are similar to those of the younger VMS

  18. Evaluation of changes in serum chemistry in association with feed withdrawal or high dose oral gavage with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) induced gut leakage in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...

  19. Growth of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Sulfate Brines and the Astrobiological Implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marnocha, C. L.; Chevrier, V. F.; Ivey, D. M.

    2011-03-01

    We suggest sulfate-reducing bacteria as a model for life on Mars, as sulfate brines have been shown to be stable in martian conditions. We have performed experiments to determine the survivability of these bacteria in high sulfate concentrations.

  20. Methods of producing sulfate salts of cations from heteroatomic compounds and dialkyl sulfates and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2015-09-29

    Methods of preparing sulfate salts of heteroatomic compounds using dialkyl sulfates as a primary reactant are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of making ionic liquids from the sulfate salts of the heteroatomic compound, and electrochemical cells comprising the ionic liquids.

  1. Trials of intranasally administered rubella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hillary, I B

    1971-12-01

    No evidence of vaccine virus transmission was found in two studies where Wistar RA 27/3 rubella vaccine was administered intranasally. Vaccine was immunogenic in all of 23 vaccinated children in one study, while in the other only 5 of the 11 vaccinees developed antibody. The reduced seroconversion rate in the latter study appears to have been caused by one or a combination of factors, including the vaccination technique, the presence of infective nasal conditions in vaccinees and the titre of vaccine used.

  2. Sulfate deposition to surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, A.; Brakke, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Critical loads are the highest deposition of strong acid anions in surface waters that will not cause harmful biological effects on populations, such as declines in or extinctions of fish. Our analysis focuses on sulfate deposition because in glaciated regions sulfate is conservative in soils, whereas nitrate in biologically cycled. Sulfate also is the dominant anion in acidic deposition and in most acidic lakes. This analysis, represents the first evaluation of certain data available from Norway and the eastern United States, with an emphasis on the data from Scandinavia. The concept of dose-response is widely used in connection with water pollution. Any lake system subjected to an external dose of pollutants will have an internal resistance (or buffer capacity) to the change. The response of the lake system will depend on the relative magnitudes of the dose and the resistance parameters.

  3. A procoagulant chemically sulfated mannan.

    PubMed

    Gracher, Ana Helena P; Santana, Aline G; Cipriani, Thales R; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-01-20

    Disorders of hemostasis can produce innumerous problems. Polysaccharides have been studied both as anticoagulant and as procoagulant agents. A mannan with a main chain of α-(1 → 6)-linked-Manp units, branched at O-2 mainly by side-chains of 2-O-linked-α-Manp units was chemically sulfated, structurally characterized by NMR and GC-MS (methylation, desulfation and methylation with trideuterated iodomethane), and tested in vitro and in vivo on blood coagulation models. Chemical analyses indicate a high degree of substitution on the sulfated polysaccharide. This polymer acted as a procoagulant agent, increasing blood coagulation in normal and hemophilic plasma, activated platelet aggregation and also decreased ex vivo aPTT. Polymers such as the sulfated mannan could be a helpful source of hemostatic agents to prevent hemorrhagic states. PMID:26572344

  4. Ocular toxicity from systemically administered xenobiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gokulgandhi, Mitan R; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The eye is considered as the most privileged organ because of the blood–ocular barrier that acts as a barrier to systemically administered xenobiotics. However, there has been a significant increase in the number of reports on systemic drug-induced ocular complications. If such complications are left untreated, then it may cause permanent damage to vision. Hence, knowledge of most recent updates on ever-increasing reports of such toxicities has become imperative to develop better therapy while minimizing toxicities. Areas covered The article is mainly divided into anterior and posterior segment manifestations caused by systemically administered drugs. The anterior segment is further elaborated on corneal complications where as the posterior segment is focused on optic nerve, retinal and vitreous complications. Furthermore, this article includes recent updates on acute and chronic ocular predicaments, in addition to discussing various associated symptoms caused by drugs. Expert opinion Direct correlation of ocular toxicities due to systemic drug therapy is evident from current literature. Therefore, it is necessary to have detailed documentation of these complications to improve understanding and predict toxicities. We made an attempt to ensure that the reader is aware of the characteristic ocular complications, the potential for irreversible drug toxicity and indications for cessation. PMID:22803583

  5. Early Triassic seawater sulfate drawdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huyue; Tong, Jinnan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Song, Haijun; Qiu, Haiou; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Tian, Li; Bates, Steven; Lyons, Timothy W.; Luo, Genming; Kump, Lee R.

    2014-03-01

    The marine sulfur cycle is intimately linked to global carbon fluxes, atmospheric composition, and climate, yet relatively little is known about how it responded to the end-Permian biocrisis, the largest mass extinction of the Phanerozoic. Here, we analyze carbonate-associated-sulfate (CAS) from three Permo-Triassic sections in South China in order to document the behavior of the C-S cycle and its relationship to marine environmental changes during the mass extinction and its aftermath. We find that δ34SCAS varied from +9‰ to +44‰ at rates up to 100‰ Myr-1 during the Griesbachian-Smithian substages of the Early Triassic. We model the marine sulfur cycle to demonstrate that such rapid variation required drawdown of seawater sulfate concentrations to ⩽4 mM and a reduction in its residence time to ⩽200 kyr. This shorter residence time resulted in positive covariation with δ13Ccarb due to strong coupling of the organic carbon and pyrite burial fluxes. Carbon and sulfur isotopic shifts were associated with contemporaneous changes in climate, marine productivity, and microbial sulfate reduction rates, with negative shifts in δ13Ccarb and δ34SCAS linked to warming, decreased productivity, and reduced sulfate reduction. Sustained cooling during the Spathian re-invigorated oceanic overturning circulation, reduced marine anoxia, and limited pyrite burial. As seawater sulfate built to higher concentrations during the Spathian, the coupling of the marine C and S cycles came to an end and a general amelioration of marine environmental conditions set the stage for a recovery of invertebrate faunas. Variation in seawater sulfate during the Early Triassic was probably controlled by climate change, possibly linked to major eruptive phases of the Siberian Traps.

  6. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  7. Protein sulfation analysis--A primer.

    PubMed

    Monigatti, Flavio; Hekking, Brian; Steen, Hanno

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this review is to present an overview of protein sulfation in the context of 'modificomics', i.e. post-translational modification-specific proteome research. In addition to a short introduction to the biology of protein sulfation (part 1), we will provide detailed discussion regarding (i) methods and tools for prediction of protein tyrosine sulfation sites (part 2), (ii) biochemical techniques used for protein sulfation analysis (part 3.1), and (iii) mass spectrometric strategies and methods applied to protein sulfation analysis (part 3.2). We will highlight strengths and limitations of different strategies and approaches (including references), providing a primer for newcomers to protein sulfation analysis.

  8. Absorption of orally administered amphotericin B lozenges.

    PubMed

    Ching, M S; Raymond, K; Bury, R W; Mashford, M L; Morgan, D J

    1983-07-01

    The systemic absorption of amphotericin B, administered as a 10 mg lozenge, was investigated in 14 patients with malignancies, who received three or four doses daily during chronic administration. The mean plasma amphotericin B concentration, measured 3 h after the morning dose on from 1-20 occasions over a 1-80 day period, ranged among subjects from 46 +/- 13 ng/ml (s.d., n = 20) to 136 +/- 25 ng/ml (n = 19). Using the previously reported intravenous clearance of the drug, the fraction of the dose absorbed was estimated at 8.3-9.9%. This is considerably greater than that estimated from earlier reports (0.2-0.9%), which used much higher oral doses (2-10 g/day). PMID:6882617

  9. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Evans, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  10. A sulfate conundrum: Dissolved sulfates of deep-saline brines and carbonate-associated sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.

    2016-10-01

    Sulfates in deeply circulating brines and carbonate-associated sulfates (CAS) within sedimentary units of the Cambrian strata in the Illinois Basin record a complex history. Dissolved sulfate within the Mt. Simon Sandstone brines exhibits average δ34SSO4 values of 35.4‰ and δ18OSO4 values of 14.6‰ and appears to be related to Cambrian seawater sulfate, either original seawater or sourced from evaporite deposits such as those in the Michigan Basin. Theoretical and empirical relationships based on stable oxygen isotope fractionation suggest that sulfate within the lower depths of the Mt. Simon brines has experienced a long period of isolation, possibly several tens of millions of years. Comparison with brines from other stratigraphic units shows the Mt. Simon brines are geochemically unique. Dissolved sulfate from brines within the Ironton-Galesville Sandstone averages 22.7‰ for δ34SSO4 values and 13.0‰ for δ18OSO4 values. The Ironton-Galesville brine has mixed with younger groundwater, possibly of Ordovician to Devonian age and younger. The Eau Claire Formation lies between the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville Sandstones. The carbonate units of the Eau Claire and stratigraphically equivalent Bonneterre Formation contain CAS that appears isotopically related to the Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Mississippi Valley-type ore pulses that deposited large sulfide minerals in the Viburnum Trend/Old Lead Belt ore districts. The δ34SCAS values range from 21.3‰ to 9.3‰, and δ18OCAS values range from +1.4‰ to -2.6‰ and show a strong covariance (R2 = 0.94). The largely wholesale replacement of Cambrian seawater sulfate signatures in these dolomites does not appear to have affected the sulfate signatures in the Mt. Simon brines even though these sulfide deposits are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Lamotte Sandstone to the southwest. On the basis of this and previous studies, greater fluid densities of the Mt. Simon brines may have prevented the

  11. Chiral Crystallization of Ethylenediamine Sulfate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koby, Lawrence; Ningappa, Jyothi B.; Dakesssian, Maria; Cuccia, Louis A.

    2005-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the crystallization of achiral ethylenediamine sulfate into large chiral crystals that are ideal for polarimetry studies and observation using Polaroid sheets are presented. This experiment is an ideal undergraduate experiment, which clearly demonstrates the chiral crystallization of an achiral molecule.

  12. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice....

  14. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Product. Calcium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oremland, R. S.; Taylor, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction were followed in laboratory incubations of sediments taken from tropical seagrass beds. Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction occurred simultaneously in sediments incubated under N2, thereby indicating that the two processes are not mutually exclusive. Sediments incubated under an atmosphere of H2 developed negative pressures due to the oxidation of H2 by sulfate-respiring bacteria. H2 also stimulated methanogenesis, but methanogenic bacteria could not compete for H2 with the sulfate-respiring bacteria.

  15. Efficacy of intravenously administered ibandronate in postmenopausal Korean women with insufficient response to orally administered bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Beom-Jun; Lim, Kyeong Hye; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Hong Kyu; Kim, Ghi Su; Koh, Jung-Min

    2012-09-01

    We investigated rates of insufficient and over-responsiveness to orally administered bisphosphonates in postmenopausal women, and tested the efficacy of intravenous ibandronate in patients with insufficient response to orally administered bisphosphonates. Postmenopausal women were treated with either alendronate (70 mg/week; n = 88) or risedronate (35 mg/week; n = 84) for 1 year, and their response to orally administered bisphosphonates was assessed using serum C-telopeptide (CTX) levels. Insufficient responders were changed to once-quarterly intravenous ibandronate 3 mg injection (n = 13) or maintained on orally administered bisphosphonates (n = 19), according to patients' preference, for an additional 1 year. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between two orally administered bisphosphonate groups except the bone mineral density values at the lumbar spine. Insufficient rate was higher in the risedronate group (19.0 %) than in the alendronate group (8.0 %), using the premenopausal serum CTX median as a cut-off (P = 0.043). The over-response rate among the alendronate group (59.1 %) was significantly higher than that in the risedronate group (38.1 %), based on a serum CTX cut-off value of 0.100 ng/ml (P = 0.006). Intravenous ibandronate suppressed serum CTX levels to a significantly greater degree at 7 days after the second dosing (0.191 ± 0.110 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and 3 months after the fourth dosing (0.274 ± 0.159 ng/mL; P = 0.004) among insufficient responders, compared with post-oral/pre-intravenous levels (0.450 ± 0.134 ng/mL). Rates of insufficient and over-responsiveness to orally administered bisphosphonates were considerable, and a change to intravenous bisphosphonates may be considered in patients showing an insufficient response to orally administered bisphosphonates.

  16. Cysteamine-colon and cysteamine-duodenum lesions in rats. Attenuation by gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole, sulphasalazine and methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevic, Z; Balen, I; Aralica, G; Gjurasin, M; Komericki, L; Perovic, D; Ziger, T; Anic, T; Prkacin, I; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Lovric-Bencic, M; Mikus, D; Staresinic, M; Aralica, J; DiBiaggio, N; Simec, Z; Turkovic, B; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Sebecic, B; Ivasovic, Z; Boban-Blagaic, A; Sjekavica, I

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we showed cysteamine-duodenal lesions without gastric acid, since they were induced also in gastrectomized rats, as in naive rats, and they were inhibited by the novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as well as standard antiulcer drugs (i.e. cimetidine, ranitidine, omeprazole, bromocriptine, atropine). Therefore, as an advantage of considering cysteamine as a directly acting cytotoxic agent and mentioned agents as direct cytoprotective agents, the present focus was on the ulcerogenic effect of cysteamine and protective effect of gastroduodenal antiulcer agents outside upper gastrointestinal tract (i.e. in colon). Intrarectal administration of the cysteamine (200 or 400 mg/kg b.w) produced severe colon lesions (i.e. transmural inflammation with serosal involvement) in rats (30 min-72 h-experimental period), apparently distinctive from smaller lesions after non-specific irritant enema [diluted HCl solution, pH 3.8 (adjusted to pH of cysteamine solution (pH 3.8)]. All of the tested antiulcer agents were applied simultaneously with cysteamine enema (8 cm from the anus, in a volume of the 1.0 ml/rat) intraperitoneally (i.p.), intragastrically (i.g.) or intrarectally (i.r.). Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w.), given in either regimen, previously shown to have, besides others, a particular beneficial activity just in the intestinal mucosa, inhibited these cysteamine colon lesions (assessed after 30 min, 60 min, 180 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h following cysteamine in a dose of either 200 or 400 mg/kg i.r.). Cysteamine-colon lesions were also attenuated by standard antiulcer agents (mg/kg b.w.), given i.p., i.g., or i.r., such as ranitidine (10), cimetidine (50), omeprazole (10), atropine (10), together with methylprednisolone (1), and sulphasalazine (50, i.r.), assessed 30 min following application of 200 mg of cysteamine. Finally, standard cysteamine duodenal lesions (assessed 24 h after a subcutaneous application of 400 mg/kg of cysteamine) were

  17. COMPARISON OF THREE SHORT-TERM IMMOBILIZATION REGIMES IN WILD VERREAUX'S SIFAKAS (PROPITHECUS VERREAUXI): KETAMINE-XYLAZINE, KETAMINE-XYLAZINE-ATROPINE, AND TILETAMINE-ZOLAZEPAM.

    PubMed

    Springer, Andrea; Razafimanantsoa, Léonard; Fichtel, Claudia; Kappeler, Peter M

    2015-09-01

    Although research on lemurid primates in Madagascar has been ongoing for several decades, reports on different drug regimes to immobilize wild lemurs are limited. This study compares the efficacy, reliability, and side effects of ketamine-xylazine, ketamine-xylazine-atropine, and tiletamine-zolazepam immobilization in wild Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). In the course of a long-term study in Kirindy Forest, western Madagascar, eight animals each received a mixture of ketamine (5.32±1.71 mg/kg) and xylazine (0.56±0.19 mg/kg) (KX; 7 males, 1 female) and ketamine (6.58±1.36 mg/kg), xylazine (1.28±0.28 mg/kg), and atropine (0.013±0.003 mg/kg) (KXA; 5 males, 3 females), respectively, and 14 individuals received tiletamine-zolazepam (7.73±1.37 mg/kg) (TZ; 9 males, 5 females). Induction was smooth in all protocols, but showed considerable variation in duration when animals had received KXA. Immobilization as well as recovery lasted significantly longer with TZ than with KX (P<0.05). Occurrence of side effects was not significantly different between the protocols; however, excessive salivation, involuntary muscular contractions, and vocalization only occurred in animals immobilized with TZ. Heart rate measurement at 10 min after onset of complete immobilization yielded significantly higher values if the animals had been immobilized with TZ compared to KX (P<0.05). Heart rate decreased from the first to the second measurement for the KX- and KXA-immobilized animals, whereas immobilization with TZ resulted in an increase in heart rate. The results suggest that KX produces good, but short, immobilization in Verreaux's sifakas at approximately 5 mg/kg ketamine and 0.5 mg/kg xylazine and a smoother and shorter recovery phase than 5 to 10 mg/kg TZ, whereas adding atropine to KX did not provide any benefits.

  18. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  3. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs.... It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  3. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc sulfate. 582.5997 Section 582.5997 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 182.8997 - Zinc sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc sulfate. 182.8997 Section 182.8997 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8997 Zinc sulfate. (a) Product. Zinc sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-18-9...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  16. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  17. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  18. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  19. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  20. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution....

  7. Effects of succinylcholine and related substances administered into the medial preoptic area on the local EEG, body temperature, heart rate, galvanic skin resistance and biogenic amines.

    PubMed

    Rau, M; Desiraju, T

    1985-01-01

    Succinylcholine (Sch) which is a cholinergic neuromuscular blocker has been known to occasionally lead to episodes of malignant hyperthermia in swine and humans. In order to find whether it produces any hyperthermic effects through action on medial preoptic area, experiments were carried on by administering intracerebrally the chemical into the medial preoptic area through an in-dwelling cannula-cum-electrode in the free moving rat. The changes in body temperature and the local EEG were studied. For comparison purpose, the effects of carbachol, atropine and phenylephrine were also studied. Further, in the curarized state of no muscular activity, the effect of SCh on the preoptic area was again tested and also the changes in the other autonomic parameters of heart rate and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) were studied. It was observed that SCh given into preoptic area caused a clear hyperthermic effect. The effect was countered by prior administration of atropine into the site. After SCh the local EEG changed into a high amplitude slow wave format. The heart rate was not altered but the GSR increased by two-fold. Carbachol caused a rise in body temperature, heart rate and also GSR. SCh also caused a reduction in noradrenaline content of the hypothalamus by 23% while no change in dopamine and serotonin occurred. Serotonin increased by 28% in the brainstem with no change in the other amines. Septum showed an increase of noradrenaline and dopamine contents by 40% and 25% respectively. Keeping in view the monoaminergic connections and thermoregulatory role of the preoptic area, one may postulate that SCh could inhibit the warm sensors and the controls of the dual sympathetic mechanism which normally leads to an increase of sudomotor activity and a decrease of vasomotor activity, the inhibition resulting in rise of body temperature.

  8. Comparative conformational study of α and β epimers of 3-phenethyl-3-azabicyclo [3.2.1] octan-8-ol with atropine and azaprophen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, M. S.; Galvez, E.; Somoza, A.

    1990-03-01

    Conformational analysis of α(I) and β(II) epimers of 3-phenethyl-3-azabicyclo [3.2.1] octan-8-ol has been performed using the Molecular Mechanics Method (MM2). In both cases, the global minimum-energy conformer was the slight distorted chair form with the N-phenethyl group in equatorial position. The preferred conformation is in agreement with the form adopted in solid state and in solution in polar solvents. Higher energy differences between N-axial and N-equatorial conformations have been found with respect to tropine and 6-methyl-6-azabicyclo [3.2.1] octan-3-α-ol, the am i noalcohols components of atropine and azaprophen.

  9. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Before administration of the sterile pralidoxime chloride, atropine is administered intravenously at a... milligram of atropine per pound of body weight administered intramuscularly. Then the appropriate dosage...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Before administration of the sterile pralidoxime chloride, atropine is administered intravenously at a... milligram of atropine per pound of body weight administered intramuscularly. Then the appropriate dosage...

  11. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    DOEpatents

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  12. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  14. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  17. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... examination. The administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee...

  18. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee to comply with...

  19. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... examination. The administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee...

  20. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... examination. The administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee...

  1. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... examination. The administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee...

  2. 40 CFR 147.2351 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia § 147.2351 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Virginia, including all Indian lands, is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40...

  3. 40 CFR 147.2351 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia § 147.2351 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Virginia, including all Indian lands, is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40...

  4. 40 CFR 147.2351 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia § 147.2351 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Virginia, including all Indian lands, is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40...

  5. 40 CFR 147.2351 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia § 147.2351 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Virginia, including all Indian lands, is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40...

  6. Non-neuronal, but atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses to short-chain fatty acids: age-dependent desensitization and restoration under inflammatory conditions in mice.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Masako; Kimura, Shunsuke; Karaki, Shinichiro; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Atsukazu; Yajima, Takaji; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells sense short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) to secrete non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh). However, the roles of luminalSCFAs and epithelialACh under normal and pathological conditions remain unknown. We examined ileal contractile responses toSCFAs at different ages and their mucosal cholinergic alterations under inflammatory conditions. Ileal contractile responses toSCFAs in 1-day-old pups to 7-week-old mice were compared using an isotonic transducer, and responses to an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed in 7-week-old mice. ThemRNAexpression levels of aSCFAactivate free fatty acid receptor, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (Chat), and choline transporter-like protein 4 (CTL4) were measured using real-time quantitativeRT-PCRAChE was analyzed by histochemical and optical enzymatic assays. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs occurred in all 1-day-old pups, but were frequently desensitized after the weaning period. These contractile responses were not inhibited by tetrodotoxin and did not appear when the mucosal layer had been scraped off. Contractile desensitization in 7-week-old mice was abolished in the presence of theAChE inhibitor, eserine, which was consistent with increasedAChE activity after weaning. Ileal contractions toSCFAs in adult mice were restored byLPS, which significantly increased the epithelialmRNAexpression of Chat andCTL4. Atropine-sensitive ileal contractile responses toSCFAs constitutively occur in the newborn period, and are desensitized during developmental stages following the up-regulated expression ofAChE in the villous mucosa, but are restored under inflammatory conditions possibly via the release of epithelialACh. PMID:27053293

  7. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, bromocriptine, and atropine effect in cysteamine lesions in totally gastrectromized rats: a model for cytoprotective studies.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Mikus, D; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Perić, J; Konjevoda, P; Perović, D; Jurina, L; Hanzevacki, M; Separović, J; Gjurasin, M; Jadrijević, S; Jelovac, N; Miklić, P; Buljat, G; Marović, A

    1997-05-01

    A superior effectiveness in various lesion assays was noted for the novel pentadecapeptide BPC 157, originated from human gastric juice protein (BPC) and claimed to be a cytoprotective agent. From this viewpoint, as a previously untreated experimental improvement to create an acid-free environmental for cytoprotection studies, total gastrectomy was done 24 hr before the ulcerogenic procedure. In the absence of stomach and gastric acid, the damaging effects of cysteamine (400 mg/kg subcutaneously, death 24 hr thereafter), to date thought to be an acid-related duodenal ulcerogen, and the BPC 157 cytoprotective effect (10 microg or 10 ng/kg intraperitoneally) were further challenged. BPC 157 was compared with reference agents [cimetidine (50), ranitidine (10), omeprazole (10), bromocriptine (10) and atropine (10) (mg/kg intraperitoneally, 1 hr before cysteamine] known to be also cytoprotective. In naive rats, with intact stomach, all of them showed a strong beneficial effect. Interestingly, in gastrectomized animals, the application of BPC 157 or the reference agents before cysteamine significantly prevented the otherwise severe duodenal lesion development noted in the control gastrectomized cysteamine rats. In groups without cysteamine, no lesions were noted (laparotomy, gastrectomy only, 24 or 48 hr postsurgical period), nor was lesion potentiation seen in cysteamine-treated laparotomized animals. In summary, these findings--equal damaging effect of cysteamine and equal protection of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and reference agents in gastrectomized and rats with intact stomach--seem to be particularly relevant for a cytoprotective viewpoint. Without a stomach, the cysteamine damaging effect was convincingly defined as an essential gastric acid-independent injury (analogous to ethanol gastric lesions). Likewise, a high "cytoprotective capacity," apparently acid independent, common for all tested agents (novel pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, omeprazole

  8. Magnesium sulfate induced toxicity in vitro in AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells and in vivo in mouse gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xulong; Bo, Agula; Chi, Baofeng; Xia, Yuan; Su, Xiong; Sun, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium sulfate is widely used as a food additive and as an orally administered medication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible cytotoxicity of magnesium sulfate on AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and gastric mucosa in mice. A trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine the reduction in viability of AGS cells exposed to magnesium sulfate, and then effects on cell proliferation were quantified. The role of magnesium sulfate-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine production in AGS cells was also investigated. mRNA expression for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was determined by RT-PCR, and secretion of these cytokines was measured by ELISA. Immunohistochemical evaluation of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α expression was conducted in mouse gastric mucosa. Addition of 3 to 50 mM magnesium sulfate to AGS cells inhibited both cell proliferation and cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Magnesium sulfate had little effect on production of IL-1β or IL-6 but significantly inhibited production of IL-8. The animal model demonstrated that magnesium sulfate induced production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. These preliminary data suggest that magnesium sulfate had a direct effect on the stomach and initiates cytotoxicity in moderate concentrations and time periods by inhibiting viability and proliferation of AGS cells and by regulating expression and/or release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  9. Sulfate ingress in Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Lothenbach, Barbara; Bary, Benoit; Le Bescop, Patrick; Leterrier, Nikos

    2010-08-15

    The interaction of mortar with sulfate solutions leads to a reaction front within the porous material and to expansion. Thermodynamic modelling coupled with transport codes was used to predict sulfate ingress. Alternatively, 'pure' thermodynamic models - without consideration of transport - were used as a fast alternative to coupled models: they are more flexible and allow easy parameter variations but the results relate neither to distance nor to time. Both transport and pure thermodynamic modelling gave comparable results and were able to reproduce the changes observed in experiments. The calculated total volume of the solids did not exceed the initial volume of the paste indicating that not the overall volume restriction leads to the observed expansion but rather the formation of ettringite within the matrix and the development of crystallisation pressure in small pores. The calculations indicate that periodic changing of the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution results in more intense degradation.

  10. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  11. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  12. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  13. Targeted Lung Delivery of Nasally Administered Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Geng; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2014-01-01

    Using the nasal route to deliver pharmaceutical aerosols to the lungs has a number of advantages including co-administration during non-invasive ventilation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and deposition characteristics of nasally administered aerosol throughout the conducting airways based on delivery with streamlined interfaces implementing two forms of controlled condensational growth technology. Characteristic conducting airways were considered including a nose-mouth-throat (NMT) geometry, complete upper tracheobronchial (TB) model through the third bifurcation (B3), and stochastic individual path (SIP) model to the terminal bronchioles (B15). Previously developed streamlined nasal cannula interfaces were used for the delivery of submicrometer particles using either enhanced condensational growth (ECG) or excipient enhanced growth (EEG) techniques. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations predicted aerosol transport, growth and deposition for a control (4.7 μm) and three submicrometer condensational aerosols with budesonide as a model insoluble drug. Depositional losses with condensational aerosols in the cannula and NMT were less than 5% of the initial dose, which represents an order-of-magnitude reduction compared to the control. The condensational growth techniques increased the TB dose by a factor of 1.1–2.6x, delivered at least 70% of the dose to the alveolar region, and produced final aerosol sizes ≥2.5 μm. Compared to multiple commercial orally inhaled products, the nose-to-lung delivery approach increased dose to the biologically important lower TB region by factors as large as 35x. In conclusion, nose-to-lung delivery with streamlined nasal cannulas and condensational aerosols was highly efficient and targeted deposition to the lower TB and alveolar regions. PMID:24932058

  14. Who Should Administer Energy-Efficiency Programs?

    SciTech Connect

    Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen L.

    2003-05-01

    The restructuring of the electric utility industry in the US created a crisis in the administration of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs. Before restructuring, nearly all energy-efficiency programs in the US were administered by utilities and funded from utility rates. Restructuring called these arrangements into question in two ways. First, the separation of generation from transmission and distribution undermined a key rationale for utility administration. This was the Integrated Resource Planning approach in which the vertically integrated utility was given incentives to provide energy services at least cost. Second, questions were raised as to whether funding through utility rates could be sustained in a competitive environment and most states that restructured their electricity industry adopted a system benefits charge. The crisis in administration of energy-efficiency programs produced a variety of responses in the eight years since restructuring in the US began in earn est. These responses have included new rationales for energy-efficiency programs, new mechanisms for funding programs, and new mechanisms for program administration and governance. This paper focuses on issues related to program administration. It describes the administrative functions and some of the options for accomplishing them. Then it discusses criteria for choosing among the options. Examples are given that highlight some of the states that have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved. The conclusion attempts to summarize lessons learned.

  15. Reduced sulfation of chondroitin sulfate but not heparan sulfate in kidneys of diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Reine, Trine M; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O

    2013-08-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were reduced from 11% to 6%, with a corresponding increase in unsulfated disaccharides. In contrast, no structural differences were observed in heparan sulfate. Furthermore, no difference was found in the molar amount of glycosaminoglycans, or in the ratio of hyaluronan/heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate. Immunohistochemical staining for the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan was similar in both types of material but reduced staining of 4-O-sulfated chondroitin and dermatan was observed in kidney sections from diabetic mice. In support of this, using qRT-PCR, a 53.5% decrease in the expression level of Chst-11 (chondroitin 4-O sulfotransferase) was demonstrated in diabetic kidney. These results suggest that changes in the sulfation of chondroitin need to be addressed in future studies on proteoglycans and kidney function in diabetes.

  16. Heparin cofactor II is degraded by heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akio

    2015-02-20

    Heparan sulfate normally binds to heparin cofactor II and modulates the coagulation pathway by inhibiting thrombin. However, when human heparin cofactor II was incubated with heparan sulfate, heparin cofactor II became degraded. Other glycosaminoglycans were tested, including hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfates, dermatan sulfate, and heparin, but only dextran sulfate also degraded heparin cofactor II. Pretreatment of heparan sulfate with heparinase reduced its heparin cofactor II-degrading activity. Heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate diminished the thrombin inhibitory activity of heparin cofactor II. Other serpins, including antithrombin III and pigment epithelium-derived factor, were also degraded by heparan sulfate. This is the first evidence of acidic polysaccharides exhibiting protein-degrading activity without the aid of other proteins.

  17. Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfation: A rare modification in search of a function

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Bryan E.; Xu, Ding; Lawrence, Roger; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Many protein ligands bind to heparan sulfate, which results in their presentation, protection, oligomerization or conformational activation. Binding depends on the pattern of sulfation and arrangement of uronic acid epimers along the chains. Sulfation at the C3 position of glucosamine is a relatively rare, yet biologically significant modification, initially described as a key determinant for binding and activation of antithrombin and later for infection by Type I Herpes Simplex virus. In mammals, a family of seven heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferases installs sulfate groups at this position and constitutes the largest group of sulfotransferases involved in heparan sulfate formation. However, to date very few proteins or biological systems have been described that are influenced by 3-O-sulfation. This review describes our current understanding of the prevalence and structure of 3-O-sulfation sites, expression and substrate specificity of the 3-O-sulfotransferase family and the emerging roles of 3-O-sulfation in biology. PMID:24361527

  18. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. ); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. )

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

  19. Endothelial Heparan Sulfate in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, Mark M.; Wang, Lianchun

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide composed of 50–200 glucosamine and uronic acid (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) disaccharide repeats with epimerization and various sulfation modifications. HS is covalently attached to core proteins to form HS-proteoglycans. Most of the functions of HS-proteoglycans are mediated by their HS moieties. The biosynthesis of HS is initiated by chain polymerization and is followed by stepwise modification reactions, including sulfation and epimerization. These modifications generate ligand-binding sites that modulate cell functions and activities of proteinases and/or proteinase inhibitors. HS is abundantly expressed in developing and mature vasculature, and understanding its roles in vascular biology and related human diseases is an area of intense investigation. In this chapter, we summarize the significant recent advances in our understanding of the roles of HS in developmental and pathological angiogenesis with a major focus on studies using transgenic as well as gene knockout/knockdown models in mice and zebrafish. These studies have revealed that HS critically regulates angiogenesis by playing a proangiogenic role, and this regulatory function critically depends on HS fine structure. The latter is responsible for facilitating cell-surface binding of various proangiogenic growth factors that in turn mediate endothelial growth signaling. In cancer, mouse studies have revealed important roles for endothelial cell-surface HS as well as matrix-associated HS, wherein signaling by multiple growth factors as well as matrix storage of growth factors may be regulated by HS. We also discuss important mediators that may fine-tune such regulation, such as heparanase and sulfatases; and models wherein targeting HS (or core protein) biosynthesis may affect tumor growth and vascularization. Finally, the importance of targeting HS in other human diseases wherein angiogenesis may play pathophysiologic (or even therapeutic) roles

  20. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

    2012-12-03

    -99% pure population of leukocytes. Viability was assessed using Trypan blue histological analysis. We successfully isolated and labeled ~25-30 x 10{sup 7} CD34+ lymphocytes in cytokine mobilized progenitor cell apharesis harvests. Cells were also subjected to a stat gram stain to look for bacterial contamination, stat endotoxin LAL to look for endotoxin contamination, flow cytometry for evaluation of the purity of the cells and 14-day sterility culture. Colony forming assays confirm the capacity of these cells to proliferate and function ex-vivo with CFU-GM values of 26 colonies/ 1 x 10{sup 4} cells plated and 97% viability in cytokine augmented methylcellulose at 10-14 days in CO{sub 2} incubation. We developed a closed-processing system for the product labeling prior to infusion to maintain autologous cell integrity and sterility. Release criteria for the labeled product were documented for viability, cell count and differential, and measured radiolabel. We were successful in labeling the cells with up to 500 uCi/10{sup 8} cells, with viability of >98%. However, due to delays in getting the protocol approved by the FDA, the cells were not infused in humans in this location (although we did successfully use CD34+ cells in humans in a study in Australia). The approach developed should permit labeling of progenitor cells that can be administered to human subjects for tracking. The labeling approach should be useful for all progenitor cell types, although this would need to be verified since different cell lines may have differential radiosensitivity.

  1. Sulfate reduction in freshwater wetland soils and the effects of sulfate and substrate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Hsieh, Y.P.

    1998-07-01

    Elevated sulfate and organic C loadings in freshwater wetlands could stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction that oxidizes organic C, produces hydrogen sulfide and alkalinity, and sequesters trace metals. The authors determined the extent of sulfate reduction in two freshwater wetland soils, that is black gum (Nyssa biflona) swamp soils and titi (Cliftonia monophylla) swamp soils, in northern Florida. They also investigated the potential of sulfate reduction in the wetland soils by adding sulfate, organic substrate, and lime. Sulfate reduction was found to be an active process in both swamp soils without any amendment, where the pore water pH was as low as 3.6 and sulfate concentration was as low as 5 mg L{sup {minus}1}. Without amendment, 11 to 14% of organic C was oxidized through sulfate reduction in the swamp soils. Sulfate loading, liming, and substrate addition significantly increased sulfate reduction in the black gum swamp soil, but none of those treatments increase sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil. The limiting factor for sulfate reduction in the titi swamp soil were likely texture and soil aggregate related properties. The results suggested that wastewater loading may increase sulfate reduction in some freshwater wetlands such as the black swamps while it has no stimulating effect on other wetlands such as the titi swamps.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7785-0987-097) is a pale pink, granular, odorless powder. It is obtained by reacting manganese compounds with sulfuric...

  3. Nitrate reduction in sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marietou, Angeliki

    2016-08-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) gain their energy by coupling the oxidation of organic substrate to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Several SRBs are able to use alternative terminal electron acceptors to sulfate such as nitrate. Nitrate-reducing SRBs have been isolated from a diverse range of environments. In order to be able to understand the significance of nitrate reduction in SRBs, we need to examine the ecology and physiology of the nitrate-reducing SRB isolates.

  4. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Hydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, M. D.; Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; OConnor, V.; Cloutis, E.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate minerals have been identified in Martian meteorites and on Mars using a suite of instruments aboard the MER rovers. These results have confirmed previous groundbased observations and orbital measurements that suggested their presence. The orbiting OMEGA instrument on Mars Express is also finding evidence for sulfate. In order to better interpret remote-sensing data, we present here the results of a coordinated visible/near infrared (VNIR) reflectance, Moussbauer (MB), and thermal emittance study of wellcharacterized hydrous sulfate minerals.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10034-99-8) occurs naturally as the mineral epsomite. It is prepared by neutralization of magnesium oxide, hydroxide,...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT... GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-18-9 or CaSO4·2H2O,...

  7. A modified sulfate process to lunar oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A modified sulfate process which produces oxygen from iron oxide-bearing minerals in lunar soil is under development. Reaction rates of ilmenite in varying strength sulfuric acid have been determined. Quantitative conversion of ilmenite to ferrous sulfate was observed over a range of temperatures and concentrations. Data has also been developed on the calcination of by-product sulfates. System engineering for overall operability and simplicity has begun, suggesting that a process separating the digestion and sulfate dissolution steps may offer an optimum process.

  8. [Regulation of sulfates, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals in technogenic reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria].

    PubMed

    Hudz', S P; Peretiatko, T B; Moroz, O M; Hnatush, S O; Klym, I R

    2011-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Ya-11 in the presence of sulfates and organic compounds in the medium reduce sulfates to hydrogen sulfide (dissimilatory sulfate reduction). Heavy metals in concentration over 2 mM inhibit this process. Pb2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Fe2+ and Cd2+ ions in concentration 1-1.5 mM display insignificant inhibiting effect on sulfate reduction process, and metals precipitate in the form of sulfides. At concentrations of heavy metals 2-3 mM one can observe a decrease of sulfates reduction intensity, and a percent of metals binding does not exceed 72%. Obtained results give reason to confirm, that sulfate-reducing bacteria play an important role in regulation of the level of sulfates, hydrogen sulfide and heavy metals in reservoirs and they may be used for purification of water environment from these compounds.

  9. Chondroitin sulfate and neuronal disorders.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Shinji; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The brain extracellular matrix (ECM) is involved in several aspects of neuronal development, plasticity, and pathophysiology. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), consisting of core proteins with covalently attached chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains, are essential components of the brain ECM. During late postnatal development, CSPGs condense around parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (PV-cells) and form lattice-like ECM structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). Enzymatic or genetic manipulation of PNNs reactivates neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, probably by resetting the excitatory/inhibitory balance in neural networks. Recent studies have indicated that PNNs control PV-cell function by enhancing the accumulation of specific proteins at the cell surface and/or acting as neuroprotective shields against oxidative stress. Since dysfunction of PV-cells and remodeling of CSPGs are commonly observed in several disorders, including schizophrenia, Costello syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, and epilepsy, modulation of PV-cell function by CSPGs may provide a novel strategy for these neuronal disorders. Here we review the potential roles of CSPGs as therapeutic targets for neuronal disorders, with particular focus on structural changes of CS chains under pathological conditions.

  10. Sulfate retention and release in soils at Panola Mountain, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Inorganic sulfate pools, sulfate sorption characteristics, and Fe and Al fractions were determined on soils at Panola Mountain, a 41-ha forested watershed in the Georgia Piedmont. Sulfate sorption properties of these soils fall along a continuum between two end members. The "low-adsorbing' end member comprises shallow soils (0-10 cm), with high water-soluble sulfate (Sw), low phosphate-extractable sulfate (Sp-w), high organic matter, low sulfate retention ability, and high sulfate adsorption reversibility. The "high-adsorbing' end member comprises deeper soils (>10 cm), with higher total native sulfate (mostly as Sp-w), low organic matter, high sulfate retention ability, and low sulfate adsorption reversibility. Sulfate retention was only weakly related to Fe and Al fractions, possibly because of inhibition of adsorption by organic matter. Sulfate concentrations in surface waters reflect the spatial distribution of soil sulfate retention properties. -from Author

  11. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates.

  12. 24 CFR 982.51 - PHA authority to administer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PHA authority to administer program. 982.51 Section 982.51 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... PHA Plan for Administration of Program § 982.51 PHA authority to administer program. (a) The PHA...

  13. 40 CFR 147.150 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.150 Section 147.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona §...

  14. 40 CFR 147.150 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.150 Section 147.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona §...

  15. 40 CFR 147.150 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.150 Section 147.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona §...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  17. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  20. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  1. 40 CFR 147.1650 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1650 Section 147.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS New York §...

  2. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  3. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  4. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  5. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  6. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  7. 40 CFR 147.2350 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.2350 Section 147.2350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia §...

  8. 40 CFR 147.2350 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.2350 Section 147.2350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia §...

  9. 40 CFR 147.2350 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.2350 Section 147.2350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia §...

  10. 40 CFR 147.2350 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.2350 Section 147.2350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia §...

  11. 49 CFR 7.22 - Who administers this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who administers this subpart? 7.22 Section 7.22 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Availability of Reasonably Described Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 7.22 Who administers this subpart? (a) A Chief FOIA Officer is appointed...

  12. 40 CFR 147.3000 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administered by EPA. (The term “Indian lands” is defined at 40 CFR 144.3.) The Navajo Indian lands are in the... Utah. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3000 EPA-administered program. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 147.3000 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administered by EPA. (The term “Indian lands” is defined at 40 CFR 144.3.) The Navajo Indian lands are in the... Utah. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3000 EPA-administered program. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 147.1550 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register on June 25, 1984. (1) Water Pollution Control Act, New Jersey Statutes... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS New Jersey § 147.1550 State-administered program. The UIC program for all classes of wells in the State of New Jersey,...

  15. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  16. Sulfate removal from waste chemicals by precipitation.

    PubMed

    Benatti, Cláudia Telles; Tavares, Célia Regina Granhen; Lenzi, Ervim

    2009-01-01

    Chemical oxidation using Fenton's reagent has proven to be a viable alternative to the oxidative destruction of organic pollutants in mixed waste chemicals, but the sulfate concentration in the treated liquor was still above the acceptable limits for effluent discharge. In this paper, the feasibility of sulfate removal from complex laboratory wastewaters using barium and calcium precipitation was investigated. The process was applied to different wastewater cases (two composite samples generated in different periods) in order to study the effect of the wastewater composition on the sulfate precipitation. The experiments were performed with raw and oxidized wastewater samples, and carried out according to the following steps: (1) evaluate the pH effect upon sulfate precipitation on raw wastewaters at pH range of 2-8; (2) conduct sulfate precipitation experiments on raw and oxidized wastewaters; and (3) characterize the precipitate yielded. At a concentration of 80 g L(-1), barium precipitation achieved a sulfate removal up to 61.4% while calcium precipitation provided over 99% sulfate removal in raw and oxidized wastewaters and for both samples. Calcium precipitation was chosen to be performed after Fenton's oxidation; hence this process configuration favors the production of higher quality precipitates. The results showed that, when dried at 105 degrees C, the precipitate is composed of hemidrate and anhydrous calcium sulfate ( approximately 99.8%) and trace metals ( approximately 0.2%: Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Ag, Mg, K, Na), what makes it suitable for reuse in innumerous processes.

  17. Integrated Spectroscopic Studies of Anhydrous Sulfate Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, M. D.; Bishop, J. L.; Dyar, M. D.; Cloutis, E.; Forray, F. L.; Hiroi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfates have been identified in Martian soils and bedrock and are emerging as an important indicator for aqueous activity on Mars. Sulfate minerals can form in a variety of low-temperature (evaporitic; chemical-weathering) and high-temperature (volcanic/fumarolic; hydrothermal) environments and their formational environments can range from alkaline to acidic. Although sulfates generally form in the presence of water, not all sulfates are hydrous or contain water in their structures. Many of these anhydrous sulfates (Dana group 28; Strunz class 67A) are minerals that form as accompanying phases to the main minerals in ore deposits or as replacement deposits in sedimentary rocks. However, some form from thermal decomposition of OH or H2O-bearing sulfates, such as from the reaction [1]: jarosite = yavapaiite + Fe2O3 + H2O. Where known, the stability fields of these minerals all suggest that they would be stable under martian surface conditions [2]. Thus, anhydrous sulfate minerals may contribute to martian surface mineralogy, so they must be well-represented in spectral libraries used for interpretation of the Martian surface. We present here the preliminary results of an integrated study of emittance, reflectance, and Mossbauer spectroscopy of a suite of wel-lcharacterized anhydrous sulfates.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate...

  19. Scintillation properties of lead sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E. ); Shlichta, P.J. )

    1991-11-01

    We report on the scintillation properties of lead sulfate (PbSO{sub 4}), a scintillator that show promise as a high energy photon detector. It physical properties are well suited for gamma detection, as its has a density of 6.4 gm/cm{sup 3}, a 1/e attenuation length for 511 keV photons of 1.2 cm, is not affected by air or moisture, and is cut and polished easily. In 99.998% pure PbSO{sub 4} crystals at room temperature excited by 511 keV annihilation photons, the fluorescence decay lifetime contains significant fast components having 1.8 ns (5%) and 19 ns (36%) decay times, but with longer components having 95 ns (36%) and 425 ns (23%) decays times. The peak emission wavelength is 335 nm, which is transmitted by borosilicate glass windowed photomultiplier tubes. The total scintillation light output increases with decreasing temperature fro 3,200 photons/MeV at +45{degrees}C to 4, 900 photons/MeV at room temperature (+25{degrees}C) and 68,500 photons/MeV at {minus}145{degrees}C. In an imperfect, 3 mm cube of a naturally occurring mineral form of PbSO{sub 4} (anglesite) at room temperature, a 511 keV photopeak is seen with a total light output of 60% that BGO. There are significant sample to sample variations of the light output among anglesite samples, so the light output of lead sulfate may improve when large synthetic crystals become available. 10 refs.

  20. Simultaneous determination of atropine, scopolamine, and anisodamine from Hyoscyamus niger L. in rat plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a pharmacokinetics study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peiting; Li, Yemeng; Liu, Guanghui; Sun, Xiuman; Zhou, Yuting; Deng, Xuejiao; Liao, Qiongfeng; Xie, Zhiyong

    2014-10-01

    In order to investigate the pharmacokinetics of tropane alkaloids in Hyoscyamus niger L., a sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of atropine, scopolamine, and anisodamine in rat plasma is developed and fully validated, using homatropine as an internal standard. The separation of the four compounds was carried out on a BDS Hypersil C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (containing 10 mmol ammonium acetate). Calibration curves were linear from 0.2 to 40 ng/mL for atropine, scopolamine, and from 0.08 to 20 ng/mL for anisodamine. The precision of three analytes was <5.89% and the accuracy was between -1.04 to 2.94%. This method is successfully applied to rat pharmacokinetics analysis of the three tropane alkaloids after oral administration of H. niger extract. The maximum concentration of these three tropane alkaloids was reached within 15 min, and the maximum concentrations were 31.36 ± 7.35 ng/mL for atropine, 49.94 ± 2.67 ng/mL for scopolamine, and 2.83 ± 1.49 ng/mL for anisodamine. The pharmacokinetic parameters revealed areas under the curve of 22.76 ± 5.80, 16.80 ± 3.08, and 4.31 ± 1.21 ng/h mL and mean residence times of 2.08 ± 0.55, 1.19 ± 0.45, and 3.28 ± 0.78 h for atropine, scopolamine, and anisodamine, respectively.

  1. The ammonium sulfate inhibition of human angiogenin.

    PubMed

    Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Tsirkone, Vicky G; Dossi, Kyriaki; Kassouni, Aikaterini G; Liggri, Panagiota G V; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Stravodimos, George A; Balatsos, Nikolaos A A; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the inhibition of human angiogenin by ammonium sulfate. The inhibitory potency of ammonium sulfate for human angiogenin (IC50 = 123.5 ± 14.9 mm) is comparable to that previously reported for RNase A (119.0 ± 6.5 mm) and RNase 2 (95.7 ± 9.3 mm). However, analysis of two X-ray crystal structures of human angiogenin in complex with sulfate anions (in acidic and basic pH environments, respectively) indicates an entirely distinct mechanism of inhibition. While ammonium sulfate inhibits the ribonucleolytic activity of RNase A and RNase 2 by binding to the active site of these enzymes, sulfate anions bind only to peripheral substrate anion-binding subsites of human angiogenin, and not to the active site. PMID:27483019

  2. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  3. Simultaneous determination of dermatan sulfate and oversulfated dermatan sulfate in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Washio, Y; Hara, M; Toyoda, H; Koshiishi, I; Toida, T; Imanari, T

    1996-09-01

    A chemical method for the determination of dermatan sulfate (DS) and oversulfated dermatan sulfate has been developed and applied to the pharmacokinetic study of these polysaccharides in experimental animals. The analytical procedure includes a simple preparation step of administered DS and oversulfated DS from blood plasma, HPLC for the separation and detection of DS and oversulfated DS using an Asahipak NH2P-50 column, fluorometric reaction of the polysaccharides with guanidine in a strong alkaline medium. DS and oversulfated DS were extracted from plasma by treating it with proteinase to remove plasma proteins and recovered with endogenous plasma glycosaminoglycans by ethanol precipitation. Finally, DS and oversulfated DS were analyzed by fluorometric HPLC. The detection limits of DS and oversulfated DS were 10 and 20 ng, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated that artificial oversulfation of DS increased its biological half-life after intravenous administration to rats. PMID:8811915

  4. In vitro proteoglycan sulfation derived from sulfhydryl compounds in sulfate transporter chondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Antonio; Cetta, Giuseppe; Piazza, Rocco; Bonaventure, Jacky; Steinmann, Beat; Supereti-Furga, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Mutations in a sulfate-chloride antiporter gene, the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter (DTDST), have been associated with a family of skeletal dysplasias including recessive multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, diastrophic dysplasia (DTD), atelosteogenesis type 2, and achondrogenesis type 1B (ACG1B). DTDST function is crucial for uptake of extracellular sulfate required for proteoglycan (PG) sulfation; the tissue-specific expression of the clinical phenotype may be the consequence of the high rate of PG synthesis in chondrocytes and the ensuing high sulfate requirement. We have studied the contribution of cysteine and its derivatives to PG sulfation in fibroblast and chondrocyte cultures from sulfate transporter dysplasia patients. Incubation of ACG1B fibroblasts in medium containing different concentrations of cystine indicated partial recovery of PG sulfation as measured by HPLC disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate PGs; similar results were observed after incubation with N-acetylcysteine. When both compounds were tested in primary chondrocytes from a DTD patient, partial rescue of PG sulfation was observed, suggesting that the metabolic pathways producing cytoplasmic sulfate from thiols are also active in this cell type. PMID:14692227

  5. Metabolic flexibility of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Plugge, Caroline M; Zhang, Weiwen; Scholten, Johannes C M; Stams, Alfons J M

    2011-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB) are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter. Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life. In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  6. Comparative pharmacokinetics of (/sup 65/Zn)zinc sulfate and (/sup 65/Zn)zinc pantothenate injected intravenously in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Guillard, O.; Courtois, P.; Murai, P.; Ducassou, D.; Reiss, D.

    1984-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics of zinc sulfate were compared with those of a new zinc salt, pantothenate, in rabbits. Each salt was administered at a dosage of 3.3 microCi of zinc-65/kg of body weight. The measured pharmacokinetics of the two compounds responded to a two-compartment open model. The urinary elimination of the two salts was similar, as was their localization in the skin and fur, but zinc pantothenate was fixed by the liver to a lesser extent than was zinc sulfate.

  7. Benzene oxidation coupled to sulfate reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Coates, J.D.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Highly reduced sediments from San Diego Bay, Calif., that were incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions metabolized benzene within 55 days when they were exposed initially to I ??M benzene. The rate of benzene metabolism increased as benzene was added back to the benzene-adapted sediments. When a [14C]benzene tracer was included with the benzene added to benzene-adapted sediments, 92% of the added radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, inhibited benzene uptake and production of 14CO2 from [14C]benzene. Benzene metabolism stopped when the sediments became sulfate depleted, and benzene uptake resumed when sulfate was added again. The stoichiometry of benzene uptake and sulfate reduction was consistent with the hypothesis that sulfate was the principal electron acceptor for benzene oxidation. Isotope trapping experiments performed with [14C]benzene revealed that there was no production of such potential extracellular intermediates of benzene oxidation as phenol, benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, cyclohexane, catechol, and acetate. The results demonstrate that benzene can be oxidized in the absence of O2, with sulfate serving as the electron acceptor, and suggest that some sulfate reducers are capable of completely oxidizing benzene to carbon dioxide without the production of extracellular intermediates. Although anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to chelated Fe(III) has been documented previously, the study reported here provides the first example of a natural sediment compound that can serve as an electron acceptor for anaerobic benzene oxidation.

  8. Anticoagulant Heparan Sulfate: Structural Specificity and Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian; Pedersen, Lars C.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Heparan sulfate (HS) is present on the surface of endothelial and surrounding tissues in large quantities. It plays important roles in regulating numerous functions of the blood vessel wall, including blood coagulation, inflammation response and cell differentiation. HS is a highly sulfated polysaccharide containing glucosamine and glucuronic/iduronic acid repeating disaccharide units. The unique sulfated saccharide sequences of HS determine its specific functions. Heparin, an analogue of heparan sulfate, is the most commonly used anticoagulant drug. Because of its wide range of biological functions, HS has become an interesting molecule to biochemists, medicinal chemists and developmental biologists. Here, we summarize recent progress towards understanding the interaction between heparan sulfate and blood coagulating factors, the biosynthesis of anticoagulant heparan sulfate and the mechanism of action of heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes. Further, knowledge of the biosynthesis of HS facilitates the development of novel enzymatic approaches to synthesize HS from bacterial capsular polysaccharides and to produce polysaccharide end products with high specificity for the biological target. These advancements provide the foundation for the development of polysaccharide-based therapeutic agents. PMID:17131147

  9. Volcanic sulfate aerosol formation in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Erwan; Bekki, Slimane; Ninin, Charlotte; Bindeman, Ilya

    2014-11-01

    The isotopic composition of volcanic sulfate provides insights into the atmospheric chemical processing of volcanic plumes. First, mass-independent isotopic anomalies quantified by Δ17O and to a lesser extent Δ33S and Δ36S in sulfate depend on the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms that generate sulfate aerosols. Second, the isotopic composition of sulfate (δ34S and δ18O) could be an indicator of fractionation (distillation/condensation) processes occurring in volcanic plumes. Here we present analyses of O- and S isotopic compositions of volcanic sulfate absorbed on very fresh volcanic ash from nine moderate historical eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere. Most of our volcanic sulfate samples, which are thought to have been generated in the troposphere or in the tropopause region, do not exhibit any significant mass-independent fractionation (MIF) isotopic anomalies, apart from those from an eruption of a Mexican volcano. Coupled to simple chemistry model calculations representative of the background atmosphere, our data set suggests that although H2O2 (a MIF-carrying oxidant) is thought to be by far the most efficient sulfur oxidant in the background atmosphere, it is probably quickly consumed in large dense tropospheric volcanic plumes. We estimate that in the troposphere, at least, more than 90% of volcanic secondary sulfate is not generated by MIF processes. Volcanic S-bearing gases, mostly SO2, appear to be oxidized through channels that do not generate significant isotopically mass-independent sulfate, possibly via OH in the gas phase and/or transition metal ion catalysis in the aqueous phase. It is also likely that some of the sulfates sampled were not entirely produced by atmospheric oxidation processes but came out directly from volcanoes without any MIF anomalies.

  10. Phyllosilicate and Hydrated Sulfate Deposits in Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, S. M.; Avidson, R. E.; Murchie, S.; Poulet, F.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Morris, R. V.; Seelos, F. P.

    2008-01-01

    Several phyllosilicate and hydrated sulfate deposits in Meridiani have been mapped in detail with high resolution MRO CRISM [1] data. Previous studies have documented extensive exposures of outcrop in Meridiani (fig 1), or etched terrain (ET), that has been interpreted to be sedimentary in origin [e.g., 2,3]. These deposits have been mapped at a regional scale with OMEGA data and show enhanced hydration (1.9 m absorption) in several areas [4]. However, hydrated sulfate detections were restricted to valley exposures in northern Meridiani ET [5]. New high resolution CRISM images show that hydrated sulfates are present in several spatially isolated exposures throughout the ET (fig 1). The hydrated sulfate deposits in the valley are vertically heterogeneous with layers of mono and polyhydrated sulfates and are morphologically distinct from other areas of the ET. We are currently mapping the detailed spatial distribution of sulfates and searching for distinct geochemical horizons that may be traced back to differential ground water recharge and/or evaporative loss rates. The high resolution CRISM data has allowed us to map out several phyllosilicate deposits within the fluvially dissected Noachian cratered terrain (DCT) to the south and west of the hematite-bearing plains (Ph) and ET (fig 1). In Miyamoto crater, phyllosilicates are located within 30km of the edge of Ph, which is presumably underlain by acid sulfate deposits similar to those explored by Opportunity. The deposits within this crater may record the transition from fluvial conditions which produced and/or preserved phyllosilicates deposits to a progressively acid sulfate dominated groundwater system in which large accumulations of sulfate-rich evaporites were deposited .

  11. Di-sulfated Keratan Sulfate as a Novel Biomarker for Mucopolysaccharidosis II, IVA, and IVB.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Tomatsu, Shunji; Mason, Robert W; Yasuda, Eriko; Mackenzie, William G; Hossain, Jobayer; Shibata, Yuniko; Montaño, Adriana M; Kubaski, Francyne; Giugliani, Roberto; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Kenji E; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) is a storage material in mucopolysaccharidosis IV (MPS IV). However, no detailed analysis has been reported on subclasses of KS: mono-sulfated KS and di-sulfated KS. We established a novel method to distinguish and quantify mono- and di-sulfated KS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and measured both KS levels in various specimens.Di-sulfated KS was dominant in shark cartilage and rat serum, while mono-sulfated KS was dominant in bovine cornea and human serum. Levels of both mono- and di-sulfated KS varied with age in the blood and urine from control subjects and patients with MPS II and IVA. The mean levels of both forms of KS in the plasma/serum from patients with MPS II, IVA, and IVB were elevated compared with that in age-matched controls. Di-sulfated KS provided more significant difference between MPS IVA and the age-matched controls than mono-sulfated KS. The ratio of di-sulfated KS to total KS in plasma/serum increased with age in control subjects and patients with MPS II but was age independent in MPS IVA patients. Consequently, this ratio can discriminate younger MPS IVA patients from controls. Levels of mono- and di-sulfated KS in urine of MPS IVA and IVB patients were all higher than age-matched controls for all ages studied.In conclusion, the level of di-sulfated KS and its ratio to total KS can distinguish control subjects from patients with MPS II, IVA, and IVB, indicating that di-sulfated KS may be a novel biomarker for these disorders.

  12. Using Terrestrial Sulfate Efflorescences as an Analogue of Hydrated Sulfate Formation in Valles Marineris on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. C.; Szynkiewicz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrated sulfate minerals provide conclusive evidence that a hydrologic cycle was once active on the surface of Mars. Two classes of hydrated sulfate minerals have been detected by robotic instruments on Mars: monohydrated sulfate minerals comprised of kieserite and gypsum, and various polyhydrated sulfates with Fe-Ca-Na-Mg-rich compositions. These minerals are found in various locations on Mars, including large surface exposures in valley settings of Valles Marineris. However, the sulfate sources and formation mechanisms of these minerals are not yet well understood.Recently, it has been suggested that the sulfate minerals in Valles Marineris might have formed in a manner similar to sulfate efflorescences found in dry environments on Earth. In this study, we use sulfate effloresences from the Rio Puerco Watershed, New Mexico as a terrestrial analogue to assess major factors that might have led to deposition of sulfate minerals in Valles Marineris. In different seasons indicative of dry and wet conditions, we collected field photographs and sediment samples for chemical and stable isotopic analyses (sulfur content, δ34S) to determine major sources of sulfate ions for efflorescences and to assess how the seasonal changes in surface/groundwater activity affect their formation. Preliminary sulfur isotope results suggest that oxidation of bedrock sulfides (0.01-0.05 wt. S %) is a major source of sulfate ion for efflorescences formation because their δ34S varied in negative range (-28 to -20‰) similar to sulfides (average -32‰). Using field photographs collected in Oct 2006, Feb and Nov 2012, May 2013, Mar and Oct 2014, we infer that the highest surface accumulation of sulfate efflorescences in the studied analog site was observed after summer monsoon seasons when more water was available for surface and subsurface transport of solutes from chemical weathering. Conversely, spring snow melt led to enhanced dissolution of sulfate efflorescences.

  13. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-07-15

    Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 35/S)sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but (/sup 3/H)glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation.

  14. Synthesis of biotinylated keratan sulfate repeating disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Naoko; Tamura, Jun-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized four types of keratan and keratan sulfate repeating disaccharides containing non-sulfate, Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ, and three types of sulfates, Gal6Sβ1-4GlcNAcβ, Galβ1-4GlcNAc6Sβ, and Gal6Sβ1-4GlcNAc6Sβ in an efficient and stereo-controlled manner. These disaccharides were conjugated with biotin via a hydrophilic linker at the reducing terminal.

  15. Sulfate attack in lime-treated subbases

    SciTech Connect

    Day, D.C.; Salami, M.R.; Rollings, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    Sulfate-induced heave or buckling in pavements is the phenomenon that occurs when the calcium in various lime-based stabilizers combines with the alumina and sulfate present in clay to form calcium sulfoaluminate, or ettringite. Ettringite, a crystal, can grow between clay particles, pushing them apart and causing swelling in the soil. When this happens in pavement subbases, the resulting heaving may cause the pavement to rupture and fail, sometimes in a dramatic way. In this paper the authors examine the mechanism of sulfate attack, review some of the work done on this problem, and present some examples of pavement failures.

  16. 40 CFR 147.1651 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Indian lands, is administered by EPA. The program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR... Seneca Indian Tribe is June 25, 1984. The effective date for the UIC program for the lands of the...

  17. Findings from Survey Administered to Weatherization Training Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Conlon, Brian; Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes results of a survey administered to directors of weatherization training centers that receive funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The survey presents results related to questions on training offered and future plans.

  18. Biological activities of heparan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Muthuvel; Giji, Sadhasivam

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate was isolated from two bivalve mollusks such as Tridacna maxima and Perna viridis. The isolated heparin was quantified in crude as well as purified samples and they were estimated as 2.72 and 2.2g/kg (crude) and 260 and 248 mg/g (purified) in T. maxima and P. viridis, respectively. Both the bivalves showed the anticoagulant activity of the crude and purified sample as 20,128 USP units/kg and 7.4 USP units/mg, 39,000 USP units/kg and 75 USP units/mg, 9460 USP units/kg and 4.3 USP units/mg, and 13,392 USP units/kg and 54 USP units/mg correspondingly in T. maxima and P. viridis. The antiproliferative activity that was studied with pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells using RPMI media reported that the result is in a dose-dependent manner. Among the two clams, P. viridis showed more antiproliferative activity than that of T. maxima.

  19. Novel Alkylsulfatases Required for Biodegradation of the Branched Primary Alkyl Sulfate Surfactant 2-Butyloctyl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Andrew J.; Hales, Stephen G.; Ur-Rehman, Naheed G. A.; White, Graham F.

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports show that contrary to common perception, branched alkyl sulfate surfactants are readily biodegradable in standard biodegradability tests. We report here the isolation of bacteria capable of biodegrading 2-butyloctyl sulfate and the identification of novel enzymes that initiate the process. Enrichment culturing from activated sewage sludge yielded several strains capable of growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Of these, two were selected for further study and identified as members of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain AE-A was able to utilize either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 2-butyloctyl sulfate as a carbon and energy source for growth, but strain AE-D utilized only the latter. Depending on growth conditions, strain AE-A produced up to three alkylsulfatases, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis zymography. Growth on either SDS or 2-butyloctyl sulfate or in nutrient broth produced an apparently constitutive, nonspecific primary alkylsulfatase, AP1, weakly active on SDS and on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate produced a second enzyme, AP2, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS, and growth on SDS produced a third enzyme, AP3, active on SDS but not on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. In contrast, strain AE-D, when grown on 2-butyloctyl sulfate (no growth on SDS), produced a single enzyme, DP1, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS. DP1 was not produced in broth cultures. DP1 was induced when residual 2-butyloctyl sulfate was present in the growth medium, but the enzyme disappeared when the substrate was exhausted. Gas chromatographic analysis of products of incubating 2-butyloctyl sulfate with DP1 in gels revealed the formation of 2-butyloctanol, showing the enzyme to be a true sulfatase. In contrast, Pseudomonas sp. strain C12B, well known for its ability to degrade linear SDS, was unable to grow on 2-butyloctyl sulfate, and its alkylsulfatases responsible for initiating the degradation of SDS by releasing the parent

  20. Haloperidol-stomach lesions attenuation by pentadecapeptide BPC 157, omeprazole, bromocriptine, but not atropine, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, ranitidine, cimetidine and misoprostol in mice.

    PubMed

    Bilic, I; Zoricic, I; Anic, T; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Mikus, D; Buljat, G; Ivankovic, D; Aralica, G; Prkacin, I; Perovic, D; Mise, S; Rotkvic, I; Petek, M; Rucman, R; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2001-03-01

    The focus was on haloperidol (central dopamine antagonist)-stomach lesion, a longly described suitable counterpart of dopamine blocker cysteamine-duodenal lesion. In this, the contribution of blockade of central/peripheral dopamine receptors and prostaglandins synthesis, along with influence of antiulcer agents was evaluated in mice. Male NMRI Hannnover mice were sacrificed 24 h after haloperidol (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p., given alone or with saline (haloperidol+saline) (i) or in combination (ii,iii)). Supporting central dopamine predominance for haloperidol stomach lesion induction, co-administration of peripheral dopamine receptor antagonist domperidone (5 mg/kg i.p.) (haloperidol+ domperidone) (ii), or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin (10 mg/kg s.c.) (haloperidol+ indomethacin) (iii) did not aggravate this lesion. (i) In haloperidol+saline challenged mice the lesions were inhibited by co-administration (/kg i.p.) of a gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, GlyGluProProProGlyLysProAlaAspAspAlaGlyLeuVal, M.W. 1419 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg, but not 1 pg, 100 fg, 10 fg), bromocriptine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg, 100 mg, but not 1 mg). Atropine (10, 100, 200 mg), pirenzepine (10, 100, 200 mg), misoprostol (10, 100, 200 microg), pantoprazole (1, 10, 100 mg), lansoprazole (0.1, 1, 10 mg), cimetidine (10, 100, 200 mg) and ranitidine (10, 100, 200 mg) were not effective. (ii) Dopamine peripheral blockade influence: in haloperidol+domperidone mice, previously effective bromocriptine, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg) or omeprazole (10 mg) did not attenuate stomach lesions. (iii) Prostaglandins synthesis blockade effect: in haloperidol+indomethacin mice, previously effective agents, bromocriptine or omeprazole were not active, while BPC 157 effect was only lessened. PMID:11292068

  1. Identification of gas-phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl hydrogen sulfate in the Los Angeles atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Eatough, D.J.; White, V.F.; Hansen, L.D.; Eatough, N.L.; Cheney, J.L.

    1986-09-01

    Gas-phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl hydrogen sulfate have been identified in the atmosphere in Los Angeles. Gas-phase concentrations of these two alkyl sulfates were determined by using analytical methods based on the collection of the compounds before collection of particles using diffusion denuders and after collection of particles using resin beds or sorption filters, and specific analysis of the collected alkyl sulfates by ion chromatography. The data show the dimethyl sulfate is present in both particles and the gas phase. The concentration of total gas-phase methyl sulfates was found to vary from 34 to 178 nmol/m/sup 3/ during the smog episode studied. These species constituted a significant fraction of the total sulfur budget in the Los Angeles basin during the sampling period.

  2. Determination of gas-phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl hydrogen sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.D.; White, V.F.; Eatough, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical techniques were developed for the collection and determination of gas-phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl sulfuric acid in the flue lines and plumes of power plants and in the ambient atmosphere. The techniques involve the collection of the gas phase species in denuders which are selective for monomethyl sulfuric acid or which collect both dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl sulfuric acid, and determination of the deposition pattern of the collected alkyl sulfates in the denuder. In addition, both dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl sulfuric acid are collected in filter pack, sorbent-bed combinations which allow for the separate determination of both dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl sulfuric acid or for their joint collection and determination. Monomethyl sulfuric acid is determined by ion chromatography. Dimethyl sulfate is determined either by ion chromatography or by gas chromatography, depending on the collection device used.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate... § 170.3(o)(24) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice....

  4. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate... § 170.3(o)(24) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice....

  5. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... iron. It occurs as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate... § 170.3(o)(24) of this chapter, with no limitation other than current good manufacturing practice....

  6. Sulfated triterpene derivatives from Fagonia arabica.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Angela; Masullo, Milena; Bassarello, Carla; Hamed, Arafa I; Belisario, Maria Antonietta; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2007-04-01

    Two new sulfated triterpenes (1, 6) and four new sulfated triterpene glycosides (2-5) have been isolated from the aerial parts of Fagonia arabica. Their structures were established by spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 1/2 and 3/4 are sulfated derivatives of the rare sapogenins 3beta,27-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid and 3beta,27-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, respectively. Compound 5 is an unusual disulfated oleanene derivative characterized by the occurrence of a 13,18-double bond, while compound 6 is the first reported naturally occurring saturated and sulfated pentacyclic triterpene of the taraxastane series with a C-20,28 lactone unit. PMID:17338564

  7. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of hydrazine sulfate as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  8. A preview of the new sulfate proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W.

    1994-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is required to regulate sulfate under the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) amendments, and a rule has been under development for several years. The agency decided to reconsider a regulation proposed for sulfate under Phase 5, which has been previously reviewed. Following deferral of the Sulfate Rule proposed under Phase 5, USEPA's sulfate workgroup proceeded to evaluate alternative options for its regulation. Draft regulatory and preamble language was prepared for a new proposed rule. This material was eventually released outside the agency and has been referred to as a preproposal. A summary of this preproposal is presented. The preproposal includes both a maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) and maximum contaminant level (MCL) equal to 500 mg/L.

  9. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., sheep, and goats. For treatment and control of colibacillosis (bacterial enteritis) caused by Escherichia coli susceptible to neomycin. To provide 10 milligrams (mg) of neomycin sulfate per pound of...

  10. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., sheep, and goats. For treatment and control of colibacillosis (bacterial enteritis) caused by Escherichia coli susceptible to neomycin. To provide 10 milligrams (mg) of neomycin sulfate per pound of...

  11. Ferric sulfate montmorillonites as Mars soil analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band-strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Ferric - sulfate - montmorillonite samples have been prepared more recently because they are a good compositional match with the surface material on Mars as measured by Viking. Reflectance spectra of montmorillonite doped with ferric sulfate in the interlayer regions include a strong 3 micron band that persists under dry conditions. This is in contrast to spectra of similarly prepared ferric-doped montmorillonites, which exhibit a relatively weaker 3 micron band under comparable dry environmental conditions. Presented here are reflectance spectra of a suite of ferric-sulfate exchanged montmorillonites prepared with variable ferric sulfate concentrations and variable pH conditions.

  12. Implementation of an antenatal magnesium sulfate protocol for fetal neuroprotection in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Bouet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Brun, Stéphanie; Madar, Hugo; Baisson, Anne-Laure; Courtay, Véronique; Gascoin-Lachambre, Géraldine; Lasocki, Sigismond; Sentilhes, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the feasibility of implementing a protocol for the use of magnesium sulfate to prevent cerebral palsy. This retrospective single-center study included all women with fetuses of gestational age <33 weeks of gestation whose birth was planned or expected within 24 hours from September 2011 to December 2012. They were to receive magnesium sulfate, administered intravenously as a 4-g bolus followed by a constant infusion of 1 g per hour. If delivery had not occurred after 12 hours and was no longer considered imminent, the infusion was to be discontinued. The study included 119 women, 81 (68.1%) of whom received magnesium sulfate. Among the latter, 71 (87.5%) gave birth within 24 hours. The reasons treatment was not given were: omission by medical team (19/38, 50%), urgent delivery (18/38, 47.4%), and contraindication to treatment (1/38, 2.6%). The mean gestational age at protocol implementation was 29.6 +/− 2.1 weeks. Maternal monitoring, especially at the onset of infusion, appeared suboptimal. No major maternal side effects were observed. Our study shows that implementing a protocol for prevention of cerebral palsy by magnesium sulfate is feasible in a tertiary obstetric center. PMID:26415713

  13. Non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate does not interact with heme iron absorption in humans.

    PubMed

    Gaitán, Diego; Olivares, Manuel; Lönnerdal, Bo; Brito, Alex; Pizarro, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    The absorption of heme iron has been described as distinctly different from that of non-heme iron. Moreover, whether heme and non-heme iron compete for absorption has not been well established. Our objective was to investigate the potential competition between heme and non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate for absorption, when both iron forms are ingested on an empty stomach. Twenty-six healthy nonpregnant women were selected to participate in two iron absorption studies using iron radioactive tracers. We obtained the dose-response curve for absorption of 0.5, 10, 20, and 50 mg heme iron doses, as concentrated red blood cells. Then, we evaluated the absorption of the same doses, but additionally we added non-heme iron, as ferrous sulfate, at constant heme/non-heme iron molar ratio (1:1). Finally, we compare the two curves by a two-way ANOVA. Iron sources were administered on an empty stomach. One factor analysis showed that heme iron absorption was diminished just by increasing total heme iron (P < 0.0001). The addition of non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate did not have any effect on heme iron absorption (P = NS). We reported evidence that heme and non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate does not compete for absorption. The mechanism behind the absorption of these iron sources is not clear. PMID:22935997

  14. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Zinc methionine sulfate. 172.399 Section 172.399... Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine sulfate, CAS Reg. No. 56329-42-1, may be safely... reaction between equimolar amounts of zinc sulfate and DL-methionine in purified water. (b) The...

  15. Sulfated polysaccharides and cell differentiation in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Løvtrup-Rein, H; Løvtrup, S

    1984-01-01

    The synthesis of sulfated polysaccharides during the embryonic development of Paracentrotus lividus has been investigated by incorporation of radioactive sulfate, glucose, glucosamine and fucose. The following substances become labelled: fucan sulfate (approximately 60%), heparan sulfate (approximately 20%) and dermatan sulfate (approximately 20%), and possibly a very slight amount of chondroitin sulfate. In animalized and vegetalized embryos, the rate of incorporation is significantly reduced, and furthermore dermatan sulfate is almost absent in animalized embryos. It is concluded that this substance is associated with the differentiation of vegetative cells, possibly the mesenchyme cells.

  16. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  17. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  18. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... of ointment contains 400 units of bacitracin zinc, 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate, 5...

  19. Regulation of sulfate uptake and expression of sulfate transporter genes in Brassica oleracea as affected by atmospheric H(2)S and pedospheric sulfate nutrition.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Peter; Stuiver, C Elisabeth E; Westerman, Sue; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; De Kok, Luit J

    2004-10-01

    Demand-driven signaling will contribute to regulation of sulfur acquisition and distribution within the plant. To investigate the regulatory mechanisms pedospheric sulfate and atmospheric H(2)S supply were manipulated in Brassica oleracea. Sulfate deprivation of B. oleracea seedlings induced a rapid increase of the sulfate uptake capacity by the roots, accompanied by an increased expression of genes encoding specific sulfate transporters in roots and other plant parts. More prolonged sulfate deprivation resulted in an altered shoot-root partitioning of biomass in favor of the root. B. oleracea was able to utilize atmospheric H(2)S as S-source; however, root proliferation and increased sulfate transporter expression occurred as in S-deficient plants. It was evident that in B. oleracea there was a poor shoot to root signaling for the regulation of sulfate uptake and expression of the sulfate transporters. cDNAs corresponding to 12 different sulfate transporter genes representing the complete gene family were isolated from Brassica napus and B. oleracea species. The sequence analysis classified the Brassica sulfate transporter genes into four different groups. The expression of the different sulfate transporters showed a complex pattern of tissue specificity and regulation by sulfur nutritional status. The sulfate transporter genes of Groups 1, 2, and 4 were induced or up-regulated under sulfate deprivation, although the expression of Group 3 sulfate transporters was not affected by the sulfate status. The significance of sulfate, thiols, and O-acetylserine as possible signal compounds in the regulation of the sulfate uptake and expression of the transporter genes is evaluated. PMID:15377780

  20. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates. PMID:24253764

  1. Metabolism and excretion studies of oral administered naringin, a putative antitussive, in rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Menghua; Zou, Wei; Yang, Cuiping; Peng, Wei; Su, Weiwei

    2012-04-01

    Naringin, a major active flavonone glycoside from a traditional Chinese medicine Huajuhong, has been demonstrated to have activities such as peripheral antitussive, mucoregulator and anti-inflammatory. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the metabolism and mass balance of orally administered naringin in rats and dogs. After oral administration of naringin to rats and dogs at doses of 42 mg/kg and 12.4 mg/kg, respectively, metabolites in excreta were identified using a LC-Q-TOF system. The major metabolites including naringin, total naringenin (including free naringenin and its conjugates) and 4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid in excreta were quantified by a LC-MS/MS system. Twenty-two metabolites were identified in dogs and 17 metabolites were detected in rats. The observed routes of naringin metabolism were hydroxylation, methylation, acetylation, hydrogenation, deglycosylation, dehydrogenation, glucuronidation, sulfation, glucosylation, ring-fission, oxidation, glycine conjugation and dehydroxylation. On the basis of these identified metabolites, a comprehensive metabolic pathway of naringin was proposed. About 21% of administered naringin was recovered in rat excreta in the form of naringin, total naringenin and 4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, and about 60% was recovered in dog excreta. The levels of 4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid in excreta were higher than those of naringin and total naringenin, and the quantified metabolites were excreted more through feces, rather than urine. Most of these metabolites were excreted within 36 h post dose. The results of metabolism and excretion studies provide an explanation for future pharmacological and toxicological findings and are the groundwork for clinical studies.

  2. Determinants of nurses' intention to administer opioids for pain relief.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H E; Nash, R E; Najman, J M; Yates, P M; Fentiman, B J; Dewar, A; Walsh, A M; McDowell, J K; Skerman, H M

    2001-09-01

    A statewide cross-sectional survey was conducted in Australia to identify the determinants of registered nurses' intention to administer opioids to patients with pain. Attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control, the key determinants of the Theory of Planned Behavior, were found to independently predict nurses' intention to administer opioids to these patients. Perceived control was the strongest predictor. Nurses reported positive overall attitudes towards opioids and their use in pain management. However, many negative attitudes were identified; for example, administering the least amount of opioid and encouraging patients to have non-opioids rather than opioids for pain relief. The findings related to specific attitudes and normative pressures provide insight into registered nurses' management of pain for hospitalized patients and the direction for educational interventions to improve registered nurses' administration of opioids for pain management.

  3. Pediatric nurses' thinking in response to vignettes on administering analgesics.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle Vincent, Catherine; Gaddy, Erica J

    2009-10-01

    Pediatric nurses are not administering available and recommended analgesics to hospitalized children after surgery. This descriptive study was conducted to examine 30 pediatric nurses' thinking-in response to case study vignettes-about pain assessment and morphine administration for children experiencing postoperative pain. Nurses considered numerous factors when assessing and managing children's pain, including pain level, vital signs, and facial expression. Nurses frequently relied, however, on behavioral and physiological manifestations, as opposed to self-report, when choosing whether to administer morphine. Nurses demonstrated misconceptions about pharmacokinetics and unwarranted concerns about the adverse effects of morphine. These findings partly explain why children continue to report high levels of pain after surgery and why nurses may not administer adequate analgesics to relieve children's pain. PMID:19504564

  4. Getting the most sulfate from soil: Regulation of sulfate uptake transporters in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rouached, Hatem; Secco, David; Arpat, A Bulak

    2009-06-01

    Sulfur (S) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. Plants require large amounts of sulfate for growth and development, and this serves as a major entry point of sulfate into the food web. Plants acquire S in its ionic form from the soil; they have evolved tightly controlled mechanisms for the regulation of sulfate uptake in response to its external and internal availability. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the first key step in sulfate uptake is presumed to be carried out exclusively by only two high-affinity sulfate transporters: SULTR1;1 and SULTR1;2. A better understanding of the mode of regulation for these two transporters is crucial because they constitute the first determinative step in balancing sulfate in respect to its supply and demand. Here, we review the recent progress achieved in our comprehension of (i) mechanisms that regulate these two high-affinity sulfate transporters at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and (ii) their structure-function relationship. Such progress is important to enable biotechnological and agronomic strategies aimed at enhancing sulfate uptake and improving crop yield in S-deficient soils. PMID:19375816

  5. Systemic Effects of Vaginally Administered Estrogen Therapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Megan; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Richter, Holly E.; Snyder, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Hormone Therapy (HT) was considered the standard of care prior to the publication of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). After the study was published, the use of systemic HT dramatically decreased resulting in an increased incidence of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia experienced by women. Use of vaginal estrogen offers women a unique alternative for relief of these symptoms. This article reviews the systemic effects of vaginally administered estrogen. Effects on serum hormone levels, vasomotor symptoms, lipid profiles and use in women with breast cancer are reviewed. An accompanying review examines the local effects of vaginally administered estrogen. PMID:22453284

  6. Identification of gas-phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl hydrogen sulfate in the Los Angeles atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Eatough, D.J.; White, V.F.; Hansen, L.D.; Eatough, N.L.; Cheney, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical techniques were developed for the collection and determination of gas-phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl sulfuric acid based on collection of the alkyl sulfate compounds with both denuder tubes and resin sorption beds and analysis of the collected material by ion chromatography. Gas-phase dimethyl sulfate and monomethyl sulfuric acid were identified in Los Angeles using these techniques. The data indicate that dimethyl sulfate is present in both particles and in the gas phase. The concentration of gas-phase methyl sulfates was found to be several micrograms/cu m. These species thus account for a significant fraction of the total sulfur budget in the Los Angeles Basin during the sample period.

  7. Mono- and Polyhydrated Sulfates in Tithonium Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Tithonium Chasma was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1538 UTC (11:38 a.m. EDT) on August 31, 2007 near 5.22 degrees south latitude, 270.48 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Tithonium Chasma lies at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system. It extends approximately east-west for roughly 810 kilometers (503 miles), varies in width from approximately 10 to 110 kilometers (6 to 68 miles), and cuts into the Martian surface to a maximum depth of roughly 6 kilometers (4 miles).

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area centered on a ridge of erosion-resistant rock.

    The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals banded, light-colored material draped on the ridge. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral) and purple polyhydrated sulfates (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule).

    The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 7 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the sulfate deposits both cover and flank the ridge. Brighter, monohydrated sulfate (yellow) deposits revealed in the lower right image lies along the ridge's northwest side and fall off into a small valley or depression, while darker polyhydrated sulfates (purple) lie along the ridge's northeast flank. A deposit of both mono- and polyhydrated sulfates spanning the ridge

  8. Radioiodination of Aryl-Alkyl Cyclic Sulfates

    PubMed Central

    Mushti, Chandra; Papisov, Mikhail I.

    2015-01-01

    Among the currently available positron emitters suitable for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), 124I has the longest physical half-life (4.2 days). The long half-life and well-investigated behavior of iodine in vivo makes 124I very attractive for pharmacological studies. In this communication, we describe a simple yet effective method for the synthesis of novel 124I labeled compounds intended for PET imaging of arylsulfatase activity in vivo. Arylsulfatases have important biological functions, and genetic deficiencies of such functions require pharmacological replacement, the efficacy of which must be properly and non-invasively evaluated. These enzymes, even though their natural substrates are mostly of aliphatic nature, hydrolyze phenolic sulfates to phenol and sulfuric acid. The availability of [124I]iodinated substrates is expected to provide a PET-based method for measuring their activity in vivo. The currently available methods of synthesis of iodinated arylsulfates usually require either introducing of a protected sulfate ester early in the synthesis or introduction of sulfate group at the end of synthesis in a separate step. The described method gives the desired product in one step from an aryl-alkyl cyclic sulfate. When treated with iodide, the source cyclic sulfate opens with substitution of iodide at the alkyl center and gives the desired arylsulfate monoester. PMID:23135631

  9. LASL bismuth sulfate thermochemical hydrogen cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, K.E.; Jones, W.M.; Peterson, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The LASL bismuth sulfate cycle is one of a generic class of solid sulfate cycles in which a metal sulfate is substituted for sulfuric acid in a hybrid (partly electrochemical) cycle. This technique avoids the serious materials and heat penalty problems associated with the handling of concentrated acid solutions, and if the electrolyzer is operated at acid concentrations below 50% it may, in principle, lead to a lower cell voltage with subsequent energy savings. Experiment verification of all steps in the cycle has been obtained, particularly for the decomposition of normal bismuth sulfate and lower bismuth oxysulfates. For the substance, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 2SO/sub 3/, an endothermic requirement of 172 kJ/mol was obtained, which is considerably less than that for other metal sulfate systems. A rotary kiln was used for continuous experiments and our results show decomposition of this compound to Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ SO/sub 3/ in under 8 minutes residence time at 1023 K. Preliminary analysis of the cycle's energy balance shows an overall thermal efficiency of greater than 50% when the maximum cycle reaction temperature is 1500 K. The cycle has potential for hydrogen production when coupled with an energy source such as solar or fusion energy.

  10. Acetate Production from Oil under Sulfate-Reducing Conditions in Bioreactors Injected with Sulfate and Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Callbeck, Cameron M.; Agrawal, Akhil

    2013-01-01

    Oil production by water injection can cause souring in which sulfate in the injection water is reduced to sulfide by resident sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Sulfate (2 mM) in medium injected at a rate of 1 pore volume per day into upflow bioreactors containing residual heavy oil from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field was nearly completely reduced to sulfide, and this was associated with the generation of 3 to 4 mM acetate. Inclusion of 4 mM nitrate inhibited souring for 60 days, after which complete sulfate reduction and associated acetate production were once again observed. Sulfate reduction was permanently inhibited when 100 mM nitrate was injected by the nitrite formed under these conditions. Pulsed injection of 4 or 100 mM nitrate inhibited sulfate reduction temporarily. Sulfate reduction resumed once nitrate injection was stopped and was associated with the production of acetate in all cases. The stoichiometry of acetate formation (3 to 4 mM formed per 2 mM sulfate reduced) is consistent with a mechanism in which oil alkanes and water are metabolized to acetate and hydrogen by fermentative and syntrophic bacteria (K. Zengler et al., Nature 401:266–269, 1999), with the hydrogen being used by SRB to reduce sulfate to sulfide. In support of this model, microbial community analyses by pyrosequencing indicated SRB of the genus Desulfovibrio, which use hydrogen but not acetate as an electron donor for sulfate reduction, to be a major community component. The model explains the high concentrations of acetate that are sometimes found in waters produced from water-injected oil fields. PMID:23770914

  11. A Mobile Platform for Administering Questionnaires and Synchronizing Their Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginardi, Maria Germana; Lanzola, Giordano

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a platform for administering questionnaires on smart-phones and tablets. The project arises from the need of acquiring data for monitoring the outcomes of different homecare interventions. First a model has been defined for representing questionnaires, able to support adaptivity in the dialog with the user and enforce some…

  12. 40 CFR 282.88 - Pennsylvania State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Bureau of Land Recycling and Waste Management, Storage Tank Program, Rachel Carson State Office Building... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.88 Pennsylvania State-Administered Program. (a) The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's underground storage...

  13. 40 CFR 147.2300 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Underground Water Source Protection Program Pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act and 40 CFR 145... was approved by the Director of the Federal Register July 6, 1984. (1) Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 10... are part of the approved State-administered program: (1) Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 10, sections 1251...

  14. 40 CFR 147.2300 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Underground Water Source Protection Program Pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act and 40 CFR 145... was approved by the Director of the Federal Register July 6, 1984. (1) Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 10... are part of the approved State-administered program: (1) Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 10, sections 1251...

  15. 40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Minnesota obtains... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minnesota State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.73...

  16. 40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Minnesota obtains... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minnesota State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.73...

  17. 40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Minnesota obtains... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minnesota State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.73...

  18. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  19. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  20. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  1. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  2. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  3. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  4. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  5. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  6. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  7. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  8. Microcomputer-Administered Research: What it Means for Educational Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig W.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the microcomputer offers advantages for behavioral science and educational research. Among the potentials of microcomputer use are enhanced capacities for precise replication and extension, measurement, and experimental control and randomization, and the relative economy that microcomputer-administered experimental treatments…

  9. 40 CFR 282.94 - Utah State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Utah obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant to... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Utah State-Administered Program. 282.94 Section 282.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  10. 40 CFR 282.61 - Hawaii State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Hawaii obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii State-Administered Program. 282.61 Section 282.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  11. 40 CFR 282.61 - Hawaii State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Hawaii obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaii State-Administered Program. 282.61 Section 282.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1100 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 147.1100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS..., except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Massachusetts Department of... Department of Environmental Quality Engineering, signed by the EPA Regional Administrator on August 18,...

  13. 40 CFR 282.53 - Arkansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U... Pollution Control and Ecology, 8001 National Drive, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913. (1) State statutes...

  14. 40 CFR 282.53 - Arkansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U... Pollution Control and Ecology, 8001 National Drive, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913. (1) State statutes...

  15. 40 CFR 282.53 - Arkansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U... Pollution Control and Ecology, 8001 National Drive, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913. (1) State statutes...

  16. 40 CFR 282.53 - Arkansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U... Pollution Control and Ecology, 8001 National Drive, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913. (1) State statutes...

  17. 40 CFR 282.53 - Arkansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U... Pollution Control and Ecology, 8001 National Drive, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913. (1) State statutes...

  18. 24 CFR 511.51 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATION GRANT PROGRAM State Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State-administered program. 511.51 Section 511.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  19. 24 CFR 511.51 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATON GRANT PROGRAM State Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true State-administered program. 511.51 Section 511.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  20. 24 CFR 511.51 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATION GRANT PROGRAM State Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State-administered program. 511.51 Section 511.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  1. 24 CFR 511.51 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATON GRANT PROGRAM State Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State-administered program. 511.51 Section 511.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  2. 24 CFR 511.51 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SLUM CLEARANCE AND URBAN RENEWAL RENTAL REHABILITATION GRANT PROGRAM State Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true State-administered program. 511.51 Section 511.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  3. 40 CFR 282.96 - Virginia State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virginia State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.96...

  4. 40 CFR 282.96 - Virginia State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Virginia State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.96...

  5. 40 CFR 147.3000 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administered by EPA. (The term “Indian lands” is defined at 40 CFR 144.3.) The Navajo Indian lands are in the.... The UIC program for Navajo Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which..., except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA has granted the Navajo Nation primacy......

  6. 40 CFR 147.3000 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administered by EPA. (The term “Indian lands” is defined at 40 CFR 144.3.) The Navajo Indian lands are in the.... The UIC program for Navajo Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which..., except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA has granted the Navajo Nation primacy......

  7. 40 CFR 147.3000 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administered by EPA. (The term “Indian lands” is defined at 40 CFR 144.3.) The Navajo Indian lands are in the.... The UIC program for Navajo Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which..., except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA has granted the Navajo Nation primacy......

  8. 40 CFR 147.151 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navajo Indian lands consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any..., including those on Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA has granted... administered by EPA. The UIC program for Navajo Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian......

  9. 40 CFR 147.151 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navajo Indian lands consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any..., including those on Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA has granted... administered by EPA. The UIC program for Navajo Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian......

  10. 40 CFR 147.151 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navajo Indian lands consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any..., including those on Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA has granted... administered by EPA. The UIC program for Navajo Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian......

  11. 40 CFR 147.151 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navajo Indian lands consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and any..., including those on Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian lands for which EPA has granted... administered by EPA. The UIC program for Navajo Indian lands, except for Class II wells on Navajo Indian......

  12. 32 CFR 637.11 - Authority to administer oaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Authority to administer oaths. 637.11 Section 637.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.11 Authority...

  13. 32 CFR 637.11 - Authority to administer oaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to administer oaths. 637.11 Section 637.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.11 Authority...

  14. 32 CFR 637.11 - Authority to administer oaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Authority to administer oaths. 637.11 Section 637.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.11 Authority...

  15. 32 CFR 637.11 - Authority to administer oaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authority to administer oaths. 637.11 Section 637.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.11 Authority...

  16. 32 CFR 637.11 - Authority to administer oaths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to administer oaths. 637.11 Section 637.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.11 Authority...

  17. 40 CFR 147.1450 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be... of Nevada, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Nevada Division of... Protection Agency, Region IX, 215 Fremont Street, San Francisco, California 99105, or at the...

  18. Teaching Auction Strategy Using Experiments Administered Via the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asker, John; Grosskopf, Brit; McKinney, C. Nicholas; Niederle, Muriel; Roth, Alvin E.; Weizsacker, Georg

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an experimental design used to teach concepts in the economics of auctions and implications for e-Business procurement. The experiment is easily administered and can be adapted to many different treatments. The chief innovation is that it does not require the use of a lab or class time. Instead, the design can be implemented on…

  19. 40 CFR 147.1300 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1300...) Opinion Letter No. 63 and attached Memorandum Opinion, signed by Attorney General of Missouri, March 16, 1982; (2) Addendum to Opinion Letter No. 63 (1982), signed by Attorney General of Missouri, October...

  20. Evaluation of coagulation via thromboelastography in healthy horses administered dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Jenna; Wagg, Catherine R.; Boysen, Søren R.; Leguillette, Renaud; Mizen, Kyle; Roy, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone was administered to healthy horses daily for 7 days. Blood samples were collected at 3 time points from both treatment and non-treatment groups, and analyzed via thromboelastography (TEG). There were no significant differences in TEG parameters between treated and untreated horses, or within treatment groups over time. PMID:26677262

  1. 8 CFR 337.8 - Oath administered by the courts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... naturalization not subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of 8 CFR 310.2(d) must notify USCIS at the time of the... from the list of eligible persons as provided in 8 CFR 335.5 and the court will not administer the oath... naturalization not subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of 8 CFR 310.3(d) who has elected to have......

  2. 40 CFR 147.950 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Drilling Mud and Salt Water Generated from Drilling and Production of Oil and Gas Wells..., 1985 and January 20, 1986; (3)(i) Statewide Order Governing the Drilling for and Producing of Oil and... State-administered program. The UIC program for Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells in the State...

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Taste Disorder in Oxaliplatin-administered Rats.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Taste disorder is one of the adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy resulting in a loss of appetite, leading to malnutrition and a decrease in the quality of life of the patient. Oxaliplatin, a platinum anticancer drug, has a critical role in colon cancer chemotherapy and is known to induce taste disorder. Here, we evaluated the taste functions in oxaliplatin-administered rats. Among the taste receptors, expression levels of T1R2, one of the sweet receptor subunits, increased in the circumvallate papillae of the oxaliplatin-administered rats. In a brief-access test, i.e., behavioral analysis of the taste response, oxaliplatin-administered rats showed a decreased response to sweet taste. However, we did not detect any differences in the plasma levels of zinc, number of taste cells, or morphology of taste buds between control and oxaliplatin-administered rats. In conclusion, the decreased response to sweet taste by oxaliplatin administration may be due to the upregulation of T1R2 expression. PMID:27374965

  4. 40 CFR 147.151 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona § 147.151 EPA... the Navajo Nation primacy for the SDWA Class II UIC program (as defined in § 147.3400), is... for which EPA has granted the Navajo Nation primacy for the SDWA Class II UIC program, consists of...

  5. 40 CFR 147.1700 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the OFR in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR...-administered program: (1) N.C. ADMIN. CODE, Title 15, r. 02L.0100 et seq. Groundwater Classification...

  6. 40 CFR 147.1700 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the OFR in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR...-administered program: (1) N.C. ADMIN. CODE, Title 15, r. 02L.0100 et seq. Groundwater Classification...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1700 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the OFR in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR...-administered program: (1) N.C. ADMIN. CODE, Title 15, r. 02L.0100 et seq. Groundwater Classification...

  8. 40 CFR 147.2500 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the OFR in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... Disposal of Liquid Industrial Wastes and By-Products, Wisconsin Administrative Code §§ 214.03 and 214.08... State-administered program: (1) Chapter 144, Water, Sewage, Refuse, Mining and Air Pollution,...

  9. Systemically Administered, Target Organ-Specific Therapies for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tero A. H.; May, Ulrike; Prince, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors and other agents that could potentially enhance tissue regeneration have been identified, but their therapeutic value in clinical medicine has been limited for reasons such as difficulty to maintain bioactivity of locally applied therapeutics in the protease-rich environment of regenerating tissues. Although human diseases are treated with systemically administered drugs in general, all current efforts aimed at enhancing tissue repair with biological drugs have been based on their local application. The systemic administration of growth factors has been ruled out due to concerns about their safety. These concerns are warranted. In addition, only a small proportion of systemically administered drugs reach their intended target. Selective delivery of the drug to the target tissue and use of functional protein domains capable of penetrating cells and tissues could alleviate these problems in certain circumstances. We will present in this review a novel approach utilizing unique molecular fingerprints (“Zip/postal codes”) in the vasculature of regenerating tissues that allows target organ-specific delivery of systemically administered therapeutic molecules by affinity-based physical targeting (using peptides or antibodies as an “address tag”) to injured tissues undergoing repair. The desired outcome of targeted therapies is increased local accumulation and lower systemic concentration of the therapeutic payload. We believe that the physical targeting of systemically administered therapeutic molecules could be rapidly adapted in the field of regenerative medicine. PMID:26437400

  10. Sulfate-reducing bacteria: Microbiology and physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, H. D.

    1985-01-01

    The sulfate reducing bacteria, the first nonphotosynthetic anaerobic bacteria demonstrated to contain c type cytochromes, perform electron transfer coupled to phosphorylation. A new bioenergetic scheme for the formation of a proton gradient for growth of Desulfovibrio on organic substrates and sulfate involving vectors electron transfer and consistent with the cellular localization of enzymes and electron transfer components was proposed. Hydrogen is produced in the cytoplasm from organic substrates and, as a permease molecule diffuses rapidly across the cytoplasmic membrane, it is oxidized to protons and electrons by the periplasmic hydrogenase. The electrons only are transferred across the cytoplasmic membrane to the cytoplasm where they are used to reduce sulfate to sulfide. The protons are used for transport or to drive a reversible ATPOSE. The net effect is the transfer of protons across the cytoplasmic membrane with the intervention of a proton pump. This type of H2 cycling is relevant to the bioenergetics of other types of anaerobic microorganisms.

  11. Synthetic Site-Selectively Mono-6-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate Dodecasaccharide Shows Anti-Angiogenic Properties In Vitro and Sensitizes Tumors to Cisplatin In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Avizienyte, Egle; Cole, Claire L.; Rushton, Graham; Miller, Gavin J.; Bugatti, Antonella; Presta, Marco; Gardiner, John M.; Jayson, Gordon C.

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulphate (HS), a ubiquitously expressed glycosaminoglycan (GAG), regulates multiple cellular functions by mediating interactions between numerous growth factors and their cell surface cognate receptors. However, the structural specificity of HS in these interactions remains largely undefined. Here, we used completely synthetic, structurally defined, alternating N-sulfated glucosamine (NS) and 2-O-sulfated iduronate (IS) residues to generate dodecasaccharides ([NSIS]6) that contained no, one or six glucosamine 6-O-sulfates (6S). The aim was to address how 6S contributes to the potential of defined HS dodecasaccharides to inhibit the angiogenic growth factors FGF2 and VEGF165, in vitro and in vivo. We show that the addition of a single 6S at the non-reducing end of [NSIS]6, i.e. [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5, significantly augments the inhibition of FGF2-dependent endothelial cell proliferation, migration and sprouting in vitro when compared to the non-6S variant. In contrast, the fully 6-O-sulfated dodecasaccharide, [NSIS6S]6, is not a potent inhibitor of FGF2. Addition of a single 6S did not significantly improve inhibitory properties of [NSIS]6 when tested against VEGF165-dependent endothelial cell functions.In vivo, [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 blocked FGF2-dependent blood vessel formation without affecting tumor growth. Reduction of non-FGF2-dependent ovarian tumor growth occurred when [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 was combined with cisplatin. The degree of inhibition by [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 in combination with cisplatin in vivo equated with that induced by bevacizumab and sunitinib when administered with cisplatin. Evaluation of post-treatment vasculature revealed that [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 treatment had the greatest impact on tumor blood vessel size and lumen formation. Our data for the first time demonstrate that synthetic, structurally defined oligosaccharides have potential to be developed as active anti-angiogenic agents that sensitize tumors to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27490176

  12. Synthetic Site-Selectively Mono-6-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate Dodecasaccharide Shows Anti-Angiogenic Properties In Vitro and Sensitizes Tumors to Cisplatin In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Avizienyte, Egle; Cole, Claire L; Rushton, Graham; Miller, Gavin J; Bugatti, Antonella; Presta, Marco; Gardiner, John M; Jayson, Gordon C

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulphate (HS), a ubiquitously expressed glycosaminoglycan (GAG), regulates multiple cellular functions by mediating interactions between numerous growth factors and their cell surface cognate receptors. However, the structural specificity of HS in these interactions remains largely undefined. Here, we used completely synthetic, structurally defined, alternating N-sulfated glucosamine (NS) and 2-O-sulfated iduronate (IS) residues to generate dodecasaccharides ([NSIS]6) that contained no, one or six glucosamine 6-O-sulfates (6S). The aim was to address how 6S contributes to the potential of defined HS dodecasaccharides to inhibit the angiogenic growth factors FGF2 and VEGF165, in vitro and in vivo. We show that the addition of a single 6S at the non-reducing end of [NSIS]6, i.e. [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5, significantly augments the inhibition of FGF2-dependent endothelial cell proliferation, migration and sprouting in vitro when compared to the non-6S variant. In contrast, the fully 6-O-sulfated dodecasaccharide, [NSIS6S]6, is not a potent inhibitor of FGF2. Addition of a single 6S did not significantly improve inhibitory properties of [NSIS]6 when tested against VEGF165-dependent endothelial cell functions.In vivo, [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 blocked FGF2-dependent blood vessel formation without affecting tumor growth. Reduction of non-FGF2-dependent ovarian tumor growth occurred when [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 was combined with cisplatin. The degree of inhibition by [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 in combination with cisplatin in vivo equated with that induced by bevacizumab and sunitinib when administered with cisplatin. Evaluation of post-treatment vasculature revealed that [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 treatment had the greatest impact on tumor blood vessel size and lumen formation. Our data for the first time demonstrate that synthetic, structurally defined oligosaccharides have potential to be developed as active anti-angiogenic agents that sensitize tumors to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27490176

  13. Fatty acids on continental sulfate aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Vaida, V.; Tuck, A. F.; Niemi, J. V.; Kupiainen, K.; Kulmala, M.; VehkamäKi, H.

    2005-03-01

    Surface analyses of atmospheric aerosols from different continental sources, such as forest fires and coal and straw burning, show that organic surfactants are found on such aerosols. The predominant organic species detected by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry on the sulfate aerosols are fatty acids of different carbon chain length up to the C32 acid. These observations are consistent with literature accounts of functional group analysis of bulk samples, but this is the first direct evidence of fatty acid films on the surface of sulfate aerosols. Surface analysis leads to the conclusion that fatty acid films on continental aerosols may be more common than has been previously suggested.

  14. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  15. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution.

    PubMed

    Drisdell, Walter S; Saykally, Richard J; Cohen, Ronald C

    2009-11-10

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 +/- 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly. PMID:19861551

  16. Synthesis of bis(diaryltelluralkoxy)sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Sadekov, I.D.; Maksimenko, A.A.; Minkin, V.I.

    1987-01-10

    The reactions of diaryltelluroxides with alkylating agents have not been studied with the exception of the treatment with methyl iodide. The authors have shown that reaction of diaryltelluroxides with dialkylsulfates in the corresponding alcohols leads to the previously unknown sigma-telluranes - bis(diaryltelluralkoxy)sulfates - in high yields. The composition and structure of the synthesized compounds were shown by elemental analytical data, IR spectra (band at 1200 cm/sup -1/ for S=O in covalent sulfates), PMR spectra and by their conversion to the corresponding tellurides using formamide (analogously to other sigma-telluranes, Ar/sub 2/TeX/sub 2/ with X = F, Cl Br, or I).

  17. Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present.

  18. Silage supports sulfate reduction in the treatment of metals- and sulfate-containing waste waters.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kathryn D; Erving, Leena; Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja L; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2010-09-01

    Silage was used as source of carbon and electrons for enrichment of silage-degrading and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) from boreal, acidic, metals-containing peat-bog samples and to support their use in batch and semi-batch systems in treatment of synthetic waste water. Sulfidogenic silage utilization resulted in a rapid decrease in lactate concentrations; concentrations of acetate, butyrate and propionate increased concomitantly. Synthetic waste water consisting of Mn, Mg and Fe (II) ions inhibited sulfate reduction at concentrations of 6 g/l, 8 g/l and 1 g/l respectively. During treatment, Mn and Mg ions remained in solution while Fe ions partially precipitated. Up to 87 mg sulfate was reduced per gram of silage. Sulfate reduction rates of 34, 22 and 6 mg/l/day were obtained at temperatures of 30, 20 and 9 °C respectively. In semi-batch reactors operated at low pH, the iron precipitation capacity was controlled by sulfate reduction rates and by partial loss of hydrogen sulfide to the gas phase. Passive reactor systems should, therefore, be operated at neutral pH. Metals tolerant, silage-fermenting (predominantly species belonging to genus Clostridium) and sulfate reducing bacteria (including a species similar to the psychrotolerant Desulfovibrio arcticus) were obtained from the peat bog samples. This work demonstrates that silage supports sulfate reduction and can be used as a low cost carbon and electron source for SRB in treatment of metals-containing waste water.

  19. Measurement of chemical leaching potential of sulfate from landfill disposed sulfate containing wastes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-02-01

    A number of sulfate-containing wastes are disposed in municipal solid wastes (MSW) landfills including residues from coal, wood, and MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, the sulfate can be reduced to hydrogen sulfide which is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, toxicity, and corrosive nature. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate existing protocols for the quantification of total leachable sulfate from solid samples and to compare their effectiveness and efficiency with a new protocol described in this study. Methods compared include two existing acid extraction protocols commonly used in the U.S., a pH neutral protocol that requires multiple changes of the leaching solution, and a new acid extraction method. The new acid extraction method was shown to be simple and effective to measure the leaching potential of sulfate from a range of landfill disposed sulfate-containing wastes. However, the acid extraction methods do not distinguish between sulfate and other forms of sulfur and are thus most useful when sulfate is the only form of sulfur present. PMID:25499684

  20. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  1. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, John A.; Turner, Clarence B.; Johnson, Irving

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  2. Novel processes for anaerobic sulfate production from elemental sulfur by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfate reducers and related organisms which had previously been found to reduce Fe(III) with H2 or organic electron donors oxidized S0 to sulfate when Mn(IV) was provided as an electron acceptor. Organisms catalyzing this reaction in washed cell suspensions included Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomicrobium baculatum. Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and Geobacter metallireducens. These organisms produced little or no sulfate from S0 with Fe(III) as a potential electron acceptor or in the absence of an electron acceptor. In detailed studies with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, the stoichiometry of sulfate and Mn(II) production was consistent with the reaction S0 + 3 MnO2 + 4H+ ???SO42- + 3Mn(II) + 2H2O. None of the organisms evaluated could be grown with S0 as the sole electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor. In contrast to the other sulfate reducers evaluated, Desulfobulbus propionicus produced sulfate from S0 in the absence of an electron acceptor and Fe(III) oxide stimulated sulfate production. Sulfide also accumulated in the absence of Mn(IV) or Fe(III). The stoichiometry of sulfate and sulfide production indicated that Desulfobulbus propionicus disproportionates S0 as follows: 4S0 + 4H2O???SO42- + 3HS- + 5 H+. Growth of Desulfobulbus propionicus with S0 as the electron donor and Fe(III) as a sulfide sink and/or electron acceptor was very slow. The S0 oxidation coupled to Mn(IV) reduction described here provides a potential explanation for the Mn(IV)-dependent sulfate production that previous studies have observed in anoxic marine sediments. Desulfobulbus propionicus is the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate S0.

  3. Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Variations in aqueous sulfate concentrations at Panola Mountain, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, J.B.; Peters, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    Aqueous sulfate concentrations were measured in incident precipitation, canopy throughfall, stemflow, soil water, groundwater, and streamwater at three locations in a 41 ha forested watershed at Panola Mountain State Park in the Georgia Piedmont. To evaluate the variations in sulfate concentrations, sampling intensity was increased during storms by automated collection of surface water and by incremental subsampling of rainfall, throughfall, and soil solution. Canopy throughfall, stemflow, and runoff from a bedrock outcrop in the watershed headwaters were enriched in sulfate relative to incident precipitation due to washoff of dry deposition that accumulated between storms. Soil waters collected from zero-tension lysimeters at 15 cm and 50 cm below land surface also were enriched in sulfate relative to precipitation, groundwater and streamwater. Sulfate concentrations in groundwater and in streamwater at base flow varied in an annual sinusoidal pattern with winter maxima and summer minima. Stream discharge and groundwater levels varied in a similar annual pattern in phase with the sulfate concentrations. The temporal variability of sulfate concentrations at most groundwater sites was small relative to the spatial variability among groundwater sites. Streamwater sulfate concentrations during base flow were controlled by low-sulfate groundwater discharge. As flow increased, an increasing proportion of shallow, high-sulfate groundwater and soil water contributed to streamflow. The dominant control on stream sulfate concentration shifted from sulfate retention by adsorption in the mineral soil at base flow to mobilization of sulfate from the upper, organic-rich horizons of the soil at high flow. ?? 1993.

  5. Oral vanadyl sulfate in treatment of diabetes mellitus in rats.

    PubMed

    Ramanadham, S; Mongold, J J; Brownsey, R W; Cros, G H; McNeill, J H

    1989-09-01

    Recent reports have suggested that vanadium in the form of vanadyl (+IV) possesses insulin-like activity. Therefore, in the present study we examined the effects of administering oral vanadyl to diabetic animals. Wistar rats made diabetic with streptozotocin and age-matched controls were maintained for 10 wk in the absence and presence of vanadyl sulfate trihydrate in the drinking water. In the presence of vanadyl, decreases in rate of growth and circulating levels of insulin were the only significant alterations recorded in control animals. In contrast, diabetic animals treated with vanadyl, despite having lower body weights and insulin levels, had normal plasma concentrations of glucose, lipid, creatinine, and thyroid hormone. In addition, abnormalities in isolated working heart function and glycerol output from adipose tissue of diabetic animals were also corrected after vanadyl treatment. These results suggest that vanadium when used in the vanadyl form is effective in diminishing the diabetic state in the rat by substituting for and replacing insulin or possibly by enhancing the effects of endogenous insulin.

  6. p-Cresyl sulfate promotes insulin resistance associated with CKD.

    PubMed

    Koppe, Laetitia; Pillon, Nicolas J; Vella, Roxane E; Croze, Marine L; Pelletier, Caroline C; Chambert, Stéphane; Massy, Ziad; Glorieux, Griet; Vanholder, Raymond; Dugenet, Yann; Soula, Hédi A; Fouque, Denis; Soulage, Christophe O

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the insulin resistance that frequently accompanies CKD are poorly understood, but the retention of renally excreted compounds may play a role. One such compound is p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), a protein-bound uremic toxin that originates from tyrosine metabolism by intestinal microbes. Here, we sought to determine whether PCS contributes to CKD-associated insulin resistance. Administering PCS to mice with normal kidney function for 4 weeks triggered insulin resistance, loss of fat mass, and ectopic redistribution of lipid in muscle and liver, mimicking features associated with CKD. Mice treated with PCS exhibited altered insulin signaling in skeletal muscle through ERK1/2 activation. In addition, exposing C2C12 myotubes to concentrations of PCS observed in CKD caused insulin resistance through direct activation of ERK1/2. Subtotal nephrectomy led to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in mice, and treatment with the prebiotic arabino-xylo-oligosaccharide, which reduced serum PCS by decreasing intestinal production of p-cresol, prevented these metabolic derangements. Taken together, these data suggest that PCS contributes to insulin resistance and that targeting PCS may be a therapeutic strategy in CKD. PMID:23274953

  7. DNA damage in leukocytes of mice treated with copper sulfate.

    PubMed

    Saleha Banu, B; Ishaq, Mohd; Danadevi, K; Padmavathi, P; Ahuja, Y R

    2004-12-01

    Single stranded DNA breaks induced by copper sulfate (CuSO(4)) in mice has been studied in vivo using Alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (Comet assay). Mice were administered orally with doses of 0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.00, 7.50, 10.00 and 12.50 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) of CuSO4 respectively. The samples of whole blood were collected at 24, 48, 72 h, first week and second week post-treatment and the assay was carried out to determine single strand DNA breaks as represented by comet tail-length. In addition, the sample was used to study the repair efficiency by incubating the samples with RPMI medium for 2 h. Results indicated a significant DNA damage at all the doses after treatment with CuSO4 when compared to controls showing a clear dose-dependent response (p < 0.05). A gradual decrease in the tail-lengths from 48 h post-treatment was observed and by second week, the values returned to control levels at all doses. The study on the repair efficiency indicated that mice treated with all the doses of CuSO4 showed decrease in mean comet tail-length indicating repair efficiency capacity but less when compared to those of controls. The study also reveals that comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for detecting DNA damage caused by trace metals such as copper (Cu). PMID:15500930

  8. 21 CFR 522.2121 - Spectinomycin sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spectinomycin sulfate. 522.2121 Section 522.2121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... last treatment. Do not use in female dairy cattle 20 months of age or older. Use in this class...

  9. Arsenic Mobility Under Sulfate Reducing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keimowitz, A. R.; Mailloux, B. J.; Cole, P.; Simpson, H. J.; Stute, M.; Chillrud, S. N.; Kujawinski, E. B.; Zheng, Y.

    2004-12-01

    At a former landfill site in southern Maine approximately 300 ppb arsenic has been observed in groundwater over the last two decades. Laboratory and field measurements support the hypothesis that this arsenic originates within the underlying glaciofluvial sediments containing natural arsenic at concentrations of approximately 6 ppm. Arsenic is mobilized under the landfill by reducing conditions induced by decomposition of organic-rich landfill leachate. The feasibility of arsenic removal by in situ oxidation was investigated with laboratory and pilot field experiments. The high redox buffering capacity of the aquifer solids makes this remediation strategy very difficult to accomplish. A more promising remediation strategy may involve the sequestration of arsenic through the formation of solid phase sulfides under sulfate-reducing conditions. To test this hypothesis, laboratory microcosm experiments were conducted with sediment from beneath the landfill. Acetate was added to the sediments to stimulate sulfate reducing conditions. Microcosms were monitored for changes to the solid and aqueous phase chemistry along with changes to the microbial community. The addition of acetate enabled the native microbial community to establish sulfate reducing conditions. The production of sulfide coincided with a decrease in the observed iron and arsenic concentrations. Over ten days, roughly 70 to 80% of the dissolved arsenic and >99% of the dissolved iron was removed from solution. Arsenic was subsequently partially remobilized, possibly due to continued sulfate reduction and an increase in pH. Results indicated that laboratory manipulations of the microbial community and subsurface redox state were able to lower the dissolved arsenic concentrations.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...

  11. Status of copper sulfate research at SNARC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate will be given. The change in Sponsorship will also be discussed. The Initial label claim will be “For the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis)...

  12. Minnows get columnaris too; copper sulfate works!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to compare the therapeutic effects of copper sulfate (CuSO4), when delivered in either a flow-through or static system, on the survival of golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas; Fig. 1A) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; Fig. 1B) infected with Flavobacterium columnare (...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food...

  17. Intravenously administered nanoparticles increase survival following blast trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lashof-Sullivan, Margaret M.; Shoffstall, Erin; Atkins, Kristyn T.; Keane, Nickolas; Bir, Cynthia; VandeVord, Pamela; Lavik, Erin B.

    2014-01-01

    Explosions account for 79% of combat-related injuries, leading to multiorgan hemorrhage and uncontrolled bleeding. Uncontrolled bleeding is the leading cause of death in battlefield traumas as well as in civilian life. We need to stop the bleeding quickly to save lives, but, shockingly, there are no treatments to stop internal bleeding. A therapy that halts bleeding in a site-specific manner and is safe, stable at room temperature, and easily administered is critical for the advancement of trauma care. To address this need, we have developed hemostatic nanoparticles that are administered intravenously. When tested in a model of blast trauma with multiorgan hemorrhaging, i.v. administration of the hemostatic nanoparticles led to a significant improvement in survival over the short term (1 h postblast). No complications from this treatment were apparent out to 3 wk. This work demonstrates that these particles have the potential to save lives and fundamentally change trauma care. PMID:24982180

  18. Analgesic efficacy of orally administered buprenorphine in rats.

    PubMed

    Martin, L B; Thompson, A C; Martin, T; Kristal, M B

    2001-02-01

    The analgesic effect of orally administered buprenorphine was compared with that induced by a standard therapeutic injected dose (0.05 mg/kg of body weight, s.c.) in male Long-Evans rats. Analgesia was assessed by measuring pain threshold, using the hot-water tail-flick assay before and after administration of buprenorphine. The results suggest that a commonly used formula for oral buprenorphine in flavored gelatin, at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, does not increase pain threshold in rats. Instead, oral buprenorphine doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg were necessary to induce significant increases in pain threshold. However, these doses had to be administered by orogastric infusion because the rats would not voluntarily eat flavored gelatin containing this much buprenorphine. The depth of analgesia induced by these infused doses was comparable to that induced by the clinically effective s.c. treatment (0.05 mg/kg).

  19. 40 CFR 282.69 - Maine State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Maine obtains approval for the... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Maine..., 7003, 9005 and 9006 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6927, 6973, 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other...

  20. 40 CFR 282.69 - Maine State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Maine obtains approval for the... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Maine..., 7003, 9005 and 9006 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6927, 6973, 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other...