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Sample records for administered distilled water

  1. Solar power water distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  2. Solar distillation of sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

  3. Plant transpiration distillation of water

    SciTech Connect

    Virostko, M.K.; Spielberg, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    A project using solar energy and the transpiration of plants for the distillation of water is described. Along with determining which of three plants thrived best growing in a still, the experiment also revealed that the still functioned nearly as well in inclement weather as in fair weather.

  4. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  5. Catalytic distillation water recovery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Rasouli, F.

    1985-01-01

    An integrated engineering breadboard subsystem for the recovery of potable water from untreated urine based on the vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal was designed, fabricated and tested. Unlike other evaporative methods, this process catalytically oxidizes ammonia and volatile hydrocarbons vaporizing with water to innocuous products; therefore, no pretreatment of urine is required. Since the subsystem is fabricated from commercially available components, its volume, weight and power requirements are not optimized; however, it is suitable for zero-g operation. The testing program consists of parametric tests, one month of daily tests and a continuous test of 168 hours duration. The recovered water is clear, odorless, low in ammonia and organic carbon, and requires only an adjustment of its pH to meet potable water standards. The obtained data indicate that the vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal process, if further developed, would also be competitive with other water recovery systems in weight, volume and power requirements.

  6. Solar-Powered Water Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menninger, F. J.; Elder, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Solar-powered still produces pure water at rate of 6,000 gallons per year. Still fully automatic and gravity-fed. Only outside electric power is timer clock and solenoid-operated valve. Still saves $5,000 yearly in energy costs and pays for itself in 3 1/2 years.

  7. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

  8. Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella dumoffii in distilled water.

    PubMed Central

    Joly, J R; Déry, P; Gauvreau, L; Coté, L; Trépanier, C

    1986-01-01

    Five cases of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella dumoffii were identified within an 11-month period in a hospital in the Quebec City area. In four cases bacterial isolates were obtained from clinical specimens, and in one case seroconversion was demonstrated. All the patients had been admitted to hospital within 10 days before diagnosis. Two of the patients were immunosuppressed children. Only 1 of the 40 hot water samples from the hospital yielded L. dumoffii; however, 6 of 11 distilled water samples contained the bacterium. All the patients had been exposed to distilled water, four through respiratory therapy equipment and one through a room humidifier. Following the use of sterile distilled water in the apparatus, no further cases were identified. This is the first reported outbreak of Legionnaires' disease caused by L. dumoffii, and it is the first time that nosocomial legionellosis has been linked to contaminated distilled water in Canada. PMID:3536052

  9. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  10. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  11. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  12. Instrumentation for potentiostatic corrosion studies with distilled water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loess, R. E.; Youngdahl, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Corrosion is studied potentiostatically in the corroding environment of distilled water with an instrument that measures the potential of the corroding specimen immediately after interruption of the polarizing current. No current is flowing. The process permits compensation for IR drops when potentiostatic control is used in high resistance systems.

  13. Slow variations of the electroconductivity of distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, I. M.; Rybin, Yu. M.; Shishkin, G. G.

    2016-11-01

    The conductivity of distilled water with a slow change in temperature has been measured experimentally and studied. Periodic variations in the electrical conductivity of water have been found, which are observed at the rate of temperature change dT/ dt < 0.1 K/h. The periods were longer than 24 h; the amplitudes of the variation ranged from +2.7% to-2.3%. The possible causes of the observed phenomena are discussed.

  14. Distilled Water Distribution Systems. Laboratory Design Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, J.C.

    Factors concerning water distribution systems, including an evaluation of materials and a recommendation of materials best suited for service in typical facilities are discussed. Several installations are discussed in an effort to bring out typical features in selected applications. The following system types are included--(1) industrial…

  15. Development of a preprototype vapor compression distillation water recovery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    The activities involved in the design, development, and test of a preprototype vapor compression distillation water recovery subsystem are described. This subsystem, part of a larger regenerative life support evaluation system, is designed to recover usable water from urine, urinal rinse water, and concentrated shower and laundry brine collected from three space vehicle crewmen for a period of 180 days without resupply. Details of preliminary design and testing as well as component developments are included. Trade studies, considerations leading to concept selections, problems encountered, and test data are also presented. The rework of existing hardware, subsystem development including computer programs, assembly verification, and comprehensive baseline test results are discussed.

  16. Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

  17. A comparative study of water-steam distillation with water-bubble distillation techniques to increase the quality of patchouli essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, Noor; Yandi, Nefri; Hermawati, Julianto, Tatang Shabur

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the quality of patchouli oil using Water-Steam Distillation (WSD) and Water Bubble Distillation (WBD) techniques has been studied. The raw materials were Patchouli plants from Samigaluh village, Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta. This study is aimed to compare two distillation techniques in order to find out the optimal distillation technique to increase the content of patchouli alcohol (patchoulol) and the quality of patchouli oil. Pretreatment such as withering, drying, size reduction and light fermentation were intended to increase the yield. One kilogramm of patchouli was moisturized with 500 mL of aquadest. The light fermentation process was carried out for 20 hours in a dark container. Fermented patchouli was extracted for 6 hours using Water-Steam and Water Bubble Distillation techniques. Physical and chemical properties test of patchouli oil were performed using SNI standard No. SNI-06-2385-2006 and the chemical composition of patchouli oil was analysed by GC-MS. As the results, the higher yield oil is obtained using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 5.9% versus 2.4%. Spesific gravity, refractive index and acid number of patchouli oil in Water-Steam Distillation results did not meet the SNI standard, i.e. 0.991; 1.623 and 13.19, while the Water Bubble Distillation met the standard, i.e. 0.955; 1.510 and 6.61. The patchoulol content using Water Bubble Distillation technique is 61.53%, significant higher than those using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 38.24%. Thus, Water Bubble Distillation promises a potential technique to increase the content of patchoulol in the patchouli oil.

  18. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination

  19. Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process

    PubMed Central

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered. PMID:24958289

  20. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  1. Human ACE gene polymorphism and distilled water induced cough

    PubMed Central

    Morice, A. H.; Turley, A. J.; Linton, T. K.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) cause a non-productive cough. The insertion/deletion polymorphism of ACE was used as a genetic marker to investigate the relationship between ACE genotype and cough sensitivity. METHODS: A double blind cough challenge was performed in 66 normotensive subjects (34 men) of mean age 34.8 years (range 18-80) using aerosols of distilled water. The number of coughs during the one minute exposure to water was recorded. DNA samples from venous blood were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and resolved on a 1% agarose gel. They were analysed for the presence of a polymorphism in intron 16 of the ACE gene consisting of an insertion (I) or deletion (D) of an Alu repetitive sequence 287 base pairs long. RESULTS: The distribution of genotypes was 20 II, 26 ID, and 20 DD. The cough response was significantly (p < 0.01) related to the ACE genotype, the mean number of coughs being 15.8, 11.3, and 9.6, respectively, in subjects with the II, ID, and DD genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The observation that cough challenge is dependent on ACE genotype in normal subjects is evidence of a link between ACE activity and the cough reflex. 


 PMID:9059468

  2. Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang; Zhang, Mohe

    2010-08-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water from Chinese explosive industry was treated by vacuum distillation. The water quality before and after distillation was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, UV-vis spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) and other physical and chemical analyses. The acute toxicity of TNT red water and its distillate was evaluated by determining the luminescence inhibition of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. The results showed that the parameters except pH of the distillate met the criterion specified by the Chinese discharge standard for water pollutants from ordnance industry. Distillation removed chemical oxygen demand almost completely and the chrominance was reduced from 100,000 degrees to 17 degrees . The concentrations of 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate and 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate decreased from 20 x 10(3) and 31 x 10(3)mg L(-1) to 1.3 and 1.8 mg L(-1), respectively. GC/MS results showed that most of the organic components of TNT red water can be removed by distillation. The acute toxicity of water sample after distillation reduced 96%, compared with that of unprocessed TNT red water.

  3. Improving distillation method and device of tritiated water analysis for ultra high decontamination efficiency.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsin-Fa; Wang, Chu-Fang; Lin, Chien-Kung

    2015-12-01

    It is important that monitoring environmental tritiated water for understanding the contamination dispersion of the nuclear facilities. Tritium is a pure beta radionuclide which is usually measured by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). The average energy of tritum beta is only 5.658 keV that makes the LSC counting of tritium easily be interfered by the beta emitted by other radionuclides. Environmental tritiated water samples usually need to be decontaminated by distillation for reducing the interference. After Fukushima Nucleaer Accident, the highest gross beta concentration of groundwater samples obtained around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station is over 1,000,000 Bq/l. There is a need for a distillation with ultra-high decontamination efficiency for environmental tritiated water analysis. This study is intended to improve the heating temperature control for better sub-boiling distillation control and modify the height of the container of the air cooling distillation device for better fractional distillation effect. The DF of Cs-137 of the distillation may reach 450,000 which is far better than the prior study. The average loss rate of the improved method and device is about 2.6% which is better than the bias value listed in the ASTM D4107-08. It is proven that the modified air cooling distillation device can provide an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost and effective way of purifying water samples for higher beta radionuclides contaminated water samples which need ultra-high decontamination treatment.

  4. Bacteriological evaluation of an ultra-pure water-distilling system.

    PubMed

    Kayser, W V; Hickman, K C; Bond, W W; Favero, M S; Carson, L A

    1975-10-01

    A prototype distillation and storage system with recycle for producing ultrapure water was monitored for bacteriological contamination during a period of 24 months. Naturally occurring Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. cepacia were found to grow rapidly to levels of about 10(5)/ml in water taken from the storage reservoir and also in commercially prepared distilled water. The system was found to eliminate bacterial contaminants introduced into the still with the feed water, but the reservoir, once contaminated, remained contaminated during prolonged recycle, After a single treatment with free chlorine, the entire system remained uncontaminated until accidental or purposeful shutdown.

  5. Removal of antibiotics from surface and distilled water in conventional water treatment processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, C.; Wang, Y.; Loftin, K.; Meyer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional drinking water treatment processes were evaluated under typical water treatment plant conditions to determine their effectiveness in the removal of seven common antibiotics: carbadox, sulfachlorpyridazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim. Experiments were conducted using synthetic solutions prepared by spiking both distilled/ deionized water and Missouri River water with the studied compounds. Sorption on Calgon WPH powdered activated carbon, reverse osmosis, and oxidation with chlorine and ozone under typical plant conditions were all shown to be effective in removing the studied antibiotics. Conversely, coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation with alum and iron salts, excess lime/soda ash softening, ultraviolet irradiation at disinfection dosages, and ion exchange were all relatively ineffective methods of antibiotic removal. This study shows that the studied antibiotics could be effectively removed using processes already in use many water treatment plants. Additional work is needed on by-product formation and the removal of other classes of antibiotics.

  6. A soil water distillation technique using He-purging for stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatev, A.; Velivetckaia, T.; Sugimoto, A.; Ueta, A.

    2013-08-01

    A new method of soil water extraction for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis has been developed; this method uses a helium flow system as an alternative to the conventional vacuum extraction method. The method significantly increases the efficiency of sample preparation and simplifies the extraction. During the water distillation, a helium carrier gas transfers water vaporized at 95 °C from the soil sample to a cold trap at liquid nitrogen temperature. An extraction time of 180 min is used to distill the water from the fine-grained soil completely. The proposed He-purging distillation technique makes it possible to distill approximately a dozen samples simultaneously. The method was tested using liquid water samples and clayey soil samples hydrated with water of known isotopic composition. The standard deviations for these tests were 0.08‰ for δ18O and 0.7‰ for δD. An intercomparison test was conducted for the helium and vacuum extraction methods using natural soil samples. The correlation coefficients between the methods were 0.9926 and 0.9939 for δD and δ18O, respectively. The proposed He-purging distillation method can achieve high precision for clayey soil samples with low water content and has the potential to provide adequate isotopic data in hydrological and ecological studies. The method is relatively fast, efficient, and inexpensive. We also recommend using the method to distill salt solutions (sea water, mineralized water) before determining the δD and δ18O values using a chromium or carbon reduction method to avoid “salt effects”.

  7. Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

  8. The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients

    SciTech Connect

    Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

    1989-07-01

    As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

  9. Use of an Electronic Tongue to Detect Geosmin in Distilled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Guilherme S.; Paterno, Leonardo G.; Fonseca, Fernando J.

    2011-11-01

    An electronic tongue (ET) system consisting of conducting polymer sensors was employed to detect geosmin (GSM) in distilled water. GSM is a tainting compound and known to cause undesirable tastes and odors in water and aquaculture farming. Diluted solutions of GSM were prepared in distilled water at different concentrations. The electrical response (capacitance) of the sensors was analyzed using principal analysis component (PCA). The data obtained were separated into different clusters indicating a good sensibility of the ET system to this compound in distilled water. The ET showed signal saturation for concentrations higher than 300 ng.L-1. So far, the detection limit of our system is 25 ng.L-1. Nevertheless, close grouping between repeated tests indicated that the ET system response is reproducible.

  10. Filler leachability of composites stored in distilled water or artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Söderholm, K J; Mukherjee, R; Longmate, J

    1996-09-01

    Though dental composite materials leach filler elements when stored in distilled water, it is not known whether similar leaching occurs in saliva. The hypothesis to be tested was that due to ion exchange occurring at the filler surfaces, more filler elements leach from composites stored in a salt solution simulating saliva than from composites stored in distilled water. Another aim was to determine how matrix selection, filler composition, and filler silanization affect filler leachability of composites after storage in the simulated saliva and water media. We made 128 batches of experimental composites. Half of these used a bis-GMA/TEGDMA matrix and the other a UEDMA/TEGDMA matrix. Either silica or barium glass filler particles were incorporated into these matrices. Filler silanization was followed by a filler drying at 60 degrees C for 24 h. Half of the silanized particles received an additional heat treatment for 1 h at 110 degrees C in vacuum. One specimen per batch was stored in distilled water and the other in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. After each 30-day interval for one year, the specimens were transferred to either freshly distilled water or newly mixed artificial saliva. The "old" solutions were analyzed by ICP for determination of the Si, Ba, and Al concentrations. Analysis of variance revealed that storage solution, filler composition, and total time in the storage solution had strong effects on the leachability (p < 0.0001 in all cases). The average monthly leakage of Si for quartz-filled composites was 0.22 +/- 0.20 microgram/mL (distilled water) and 2.80 +/- 1.20 microgram/mL (artificial saliva). For barium-glass-filled composites, the corresponding Si leaching values were 0.73 +/- 0.48 microgram/mL and 5.00 +/- 2.20 microgram/mL. The monthly means of the barium leaching values were 2.00 +/- 1.00 microgram/mL (distilled water) and 3.10 +/- 1.80 microgram/mL (artificial saliva). The large difference between leaching in artificial saliva and in

  11. Irrigation solutions in open fractures of the lower extremities: evaluation of isotonic saline and distilled water

    PubMed Central

    Olufemi, Olukemi Temiloluwa; Adeyeye, Adeolu Ikechukwu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Open fractures are widely considered as orthopaedic emergencies requiring immediate intervention. The initial management of these injuries usually affects the ultimate outcome because open fractures may be associated with significant morbidity. Wound irrigation forms one of the pivotal principles in the treatment of open fractures. The choice of irrigation fluid has since been a source of debate. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of isotonic saline and distilled water as irrigation solutions in the management of open fractures of the lower extremities. Wound infection and wound healing rates using both solutions were evaluated. Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study of 109 patients who presented to the Accident and Emergency department with open lower limb fractures. Approval was sought and obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Patients were randomized into either the isotonic saline (NS) or the distilled water (DW) group using a simple ballot technique. Twelve patients were lost to follow-up, while 97 patients were available until conclusion of the study. There were 50 patients in the isotonic saline group and 47 patients in the distilled water group. Results: Forty-one (42.3%) of the patients were in the young and economically productive strata of the population. There was a male preponderance with a 1.7:1 male-to-female ratio. The wound infection rate was 34% in the distilled water group and 44% in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.315). The mean time ± SD to wound healing was 2.7 ± 1.5 weeks in the distilled water group and 3.1 ± 1.8 weeks in the isotonic saline group (p = 0.389). Conclusions: It was concluded from this study that the use of distilled water compares favourably with isotonic saline as an irrigation solution in open fractures of the lower extremities. PMID:28134091

  12. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator,...

  13. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator,...

  14. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator,...

  15. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator,...

  16. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator,...

  17. Changes in14c activity over time during vacuum distillation of carbon from rock pore water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, G.R.; Yang, I.C.

    1999-01-01

    The radiocarbon activity of carbon collected by vacuum distillation from a single partially saturated tuff began to decline after approximately 60% of the water and carbon had been extracted. Disproportionate changes in 14C activity and ??13C during distillation rule out simple isotopic fractionation as a causative explanation. Additional phenomena such as matrix diffusion and ion exclusion in micropores may play a role in altering the isotopic value of extracted carbon, but neither can fully account for the observed changes. The most plausible explanation is that distillation recovers carbon from an adsorbed phase that is depleted in 14C relative to DIC in the bulk pore water. ?? 1999 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  18. Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) combined with distilled water, chlorhexidine, and doxycycline.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Roberta A A; Cunha, Rodrigo S; Miguita, Kenner B; Silveira, Cláudia F M; De Martin, Alexandre S; Pinheiro, Sérgio L; Rocha, Daniel G P; Bueno, Carlos E S

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA Bio) combined with different mixing agents (distilled water, chlorhexidine, doxycycline), used as an apical root-end filling material. Forty-two extracted human teeth were divided into three groups (n = 12); six teeth were used as controls. Root-ends were resected at 90 degrees, 3 mm from the apex. Root-end cavities were prepared using ultrasonic tips and filled with MTA Bio plus distilled water, 2% chlorhexidine solution, or 10% doxycycline solution. Apical sealing was assessed by microleakage of 50% silver nitrate solution. Roots were longitudinally sectioned in a buccolingual plane and analyzed using an operating microscope (20× magnification). Depth of dye leakage into the dentinal walls was measured in millimeters. Results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (P = 0.05). MTA Bio plus distilled water showed significantly higher mean leakage results (1.06 mm) when compared with MTA Bio plus doxycycline (0.61 mm), and higher, although not significant, results when compared with MTA Bio plus chlorhexidine (0.79 mm). In conclusion, replacing distilled water with two biologically active mixing agents (doxycycline and chlorhexidine) did not alter the sealing properties of MTABio. The antimicrobial properties of these combinations should be further investigated.

  19. Spectrophotometric method for quantitative measuring essential oil in aromatic water and distillate with rose smell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, E.; Presnyakova, V.; Goncharov, D.; Goncharov, M.; Presnyakova, E.; Presnyakov, S.; Moiseeva, I.; Kolesnikova, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this connection, we improved the express methods of determining the mixture of volatile aromatic substances by the spectrophotometry of aromatic water and steam distillate of essential oil raw materials (traditional or biotechnological with rose smell). Direct spectrophotometry of distillation water is impossible because it is a colloid of liquid oil and law is not observed. Therefore, it is necessary to dissolve 1 ml of distillate in ethanol in the ratio 1:4, in this case we take real solution with no lipophilic fall-out on the walls of cuvette, also the light absorption law is observed. There are stable maximums in spectrums of studied oils. Optical density of these maximums is a result of summary absorption of terpenoid components (aromatic and monoterpene alcohols, its ethers). Optical density of tested and standard solutions is measured in appropriate wavelengths. Spectrophotometric method of determination of essential oil quantity in aromatic water with rose smell differs with high sensitivity (10-5-10-6 gmol/l) and allows to determine oil concentration from 0,900 to 0,008 mg with an error less than 1%. At that, 1 ml is enough for analysis. It’s expedient to apply this method while operating with small quantity of water distillate in biochemical and biotechnological researches and also as express control for extraction and hydrodistillation of essential oil raw material (rose petals and flowers from different origin, eremothecium cultural liquid etc.).

  20. Measurement of the tritium concentration in the fractionated distillate from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Robert; Eddy, Teresa; Kuhne, Wendy; Jannik, Tim; Brandl, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Standard procedures for the measurement of tritium in water samples often require distillation of an appropriate sample aliquot. This distillation process may result in a fractionation of tritiated water and regular light water due to the vapor pressure isotope effect, introducing either a bias or an additional contribution to the total tritium measurement uncertainty. The current study investigates the relative change in vapor pressure isotope effect in the course of the distillation process, distinguishing it from and extending previously published measurements. The separation factor as a quantitative measure of the vapor pressure isotope effect is found to assume values of 1.04 ± 0.036, 1.05 ± 0.026, and 1.07 ± 0.038, depending on the vigor of the boiling process during distillation of the sample. A lower heat setting in the experimental setup, and therefore a less vigorous boiling process, results in a larger value for the separation factor. For a tritium measurement in water samples where the first 5 mL are discarded, the tritium concentration could be underestimated by 4-7%.

  1. Study of volatile contaminants in reclaimed water. [by distillation from urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, H. C.; Millar, J. D.; Swynnerton, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    Different methods were evaluated for reducing the volatile contaminants found in water recovered from urine by distillation. The use of activated carbon, addition of potassium permanganate, and the use of oxidation catalyst are described along with laboratory tests. It is concluded that catalytic decomposition appears to be feasible, and further investigation is recommended.

  2. Detailed Modeling of Distillation Technologies for Closed-Loop Water Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Lange, Kevin E.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed chemical process simulations are a useful tool in designing and optimizing complex systems and architectures for human life support. Dynamic and steady-state models of these systems help contrast the interactions of various operating parameters and hardware designs, which become extremely useful in trade-study analyses. NASA?s Exploration Life Support technology development project recently made use of such models to compliment a series of tests on different waste water distillation systems. This paper presents efforts to develop chemical process simulations for three technologies: the Cascade Distillation System (CDS), the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) system and the Wiped-Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) using the Aspen Custom Modeler and Aspen Plus process simulation tools. The paper discusses system design, modeling details, and modeling results for each technology and presents some comparisons between the model results and recent test data. Following these initial comparisons, some general conclusions and forward work are discussed.

  3. Distillation and rectification in the production of water free alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    De Luzuriaga, E.R.

    1980-12-01

    The operation of a modern alcohol distillery using waste molasses as its prime material in the manufacture of anhydrous alcohol is described. The VMC distillery uses the azeotropic non-pressure process using benzene as the dehydrant. Scheduled production is 30,000 G.L., water free alcohol daily but 41,500 G.L., of water free alcohol has been produced indicating that the VMC dehydrating column can produce its expected capacity.

  4. Subchronic dispositional and toxicological effects of arsenate administered in drinking water to mice.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M F; Thompson, D J

    1996-10-11

    Exposure to the drinking water contaminant arsenate is a daily occurrence and there are concerns that this exposure may lead to cancer. Although the acute dispositional effects of arsenate have been studied in detail, there is minimal information on the disposition and toxicological effects of it after continuous exposure. The objective of this study was to examine in mice the effect of a 4-wk treatment with arsenate administered in drinking water. Female B6C3F1 mice (3/cage) were housed in metabolism cages and given water and food ad libitum. Two groups (A, B) of mice were treated (4 cages/treatment/group) with distilled water (control, C) or water containing 0.025 mg/L (L) or 2.5 mg/L (H) arsenate. Group A was sacrificed on d 28 and plasma and urine samples were taken for determination of clinical chemistry parameters. Liver and kidney tissue samples were taken for histopathological analysis. The reduced nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) content in several tissues was determined. Group B was gavaged with [73As]arsenate on d 28 and continued the arsenate drinking water exposure for 48 h. Excreta and tissues were collected and analyzed for 73As. Urine was further analyzed for arsenate and its metabolites. There were no effects on the mean daily amount of water and food consumed, whereas the mean daily urine volume excreted was significantly elevated by 10% in the H-treated animals compared to C and L. A dose-related hepatic vacuolar degeneration in the liver was observed, but no histological changes were evident in the kidney. Only clinical chemistry parameters in plasma were altered by the arsenate treatment. Glucose was significantly lower at the H dose compared to C and L, triglycerides were significantly greater in C than L and H, and creatinine was significantly greater in H than C. Hepatic NPSH content in the H animals was significantly lower than C and L animals, whereas no effects in lung and kidney were detected. The weights of liver, lung, and kidney, as well

  5. Permeability and expansibility of natural bentonite MX-80 in distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Longcheng; Neretnieks, Ivars; Moreno, Luis

    Natural bentonite MX-80 differs from the purified and fully Na-exchanged bentonite in that it contains approximately 20.0% accessory minerals, in addition to the montmorillonite particles. Since the accessory minerals and montmorillonite particles have very different physical and chemical properties, natural bentonite MX-80 is found to expand much more slowly in distilled water, leading actually to a three-component system that has very different hydraulic properties from that of the fully Na-exchanged bentonite. To better understand and simulate the special features of expansion of natural bentonite MX-80 in distilled water, the focus is put primarily on the development of a Kozeny-Carman-like equation for its hydraulic permeability in the same way as it was done for Na-exchanged bentonite. With this permeability model, the dynamic force balance model that was originally developed for colloidal expansion of montmorillonite in a two-component system is applied to the natural MX-80 system. Without making any changes to the model, however, two strategies are used to account for both physical and chemical effects of the accessory minerals. The “lumped” strategy assumes that the accessory minerals are stuck onto the montmorillonite particles in such a way that they behave just like one solid component. The “stepwise” strategy changes the pore water chemistry gradually from initially distilled water to eventually achievement of the equilibrium condition. These strategies are simple but proved to function well. The agreement between the simulations and the experimental results indicates that the two-component dynamic force balance model works well in predicting the general features and the behavior of upward expansion of natural bentonite MX-80 in distilled water in a vertical test tube.

  6. An innovative distillation device for tritiated water analysis with high decontamination factor.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsin-Fa; Wang, Chu-Fang; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-11-01

    Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) has designed an air-cooling distillation device and got a US patent. The decontamination factor (60)Co and (137)Cs is above 23,000. Tritium loss rate is one of testing items in ASTM D4107 Standard Test Method for Tritium in Drinking Water. In this study, the 3 levels (high, middle and low level) of tritium concentration of testing samples for the loss rate test were prepared similar to the concentrations reported in ASTM D4107. The loss rate of the high level is -2.37%, the middle is -2.31% and the low level is -2.47%. These results show that the air-cooling distillation device has good performance in the environmental water tritium analysis work.

  7. Vacuum distillation: vapor filtered-catalytic oxidation water reclamation system utilizing radioisotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Kurg, E. K.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a functional model water reclamation system is discussed. The system produces potable water by distillation from the urine and respiration-perspiration condensate at the normal rate generated by four men. Basic processes employed are vacuum distillation, vapor filtration, vapor phase catalytic oxidation, and condensation. The system is designed to use four 75-watt isotope heaters for distillation thermal input, and one 45-watt isotope for the catalytic oxidation unit. The system is capable of collecting and storing urine, and provides for stabilizing the urine by chemical pretreatment. The functional model system is designed for operation in a weightless condition with liquid-vapor phase separators for the evaporator still, and centrifugal separators for urine collection and vapor condensation. The system provides for storing and dispensing reclaimed potable water. The system operates in a batch mode for 40 days, with urine residues accumulating in the evaporator. The evaporator still and residue are removed to storage and replaced with a fresh still for the next 40-day period.

  8. Tensile properties and translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites aged in distilled and salt water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiman, Gozali, M. Hulaifi; Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi

    2016-03-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer has been widely used in chemical industry and transportation due to lightweight and cost effective manufacturing. However due to the ability to absorb water from the environment, the durability issue is of interest for up to days. This paper investigated the water uptake and the effect of absorbed water on the tensile properties and the translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites (GFRP) aged in distilled and salt water up to 30 days at a temperature of 50°C. It has been shown that GFRP absorbed more water in distilled water than in salt water. In distilled water, the tensile strength of GFRP tends to decrease steeply at 7 days and then slightly recovered for further immersion time. In salt water, the tensile strength tends to decrease continually up to 30 days immersion. The translaminar fracture toughness of GFRP aged in both distilled and salt-water shows the similar behavior. The translaminar fracture toughness increases after 7 days immersion and then tends to decrease beyond that immersion time. In the existence of ionics content in salt water, it causes more detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of fiberglass/unsaturated polyester composites compared to that of distilled water.

  9. An Analytical Method to Measure Free-Water Tritium in Foods using Azeotropic Distillation.

    PubMed

    Soga, Keisuke; Kamei, Toshiyuki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has raised concerns about the discharge of contaminated water containing tritium ((3)H) from the nuclear power plant into the environment and into foods. In this study, we explored convenient analytical methods to measure free-water (3)H in foods using a liquid scintillation counting and azeotropic distillation method. The detection limit was 10 Bq/L, corresponding to about 0.01% of 1 mSv/year. The (3)H recoveries were 85-90% in fruits, vegetables, meats and fishes, 75-85% in rice and cereal crops, and less than 50% in sweets containing little water. We found that, in the case of sweets, adding water to the sample before the azeotropic distillation increased the recovery and precision. Then, the recoveries reached more than 75% and RSD was less than 10% in all food categories (13 kinds). Considering its sensitivity, precision and simplicity, this method is practical and useful for (3)H analysis in various foods, and should be suitable for the safety assessment of foods. In addition, we examined the level of (3)H in foods on the Japanese market. No (3)H radioactivity was detected in any of 42 analyzed foods.

  10. Design and the parametric testing of the space station prototype integrated vapor compression distillation water recovery module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, W. F.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water for the Space Station Prototype life support system is generated by the vapor compression technique of vacuum distillation. A description of a complete three-man modular vapor compression water renovation loop that was built and tested is presented; included are all of the pumps, tankage, chemical post-treatment, instrumentation, and controls necessary to make the loop representative of an automatic, self-monitoring, null gravity system. The design rationale is given and the evolved configuration is described. Presented next are the results of an extensive parametric test during which distilled water was generated from urine and urinal flush water with concentration of solids in the evaporating liquid increasing progressively to 60 percent. Water quality, quantity and production rate are shown together with measured energy consumption rate in terms of watt-hours per kilogram of distilled water produced.

  11. Interaction of forsterite-91 with distilled water and artificial seawater: a prebiotic chemistry experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Cláudio M. D.; Carneiro, Cristine E. A.; Baú, João Paulo T.; da Costa, Antonio C. S.; Ivashita, Flávio F.; Paesano, Andrea; di Mauro, Eduardo; de Santana, Henrique; Holm, Nils G.; Neubeck, Anna; Zaia, Cássia T. B. V.; Zaia, Dimas A. M.

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, the interactions between forsterite-91 with distilled water and forsterite-91 with artificial seawater were studied at two pHs (2.0 and 8.0) using different techniques. A large increase in pH was observed for samples incubated at an initially acidic pH (2.0) due to the dissolution of forsterite-91 in distilled water and artificial seawater. Thus, in acidic hydrothermal vents, an increase in the amount of hydrocarbons and magnetite should be expected due to the release of Fe(II). The pHPZC decreased and the pHIEP increased when forsterite-91 was treated with distilled water and artificial seawater. The ions from the artificial seawater had an effect on zeta potential. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and X-ray diffractograms showed halite in the samples of forsterite-91 mixed with artificial seawater. The presence of halite or adsorption of ions on the surface of forsterite-91 could affect the synthesis of magnetite and hydrocarbons in hydrothermal vents, due to a decrease in the dissolution rates of forsterite-91. The dissolution of forsterite-91 yields low concentrations of Fe(III) and Mn(II) as detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Microanalysis of forsterite-91 showed a higher amount of Mn, with an oxidation that was likely not +II, as Mn in supernatant solutions was only detected by EPR spectroscopy after mixing with artificial seawater at pH 2.0. As Fe(III) and Mn(II) are catalyst constituents of magnetite and manganese oxide, respectively, their presence is important for synthesis in hydrothermal vents. Etch pits were observed only in the forsterite-91 sample mixed with distilled water at pH 8.0. Na, Cl, S, Ca and K were detected in the samples mixed with artificial seawater by SEM-EDS. Si, Mg, Fe and Al were detected in almost all supernatant samples due to forsterite-91 dissolution. Cr was not dissolved in the experiments, thus Cr in the mineral could serve as an effective catalyst for Fischer Tropsch

  12. Application of improved technology to a preprototype vapor compression distillation /VCD/ water recovery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.; Reysa, R. P.; Fricks, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Vapor compression distillation (VCD) is considered the most efficient water recovery process for spacecraft application. This paper reports on a preprototype VCD which has undergone the most extensive operational and component development testing of any VCD subsystem to date. The component development effort was primarily aimed at eliminating corrosion and the need for lubrication, upgrading electronics, and substituting nonmetallics in key rotating components. The VCD evolution is documented by test results on specific design and/or materials changes. Innovations worthy of further investigation and additional testing are summarized for future VCD subsystem development reference. Conclusions on experience gained are presented.

  13. Observation of Anomalous Potential Electric Energy in Distilled Water Under Solar Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin; Christianto, V.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a very simple experiment with distilled water which could exhibit anomalous potential electrical energy with very minimum preparation energy. While this observed excess energy here is less impressive than J-P. Beberian's and M. Porringa's, and the material used is also far less exotic than common LENR-CANR experiments, from the viewpoint of minimum preparation requirement --and therefore less barrier for rapid implementation--, it seems that further experiments could be recommended in order to verify and also to explore various implications of this new proposition.

  14. Plasma treatment of polyethersulfone membrane for benzene removal from water by air gap membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Pedram, Sara; Mortaheb, Hamid Reza; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2017-03-13

    In order to obtain a durable cost-effective membrane for membrane distillation (MD) process, flat sheet polyethersulfone (PES) membranes were modified by an atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma generated using a dielectric barrier discharge in a mixture of argon and hexamethyldisiloxane as the organosilicon precursor. The surface properties of the plasma-modified membranes were characterized by water contact angle (CA), liquid entry pressure, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The water CA of the membrane was increased from 64° to 104° by depositing a Si(CH3)-rich thin layer. While the pristine PES membrane was not applicable in the MD process, the modified PES membrane could be applied for the first time in an air gap membrane distillation setup for the removal of benzene as a volatile organic compound from water. The experimental design using central composite design and response surface methodology was applied to study the effects of feed temperature, concentration, and flow rate as well as their binary interactions on the overall permeate flux and separation factor. The separation factor and permeation flux of the modified PES membrane at optimum conditions were comparable with those of commercial polytetrafluoroethylene membrane.

  15. Conceptual design and optimization for JET water detritiation system cryo-distillation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, X.; Hollingsworth, A.; Parracho, A.; Dalgliesh, P.; Butler, B.; Smith, R.

    2015-03-15

    The aim of the Exhaust Detritiation System (EDS) of the JET Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) is to convert all Q-based species (Q{sub 2}, Q-hydrocarbons) into Q{sub 2}O (Q being indifferently H, D or T) which is then trapped on molecular sieve beds (MSB). Regenerating the saturated MSBs leads to the production of tritiated water which is stored in Briggs drums. An alternative disposal solution to offsite shipping, is to process the tritiated water onsite via the implementation of a Water Detritiation System (WDS) based, in part, on the combination of an electrolyser and a cryo-distillation (CD) facility. The CD system will separate a Q{sub 2} mixture into a de-tritiated hydrogen stream for safe release and a tritiated stream for further processing on existing AGHS subsystems. A sensitivity study of the Souers' model using the simulation program ProSimPlus (edited by ProSim S.A.) has then been undertaken in order to perform an optimised dimensioning of the cryo-distillation system in terms of available cooling technologies, cost of investment, cost of operations, process performance and safety. (authors)

  16. Water desalination by air-gap membrane distillation using meltblown polypropylene nanofiber membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosalam, S.; Chiam, C. K.; Widyaparamitha, S.; Chang, Y. W.; Lee, C. A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a study of air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) using meltblown polypropylene (PP) nanofiber membrane to produce fresh water via desalination process. PP nanofiber membranes with the effective area 0.17 m2 are tested with NaCl solutions (0.5 - 4.0 wt.%) and seawater as the feed solutions (9400 - 64800 μS/cm) in a tubular membrane module. Results show that the flux decreases with increasing the membrane thickness from 547 to 784 μm. The flux increases with the feed flow rate and temperature difference across the membrane. The feed concentration affects the flux insignificantly. The AGMD system can reject the salts at least 96%. Water vapor permeation rate is relatively higher than solute permeation rate resulting in the conductivity value of permeate decreases when the corresponding flux increases. The AGMD system produces the fresh water (200 - 1520 μS/cm) that is suitable for drinking, fisheries or irrigation.

  17. Optical characterization of PEG-supported 7-hydroxy-4-methyl-coumarin in distilled water solution.

    PubMed

    Carbonaro, Carlo Maria; Ricci, Pier Carlo; Casula, Maria Francesca; Tocco, Graziella; Cubeddu, Michela

    2012-11-29

    The optical properties of 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin immobilized on polyethylene glycol support and dissolved in distilled water solution are compared with the optical properties of the dye dissolved in ethanol and discussed on the basis of the formation of different chemical species of the dye molecule. The presence of the polymeric support affects both the absorption and emission features of the coumarin by changing the chemical equilibrium among the different species typically observed at the ground and excited states. The optical properties of synthesized PEG-supported coumarins are able to warrant biomedical applications in water-based environment and enable us to gain insight into the photophysical activity of coumarins; in particular, the steric hindrance of the polymeric support inhibits, as expected, the formation of the tautomeric form of the compound in the excited state, a further proof of the single-step neutral to tautomer reaction in coumarins.

  18. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Krug, E. K.

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported on the development of an evaporator for vacuum distillation/vapor filtration VD/VF water reclamation system for use on manned space flights. The design, fabrication, and tests of a six-man evaporator are described. It is concluded that: (1) A condenser with an internal rotating impeller and coolant surfaces directly opposite the condensing surfaces is an effective condenser. (2) The VD/VF evaporator, catalyst unit and condenser function satisfactorily based on thermal, mechanical and recovery performance during a 145-hour evaluation test. (3) The quality of recovered water, as measured by analyses for total organic carbon, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and viable bacteria density was within established limits for potability.

  19. Superheated water extraction, steam distillation and Soxhlet extraction of essential oils of Origanum onites.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Mustafa Z; Kaymaz, Hilal

    2004-08-01

    Superheated water extraction (SWE) at various temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175 degrees C), steam distillation, and Soxhlet extraction were compared in the extraction of essential oils from two samples of the plant Origanum onites, one cultivated, the other wild. C18 solid-phase extraction was used to elute the essential oils from the SWE aqueous extract. The compositions of the extracted essential oils obtained from all three methods were then characterized by comprehensive GCxGC/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS). The highest essential oil yields were obtained by using SWE at 150 degrees C with a flow rate of 2 mL min(-1) and a pressure of 60 bar for 30 min: these were 3.76 and 4.11% for wild and cultivated O. onites samples, respectively, expressed as a percentage of 100 g of dry (leaf) matter. The yields obtained using SWE at 150 degrees C were slightly higher than those from conventional methods. Steam distillation was performed for 3 h, and Soxhlet extraction was completed in 12 h. The major compounds found were borneol, terpinen-4-ol and carvacrol.

  20. Pool boiling of distilled water over tube bundle with variable heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Abhilas; Mohanty, Rajiva Lochan; Das, Mihir Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The experimental investigation of saturated pool boiling heat transfer of distilled water over plain tube bundle, under uniform and varying heat flux condition along the height are presented in this article. Experiments are carried out under various heat flux configurations applied to rows of tube bundles and pitch distance to diameter ratios of 1.25, 1.6 and 1.95. The wall superheats and pool boiling heat transfer coefficients over individual rows are determined. The pool boiling heat transfer coefficients for variable heat flux and uniform heat flux conditions are compared. The results indicate that the bundle effect is found to exist for uniform as well as variable heat flux under all operating conditions in the present investigation. The variable heat flux resulted in range of wall superheat being highest for decreasing heat flux from bottom to top and lowest for increasing heat flux from bottom to top.

  1. Sustainable water recovery from oily wastewater via forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sui; Wang, Peng; Fu, Xiuzhu; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2014-04-01

    This study proposed and investigated a hybrid forward osmosis - membrane distillation (FO-MD) system for sustainable water recovery from oily wastewater by employing lab-fabricated FO and MD hollow fiber membranes. Stable oil-in-water emulsions of different concentrations with small droplet sizes (<1 μm) were firstly prepared and applied as the feed solution in the FO process. Fouling was immediately observed in the FO mode and was low on the cellulose triacetate (CTA) - based thin film composite (TFC) membranes. Moreover, slight increment of fouling was observed in the first few hours and the water flux was then stabilized over 24 h. The characterizations of water flux and solute rejection in separate FO and MD processes revealed that a high water flux, good NaCl rejection, impressively high retention of oil droplets and partial permeation of acetic acid could be achieved. Finally, an integrated FO-MD system was developed to treat the oily wastewater containing petroleum, surfactant, NaCl and acetic acid at 60 °C in the batch mode. The water flux in FO undergoes three-stage decline due to fouling and reduction in osmotic driving force, but is quite stable in MD regardless of salt concentration. Oily wastewater with relatively high salinity could be effectively recovered by the FO-MD hybrid system while maintaining large water flux, at least 90% feed water recovery could be readily attained with only trace amounts of oil and salts, and the draw solution was re-generated for the next rounds of FO-MD run. Interestingly, significant amount of acetic acid was also retained in the permeate for further reuse as a chemical additive during the production of crude oil. The work has demonstrated that not only water but also organic additives in the wastewater could be effectively recovered by FO-MD systems for reuse or other utilizations.

  2. Synthesis of zeolite from Italian coal fly ash: Differences in crystallization temperature using seawater instead of distilled water

    SciTech Connect

    Belviso, Claudia; Cavalcante, Francesco; Fiore, Saverio

    2010-05-15

    In this study Italian coal fly ash was converted into several types of zeolite in laboratory experiments with temperatures of crystallization ranging from 35 up to 90 deg. C. Distilled and seawater were used during the hydrothermal synthesis process in separate experiments, after a pre-treatment fusion with NaOH. The results indicate that zeolites could be formed from different kind of Italian coal fly ash at low temperature of crystallization using both distilled and seawater. SEM data and the powder patterns of X-ray diffraction analysis show that faujasite, zeolite ZK-5 and sodalite were synthesized when using both distilled and seawater; zeolite A crystallized only using distilled water. In particular the experiments indicate that the synthesis of zeolite X and zeolite ZK-5 takes place at lower temperatures when using seawater (35 and 45 deg. C, respectively). The formation of sodalite is always competitive with zeolite X which shows a metastable behaviour at higher temperatures (70-90 deg. C). The chemical composition of the fly ash source could be responsible of the differences on the starting time of synthesized zeolite with distilled water, in any case our data show that the formation of specific zeolites takes place always at lower temperatures when using seawater.

  3. Synthesis of zeolite from Italian coal fly ash: differences in crystallization temperature using seawater instead of distilled water.

    PubMed

    Belviso, Claudia; Cavalcante, Francesco; Fiore, Saverio

    2010-05-01

    In this study Italian coal fly ash was converted into several types of zeolite in laboratory experiments with temperatures of crystallization ranging from 35 up to 90 degrees C. Distilled and seawater were used during the hydrothermal synthesis process in separate experiments, after a pre-treatment fusion with NaOH. The results indicate that zeolites could be formed from different kind of Italian coal fly ash at low temperature of crystallization using both distilled and seawater. SEM data and the powder patterns of X-ray diffraction analysis show that faujasite, zeolite ZK-5 and sodalite were synthesized when using both distilled and seawater; zeolite A crystallized only using distilled water. In particular the experiments indicate that the synthesis of zeolite X and zeolite ZK-5 takes place at lower temperatures when using seawater (35 and 45 degrees C, respectively). The formation of sodalite is always competitive with zeolite X which shows a metastable behaviour at higher temperatures (70-90 degrees C). The chemical composition of the fly ash source could be responsible of the differences on the starting time of synthesized zeolite with distilled water, in any case our data show that the formation of specific zeolites takes place always at lower temperatures when using seawater.

  4. Recycling of coal seam gas-associated water using vacuum membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Heidarpour, Farideh; Shi, Jeffrey; Chae, So-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam gas-associated water (CSGAW), which is a by-product of coal seam gas (CSG) production typically contains significant amounts of salts and has potential environmental issues. In this study, we optimized a bench-scale vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process with flat-sheet hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes for the treatment of synthetic CSGAW (conductivity = 15 mS/cm). To study performance of the VMD process, we explored the effects of feed temperature (T(f) = 60, 70, and 80°C), feed flow rate (V(f) = 60, 120, and 240 mL/min), and vacuum pressure (P(v) = 3, 6, and 9 kPa) on water permeability through the PTFE membrane in the VMD process. Under the optimum conditions (i.e. T(f) = 80°C, V(f) = 240 mL/min, P(v) = 3 kPa), water permeability and rejection efficiency of salts by the VMD process were found to be 5.5 L/m(2)/h (LMH) and 99.9%, respectively, after 2 h filtration. However, after 8 h operation, the water permeability decreased by 70% compared with the initial flux due to the formation of fouling layer of calcium, chloride, sodium, magnesium, and potassium on the membrane surface.

  5. Isolation of nonvolatile, organic solutes from natural waters by zeotrophic distillation of water from N,N-dimethylformamide

    SciTech Connect

    Leenheer, J.A.; Brown, P.A.; Stiles, E.A.

    1987-05-01

    Nonvolatile, organic solutes that comprise the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in saline waters were isolated by removal of the water by distillation from a N,N-dimethylformamide-formic acid-acetonitrile mixture. Salts isolated with the DOC were removed by crystallization of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate from the solvent mixture, removal of silicic acid by acidification and precipitation, removal of boric acid by methylation and volatilization, and removal of phosphate by zinc acetate precipitation. Chemical alteration of the organic solutes was minimized during evaporative concentration steps by careful control of acid concentrations in the solvent mixture and was minimized during drying by conversion of the samples to pyridinium and sodium salts. Recoveries of various hydrophilic organic standards from aqueous salt solutions and recoveries of natural organic solutes from various water samples varied from 60 to 100%. Losses of organic solutes during the isolation procedure were nonselective and related to the number of salt- and precipitate-washing cycles in the procedure.

  6. Isolation of nonvolatile, organic solutes from natural waters by zeotrophic distillation of water from N,N-dimethylformamide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Brown, P.A.; Stiles, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nonvolatile, organic solutes that comprise the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in saline waters were isolated by removal of the water by distillation from a N,N-dimethylformamideformic acid-acetonitrile mixture. Salts isolated with the DOC were removed by crystallization of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate from the solvent mixture, removal of silicic acid by acidification and precipitation, removal of boric acid by methylation and volatilization, and removal of phosphate by zinc acetate precipitation. Chemical alteration of the organic solutes was minimized during evaporative concentration steps by careful control of acid concentrations in the solvent mixture and was minimized during drying by conversion of the samples to pyridinium and sodium salts. Recoveries of various hydrophilic organic standards from aqueous salt solutions and recoveries of natural organic solutes from various water samples varied from 60 to 100%. Losses of organic solutes during the isolation procedure were nonselective and related to the number of salt- and precipitate-washing cycles in the procedure.

  7. Enzyme characterization for hydrolysis of AFEX and liquid hot-water pretreated distillers' grains and their conversion to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production, was investigated as a feedstock for additional ethanol production. DDGS was pretreated with liquid hot water (LHW) and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) processes. Cellulose was readily converted to glucose from bo...

  8. Reference test methods for total water in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration and low temperature distillation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a study of comparability of total water contents (%) of conditioned cottons by Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) and Low Temperature Distillation (LTD) reference methods, we demonstrated a match of averaged results based on a large number of replications and weighing the test specimens at the same tim...

  9. Distillation Kinetics of Solid Mixtures of Hydrogen Peroxide and Water and the Isolation of Pure Hydrogen Peroxide in Ultrahigh Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teolis, B. D.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    We present results of the growth of thin films of crystalline H2O2 and H2O2.2H2O (dihydrate) in ultrahigh vacuum by distilling an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide. We traced the process using infrared reflectance spectroscopy, mass loss on a quartz crystal microbalance, and in a few cases ultraviolet-visible reflectance. We find that the different crystalline phases-water, dihydrate, and hydrogen peroxide-have very different sublimation rates, making distillation efficient to isolate the less volatile component, crystalline H2O2.

  10. Glow Discharge Emission Spectra in Air with Liquid Electrode Based on Distilled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuchman, M. P.; Mesarosz, L. V.; Shuaibov, A. K.; Kiris, V. V.; Tarasenko, N. V.

    2016-11-01

    The results of spectroscopic studies of a glow discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure in air with an electrode based on distilled water are presented. The parametric effects affecting the discharge emission are analyzed. The dependence of the emission intensity of the various discharge components and their spatial localization in the discharge gap on the current strength is explained by change in the discharge geometry and the conditions of oxidation with increase of the current. It is shown that the composition of the gas mixture in the electrode gap changes with increase of the discharge current from nitrogen-rich (12-19 mA) to rich in water vapor and its dissociation products (19-24 mA). At higher currents, the gas mixture is also rich in the products of plasma chemical reactions and nitric oxide in particular. The redistribution of the radiation intensity of the molecules of nitrogen and its oxide with increase of the current occurs mainly in the cathode region (at the plasma-fluid boundary), where the formation of oxides is improved as a result of increase in the amount of vaporized solution and in the effectiveness of oxidation reactions with increase of the water temperature and discharge current.

  11. Hardness and compressive strength of indirect composite resins: effects of immersion in distilled water.

    PubMed

    Da Fonte Porto Carreiro, A; Dos Santos Cruz, C A; Vergani, C E

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ageing in distilled water on the hardness and compressive strength of a direct composite resin Z100, a feldspatic porcelain (Noritake) and three indirect composites (Artglass, Solidex and Targis). For the Vickers hardness tests, five disk-shaped specimens (2 x 4 mm) of each material were prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions. The hardness tests were conducted using a Vickers diamond indentor. Compressive strength measurements were recorded on cylindrical specimens with a diameter of 6 mm and a length of 12 mm. The compression tests were carried out with a constant cross-head speed of 0.5 mm min(-1) on a mechanical test machine. For each material, 10 specimens were tested after 7 days of dry storage at 37 +/- 1 degrees C and 10 specimens were tested after water storage at 37 +/- 1 degrees C for 180 days. Noritake porcelain specimens showed higher hardness values than the composites. Among the composite materials, Z100 promoted the highest VHN values, regardless of the ageing periods. The results showed that Solidex and Z100 had the highest compressive strength values. Ageing in water reduced the hardness for all composites, but had no long-term effect on the compressive strength.

  12. Recovery of water and acid from leach solutions using direct contact membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Kesieme, Uchenna K; Milne, Nicholas; Cheng, Chu Yong; Aral, Hal; Duke, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes for the first time the use of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for acid and water recovery from a real leach solution generated by a hydrometallurgical plant. The leach solutions considered contained H2SO4 or HCl. In all tests the temperature of the feed solution was kept at 60 °C. The test work showed that fluxes were within the range of 18-33 kg/m(2)/h and 15-35 kg/m(2)/h for the H2SO4 and HCl systems, respectively. In the H2SO4 leach system, the final concentration of free acid in the sample solution increased on the concentrate side of the DCMD system from 1.04 M up to 4.60 M. The sulfate separation efficiency was over 99.9% and overall water recovery exceeded 80%. In the HCl leach system, HCl vapour passed through the membrane from the feed side to the permeate. The concentration of HCl captured in the permeate was about 1.10 M leaving behind only 0.41 M in the feed from the initial concentration of 2.13 M. In all the experiments, salt rejection was >99.9%. DCMD is clearly viable for high recovery of high quality water and concentrated H2SO4 from spent sulfuric acid leach solution where solvent extraction could then be applied to recover the sulfuric acid and metals. While HCl can be recovered for reuse using only DCMD.

  13. Computational investigations of streamers in a single bubble suspended in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashish; Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan

    2016-09-01

    We present a computational model of nanosecond streamers generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water at the atmospheric pressure conditions. The model is based on the self-consistent, multispecies and the continuum description of plasma and takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for a more accurate description of the kinetics of the discharge. We find that the dynamic characteristics of the streamer discharge are completely different at low and high over voltages. We observe that the polarity of the trigger voltage has a substantial effect on initiation, transition and evolution stages of streamers with the volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel much more uniform for negative trigger voltages due to the presence of multiple streamers. We also find that the presence of water vapor significantly influences the distribution of the dominant species in the streamer trail and has a profound effect on the flux of the dominant species to the bubble wall. The research reported in this publication was supported by Competitive Research Funding from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).

  14. Developmental toxicity of clarified slurry oil, syntower bottoms, and distillate aromatic extract administered as a single oral dose to pregnant rats

    SciTech Connect

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.

    1996-09-01

    Clarified slurry oil (CSO), syntower bottoms (STB), and distillate aromatic extract (DAE) are refinery streams produced by processing crude oil. Available data indicate that some refinery streams are developmentally toxic by the dermal route of exposure. However, there is no conclusive evidence for their being teratogenic. The present studies were designed to further explore the suspected teratogenic potency of refinery streams while at the same time limiting embryolethality. In general, evidence of maternal toxicity (i.e., decreased body weight gain, decreased thymus weight) was observed at doses greater than or equal to 500 mg/kg. For each refinery stream tested, the incidence of resorption was greatest on GD 11. A common pattern of fetal malformations was observed for all of the refinery streams tested and included cleft palate, diaphragmatic hernia, and paw and tail defects. The incidence and type of malformation observed were influenced by the gestation day of exposure. The incidence and type of malformation observed were influenced by the gestation day of exposure. The incidences of external and skeletal malformations were greatest on GD 11 and 12 for fetuses exposed to CSO; on GD 13 and 14, the incidence of malformation was comparable for CSO- and STB-exposed fetuses. The incidence of visceral anomalies was greatest on GD 11-13 for fetuses exposed to CSO and STB; on Gestation D 14, the incidence was comparable for each of the refinery streams tested. In general, the ability to produce adverse effects on development was greatest for CSO and least for DAE. Effects produced by STB were comparable to or less severe than those observed for CSO. 24 refs., 11 tabs.

  15. Flavobacterium sepsis outbreak due to contaminated distilled water in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Mosayebi, Z; Movahedian, A H; Soori, T

    2011-07-01

    Outbreaks of sepsis due to water or contaminated equipment can cause significant mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. We studied an outbreak among neonates caused by flavobacterium and investigated the characteristics of the infected neonates, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the source of the outbreak. Forty-five neonates with documented flavobacterium sepsis were evaluated in this descriptive study. Data including sex, vaginal delivery or caesarean, preterm or term, birth weight, results of blood cultures and antibiograms were recorded and cases followed up until death or recovery. Environmental sampling for detecting the source of contamination was performed. Among the 45 patients, 28 (62.2%) were male and 17 (37.8%) female (P<0.001). The commonest clinical manifestation was respiratory distress (60%). Eighteen neonates (40%) were low birth weight. Thirty-seven neonates (82.2%) were born via caesarean section. Twenty (44.4%) of them were preterm whereas 25 (55.6%) were term (P<0.001). Mortality was 17.7%. All strains were resistant to ampicillin, and susceptible to amikacin. The source of outbreak was contaminated distilled water.

  16. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk

    2016-10-01

    Electric discharge in liquids is an emerging field of research, and is involved into various environmental applications (water purification, fuel reforming, nanomaterial synthesis, etc.). Increasing the treatment efficiency with simultaneous decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today's research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge efficiency can be improved by changing the interface position regarding the anode tip. The efficiency increase is due to the increase of the discharge probability as well as the plasma volume. The understanding of the experimental results is brought and strengthened by simulating the electric field distribution, using Comsol Multiphysics software. Because the dielectric permittivity ( ɛ ) is discontinuous at the interface, the electric field is enhanced by a factor that depends on the relative value of ɛ of the two liquids. The present result is very promising in future: opportunities for potential applications as well as fundamental studies for discharges in liquid.

  17. Exposure variability of fosfomycin administered to pigs in food or water: impact of social rank.

    PubMed

    Soraci, Alejandro L; Amanto, Fabián; Tapia, María O; de la Torre, Eulalia; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to document the effect of social ranking on the internal exposure of pigs to an antibiotic (fosfomycin) administered either in food or in drinking water. Signs of aggression were recorded at the feeder and drinker. The interindividual variability explained by the social rank was even greater when the test antibiotic was given in food despite the fact that the water consumption was less variable than the food intake. The range of plasma concentrations after administration of fosfomycin either in food or drinking water leads to a number of pigs in the treated group being exposed to rather low and highly variable concentrations of fosfomycin and not able to maintain adequate plasma concentrations above the typical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Social rank clearly influences the level of exposure of pigs to fosfomycin both in food and drinking. However, its administration in drinking water is likely to be the best option to optimize antibiotic efficacy.

  18. Conservation of the mycelia of the medicinal mushroom Humphreya coffeata (Berk.) Stey. in sterile distilled water

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Monserrat; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A.; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing interest in obtaining and studying the biologically active compounds from higher basidiomycetes, such as Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Inonotus obliquus[1], but the techniques for safe long-term storage are time-consuming, susceptible to contamination, and do not prevent genetic and physiological changes during long-term maintenance [2]. A recent strategy for obtaining biologically active compounds is using mycelia submerged cultures of these mushrooms, cultured under controlled laboratory conditions [1]. However, obtaining spores of these fungi under these conditions is difficult, and in most cases the way to obtain the spores is unknown [1]. Therefore, the strategy for mycelium storage seems to be more appropriated and simple.•A modification of Castellani's method [3–7] is proposed for higher basidiomycetes, by using the mycelium of Humphreya coffeata (Berk.) Stey., whose culture filtrates demonstrated bioactivity against lymphoma cells [8].•H. coffeata (Berk.) Stey. was grown on malt extract agar with filter paper disks that were removed after 4 days, placed in tubes with sterile distilled water, and stored at 4 °C.•Filter paper disks with H. coffeata (Berk.) Stey. stored at 4 °C were confirmed to be viable for up to 18 months, with no visible morphological alterations. PMID:26150929

  19. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step,...

  20. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step...

  1. The antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine administered through the drinking water of rats.

    PubMed

    Jessen, L; Christensen, S; Bjerrum, O J

    2007-04-01

    Postoperative pain management in laboratory animals is important for animal welfare and required under law in many countries. Frequent injection of analgesics to rodents after surgery is stressful for the animals and labour-intensive for animal care personnel. An alternative dosing scheme such as administration of analgesics in the drinking water would be desirable. However, the efficacy of a chronic oral analgesic treatment via this route has not yet been documented. This study investigated the antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine administered ad libitum via the drinking water of laboratory rats. The antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine in drinking water was compared with repeated subcutaneous injections. A comparison was also made between buprenorphine in drinking water and the combination of one single subcutaneous injection of buprenorphine followed by buprenorphine in drinking water. Antinociception was assessed by use of an analgesiometric model measuring the rats' latency time to withdrawal from a noxious heat stimulus applied to the plantar surface of the paw. Results revealed that buprenorphine in drinking water (0.056 mg/mL) induced significant increases in paw withdrawal latency times during a three-day period of administration with a maximal effect at 39 h after the start of buprenorphine administration. One single injection of buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) followed by buprenorphine in the drinking water (0.056 mg/mL) induced an earlier onset of antinociception than buprenorphine in drinking water alone. In contrast, buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) injected every 8 h over a period of three days did not result in significant increases in paw withdrawal latency times. In conclusion, our results suggest that one single subcutaneous injection of buprenorphine followed by buprenorphine in drinking water may be a viable treatment option for the relief of pain in laboratory rats, but at the doses used in this study in pain-free rats it was associated

  2. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  3. Relationship between airway reactivity induced by methacholine or ultrasonically nebulized distilled cold water and BAL fluid cellular constituents in patients with sulfur mustard gas-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Emad, Ali; Emad, Yasaman

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article was to evaluate the relationship between the bronchial reactivity to methacholine and distilled cold water and inflammatory bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) cells in mustard gas-induced asthma. This was a randomized, crossover clinical study set in a university hospital. The patients were 17 veterans with mustard gas-induced asthma and 17 normal veterans as a control group. Inhalation challenges with ultrasonically nebulized distilled water and methacholine and BAL via bronchoscopy and were performed in all patients and subjects. All patients did sustain a 20% fall in FEV(1) after methacholine, whereas two of them did not with distilled cold water. The patients were sensitive to distilled cold water with a median PD20 of 8.44 +/- 6.55 mL and sensitive to methacholine with the median PC20 of 4.88 +/- 4.22 mg/mL. Significant correlation was found between PC20 of methacholine and PD20 of distilled cold water (r = -0.74, p = 0.005). The proportion of BAL macrophages was significantly lower in patients with asthma than in the control group (p = 0.001). The proportions of lymphocytes and neutrophils were similar in the two groups. The percentage of eosinophils was higher in BAL fluid from the asthmatics compared with that in BAL fluid from the control group (p < 0.001). The percentage of the BAL eosinophils significantly correlated with both PC20 of methacholine (r = - 0.58, p = 0.01) and PD20 of distilled cold water (r = -0.81, p = 0.002). No relationship between PC20 of methacholine or PD20 of distilled cold water was found for other inflammatory BAL cells. This study showed that in patients with mustard gas-induced asthma, the degree of airway responsiveness to both methacholine and distilled water was associated with the percentage of BAL eosinophils.

  4. A Novel Water Delivery System for Administering Volatile Chemicals while Minimizing Chemical Waste in Rodent Toxicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drin...

  5. A novel water delivery system for administering volatile chemicals while minimizing chemical waste in rodent toxicity sutdies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drinki...

  6. Matrix-elimination with steam distillation for determination of short-chain fatty acids in hypersaline waters from pre-salt layer by ion-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fernanda N; Carneiro, Manuel C; Vaitsman, Delmo S; Pontes, Fernanda V M; Monteiro, Maria Inês C; Silva, Lílian Irene D da; Neto, Arnaldo Alcover

    2012-02-03

    A method for determination of formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids in hypersaline waters by ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC), using steam distillation to eliminate matrix-interference, was developed. The steam distillation variables such as type of solution to collect the distillate, distillation time and volume of the 50% v/v H₂SO₄ solution were optimized. The effect of the addition of NaCl different concentrations to the calibration standards on the carboxylic acid recovery was also investigated. Detection limits of 0.2, 0.5, 0.3 and 1.5 mg L⁻¹ were obtained for formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. Produced waters from petroleum reservoirs in the Brazilian pre-salt layer containing about 19% m/v of NaCl were analyzed. Good recoveries (99-108%) were obtained for all acids in spiked produced water samples.

  7. Evaluation of liquid and solid culture media for the recovery and enrichment of Burkholderia cenocepacia from distilled water.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Youngbeom; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Ahn, Hyeri; Lee, Yong-Jin; LiPuma, John J; Hussong, David; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2014-07-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) presence has been the cause of recalls of both sterile and non-sterile pharmaceutical products since these opportunistic pathogens have been implicated to cause infections to susceptible individuals. BCC are ubiquitous in nature, but in pharmaceutical settings the most common source is contaminated water systems. Some strains of BCC, previously described as Pseudomonas cepacia, were not readily detected by standard culture methods. We have explored different strategies to recover and enrich Burkholderia cenocepacia previously cultured in distilled water for 40 days. Enrichment media of varied nutrient concentrations and composition were used, including modified Tryptic Soy Agar or Broth (TSA or TSB), Reasoner's 2nd Agar or Broth (R2A or R2AB), Brain-Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB), Mueller-Hinton Broth (MHB), and Ashdown's (ASH) medium. Of the various broth media tested, cell growth was significantly greater in TSB and R2AB than in BHIB, MHB, or ASH broth. TSB and R2AB were also compared for their recovery efficiency. Generally, there was no significant difference between the numbers of B. cenocepacia grown on 15 differently modified TSA and five modified R2A solid media. Overall, however, diluted TSA and TSB media, and R2A and R2AB showed better recovery efficiency than TSA and TSB for inocula containing small numbers of cells. All strains persisted in distilled water for 40 days. Broth media were more effective than solid media for recovery of B. cenocepacia from distilled water. These results may assist in improving detection assays with recovery and enrichment strategies to maximize recovery of these fastidious organisms.

  8. A Comparison of delO18 Composition of Water Extracted from Suction Lysimeters, Centrifugation, and Azeotropic Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, A.; Tindall, J. A.; Friedel, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Concentration of delO18 in water samples extracted by suction lysimeters is compared to samples obtained by methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Intact soil cores (30 cm diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites. Site 1 was rapid infiltration basin number 50, near Altamonte Springs in Seminole County, Florida on properties belonging to the Walt Disney World Resort Complex. Site 2 was the Missouri Management System Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. The delO18 water was analyzed on a mass spectrophotometer. Potassium Bromide (KBr) was also used as a tracer and analyzed by ion chromatography. A portion of the data obtained was modeled using CXTFIT. Water collected by centrifugation and azeotropic distillation data were about 2-5% more negative than that collected by suction lysimeter values from the Florida (sandy) soil and about 5-7 % more negative from the Missouri (well structured clay) soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. Also, it is plausible that evaporation caused some delO18 enrichment in the suction lysimeters. Suction lysimeters preferentially sampled water held at lower matric potentials, which may not represent total soil water. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced all previous pore water, suction lysimeters will however collect a representative sample of all the water at that depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeters be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The CXTFIT program worked well for Florida soils (a more homogeneous sand), but gave poor performance for Missouri soils (well structured clays) except for deeper depths where clay structure was less

  9. Immunotoxicity of dibromoacetic acid administered via drinking water to female B₆C₃F₁ mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Germolec, Dori R; Luebke, Robert W; Sheth, Christopher M; Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Guo, Tai L; White, Kimber L

    2010-01-01

    Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is a disinfection by-product commonly found in drinking water as a result of chlorination/ ozonation processes. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that more than 200 million people consume disinfected water in the United States. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential immunotoxicological effects of DBA exposure when administered for 28 days via drinking water to B₆C₃F₁ mice, at concentrations of 125, 500, and 1000 mg/L. Multiple endpoints were evaluated to assess innate, humoral, and cell-mediated immune components, as well as host resistance. Standard toxicological parameters were unaffected, with the exception of a dose-responsive increase in liver weight and a decrease in thymus weight at the two highest exposure levels. Splenocyte differentials were affected, although the effects were not dose-responsive. Exposure to DBA did not significantly affect humoral immunity (immunoglobulin M [IgM] plaque assay and serum IgM anti-sheep erythrocyte titers) or cell-mediated immunity (mixed-leukocyte response). No effects were observed on innate immune function in either interferon-γ-induced in vitro macrophage cytotoxic activity or basal natural killer (NK)-cell activity. Augmented NK-cell activity (following exposure to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid) was decreased at the low dose, however the effect was not dose-responsive. Finally, DBA exposure had no effect on resistance to infection with either Streptococcus pneumoniae or Plasmodium yoelii, or challenge with B16F10 melanoma cells. With the exception of changes in thymus weight, these results indicate that DBA exposure resulted in no immunotoxic effects at concentrations much larger than those considered acceptable in human drinking water.

  10. [Effect of smoke water and distillation liquid on the seed germination and seedling growth of Trichosathes kirilowii].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Bian, Li-hua; Zou, Lin; Zhou, Bin-qian; Liu, Wei; Wang, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Smoke water and distillation liquid were used to treat the seeds of Trichosathes kirilowii and to study the effects of smoke water and distillation liquid on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. kirilowii. The results showed that germination rate, germination index and germination vigor of T. kirilowii all were significantly improved with the treatment of SW and DL treatment. The activity of α-amylase were significantly increased with the treatment of SW and DL at 1:2,000. SW and DL treatment showed no significant effects on the activity of SOD. The activity of POD were markedly enhanced under the treatment of SW (1:000) and DL (1:2,000). CAT activity were increased with the treatment of SW and DL at 1:2,000 while were inhibited by SW and DL at 1:500. Seedling height and root length were increased with the treatment of SW and DL (1:1,000, 1:2,000). SW and DL treaments improved the content of chlorophyll, and moreover with the concentration of SW and DL, the stimulatory were also increased. This work demonstrated that smoke water and diatillation liquid at 1:2,000 could stimulate the seed germination and seedling growth of T. kirilowii, and it provided the references for the study of seed germination technology.

  11. Improved Dynamic Modeling of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem and Integration with Models of Other Water Recovery Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2015-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) is a rotary multistage distiller being developed to serve as the primary processor for wastewater recovery during long-duration space missions. The CDS could be integrated with a system similar to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) to form a complete Water Recovery System (WRS) for future missions. Independent chemical process simulations with varying levels of detail have previously been developed using Aspen Custom Modeler (ACM) to aid in the analysis of the CDS and several WPA components. The existing CDS simulation could not model behavior during thermal startup and lacked detailed analysis of several key internal processes, including heat transfer between stages. The first part of this paper describes modifications to the ACM model of the CDS that improve its capabilities and the accuracy of its predictions. Notably, the modified version of the model can accurately predict behavior during thermal startup for both NaCl solution and pretreated urine feeds. The model is used to predict how changing operating parameters and design features of the CDS affects its performance, and conclusions from these predictions are discussed. The second part of this paper describes the integration of the modified CDS model and the existing WPA component models into a single WRS model. The integrated model is used to demonstrate the effects that changes to one component can have on the dynamic behavior of the system as a whole.

  12. In vitro modulation of inflammatory target gene expression by a polyphenol-enriched fraction of rose oil distillation waste water.

    PubMed

    Wedler, Jonas; Weston, Anna; Rausenberger, Julia; Butterweck, Veronika

    2016-10-01

    Classical production of rose oil is based on water steam distillation from the flowers of Rosa damascena. During this process, large quantities of waste water accrue which are discharged to the environment, causing severe pollution of both, groundwater and surface water due to a high content of polyphenols. We recently developed a strategy to purify the waste water into a polyphenol-depleted and a polyphenol-enriched fraction RF20-(SP-207). RF20-(SP-207) and sub-fraction F(IV) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration of HaCaT cells. Since there is a close interplay between these actions and inflammatory processes, here we focused on the fractions' influence on pro-inflammatory biomarkers. HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with RF20-(SP-207), F(IV) (both at 50μg/mL) and ellagic acid (10μM) for 24h under TNF-α (20ng/mL) stimulated and non-stimulated conditions. Gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, RANTES and MCP-1 was analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cellular protein secretion of IL-8, RANTES and MCP-1 was determined by ELISA based assays. RF20-(SP-207) and F(IV) significantly decreased the expression and cellular protein secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, RANTES and MCP-1. The diminishing effects on inflammatory target gene expression were slightly less pronounced under TNF-α stimulated conditions. In conclusion, the recovered polyphenol fraction RF20-(SP-207) from rose oil distillation waste water markedly modified inflammatory target gene expression in vitro, and, therefore, could be further developed as alternative treatment of acute and chronic inflammation.

  13. Computer-aided analysis of energy consumption in ethanol-water distillation operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, X. N.; Heyman, E. C.

    1982-02-01

    Existing computer programs have been used to evaluate the effects of various process parameters on the energy consumption of an ethanol distillation step. A savings of 250 kJ/mol ethanol produced is possible if the ethanol feed concentration is increased from 4 wt % to 8 wt %; further increases, however, result in only marginal additional savings. Preheating the feed to its saturated liquid condition is more advantageous than distilling the cold feed directly; the reboiler requires substantially less energy if the waste heat in the bottom flow is used to preheat the feed. About $45,000/y could be saved by a 38 ML/y plant by decreasing the operating reflux from 1.5 to 1.3 times the minimum reflux ratio. At ethanol concentrations above 15 wt %, about 40 kJ/mol ethanol produced could be saved by reducing the concentration of the ethanol feed to the dehydrating column to 92 wt %. Operating at 10 kPa (0.1 atm) instead of 100 kPa (1 atm) could save 125 kJ/mol ethanol produced, but an increase in noncondensible gases could lead to increased steam usage.

  14. Water reclamation from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid using a novel forward osmosis-vacuum membrane distillation hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Baolong; Wang, Zhouwei; Xie, Ming; Song, Jianfeng; Nghiem, Long D; He, Tao; Yang, Chi; Li, Chunxia; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the performance of a novel hybrid system of forward osmosis (FO) combined with vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for reclaiming water from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid (SGDF). In the hybrid FO-VMD system, water permeated through the FO membrane into a draw solution reservoir, and the VMD process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Using a SGDF sample obtained from a drilling site in China, the hybrid system could achieve almost 90% water recovery. Quality of the reclaimed water was comparable to that of bottled water. In the hybrid FO-VMD system, FO functions as a pre-treatment step to remove most contaminants and constituents that may foul or scale the membrane distillation (MD) membrane, whereas MD produces high quality water. It is envisioned that the FO-VMD system can recover high quality water not only from SGDF but also other wastewaters with high salinity and complex compositions.

  15. DELAYED PREPUTIAL SEPARATION (PPS) AND SP22 MEASUREMENT IN RATS ADMINISTERED BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive effects of BCA were determined in a dose range finding study (DRFS) and definitive two-generational study. Adult male and female CD� (SD) rats were administered BCA in drinking water for two weeks in the DRFS (10/sex/group) and ten weeks in the definitive study (25/s...

  16. THE INDUCTION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI (ACF) IN THE COLONS OF RATS BY TRIHALOMETHANES ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and bromoform (TBM) had been demonstrated to be colon carcinogens in male and female F344/N rats following administration by corn oil gavage. Our chronic bioassay of BDCM administered in the drinking water failed to demonstrate an enhanced colon cance...

  17. Pump-probe imaging of nanosecond laser-induced bubbles in distilled water solutions: Observations of laser-produced-plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R.; Camacho-López, S.

    2010-11-01

    This article presents the analysis of the laser-produced-plasma (LPP) formed by the focusing of a 9 ns laser pulse, λ =532 nm, with a NA=0.6 aspherical lens using energies between 100-1500 μJ, into distilled water with varying solutions of table salt. Observations of the filamentation plasma were made, which are explained by self-focusing of the laser pulse by the LPP through ponderomotive cavitation of the electron plasma in the center of the beam. The filamentation of the beam through a low density plasma wave guide explains why the transmission of the pump laser through the interaction region was notably higher on previous experiments that we performed [R. Evans et al., Opt. Express 16, 7481 (2008)], than a very similar set of experiments performed by Noack and Vogel [IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156 (1999)].

  18. The effects of gaseous bubble composition and gap distance on the characteristics of nanosecond discharges in distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk

    2016-06-01

    Electric discharge in liquids with bubbles can reduce the energy consumption, which increases treatment efficiency. We present an experimental study of nanosecond discharges in distilled water bubbled with the monoatomic gas argon and with the polyatomic gases methane, carbon dioxide, and propane. We monitor the time evolution of the voltage and current waveforms, and calculate the injected charges to characterize the discharge. We establish a relationship between the injected charges and the shape of the plasma by time-resolved imaging to find that increasing the size of the gap reduces the injected charges. Moreover, we determine the plasma characteristics, including electron density, excitation temperatures (for atoms and ions), and rotational temperature of the OH and C2 radicals found in the plasma. Our space- and time-averaged measurements allow us to propose a spatial distribution of the plasma that is helpful for understanding the plasma dynamics necessary to develop and optimize applications based on nanosecond discharges in bubbled liquids.

  19. Pump-probe imaging of nanosecond laser-induced bubbles in distilled water solutions: Observations of laser-produced-plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.; Camacho-Lopez, S.

    2010-11-15

    This article presents the analysis of the laser-produced-plasma (LPP) formed by the focusing of a 9 ns laser pulse, {lambda}=532 nm, with a NA=0.6 aspherical lens using energies between 100-1500 {mu}J, into distilled water with varying solutions of table salt. Observations of the filamentation plasma were made, which are explained by self-focusing of the laser pulse by the LPP through ponderomotive cavitation of the electron plasma in the center of the beam. The filamentation of the beam through a low density plasma wave guide explains why the transmission of the pump laser through the interaction region was notably higher on previous experiments that we performed [R. Evans et al., Opt. Express 16, 7481 (2008)], than a very similar set of experiments performed by Noack and Vogel [IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1156 (1999)].

  20. Efficiency of methods for Karl Fischer determination of water in oils based on oven evaporation and azeotropic distillation.

    PubMed

    Larsson, William; Jalbert, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Roland; Cedergren, Anders

    2003-03-15

    The efficiency of azeotropic distillation and oven evaporation techniques for trace determination of water in oils has recently been questioned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), on the basis of measurements of the residual water found after the extraction step. The results were obtained by volumetric Karl Fischer (KF) titration in a medium containing a large excess of chloroform (> or = 65%), a proposed prerequisite to ensure complete release of water from the oil matrix. In this work, the extent of this residual water was studied by means of a direct zero-current potentiometric technique using a KF medium containing more than 80% chloroform, which is well above the concentration recommended by NIST. A procedure is described that makes it possible to correct the results for dilution errors as well as for chemical interference effects caused by the oil matrix. The corrected values were found to be in the range of 0.6-1.5 ppm, which should be compared with the 12-34 ppm (uncorrected values) reported by NIST for the same oils. From this, it is concluded that the volumetric KF method used by NIST gives results that are much too high.

  1. Experimental investigation on thermal performance of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) using methanol and distilled water at different filling ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Swarna, Anindita Dhar; Ahmed, Syed Nasif Uddin; Perven, Sanjida; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Pulsating Heat Pipes, the new two-phase heat transfer devices, with no counter current flow between liquid and vapor have become a modern topic for research in the field of thermal management. This paper focuses on the performance of methanol and distilled water as working fluid in a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP). This performances are compared in terms of thermal resistance, heat transfer co-efficient, and evaporator and condenser wall temperature with variable heat inputs. Methanol and Distilled water are selected for their lower surface tension, dynamic viscosity and sensible heat. A closed loop PHP made of copper with 2mm ID and 2.5mm OD having total 8 loops are supplied with power input varied from 10W to 60W. During the experiment the PHP is kept vertical, while the filling ratio (FR) is increased gradually from 40% to 70% with 10% increment. The optimum filling ratio for a minimum thermal resistance is found to be 60% and 40% for distilled water and methanol respectively and methanol is found to be the better working fluid compared to distilled water in terms of its lower thermal resistance and higher heat transfer coefficient.

  2. Experimental study on the adsorptive-distillation for dehydration of ethanol-water mixture using natural and synthetic zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megawati, Wicaksono, D.; Abdullah, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    This research studied adsorptive-distillation (AD) for dehydration of ethanol-water mixture using natural and synthetic zeolites as adsorbent for ethanol purification. Especially, the effect of purification time is recorded and studied to evaluate performance of designed AD equipment. This AD was performed in a batch condition using boiling flask covered with heating mantle and it was maintained at 78°C temperature and 1 atm pressure. The initial ethanol volume was 300 mL with 93.8% v/v concentration. The synthetic zeolite type used was zeolite 3A. The flowed vapour was condensed using water as a cooling medium. Every 5 minutes of time duration the samples were collected until the vapour could not be condensed in that condition and then be analyzed its concentration using Gas-Chromatography. Experiment shows that the designed AD equipment could increase ethanol concentration at first 5 minutes with highest ethanol concentration achieved using synthetic zeolite (97.47% v/v). However, ethanol concentration from AD process using natural zeolite only reached 96.5% v/v. Thus, synthetic zeolite as adsorbent could pass azeotropic point, but natural zeolite fail. The ratio of adsorbed water per adsorbent for natural and synthetic zeolites are about 0.023 and 0.056 gwater/gads, respectively, at 50 minutes of time. Finally, synthetic zeolite (at 55 minutes the value of C/C0 is about 0.85 and the average outlet water concentration is 4.70 mole/L) as adsorbent for AD of ethanol water is better than natural zeolite (at 55 minutes the value of C/C0 is about 0.63 and the average outlet water concentration is 6.43 mole/L).

  3. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  4. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  5. Comparing administered and market-based water allocation systems through a consistent agent-based modeling framework.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianshi; Cai, Ximing; Wang, Zhongjing

    2013-07-15

    Water allocation can be undertaken through administered systems (AS), market-based systems (MS), or a combination of the two. The debate on the performance of the two systems has lasted for decades but still calls for attention in both research and practice. This paper compares water users' behavior under AS and MS through a consistent agent-based modeling framework for water allocation analysis that incorporates variables particular to both MS (e.g., water trade and trading prices) and AS (water use violations and penalties/subsidies). Analogous to the economic theory of water markets under MS, the theory of rational violation justifies the exchange of entitled water under AS through the use of cross-subsidies. Under water stress conditions, a unique water allocation equilibrium can be achieved by following a simple bargaining rule that does not depend upon initial market prices under MS, or initial economic incentives under AS. The modeling analysis shows that the behavior of water users (agents) depends on transaction, or administrative, costs, as well as their autonomy. Reducing transaction costs under MS or administrative costs under AS will mitigate the effect that equity constraints (originating with primary water allocation) have on the system's total net economic benefits. Moreover, hydrologic uncertainty is shown to increase market prices under MS and penalties/subsidies under AS and, in most cases, also increases transaction, or administrative, costs.

  6. Extended testing of compression distillation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

  7. Protective effect of levodropropizine against cough induced by inhalation of nebulized distilled water in patients with obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Bariffi, F; Tranfa, C; Vatrella, A; Ponticiello, A

    1992-01-01

    Levodropropizine is a recently developed, peripherally active antitussive agent which is widely used in clinical practice. In order to obtain further information on the spectrum of activity of this compound in experimental clinical models, a double-blind controlled study was carried out to evaluate the potential effect of the drug against cough and bronchoconstriction induced by inhalation of an ultrasonically nebulized solution of distilled water in patients with obstructive lung disease. Twenty patients were randomly divided into two groups, which received levodropropizine (60 mg t.i.d.) or placebo respectively for 7 consecutive days. Parameters evaluated at baseline and on the last day of treatment included (i) results of respiratory function tests (FEV1, IVC, FVC, TIFF, PEF, MEF75, MEF50, MEF25) performed before the stimulation test with nebulized water; (ii) total number of coughs during a 2-hour period after the stimulation test; (iii) bronchial responsiveness, quantified by calculating the volume of nebulized water required to induce a 20% reduction of FEV1 below the basal level. At pretreatment, the tussive response was very similar in the two groups. A significant decrease in number of coughs (from 34.4 +/- 8.4 at baseline to 15.6 +/- 4.9 post-treatment, p less than 0.01) was observed after administration of levodropropizine, whereas placebo treatment produced no significant effect (number of coughs: 29.6 +/- 4.9 at baseline vs 24.8 +/- 9.6 post-treatment, N.S.). Bronchial responsiveness decreased significantly (compared to baseline) in both treatment groups, without any significant difference between drug and placebo. Respiratory function tests were not significantly affected by either treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Chronologic comparison of root dentin moisture in extracted human teeth stored in formalin, sodium azide, and distilled water.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Ahn, Chul; Zhang, Song; Zhu, Qiang; Spångberg, Larz S W

    2009-07-01

    This study quantified in vitro the root dentin moisture when 10% formalin (group A), 3% sodium azide (group B), and distilled water (group C) were used as teeth storage media. The root dentin moisture of 66 extracted human mandibular single-rooted teeth was measured at baseline (day 0) and at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days using a digital grain moisture meter. The baseline dentin moisture value was used as covariate in the generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. The mean dentin moisture values (%) +/- SD on days 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 were, respectively: 10.6 +/- 0.64, 14.3 +/- 0.71, 14.6 +/- 0.84, 14.4 +/- 0.64, and 14.7 +/- 0.75 in group A; 11.4 +/- 0.94, 14.6 +/- 0.95, 14.6 +/- 0.76, 14.6 +/- 0.93, and 14.8 +/- 0.81 in group B; and 10.2 +/- 0.95, 12.8 +/- 0.90, 13.3 +/- 0.95, 13.0 +/- 0.91, and 13.2 +/- 0.89 in group C. The dentin moisture increased in all 3 groups; however, there was no overall significant difference in moisture between the formalin and sodium azide groups.

  9. Membrane-assisted vapor stripping: energy efficient hybrid distillation-vapor permeation process for alcohol-water separation

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Energy efficient alternatives to distillation for alcohol recovery from dilute solution are needed to improve biofuel sustainability. A process integrating steam stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step is proposed. The...

  10. Experimental Evaluation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Efficient Ethanol Recovery from Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions [1]. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation ...

  11. Effect of Intracerebroventricularly Administered Octopamines and Synephrines on Angiotensin 2-Induced Water Intake in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, Melvin J.; Rowland, Neil E.; Williams, Clyde M.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies from this laboratory showed that l-m-synephrine (phenylephrine), a metabolite of l-m-octapamine, inhibited the drinking response of rats to peripherally administered angiotensin 2. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether the isomers ofboth octapamine and synephrine could inhibit angiotensin 2-induced dipsogenesis in the rat. Of the isomers tested, only d,l-m-octopamine and l-m-synephrine blocked the dipsogenic response to administration of angiotensin 2 (200 micrograms/kg, SC). The antidipsogenic effect of both d,l-m-octopamine and l-m-synephrine could be blocked by concurrent administration of yohimbine (300 micrograms/kg, IP), an alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor antagonist. The results indicate that m-octopamine and m-synephrine exert their antidipsogenic effect via alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptors. These studies add to a growing body of data suggesting that activation of alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptors inhibits, while blockade of these receptors enhances, angiotensin 2-induced drinking.

  12. Vasopressin release induced by water deprivation - Effects of centrally administered saralasin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L. C.; Dundore, R. L.; Wurpel, J. N. D.; Severs, W. B.; Barbella, Y. R.

    1983-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to whether endogenous angiotensin activates brain mechanisms controlling vasopressin (AVP) secretion during dehydration. Various doses of saralasin were injected into a lateral cgrebroventricle (IVT) of conscious, male rats deprived of water for 48 h. The rats were killed at different times. The concentration of AVP in the plasma p(AVP), measured by radioimmunoassay, was unaffected by saralasin. IVT pretreatment with 1-Sar-8-Ile-angiotensin II blocked maximal AVP release by IVT angiotensin, but this pretreatment did not reduce p(AVP) after 24, 48 or 72 hr water deprivation. A 3-hour continuous IVT infusion of CSF or saralasin (10 micrograms/hour) into 48-hour water-deprived rats revealed equivalent p(AVP) concentration and urine volumes. When the infusions were continued for 3 h more with water available, control and saralasin-treated rats: (1) drank at similar rates, (2) excreted similar amounts of urine, and (3) reduced their p(AVP) concentration levels to the same extent. IVT saralasin did not affect p(AVP) concentration of rats dehydrated with hypertonic NaCl. Combined IVT saralasin and atropine reduced p(AVP) concentration of 48-hour water deprived rats about 30 percent (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that redundancy exists for sensing, integrating and releasing vasopressin in dehydrated rats.

  13. Molecular Assembly of Wheat Gliadins into Nanostructures: A Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study of Gliadins in Distilled Water over a Wide Concentration Range.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuhiro; Matsumiya, Aoi; Higashino, Yuki; Funaki, Satoshi; Kitao, Yuki; Oba, Yojiro; Inoue, Rintaro; Arisaka, Fumio; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Urade, Reiko

    2015-10-07

    Gliadin, one of the major proteins together with glutenin composing gluten, affects the physical properties of wheat flour dough. In this study, nanoscale structures of hydrated gliadins extracted into distilled water were investigated primarily by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) over a wide range of concentrations. Gliadins are soluble in distilled water below 10 wt %. Guinier analyses of SAXS profiles indicate that gliadins are present as monomers together with small amounts of dimers and oligomers in a very dilute solution. The SAXS profiles also indicate that interparticle interference appears above 0.5 wt % because of electrostatic repulsion among gliadin assemblies. Above 15 wt %, gliadins form gel-like hydrated solids. At greater concentrations, a steep upturn appears in the low-q region owing to the formation of large aggregates, and a broad shoulder appears in the middle-q region showing density fluctuation inside. This study demonstrates that SAXS can effectively disclose the nanostructure of hydrated gliadin assemblies.

  14. Acetaminophen self-administered in the drinking water increases the pain threshold of rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Mickley, G Andrew; Hoxha, Zana; Biada, Jaclyn M; Kenmuir, Cynthia L; Bacik, Stephanie E

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the addition of flavored acetaminophen suspension (for example, Children's Tylenol) in the drinking water of rats may not be effective in producing postoperative analgesia because of low levels of consumption. However, these investigations neither measured analgesia nor compared the consumption by rats that had undergone surgery with that by unmanipulated rats. The present study reports that although unmanipulated rats naive to the taste of flavored acetaminophen do indeed drink significantly less of this liquid than tap water, they drank sufficient amounts of the acetaminophen-containing solution to significantly raise pain thresholds, as measured by the hot-plate test. Moreover, rats that had undergone surgery drank significantly more acetaminophen solution than did those that had no surgery. These data suggest that oral self-administration of flavored acetaminophen by rats may be an appropriate means to reduce pain.

  15. Gas chromatographic determination of water in organic compounds and of organic compounds in water after steam distillations

    SciTech Connect

    Dix, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    A gas chromatograph (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID) is shown to be effective in the determination of water in organic compounds. Since the FID gives little response for water, a reaction is needed to convert water into a detectable species. The ketal, 2,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP), reacts quantitatively with water to yield the products methanol and acetone when an acid catalyst is present. Acetone is easily determined with a GC equipped with a capillary column and FID. A solid acid catalyst, Nafion, has been effective and is easily separated before sample introduction into the GC.

  16. THE FAILURE OF CHLOROFORM ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER TO INDUCE RENAL TUBULAR CELL NEOPLASIA IN MALE F344/N RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The failure of chloroform administered in drinking water to induce renal tubular cell neoplasia in male F344/N rats

    Chloroform (TCM) has been demonstrated to be a renal carcinogen in the male Osborne-
    Mendel rat when administered either by corn oil gavage or in drin...

  17. Design of a unit to produce hot distilled water for the same power consumption as a water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    Unit recovers 97% of water contained in pretreated waste water. Some factors are: cleansing agent prevents fouling of heat transfer surface by highly concentrated waste; absence of dynamic seals reduces required purge gas flow rate; and recycle loop maintains constant flushing process to carry cleansing agent across evaporation surface.

  18. Distillation Column Modeling Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques will Optimize Distillation Column Operation. Distillation is a low thermal efficiency unit operation that currently consumes 4.8 quadrillion BTUs of energy...

  19. Levodropropizine (LD) activity in allergic asthmatic patients, challenged with ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, metacholine and allergen-induced bronchospasm.

    PubMed

    Bossi, R; Banfi, P; Filipazzi, V; Castelli, C; Braga, P C

    1994-04-01

    The antitussive compound Levodropropizine (LD) is active in animal bronchoconstriction induced by histamine and capsaicin and in man protects from bronchoconstriction induced by capsaicin. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanism of action of LD given at 60 mg t.i.d. as oral drops, for 8 days by means of specific bronchial challenges (allergens) and of aspecific challenges acting via different receptors and fibers (i.e. metacholine via cholinergic receptors and ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW) via histamine and neuropeptide release). The study design is randomized, double-blind, cross-over versus placebo in 30 allergic asthmatic patients. Baseline bronchial tone and bronchoconstrictor response to metacholine (MCh) were not modified by active treatment nor by placebo. On the contrary, in airway responsiveness to UNDW, the active treatment showed an antagonist effect against induced bronchoconstriction of 59% [activity ratio (AR) as antilog = 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.54; p < or = 0.05] in comparison to no effect for placebo. Similarly, in airway responsiveness to specific allergen, active treatment antagonized the bronchoconstrictor effect of grass pollen by 83% and of various allergens (dermatophagoides and grass pollen) by 72%, i.e. AR of 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.045-0.65; p < 0.01) and of 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.07-1.04; p < 0.05), respectively. No antagonist effect was evident with placebo at all times. Besides inhibiting cough, LD is also partially effective in inhibiting bronchial hyperreactive response against specific allergen and UNDW bronchoconstriction. Hence, LD might act by partly inhibiting histamine and neuropeptide release.

  20. Timing of magnesium supplementation administered through drinking water to improve fresh and stored pork quality.

    PubMed

    Frederick, B R; van Heugten, E; See, M T

    2004-05-01

    Thirty-two pigs were used to determine the timing effect of magnesium (Mg) supplementation given through drinking water on pork quality. Pigs (16 barrows and 16 gilts) were individually penned, provided 2.7 kg of feed (0.12% Mg) daily (as-fed basis), and allowed free access to water via a nipple waterer for the duration of the study. After 5 d of adjustment, pigs (120 +/- 0.8 kg BW) were allotted randomly by weight and sex to 900 mg/L of supplemental Mg from magnesium sulfate heptahydrate in drinking water for -6, -4, -2, or 0 d relative to slaughter. The LM and semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed 24 h postmortem. Retail display storage was simulated for 8 d, and the LM was vacuum-packaged for 25 or 50 d at 4 degrees C. Magnesium did not affect the pH of the LM at either 45 min (P = 0.15) or 24 h postmortem (P = 0.23). However, the pH of the SM at 24 h postmortem tended to be greater (P = 0.08) for pigs consuming Mg for 2 d than for those not supplemented. Fluid loss after 8 d of storage was less (P < 0.05) in the LM of pigs supplemented with Mg for 6 d than in those without supplementation. Furthermore, fluid loss from the SM of pigs provided supplemental Mg for 2 d, but not for 4 or 6 d, was lower (P < 0.05) on each day of retail display than the SM of unsupplemented pigs. Minolta L*, a*, and b* color measurements of the LM during display storage were not (P > 0.10) affected by Mg supplementation. However, Mg supplementation for 2 or 4 d decreased paleness (lower L* value) after 25 d (P < 0.05), but not 50 d (P > 0.10) of vacuum-packaged storage. Magnesium addition for 2 d decreased the extent of oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) of the LM after 4 d of display storage compared with 0 d of Mg (P < 0.05). Oxidation of the SM during 8 d of display storage increased linearly (P < 0.05) as duration of supplementation increased from 2 to 6 d but did not differ (P = 0.22) from 0 d of Mg supplementation. Although the response to Mg supplementation

  1. A 13-week toxicity study of acrylamide administered in drinking water to hamsters.

    PubMed

    Imai, Toshio; Kitahashi, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is known to induce tumors in various organs/tissues in rats and mice. Epidemiological studies of oral exposure have generated controversial results but mortality studies of people who work with AA have indicated increased rates of pancreatic cancer. In the present study, for dose selection for chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies, 13-week toxicity of AA was evaluated in Syrian hamsters, which are sensitive to induction of pancreatic ductal carcinogenesis, at concentrations required to provide doses of 0 (control), 20, 30 and 50 mg kg(-1) body weight in drinking water. Treatment with AA caused abnormal gait advancing to hind limb paralysis in all males and females at 50 mg kg(-1). Body weights in 30 and 50 mg kg(-1) males and 50 mg kg(-1) females were lower than in the controls. At termination of the study, red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) were decreased or showed a tendency for a decrease at 20 and 30 mg kg(-1) in females. Microscopically, axonal/myelin degeneration of sciatic nerves was observed in all AA-treated groups with dose dependence. No obvious changes were found in pancreatic ducts/ductules in any groups of animal. These results indicated the maximum tolerated dose for long-term studies of AA to be 20 mg kg(-1) or less in both male and female Syrian hamsters.

  2. Reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of amaranth administered to mice in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T

    1993-01-01

    The color additive amaranth was given in the drinking water at levels of 0 (control), 0.025, 0.075, and 0.225% from 5 weeks of age in F0 generation until F1 generation mice were weaned, with selected reproductive, developmental and behavioral parameters being measured. Amaranth had little adverse effect upon litter size, litter weight and sex ratio. Average body weight in both sexes of the F1 mice was significantly increased in the 0.025% group in both sexes. Survival index at postnatal day (PND) 21 was reduced in the 0.025% amaranth group. For the neurobehavioral parameters, surface righting at PND 4 in female offspring and olfactory orientation in both sexes were significantly affected by treatment. Several parameters of movement activity of male offspring at 3 weeks of age were affected in amaranth 0.075% group, but those of female offspring were similar in all groups. The dose levels of amaranth in this study produced a little adverse effect on behavioral development in mice.

  3. Performance, meat quality, meat mineral contents and caecal microbial population responses to humic substances administered in drinking water in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, E; Coskun, I; Ocak, N; Erener, G; Dervisoglu, M; Turhan, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of humic substances (HS) administered in drinking water on caecal microflora and mineral composition and colour characteristics of breast and thigh meats and the growth performance, carcass and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits of broiler chicks. A total of 480 3-d-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 cages per treatment and 30 bird (15 males and 15 females) chicks per cage. All birds were fed on commercial basal diet. The control birds (HS0) received drinking water with no additions, whereas birds in the other treatment groups received a drinking water with 7.5 (HS7.5), 15.0 (HS15.0) and 22.5 (HS22.5) g/kg HS. Mush feed were provided on an ad libitum basis. Body weight and feed intake of broilers were determined at d 0, 21, and 42, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. On d 42, 4 broilers (2 males and 2 females) from each cage were slaughtered and the breast and thigh meats were collected for mineral composition and quality measurements. Performance, carcass and GIT traits and caecal microbial population of broiler chicks at d 42 were not affected by the dietary treatments. The lightness (L*) of breast and thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water. Although the redness (a*) of breast meat increased, yellowness of thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS administration in drinking water can be applied for broiler chicks to maintain growth performance and improve meat quality without changing caecal microflora.

  4. Integration of Membrane Distillation with solar photo-Fenton for purification of water contaminated with Bacillus sp. and Clostridium sp. spores.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aguirre, A; Polo-López, M I; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Zaragoza, G

    2017-04-03

    Although Membrane Distillation (MD) has been extensively studied for desalination, it has other applications like removing all kinds of solutes from water and concentrating non-volatile substances. MD offers the possibility of producing a clean stream while concentrating valuable compounds from waste streams towards their recovery, or emerging contaminants and pathogens present in wastewater in order to facilitate their chemical elimination. This paper analyses the elimination of bacterial spores from contaminated water with MD and the role of MD in the subsequent treatment of the concentrate with photo-Fenton process. The experiments were performed at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) using a plate and frame bench module with a Permeate Gap Membrane Distillation (PGMD) configuration. Tests were done for two different kinds of spores in two different water matrixes: distilled water with 3.5wt% of sea salts contaminated with spores of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and wastewater after a secondary treatment and still contaminated with Clostridium sp. spores. An analysis of the permeate was performed in all cases to determine its purity, as well as the concentrated stream and its further treatment in order to assess the benefits of using MD. Results showed a permeate free of spores in all the cases, demonstrating the viability of MD to treat biological contaminated wastewater for further use in agriculture. Moreover, the results obtained after treating the concentrate with photo-Fenton showed a shorter treatment time for the reduction of the spore concentration in the water than that when only photo-Fenton was used.

  5. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  6. Effect of using acetone and distilled water on the performance of open loop pulsating heat pipe (OLPHP) with different filling ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Afrose, Tonima; Tahmina, Halima Khatun; Rinky, Rumana Parvin; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Pulsating heat pipe (PHP) is a new innovation in the modern era of miniaturizes thermal management system for its higher heating and cooling capacity. The objective of this experiment is to observe the performance of open loop pulsating heat pipe using two fluids at different filling ratios. This OLPHP is a copper capillary tube of 2.5mm outer diameter and 2mm inner diameter. It consists of 8 loops where the evaporative section is 50mm, adiabatic section is 120mm and condensation section is 80mm. The experiment is conducted with distilled water and acetone at 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% filling ratios where 0° (vertical) is considered as definite angle of inclination. Distilled water and acetone are selected as working fluids considering their different latent heat of vaporization and surface tension. It is found that acetone shows lower thermal resistance than water at all heat inputs. Best performance of acetone is attained at 70% filling ratio. Water displays better heat transfer capability at 50% filling ratio.

  7. Efficacy of ketoprofen administered in drinking water at a low dose for the treatment of porcine respiratory disease complex.

    PubMed

    Salichs, M; Sabaté, D; Homedes, J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral solution of ketoprofen administered in drinking water at a lower dose as a complement to antimicrobial therapy in a mild outbreak of porcine respiratory disease complex. The study was performed with 120 pigs with rectal temperature between 39.9 and 41°C and at least 1 sign indicating porcine respiratory disease complex (dyspnea, cough, nasal discharge, or depression). Animals were randomly allocated in 2 groups (treated and control group). Animals in both groups received etiological therapy with doxycycline at 10 mg · kg(-1) in drinking water for 5 d. The animals in the treated group also received 1.5 mg · kg(-1) of ketoprofen during the first 3 d. The reduction in rectal temperature in the treated group was significantly greater during the days of ketoprofen administration and up to 1 d after the end of treatment (P < 0.05). The percentage of dyspneic animals was significantly less (P < 0.05) in the treated group from d 2 to 5 of the study. Also, a significant improvement regarding depression and cough was seen in the animals of the treated group. No statistically significant (P > 0.05) differences were evidenced in productive variables. In conclusion, oral treatment with ketoprofen at 1.5 mg · kg(-1) in combination with antimicrobial therapy was found to be a clinically effective approach in outbreaks of mild porcine respiratory disease complex.

  8. Spatial and temporal characterization of a distilled water plasma using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) - Effect of self-absorption on plasma parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Boussaiedi, S.; Hannachi, R.; Ghalila, H.; BenLakhdar, Z.; Taieb, G.

    2007-09-19

    The spatio-temporal evolution of the plasma induced by interaction of a Nd-YAG laser pulse with the surface of distilled water is described. The temporal evolution from 200 ns after the plasma creation to 2200 ns of the H{sub {alpha}} and H{sub {beta}} lines are reported. Supposing the Local Themodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), the two plasma parameters: electron density and temperature are determined, including the influence of the self-absorption on its measurements. The spatial evolution of the H{sub {beta}} intensity and of the electron density are given.

  9. CARCINOGENICITY OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ADMINISTERED IN DRINKING WATER TO MALE F344/N RATS AND B6C3F1 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life-time exposure study was conducted to assess the carcinogenicity of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) administered in the drinking water to male F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Mouse: Target concentrations of BDCM (dissolved in deionized water containing 0.25% emulphor) were 0.05, ...

  10. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Ravi

    2013-01-22

    The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

  11. [His Majesty's distillers: distillation and chemical medicine in the court of Phillip II].

    PubMed

    Rey Bueno, M; Alegre Pérez, M E

    2001-01-01

    The present work studies the appearance and development of Paracelsian Practices in the Spanish Court through a linked series of events that took place between 1564 and 1602. These were: the creation of Philippine distillation laboratories, the ordenance of the protophysician Francisco de Valles regarding distilled waters; the concession of a patent to Diego de Santiago for the invention of a steam distillery; the publication of the last treatise by Francisco de Valles, dedicated to weights, measures, and distilled waters; the appearance of a distiller on the founding staff of the Royal Apothecary, in charge of preparing all the distilled waters and chemical medicines; and the creation of a new post within the Court health organigram, that of Distiller Major.

  12. On-line application of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring water levels in parts per million in a manufacturing-scale distillation process.

    PubMed

    Lambertus, Gordon; Shi, Zhenqi; Forbes, Robert; Kramer, Timothy T; Doherty, Steven; Hermiller, James; Scully, Norma; Wong, Sze Wing; LaPack, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An on-line analytical method based on transmission near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the quantitative determination of water concentrations (in parts per million) was developed and applied to the manufacture of a pharmaceutical intermediate. Calibration models for water analysis, built at the development site and applied at the manufacturing site, were successfully demonstrated during six manufacturing runs at a 250-gallon scale. The water measurements will be used as a forward-processing control point following distillation of a toluene product solution prior to use in a Grignard reaction. The most significant impact of using this NIRS-based process analytical technology (PAT) to replace off-line measurements is the significant reduction in the risk of operator exposure through the elimination of sampling of a severely lachrymatory and mutagenic compound. The work described in this report illustrates the development effort from proof-of-concept phase to manufacturing implementation.

  13. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  14. A comparative evaluation of effect on water sorption and solubility of a temporary soft denture liner material when stored either in distilled water, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite or artificial saliva: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Aditi; Shenoy, K. Kamalakanth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Soft denture liners have a key role in modern removable prosthodontics since they restore health to inflamed and abused mucosa by redistribution of forces transmitted to the edentulous ridges. The most common problems encountered using soft denture liners are water sorption and solubility when in contact with saliva or storage media. These problems are associated with swelling, distortion, support of Candida albicans growth, and stresses at the liner/denture base interface that reduces the bond strength. Objective: To evaluate the water sorption and solubility of commercially available acrylic based self cure soft denture lining material (GC RELINE™ Tissue Conditioner) after immersion in three different storage media (distilled water, Shellis artificial saliva, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant solution) at time interval of 4, 7, 11, and 15 days. Material and Methods: The study involved preparation of artificial saliva using Shellis formula. A total 45 standardized samples of the material (GC RELINE™) were prepared in disk form (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness). The study was divided into three groups with storage in Control (distilled water), Shellis artificial saliva, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Samples were dried in a desiccator and weighed in the analytical balance to measure the initial weight (mg/cm2) of the disks (W1). The first groups (15 samples) were placed in 30 ml distilled water (Group A) at 37ºC, second group 30 ml of artificial saliva (Group B) and third group in 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (Group C). Disks were removed from disinfectant after 5 min and placed in 30 ml distilled water. On days 4, 7, 11, and 15, all samples were removed from their containers and reweighed to measure the weight (mg/cm2) of the disks after sorption (W2). The solubility was measured by placing the disks back in the desiccator after each sorption cycle and drying them to constant weight in the desiccator. These values were weight after

  15. CARCINOGENICITY OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ADMINISTERED IN DRINKING WATER TO THE MALE F344/N RAT AND B6C3F, MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    CARCINOGENICITY OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ADMINISTERED IN DRINKING WATER TO THE MALE F344/N RAT AND B6C3F1 MOUSE.

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) has been shown to produce kidney and large bowel tumors in both male and female F344/N rats, kidney tumors in male B6C3F 1 mice and ...

  16. Effect of water yam (Dioscoreaalata) flour fortified with distiller's spent grain on nutritional, chemical, and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Awoyale, Wasiu; Maziya-Dixon, Busie; Sanni, Lateef Oladimeji; Shittu, Taofik Akinyemi

    2016-01-01

    It was envisaged that the inclusion of treated distiller's spent grain (DSG) to yam flour might increase its nutritional value, with the aim of reducing nutritional diseases in communities consuming yam as a staple. Hence, yam flour was fortified with DSG at 5-35%. The effects of this fortification on the nutritional, chemical, and functional properties of yam flour were investigated. The result showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.001) in fat, ash, protein, total amino acids, total dietary fiber, and insoluble dietary fiber contents of the blends as DSG increased except for starch and soluble dietary fiber contents, which decreased. The functional properties showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) reduction with DSG inclusion. The inclusion of DSG increased both the tryptophan and methionine contents of the blends. Therefore, the DSG fortified yam flour could contribute to quality protein intake in populations consuming yam as a staple, due to its indispensible amino acid content.

  17. Nerium oleander Distillate Improves Fat and Glucose Metabolism in High-Fat Diet-Fed Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bas, Ahmet Levent; Demirci, Sule; Yazihan, Nuray; Uney, Kamil; Ermis Kaya, Ezgi

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg bw) in all rats of five groups after being fed for 2 weeks high-fat diet. Type 2 diabetic Nerium-oleander- (NO-) administered groups received the NO distillate at a dose of 3.75, 37.5, and 375 μg/0.5 mL of distilled water (NO-0.1, NO-1, NO-10, resp.); positive control group had 0.6 mg glibenclamide/kg bw/d by gavage daily for 12 weeks. Type 2 diabetic negative control group had no treatment. NO distillate administration reduced fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, atherogenic index, triglyceride-HDL ratio, insulin, and leptin levels. Improved beta cell function and HDL concentration were observed by NO usage. HDL percentage in total cholesterol of all NO groups was similar to healthy control. NO-10 distillate enhanced mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor- (PPAR-) α, β, and γ in adipose tissue and PPAR-α–γ in liver. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that the considerable beneficial effect of NO distillate administration at a dose of 375 μg/0.5 mL of distilled water may offer new approaches to treatment strategies that target both fat and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23251156

  18. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  19. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-11-15

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  20. Oxidative stress and protein oxidation in the brain of water drinking and alcohol drinking rats administered the HIV envelope protein, gp120.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok K; Gupta, Shveta; Jiang, Yin

    2008-03-01

    Possible roles of oxidative stress and protein oxidation on alcohol-induced augmentation of cerebral neuropathy in gp120 administered alcohol preferring rats drinking either pure water (W rats) or a free-choice ethanol and water (E rats) for 90 days. This study showed that peripherally administered gp120 accumulated into the brain, liver, and RBCs samples from water drinking - gp120 administered rats (Wg rats) and ethanol drinking - gp120 administered rats (Eg rats), although gp120 levels in samples from Eg rats were significantly greater than the levels in samples from Wg rats. The brain samples from ethanol drinking-saline administered (EC) and Wg rats exhibited comparable levels of free radicals that were significantly lower than the levels in Eg rats. Peroxiredoxin-I (PrxI) activity in the brain samples exhibited the following pattern: Wg > > WC > EC > Eg. Total protein-carbonyl and carbonylated hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide precursor protein levels, but not N-acetylaspartate or N-acetyl aspartylglutamate or total protein-thiol levels, paralleled the free radical levels in the brain of all four groups. This suggests PrxI inhibition may be more sensitive indicator of oxidative stress than measuring free radicals or metabolites. As PrxI oxidation in WC, Wg, and EC rats was reversible, while PrxI oxidation in Eg rats was not, we suggest that alcohol drinking and gp120 together hyperoxidized and inactivated PrxI that suppressed free radical neutralization in the brain of Eg rats. In conclusion, chronic alcohol drinking, by carbonylating and hyperoxidizing free radical neutralization proteins, augmented the gp120-induced oxidative stress that may be associated with an increase in severity of the brain neuropathy.

  1. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  2. Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmospheric-pressure gas bubble suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashish; Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.; Cha, Min Suk

    2016-10-01

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamer discharges generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description of the discharge kinetics. We find that the dynamic characteristics of the streamer discharge are different at low and high positive trigger voltages with the axial streamer evolution dominant for low voltages and a surface hugging mode favored for high voltages. We also find a substantial difference in initiation, transition and evolution stages of discharge for positive and negative trigger voltages with the volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel much more uniform for negative trigger voltages on account of the presence of multiple streamers. We observe that the presence of water vapor does not affect the breakdown voltage even for oversaturated conditions but significantly influences the composition of dominant species in the trail of the streamer as well as the flux of the dominant species on the bubble surface.

  3. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  4. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  5. Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, Satoshi

    2005-07-15

    In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors.

  6. Use of corn distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, C.C.

    1984-06-01

    Wet stillage can economically be separated into two fractions: distiller's grain and distiller's solubles. Wet corn distiller's grain has shown potential as a feed supplement for ruminants, swine, and poultry. However, the soluble fraction (with suspended particles) is of little food value to terrestrial animals because of its high water content; it is not generally economically feasible to concentrate it further. The purpose of this project is to determine if the soluble by-product could potentially be used as a food source in an aquatic environment where its high water content would not necessarily pose an impediment. Studies have shown that corn distiller's solubles are not highly toxic to aquatic organisms at concentrations ranging up to 10,000 ppM. However, the high biological oxygen demand of the material requires that it be administered to ponds at rates less than 2000 ppM on a daily basis. Golden shiners were observed to actively consume the particulates of the corn distiller's solubles. Direct consumption of the particulates by fish makes the use of corn distiller's solubles in aquaculture much more attractive than if the by-product only serves to increase pond fertility. Despite the minimum amount of food material added to the ponds, production of shrimp and fish was favorable over the 4 month growing periods. Golden shiners reared in the same ponds as shrimp had production rates equivalent to 130 kg ha/sup -1/. Monoculture of shrimp at higher densities (3000 to 5000 shrimp stocked per pond versus 2000 in 1982) resulted in an average production equivalent to approximately 228 kg ha/sup -1/, with individual shrimp averaging 10.5 g. Based on estimated wholesale prices of $10.00 and $7.75 per kilogram for frozen shrimp and live fish, respectively, the gross profit margin would have exceeded $2000 ha/sup -1/ both years. 25 references, 13 figures, 13 tables.

  7. A comparison of the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of commercially pure titanium grade 4 in Ringer's solution and in distilled water: a fracture mechanics approach.

    PubMed

    Roach, Michael D; Williamson, R Scott; Thomas, Joseph A; Griggs, Jason A; Zardiackas, Lyle D

    2014-01-01

    From the results of laboratory investigations reported in the literature, it has been suggested that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms may contribute to early failures in titanium alloys that have elevated oxygen concentrations. However, the susceptibility of titanium alloys to SCC in physiological environments remains unclear. In this study, a fracture mechanics approach was used to examine the SCC susceptibility of CP titanium grade 4 in Ringer's solution and distilled de-ionized (DI) water, at 37°C. The study duration was 26 weeks, simulating the non-union declaration of a plated fracture. Four wedge loads were used corresponding to 86-95% of the alloy's ligament yield load. The longest cracks were measured to be 0.18 mm and 0.10 mm in Ringer's solution and DI water, respectively. SEM analysis revealed no evidence of extensive fluting and quasi-cleavage fracture features which, in literature reports, were attributed to SCC. We thus postulate that the Ringer's solution accelerated the wedge-loaded crack growth without producing the critical stresses needed to change the fracture mechanism. Regression analysis of the crack length results led to a significant best-fit relationship between crack growth velocity (independent variable) and test electrolyte, initial wedge load, and time of immersion of specimen in electrolyte (dependent variables).

  8. Immunotoxicological profile of chloramine in female B6C3F1 mice when administered in the drinking water for 28 days.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tai L; Germolec, Dori R; Collins, Bradley J; Luebke, Robert W; Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Smith, Matthew J; White, Kimber L

    2011-01-01

    Monochloramine has been used to provide a disinfecting residual in water distribution systems where it is difficult to maintain an adequate free-chlorine residual or where disinfection by-product formation is of concern. The goal of this study was to characterize the immunotoxic effects of chloramine in female B(6)C(3)F(1) mice when administered via the drinking water. Mice were exposed to chloramine-containing deionized tap water at 2, 10, 20, 100, or 200 ppm for 28 days. No statistically significant differences in drinking water consumption, body weight, body weight gain, organ weights, or hematological parameters between the exposed and control animals were noted during the experimental period. There were no changes in the percentages and numbers of total B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages in the spleen. Exposure to chloramine did not affect the IgM antibody-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or anti-SRBC IgM antibody production. Minimal effects, judged to be biologically insignificant, were observed in the mixed-leukocyte response and NK activity. In conclusion, chloramine produced no toxicological and immunotoxic effects in female B(6)C(3)F(1) mice when administered for 28 days in the drinking water at concentrations ranging from 2-200 ppm.

  9. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were

  10. Immunotoxicological Profile of Chloroform in Female B6c3f1 Mice When Administered In Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloroform can be formed as a disinfection by-product during water chlorination, one of the primary modalities for purifying municipal water supplies for human consumption. The goal of this study was to characterize the immunotoxic effects of chloroform in female B6C3F1 mice when...

  11. IMMUNOTOXICITY OF DlBROMOACETIC ACID ADMINISTERED VIA DRINKING WATER TO FEMALE B6C3Fl MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is a disinfection by product commonly found in drinking water as a result of chlorination/ozonation processes. The EPA estimates that more than 200 million people consume disinfected water in the U.S. (EPA 1998). This study was conducted to evaluate the p...

  12. Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

  13. Datalogging the Distillation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

  14. Copper-based micro-channel cooler reliably operated using solutions of distilled-water and ethanol as a coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, A. K.; Nelson, A.; Chin, R. H.; Bertaska, R.; Jacob, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Copper-based micro-channel coolers (Cu-MCC) are the lowest thermal-resistance heat-sinks for high-power laserdiode (LD) bars. Presently, the resistivity, pH and oxygen content of the de-ionized water coolant, must be actively controlled to minimize cooler failure by corrosion and electro-corrosion. Additionally, the water must be constantly exposed to ultraviolet radiation to limit the growth of micro-organisms that may clog the micro-channels. In this study, we report the reliable, care-free operation of LD-bars attached to Cu-MCCs, using a solution of distilledwater and ethanol as the coolant. This coolant meets the storage requirements of Mil-Std 810G, e.g. exposure to a storage temperature as low as -51°C and no growth of micro-organisms during passive storage.

  15. Sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate when used as root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Shahriar; Rahimi, Saeed; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Shakouie, Sahar; Nezafati, Saeed; Abdolrahimi, Majid

    2007-12-01

    This in vitro study used dye penetration to compare the sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate when used as root-end filling materials. Ninety-six single-rooted human teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and AH26 root canal sealer. The apical 3 mm of each root was resected, and 3-mm deep root-end cavity preparations were made. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups, each containing 20 teeth, and 2 negative and positive control groups, each containing 8 teeth. Root-end cavities in the experimental groups were filled with the experimental materials. After decoronation of the teeth and application of nail polish, the teeth were exposed to India ink for 72 hours and longitudinally sectioned, and the extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences among the 4 experimental groups.

  16. Design and application of a novel ionic liquid with the property of strengthening coenzyme regeneration for whole-cell bioreduction in an ionic liquid-distilled water medium.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wang, Pu; Huang, Jin; Sun, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the task-specific properties of ionic liquids (ILs), a novel IL was designed by combining the quaternary ammonium cationic surfactant, [N1,1,1,1](+), with benign amino acid anion ([Cys](-)), and was successfully employed in whole-cell-catalyzed bioreduction by Trichodermaasperellum ZJPH0810 using an ionic liquid-distilled water medium. As expected, based on better understanding about the effects of ILs' characteristics of cations and anions on T. asperellum ZJPH0810-catalyzed bioreduction and the optimization of reaction parameters, the developed tetramethylammonium cysteine ([N1,1,1,1][Cys])-containing system is more efficient for the asymmetric reduction of 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl) acetophenone to (R)-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] ethanol by whole-cell catalysis in contrast to that in monophasic aqueous system. Herein, a new biotechnological application for designed type of ILs is proposed due to its novel property of strengthening coenzyme regeneration during the bioreduction process. The designed IL [N1,1,1,1][Cys] was also evaluated in Candidatropicalis 104-catalyzed bioreduction to board its application, with remarkable success.

  17. [The nonspecific bronchial stimulation test with methacholine and an ultrasonic mist of distilled water: which is to be preferred in the military sphere?].

    PubMed

    Ferrante, E; Grasso, S; Germani, M A; Morelli, R; Corbo, G M; Ciappi, G

    1992-04-01

    The authors compare the methacholine (Mch) and the nebulized ultrasonic distilled water (NUDW) bronchial challenge as regard sensitivity and time required to perform them. For military service fitness, were studied 24 asthmatic patients. Each subject performed random a bronchial challenge by Mch (Yan method) and by NUDW (Allegra method) in two different days; for each bronchial challenge has been measured the time required to perform it. The atopic status has been evaluated by skin-prick test. All the subjects have shown a positive response to Mch test (PD 20 FEV1 mean: 352 mcg, range 80-850) whereas 13 subjects (54%) have shown a positive response to NUDW. The time required to evaluate all the subjects by Mch test has been 199.5 minutes whereas the total time required to evaluate all the subjects by NUDW test (127 minutes) and to evaluate by Mch test the non responders to NUDW (100 minutes) has been 227 minutes. The most of subjects were skin reactors. No difference was found as regard onset of disease, basal lung function and atopic status between responders and non responders to NUDW test. We conclude that NUDW test has shown a lack of sensitivity in this sample (50% of asthmatic patients could be misdiagnosed) and that the Mch test is preferable to determine a rapid method for measurement of bronchial responsiveness.

  18. Batch and continuous biodegradation of Amaranth in plain distilled water by P. aeruginosa BCH and toxicological scrutiny using oxidative stress studies.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Shekhar B; Patil, Nilambari S; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Apine, Onkar A; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2013-05-01

    Bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH was able to degrade naphthylaminesulfonic azo dye Amaranth in plain distilled water within 6 h at 50 mg l(-1) dye concentration. Studies were carried out to find the optimum physical conditions and which came out to be pH 7 and temperature 30 °C. Amaranth could also be decolorized at concentration 500 mg l(-1). Presence of Zn and Hg ions could strongly slow down the decolorization process, whereas decolorization progressed rapidly in presence of Mn. Decolorization rate was increased with increasing cell mass. Induction in intracellular and extracellular activities of tyrosinase and NADH-DCIP reductase along with intracellular laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase indicated their co-ordinate action during dye biodegradation. Up-flow bioreactor studies with alginate immobilized cells proved the capability of strain to degrade Amaranth in continuous process at 20 ml h(-1) flow rate. Various analytical studies viz.--HPLC, HPTLC, and FTIR gave the confirmation that decolorization was due to biodegradation. From GC-MS analysis, various metabolites were detected, and possible degradation pathway was predicted. Toxicity studies carried out with Allium cepa L. through the assessment of various antioxidant enzymes viz. sulphur oxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and catalase along with estimation of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels conclusively demonstrated that oxidative stress was generated by Amaranth.

  19. The effect of administered dose of lipid-based formulations on the in vitro and in vivo performance of cinnarizine as a model poorly water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathy Wai Yu; Porter, Christopher J H; Boyd, Ben J

    2013-02-01

    The influence of varying the amount of lipid co-administered with the drug on drug solubilisation and absorption is poorly understood. In the current study, the effect of lipid dose on the in vitro drug distribution is compared with the in vivo absorption of cinnarizine (CZ) when formulated using long-chain triacylglyceride (LCT) and medium-chain triacylglycerides (MCT). At a fixed drug-lipid ratio, in the closed in vitro model, the drug concentrations in the aqueous phase increased and decreased for MCT and LCT, respectively, with increasing lipid dose. However, in vivo, the oral bioavailability (F%) of CZ was independent of the quantity of lipid administered for both MCT and LCT, but was higher for LCT (32.1 ± 2.3%) than for MCT (16.6 ± 2.3%). Increasing the quantity of lipid relative to the dose of CZ resulted in an increase in the oral F% when the lipid mass was increased from 125 to 250 mg, but was no greater at 500 mg lipid dose. The results confirm the limitations of the in vitro model but positively indicate that the use of the rat as a pre-clinical model for studying the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs is not compromised by the mass of formulation administered.

  20. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    DOEpatents

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  1. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  2. Hydrothermal interaction of solid wafers of Topopah Spring Tuff with J-13 water and distilled water at 90, 150, and 250{sup 0}C, using Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves

    SciTech Connect

    Knauss, K.G.; Beiriger, W.J.; Peifer, D.W.; Piwinskii, A.J.

    1985-09-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project has conducted experiments to study the hydrothermal interaction of rock and water representative of a potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results of these experiments help define the near-field repository environment during and shortly after the thermal period that results from the emplacement of nuclear waste. When considered in conjunction with results contained in companion reports, these results can be used to assess our ability to accelerate tests using the surface area/volume parameter and/or temperature. These rock-water interaction experiments were conducted with solid polished wafers cut from both drillcore and outcrop samples of Topopah tuff, using both a natural ground water and distilled water as the reacting fluid. Pre- and post-test characterization of the reacting materials was extensive. Post-test identification and chemical analysis of secondary phases resulting from the hydrothermal interactions were aided by using monoliths of tuff rather than crushed material. All experiments were run in Dickson-type, gold-bag rocking autoclaves that were periodically sampled at in situ conditions. A total of nine short-term (up to 66-day) experiments were run in this series; these experiments covered the range from 90 to 250{sup 0}C and from 50 to 100 bar. The results obtained from the experiments have been used to evaluate the modeled results produced by calculations using the geochemical reaction process code EQ3/6. 31 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. D.; Ellis, G. S.; Schubert, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) has evolved as the most promising approach to reclaim potable water from wastewater for future long-term manned space missions. Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), working with NASA, has developed a preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) which processes wastewater at 1.4 kg/h. The preprototype unit weighs 143 kg, occupies a volume of 0.47 cu m, and will reclaim 96 percent of the available wastewater. This unit has been tested by LSI and is scheduled for further testing at NASA-JSC. This paper presents the preprototype VCDS design, configuration, performance data, test results and flight system projections.

  4. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  5. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  6. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  7. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  8. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  9. Changes in numbers and types of mast cell colony-forming cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice after injection of distilled water: evidence that mast cells suppress differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Kanakura, Y.; Kuriu, A.; Waki, N.; Nakano, T.; Asai, H.; Yonezawa, T.; Kitamura, Y.

    1988-03-01

    Two different types of cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice produce mast cell colonies in methylcellulose. Large mast cell colonies are produced by bone marrow-derived precursors resembling lymphoid cells by light microscopy (L-CFU-Mast), whereas medium and small mast cell colonies are produced by morphologically identifiable mast cells (M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast, respectively). In the present study we eradicated peritoneal mast cells by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of distilled water. The regeneration process was investigated to clarify the relationship between L-CFU-Mast, M-CFU-Mast, and S-CFU-Mast. After injection of distilled water, M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast disappeared, but L-CFU-Mast increased, and then M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast appeared, suggesting the presence of a hierarchic relationship. When purified peritoneal mast cells were injected two days after the water injection, the L-CFU-Mast did not increase. In the peritoneal cavity of WBB6F1-+/+ mice that had been lethally irradiated and rescued by bone marrow cells of C57BL/6-bgJ/bgJ (beige, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice, L-CFU-Mast were of bgJ/bgJ type, but M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast were of +/+ type. The injection of distilled water to the radiation chimeras resulted in the development of bgJ/bgJ-type M-CFU-Mast and then S-CFU-Mast. The presence of mast cells appeared to suppress the recruitment of L-CFU-Mast from the bloodstream and to inhibit the differentiation of L-CFU-Mast to M-CFU-Mast.

  10. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  11. Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses : design and accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1981-01-01

    A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated. (USGS)

  12. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  13. Honeywell Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a vacuum rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. The CDS was previously under development through Honeywell and NASA. In 2009, an assessment was performed to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. Based on the results of this testing, an expert panel concluded that the CDS showed adequate development maturity, TRL-4, together with the best product water quality and competitive weight and power estimates to warrant further development. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) worked to address weaknesses identified by The Panel; namely bearing design and heat pump power efficiency. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades. The CDS will also have been challenged with ISS analog waste streams and a subset of those being considered for Exploration architectures. This paper details interim results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  14. Subchronic toxicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol administered by drinking water to B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Wan-Seob; Han, Beom Seok; Lee, Hakyung; Kim, Cheulkyu; Nam, Ki Taek; Park, Kidae; Choi, Mina; Kim, Sung Jun; Kim, Seung Hee; Jeong, Jayoung; Jang, Dong Deuk

    2008-05-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a food processing contaminant in a wide range of foods and ingredients and is a suspected cause of cancer. In this study, the 13-week toxicity of 3-MCPD was examined in B6C3F1 mice (10/sex/group) administered 3-MCPD doses of 0, 5, 25, 100, 200 and 400 ppm dissolved in their drinking water over a 13-week period. All the mice survived to the end of study. The mean body weight gains in the males and females given 400 ppm were significantly lower than those of the controls. The relative kidney weights of the males and females given 200 and 400 ppm were significantly higher than those of the controls without any corresponding histopathological changes. The sperm motility was lower in the 400 ppm group than the control, and there was a significant increase in the incidence of germinal epithelium degeneration in the 200 and 400 ppm groups. A delayed total estrus cycle length was observed in the 400 ppm group without any histopathological changes. Based on these results, the target organ was determined to be kidney, testis, and ovary. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was found to be 100 ppm (18.05 mg/kg/day for males and 15.02 mg/kg/day for females).

  15. Administering Eye Medications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

  16. Microfluidic distillation chip for methanol concentration detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Liu, Chan-Chiung; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Ju, Wei-Jhong; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2016-03-17

    An integrated microfluidic distillation system is proposed for separating a mixed ethanol-methanol-water solution into its constituent components. The microfluidic chip is fabricated using a CO2 laser system and comprises a serpentine channel, a boiling zone, a heating zone, and a cooled collection chamber filled with de-ionized (DI) water. In the proposed device, the ethanol-methanol-water solution is injected into the microfluidic chip and driven through the serpentine channel and into the collection chamber by means of a nitrogen carrier gas. Following the distillation process, the ethanol-methanol vapor flows into the collection chamber and condenses into the DI water. The resulting solution is removed from the collection tank and reacted with a mixed indicator. Finally, the methanol concentration is inversely derived from the absorbance measurements obtained using a spectrophotometer. The experimental results show the proposed microfluidic system achieves an average methanol distillation efficiency of 97%. The practicality of the proposed device is demonstrated by detecting the methanol concentrations of two commercial fruit wines. It is shown that the measured concentration values deviate by no more than 3% from those obtained using a conventional bench top system.

  17. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  18. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  19. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    PubMed

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation.

  20. THE INDUCTION OF COLORECTAL NEOPLASIA BY A MIXTURE HIGH IN BROMINATED TRIHALOMETHANES (THMS) ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER TO MALE F344/N RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INDUCTION OF COLORECTAL NEOPLASIA BY A MIXTURE HIGH IN BROMINA TED TRIHALOMETHANES (THMS) ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING W A TER TO MALE F344/N RA TS.

    Abstract:

    The THMs are the most widely distributed and concentrated of the chlorine disinfection by-products (D...

  1. Distillation of binary mixtures with capillary porous plates

    SciTech Connect

    Abu Al-Rub, F.A.; Akili, J.; Datta, R.

    1998-07-01

    Distillation of liquid mixtures using capillary porous plates is a new process which depends upon the use of the intermolecular interactions between solids and liquids to alter the normal vapor-liquid equilibrium of a given mixture. Distillation of different binary mixtures, namely ethanol-water, ethanol-benzene, and acetone-ethanol systems, of different compositions was experimentally studied in a continuous distillation column equipped with four, five, or six porous sintered stainless steel fractionating plates of 13.5 {micro}m pore diameter as well as six normal sieve plates. The results showed that the main factors affecting the separation efficiency in a given porous plate are the polarization of the pure liquids and the polarization difference between the mixture components. For the ethanol-water system, the results showed that while no separation was achieved in a distillation column with conventional stages, the zeotropic point of this system was broken in the distillation column with porous plates. A distillate of about 94 mol% ethanol was obtained for a feed of the zeotropic composition, i.e., 89.7 mol% ethanol. For the ethanol-benzene system, the azeotropic point was shifted from 40 mol% ethanol to about 30 mol% ethanol. For the acetone-ethanol system, there was no significant difference between the results obtained with normal stages and those with the porous plates. These results are in agreement with the developed theory.

  2. Revamp for more middle distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.J.; Pierce, V.E.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the continued decline in demand for residual fuel oil, the much publicised tightness of refining margins and hence funds for new investment, it is appropriate at this time to review some relatively inexpensive, but well-proven, revamp options that are available to the refiner for increasing yields of mid-distillate products at the expense of fuel oil components. With the partial or complete closure of so much refining capacity, much surplus equipment is available for implementing revamp projects. There is also scope for revamping hitherto moth-balled units and operating them in a manner different from that envisaged during their original design. Some long established conversion processes such as visbreaking and thermal cracking can enjoy a renaissance if demand for distillates remains strong. Mild hydrocracking and distillate dewaxing which are more recent developments in refinery processing can also figure prominently in plans for incremental production of middle distillates.

  3. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Simmons, Wayne W.; Silva, Laura J.; Qiu, Dongming; Perry, Steven T.; Yuschak, Thomas; Hickey, Thomas P.; Arora, Ravi; Smith, Amanda; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Neagle, Paul

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  4. Shell's Middle Distillate Synthesis process

    SciTech Connect

    Voetter, H.; VanDerBurgt, M.J. B.V., The Hague )

    1988-01-01

    The basis of the Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis (SMDS) process is the classic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. For the case of middle distillate production from natural gas the procedure has been developed to commercial maturity, making use of tailored line-up for synthesis gas production and of proprietary modern catalysts in synthesis. Development work over the last years has in particular lead to improvement of the economy of the process altogether via catalyst performance, reactor sizing and syngas manufacturing line-up.

  5. Vacuum distillation of americium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J W; Knighton, J B; Nannie, C A

    1982-01-22

    High-purity americium metal has been distilled in multigram quantities from a plutonium-americium alloy. The procedure consisted of a two-stage vacuum distillation carried out at 1200/sup 0/C and 10/sup -6/ torr pressure. Four batches of americium metal were produced ranging in weight from 13.3 grams to 54.1 grams. The purity of the americium product ranged from 99.27 to 99.79%.

  6. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  7. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results From the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, CA) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5%. The average specific energy of the system was calculated to be less than 130 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  8. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  9. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  10. THE INDUCTION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI (ACF) IN MALE AND FEMALE F344/N RATS BY BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Induction of Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) in Male and Female F344/N Rats by Bromochloroacetic Acid (BCA) Administered in the Drinking Water.

    M.H. George1, D. Delker1, D.R. Geter1, C.Herbert2, J. Roycroft3, R. Melnick3, D.W.
    Rosenberg4, and A.B. DeAngelo1. 1USEPA, Resea...

  11. Solar fermentation and distillation process

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.M.

    1984-06-19

    A solar fermentation process and distillation system for the manufacture of ethanol product suitable for blending with motor gasoline or as a substitute fuel for gasoline. Fermentation of starches or sugars is carried out in situ in solar collector tubes. The raw beer product emanating from the solar tubes is purified into a high quality ethanol fuel product by passing the beer product through a series of distillation columns whose internal reboil vapor is generated in whole or in substantial part through direct application of solar heat energy. The use of solar energy as heating source in the fermentation and distillation steps markedly reduces the need for external utilities such as steam and fuel to run the plant thereby greatly reducing the operating costs of the plant.

  12. Bakery product from distiller's grain

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, J.A.; Stoker, R.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for preparing a bran from a solid fermentation wet distiller's grain (WDG) or distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), which consisting essentially of: adding sodium bicarbonate at about 0.05-5 weight percent, amino acid at about 0.05-5 weight percent and potato starch at about 10-50 weight percent in the form of additives to WDG or DDGS; blending the WDG/DDGS-additive mix; and drying the blended mix to form a bran suitable for use in products for human consumption.

  13. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  14. CARCINOGENICITY OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ADMINISTERED IN DRINKING WATER TO THE MALE F344/N RAT AND B6C3F1 MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine added to surface waters for the purposes of disinfection, reacts with humic material in the water to produce a variety of compounds collectively known as disinfection by-product (DBPs). The trihalomethanes (THM), the class of DBPs that occur at the highest concentrations...

  15. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  16. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  17. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  18. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  19. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  20. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  1. 27 CFR 19.316 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distillation. 19.316 Section 19.316 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.316 Distillation. The...

  2. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  3. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  4. THE INDUCTION OF HEPATOCELLULAR NEOPLASIA BY TRICHLOROACETIC ACID ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER OF THE MALE B6C3F1 MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary What is the study? The study is a chronic bioassay (2 years) of trichloroacetic acid, a drinking water disinfection by-product, in the male B6C3F1 mouse.
    What is the impact to the field and the Agency?
    The impact of this study will derive from the use of...

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A DERMAL EXPOSURE SYSTEM FOR PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES OF ADMINISTERED AND AMBIENT WATER CONTAMINANTS: METHODS AND RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory


    INTRODUCTION: In order to investigate the pharmacokinetics of water-borne chemicals while eliminating exposures by other routes, a dermal exposure system was developed to expose the hand and forearm of human subjects. METHODS: The goal was, primarily, to study the dermal phar...

  6. Immunotoxicological profile of Chloramine in female B6C3FI mice when administered in the drinking water for 28 days

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monochloramine has been used to provide a disinfecting residual in water distribution systems where it is difficult to maintain a free chlorine residual or where disinfection by-product formation is of concern. The goal of this study was to characterize the immunotoxic effects of...

  7. Immunotoxic effects of sodium tungstate dihydrate on female B6C3F1/N mice when administered in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Frawley, Rachel P; Smith, Matthew J; White, Kimber L; Elmore, Susan A; Herbert, Ron; Moore, Rebecca; Staska, Lauren M; Behl, Mamta; Hooth, Michelle J; Kissling, Grace E; Germolec, Dori R

    2016-09-01

    Tungsten is a naturally occurring, high-tensile strength element that has been used in a number of consumer products. Tungsten has been detected in soil, waterways, groundwater, and human tissue and body fluids. Elevated levels of tungsten in urine were reported for populations exposed to tungstate in drinking water in areas where natural tungsten formations were prevalent. Published reports indicated that sodium tungstate may modulate hematopoiesis, immune cell populations, and immune responses in rodent models. The objective of this study was to assess potential immunotoxicity of sodium tungstate dihydrate (STD), a drinking water contaminant. Female B6C3F1/N mice received 0-2000 mg STD/L in their drinking water for 28 d, and were evaluated for effects on immune cell populations in spleen and bone marrow, and humoral-mediated, cell-mediated, and innate immunity. Three different parameters of cell-mediated immunity were similarly affected at 1000 mg STD/L. T-cell proliferative responses against allogeneic leukocytes and anti-CD3 were decreased 32%, and 21%, respectively. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity was decreased at all effector:target cell ratios examined. At 2000 mg STD/L, the absolute numbers of CD3(+) T-cell progenitor cells in bone marrow were increased 86%, but the alterations in B-lymphocyte and other progenitor cells were not significant. There were no effects on bone marrow DNA synthesis or colony forming capabilities. STD-induced effects on humoral-mediated immunity, innate immunity, and splenocyte sub-populations were limited. Enhanced histopathology did not detect treatment-related lesions in any of the immune tissues. These data suggest exposure to STD in drinking water may adversely affect cell-mediated immunity.

  8. Carcinogenicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) administered by drinking water to B6C3F1 mice showed no carcinogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jayoung; Han, Beom Seok; Cho, Wan-Seob; Choi, Mina; Ha, Chang-Su; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Kim, Yong-Bum; Son, Woo-Chan; Kim, Choong-Yong

    2010-09-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (or 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol, 3-MCPD) is a well-known food processing contaminant found in a wide range of foods and ingredients. It has been classified as non-genotoxic carcinogen but its carcinogenic potential in the rodents has been controversial. The carcinogenicity to B6C3F1 mice by drinking water administration was assessed over a period of 104 weeks. Three groups, each comprising 50 male and 50 female mice received 3-MCPD at dosages of 30, 100 or 300 ppm up to Day 100 and 200 ppm onward (4.2, 14.3 and 33.0 mg/kg for males; 3.7, 12.2, and 31.0 mg/kg for females), were allocated. Survival was good, with at least 80% of males and 72% of females in each group surviving 104 weeks. Body weights and body weight gain were decreased in males and females receiving 200 ppm. Water and food consumptions of both sexes at 300/200 ppm were lowered. Emaciated or crouching position was observed for animals of both sexes exposed to 200 ppm. There were some differences in hematology and serum biochemistry compared with controls, although there was no histopathological evidence to support those changes. Histopathological examination did not reveal any neoplastic or non-neoplastic findings attributable to treatment with 3-MCPD. It is concluded that drinking water administration of 3-MCPD for 104 weeks revealed no evidence of carcinogenic potential.

  9. Assisted Distillation of Quantum Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, E.; Streltsov, A.; Rana, S.; Bera, M. N.; Adesso, G.; Lewenstein, M.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system, while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other; this is an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication. We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, an analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  10. Effects of moderate consumption of distilled and fermented alcohol on some aspects of neuroimmunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ligia Esperanza; Cano, Pilar; Jimenez-Ortega, Vanesa; Nova, Esther; Romeo, Javier; Marcos, Asunción; Esquifino, Ana Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages are characterized by their fermented versus distilled origin and also by their degree of alcohol. The toxic effects of chronic alcohol consumption have been widely studied. However, there is less evidence about possible beneficial effects of moderate alcohol intake. This work was aimed at evaluating the effects of moderate alcohol consumption (beer or ethanol) on plasma hormone concentrations, blood and thymus lymphocyte phenotypes and brain neurotransmitter levels. For this purpose, 40 adult Wistar male rats were administered ethanol or beer for 4 weeks (experimental groups). Age-matched rats were administered beer without alcohol or water to be used as controls. Rats were killed by decapitation and plasma from the trunk blood was collected to measure plasma prolactin, growth hormone and ACTH concentrations by homologous specific double antibody radioimmunoassays. Thymus and blood lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry. Neurotransmitter concentrations [dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine] were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography in the median eminence and the pituitary. Blood and thymus lymphocyte subsets were not significantly changed by either ethanol or beer consumption, compared to controls. Plasma prolactin levels significantly decreased in ethanol-administered groups (p < 0.05) compared to control animals drinking water, although plasma levels of growth hormone and ACTH were not modified by either alcohol used. Dopamine and GABA concentrations in the median eminence or in the adenohypophysis remained unmodified by moderate beer or ethanol consumption. However, taurine concentration was significantly increased in the pituitary (p < 0.05) in the group drinking ethanol compared to those groups drinking beer with or without alcohol. These data suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may change the regulatory mechanism of prolactin secretion. Whether these modifications have a physiological

  11. Results of a 90-day toxicity study on 1,2,3- and 1,1,2-trichloropropane administered via the drinking water.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, D C; Chu, I; Secours, V E; Coté, M G; Plaa, G L; Valli, V E

    1985-12-01

    Trichloropropanes have been identified as environmental contaminants in sediments of the Great Lakes region of North America. Since these chemicals had the potential to find their way into drinking water, a 90-day feeding study was carried out in order to determine their subchronic toxicity. Groups of 10 male and 10 female weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were supplied drinking water ad libitum, containing 1,2,3- or 1,1,2-trichloropropane at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/L for 13 weeks. Emulphor (0.5%) was used to solubilize the chemicals. At the end of the study, the animals were killed and examined for gross and microscopic changes. Heart, liver, brain, kidney and spleen were excised and weighed. Blood was collected and subjected to a comprehensive hematological analysis. Serum was collected and profiled for changes in 12 biochemical parameters and a portion of liver was used to determined mixed function oxidase activity. Although three animals died during the study, their deaths could not be related to treatment. Decreased growth rate was observed in both sexes of the group receiving 1000 mg/L 1,2,3-trichloropropane. There was an increase in liver, kidney and brain weights (relative to body weight) in rats of both sexes fed 1000 mg/L 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Fatty livers were observed in some of the treated animals but a clear dose-relationship was not evident. An elevation in serum cholesterol was observed in female rats fed the highest dose of 1,2,3-trichloropropane.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. 23. Public Works Department Drawing 461M10 (1931), 'Electrolyte and Distilled ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Public Works Department Drawing 461-M-10 (1931), 'Electrolyte and Distilled Water-Piping and Fittings' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Distillation and detection of SO2 using a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Ju, Wei-Jhong; Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Lee, Chia-Lun

    2012-02-07

    A miniaturized distillation system is presented for separating sulfurous acid (H(2)SO(3)) into sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and water (H(2)O). The major components of the proposed system include a microfluidic distillation chip, a power control module, and a carrier gas pressure control module. The microfluidic chip is patterned using a commercial CO(2) laser and comprises a serpentine channel, a heating zone, a buffer zone, a cooling zone, and a collection tank. In the proposed device, the H(2)SO(3) solution is injected into the microfluidic chip and is separated into SO(2) and H(2)O via an appropriate control of the distillation time and temperature. The gaseous SO(2) is then transported into the collection chamber by the carrier gas and is mixed with DI water. Finally, the SO(2) concentration is deduced from the absorbance measurements obtained using a spectrophotometer. The experimental results show that a correlation coefficient of R(2) = 0.9981 and a distillation efficiency as high as 94.6% are obtained for H(2)SO(3) solutions with SO(2) concentrations in the range of 100-500 ppm. The SO(2) concentrations of two commercial red wines are successfully detected using the developed device. Overall, the results presented in this study show that the proposed system provides a compact and reliable tool for SO(2) concentration measurement purposes.

  14. Refining the effects observed in a developmental neurobehavioral study of ammonium perchlorate administered orally in drinking water to rats. I. Thyroid and reproductive effects.

    PubMed

    York, Raymond G; Lewis, Elise; Brown, W Ray; Girard, Michael F; Mattie, David R; Funk, Kathleen A; Strawson, Joan S

    2005-01-01

    A recent study further investigated the potential effects of maternal thyroid function and morphology on fetal development upon maternal exposure to ammonium perchlorate during gestation and lactation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (25/group) were given continual access to 0 (carrier), 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 30.0 mg/kg-day perchlorate in drinking water beginning 2 weeks prior to cohabitation through lactation day 10. Maternal, fetal, and pup serum thyroid hormone (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], triiodo thyronine [T(3)], thyroxine [T(4)]) levels and thyroid histopathology were evaluated on gestation day 21, and lactation days 5, 10, and 22. No effects of exposure were observed on cesarean-sectioning, litter parameters, or fetal alterations. Reproductive parameters, including gestation length, number of implants, litter size, pup viability, and lactation indices, were comparable among all groups. Thyroid weights of dams sacrificed on gestation day 21, and lactation days 10 and 22 were significantly increased at 30.0 mg/kg-day. Increased thyroid weights were observed in male and female pups as early as postpartum days 5 and 10, respectively. Changes in maternal and neonatal thyroid histopathology were detectable at 1.0 mg/kg-day exposure. The maternal no-observable-effect level (NOEL) was 0.1 mg/kg-day (follicular cell hyperplasia was present at 1.0 and 30.0 mg/kg-day). The developmental NOEL was less than 0.01 mg/kg-day; thyroid weights of postpartum day 10 pups were increased at all exposures. Colloid depletion at 1.0 and 30.0 mg/kg-day exposures and changes of hormone levels at all exposures were considered an adaptive effect and appeared reversible in the rodent.

  15. Refining the effects observed in a developmental neurobehavioral study of ammonium perchlorate administered orally in drinking water to rats. II. Behavioral and neurodevelopment effects.

    PubMed

    York, Raymond G; Barnett, John; Girard, Michael F; Mattie, David R; Bekkedal, Marni V K; Garman, Robert H; Strawson, Joan S

    2005-01-01

    A developmental neurotoxicity study was conducted to generate additional data on the potential functional and morphological hazard to the central nervous system caused by ammonium perchlorate in offspring from in utero and lactation exposure. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (23 to 25/group) were given continuous access to 0 (carrier), 0.1, 1.0, 3.0, and 10.0 mg/kg-day perchlorate in the drinking water beginning 2 weeks prior to mating and continuing through day 10 of lactation for the behavioral function assessment or given continuous access to 0 (carrier), 0.1, 1.0, 3.0, and 30.0 mg/kg-day beginning on gestation day 0 and continuing through day 10 of lactation for neurodevelopment assessments. Motor activity was conducted on postpartum days 14, 18, and 22 and juvenile brain weights, neurohistopathological examinations, and regional brain morphometry were conducted on postpartum days 10 and 22. This research revealed a sexually dimorphic response, with some brain regions being larger in perchlorate-treated male rats than in comparable controls. Even so, there was no evidence of any obvious exposure-related effects on male rat brain weights or neuropathology. The most consistent exposure-related effect in the male pups was on the thickness of the corpus callosum, with both the right- and left-sided measures of the thickness of this white matter tract being significantly greater for the male pups in the 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg-day exposure groups. The behavioral testing suggests prenatal exposure to ammonium perchlorate does not affect the development of gross motor movements in the pups.

  16. Standard test method for acidity of distillation residues or hydrocarbon liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the qualitative determination of the acidity of the distillation residue from a gasoline. The sample of distillation residue or hydrocarbon liquid is shaken with water and the aqueous layer tested for acidity to methyl orange. Some petroleum products are treated with mineral acid as part of the refining procedure. Obviously, any residual mineral acid in a petroleum product is undesirable. The absence of a positive indication in the test for acidity of the distillation residue or aqueous extract of a hydrocarbon liquid is an assurance of the care used in refining the fuel or solvent.

  17. Taurine ameliorated thyroid function in rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead.

    PubMed

    Akande, Motunrayo Ganiyat; Shittu, Muftau; Uchendu, Chidiebere; Yaqub, Lukuman Surakat

    2016-12-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Lead is a toxic heavy metal and it is used for domestic and industrial purposes. Taurine is a semi essential amino acid with bioprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine on thyroid function in Wistar rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead. The rats were divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each. The first two groups were administered with distilled water and soya oil (1 ml/kg) respectively. The other groups received taurine (50 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos + lead [chlorpyrifos (4.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose] and lead (233.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose) and taurine + chlorpyrifos + lead respectively. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks. The rats were euthanized after the completion of the study and the thyroid function and thyroid histoarchitecture were evaluated. The results revealed that co-administration of chlorpyrifos and lead to the rats induced perturbations in thyroid function and this was manifested by reductions in the concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, increased thyroid stimulating hormone concentration and degeneration of the follicular epithelia of the thyroid gland. Taurine alleviated the perturbations in thyroid function and improved thyroid gland histoarchitecture. The beneficial effects of taurine may be attributed to its ability to protect the body from toxicity and oxidative stress. Taurine may be useful for prophylaxis against disruptions in thyroid function in animals that are exposed to environmental chlorpyrifos and lead.

  18. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees, filter..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded wine premises from grapes and other fruit, natural fruit products,...

  19. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees, filter..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded wine premises from grapes and other fruit, natural fruit products,...

  20. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees, filter..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded wine premises from grapes and other fruit, natural fruit products,...

  1. Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of... distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown...

  3. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  4. A Comprehensive Real-World Distillation Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazameas, Christos G.; Keller, Kaitlin N.; Luyben, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Most undergraduate mass transfer and separation courses cover the design of distillation columns, and many undergraduate laboratories have distillation experiments. In many cases, the treatment is restricted to simple column configurations and simplifying assumptions are made so as to convey only the basic concepts. In industry, the analysis of a…

  5. Distillation of Bell states in open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D.

    2010-04-15

    In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

  6. Recycling of acetone by distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone.

  7. 40 CFR 147.1450 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1450 Section 147.1450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... of Nevada, other than those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Nevada Division...

  8. 40 CFR 147.800 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.800 Section 147.800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Iowa § 147.800...

  9. 40 CFR 147.800 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.800 Section 147.800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Iowa § 147.800...

  10. 40 CFR 147.800 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.800 Section 147.800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Iowa § 147.800...

  11. 40 CFR 147.800 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.800 Section 147.800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Iowa § 147.800...

  12. 40 CFR 147.800 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.800 Section 147.800 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Iowa § 147.800...

  13. 40 CFR 147.600 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.600 Section 147.600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Hawaii § 147.600...

  14. 40 CFR 147.600 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.600 Section 147.600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Hawaii § 147.600...

  15. The interaction of fiber, supplied by distillers dried grains with solubles, with an antimicrobial and a nutrient partitioning agent on nitrogen balance, water utilization, and energy digestibility in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a higher-fiber diet alters the response of finishing pigs to an antimicrobial (tylosin phosphate [TP]) and a nutrient partitioning agent (ractopamine HCl [RAC]) in terms of N and water utilization and energy digestibility. Seventy-two gilts (initial BW = 107.4 ± 4.2 kg) were blocked by weight and allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial: distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 0 vs. 30%), RAC (0 mg of RAC/kg and 0.70% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys vs. 5 mg of RAC/kg and 0.95% SID Lys) and TP (0 vs. 44 mg of TP/kg). Pig was the experimental unit, with 9 replications per treatment. Pigs were housed in individual metabolism crates and fed treatment diets for 17 d. Feed was provided twice daily, as much as the pigs could consume within 1 h per meal, and water was provided to the pigs between feeding periods, ad libitum. Fecal and urine collection occurred on d 7 and 8 and on d 15 and 16, for sampling periods 1 and 2, respectively. Pigs fed the DDGS diets had reduced ADG ( < 0.001) and ADFI ( < 0.0001). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of N and GE were lower for the 30% DDGS diets than the 0% DDGS diets ( < 0.0001). Ractopamine improved ADG ( < 0.0001), G:F ( < 0.0001), and N retention ( < 0.001) and tended to increase daily water intake ( < 0.10). Pigs fed RAC had higher N intake and urinary excretion and lower N retention in Period 2 than in Period 1 ( < 0.05), indicating a decline in the response to RAC over time. Tylosin phosphate did not affect ADFI or G:F but did improve ATTD of N ( < 0.05). There was a tendency for a TP × DDGS interaction ( < 0.10) for ADG, where TP tended to increase ADG in pigs fed 0% DDGS diets ( < 0.10) but not in pigs fed 30% DDGS diets ( > 0.10). Pigs fed DDGS diets had higher N intake ( < 0.01) and higher fecal ( < 0.0001) and urinary ( < 0.01) N excretion with no difference in N retention (g/d). Overall, RAC

  16. Aromatic characterization of pot distilled kiwi spirits.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco; Blanco, Pilar; Orriols, Ignacio

    2012-03-07

    This study contributes fundamental knowledge that will help to develop a distillate of kiwi wine, made from kiwis of the Hayward variety grown in the southwest of Galicia (Spain). Two yeast strains, L1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ALB-6 from the EVEGA yeast collection) and L2 (S. cerevisiae Uvaferm BDX from Lallemand) were assessed to obtain a highly aromatic distillate. The kiwi spirits obtained were compared with other fruit spirits, in terms of higher alcohols, minor alcohols, monoterpenols, and other minor compounds, which are relevant in determining the quality and taste of the kiwi spirits. It was found that the kiwi juice fermented with yeast L1 produced a more aromatic distillate. In addition, kiwi distillates produced with both yeasts had the same ratio of trans-3-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, which is lower than that found in other fruit distillates.

  17. Solar-driven membrane distillation demonstration in Leupp, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Ravisankar, Vishnu Arvind; Seaman, Robert; Mirchandani, Sera; Arnold, Robert G; Ela, Wendell P

    2016-03-01

    The Navajo Nation is the largest and one of the driest Native American reservations in the US. The population in the Navajo Nation is sporadically distributed over a very large area making it extremely ineffective to connect homes to a centralized water supply system. Owing to this population distribution and the multi decadal drought prevailing in the region, over 40% of the 300,000 people living on Navajo Tribal Lands lack access to running potable water. For many people the only alternative is hauling water from filling stations, resulting in economic hardship and limited supply. A solution to this problem is a de-centralized off-grid water source. The University of Arizona and US Bureau of Reclamation's Solar Membrane Distillation (SMD), stand-alone, pilot desalination system on the Navajo Reservation will provide an off-grid source of potable water; the pilot will serve as a proximal water source, ease the financial hardships caused by the drought, and provide a model for low-cost water treatment systems in arid tribal lands. Bench-scale experiments and an earlier field prototype plant showed viable operation of a solar heated, membrane distillation (MD) system, but further optimization is required. The objectives of the Navajo pilot study are to i) demonstrate integration of solar collectors and membrane distillation, ii) optimize operational parameters, iii) demonstrate and monitor technology performance during extended duration operation, and iv) facilitate independent system operation by the Navajo Water Resources Department, including hand-over of a comprehensive operations manual for implementation of subsequent SMD systems. The Navajo SMD system is designed as a perennial installation that includes remote communication of research data and full automation for remote, unmanned operation.

  18. COMPUTER ADMINISTERED INSTRUCTION VERSUS TRADITIONALLY ADMINISTERED INSTRUCTION, ECONOMICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOPSTEIN, FELIX F.; SEIDEL, ROBERT J.

    AN ATTEMPT IS MADE TO ASSESS THE ECONOMICS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) VERSUS TRADITIONALLY ADMINISTERED INSTRUCTION (TAI) IN CONTROLLING THE STRUCTURE OF THE LEARNER'S STIMULUS ENVIRONMENT IN TEACHING AND TRAINING SITUATIONS. THERE IS A DISCUSSION OF THE NEED FOR A SOUND, OBJECTIVE ECONOMIC APPRAISAL OF THE VALUE TO SOCIETY OF…

  19. 40 CFR 147.2500 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposal of Liquid Industrial Wastes and By-Products, Wisconsin Administrative Code §§ 214.03 and 214.08... State-administered program: (1) Chapter 144, Water, Sewage, Refuse, Mining and Air Pollution,...

  20. Recovery of polyphenols from rose oil distillation wastewater using adsorption resins--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rusanov, Krasimir; Garo, Eliane; Rusanova, Mila; Fertig, Orlando; Hamburger, Matthias; Atanassov, Ivan; Butterweck, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    The production of rose oil from rose flowers by water steam distillation leaves a water fraction of the distillate as main part of the waste. Therefore, the rose oil distillation wastewater represents a serious environmental problem due to the high content of polyphenols which are difficult to decompose and have to be considered as biopollutants when discarded into the drainage system and rivers. On the other hand, natural polyphenols are valuable compounds with useful properties as bioactive substances. Until now there is no established practice for processing of rose oil distillation wastewater and utilization of contained substances. Thus, it was the aim of this study to develop a strategy to separate this wastewater into a polyphenol depleted water fraction and a polyphenol enriched fraction which could be developed into innovative value-added products. In a first step, the phytochemical profile of rose oil distillation wastewater was determined. Its HPLC-PDA-MS analysis revealed the presence of flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavonols and flavones. In a second step, the development of a stepwise concentration of rose oil distillation wastewater was performed. The concentration process includes a filtration process to eliminate suspended solids in the wastewater, followed by adsorption of the contained phenolic compounds onto adsorption resins (XAD and SP). Finally, desorption of the polyphenol fraction from the resin matrix was achieved using ethanol and/or aqueous ethanol. The result of the process was a wastewater low in soluble organic compounds and an enriched polyphenol fraction (RF20 SP-207). The profile of this fraction was similar to that of rose oil distillation wastewater and showed the presence of flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol glycosides as major metabolites. These compounds were isolated from the enriched polyphenol fraction and their structures confirmed by NMR. In summary, a pilot medium scale system was developed using adsorption resins

  1. Administering the Individualized Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James, Jr.

    This book provides discussion and guidelines for administering an individualized instruction program; it is stated, however, that the book is not confined to individualized study units alone but brings in the creation of any educational instrument, a variety of which are illustrated in the appendixes. The following topics are considered in this…

  2. 40 CFR 147.2500 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Statutes Annotated (West 1974 and Supp. 1983); (3) Chapter 162, Pure Drinking Water, Wisconsin Statutes... Section 147.2500 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... State-administered program: (1) Chapter 144, Water, Sewage, Refuse, Mining and Air Pollution,...

  3. 40 CFR 147.2500 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Statutes Annotated (West 1974 and Supp. 1983); (3) Chapter 162, Pure Drinking Water, Wisconsin Statutes... Section 147.2500 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... State-administered program: (1) Chapter 144, Water, Sewage, Refuse, Mining and Air Pollution,...

  4. Vacuum membrane distillation: Experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, S.; Saavedra, A.; Sarti, G.C.

    1997-02-01

    Vacuum membrane distillation is a membrane-based separation process considered here to remove volatile organic compounds from aqueous streams. Microporous hydrophobic membranes are used to separate the aqueous stream from a gas phase kept under vacuum. The evaporation of the liquid stream takes place on one side of the membrane, and mass transfer occurs through the vapor phase inside the membrane. The role of operative conditions on the process performance is widely investigated in the case of dilute binary aqueous mixtures containing acetone, ethanol, isopropanol, ethylacetate, methylacetate, or methylterbutyl ether. Temperature, composition, flow rate of the liquid feed, and pressure downstream the membrane are the main operative variables. Among these, the vacuum-side pressure is the major design factor since it greatly affects the separation efficiency. A mathematical model description of the process is developed, and the results are compared with the experiments. The model is finally used to predict the best operative conditions in which the process can work for the case of benzene removal from waste waters.

  5. NTP Toxicity Studies of Methyl Ethyl Ketoxime Administered in Drinking Water to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (CAS No. 96-29-7).

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    Methyl ethyl ketoxime is used primarily as an antiskinning agent in alkyd coating resins. Methyl ethyl ketoxime was selected for study because of the potential for human exposure and because of interest in oximes as a chemical class. Toxicity studies of methyl ethyl ketoxime (greater than 99% pure) were carried out in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. The compound was administered in drinking water for 14 days or 13 weeks. In addition, the genetic toxicity of methyl ethyl ketoxime was evaluated by determining mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium and induction of sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro, with and without S9 activation. The frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of mice from the 13-week study was also determined. In the 14-day studies, groups of five male and five female rats and mice were given drinking water containing 0, 106, 312, 625, 1,250, or 2,500 ppm methyl ethyl ketoxime. The mean body weight gain of male rats in the 2,500 ppm group was significantly less than that of the controls; the final mean body weight of male mice in the 2,500 ppm group was also less than that of the controls. Spleen weights were increased in male and female rats in the 1,250 and 2,500 ppm groups. No chemical-related gross lesions were observed. Microscopic tissue evaluations were not performed. In the 13-week studies, groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were given drinking water containing 0, 312, 625, 1,250, 2,500, or 5,000 ppm and groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were given drinking water containing 0, 625, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, or 10,000 ppm. Mean body weights and body weight gains of 2,500 and 5,000 ppm male rats and 10,000 ppm male and female mice were less than those of the controls; mean body weight gains of male rats in the 1,250, 2,500 and 5,000 ppm groups and females in the 2,500 and 5,000 ppm groups were also less than those of the

  6. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

  7. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946

  8. Unifying Gate Synthesis and Magic State Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Earl T.; Howard, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The leading paradigm for performing a computation on quantum memories can be encapsulated as distill-then-synthesize. Initially, one performs several rounds of distillation to create high-fidelity magic states that provide one good T gate, an essential quantum logic gate. Subsequently, gate synthesis intersperses many T gates with Clifford gates to realize a desired circuit. We introduce a unified framework that implements one round of distillation and multiquibit gate synthesis in a single step. Typically, our method uses the same number of T gates as conventional synthesis but with the added benefit of quadratic error suppression. Because of this, one less round of magic state distillation needs to be performed, leading to significant resource savings.

  9. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  10. Entanglement of Distillation for Lattice Gauge Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Bultinck, Nick; Haegeman, Jutho; Marien, Michael; Scholz, Volkher B.; Verstraete, Frank

    2016-09-01

    We study the entanglement structure of lattice gauge theories from the local operational point of view, and, similar to Soni and Trivedi [J. High Energy Phys. 1 (2016) 1], we show that the usual entanglement entropy for a spatial bipartition can be written as the sum of an undistillable gauge part and of another part corresponding to the local operations and classical communication distillable entanglement, which is obtained by depolarizing the local superselection sectors. We demonstrate that the distillable entanglement is zero for pure Abelian gauge theories at zero gauge coupling, while it is in general nonzero for the non-Abelian case. We also consider gauge theories with matter, and show in a perturbative approach how area laws—including a topological correction—emerge for the distillable entanglement. Finally, we also discuss the entanglement entropy of gauge fixed states and show that it has no relation to the physical distillable entropy.

  11. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-10-15

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  12. Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

  13. Quantum Nonlocal Boxes Exhibit Stronger Distillability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

    2013-06-01

    The hypothetical nonlocal box (NLB) proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich allows two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob, to exhibit stronger than quantum correlations. If the generated correlations are weak, they can sometimes be distilled into a stronger correlation by repeated applications of the NLB. Motivated by the limited distillability of NLBs, we initiate here a study of the distillation of correlations for nonlocal boxes that output quantum states rather than classical bits (qNLBs). We propose a new protocol for distillation and show that it asymptotically distills a class of correlated quantum nonlocal boxes to the value (1)/(2)(3√ {3}+1) ≈ 3.098076, whereas in contrast, the optimal non-adaptive parity protocol for classical nonlocal boxes asymptotically distills only to the value 3.0. We show that our protocol is an optimal non-adaptive protocol for 1, 2 and 3 qNLB copies by constructing a matching dual solution for the associated primal semidefinite program (SDP). We conclude that qNLBs are a stronger resource for nonlocality than NLBs. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the NLB model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that are known to limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of qNLBs rather than NLBs.

  14. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Butanal oxime (CAS No. 110-69-0) administered in drinking water and by gavage to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Burka, Leo T

    2004-01-01

    Butanal oxime is used as a volatile antiskinning agent in paints, inks, and similar products. Butanal oxime was chosen for toxicology testing as a representative of the aldoxime class. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice received butanal oxime (99 percent pure) in drinking water for 15 days or by gavage in 0.5 percent methylcellulose for 14 weeks. Animals were evaluated for clinical pathology, reproductive system effects, and histopathology. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. In the 15-day studies, groups of five male and five female rats and mice received 0, 312, 625, 1,250, 2,500, or 5,000 ppm butanal oxime in drinking water, resulting in average daily doses of approximately 40, 70, or 100 mg butanal oxime/kg body weight to male and female rats; 45, 90, 130, 200, or 300 mg/kg to male mice; and 45, 85, 100, 130, or 170 mg/kg to female mice. Due to body weight loss and lack of water consumption, all male and female rats receiving 2,500 or 5,000 ppm were removed from the study on day 9; average daily doses were not calculated for these groups. All other rats and mice survived until the end of the studies. Mean body weights of 1,250 ppm male and female rats and 2,500 and 5,000 ppm male and female mice were significantly less than those of the controls. Male mice receiving 5,000 ppm and females receiving 2,500 or 5,000 ppm lost weight during the study. Water consumption by rats and mice receiving 1,250 ppm or greater was less than that by the controls. Thinness in 2,500 and 5,000 ppm rats and mice was the only clinical finding of toxicity. Spleen weights were significantly decreased in 2,500 and 5,000 ppm female mice. No chemical-related lesions were observed grossly; histologic examinations were not performed. In the 14-week studies, groups of 10 male and 10 female rats and mice received butanal oxime by gavage at doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or

  15. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fermenting or distilling material at the distillery where produced. (b) Use at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use in fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  16. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fermenting or distilling material at the distillery where produced. (b) Use at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use in fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  17. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... fermenting or distilling material at the distillery where produced. (b) Use at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use in fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  18. 27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... added promptly to the fermenting or distilling material. (b) Use at bonded wine cellar. Distillates containing aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use therein for fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  19. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... fermenting or distilling material at the distillery where produced. (b) Use at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use in fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant...

  20. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  1. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  2. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  3. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  4. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  5. Treatment of dye solutions by vacuum membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Criscuoli, A; Zhong, J; Figoli, A; Carnevale, M C; Huang, R; Drioli, E

    2008-12-01

    In this work, the vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process has been applied to treat water containing different types of dyes. The influence of operating parameters, as feed temperature, feed flow rate, feed concentration, on the permeate flux and on rejection has been investigated. In all experimental tests, a complete rejection has been achieved and pure water has been recovered at the permeate side. Furthermore, experiments with water as feed have been carried out before and after the tests with dyes, in order to analyze the effect of fouling on the performance of the VMD. The water vapor fluxes immediately after the tests with dyes were higher than the values registered before the tests, probably due to an interaction with the polymeric membrane material which promotes a swelling of the membrane when in contact with the dye solutions. However, initial fluxes are recovered after prolonged cleaning with only water.

  6. Performance simulation of the JPL solar-powered distiller. Part 1: Quasi-steady-state conditions. [for cooling microwave equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, C. S.; Lansing, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    A 37.85 cu m (10,000 gallons) per year (nominal) passive solar powered water distillation system was installed and is operational in the Venus Deep Space Station. The system replaced an old, electrically powered water distiller. The distilled water produced with its high electrical resistivity is used to cool the sensitive microwave equipment. A detailed thermal model was developed to simulate the performance of the distiller and study its sensitivity under varying environment and load conditions. The quasi-steady state portion of the model is presented together with the formulas for heat and mass transfer coefficients used. Initial results indicated that a daily water evaporation efficiency of 30% can be achieved. A comparison made between a full day performance simulation and the actual field measurements gave good agreement between theory and experiment, which verified the model.

  7. Development of multistage distillation in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Lam, K F; Cao, E; Sorensen, E; Gavriilidis, A

    2011-04-07

    Although there has been a lot of work on the development of microchemical processing systems such as micro-reactors and micro-sensors, little attention has been paid to micro-separation units, and in particular, microscale distillation. In this paper, various silicon-glass microscale distillation chips with different channel configurations were fabricated and tested. A temperature gradient was setup across the chip by heating and cooling the two ends. The feed was located at the middle of the microchannel. Arrays of micropillars were incorporated in order to guide the liquid flow. It was found that the separation performance was promoted by increasing the length of the microchannel. However, this created an imbalance of the liquid flows at the two sides of the microchannel and caused flooding. This hydrodynamic limitation was addressed by incorporating micropillars on both sides of the channel. The most efficient microdistillation chip consisted of a microchannel with 600 microns width and 40 cm length. Experimental results showed high efficiency for the separation of a 50 mol% acetone-water mixture when the heating and cooling temperature were 95 °C and 42 °C respectively. The concentrations of acetone were 3 mol% in the bottom stream and 95 mol% in the distillate, which was equivalent to at least 4 equilibrium stages at total reflux conditions. Furthermore, a 50 mol% methanol-toluene mixture was separated into nearly pure toluene in the bottom stream and 75 mol% methanol in the distillate. The performance of the microdistillation unit was reproducible in repeated tests.

  8. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  13. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  14. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation System: Flight Like Prototype Preliminary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. One such technology is the Cascade Distillation System (CDS) a multi-stage vacuum rotary distiller system designed to recover water in a microgravity environment. Its rotating cascading distiller operates similarly to the state of the art (SOA) vapor compressor distiller (VCD), but its control scheme and ancillary components are judged to be straightforward and simpler to implement into a successful design. Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with Honeywell International is developing a second generation flight forward prototype (CDS 2.0). The key objectives for the CDS 2.0 design task is to provide a flight forward ground prototype that demonstrates improvements over the SOA system in the areas of increased reliability and robustness, and reduced mass, power and volume. It will also incorporate exploration-class automation. The products of this task are a preliminary flight system design and a high fidelity prototype of an exploration class CDS. These products will inform the design and development of the third generation CDS which is targeted for on-orbit DTO. This paper details the preliminary design of the CDS 2.0.

  15. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set ZDn associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of ZDn into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D . When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  16. Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2005-12-15

    We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes.

  17. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of a Chemical Mixture of 25 Groundwater Contaminants Administered in Drinking Water to F344/N Rats and B6C3F(1) Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, R.

    1993-08-01

    Toxicity studies were performed with a chemically defined mixture of 25 groundwater contaminants, using dose levels considered to have environmental relevance. The mixture contained 19 organic compounds and six metals (shown below); the selection of these compounds was based primarily on the frequency of their occurrence in United States Environmental Protection Agency surveys of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of hazardous waste disposal sites. This report focuses primarily on 26-week drinking water toxicity studies with male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice. The endpoints evaluated included histopathology, clinical pathology, neurobehavioral studies, and reproductive toxicity. Additional studies using this same chemical mixture are briefly reviewed in this report and include an evaluation of spermatogenesis in B6C3F(1) mice exposed to the chemical mixture for 13 weeks, a continuous breeding study with Sprague-Dawley rats and CD-1(R) Swiss mice, studies of myelotoxicity in B6C3F(1) mice exposed to the chemical mixture for up to 31.5 weeks, studies of immunosuppression in B6C3F(1) mice exposed for up to 13 weeks, in vitro mutagenicity assays in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, and measures of genetic damage in bone marrow and peripheral blood of F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice in 2-week drinking water studies. In a 26-week drinking water study in which rats were administered the chemical mixture at composite contaminant concentrations of 0, 11, 38, 113, or 378 ppm, no deaths occurred and the body weight gain of high-dose males was slightly less than that of the controls. Water consumption decreased with dose and was 24% to 28% less than that of the controls at the highest concentration. Changes in organ weights occurred primarily in high-dose rats and included increased absolute and relative liver and kidney weights in females, increased relative kidney weight in males, and decreased absolute and relative thymus weights in males and

  18. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. PMID:26681970

  19. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck.

    PubMed

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Yung-Wei; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities.

  20. Distillate-fuel stability and cleanliness

    SciTech Connect

    Stavinoha, L.L.; Henry, C.P.

    1981-01-01

    A symposium was held in June 1980 to assess the state of the art and to define current and future needs for tests to predict and monitor the stability and cleanliness of distillate fuels (excluding aviation turbine fuels). Topics included appraisals of present-day distillate fuel stability and cleanliness, requirements for various applications, anticipated trends, future fuels, fuel distribution problems, microbiological contamination, test methods for stability and cleanliness, and refinery processes which improve stability. This publication contains the twelve papers that were presented at the Symposium. All papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  1. 40 CFR 147.52 - State-administered program-Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be inspected at the Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4, Water Management Division, Ground... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL...-.04, Protection of Underground Sources of Drinking Water during the Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal...

  2. Characterisation of chamomile volatiles by simultaneous distillation solid-phase extraction in comparison to hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation extraction.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Hans

    2010-05-01

    A new method for complete separation of steam-volatile organic compounds is described using the example of chamomile flowers. This method is based on the direct combination of hydrodistillation and solid-phase extraction in a circulation apparatus. In contrast to hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), an RP-18 solid phase as adsorptive material is used rather than a water-insoluble solvent. Therefore, a prompt and complete fixation of all volatiles takes place, and the circulation of water-soluble bisabololoxides as well as water-soluble and thermolabile en-yne-spiroethers is inhibited. This so-called simultaneous distillation solid-phase extraction (SD-SPE) provides extracts that better characterise the real composition of the vapour phase, as well as the composition of inhalation vapours, than do SDE extracts or essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The data indicate that during inhalation therapy with chamomile, the bisabololoxides and spiroethers are more strongly involved in the inhaling activity than so far assumed.

  3. Steam plasmatron gasification of distillers grains residue from ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Tsou, Feng-Ju; Lin, Kae-Long

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a plasmatron reactor was used for gasifying the waste of distillers grains at different temperatures (773, 873, 973 K) and water flow rates (1, 2, 3 mL min(-1)), which were heated to produce steam. Among all the gas products, syngas was the major component (88.5 wt.% or 94.66 vol.%) with temperatures yielding maximum concentrations at 873 K with a relatively high reaction rate. The maximum concentrations regarding gaseous production occurring times are all below 1 min. With the increase of steam, the recovery mass yield of syngas also increases from 34.14 to 45.47 approximately 54.66 wt.% at 873 K. Water-gas reactions and steam-methane reforming reactions advance the production of syngas with the increase of steam. Furthermore, the water-shift reaction also increases in the context of steam gasification which leads to the decrease of CO(2) at the same time.

  4. Experimental investigation on hydrogen cryogenic distillation equipped with package made by ICIT

    SciTech Connect

    Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefan, L.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.

    2015-03-15

    ICIT (Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies) has used its experience in cryogenic water distillation process to propose a similar process for hydrogen distillation that can be used in detritiation technologies. This process relies on the same packages but a stainless filling is tested instead of the phosphorous bronze filling used for water distillation. This paper presents two types of packages developed for hydrogen distillation, both have a stainless filling but it differs in terms of density, exchange surface and specific volume. Performance data have been obtained on laboratory scale. In order to determine the characteristics of the package, the installation was operated in the total reflux mode, for different flow rate for the liquid. There were made several experiments considering different operating conditions. Samples extracted at the top and bottom of cryogenic distillation column allowed mathematical processing to determine the separation performance. The experiments show a better efficiency for the package whose exchange surface was higher and there were no relevant differences between both packages as the operating pressure of the cryogenic column was increasing. For a complete characterization of the packages, future experiments will be considered to determine performance at various velocities in the column and their correlation with the pressure in the column. We plan further experiments to separate tritium from the mixture of isotopes DT, having in view that our goal is to apply this results to a detritiation plant.

  5. Use of corn-distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture. Semi-annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, C.C.; Lewis, W.M.

    1982-03-12

    It appears reasonable that potential exists for using corn distiller's solubles for the controlled production of aquatic organisms (aquaculture). Results of initial laboratory studies which have focused on assessing the short-term effects of various concentrations of corn distiller's solubles on water quality and aquatic organisms (fish, macrocrustaceans, microcrustaceans, and algae) are described. These results, coupled with results of studies currently in progress, will be used to identify a suitable quantity of corn distiller's solubles for daily application to the earthen ponds that will be used in the field production trials.

  6. 40 CFR 147.2404 - EPA-administered program-Colville Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Colville...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Washington § 147.2404 EPA-administered program—Colville Reservation. (a) The UIC program for the...

  7. 40 CFR 147.2404 - EPA-administered program-Colville Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Colville...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Washington § 147.2404 EPA-administered program—Colville Reservation. (a) The UIC program for the...

  8. 40 CFR 147.1350 - State-administered programs-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered programs-Class II wells. 147.1350 Section 147.1350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Montana § 147.1350 State-administered...

  9. 40 CFR 147.1350 - State-administered programs-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered programs-Class II wells. 147.1350 Section 147.1350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Montana § 147.1350 State-administered...

  10. 40 CFR 147.1350 - State-administered programs-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered programs-Class II wells. 147.1350 Section 147.1350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Montana § 147.1350 State-administered...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1350 - State-administered programs-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered programs-Class II wells. 147.1350 Section 147.1350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Montana § 147.1350 State-administered...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1350 - State-administered programs-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered programs-Class II wells. 147.1350 Section 147.1350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Montana § 147.1350 State-administered...

  13. 40 CFR 147.501 - EPA-administered program-Class II wells and Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION... subpart. Injection well owners and operators, and EPA shall comply with these requirements. (b)...

  14. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

  15. Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-02-15

    This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops."

  16. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  17. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  18. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  19. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  20. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance...

  1. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  2. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Kwant, P.B.; Newsome, J.R.

    1983-08-23

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to thermal cracking, and subjecting the distillation residue of the cracked product to a combination solvent deasphalting and catalytic hydroconversion.

  3. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4... AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of State's Bureau of Human Resources, Office of Recruitment is responsible for administering the Thomas...

  4. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  5. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  6. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  7. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  8. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  9. Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank

    2005-06-15

    We construct interesting entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method for how entanglement-assisted distillation protocol can be converted into nonentanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

  10. SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION WITH GC/MS DETERMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vacuum distillation of water, soil, oil, and fish samples is presented as an alternative technique for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Analyses of samples containing VOCs and non-VOCs at 50ppb concentrations were performed to evaluate method limitations. Analyte re...

  11. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... vinegar stock record. 24.306 Section 24.306 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... material or vinegar stock record. A proprietor who produces or receives wine containing excess water which will be used expressly as distilling material or vinegar stock shall maintain a record by...

  12. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... vinegar stock record. 24.306 Section 24.306 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... material or vinegar stock record. A proprietor who produces or receives wine containing excess water which will be used expressly as distilling material or vinegar stock shall maintain a record by...

  13. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... vinegar stock record. 24.306 Section 24.306 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... material or vinegar stock record. A proprietor who produces or receives wine containing excess water which will be used expressly as distilling material or vinegar stock shall maintain a record by...

  14. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... vinegar stock record. 24.306 Section 24.306 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... material or vinegar stock record. A proprietor who produces or receives wine containing excess water which will be used expressly as distilling material or vinegar stock shall maintain a record by...

  15. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vinegar stock record. 24.306 Section 24.306 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... material or vinegar stock record. A proprietor who produces or receives wine containing excess water which will be used expressly as distilling material or vinegar stock shall maintain a record by...

  16. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...

  17. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...

  18. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...

  19. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...

  20. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use...

  1. 27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilled spirits taxes. 19.669 Section 19.669 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Taxes § 19.669 Distilled spirits taxes. (a) Proprietors may withdraw distilled spirits free of tax...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  3. 27 CFR 27.31 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... BEER Dealer Registration and Recordkeeping § 27.31 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled...

  4. Antioxidant activity of phytochemicals from dried distillers grain oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability in...

  5. Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals from Dried Distillers Grain Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability i...

  6. Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch…

  7. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  8. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  9. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  10. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  11. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  12. Irreversibility analysis in the process of solar distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez, S.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; López, R.; Lara, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work an irreversibility analysis for the thermal process of solar distillation of three different substances is presented, for which it employs a solar still of a slope where three experimental tests with 5.5 L of brine, river water and MgCl2 were performed. Temperature data principally in the glass cover, absorber plate, fluid, environment and the incident solar radiation on the device were obtained. With measurements of temperature, solar radiation and exergetic balance, irreversibilities are found on the device. The results show that the highest values of irreversibilities are concentrated in the absorber plate with an average of 321 W, 342 W and 276 W, followed by the cover glass with an average of 75.8 W, 80.4 W and 86.7 W and finally the fluid with 15.3 W, 15.9 W and 16 W, for 5.5 L of brine, river water and MgCl2.

  13. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  14. Electrospun superhydrophobic membranes with unique structures for membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yuan; Loh, Chun-Heng; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-09-24

    With modest temperature demand, low operating pressure, and high solute rejection, membrane distillation (MD) is an attractive option for desalination, waste treatment, and food and pharmaceutical processing. However, large-scale practical applications of MD are still hindered by the absence of effective membranes with high hydrophobicity, high porosity, and adequate mechanical strength, which are important properties for MD permeation fluxes, stable long-term performance, and effective packing in modules without damage. This study describes novel design strategies for highly robust superhydrophobic dual-layer membranes for MD via electrospinning. One of the newly developed membranes comprises a durable and ultrathin 3-dimensional (3D) superhydrophobic skin and porous nanofibrous support whereas another was fabricated by electrospinning 3D superhydrophobic layers on a nonwoven support. These membranes exhibit superhydrophobicity toward distilled water, salty water, oil-in-water emulsion, and beverages, which enables them to be used not only for desalination but also for other processes. The superhydrophobic dual-layer membrane #3S-N with nanofibrous support has a competitive permeation flux of 24.6 ± 1.2 kg m(-2) h(-1) in MD (feed and permeate temperate were set as 333 and 293 K, respectively) due to the higher porosity of the nanofibrous scaffold. Meanwhile, the membranes with the nonwoven support exhibit greater mechanical strength due to this support combined with better long-term performance because of the thicker 3D superhydrophobic layers. The morphology, pore size, porosity, mechanical properties, and liquid enter pressure of water of these superhydrophobic composite membranes with two different structures are reported and compared with commercial polyvinylidene fluoride membranes.

  15. Solar membrane distillation: desalination for the Navajo Nation.

    PubMed

    Karanikola, Vasiliki; Corral, Andrea F; Mette, Patrick; Jiang, Hua; Arnoldand, Robert G; Ela, Wendell P

    2014-01-01

    Provision of clean water is among the most serious, long-term challenges in the world. To an ever increasing degree, sustainable water supply depends on the utilization of water of impaired initial quality. This is particularly true in developing nations and in water-stressed areas such as the American Southwest. One clear example is the Navajo Nation. The reservation covers 27,000 square miles, mainly in northeastern Arizona. Low population density coupled with water scarcity and impairment makes provision of clean water particularly challenging. The Navajos rely primarily on ground water, which is often present in deep aquifers or of brackish quality. Commonly, reverse osmosis (RO) is chosen to desalinate brackish ground water, since RO costs are competitive with those of thermal desalination, even for seawater applications. However, both conventional thermal distillation and RO are energy intensive, complex processes that discourage decentralized or rural implementation. In addition, both technologies demand technical experience for operation and maintenance, and are susceptible to scaling and fouling unless extensive feed pretreatment is employed. Membrane distillation (MD), driven by vapor pressure gradients, can potentially overcome many of these drawbacks. MD can operate using low-grade, sub-boiling sources of heat and does not require extensive operational experience. This presentation discusses a project on the Navajo Nation, Arizona (Native American tribal lands) that is designed to investigate and deploy an autonomous (off-grid) system to pump and treat brackish groundwater using solar energy. Βench-scale, hollow fiber MD experiment results showed permeate water fluxes from 21 L/m2·d can be achieved with transmembrane temperature differences between 40 and 80˚C. Tests run with various feed salt concentrations indicate that the permeate flux decreases only about 25% as the concentration increases from 0 to 14% (w/w), which is four times seawater salt

  16. Investigation related to hydrogen isotopes separation by cryogenic distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.; Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I.

    2008-07-15

    Research conducted in the last fifty years has shown that one of the most efficient techniques of removing tritium from the heavy water used as moderator and coolant in CANDU reactors (as that operated at Cernavoda (Romania)) is hydrogen cryogenic distillation. Designing and implementing the concept of cryogenic distillation columns require experiments to be conducted as well as computer simulations. Particularly, computer simulations are of great importance when designing and evaluating the performances of a column or a series of columns. Experimental data collected from laboratory work will be used as input for computer simulations run at larger scale (for The Pilot Plant for Tritium and Deuterium Separation) in order to increase the confidence in the simulated results. Studies carried out were focused on the following: - Quantitative analyses of important parameters such as the number of theoretical plates, inlet area, reflux flow, flow-rates extraction, working pressure, etc. - Columns connected in series in such a way to fulfil the separation requirements. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale installation to investigate the performance of contact elements with continuous packing. The packing was manufactured in our institute. (authors)

  17. Distillation system for motor fuel grade anhydrous alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Katzen, R.; Kumana, J. D.; Moon, G. D.

    1980-08-12

    An improved distillation method is provided for obtaining motor fuel grade anhydrous ethanol from fermentation or synthetic feedstocks. A three tower system is used comprising a stripperrectifier tower in which the dilute feedstock is converted to a concentrated ethanol stream, a dehydrating tower in which water is removed from the concentrated ethanol stream by azeotropic distillation, and a stripper tower for recovering the azeotropic agent. The invention effects substantial energy savings by utilizing the heat content of the overhead vapors from the stripper-rectifier tower to supply the heat required for the dehydrating and stripper towers and by preheating the feedstock in stages utilizing the heat content of the overhead vapors from the dehydrating and stripper towers, the heat content of the overhead vapors from the stripper-rectifier tower and the heat content of the bottoms from the stripper-rectifier tower. Provision is also made for separately removing lower boiling and higher boiling impurities from the stripper-rectifier tower which may be blended into the anhydrous ethanol product from the dehydrating tower.

  18. Process simulation of modified dry grind ethanol plant with recycle of pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed distillers' grains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan; Ladisch, Michael R

    2008-08-01

    Distillers' grains (DG), a co-product of a dry grind ethanol process, is an excellent source of supplemental proteins in livestock feed. Studies have shown that, due to its high polymeric sugar contents and ease of hydrolysis, the distillers' grains have potential as an additional source of fermentable sugars for ethanol fermentation. The benefit of processing the distillers' grains to extract fermentable sugars lies in an increased ethanol yield without significant modification in the current dry grind technology. Three different potential configurations of process alternatives in which pretreated and hydrolyzed distillers' grains are recycled for an enhanced overall ethanol yield are proposed and discussed in this paper based on the liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of distillers' grains. Possible limitations of each proposed process are also discussed. This paper presents a compositional analysis of distillers' grains, as well as a simulation of the modified dry grind processes with recycle of distillers' grains. Simulated material balances for the modified dry grind processes are established based on the base case assumptions. These balances are compared to the conventional dry grind process in terms of ethanol yield, compositions of its co-products, and accumulation of fermentation inhibitors. Results show that 14% higher ethanol yield is achievable by processing and hydrolyzing the distillers' grains for additional fermentable sugars, as compared to the conventional dry grind process. Accumulation of fermentation by-products and inhibitory components in the proposed process is predicted to be 2-5 times higher than in the conventional dry grind process. The impact of fermentation inhibitors is reviewed and discussed. The final eDDGS (enhanced dried distillers' grains) from the modified processes has 30-40% greater protein content per mass than DDGS, and its potential as a value-added process is also analyzed. While the case studies used to illustrate the

  19. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation System: Flight Like Prototype Design Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam C.; Callahan, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. One such technology is the Cascade Distillation System (CDS) a multi-stage vacuum rotary distiller system designed to recover water in a microgravity environment. The CDS provides a similar function to the state of the art (SOA) vapor compressor distiller (VCD) currently employed on the International Space Station, but its control scheme and ancillary components are judged to be more straightforward and simpler to implement into a more reliable and efficient system. Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with Honeywell International is developing a second generation flight forward prototype (CDS 2.0). A preliminary design fo the CDS 2.0 was presented to the project in September 2014. Following this review, detailed design of the system continued. The existing ground test prototype was used as a platform to demonstrate key 2.0 design and operational concepts to support this effort and mitigate design risk. A volumetric prototype was also developed to evaluate the packaging design for operability and maintainability. The updated system design was reviewed by the AES LSS Project and other key stakeholders in September 2015. This paper details the status of the CDS 2.0 design.

  20. Nonlocal distillation based on multisetting Bell inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiang-Jun; Deng, Dong-Ling; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2012-12-01

    Inspired by the recent works of Foster [Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.120401 102, 120401 (2009)] and Brunner [Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.160403 102, 160403 (2009)], we present a nonlocality distillation protocol for two three-level (qutrit) systems in the framework of generalized nonsignaling theories. Our protocol is based on a three-setting Bell inequality. It works efficiently for a specific class of three-input-three-output nonlocal boxes. In the asymptotic limit, all these nonlocal boxes can be distilled to the maximally nonlocal box defined by the inequality and nonsignaling constraints. Then we introduce a contracting protocol that reduces these boxes to the so-called “correlated nonlocal boxes.” As a result, our three-input-three-output nonlocal boxes also make communication complexity trivial and appear very unlikely to exist in nature.

  1. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  2. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-08-20

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  3. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1984-03-27

    A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  4. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  5. Toxicology of petroleum naphtha distillate vapors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F W

    1976-12-01

    A unique opportunity was presented to observe the potentially toxic effects of an acute exposure to the vapors of petroleum naphtha distillate on a relatively large number of individuals. The immediate manifestation in all was dyspnea. The action on motor vehicle combustion suggested that some of this could have been due to oxygen deprivation; however, all individuals were dyspneic for several minutes after exposure. A few were cyanotic for several minutes after exposure. All were excited. Tremulousness and mild nausea followed the initial symptoms but were of brief duration. One individual manifested numerous premature ventricular contractions. Since his exposure was brief and since none of the others showed similar findings, it is unlikely that the exposure was causal. The central nervous system depression described in acute exposure cases of the intact (not distillate) petroleum naphtha fumes was not observed in any of this series. There were no delayed manifestations or complications.

  6. Photothermal Membrane Distillation for Seawater Desalination.

    PubMed

    Politano, Antonio; Argurio, Pietro; Di Profio, Gianluca; Sanna, Vanna; Cupolillo, Anna; Chakraborty, Sudip; Arafat, Hassan A; Curcio, Efrem

    2017-01-01

    Thermoplasmonic effects notably improve the efficiency of vacuum membrane distillation, an economically sustainable tool for high-quality seawater desalination. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes filled with spherical silver nanoparticles are used, whose size is tuned for the aim. With the addition of plasmonic nanoparticles in the membrane, the transmembrane flux increases by 11 times, and, moreover, the temperature at the membrane interface is higher than bulk temperature.

  7. Qutrit Magic State Distillation Tight in Some Directions.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Hillary; Howard, Mark

    2015-07-17

    Magic state distillation is a crucial component in the leading approaches to implementing universal fault-tolerant quantum computation, with existing protocols for both qubit and higher dimensional systems. Early work focused on determining the region of distillable states for qubit protocols; yet comparatively little is known about which states can be distilled and with what distillable region for d>2. Here we focus on d=3 and present new four-qutrit distillation schemes that improve upon the known distillable region, and achieve distillation tight to the boundary of undistillable states for some classes of state. As a consequence of recent results, this implies that there is a family of quantum states that enable universality if and only if they exhibit contextuality with respect to stabilizer measurements. We also identify a new routine whose fixed point is a magic state with maximal sum negativity; i.e., it is maximally nonstablizer in a specific sense.

  8. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2010-05-15

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  9. Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard

    2010-07-15

    In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

  10. The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Earle, Martyn J; Esperança, José M S S; Gilea, Manuela A; Lopes, José N Canongia; Rebelo, Luís P N; Magee, Joseph W; Seddon, Kenneth R; Widegren, Jason A

    2006-02-16

    It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived as non-volatile substances. During the last decade, interest in the field of ionic liquids has burgeoned, producing a wealth of intellectual and technological challenges and opportunities for the production of new chemical and extractive processes, fuel cells and batteries, and new composite materials. Much of this potential is underpinned by their presumed involatility. This characteristic, however, can severely restrict the attainability of high purity levels for ionic liquids (when they contain poorly volatile components) in recycling schemes, as well as excluding their use in gas-phase processes. We anticipate that our demonstration that some selected families of commonly used aprotic ionic liquids can be distilled at 200-300 degrees C and low pressure, with concomitant recovery of significant amounts of pure substance, will permit these currently excluded applications to be realized.

  11. Liquid penetration inside glass nozzle during bubble departures in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzienis, P.; Mosdorf, R.; Augustyniak, J.

    2016-09-01

    Liquid penetration into the glass nozzle with inner diameter of 1 mm during the bubble, departures in distilled (surface tension = 65 mN/m) and not distilled (surface tension = 72 mN/m), water was investigated. It has been shown that dynamics of liquid movement inside the nozzle depend on the water surface tension. Maximum value of liquid penetration inside the nozzle is different for distilled and not distilled water. In not distilled water the depth of liquid penetration into the nozzle depends on air volume flow rate. For desilted water this value is constant.

  12. The hydrogen-storing microporous silica 'Microcluster' reduces acetaldehyde contained in a distilled spirit.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinya; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2016-12-01

    Acetaldehyde is a detrimental substance produced in alcoholic liquor aging. We assessed an ability of hydrogen-storing microporous silica 'Microcluster' (MC+) to reduce acetaldehyde, as compared with autoclave-dehydrogenated MC+ (MC-). Acetaldehyde was quantified spectrophotometrically by an enzymatic method. Authentic acetaldehyde was treated by MC+ for 20min, and decreased from 43.4ppm to 10.9ppm, but maintained at 49.3ppm by MC-. On the other hand, acetaldehyde contained in a distilled spirit was decreased from 29.5ppm to 3.1ppm at 20min by MC+, but not decreased by MC-. Addition of MC+ or MC- to distilled water without acetaldehyde showed no seeming effect on the quantification used. Accordingly acetaldehyde in a distilled spirit is reduced to ethanol by hydrogen contained in MC+, but not by the silica moiety of MC+. Hydrogen gas of 1.2mL was released for 20min from MC+ of 0.59g in water, resulting in dissolved hydrogen of 1.09ppm and an oxidation- reduction potential of -687.0mV indicative of a marked reducing ability. Thus, MC+ has an ability to reduce acetaldehyde in a distilled spirit due to dissolved hydrogen released from MC+.

  13. Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

  14. Relaxation processes in administered-rate pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Arnold, Michael R.

    2000-10-01

    We show how the theory of anelasticity unifies the observed dynamics and proposed models of administered-rate products. This theory yields a straightforward approach to rate model construction that we illustrate by simulating the observed relaxation dynamics of two administered rate products. We also demonstrate how the use of this formalism leads to a natural definition of market friction.

  15. Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2003-05-31

    The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different

  16. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, KeShun

    2011-03-09

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major coproduct. Like fuel ethanol, DDGS has quickly become a global commodity. However, high compositional variation has been the main problem hindering its use as a feed ingredient. This review provides updated information on the chemical composition of distillers grains in terms of nutrient levels, changes during dry-grind processing, and causes for large variation. The occurrence in grain feedstock and the fate of mycotoxins during processing are also covered. During processing, starch is converted to glucose and then to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Most other components are relatively unchanged but concentrated in DDGS about 3-fold over the original feedstock. Mycotoxins, if present in the original feedstock, are also concentrated. Higher fold of increases in S, Na, and Ca are mostly due to exogenous addition during processing, whereas unusual changes in inorganic phosphorus (P) and phytate P indicate phytate hydrolysis by yeast phytase. Fermentation causes major changes, but other processing steps are also responsible. The causes for varying DDGS composition are multiple, including differences in feedstock species and composition, process methods and parameters, the amount of condensed solubles added to distiller wet grains, the effect of fermentation yeast, and analytical methodology. Most of them can be attributed to the complexity of the dry-grind process itself. It is hoped that information provided in this review will improve the understanding of the dry-grind process and aid in the development of strategies to control the compositional variation in DDGS.

  17. Distillation by repeated measurements: Continuous spectrum case

    SciTech Connect

    Bellomo, Bruno; Compagno, Giuseppe; Nakazato, Hiromichi; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2010-12-15

    Repeated measurements on one part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part that is not measured, the dynamics of which is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the nonmeasured system is driven into a pure state, irrespective of the initial state, provided that the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We show here that, even in the case of continuous spectrum, an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

  18. Alcoholic beverages produced by alcoholic fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid secretion in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Teyssen, S; Lenzing, T; González-Calero, G; Korn, A; Riepl, R L; Singer, M V

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on gastric acid output and release of gastrin in humans is unknown. AIM AND METHODS: In 16 healthy humans the effect of some commonly ingested alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation (for example, whisky, cognac, calvados, armagnac, and rum) or by alcoholic fermentation (beer, wine, champagne, martini, and sherry) on gastric acid output and release of gastrin was studied. Gastric acid output was determined by the method of intragastric titration. Plasma gastrin was measured using a specific radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: None of the alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation had any significant effect on gastric acid output and release of gastrin compared with control (isotonic glucose and distilled water). Alcoholic beverages produced only by fermentation significantly (p < 0.05) increased the gastric acid output by 57% to 95% of maximal acid output (MAO) and release of gastrin up to 5.1-fold compared with control. If beer, wine, and sherry were distilled, only their remaining parts increased gastric acid output by 53% to 76% of MAO and increased release of gastrin up to 4.3-fold compared with control. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation but not by distillation are powerful stimulants of gastric acid output and release of gastrin; (2) the alcoholic beverage constituents that stimulate gastric acid output and release of gastrin are most probably produced during the process of fermentation and removed during the following process of distillation. PMID:9155575

  19. Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

  20. Continuous-variable entanglement distillation with noiseless linear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song; Zhang, ShengLi; Zou, XuBo; Bi, SiWen; Lin, XuLing

    2012-12-01

    Quantum entanglement distillation is a probabilistic process which protects entanglement from environment-induced decoherence. In this paper, we investigate the distillation of a continuousvariable optic entangled state with noiseless linear amplification (NLA). NLA schemes perform better than the conventional photon-subtraction-based distillation scheme, particularly in distributing entanglement over extremely low efficiency quantum channels. Finally, a comparison between the NLA-based scheme and the local squeezing-enhanced photon subtraction scheme is also investigated.

  1. Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van

    2011-12-15

    Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

  2. Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

    2007-10-01

    During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

  3. Final report on the short term reproductive and developmental toxicity of chlorodibromo-methane (CAS No. 124-48-1) administered in drinking water to sprague-dawley rats. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The potential toxicity of chlorodibromomethane (CAS No. 124-48-1; CDBM) was evaluated using a short-term reproductive and developmental toxicity screen. This study design was selected to identify the process (development; female reproduction; various somatic organs/processes) that is the most sensitive to chlorodibromomethane exposure. A dose-range finding study was conducted at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, 150, and 450 ppm in drinking water in order to select concentrations for the 35-day study. Based on dose-related body weight gain reductions and decreased water consumption, the concentrations for the 35-day study were selected to be 0, 50, 150, and 450 ppm. One group of male rats (10 per group) and two groups of female rats, designated as Group A (peri-conception, 10 per group) and Group B (gestational exposure, 13 per group), were used at each dose level. Control animals received deionized water, the vehicle.

  4. Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a one gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. Vapor compression distillation is already an industrially accepted process and this project's goal is to demonstrate that it can be done economically on a small scale. Theoretically, the process is independent of absolute pressure. It is only necessary that the condenser be at higher pressure than the evaporator. By reducing the entire process to a pressure of approximately 0.1 atmosphere, the evaporation and condensation can occur at near ambient temperature. Even though this approach requires a vacuum pump, and thus will not represent the final cost effective design, it does not require preheaters, high temperature materials, or as much insulation as if it were to operate a near ambient pressure. Therefore, the operation of the ambient temperature unit constitutes the first phase of this project. Presently, the ambient temperature unit is fully assembled and has begun testing. So far it has successfully separated ethanol from a nine to one diluted input solution. However the production rate has been very low.

  5. Dynamic simulation and nonlinear control of a rigorous batch reactive distillation.

    PubMed

    Kathel, Prateek; Jana, Amiya K

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the dynamics and control of a high-purity batch distillation column with chemical reaction. A heterogeneous esterification reaction between the acetic acid and butanol takes place to produce butyl acetate. The process model is formulated considering variable liquid holdup, UNIQUAC model for thermodynamic property predictions, nonlinear Francis weir formula for tray hydraulics, pseudohomogeneous model to represent the reaction kinetics and rigorous energy balance. A structured and simple iterative approach is devised to compute the vapor flows with the fast convergence, under the rigorous energy balance. The representative column is treated with a distillate policy based on which, the lightest product, water is removed as distillate at the starting of production phase. As a consequence, the column gets progressively richer with the main product, butyl acetate. In addition, almost complete conversion of the limiting reactant is achieved. In order to maintain the product purity at the top, a nonlinear generic model controller (GMC) in two different forms has been proposed. Finally, a comparative closed-loop performance is addressed. It is shown that the control scheme, along with the effective distillate strategy, leads to almost complete conversion of ingredients and high-purity products.

  6. Optimization Study of Small-Scale Solar Membrane Distillation Desalination Systems (s-SMDDS)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsuan; Chang, Cheng-Liang; Hung, Chen-Yu; Cheng, Tung-Wen; Ho, Chii-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD), which can utilize low-grade thermal energy, has been extensively studied for desalination. By incorporating solar thermal energy, the solar membrane distillation desalination system (SMDDS) is a potential technology for resolving energy and water resource problems. Small-scale SMDDS (s-SMDDS) is an attractive and viable option for the production of fresh water for small communities in remote arid areas. The minimum cost design and operation of s-SMDDS are determined by a systematic method, which involves a pseudo-steady-state approach for equipment sizing and dynamic optimization using overall system mathematical models. Two s-SMDDS employing an air gap membrane distillation module with membrane areas of 11.5 m2 and 23 m2 are analyzed. The lowest water production costs are $5.92/m3 and $5.16/m3 for water production rates of 500 kg/day and 1000 kg/day, respectively. For these two optimal cases, the performance ratios are 0.85 and 0.91; the recovery ratios are 4.07% and 4.57%. The effect of membrane characteristics on the production cost is investigated. For the commercial membrane employed in this study, the increase of the membrane mass transfer coefficient up to two times is beneficial for cost reduction. PMID:25421065

  7. TBARs distillation method: revision to minimize the interference from yellow pigments in meat products.

    PubMed

    Díaz, P; Linares, M B; Egea, M; Auqui, S M; Garrido, M D

    2014-12-01

    The aim was to study the effect of the incubation method and TBA reagent (concentration/solvent) on yellow pigment interference in meat products. Distillates from red sausage, sucrose, malondialdehyde and a mixture of sucrose-malondialdehyde were reacted with four different TBA solutions at five different temperature/time relations. Two TBA solutions were prepared at 20mM using 90% glacial acetic acid or 3.86% perchloric acid. In addition, an 80mM TBA solution was prepared using distilled water adjusted to pH4 and another using 0.8% TBA in distilled water. The temperature/time relations were: (1) 35min in a boiling water bath; (2) 70°C/30min; (3) 40°C/90min; (4) room temperature (r.t.) (24°C) in dark conditions for 20h; and (5) 60min in a boiling water bath. The results showed that aqueous or diluted acid solutions of TBA reagent and the application of 100°C for less than 1h provided the best conditions to minimize the presence of yellow pigments and maximize pink pigment formation in meat products.

  8. Optimization study of small-scale solar membrane distillation desalination systems (s-SMDDS).

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsuan; Chang, Cheng-Liang; Hung, Chen-Yu; Cheng, Tung-Wen; Ho, Chii-Dong

    2014-11-24

    Membrane distillation (MD), which can utilize low-grade thermal energy, has been extensively studied for desalination. By incorporating solar thermal energy, the solar membrane distillation desalination system (SMDDS) is a potential technology for resolving energy and water resource problems. Small-scale SMDDS (s-SMDDS) is an attractive and viable option for the production of fresh water for small communities in remote arid areas. The minimum cost design and operation of s-SMDDS are determined by a systematic method, which involves a pseudo-steady-state approach for equipment sizing and dynamic optimization using overall system mathematical models. Two s-SMDDS employing an air gap membrane distillation module with membrane areas of 11.5 m(2) and 23 m(2) are analyzed. The lowest water production costs are $5.92/m(3) and $5.16/m(3) for water production rates of 500 kg/day and 1000 kg/day, respectively. For these two optimal cases, the performance ratios are 0.85 and 0.91; the recovery ratios are 4.07% and 4.57%. The effect of membrane characteristics on the production cost is investigated. For the commercial membrane employed in this study, the increase of the membrane mass transfer coefficient up to two times is beneficial for cost reduction.

  9. Engineering Hydrophobic Organosilica Nanoparticle-Doped Nanofibers for Enhanced and Fouling Resistant Membrane Distillation.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Mohammed Amen; Croissant, Jonas G; Francis, Lijo; Alsaiari, Shahad K; Anjum, Dalaver H; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Khashab, Niveen M

    2017-01-18

    Engineering and scaling-up new materials for better water desalination are imperative to find alternative fresh water sources to meet future demands. Herein, the fabrication of hydrophobic poly(ether imide) composite nanofiber membranes doped with novel ethylene-pentafluorophenylene-based periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles is reported for enhanced and fouling resistant membrane distillation. Novel organosilica nanoparticles were homogeneously incorporated into electrospun nanofiber membranes depicting a proportional increase of hydrophobicity to the particle contents. Direct contact membrane distillation experiments on the organosilica-doped membrane with only 5% doping showed an increase of flux of 140% compared to commercial membranes. The high porosity of organosilica nanoparticles was further utilized to load the eugenol antimicrobial agent which produced a dramatic enhancement of the antibiofouling properties of the membrane of 70% after 24 h.

  10. An in vitro-in vivo correlation study for nifedipine immediate release capsules administered with water, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages: Impact of in vitro dissolution media and hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, A; Fares, R; Bresciani, M; Fotaki, N

    2016-02-29

    The impact of hydrodynamics and media composition on nifedipine dissolution profile from IR (immediate release) soft capsules was investigated using dissolution apparatus USP1, USP2, USP3 and USP4 (United State Pharmacopoeia). Media composition was varied in terms of pH and content, to mimic the dosage form intake with water or non-alcoholic beverages (orange juice) and alcoholic beverages (orange juice/ethanol mixture (47% v/v)). Through construction of in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) with corresponding in vivo data from the literature, it was possible to evaluate the in vitro conditions that are likely to simulate the in vivo formulation behaviour. Both linear and nonlinear correlations were obtained depending on experimental set-ups. Testing of 20mg nifedipine capsules in FaSSGFst (Fasted State Simulated Gastric Fluid pH 1.6; water administration) produced IVIVC with the USP3 (after time scaling) and USP4 apparatus. IVIVC were obtained for USP2, USP3 and USP4 in FaSSGFoj (Fasted State Simulated Gastric Fluid pH 3.4; orange juice administration). Linear and nonlinear correlations were obtained with the USP1, USP2 and USP3 apparatus when testing the capsules in FaSSGFoj/EtOH (orange juice/ethanol administration). This study highlighted that selection of physiologically relevant dissolution set-ups is critical for predicting the in vivo impact of formulations co-administration with water, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages.

  11. 40 CFR 147.1101 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands. 147.1101 Section 147.1101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Massachusetts § 147.1101 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1851 Section 147.1851 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1851...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1750 Section 147.1750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1750...

  14. 40 CFR 147.1750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1750 Section 147.1750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1750...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1851 Section 147.1851 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1851...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1851 Section 147.1851 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1851...

  17. 40 CFR 147.750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.750 Section 147.750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Indiana § 147.750...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1851 Section 147.1851 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1851...

  19. 40 CFR 147.1750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1750 Section 147.1750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1750...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2551 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.2551 Section 147.2551 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Wyoming § 147.2551...

  1. 40 CFR 147.750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.750 Section 147.750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Indiana § 147.750...

  2. 40 CFR 147.1851 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1851 Section 147.1851 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Oklahoma § 147.1851...

  3. 40 CFR 147.1750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1750 Section 147.1750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1750...

  4. 40 CFR 147.1750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.1750 Section 147.1750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS North Dakota § 147.1750...

  5. 40 CFR 147.750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.750 Section 147.750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Indiana § 147.750...

  6. 40 CFR 147.750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.750 Section 147.750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Indiana § 147.750...

  7. 40 CFR 147.750 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.750 Section 147.750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Indiana § 147.750...

  8. 40 CFR 147.2551 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.2551 Section 147.2551 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Wyoming § 147.2551...

  9. 40 CFR 147.2551 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.2551 Section 147.2551 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Wyoming § 147.2551...

  10. 40 CFR 147.2551 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.2551 Section 147.2551 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Wyoming § 147.2551...

  11. 40 CFR 147.2551 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.2551 Section 147.2551 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Wyoming § 147.2551...

  12. 40 CFR 147.2001 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands. 147.2001 Section 147.2001 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Island § 147.2001 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  13. 40 CFR 147.2001 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands. 147.2001 Section 147.2001 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Island § 147.2001 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  14. 40 CFR 147.2001 - EPA-administered program-Indian lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Indian lands. 147.2001 Section 147.2001 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Island § 147.2001 EPA-administered program—Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program for all classes...

  15. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants....

  16. 76 FR 19908 - Revision of Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Spirits Plant Regulations; Corrections AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Treasury. ACTION... published a final rule revising its distilled spirits plant regulations in the Federal Register of February... distilled spirits plant regulations as contained in 27 CFR part 19. TTB published this final rule as...

  17. 27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize the establishment...

  18. Potential Bleaching Techniques for use in Distillers Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming. And extensive research is currently being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock f...

  19. Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this winter, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.

  20. 27 CFR 26.211 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... and Recordkeeping § 26.211 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse..., warehouse receipts for distilled spirits stored in warehouses, or elsewhere, must register and keep...

  1. 27 CFR 26.45 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Recordkeeping § 26.45 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for... distilled spirits into the United States from Puerto Rico who sells, or offers for sale, warehouse...

  2. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...

  3. Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Keulen, Hanno; And Others

    Distillation in the chemistry laboratory is an essential part of a practicing chemists' and a chemistry educators' work. Nevertheless, regardless of the degree of importance in each of the aforementioned professions, few educational studies on teaching and learning distillation exist. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the Department of…

  4. Distillation with Vapour Compression. An Undergraduate Experimental Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Colin

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the need to design distillation columns that are more energy efficient. Describes a "design and build" project completed by two college students aimed at demonstrating the principles of vapour compression distillation in a more energy efficient way. General design specifications are given, along with suggestions for teaching…

  5. A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

  6. Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keulen, Hanno van; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the problems chemistry majors have with learning distillation concepts in traditional chemistry laboratory courses. Reports that students take the generalized concepts at face value, construct decontextualized concepts for distillation, and cannot interpret their observations or make reasoned decisions based on the theoretical…

  7. Distillation purification and radon assay of liquid xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Yasuo

    2005-09-08

    We succeeded to reduce the Kr contamination in liquid xenon by a factor of 1/1000 with a distillation system in Kamioka mine. Then, the remaining radioactivities (Radon and Kr) in purified liquid xenon were measured with the XMASS prototype detector. In this talk, the distillation system and the remaining internal radioactivity levels are reported.

  8. An Automated Distillation Column for the Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Douglas M.; Bruce, David A.; Gooding, Charles H.; Butler, Justin T.

    2005-01-01

    A batch distillation apparatus has been designed and built for use in the undergraduate unit operations laboratory course. The column is fully automated and is accompanied by data acquisition and control software. A mixture of 1­-propanol and 2-­propanol is separated in the column, using either a constant distillate rate or constant composition…

  9. 27 CFR 29.53 - Identification of distilling apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilling apparatus. 29.53 Section 29.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Identification of distilling apparatus. (a) General. Each still or condenser manufactured will be identified by... serial number for the apparatus. (b) Marking requirements. The apparatus will be identified in a...

  10. 27 CFR 29.53 - Identification of distilling apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilling apparatus. 29.53 Section 29.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Identification of distilling apparatus. (a) General. Each still or condenser manufactured will be identified by... serial number for the apparatus. (b) Marking requirements. The apparatus will be identified in a...

  11. 76 FR 9079 - Revision of Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...In this document, the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau adopts as a final rule, with some changes, a proposed revision of its distilled spirits plant regulations. The revision modernizes the requirements for operating distilled spirits plants and includes a number of organizational changes to improve the layout of the regulatory texts. These changes make the regulations easier to apply,......

  12. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  13. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  14. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  15. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  16. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Use on Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at the airport under customs custody, for use on...

  17. 27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize the establishment...

  18. Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1949-01-01

    A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

  19. A comparison of different dilute solution explosions pretreatment for conversion of distillers' grains into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Wen-Xue; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Yang, Jian; Liu, Yue-Hong; Zhong, Xia; Deng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of distillers' grains converting to ethanol, 13 dilute solution explosions were evaluated based on the optimization of pure water explosion. To decrease residual inhibitor content, the exploded slurry was dried at 105°C. Using a 1.1 mol/L butanone solution explosion, with the explosion temperature set at 160°C (pressure at 1.9 MPa), the residence time at 10 min, and the dried distillers' grains-to-water ratio at 1:2 (w/w), the yields of total sugar, glucose, and xylose were 86%, 89%, and 84% (w/w), respectively, and the ethanol yield was 25.3 g/100 g distillers' grains dry matter. Moreover, the eight other reagent solution explosions improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis, and of simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and the residual contents of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid decreased to an acceptable concentration range after detoxification by drying. The results suggested that compared with pure water explosions, the use of volatile solutions lowered the explosive temperature and improved the sugar yield. This study offers a reference for the further study of lignocellulosic materials with higher starch and hemicelluloses contents as raw materials for converting biomass to bioethanol.

  20. Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) component enhancement, testing and expert fault diagnostics development, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, L. S.; Zdankiewicz, E. M.

    1987-01-01

    Vapor compression distillation technology for phase change recovery of potable water from wastewater has evolved as a technically mature approach for use aboard the Space Station. A program to parametrically test an advanced preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) was completed during 1985 and 1986. In parallel with parametric testing, a hardware improvement program was initiated to test the feasibility of incorporating several key improvements into the advanced preprototype VCDS following initial parametric tests. Specific areas of improvement included long-life, self-lubricated bearings, a lightweight, highly-efficient compressor, and a long-life magnetic drive. With the exception of the self-lubricated bearings, these improvements are incorporated. The advanced preprototype VCDS was designed to reclaim 95 percent of the available wastewater at a nominal water recovery rate of 1.36 kg/h achieved at a solids concentration of 2.3 percent and 308 K condenser temperature. While this performance was maintained for the initial testing, a 300 percent improvement in water production rate with a corresponding lower specific energy was achieved following incorporation of the improvements. Testing involved the characterization of key VCDS performance factors as a function of recycle loop solids concentration, distillation unit temperature and fluids pump speed. The objective of this effort was to expand the VCDS data base to enable defining optimum performance characteristics for flight hardware development.

  1. Improved semidefinite programming upper bound on distillable entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Duan, Runyao

    2016-11-01

    An additive and semidefinite programming (SDP) computable entanglement measure is introduced to upper bound the amount of distillable entanglement in bipartite quantum states by operations completely preserving the positivity of partial transpose (PPT). This quantity is always smaller than or equal to the logarithmic negativity, the previously best known SDP bound on distillable entanglement, and the inequality is strict in general. Furthermore, a succinct SDP characterization of the one-copy PPT deterministic distillable entanglement for any given state is also obtained, which provides a simple but useful lower bound on the PPT distillable entanglement. Remarkably, there is a genuinely mixed state of which both bounds coincide with the distillable entanglement, while being strictly less than the logarithmic negativity.

  2. Biofouling and microbial communities in membrane distillation and reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Zodrow, Katherine R; Bar-Zeev, Edo; Giannetto, Michael J; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-11-18

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging desalination technology that uses low-grade heat to drive water vapor across a microporous hydrophobic membrane. Currently, little is known about the biofilms that grow on MD membranes. In this study, we use estuarine water collected from Long Island Sound in a bench-scale direct contact MD system to investigate the initial stages of biofilm formation. For comparison, we studied biofilm formation in a bench-scale reverse osmosis (RO) system using the same feedwater. These two membrane desalination systems expose the natural microbial community to vastly different environmental conditions: high temperatures with no hydraulic pressure in MD and low temperature with hydraulic pressure in RO. Over the course of 4 days, we observed a steady decline in bacteria concentration (nearly 2 orders of magnitude) in the MD feed reservoir. Even with this drop in planktonic bacteria, significant biofilm formation was observed. Biofilm morphologies on MD and RO membranes were markedly different. MD membrane biofilms were heterogeneous and contained several colonies, while RO membrane biofilms, although thicker, were a homogeneous mat. Phylogenetic analysis using next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA showed significant shifts in the microbial communities. Bacteria representing the orders Burkholderiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales were most abundant in the MD biofilms. On the basis of the results, we propose two different regimes for microbial community shifts and biofilm development in RO and MD systems.

  3. Comparison of total costs of administering calcium polycarbophil and psyllium mucilloid in an institutional setting.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, R; Cimino, J A; Cooperman, J M; Kugel, R

    1990-01-01

    The total cost of administering calcium polycarbophil per unit dose (two tablets) was compared with that of administering psyllium mucilloid (one packet dissolved in 8 oz of water) in 20 elderly nursing-home residents. Times for printing labels, checking and initialing labels, gathering materials needed, and preparing and administering the medications were recorded during at least 50 observations in each treatment group. Total cost included nurses' and pharmacists' time, materials, and medications. Calcium polycarbophil doses were prepared and administered more quickly (mean, 49.5 sec) than psyllium mucilloid (105.3 sec). The mean cost of preparing and administering a unit dose was 28.2 for calcium polycarbophil tablets and 59.9 for psyllium mucilloid. The results suggest that the use of calcium polycarbophil tablets would save time and money in institutions in which laxatives are frequently administered.

  4. Distilling reliable remedies: Hieronymus Brunschwig's Liber de arte distillandi (1500) between alchemical learning and craft practice.

    PubMed

    Taape, Tillmann

    2014-08-01

    Hieronymus Brunschwig's Liber de arte distillandi, written in German and first published in Strasbourg in 1500, was the first printed manual on the distillation of medicinal waters. Although influential among early modern audiences and well known to modern scholars, its intriguing blend of intellectual and practical traditions has thus far received little attention. This paper identifies these strands in Brunschwig's technical instructions and shows how they intertwine in the production of reliable remedies. Exploring the intellectual dimension of Brunschwig's work, I argue that his concept of distillation is shaped by an alchemical understanding of matter, especially by the writings on 'quintessence' of the fourteenth-century alchemist John of Rupescissa. To realise this concept in the workshop, Brunschwig emphasises the central importance of the body and its senses to ensure true craftsmanship. Brunschwig's printed manual was as much a product of skilled artisanal practices as the distilled waters it describes, and I argue that it was shaped by the same concerns about technical precision and reliability.

  5. Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

  6. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation.

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, Marie E; Chemat, Farid; Smadja, Jacqueline

    2004-07-23

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. SFME has been compared with a conventional technique, hydro-distillation (HD), for the extraction of essential oil from three aromatic herbs: basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), garden mint (Mentha crispa L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). The essential oils extracted by SFME for 30min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydro-distillation for 4.5 h. The SFME method yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs, in terms of time, energy and plant material. SFME is a green technology and appears as a good alternative for the extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants.

  7. 7 CFR 247.3 - Administering agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.3 Administering agencies. (a... Department's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), which provides commodities, assigns caseload, and...

  8. 7 CFR 247.3 - Administering agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.3 Administering agencies. (a... Department's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), which provides commodities, assigns caseload, and...

  9. 7 CFR 247.3 - Administering agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.3 Administering agencies. (a... Department's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), which provides commodities, assigns caseload, and...

  10. 7 CFR 247.3 - Administering agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.3 Administering agencies. (a... Department's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), which provides commodities, assigns caseload, and...

  11. 7 CFR 247.3 - Administering agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.3 Administering agencies. (a... Department's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), which provides commodities, assigns caseload, and...

  12. Teaching Students to Administer the WISC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kathleen Yost

    1977-01-01

    A college level psychology course is described in which students were trained by both traditional and experimental methods to administer individual intelligence tests. Comparative analysis of performance by each group indicates that student motivation and performance is not greatly influenced by teaching method and that videotape demonstrations…

  13. Changes in Medications Administered in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Johnson, Shella; Roman, Jaclyn; Zimmerman, M. Bridget

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to determine if there have been changes in the type and number of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) medications administered in schools since the introduction of long-acting stimulants. A survey was sent to 1,000 school nurses randomly selected from the National Association…

  14. On the Interchangeability of Individually Administered and Group Administered Ability Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Baruch; Sela, Roni

    2003-01-01

    This research studied the interchangeability of individually administered and group administered cognitive tests. Seventy undergraduate students took the Hebrew version of the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised), and their IQs were measured. They also took the IPET (Israeli Psychometric Entrance Test) and their IPET scores were…

  15. Combination of thermal cracking with vacuum distillation of cracked tar

    SciTech Connect

    Telyashev, G.G.; Gimaev, R.N.; Makhov, A.F.; Usmanov, R.M.; Baimbetov, A.M.; Vafin, I.A.

    1987-11-01

    A method of obtaining greater amounts of distillate feedstocks from the heavy gasoil recovered by vacuum distillation of the products of thermal cracking of petroleum resids was examined. At the Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, a two-furnace thermal cracking unit was reconstructed, adding a vacuum section for distillation of the cracked tar. A simplified flow plan of this unit is shown. Vacuum resid from atmospheric-vacuum tubestill units is heated in double-pipe heat exchangers, using heat from the gasoil and cracked tar. The new method makes it possible to curtail production of boiler fuel, expand the resources of feed, and improve the quality of petroleum coke.

  16. Improved automatic steam distillation combined with oscillation-type densimetry for determining alcoholic strength in spirits and liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Plato, Leander; Suessmann, Manuela; Di Carmine, Matthew; Krueger, Bjoern; Kukuck, Armin; Kranz, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The determination of the alcoholic strength in spirits and liqueurs is required to control the labelling of alcoholic beverages. The reference methodology prescribes a distillation step followed by densimetric measurement. The classic distillation using a Vigreux rectifying column and a West condenser is time consuming and error-prone, especially for liqueurs that may have problems with entrainment and charring. For this reason, this methodology suggests the use of an automated steam distillation device as alternative. The novel instrument comprises an increased steam power, a redesigned geometry of the condenser and a larger cooling coil with controllable flow, compared to previously available devices. Method optimization applying D-optimal and central composite designs showed significant influence of sample volume, distillation time and coolant flow, while other investigated parameters such as steam power, receiver volume, or the use of pipettes or flasks for sample measurement did not significantly influence the results. The method validation was conducted using the following settings: steam power 70 %, sample volume 25 mL transferred using pipettes, receiver volume 50 mL, coolant flow 7 L/min, and distillation time as long as possible just below the calibration mark. For four different liqueurs covering the typical range of these products between 15 and 35 % vol, the method showed an adequate precision, with relative standard deviations below 0.4 % (intraday) and below 0.6 % (interday). The absolute standard deviations were between 0.06 % vol and 0.08 % vol (intraday) and between 0.07 % vol and 0.10 % vol (interday). The improved automatic steam distillation devices offer an excellent alternative for sample cleanup of volatiles from complex matrices. A major advantage are the low costs for consumables per analysis (only distilled water is needed). For alcoholic strength determination, the method has become more rugged than before, and there are only

  17. A study of volatile contaminants in recovered water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, H. C.; Marek, R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The recovery and reuse of water during long term space flight is discussed. Particular attention was given to obtaining basic information on the volatile impurities in urine samples and in water recovered from urine by distillation. Data also cover laboratory distillation tests to determine the nature and extent of volatile constituents in the distillate and an evaluation of possible problems in distillation due to iodine used for control of microbial contamination. Efforts made to develop design criteria for distillation equipment to minimize the problems of volatile contaminants various methods which might be used for purification subsequent to recovery are included.

  18. 40 CFR 63.216 - Who administers this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Information § 63.216 Who administers this subpart? (a) This subpart can be administered by us, the... authority to administer and enforce this subpart. You should contact your EPA Regional Office to find out...

  19. 40 CFR 63.216 - Who administers this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Information § 63.216 Who administers this subpart? (a) This subpart can be administered by us, the... authority to administer and enforce this subpart. You should contact your EPA Regional Office to find out...

  20. 40 CFR 63.5455 - Who administers this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 63.5455 Who administers this subpart? (a) This subpart can be administered by us, the United States... that agency has the primary authority to administer and enforce this subpart. You should contact your...

  1. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

    2011-08-10

    Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current

  2. Technique of ethanol food grade production with batch distillation and dehydration using starch-based adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Ni'mah, Hikmatun; Tedji, Namira; Rofiqah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Development and innovation of ethanol food grade production are becoming the reasearch priority to increase economy growth. Moreover, the government of Indonesia has established regulation for increasing the renewable energy as primary energy. Sorghum is cerealia plant that contains 11-16% sugar that is optimum for fermentation process, it is potential to be cultivated, especially at barren area in Indonesia. The purpose of this experiment is to learn about the effect of microorganisms in fermentation process. Fermentation process was carried out batchwise in bioreactor and used 150g/L initial sugar concentration. Microorganisms used in this experiment are Zymomonas mobilis mutation (A3), Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mixed of Pichia stipitis. The yield of ethanol can be obtained from this experiment. For ethanol purification result, distillation process from fermentation process has been done to search the best operation condition for efficiency energy consumption. The experiment for purification was divided into two parts, which are distillation with structured packing steel wool and adsorption (dehydration) sequencely. In distillation part, parameters evaluation (HETP and pressure drop) of distillation column that can be used for scale up are needed. The experiment was operated at pressure of 1 atm. The distillation stage was carried out at 85 °C and reflux ratio of 0.92 with variety porosities of 20%, 40%, and 60%. Then the adsorption process was done at 120°C and two types of adsorbent, which are starch - based adsorbent with ingredient of cassava and molecular sieve 3A, were used. The adsorption process was then continued to purify the ethanol from impurities by using activated carbon. This research shows that the batch fermentation process with Zymomonas mobilis A3 obtain higher % yield of ethanol of 40,92%. In addition to that, for purification process, the best operation condition is by using 40% of porosity of stuctured packing steel wool in distillation

  3. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  4. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  5. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  6. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  7. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use...

  8. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dongen, R. H.; Stork, W. H. J.

    1985-02-19

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to solvent deasphalting, and subjecting the resulting asphaltic bitumen fraction to a combination of catalytic hydrotreating and thermal cracking.

  9. Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of latex from plant fiber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  10. Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

  11. Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barduhn, Allen J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses how pressure setting is determined for distillation columns, examining factors which must be considered when optimizing design for economical balance. Also discusses the basics of heat exchangers and cites a common problem with pressure differences. (JM)

  12. Kinetic Method for Hydrogen-Deuterium-Tritium Mixture Distillation Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, E.P.

    2005-07-15

    Simulation of hydrogen distillation plants requires mathematical procedures suitable for multicomponent systems. In most of the present-day simulation methods a distillation column is assumed to be composed of theoretical stages, or plates. However, in the case of a multicomponent mixture theoretical plate does not exist.An alternative kinetic method of simulation is depicted in the work. According to this method a system of mass-transfer differential equations is solved numerically. Mass-transfer coefficients are estimated with using experimental results and empirical equations.Developed method allows calculating the steady state of a distillation column as well as its any non-steady state when initial conditions are given. The results for steady states are compared with ones obtained via Thiele-Geddes theoretical stage technique and the necessity of using kinetic method is demonstrated. Examples of a column startup period and periodic distillation simulations are shown as well.

  13. Energy savings in distillation via identification of useful configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Vishesh Hemanshu

    Recent market and environmental forces require the rapid development of better and cheaper separation process solutions. Especially for multicomponent mixtures, there are several feasible separation process solutions differing significantly in cost and energy consumption in spite of carrying out the same overall process. Therefore a systematic method to identify and design optimal multicomponent separation sequences is needed instead of relying on the inventive activity of a few experienced engineers. Even for a commonly perceived "mature" technology such as distillation, until recently there has been an absence of systematic methods to (i) elucidate all possible separation configurations and to (ii) identify energy efficient candidates. This research aims to address these needs. In this work, we focus on the continuous distillation of non-azeotropic mixtures into n distinct composition final product streams. We develop a computationally efficient and easy-to-use mathematical framework to generate all the basic distillation configurations that use exactly (n-1) distillation columns to carry out this n-component separation. We extend the framework to generate all the additional distillation configurations with thermal coupling. We observe that the search space of distillation configurations grows very rapidly as the number of product streams increases. For instance, for a mixture to be separated into 4 product streams, we can choose from 18 basic configurations and 134 additional configurations with thermal coupling; while for a mixture to be separated into 8 product streams, we can choose from 15,767,207 basic configurations and 29,006,926,681 additional configurations with thermal coupling. The next challenge for a process engineer is to be able to quickly prune the search space to a handful of attractive energy efficient candidates that can be studied in greater detail. To this effect, we develop a quick screening optimization tool that identifies configurations

  14. EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

  15. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  16. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  17. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  18. 27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the... removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26 U.S.C. 5505)...

  19. Administering social security: challenges yesterday and today.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, the Social Security Administration (SSA) celebrates the 75th anniversary of the passage of the Social Security Act. In those 75 years, SSA has been responsible for programs providing unemployment insurance, child welfare, and supervision of credit unions, among other duties. This article focuses on the administration of the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance program, although it also covers some of the other major programs SSA has been tasked with administering over the years-in particular, Medicare, Black Lung benefits, and Supplemental Security Income. The article depicts some of the challenges that have accompanied administering these programs and the steps that SSA has taken to meet those challenges. Whether implementing complex legislation in short timeframes or coping with natural disasters, SSA has found innovative ways to overcome problems and has evolved to meet society's changing needs.

  20. Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S.

    2009-05-15

    We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

  1. Asymptotic relation between Bell-inequality violations and entanglement distillability

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Younghun

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the asymptotic relation between violations of the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality and the entanglement distillability of multipartite entangled states, as the number of parties increases. We in particular consider noisy multiqubit GHZ and so-called Duer states in the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality, and show that, in the asymptotic limit of the number of parties, the violation of the inequality implies the distillability in almost all bipartitions.

  2. Orally Administered Bioadherent Sustained Release Microencapsulated Vaccines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    Bioadherent Sustained Release Microencapsulated Vaccines PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. G. Duncan Hitchens, Anthony Giletto, Allison Rice-Ficht, Sunitha...Aug 96) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Orally Administered Bioadherent Sustained Release Microencapsulated Vaccines DAMD17-95-C-5099 6... microencapsulated vaccine against staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). The research is centered around using a known bioadhesive, vitelline protein B (vpB), to

  3. Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation System for Desalination Using Waste Heat fromGas Brayton Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2012-10-01

    Generation IV high temperature reactor systems use closed gas Brayton Cycles to realize high thermal efficiency in the range of 40% to 60%. The waste heat is removed through coolers by water at substantially greater average temperature than in conventional Rankine steam cycles. This paper introduces an innovative Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation (AMED) design that can enable the production of substantial quantities of low-cost desalinated water using waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles. A reference AMED design configuration, optimization models, and simplified economics analysis are presented. By using an AMED distillation system the waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles can be fully utilized to desalinate brackish water and seawater without affecting the cycle thermal efficiency. Analysis shows that cogeneration of electricity and desalinated water can increase net revenues for several Brayton cycles while generating large quantities of potable water. The AMED combining with closed gas Brayton cycles could significantly improve the sustainability and economics of Generation IV high temperature reactors.

  4. Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

    2010-12-01

    Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a > F3 > F3b with invertebrates, and F3a > F3b > F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results.

  5. 75 FR 23318 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Philippines-Taxes on Distilled Spirits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Philippines--Taxes on Distilled Spirits... issue. The Philippines taxes distilled spirits at rates that differ depending on the product from which the spirit is distilled. The Philippines taxes distilled spirits made from certain materials that...

  6. 27 CFR 19.315 - Removal or destruction of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... removed from bonded premises before being distilled. The proprietor may remove mash, wort, wash or other... distilled spirits plant or bonded wine cellar. Residue of beer used as distilling material may be returned to the producing brewery. Distilling material produced and wine and beer received for use...

  7. Complete nutrient recovery from source-separated urine by nitrification and distillation.

    PubMed

    Udert, K M; Wächter, M

    2012-02-01

    In this study we present a method to recover all nutrients from source-separated urine in a dry solid by combining biological nitrification with distillation. In a first process step, a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor was operated stably for more than 12 months, producing a nutrient solution with a pH between 6.2 and 7.0 (depending on the pH set-point), and an ammonium to nitrate ratio between 0.87 and 1.15 gN gN(-1). The maximum nitrification rate was 1.8 ± 0.3 gN m(-2) d(-1). Process stability was achieved by controlling the pH via the influent. In the second process step, real nitrified urine and synthetic solutions were concentrated in lab-scale distillation reactors. All nutrients were recovered in a dry powder except for some ammonia (less than 3% of total nitrogen). We estimate that the primary energy demand for a simple nitrification/distillation process is four to five times higher than removing nitrogen and phosphorus in a conventional wastewater treatment plant and producing the equivalent amount of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers. However, the primary energy demand can be reduced to values very close to conventional treatment, if 80% of the water is removed with reverse osmosis and distillation is operated with vapor compression. The ammonium nitrate content of the solid residue is below the limit at which stringent EU safety regulations for fertilizers come into effect; nevertheless, we propose some additional process steps that will increase the thermal stability of the solid product.

  8. Results and Interpretation of the WFRD ELS Distillation Down-Select Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance Dean; Flynn, Michael; Carter, Layne; Long, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Testing of the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator was conducted in support of the Exploration Life Support Distillation Down-Select Test. The WFRD was constructed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) and tested at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The WFRD was delivered to MSFC in September 2009, and testing of solution #1 and solution #2 immediately following. Solution #1 was composed of humidity condensate and urine, including flush water and pretreatment chemicals. Solution #2 was composed of hygiene water, humidity condensate, and urine, including flush water and pretreatment chemicals. During the testing, the operational parameters of the WFRD were recorded and samples of the feed, brine, and product were collected and analyzed. The steady-state results of processing 414L of feed solution #1 and 1283L of feed solution #2 demonstrated that running the WFRD at a brine temperature of 50 C gave an average production rate of 16.7 L/hr. The specific energy consumption was 80.5W-hr/L. Data Analysis shows that the water recovery rates were 94% and 91%, respectively. The total mass of the WFRD as delivered to MSFC was 300 Kg. The volume of the tests stand rack was 1m width x 0.7m depth x 1.9m height or 1.5 cu m of which about half of the total volume is occupied by equipment. Chemical analysis of the distillate showed an average TOC of 20ppm, a pH of 3.5, and a conductivity of 98 mho/cm. The conductivity of the distillate, compared to the feed, decreased by 98.9%., the total ion concentration decreased by 99.6%, the total organics decreased 98.6%, and the metals were at or below detection limits

  9. Process for the preparation of light hydrocarbon distillates by hydrocracking and catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, A.F.; Stork, W.H.J.

    1989-08-22

    This patent describes a process for the preparation of a gasoline range petroleum distillate from a vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate. It comprises: passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate to a hydrocracking zone to hydrocrack the distillate into a product stream comprising a hydrocracked distillate residue having an initial boiling point of at least 300{sup 0}C; passing the hydrocracked distillate to a distillation separation zone to separate and recover the residue; passing the residue to a catalytic cracking zone to catalytically crack the residue; passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy oil distillate prior to hydrocracking to the catalytic cracking to catalytically crack the vacuum heaving oil distillate; withdrawing the gasoline range petroleum distillate from the catalytic cracking zone.

  10. Floral aroma improvement of Muscat spirits by packed column distillation with variable internal reflux.

    PubMed

    Matias-Guiu, Pau; Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Orriols, Ignacio; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco

    2016-12-15

    The organoleptic quality of wine distillates depends on raw materials and the distillation process. Previous work has shown that rectification columns in batch distillation with fixed reflux rate are useful to obtain distillates or distillate fractions with enhanced organoleptic characteristics. This study explores variable reflux rate operating strategies to increase the levels of terpenic compounds in specific distillate fractions to emphasize its floral aroma. Based on chemical and sensory analyses, two distillate heart sub-fractions obtained with the best operating strategy found, were compared with a distillate obtained in a traditional alembic. Results have shown that a drastic reduction of the reflux rate at an early stage of the heart cut produced a distillate heart sub-fraction with a higher concentration of terpenic compounds and lower levels of negative aroma compounds. Therefore, this sub-fraction presented a much more noticeable floral aroma than the distillate obtained with a traditional alembic.

  11. Rectal temperature responses of donkeys administered with ascorbic acid and subjected to load carrying (packing) during the harmattan season in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olaifa, Folashade; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Ambali, Suleiman Folorunsho; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Minka, Ndazo Salka

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of 4-h load carrying (packing) on donkeys administered with ascorbic acid (AA) during the harmattan season. Six donkeys administered orally with ascorbic acid (200 mg/kg) and subjected to packing served as experimental animals, while six others given only distilled water served as control animals. The rectal temperature (RT) of each donkey and dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) of the research pen were recorded at 0600 hours pre-packing; while post-packing, the values were obtained at 1430, 1600 and 1800 hours. The DBT values (ranges) recorded before, during and after packing were 13.7 ± 1.3 °C (11-15 °C), 28.4 ± 1.0 °C (22.7-30.3 °C) and 30.6 ± 3.0 °C (19.8-45 °C), respectively. The highest temperature-humidity index (THI) of 83.4 ± 6.9 was obtained at 1430 hours after packing, and the value decreased to 64.2 ± 5.8 at 1800 hours. The thermal environmental conditions were outside the thermoneutral zone for the donkeys. The RT values recorded immediately after packing did not differ (P > 0.05) in experimental and control donkeys; but at 1600 and 1800 hours, values obtained in control donkeys (38.48 ± 0.12 and 38.12 ± 0.12 °C, respectively) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those recorded in experimental donkeys (38.16 ± 0.14 and 37.85 ± 0.14 °C, respectively). In conclusion, administration of ascorbic acid reduced the rise in RT due to packing and may be of value in the amelioration of adverse effects of heat stress associated with work in donkeys.

  12. Hydrothermal liquefaction of freshwater and marine algal biomass: A novel approach to produce distillate fuel fractions through blending and co-processing of biocrude with petrocrude.

    PubMed

    Lavanya, Melcureraj; Meenakshisundaram, Arunachalam; Renganathan, Sahadevan; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Lewis, David Milton; Nallasivam, Jaganathan; Bhaskar, Sailendra

    2016-03-01

    Biocrude was produced from Tetraselmis sp. - a marine alga and Arthrospira platensis - a fresh water alga using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process. Considering the constraints in cultivating algae for replacing 100% petrocrude, this study evaluated the option of blending and co-processing algal biocrude with petrocrude. Biocrudes obtained from algal strains cultivated in fresh water and sea water were blended with petrocrude at 10% concentration and the characteristics were studied using FT-IR and CNS SIMDIST. True Boiling Point (TBP) distillation was carried out to assess yields and properties of distillates of blended biocrudes. Biocrudes obtained from both algae were light crudes and the blended crudes recorded distillate yields of 76-77 wt%. The yield of light naphtha fraction of biocrude blends was 29-30%; whereas the yield of diesel fraction was about 18%. This study proposes blending and co-processing of algal biocrude with petrocrude to produce drop-in biofuels.

  13. Integrated forward osmosis-membrane distillation process for human urine treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianliang; Liu, Caihong; Zhao, Lei; Ma, Weichao; Liu, Huiling; Ma, Jun

    2016-03-15

    This study demonstrated a forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) hybrid system for real human urine treatment. A series of NaCl solutions at different concentrations were adopted for draw solutions in FO process, which were also the feed solutions of MD process. To establish a stable and continuous integrated FO-MD system, individual FO process with different NaCl concentrations and individual direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process with different feed temperatures were firstly investigated separately. Four stable equilibrium conditions were obtained from matching the water transfer rates of individual FO and MD processes. It was found that the integrated system is stable and sustainable when the water transfer rate of FO subsystem is equal to that of MD subsystem. The rejections to main contaminants in human urine were also investigated. Although individual FO process had relatively high rejection to Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Ammonium Nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) in human urine, these contaminants could also accumulate in draw solution after long term performance. The MD process provided an effective rejection to contaminants in draw solution after FO process and the integrated system revealed nearly complete rejection to TOC, TN and NH4(+)-N. This work provided a potential treatment process for human urine in some fields such as water regeneration in space station and water or nutrient recovery from source-separated urine.

  14. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA-administered program. 147.1201... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA-administered program. 147.1201... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program. 147.1201... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered...

  17. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA-administered program. 147.1201... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered...

  18. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false EPA-administered program. 147.1201... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered...

  19. 40 CFR 282.74 - Mississippi State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi State-Administered Program... Mississippi State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Mississippi is approved to administer and enforce an... administered by the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42...

  20. 40 CFR 282.74 - Mississippi State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mississippi State-Administered Program... Mississippi State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Mississippi is approved to administer and enforce an... administered by the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42...

  1. 40 CFR 282.74 - Mississippi State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mississippi State-Administered Program... Mississippi State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Mississippi is approved to administer and enforce an... administered by the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42...

  2. 40 CFR 282.74 - Mississippi State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mississippi State-Administered Program... Mississippi State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Mississippi is approved to administer and enforce an... administered by the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42...

  3. 40 CFR 282.74 - Mississippi State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mississippi State-Administered Program... Mississippi State-Administered Program. (a) The State of Mississippi is approved to administer and enforce an... administered by the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42...

  4. 40 CFR 272.2201 - Texas State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), 361.088(g), and 361.114. (iii) Texas Water Code (TWC), Texas Codes Annotated (Vernon, 2000), effective... Chapter 27, sections 27.018 and 27.019. (iv) Texas Water Code (TWC), Texas Codes Annotated (Vernon, 2002... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Texas State-Administered...

  5. 18 CFR 340.1 - Suspended rate schedules; procedure; refund requirement; administered by the Federal Energy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspended rate schedules; procedure; refund requirement; administered by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. 340.1 Section 340.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE...

  6. Extractive acetonobutylic fermentation by coupling ultrafiltration and distillation.

    PubMed

    Minier, M; Grateloup, R; Blanc-Ferras, E; Goma, G

    1990-04-15

    An extractive acetonobutylic fermentation process is developed by integrating bioproduction, Ultrafiltration, and distillation, providing simultaneous retention of biomass, selective removal of inhibitors from the permeate, as well as separation and purification of acetone-butanol-ethanol solvents. Successive batch fermentations were performed with normal pressure distillation (98 degrees C), which permitted prolonging and enhancing (by a factor of 3) solvent production, with very few volume exchanges of medium (average dilution rate ws 0.002 h(-1)), and recovering on-line concentrated solvents. Different operating conditions were also tested in order to study the presence of extracellular autolytic enzymes as inhibition factors: It was shown that, (1) extracellular autolytic activity remains low during the larger part of fermentations, even without enzyme-inactivating thermotreatment in the distillation boiler, and (2) high-temperature distillation causes deleterious effects to the culture medium for long duration treatments. Progressive improvements of the process were achieved, first, by managing continuous runs, providing a minimum renewal of the culture medium and, mainly, by decreasing temperature and pressure of distilation. Solvent productivity then reached 2.6 g/L h for a 0.036 h(-1) average dilution rate, corresponding to a feed concentration of 156 g/L glucose actually consumed.

  7. Integrated staged conversion of methanol to gasoline and distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1990-02-06

    This patent describes an integrated fluidized bed process for the conversion of C{sub 1}-C{sub 5} oxygenate feedstock to olefinic gasoline range hydrocarbons and heavier distillate range hydrocarbons. It comprises: contacting the C{sub 1}-C{sub 5} oxygenate feedstock with shape selective medium pore metallosilicate catalyst in an oxygenate to light olefins conversion zone under oxygenate to light olefins conversion conditions whereby an effluent stream comprising C{sub 2}+ olefins is produced; cooling the effluent stream and passing the effluent stream to an olefins to gasoline conversion zone in contact with shape selective medium pore metallosilicate catalyst under olefins to gasoline conversion conditions whereby C{sub 2}+ olefins are converted to gasoline comprising C{sub 5}+ olefinic hydrocarbons; introducing the C{sub 5}+ hydrocarbons into an olefins to gasoline and heavier distillate range hydrocarbons conversion zone at increased pressure under olefins to gasoline and heavier distillate range hydrocarbon conversion conditions in contact with shape selective medium pore metallosilicate catalyst whereby olefinic gasoline and heavier distillate range hydrocarbons are produced without recycling C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons to the olefins to gasoline and heavier distillate range hydrocarbons conversion zone.

  8. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM LIGHT ELEMENT VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Cunningham, B.B.

    1957-12-17

    A process is described for removing light element impurities from plutonium. It has been found that plutonium contaminated with impurities may be purified by converting the plutonium to a halide and purifying the halide by a fractional distillation whereby impurities may be distilled from the plutonium halide. A particularly effective method includes the step of forming a lower halide such as the trior tetrahalide and distilling the halide under conditions such that no decomposition of the halide occurs. Molecular distillation methods are particularly suitable for this process. The apparatus may comprise an evaporation plate with means for heating it and a condenser surface with means for cooling it. The condenser surface is placed at a distance from the evaporating surface less than the mean free path of molecular travel of the material being distilled at the pressure and temperature used. The entire evaporating system is evacuated until the pressure is about 10/sup -4/ millimeters of mercury. A high temperuture method is presented for sealing porous materials such as carbon or graphite that may be used as a support or a moderator in a nuclear reactor. The carbon body is subjected to two surface heats simultaneously in an inert atmosphere; the surface to be sealed is heated to 1500 degrees centigrade; and another surface is heated to 300 degrees centigrade, whereupon the carbon vaporizes and flows to the cooler surface where it is deposited to seal that surface. This method may be used to seal a nuclear fuel in the carbon structure.

  9. Production and composition of cider spirits distilled in "alquitara".

    PubMed

    Madrera, Roberto Rodríguez; Valles, Belén Suarez; Hevia, Ana García; Fernandez, Ovidio García; Tascón, Norman Fernandez; Alonso, Juan José Mangas

    2006-12-27

    The capacity of alquitara (a traditional distillation system) to produce cider brandies is evaluated. To do so, the chemical composition of 12 fractions obtained during the distillation process and the cider brandies obtained from five ciders were analyzed (alcohol strength, methanol, volatile substances, furfural, and metals), taking into account European and Spanish legislation. During the course of distillation, an important increase in methanol, furfural, 2-phenylethanol, and metals in the last fractions was observed, while fusel oils were more abundant in the first fractions collected. Only acetaldehyde behaved differently, showing a minimum concentration in the middle fractions that might be explained by its formation on the surface of alquitara. On the other hand, the final distillates obtained by means of this method complied with the considered regulations. Worth highlighting in this regard are the low levels of a potential toxin such as methanol, as well as the detection of a constant ratio for methanol, ethanol, and fusel oil for the pairs of cider/spirits analyzed, which could be interpreted as an indication of good uniformity in the distillation system and method, thus guaranteeing product quality.

  10. Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill Young; Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Sang Suk; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Park, Keun Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) of three kinds of distillers grains (DG); i) wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg), ii) dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg), iii) dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg) produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis), respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05) in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05) in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3) can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months (495.1±91 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i) Control (total mixed ration, TMR), ii) WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis), and iii) WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis). With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg), WDG 10% (9.21 kg) and 20% (8.86 kg) and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0), WDG 10% (13.2) and 20% (12.1) did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up

  11. Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ill Young; Ahn, Gyu Chul; Kwak, Hyung Jun; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Oh, Young Kyoon; Lee, Sang Suk; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Park, Keun Kyu

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) of three kinds of distillers grains (DG); i) wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg), ii) dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg), iii) dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg) produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis), respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05) in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05) in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3) can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months (495.1±91 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i) Control (total mixed ration, TMR), ii) WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis), and iii) WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis). With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg), WDG 10% (9.21 kg) and 20% (8.86 kg) and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0), WDG 10% (13.2) and 20% (12.1) did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up

  12. System for high throughput water extraction from soil material for stable isotope analysis of water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major limitation in the use of stable isotope of water in ecological studies is the time that is required to extract water from soil and plant samples. Using vacuum distillation the extraction time can be less than one hour per sample. Therefore, assembling a distillation system that can process m...

  13. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Ethylene Glycol Ethers: 2-Methoxyethanol, 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-Butoxyethanol (CAS Nos. 109-86-4, 110-80-5, 111-76-2) Administered in Drinking Water to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Dieter, M.

    1993-07-01

    ,000 ppm, or 750 to 6000 ppm, respectively. In the 13-week studies in mice, groups of 10 males and 10 females received 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, or 2-butoxyethanol in the drinking water at concentrations ranging from 2000 to 10,000 ppm, 2500 to 40,000 ppm, or 750 to 6000 ppm, respectively. Estimates of compound consumption based on water consumption by male and female rats ranged from 70 to 800 mg/kg for 2-methoxyethanol, 100 to 2200- mg/kg for 2-ethoxyethanol, and 70 to 500 mg/kg for 2-butoxyethanol. For-mice, consumption values ranged from 300 to 1800 mg/kg for 2-methoxyethanol, 600 to 11,000 mg/kg for 2-ethoxyethanol, and 100 to 1300 mg/kg for 2-butoxyethanol. Chemical-related mortality occurred in male and female rats administered 4500 or 6000 ppm 2-methoxyethanol and in male and female rats administered 20,000 ppm 2-ethoxyethanol. No deaths occurred in rats administered 2-butoxyethanol or in mice administered 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, or 2-butoxyethanol. Decreased body weight gains occurred in dosed rats and mice in all three studies; the greatest reductions in body weight gain were seen with 2-methoxyethanol. In rats administered 2-methoxyethanol or 2-ethoxyethanol, treatment-related histopathologic changes were observed in the testes, thymus, and hematopoietic tissues (spleen, bone marrow, and liver). A dose-related degeneration of the germinal epithelium in the seminiferous tubules of the testes was more severe in 2-methoxyethanol-treated rats than in rats treated with 2-ethoxyethanol. In special stop-exposure studies in male rats in which administration of the glycol ethers was stopped after 60 days, marked degeneration of the seminiferous tubules was present in rats treated with 3000 ppm 2-methoxyethanol, and mild to moderate degeneration was observed in rats treated with 1500 ppm. Moderate to marked testicular degeneration was present in rats treated with 10,000 or 20,000 ppm 2-ethoxyethanol but not in rats treated with 5000 ppm. After 30 and

  14. A hybrid process combining homogeneous catalytic ozonation and membrane distillation for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Peng; Li, Jie; Hou, Deyin; Wang, Jun; Liu, Huijuan

    2016-10-01

    A novel catalytic ozonation membrane reactor (COMR) coupling homogeneous catalytic ozonation and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was developed for refractory saline organic pollutant treatment from wastewater. An ozonation process took place in the reactor to degrade organic pollutants, whilst the DCMD process was used to recover ionic catalysts and produce clean water. It was found that 98.6% total organic carbon (TOC) and almost 100% salt were removed and almost 100% metal ion catalyst was recovered. TOC in the permeate water was less than 16 mg/L after 5 h operation, which was considered satisfactory as the TOC in the potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) feed water was as high as 1000 mg/L. Meanwhile, the membrane distillation flux in the COMR process was 49.8% higher than that in DCMD process alone after 60 h operation. Further, scanning electron microscope images showed less amount and smaller size of contaminants on the membrane surface, which indicated the mitigation of membrane fouling. The tensile strength and FT-IR spectra tests did not reveal obvious changes for the polyvinylidene fluoride membrane after 60 h operation, which indicated the good durability. This novel COMR hybrid process exhibited promising application prospects for saline organic wastewater treatment.

  15. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pumps for a Cascade Distillation Subsystem: Design and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2012-01-01

    Humans on a spacecraft require significant amounts of water for drinking, food, hydration, and hygiene. Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical for long duration space exploration. One of the more promising consumable-free methods of reclaiming wastewater is the distillation/condensation process used in the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS). The CDS heats wastewater to the point of vaporization then condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating for evaporation and the product water flow requires cooling for condensation. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately would require two separate units, each of which would demand large amounts of electrical power. Mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained by heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the CDS system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump analysis and performance tests are provided. The mass, volume, and power requirement for each heat pump option is compared and the advantages and disadvantages of each system are listed.

  16. Thermodynamic Losses in Multi-effect Distillation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, S.

    2015-09-01

    The multi-effect distillation (MED) is one of desalination technologies. It is also applied in chemical engineering and other industries for evaporation, distillation, crystallization, etc. In a large multi-effect distillation plant, some tiny thermodynamic losses might have a great influence to the performance and design parameters. For the detailed analysis and design of a MED desalination plant, a series of experiments were carried out. The thermodynamic losses in a MED desalination plant is analyzed as an example to show its effect on the performance and structure parameters. The thermodynamics losses have a cumulative effect. With the increase of effect number and the concentration ratio, the thermodynamic losses shall be a dominant factor for the operation performance of a MED plant.

  17. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Evans, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  18. 40 CFR 147.51 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Safe Drinking Water Act—Opinion by Legal Counsel for the Water Improvement Commission,” June 25, 1982... Water Pollution Control Act, Code of Alabama 1975, sections 22-22-1 through 22-22-14 (1980 and Supp... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION...

  19. 40 CFR 147.51 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Safe Drinking Water Act—Opinion by Legal Counsel for the Water Improvement Commission,” June 25, 1982... Water Pollution Control Act, Code of Alabama 1975, sections 22-22-1 through 22-22-14 (1980 and Supp... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION...

  20. 40 CFR 147.51 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Safe Drinking Water Act—Opinion by Legal Counsel for the Water Improvement Commission,” June 25, 1982... Water Pollution Control Act, Code of Alabama 1975, sections 22-22-1 through 22-22-14 (1980 and Supp... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION...