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Sample records for administered drinking water

  1. Subchronic dispositional and toxicological effects of arsenate administered in drinking water to mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, M.F.; Thompson, D.J.

    1996-10-11

    Exposure to the drinking water contaminant arsenate is a daily occurrence and there are concerns that this exposure may lead to cancer. Although the acute dispositional effects of arsenate have been studied in detail, there is minimal information on the disposition and toxicological effects of it after continuous exposure. The objective of this study was to examine in mice the effect of a 4-wk treatment with arsenate administered in drinking water. Female B6C3F1 mice were housed in metabolism cages and given water and food ad libitum. Two groups (A,B) of mice were treated with distilled water or water containing 0.025 mg/L (L) or 2.5 mg/L (H) arsenate. Several toxicological effects were observed in animals administered arsenate in drinking water, but no changes in the disposition of this arsenical were detected at the doses used in this study. 86 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. The antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine administered through the drinking water of rats.

    PubMed

    Jessen, L; Christensen, S; Bjerrum, O J

    2007-04-01

    Postoperative pain management in laboratory animals is important for animal welfare and required under law in many countries. Frequent injection of analgesics to rodents after surgery is stressful for the animals and labour-intensive for animal care personnel. An alternative dosing scheme such as administration of analgesics in the drinking water would be desirable. However, the efficacy of a chronic oral analgesic treatment via this route has not yet been documented. This study investigated the antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine administered ad libitum via the drinking water of laboratory rats. The antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine in drinking water was compared with repeated subcutaneous injections. A comparison was also made between buprenorphine in drinking water and the combination of one single subcutaneous injection of buprenorphine followed by buprenorphine in drinking water. Antinociception was assessed by use of an analgesiometric model measuring the rats' latency time to withdrawal from a noxious heat stimulus applied to the plantar surface of the paw. Results revealed that buprenorphine in drinking water (0.056 mg/mL) induced significant increases in paw withdrawal latency times during a three-day period of administration with a maximal effect at 39 h after the start of buprenorphine administration. One single injection of buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) followed by buprenorphine in the drinking water (0.056 mg/mL) induced an earlier onset of antinociception than buprenorphine in drinking water alone. In contrast, buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) injected every 8 h over a period of three days did not result in significant increases in paw withdrawal latency times. In conclusion, our results suggest that one single subcutaneous injection of buprenorphine followed by buprenorphine in drinking water may be a viable treatment option for the relief of pain in laboratory rats, but at the doses used in this study in pain-free rats it was associated

  3. Regarding the inadvisability of administering postoperative analgesics in the drinking water of rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Speth, R C; Smith, M S; Brogan, R S

    2001-11-01

    The feasibility of administering the pain reliever acetaminophen to rats via their water bottles was examined in this study. Two different preparations of acetaminophen were used, a cherry-flavored suspension and an alcohol-containing solution. Both preparations of acetaminophen were diluted to 6 mg/ml by using normal drinking water. When healthy unmanipulated rats were exposed to either of the acetaminophen preparations for the first time, the animals showed a dramatic reduction in fluid intake. A marked reduction in food intake also was associated with the cherry-flavored preparation. These reductions appear to be an expression of the well-characterized neophobic response that can be demonstrated by rodents when they encounter a novel taste. This neophobic behavior suggests that administering pain relievers to rats via their drinking water is counterproductive as a means of providing pain relief.

  4. Developmental toxicity evaluation of sodium fluoride administered to rats and rabbits in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Heindel, J J; Bates, H K; Price, C J; Marr, M C; Myers, C B; Schwetz, B A

    1996-04-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF; Cas No. 7681-49-4) is used in fluoridating municipal water supplies, resulting in chronic exposure of millions of people worldwide. Because of a lack of pertinent developmental toxicity studies in the literature, sodium fluoride was administered ad libitum in deionized/filtered drinking water (to mimic human exposure) to Sprague-Dawley-derived rats (26/group) on Gestation Days (GD) 6 through 15 at levels of 0, 50, 150, or 300 ppm and New Zealand White rabbits (26/group) on GD 6 through 19 at levels of 0, 100, 200, or 400 ppm. Higher concentrations via drinking water were not practicable due to the poor palatability of sodium fluoride. Drinking water (vehicle) contained less than 0.6 ppm sodium fluoride (limit of detection) and sodium fluoride content of the feed was 12.4 ppm fluoride (rats) and 15.6 ppm fluoride (rabbits). Maternal food, water, body weights, and clinical signs were recorded at regular intervals throughout these studies. Animals were killed on GD 20 (rats) or 30 (rabbits) and examined for implant status, fetal weight, sex, and morphological development. In the high-dose group of both studies there was an initial decreased maternal body weight gain which recovered over time and a decreased water consumption--attributed to decreased palatability. No clear clinical signs of toxicity were observed. Maternal exposure to sodium fluoride during organogenesis did not significantly affect the frequency of postimplantation loss, mean fetal body weight/litter, or external, visceral or skeletal malformations in either the rat or the rabbit. The NOAEL for maternal toxicity was 150 ppm sodium fluoride in drinking water (approximately 18 mg/kg/day) for rats, and 200 ppm (approximately 18/mg/kg/day rabbits. The NOAEL for developmental toxicity was > or = 300 ppm sodium fluoride (approximately 27 mg/kg/day) for rats and > or = 400 ppm (approximately 29 mg/kg/day) for rabbits administered during organogenesis in drinking water. The total

  5. Immunotoxicity of dibromoacetic acid administered via drinking water to female B₆C₃F₁ mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Germolec, Dori R; Luebke, Robert W; Sheth, Christopher M; Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Guo, Tai L; White, Kimber L

    2010-01-01

    Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is a disinfection by-product commonly found in drinking water as a result of chlorination/ ozonation processes. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that more than 200 million people consume disinfected water in the United States. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential immunotoxicological effects of DBA exposure when administered for 28 days via drinking water to B₆C₃F₁ mice, at concentrations of 125, 500, and 1000 mg/L. Multiple endpoints were evaluated to assess innate, humoral, and cell-mediated immune components, as well as host resistance. Standard toxicological parameters were unaffected, with the exception of a dose-responsive increase in liver weight and a decrease in thymus weight at the two highest exposure levels. Splenocyte differentials were affected, although the effects were not dose-responsive. Exposure to DBA did not significantly affect humoral immunity (immunoglobulin M [IgM] plaque assay and serum IgM anti-sheep erythrocyte titers) or cell-mediated immunity (mixed-leukocyte response). No effects were observed on innate immune function in either interferon-γ-induced in vitro macrophage cytotoxic activity or basal natural killer (NK)-cell activity. Augmented NK-cell activity (following exposure to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid) was decreased at the low dose, however the effect was not dose-responsive. Finally, DBA exposure had no effect on resistance to infection with either Streptococcus pneumoniae or Plasmodium yoelii, or challenge with B16F10 melanoma cells. With the exception of changes in thymus weight, these results indicate that DBA exposure resulted in no immunotoxic effects at concentrations much larger than those considered acceptable in human drinking water.

  6. THE INDUCTION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI (ACF) IN THE COLONS OF RATS BY TRIHALOMETHANES ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and bromoform (TBM) had been demonstrated to be colon carcinogens in male and female F344/N rats following administration by corn oil gavage. Our chronic bioassay of BDCM administered in the drinking water failed to demonstrate an enhanced colon cance...

  7. DELAYED PREPUTIAL SEPARATION (PPS) AND SP22 MEASUREMENT IN RATS ADMINISTERED BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive effects of BCA were determined in a dose range finding study (DRFS) and definitive two-generational study. Adult male and female CD� (SD) rats were administered BCA in drinking water for two weeks in the DRFS (10/sex/group) and ten weeks in the definitive study (25/s...

  8. Oxidative stress and protein oxidation in the brain of water drinking and alcohol drinking rats administered the HIV envelope protein, gp120.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok K; Gupta, Shveta; Jiang, Yin

    2008-03-01

    Possible roles of oxidative stress and protein oxidation on alcohol-induced augmentation of cerebral neuropathy in gp120 administered alcohol preferring rats drinking either pure water (W rats) or a free-choice ethanol and water (E rats) for 90 days. This study showed that peripherally administered gp120 accumulated into the brain, liver, and RBCs samples from water drinking - gp120 administered rats (Wg rats) and ethanol drinking - gp120 administered rats (Eg rats), although gp120 levels in samples from Eg rats were significantly greater than the levels in samples from Wg rats. The brain samples from ethanol drinking-saline administered (EC) and Wg rats exhibited comparable levels of free radicals that were significantly lower than the levels in Eg rats. Peroxiredoxin-I (PrxI) activity in the brain samples exhibited the following pattern: Wg > > WC > EC > Eg. Total protein-carbonyl and carbonylated hippocampal cholinergic neurostimulating peptide precursor protein levels, but not N-acetylaspartate or N-acetyl aspartylglutamate or total protein-thiol levels, paralleled the free radical levels in the brain of all four groups. This suggests PrxI inhibition may be more sensitive indicator of oxidative stress than measuring free radicals or metabolites. As PrxI oxidation in WC, Wg, and EC rats was reversible, while PrxI oxidation in Eg rats was not, we suggest that alcohol drinking and gp120 together hyperoxidized and inactivated PrxI that suppressed free radical neutralization in the brain of Eg rats. In conclusion, chronic alcohol drinking, by carbonylating and hyperoxidizing free radical neutralization proteins, augmented the gp120-induced oxidative stress that may be associated with an increase in severity of the brain neuropathy.

  9. Performance, meat quality, meat mineral contents and caecal microbial population responses to humic substances administered in drinking water in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, E; Coskun, I; Ocak, N; Erener, G; Dervisoglu, M; Turhan, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of humic substances (HS) administered in drinking water on caecal microflora and mineral composition and colour characteristics of breast and thigh meats and the growth performance, carcass and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) traits of broiler chicks. A total of 480 3-d-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 4 cages per treatment and 30 bird (15 males and 15 females) chicks per cage. All birds were fed on commercial basal diet. The control birds (HS0) received drinking water with no additions, whereas birds in the other treatment groups received a drinking water with 7.5 (HS7.5), 15.0 (HS15.0) and 22.5 (HS22.5) g/kg HS. Mush feed were provided on an ad libitum basis. Body weight and feed intake of broilers were determined at d 0, 21, and 42, and feed conversion ratio was calculated. On d 42, 4 broilers (2 males and 2 females) from each cage were slaughtered and the breast and thigh meats were collected for mineral composition and quality measurements. Performance, carcass and GIT traits and caecal microbial population of broiler chicks at d 42 were not affected by the dietary treatments. The lightness (L*) of breast and thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water. Although the redness (a*) of breast meat increased, yellowness of thigh meat decreased in broilers supplemented with 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS in drinking water (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the 15 and 22.5 g/kg HS administration in drinking water can be applied for broiler chicks to maintain growth performance and improve meat quality without changing caecal microflora.

  10. The subchronic toxicity of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene) administered in the drinking water of rats.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J R; Condie, L W; Borzelleca, J F

    1986-07-01

    This study provides data on the effects of tetrachloroethylene in drinking solutions. The acute oral LD50 in male and female Charles River rats was found to be 3835 mg/kg for males and 3005 mg/kg for females. Male and female rats received theoretical daily doses of 14,400, and 1400 mg tetrachloroethylene/kg body wt/day for 90 consecutive days. There were no compound-related deaths. Body weights were significantly lower in male and female rats at the higher doses. There were no consistent dose-related effects on any of the hematological, clinical chemistry, or urinalysis parameters. 5'-Nucleotidase activity was increased in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting possible hepatotoxicity; however, other serum indicators of hepatic function were unaffected by the treatment. There were no gross pathological effects observed. Liver and kidney body weight ratios, but not brain weight ratios, were elevated at the higher doses. There was no other evidence of compound-related toxicity. These data suggest that exposure of humans to reported levels of tetrachloroethylene in drinking water (approximately 1 microgram/liter) does not constitute a serious health hazard.

  11. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  12. Reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of amaranth administered to mice in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T

    1993-01-01

    The color additive amaranth was given in the drinking water at levels of 0 (control), 0.025, 0.075, and 0.225% from 5 weeks of age in F0 generation until F1 generation mice were weaned, with selected reproductive, developmental and behavioral parameters being measured. Amaranth had little adverse effect upon litter size, litter weight and sex ratio. Average body weight in both sexes of the F1 mice was significantly increased in the 0.025% group in both sexes. Survival index at postnatal day (PND) 21 was reduced in the 0.025% amaranth group. For the neurobehavioral parameters, surface righting at PND 4 in female offspring and olfactory orientation in both sexes were significantly affected by treatment. Several parameters of movement activity of male offspring at 3 weeks of age were affected in amaranth 0.075% group, but those of female offspring were similar in all groups. The dose levels of amaranth in this study produced a little adverse effect on behavioral development in mice.

  13. A 13-week toxicity study of acrylamide administered in drinking water to hamsters.

    PubMed

    Imai, Toshio; Kitahashi, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is known to induce tumors in various organs/tissues in rats and mice. Epidemiological studies of oral exposure have generated controversial results but mortality studies of people who work with AA have indicated increased rates of pancreatic cancer. In the present study, for dose selection for chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity studies, 13-week toxicity of AA was evaluated in Syrian hamsters, which are sensitive to induction of pancreatic ductal carcinogenesis, at concentrations required to provide doses of 0 (control), 20, 30 and 50 mg kg(-1) body weight in drinking water. Treatment with AA caused abnormal gait advancing to hind limb paralysis in all males and females at 50 mg kg(-1). Body weights in 30 and 50 mg kg(-1) males and 50 mg kg(-1) females were lower than in the controls. At termination of the study, red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) were decreased or showed a tendency for a decrease at 20 and 30 mg kg(-1) in females. Microscopically, axonal/myelin degeneration of sciatic nerves was observed in all AA-treated groups with dose dependence. No obvious changes were found in pancreatic ducts/ductules in any groups of animal. These results indicated the maximum tolerated dose for long-term studies of AA to be 20 mg kg(-1) or less in both male and female Syrian hamsters.

  14. Timing of magnesium supplementation administered through drinking water to improve fresh and stored pork quality.

    PubMed

    Frederick, B R; van Heugten, E; See, M T

    2004-05-01

    Thirty-two pigs were used to determine the timing effect of magnesium (Mg) supplementation given through drinking water on pork quality. Pigs (16 barrows and 16 gilts) were individually penned, provided 2.7 kg of feed (0.12% Mg) daily (as-fed basis), and allowed free access to water via a nipple waterer for the duration of the study. After 5 d of adjustment, pigs (120 +/- 0.8 kg BW) were allotted randomly by weight and sex to 900 mg/L of supplemental Mg from magnesium sulfate heptahydrate in drinking water for -6, -4, -2, or 0 d relative to slaughter. The LM and semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed 24 h postmortem. Retail display storage was simulated for 8 d, and the LM was vacuum-packaged for 25 or 50 d at 4 degrees C. Magnesium did not affect the pH of the LM at either 45 min (P = 0.15) or 24 h postmortem (P = 0.23). However, the pH of the SM at 24 h postmortem tended to be greater (P = 0.08) for pigs consuming Mg for 2 d than for those not supplemented. Fluid loss after 8 d of storage was less (P < 0.05) in the LM of pigs supplemented with Mg for 6 d than in those without supplementation. Furthermore, fluid loss from the SM of pigs provided supplemental Mg for 2 d, but not for 4 or 6 d, was lower (P < 0.05) on each day of retail display than the SM of unsupplemented pigs. Minolta L*, a*, and b* color measurements of the LM during display storage were not (P > 0.10) affected by Mg supplementation. However, Mg supplementation for 2 or 4 d decreased paleness (lower L* value) after 25 d (P < 0.05), but not 50 d (P > 0.10) of vacuum-packaged storage. Magnesium addition for 2 d decreased the extent of oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) of the LM after 4 d of display storage compared with 0 d of Mg (P < 0.05). Oxidation of the SM during 8 d of display storage increased linearly (P < 0.05) as duration of supplementation increased from 2 to 6 d but did not differ (P = 0.22) from 0 d of Mg supplementation. Although the response to Mg supplementation

  15. Timing of magnesium supplementation administered through drinking water to improve fresh and stored pork quality.

    PubMed

    Frederick, B R; van Heugten, E; See, M T

    2004-05-01

    Thirty-two pigs were used to determine the timing effect of magnesium (Mg) supplementation given through drinking water on pork quality. Pigs (16 barrows and 16 gilts) were individually penned, provided 2.7 kg of feed (0.12% Mg) daily (as-fed basis), and allowed free access to water via a nipple waterer for the duration of the study. After 5 d of adjustment, pigs (120 +/- 0.8 kg BW) were allotted randomly by weight and sex to 900 mg/L of supplemental Mg from magnesium sulfate heptahydrate in drinking water for -6, -4, -2, or 0 d relative to slaughter. The LM and semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed 24 h postmortem. Retail display storage was simulated for 8 d, and the LM was vacuum-packaged for 25 or 50 d at 4 degrees C. Magnesium did not affect the pH of the LM at either 45 min (P = 0.15) or 24 h postmortem (P = 0.23). However, the pH of the SM at 24 h postmortem tended to be greater (P = 0.08) for pigs consuming Mg for 2 d than for those not supplemented. Fluid loss after 8 d of storage was less (P < 0.05) in the LM of pigs supplemented with Mg for 6 d than in those without supplementation. Furthermore, fluid loss from the SM of pigs provided supplemental Mg for 2 d, but not for 4 or 6 d, was lower (P < 0.05) on each day of retail display than the SM of unsupplemented pigs. Minolta L*, a*, and b* color measurements of the LM during display storage were not (P > 0.10) affected by Mg supplementation. However, Mg supplementation for 2 or 4 d decreased paleness (lower L* value) after 25 d (P < 0.05), but not 50 d (P > 0.10) of vacuum-packaged storage. Magnesium addition for 2 d decreased the extent of oxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) of the LM after 4 d of display storage compared with 0 d of Mg (P < 0.05). Oxidation of the SM during 8 d of display storage increased linearly (P < 0.05) as duration of supplementation increased from 2 to 6 d but did not differ (P = 0.22) from 0 d of Mg supplementation. Although the response to Mg supplementation

  16. THE FAILURE OF CHLOROFORM ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER TO INDUCE RENAL TUBULAR CELL NEOPLASIA IN MALE F344/N RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The failure of chloroform administered in drinking water to induce renal tubular cell neoplasia in male F344/N rats

    Chloroform (TCM) has been demonstrated to be a renal carcinogen in the male Osborne-
    Mendel rat when administered either by corn oil gavage or in drin...

  17. Efficacy of ketoprofen administered in drinking water at a low dose for the treatment of porcine respiratory disease complex.

    PubMed

    Salichs, M; Sabaté, D; Homedes, J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral solution of ketoprofen administered in drinking water at a lower dose as a complement to antimicrobial therapy in a mild outbreak of porcine respiratory disease complex. The study was performed with 120 pigs with rectal temperature between 39.9 and 41°C and at least 1 sign indicating porcine respiratory disease complex (dyspnea, cough, nasal discharge, or depression). Animals were randomly allocated in 2 groups (treated and control group). Animals in both groups received etiological therapy with doxycycline at 10 mg · kg(-1) in drinking water for 5 d. The animals in the treated group also received 1.5 mg · kg(-1) of ketoprofen during the first 3 d. The reduction in rectal temperature in the treated group was significantly greater during the days of ketoprofen administration and up to 1 d after the end of treatment (P < 0.05). The percentage of dyspneic animals was significantly less (P < 0.05) in the treated group from d 2 to 5 of the study. Also, a significant improvement regarding depression and cough was seen in the animals of the treated group. No statistically significant (P > 0.05) differences were evidenced in productive variables. In conclusion, oral treatment with ketoprofen at 1.5 mg · kg(-1) in combination with antimicrobial therapy was found to be a clinically effective approach in outbreaks of mild porcine respiratory disease complex.

  18. CARCINOGENICITY OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ADMINISTERED IN DRINKING WATER TO MALE F344/N RATS AND B6C3F1 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life-time exposure study was conducted to assess the carcinogenicity of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) administered in the drinking water to male F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Mouse: Target concentrations of BDCM (dissolved in deionized water containing 0.25% emulphor) were 0.05, ...

  19. CARCINOGENICITY OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ADMINISTERED IN DRINKING WATER TO THE MALE F344/N RAT AND B6C3F, MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    CARCINOGENICITY OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ADMINISTERED IN DRINKING WATER TO THE MALE F344/N RAT AND B6C3F1 MOUSE.

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) has been shown to produce kidney and large bowel tumors in both male and female F344/N rats, kidney tumors in male B6C3F 1 mice and ...

  20. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  1. WATER, DRINKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary object of the microbiology of drinking water is to prevent waterborne disease. A drinking-water system can minimize waterborne disease by employing proper treatment and cntrol practices, and by monitoring the effectiveness of these practices. Here, these issues are ad...

  2. IMMUNOTOXICITY OF DlBROMOACETIC ACID ADMINISTERED VIA DRINKING WATER TO FEMALE B6C3Fl MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is a disinfection by product commonly found in drinking water as a result of chlorination/ozonation processes. The EPA estimates that more than 200 million people consume disinfected water in the U.S. (EPA 1998). This study was conducted to evaluate the p...

  3. Immunotoxicological profile of chloramine in female B6C3F1 mice when administered in the drinking water for 28 days.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tai L; Germolec, Dori R; Collins, Bradley J; Luebke, Robert W; Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Smith, Matthew J; White, Kimber L

    2011-01-01

    Monochloramine has been used to provide a disinfecting residual in water distribution systems where it is difficult to maintain an adequate free-chlorine residual or where disinfection by-product formation is of concern. The goal of this study was to characterize the immunotoxic effects of chloramine in female B(6)C(3)F(1) mice when administered via the drinking water. Mice were exposed to chloramine-containing deionized tap water at 2, 10, 20, 100, or 200 ppm for 28 days. No statistically significant differences in drinking water consumption, body weight, body weight gain, organ weights, or hematological parameters between the exposed and control animals were noted during the experimental period. There were no changes in the percentages and numbers of total B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages in the spleen. Exposure to chloramine did not affect the IgM antibody-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or anti-SRBC IgM antibody production. Minimal effects, judged to be biologically insignificant, were observed in the mixed-leukocyte response and NK activity. In conclusion, chloramine produced no toxicological and immunotoxic effects in female B(6)C(3)F(1) mice when administered for 28 days in the drinking water at concentrations ranging from 2-200 ppm.

  4. General toxicity and reproductive screen of liquid propellant XM46 administered in the drinking water of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kinkead, E R; Wolfe, R E; Salins, S A; Flemming, C D; Leahy, H F; Caldwell, D J; Miller, C R; Marit, G B

    1995-01-01

    Liquid propellant XM46 is being considered as a replacement for solid propellants, both as part of a regenerative injection gun system and as a working fluid in an electrothermal gun system. The XM46 formulation contains hydroxylammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate, and water. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats received XM46 in drinking water containing 2.0, 1.0, 0.2, or 0.0 g XM46/liter throughout a 90-day study. Mating occurred following 14 days of treatment. One-half the male rats per group were necropsied after 28 days of treatment; the remaining males and all dams were necropsied following 90 days of treatment. No mortality occurred in any of the parental animals during the study. The study did not demonstrate any adverse effects on reproduction or litter parameters. Hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia were common in both sexes of rats. Splenomegaly was found in both sexes; in male rats as early as 28 days. Exposures via drinking water containing XM46 for 90 days did not result in any decrease in reproductive performance in male or female rats, but it did result in clinical signs of hemolytic anemia at doses as low as 17 mg/kg/day.

  5. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water & Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

  6. THE INDUCTION OF COLORECTAL NEOPLASIA BY A MIXTURE HIGH IN BROMINATED TRIHALOMETHANES (THMS) ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER TO MALE F344/N RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INDUCTION OF COLORECTAL NEOPLASIA BY A MIXTURE HIGH IN BROMINA TED TRIHALOMETHANES (THMS) ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING W A TER TO MALE F344/N RA TS.

    Abstract:

    The THMs are the most widely distributed and concentrated of the chlorine disinfection by-products (D...

  7. Immunotoxicological Profile of Chloroform in Female B6c3f1 Mice When Administered In Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloroform can be formed as a disinfection by-product during water chlorination, one of the primary modalities for purifying municipal water supplies for human consumption. The goal of this study was to characterize the immunotoxic effects of chloroform in female B6C3F1 mice when...

  8. NTP Toxicity Studies of Cyclohexanone Oxime Administered by Drinking Water to B6C3F1 Mice (CAS No. 100-64-1).

    PubMed

    1996-04-01

    Cyclohexanone oxime is used primarily as a captive intermediate in the synthesis of caprolactam for the production of polycaprolactam (Nylon-6) fibers and plastics and also in a variety of industrial applications. Cyclohexanone oxime was selected for study because of the potential for human exposure and the interest in oximes as a chemical class. Toxicity studies of cyclohexanone oxime (approximately 99% pure) were carried out in male and female B6C3F1 mice; the compound was administered in drinking water for 2 weeks or 13 weeks. In addition, the genetic toxicity of cyclohexanone oxime was evaluated by determining mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium and induction of chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro, with and without S9 activation. The frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of mice from the 13-week study was also determined. In the 2-week study, groups of five male and five female mice were given drinking water containing 0, 106, 312, 625, 1,250, or 2,500 ppm cyclohexanone oxime. No deaths occurred, and there was no decrease in weight gain in any group. No gross lesions were observed; there were significant increases in relative spleen weights of males and females in the 2,500 ppm group and increases in the relative liver weight of male mice exposed to 312 ppm or greater. In the 13-week studies, groups of 10 male and 10 female mice were given drinking water containing 625, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000 or 10,000 ppm cyclohexanone oxime. Deaths occurred in the 10,000 ppm groups and weight gain was depressed in males and females given 10,000 ppm and in females given 5,000 ppm. There were significant increases in relative spleen weight at exposure levels of 5,000 and 10,000 ppm and significant increases in the relative liver weights of males and females that received 10,000 ppm. Microscopically, hematopoietic cell proliferation was observed in the spleen of males and females in

  9. Subchronic toxicity study of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol administered by drinking water to B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Wan-Seob; Han, Beom Seok; Lee, Hakyung; Kim, Cheulkyu; Nam, Ki Taek; Park, Kidae; Choi, Mina; Kim, Sung Jun; Kim, Seung Hee; Jeong, Jayoung; Jang, Dong Deuk

    2008-05-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a food processing contaminant in a wide range of foods and ingredients and is a suspected cause of cancer. In this study, the 13-week toxicity of 3-MCPD was examined in B6C3F1 mice (10/sex/group) administered 3-MCPD doses of 0, 5, 25, 100, 200 and 400 ppm dissolved in their drinking water over a 13-week period. All the mice survived to the end of study. The mean body weight gains in the males and females given 400 ppm were significantly lower than those of the controls. The relative kidney weights of the males and females given 200 and 400 ppm were significantly higher than those of the controls without any corresponding histopathological changes. The sperm motility was lower in the 400 ppm group than the control, and there was a significant increase in the incidence of germinal epithelium degeneration in the 200 and 400 ppm groups. A delayed total estrus cycle length was observed in the 400 ppm group without any histopathological changes. Based on these results, the target organ was determined to be kidney, testis, and ovary. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was found to be 100 ppm (18.05 mg/kg/day for males and 15.02 mg/kg/day for females).

  10. Effect of sodium arsenite dose administered in the drinking water on the urinary bladder epithelium of female arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yokohira, Masanao; Arnold, Lora L; Pennington, Karen L; Suzuki, Shugo; Kakiuchi-Kiyota, Satoko; Herbin-Davis, Karen; Thomas, David J; Cohen, Samuel M

    2011-06-01

    The enzyme arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes reactions converting inorganic arsenic to methylated metabolites, some of which are highly cytotoxic. In a previous study, female As3mt knockout (KO) mice treated with diet containing 100 or 150 ppm arsenic as arsenite showed systemic toxicity and significant effects on the urothelium. In the present study, we showed that the cytotoxic and proliferative effects of arsenite administration on the urothelium are dose dependent. Female wild-type C57BL/6 mice and As3mt KO mice were divided into five groups (n = 7) with free access to drinking water containing 0, 1, 10, 25, or 50 ppm arsenic as arsenite for 4 weeks. At sacrifice, urinary bladders of both As3mt KO and wild-type mice showed hyperplasia by light microscopy; however, the hyperplasia was more severe in the As3mt KO mice. Intracytoplasmic granules were detected in the urothelium of As3mt KO and wild-type mice at arsenic doses ≥ 10 ppm but were more numerous, more extensive, and larger in the KO mice. A no effect level for urothelial effects was identified at 1 ppm arsenic in the wild-type and As3mt KO mice. In As3mt KO mice, livers showed mild acute inflammation and kidneys showed hydronephrosis. The present study shows a dose-response for the effects of orally administered arsenite on the bladder urothelium of wild-type and As3mt KO mice, with greater effects in the KO strain but with a no effect level of 1 ppm for both.

  11. THE INDUCTION OF HEPATOCELLULAR NEOPLASIA BY TRICHLOROACETIC ACID ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER OF THE MALE B6C3F1 MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary What is the study? The study is a chronic bioassay (2 years) of trichloroacetic acid, a drinking water disinfection by-product, in the male B6C3F1 mouse.
    What is the impact to the field and the Agency?
    The impact of this study will derive from the use of...

  12. NTP technical report on toxicity studies of urethane in drinking water and urethane in 5% ethanol administered to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Chan, P C

    1996-03-01

    Urethane, a byproduct of fermentation found in alcoholic beverages, is carcinogenic in rodents and is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen. The United States Food and Drug Administration nominated urethane for study because of the widespread exposure of humans through the consumption of fermented foods and beverages and because of a lack of adequate dose-response data about the carcinogenicity of urethane with and without the coadministration of ethanol. Comparative studies of urethane in drinking water and in 5% ethanol were conducted to investigate possible effects of ethanol on urethane toxicity. Toxicokinetic studies of urethane in drinking water and in 5% ethanol and genetic toxicity studies of urethane in vivo and in vitro were also conducted. Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice, 6 weeks of age, received 0, 110, 330, 1,100, 3,300, or 10,000 ppm urethane in drinking water or in 5% ethanol for 13 weeks. Toxicokinetic evaluations were performed for urethane in the plasma of male mice after 13 weeks of administration in drinking water or 5% ethanol. The mutagenicity of urethane in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537 with and without S9 was tested at doses up to 16,666 micrograms/plate; urethane was also tested for induction of sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and sex-linked recessive lethal mutations and chromosomal reciprocal translocations in Drosophila melanogaster. The frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes induced in peripheral blood and bone marrow cells of mice by urethane in drinking water and in 5% ethanol was also evaluated. In rats that received urethane in drinking water, seven males and four females administered 10,000 ppm and one female administered 3,300 ppm died before the end of the study; body weight gains were reduced at these concentrations. Two males and all females

  13. THE INDUCTION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI (ACF) IN MALE AND FEMALE F344/N RATS BY BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Induction of Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) in Male and Female F344/N Rats by Bromochloroacetic Acid (BCA) Administered in the Drinking Water.

    M.H. George1, D. Delker1, D.R. Geter1, C.Herbert2, J. Roycroft3, R. Melnick3, D.W.
    Rosenberg4, and A.B. DeAngelo1. 1USEPA, Resea...

  14. Immunotoxic effects of sodium tungstate dihydrate on female B6C3F1/N mice when administered in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Frawley, Rachel P; Smith, Matthew J; White, Kimber L; Elmore, Susan A; Herbert, Ron; Moore, Rebecca; Staska, Lauren M; Behl, Mamta; Hooth, Michelle J; Kissling, Grace E; Germolec, Dori R

    2016-09-01

    Tungsten is a naturally occurring, high-tensile strength element that has been used in a number of consumer products. Tungsten has been detected in soil, waterways, groundwater, and human tissue and body fluids. Elevated levels of tungsten in urine were reported for populations exposed to tungstate in drinking water in areas where natural tungsten formations were prevalent. Published reports indicated that sodium tungstate may modulate hematopoiesis, immune cell populations, and immune responses in rodent models. The objective of this study was to assess potential immunotoxicity of sodium tungstate dihydrate (STD), a drinking water contaminant. Female B6C3F1/N mice received 0-2000 mg STD/L in their drinking water for 28 d, and were evaluated for effects on immune cell populations in spleen and bone marrow, and humoral-mediated, cell-mediated, and innate immunity. Three different parameters of cell-mediated immunity were similarly affected at 1000 mg STD/L. T-cell proliferative responses against allogeneic leukocytes and anti-CD3 were decreased 32%, and 21%, respectively. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity was decreased at all effector:target cell ratios examined. At 2000 mg STD/L, the absolute numbers of CD3(+) T-cell progenitor cells in bone marrow were increased 86%, but the alterations in B-lymphocyte and other progenitor cells were not significant. There were no effects on bone marrow DNA synthesis or colony forming capabilities. STD-induced effects on humoral-mediated immunity, innate immunity, and splenocyte sub-populations were limited. Enhanced histopathology did not detect treatment-related lesions in any of the immune tissues. These data suggest exposure to STD in drinking water may adversely affect cell-mediated immunity. PMID:27223060

  15. Immunotoxic effects of sodium tungstate dihydrate on female B6C3F1/N mice when administered in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Frawley, Rachel P; Smith, Matthew J; White, Kimber L; Elmore, Susan A; Herbert, Ron; Moore, Rebecca; Staska, Lauren M; Behl, Mamta; Hooth, Michelle J; Kissling, Grace E; Germolec, Dori R

    2016-09-01

    Tungsten is a naturally occurring, high-tensile strength element that has been used in a number of consumer products. Tungsten has been detected in soil, waterways, groundwater, and human tissue and body fluids. Elevated levels of tungsten in urine were reported for populations exposed to tungstate in drinking water in areas where natural tungsten formations were prevalent. Published reports indicated that sodium tungstate may modulate hematopoiesis, immune cell populations, and immune responses in rodent models. The objective of this study was to assess potential immunotoxicity of sodium tungstate dihydrate (STD), a drinking water contaminant. Female B6C3F1/N mice received 0-2000 mg STD/L in their drinking water for 28 d, and were evaluated for effects on immune cell populations in spleen and bone marrow, and humoral-mediated, cell-mediated, and innate immunity. Three different parameters of cell-mediated immunity were similarly affected at 1000 mg STD/L. T-cell proliferative responses against allogeneic leukocytes and anti-CD3 were decreased 32%, and 21%, respectively. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity was decreased at all effector:target cell ratios examined. At 2000 mg STD/L, the absolute numbers of CD3(+) T-cell progenitor cells in bone marrow were increased 86%, but the alterations in B-lymphocyte and other progenitor cells were not significant. There were no effects on bone marrow DNA synthesis or colony forming capabilities. STD-induced effects on humoral-mediated immunity, innate immunity, and splenocyte sub-populations were limited. Enhanced histopathology did not detect treatment-related lesions in any of the immune tissues. These data suggest exposure to STD in drinking water may adversely affect cell-mediated immunity.

  16. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  17. Safe drinking water act

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. Gives organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and candidates for the 1990s regulations.

  18. Drinking-water standards

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, N.B.; Travis, C.C.

    1986-08-01

    This paper discussed the revising of the primary and secondary drinking-water regulations by EPA in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. Since consideration of risk is playing an increasing role in setting environmental standards, questions were raised regarding the adequacy of human health protection afforded by some of the existing and proposed standards. 1 table.

  19. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  20. Drinking water microbial myths.

    PubMed

    Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C; Clancy, Jennifer L; Hrudey, Steve E

    2015-01-01

    Accounts of drinking water-borne disease outbreaks have always captured the interest of the public, elected and health officials, and the media. During the twentieth century, the drinking water community and public health organizations have endeavored to craft regulations and guidelines on treatment and management practices that reduce risks from drinking water, specifically human pathogens. During this period there also evolved misunderstandings as to potential health risk associated with microorganisms that may be present in drinking waters. These misunderstanding or "myths" have led to confusion among the many stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to provide a scientific- and clinically-based discussion of these "myths" and recommendations for better ensuring the microbial safety of drinking water and valid public health decisions.

  1. [Drinking water in infants].

    PubMed

    Vitoria Miñana, I

    2004-02-01

    We review types of public drinking water and bottled water and provide recommendations on the composition of water for infants. Water used with any of the commercial infant formulas in Spain should contain less than 25 mg/l of sodium. Drinking water must be boiled for a maximum of one minute (at sea level) to avoid excessive salt concentration. Bottled water need not be boiled. Fluoride content in drinking water should be less than 0.3 mg/l in first year of life to prevent dental fluorosis. Nitrate content in water should be less than 25 mg/l to prevent methemoglobinemia. Water with a calcium concentration of between 50 and 100 mg/l is a dietary source of calcium since it provides 24-56 % of the required daily intake in infancy.

  2. [Drinking water and parasites].

    PubMed

    Karanis, P; Schoenen, D; Maier, W A; Seitz, H M

    1993-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, and Microsporidia spp. are cosmopolitan parasites. They often cause diarrheal diseases. The waterborn transmission of all these parasites is possible (41). Surface water supplies used for drinking water are potential sources of contamination. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. have received great attention in industrialized countries during the last years because they are the etiological agents of waterborne diseases. The life cycles of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium are described with a special reference to drinking water technologies aimed at removing these parasites. PMID:8253478

  3. REGULATED CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water is critical to protecting human health. More than 260 million Americans rely on the safety of tap water provided by water systems that comply with national drinking water standards. EPA's strategy for ensuring safe drinking water includes four key elements, ...

  4. [Herbicides in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Funari, E; Sampaolo, A

    1989-01-01

    Toxicological implications due to the use of herbicide-contaminated drinking water, as well as other organic chemicals, are related to their nature and levels. These implications can be defined for each substance on the basis of an adequate evaluation of epidemiological information and experimental data on animals. In this paper, World Health Organization's procedures for establishing guidelines for 11 herbicides widely used in Italy are described. Furthermore, data and information about the use of these herbicides and their levels in Italian drinking-water supplies are also reported and discussed. Finally, factors and conditions responsible for the groundwater contamination by some herbicides in determined areas are presented and discussed.

  5. DRINKING WATER ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...

  6. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  7. CARCINOGENICITY OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ADMINISTERED IN DRINKING WATER TO THE MALE F344/N RAT AND B6C3F1 MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine added to surface waters for the purposes of disinfection, reacts with humic material in the water to produce a variety of compounds collectively known as disinfection by-product (DBPs). The trihalomethanes (THM), the class of DBPs that occur at the highest concentrations...

  8. Immunotoxicological profile of Chloramine in female B6C3FI mice when administered in the drinking water for 28 days

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monochloramine has been used to provide a disinfecting residual in water distribution systems where it is difficult to maintain a free chlorine residual or where disinfection by-product formation is of concern. The goal of this study was to characterize the immunotoxic effects of...

  9. Drinking water and women's health.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2006-01-01

    Primary health providers in the community must be able to field questions and guide vulnerable populations to informed decisions about drinking water quality and health. This article offers an overview of selected contaminants in drinking water and their possible effects on the health of women over the life span. Historical concerns for drinking water safety, which led to the development of current drinking water regulations, are briefly explored. Several chemical, microbial, and radionuclide contaminants of particular concern to women and children are discussed. Short- and long-term tap water alternatives are suggested for when tap water is deemed unsuitable for use.

  10. STUDIES ON WATER DRINKING

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, C. C.; Hawk, P. B.

    1910-01-01

    The daily drinking of three liters of water with meals, for a period of five days, by a man twenty-two years of age who was in a condition of nitrogen equilibrium through the ingestion of a uniform diet, was productive of the following findings : 1. An increase in body weight, aggregating two pounds in five days. 2. An increased excretion of urinary nitrogen, the excess nitrogen being mainly in the form of urea, ammonia, and creatine. 3. A decreased excretion of creatinine and the coincident appearance of creatine in the urine. The decreased creatinine output is believed to indicate that the copious water drinking has stimulated protein catabolism. The appearance of creatine is considered evidence that the water has caused a partial muscular disintegration resulting in the release of creatine, but not profound enough to yield the total nitrogen content of the muscle. The output of creatine is, therefore, out of all proportion to the increase in the excretion of total nitrogen. 4. An increased output of ammonia which is interpreted as indicating an increased output of gastric juice. 5. A decreased excretion of feces and of fecal nitrogen, the decrease in the excretion of fecal nitrogen being of sufficient magnitude to secure a lowered excretion of both the bacterial and the non-bacterial nitrogen. 6. A decrease in the quantity of bacteria excreted daily. 7. An increase in the percentage of total nitrogen appearing as bacterial nitrogen. 8. A lower creatinine coefficient. 9. A more economical utilization of the protein constituents of the diet. 10. The general conclusion to be reached as the result of this experiment is to the effect that the drinking of a large amount of water with meals was attended by many desirable and by no undesirable features. PMID:19867334

  11. Ensuring safer drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, J. . Fluid Delivery and Electrical Markets); Higgins, P. )

    1994-09-01

    Today's regulatory environment has led to the proliferation of voluntary consensus standards and certification programs that are important to ensuring safety and health in a number of areas. One such area -- the treatment and delivery of potable water -- is addressed by the Drinking Water Additives Program.'' At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this program was developed in the mid-1980s by an independent, voluntary consensus standards organization called NSF International (formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation). This paper explains the need for and the structure of the Drinking Water Additives Program; the rationale for transferring responsibility for its execution from the EPA to the private sector; and the impact of its standards on users, manufacturers, and state and local regulatory bodies. Understanding the additives program is critically important to industry suppliers because, as it continues to gain greater awareness and acceptance, there are a growing number of manufacturers sourcing materials and products primarily from suppliers whose products meet the program's certification requirements.

  12. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of a Chemical Mixture of 25 Groundwater Contaminants Administered in Drinking Water to F344/N Rats and B6C3F(1) Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, R.

    1993-08-01

    Toxicity studies were performed with a chemically defined mixture of 25 groundwater contaminants, using dose levels considered to have environmental relevance. The mixture contained 19 organic compounds and six metals (shown below); the selection of these compounds was based primarily on the frequency of their occurrence in United States Environmental Protection Agency surveys of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of hazardous waste disposal sites. This report focuses primarily on 26-week drinking water toxicity studies with male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice. The endpoints evaluated included histopathology, clinical pathology, neurobehavioral studies, and reproductive toxicity. Additional studies using this same chemical mixture are briefly reviewed in this report and include an evaluation of spermatogenesis in B6C3F(1) mice exposed to the chemical mixture for 13 weeks, a continuous breeding study with Sprague-Dawley rats and CD-1(R) Swiss mice, studies of myelotoxicity in B6C3F(1) mice exposed to the chemical mixture for up to 31.5 weeks, studies of immunosuppression in B6C3F(1) mice exposed for up to 13 weeks, in vitro mutagenicity assays in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, and measures of genetic damage in bone marrow and peripheral blood of F344/N rats and B6C3F(1) mice in 2-week drinking water studies. In a 26-week drinking water study in which rats were administered the chemical mixture at composite contaminant concentrations of 0, 11, 38, 113, or 378 ppm, no deaths occurred and the body weight gain of high-dose males was slightly less than that of the controls. Water consumption decreased with dose and was 24% to 28% less than that of the controls at the highest concentration. Changes in organ weights occurred primarily in high-dose rats and included increased absolute and relative liver and kidney weights in females, increased relative kidney weight in males, and decreased absolute and relative thymus weights in males and

  13. Lead in School Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on children;…

  14. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  15. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  16. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Pesticide/Fertilizer Mixtures Administered in Drinking Water to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, R.

    1993-08-01

    Toxicity studies were performed with pesticide and fertilizer mixtures representative of groundwater contamination found in California and Iowa. The California mixture was composed of aldicarb, atrazine, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, 1,2- dichloropropane, ethylene dibromide, simazine, and ammonium nitrate. The Iowa mixture contained alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, metribuzin, and ammonium nitrate. The mixtures were administered in drinking water (with 512 ppm propylene glycol) to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex at concentrations ranging from 0.1x to 100x, where 1x represented the median concentrations of the individual chemicals found in studies of groundwater contamination from normal agricultural activities. This report focuses primarily on 26-week toxicity studies describing histopathology, clinical pathology, neurobehavior/neuropathology, and reproductive system effects. The genetic toxicity of the mixtures was assessed by determining the frequency of micronuclei in peripheral blood of mice and evaluating micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges in splenocytes from female mice and male rats. Additional studies with these mixtures that are briefly reviewed in this report include teratology studies with Sprague-Dawley rats and continuous breeding studies with CD-1 Swiss mice. In 26-week drinking water studies of the California and the Iowa mixtures, all rats (10 per sex and group) survived to the end of the studies, and there were no significant effects on body weight gains. Water consumption was not affected by the pesticide/fertilizer contaminants, and there were no clinical signs of toxicity or neurobehavioral effects as measured by a functional observational battery, motor activity evaluations, thermal sensitivity evaluations, and startle response. There were no clear adverse effects noted in clinical pathology (including serum cholinesterase activity), organ weight, reproductive system, or histopathologic evaluations, although absolute

  17. The risks of drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Tony

    1984-04-01

    Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

  18. [Microbiology of ground water and drinking water].

    PubMed

    Dott, W; Frank, C; Kämpfer, P; Tuschewitzki, G J; Wernicke, F

    1986-10-01

    Groundwater has been considered a safe source for drinking water protected against surface contamination. However, a number of reports about chemical and microbiological contamination have disproved this assumption. Besides hygienical monitoring, little is known about the microbiology of ground- and drinking water. The purpose of this paper is to give a review about the main fields of investigation concerning microbial activity in ground- and drinking-water-action. The hygienical relevant topics are: survival and transport of microorganisms, microbiological degradation of organic pollutants, turn-over of nitrogen compounds, oxidation and reduction of iron and manganese and development of methods for microbiological water examination.

  19. Drinking water for the future.

    PubMed

    Okun, D A

    1976-07-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 represents an important step in improving the quality of public water supply in the United States. However, it fails to address two important problems: (1) The 1970 Public Health Service Community Water Supply Survey revealed that small public water supply systems often deliver poor quality water. The Act does not assure that these supplies will now receive appropriate attention; furthermore, the Act does not address the needs of the 50 million people not now served by public water systems; (2) About one-third of our population draws its drinking waters from polluted sources. The decisions to use these low cost sources were made generations ago when consumers could be protected from water-borne infectious disease. A new problem has now arisen--the presence of numerous synthetic organic chemicals of uncertain health consequence, not removed by conventional water treatment. The Act does not address this problem. Regionalization and the integration of water resource and water pollution control authorities are proposed as a reasonable solution to these problems. The development of dual water supply systems in order to conserve scarce pure water sources for human consumption appears to be a feasible way to avoid using polluted waters for drinking. The development of dual supplies would be enhanced by regionalization and integration of water authorities. PMID:937609

  20. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  1. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of 1,6-Hexanediamine Dihydrochloride (CAS No. 6055-52-3) Administered by Drinking Water and Inhalation to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Charles

    1993-03-01

    1,6-Hexanediamine (HDA) is an aliphatic amine that is produced in large volumes in the United States. HDA is widely used as a corrosion inhibitor in lubricants and as an intermediate in the industrial synthesis of paints, resins, inks, and textiles. Toxicity studies of the dihydrochloride salt of HDA (HDDC) were conducted in male and female Fischer 344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice by the drinking water (2-week studies only) and whole-body inhalation routes (2-week and 13-week studies). Animals were evaluated for histopathology, clinical chemistry, hematology, and reproductive toxicity. In addition, the genetic toxicity of HDA was assessed in Salmonella typhimurium and in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro; HDDC was evaluated in the mouse micronucleus assay in vivo. In the 2-week drinking water studies, groups of 5 rats of each sex received HDDC at doses of 0.75 to 6.7 mg/mL, and groups of 5 mice of each sex received doses of 0.2 to 3.0 mg/mL for 14 or 15 days. All animals survived to the end of the studies. No gross or microscopic pathologic changes and no clinical abnormalities related to HDDC consumption were seen in any dose group. The only statistically significant change was a slight decrease in absolute and/or relative liver weights of female rats in the 1.7, 5.0, and 6.7-mg/mL treatment groups, in male rats in the 3.0 mg/mL treatment group, and in female mice in the 0.8 mg/mL treatment group. Because there was no significant toxicity in these studies, 13-week drinking water studies were not conducted. In the 2-week inhalation studies, 5 rats and 5 mice of each sex were exposed to 0, 10, 30, 89, 267, or 800 mg HDDC/m(3) for 6-hours per day for 12 days. In the highest exposure group (800 mg/m(3)), all male and female rats, all female mice, and 2 male mice died before the end of the studies. In the remaining groups, there was a dose-dependent depression in body weight gain in male and female mice, but not in rats. Clinical signs were primarily related to upper

  2. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Related Sites Get Email Updates ...

  3. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Related Sites Get Email Updates ...

  4. Final report on the short term reproductive and developmental toxicity of chlorodibromo-methane (CAS No. 124-48-1) administered in drinking water to sprague-dawley rats. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The potential toxicity of chlorodibromomethane (CAS No. 124-48-1; CDBM) was evaluated using a short-term reproductive and developmental toxicity screen. This study design was selected to identify the process (development; female reproduction; various somatic organs/processes) that is the most sensitive to chlorodibromomethane exposure. A dose-range finding study was conducted at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, 150, and 450 ppm in drinking water in order to select concentrations for the 35-day study. Based on dose-related body weight gain reductions and decreased water consumption, the concentrations for the 35-day study were selected to be 0, 50, 150, and 450 ppm. One group of male rats (10 per group) and two groups of female rats, designated as Group A (peri-conception, 10 per group) and Group B (gestational exposure, 13 per group), were used at each dose level. Control animals received deionized water, the vehicle.

  5. Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-11-01

    The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 μg L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 μg L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 μg L(-1) and median 1.6 μg L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 μg L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 μg L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations.

  6. Drinking water aluminum and bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Reiber, S.H.; Kukull, W.; Standish-Lee, P.

    1995-05-01

    This article discusses chemical considerations relative to aluminum uptake in the body and reviews aluminum concentrations, species, and distribution in natural and treated waters. The issues of bioavailability and the likelihood that aluminum in drinking water is more readily assimilated than other forms of aluminum is reviewed and rejected based on issues of solubility and likely chemical transformations that take place in the human gut.

  7. Drink Water, Stay Slimmer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... an overall healthy diet, she noted. Explaining why water intake may be linked with a healthier weight was beyond the scope of the study, Chang said. Chang suggests a simple measure to gauge hydration: "I just say look ...

  8. Fungi contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic fungi commonly infest various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling. Aquatic fungi also interact with other organisms to influence food web dynamics. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to address the problem of microorganism contamination of water. The major concern has been potential effects on human health from exposure to certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that inhabit water and the microbial metabolites,pigments, and odors which are produced in the water, and their effects on human health and animals. Fungi are potentially important contaminants because they produce certain toxic metabolites that can cause severe health hazards to humans and animals. Despite the potential hazard posed by fungi, relatively few studies on them as contaminants have been reported for some countries.A wide variety of fungi species have been isolated from drinking water, and some of them are known to be strongly allergenic and to cause skin irritation, or immunosuppression in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant patients). Mycotoxins are naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi species, and exposure of humans or animals to them can cause health problems. Such exposure is likely to occur from dietary intake of either food,water or beverages made with water. However, mycotoxins, as residues in water,may be aerosolized when showering or when being sprayed for various purposes and then be subject to inhalation. Mycotoxins, or at least some of them, are regarded to be carcinogenic. There is also some concern that toxic mycotoxins or other secondary metabolites of fungi could be used by terrorists as a biochemical weapon by adding amounts of them to drinking water or non drinking water. Therefore, actions to prevent mycotoxin contaminated water from affecting either humans or animals are important and are needed. Water treatment plants may serve to partially

  9. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  14. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  15. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Conference Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  16. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

  17. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-08-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

  18. Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

  19. NTP technical report on toxicity studies of diethanolamine (CAS No. 111-42-2) administered topically and in drinking water to F344/n rats and B6C3F1 mice. Toxicity report series

    SciTech Connect

    Melnick, R.L.

    1992-10-01

    Diethanolamine is a high-production chemical used in cosmetics, in cutting fluids, as a dispersing agent for agricultural chemicals, and as an absorbent for acidic gases. Toxicology studies of diethanolamine were conducted in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of both sexes for 2 weeks (5/sex/species/dose) and 13 weeks (10/sex/species/dose) to characterize and compare the effects of oral and dermal exposure. In addition to histopathology, evaluations included clinical pathology, urinalyses, and sperm morphology or vaginal cytology. In vitro genetic toxicity studies included assessments of mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium and mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells, analysis of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and determination of micronuclei formed in mice during the 13 week dermal exposure study. In the 13-week drinking water study in mice, nephropathy and tubular necrosis were observed in males, and degeneration of cardiac myocytes, and hepatocellular necrosis were seen in males and females. Cytologic alteration in the submandibular salivary gland was noted in male and female mice. Hepatocyte cytologic alteration also was noted in all dosed groups of mice.

  20. Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

  1. MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

  2. Pollutants in drinking water and waste water.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H F

    1993-07-23

    Extracts of drinking water and effluents from municipal and industrial sewage treatment plants were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet and/or mass spectrometric detection. After column chromatography or flow-injection analysis bypassing the analytical column, ionization was performed by a thermospray interface. Identification of the pollutants was carried out by tandem mass spectrometry, generating daughter-ion spectra by collision-induced dissociation. Most pollutants in drinking water and in the effluents of waste water treatment plants are surface-active compounds of anthropogenic origin or their biochemical degradation products. Difficulties encountered during separation, detection and identification are presented and discussed and techniques for solving these problems are proposed.

  3. A Novel Water Delivery System for Administering Volatile Chemicals while Minimizing Chemical Waste in Rodent Toxicity Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drin...

  4. A novel water delivery system for administering volatile chemicals while minimizing chemical waste in rodent toxicity sutdies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, as well as lead to excessive waste of test material. In order to refine drinki...

  5. Drinking water standards and regulations. Manual for 1977-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1987-01-15

    The following eight important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards; (2) EPA Guidelines establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act; (3) Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Quality Engineering, Interpretation of Results of Water Supply Analysis; (4) Thompson, J.C., Updating the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Drinking Water Regulations; (5) Lists of Acceptable Drinking Water Additives; (6) Title XIV of the Public Health Service Act (The Safe Drinking Water Act); (7) Standards for Quality of Public Drinking Water--Connecticut; (8) New York State Sanitary Code of Drinking Water Supplies (Including Drinking Water Standards).

  6. Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs. PMID:3321714

  7. DISINFECTION OF WATER: DRINKING WATER, RECREATIONAL WATER, AND WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes and categorizes the methodology used for disinfection of drinking water, recreational water and wastewater including wastewater sludges. It largely is a literature summary and references articles covering the years of 1939 through 1999, with a few reference...

  8. Ensuring the Public's Drinking-Water Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Some questions are answered concerning the justification, intent, and purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations. Some points, previously misinterpreted, are placed in clear perspective. (BB)

  9. Drinking water regulations and health advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The report provides maximum contaminant level of goals, maximum contaminant levels, reference doses, and drinking water equivalent levels for over 250 organic and inorganic chemicals, radionuclides, and microbes.

  10. EPA’s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

  11. New approaches to safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Barron, Gerald; Buchanan, Sharunda; Hase, Denise; Mainzer, Hugh; Ransom, Montrece McNeill; Sarisky, John

    2002-01-01

    Up to half the population of some states in the United States drink water from small systems not regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act. The quality of the drinking water from these systems is generally unknown and may be suspect. In many jurisdictions, private wells are the primary source of water. In some instances, construction of wells may have met regulatory requirements but may not have adequately prevented disease transmission. Anecdotal information, periodic water-borne outbreaks, and recent well surveys suggest that there are public health concerns associated with these and similar systems. This article provides an assessment of the need for governmental oversight (regulatory and non-regulatory) of drinking water supplies, describes how a "systems-based" approach might be used to evaluate water supply systems and to identify and prevent possible contamination, and presents case studies describing the systems-based approach as well as a comprehensive approach to environmental health that includes drinking water regulation. PMID:12508511

  12. Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. A Guide to Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use (Centers for Disease Control ... runoff is and its hazardous effects on the environment. Commercially Bottled Water (Centers for Disease Control and ...

  13. 40 CFR 23.7 - Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. 23.7 Section 23.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.7 Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. Unless...

  14. 40 CFR 23.7 - Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. 23.7 Section 23.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.7 Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. Unless...

  15. 40 CFR 23.7 - Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. 23.7 Section 23.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.7 Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. Unless...

  16. The relative safety of Hawaii's drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Au, L.K. Office, Honolulu, HI )

    1991-03-01

    There are two types of drinking water sources: groundwater and surface water (the latter includes catchment of rain). Surface water runs over the surface of the earth in rivers and watercourses, or is stored in lakes and reservoirs. groundwater is water that is stored below ground level; it feeds artesian wells and springs. It is important to remember that untreated groundwater may not be the same thing as treated drinking water. A contaminant in groundwater represents a threat to a drinking water source but not necessarily a threat to health, if the contaminant's concentration is decreased before it becomes available as potable.

  17. The relative safety of Hawaii's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Au, L K

    1991-03-01

    There are two types of drinking water sources: groundwater and surface water (the latter includes catchment of rain). Surface water runs over the surface of the earth in rivers and watercourses, or is stored in lakes and reservoirs. groundwater is water that is stored below ground level; it feeds artesian wells and springs. It is important to remember that untreated groundwater may not be the same thing as treated drinking water. A contaminant in groundwater represents a threat to a drinking water source but not necessarily a threat to health, if the contaminant's concentration is decreased before it becomes available as potable.

  18. Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

  19. Monitoring of Microbes in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Internationally there is a move towards managing the provision of safe drinking water by direct assessment of the performance of key pathogen barriers (critical control points), rather than end point testing (i.e. in drinking water). For fecal pathogens that breakthrough the vari...

  20. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes
    DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola

    Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

  1. Radon in private drinking water wells.

    PubMed

    Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

    2014-07-01

    At least 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. PMID:24714110

  2. Safe drinking water: the toxicologist's approach.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, F X

    2000-01-01

    The production of adequate and safe drinking water is a high priority issue for safeguarding the health and well-being of humans all over the world. Traditionally, microbiological quality of drinking water has been the main concern, but over the last decades the attention of the general public and health officials on the importance of chemical quality and the threat of chemical pollutants have increased with the increase of our knowledge on the hazards of chemical substances. There are many sources of contamination of drinking water. Broadly they can be divided into two categories: contaminants originating from surface and groundwater, and contaminants used or formed during the treatment and distribution of drinking water. Contaminants in surface and groundwater can range from natural substances such as arsenic and manganese leaching from soil, to contaminants introduced by human activities, such as run-off from agricultural activities, controlled discharge from sewage treatment works and industrial plants, and uncontrolled discharges or leakage from landfill sites and from chemical accidents. Disinfectants and disinfectant by-products are well known contaminants resulting from the processes used by the drinking water industry for the treatment and distribution of water. The basic question in the production of drinking water is how to rid drinking water of potentially dangerous microorganisms and chemicals without introducing new hazards that might pose new and different threats to human health. It is the responsibility of toxicologists to provide risk assessments for chemical pollutants and to derive guidelines or standards for drinking water quality below which no significant health risk is encountered, to assure consumers that drinking water is safe and can be consumed without any risk. This paper will focus on the toxicological procedures used by the World Health Organization to derive guideline values for chemical compounds in drinking water, and will touch

  3. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... it down the drain or use it to water your plants or your garden. ... Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. Updated March 14, 2014. ...

  4. OVERVIEW OF RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invited presentation at the 2007 National Rural Water Association National Conference, Philadelphia, PA, September 23-26, 2007. The presentation reviews the chemistry of radium and uranium in drinking water sources, treatment options, and guidelines for disposal. Presentation giv...

  5. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory



    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...

  6. A novel water delivery system for administering volatile chemicals while minimizing chemical waste in rodent toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A; Killough, P; Puckett, E; Best, D S; Simmons, J E; Pressman, J G; Narotsky, M G

    2010-01-01

    Rodent toxicity studies typically use water bottles to administer test chemicals via drinking water. However, water bottles provide inconsistent exposure of volatile chemicals due to varying headspace, and lead to excessive waste of test material. To refine drinking water toxicity studies in rodents by enhancing sample quality and consistency, and minimizing waste, we designed and implemented a novel water delivery system that keeps the water chilled, headspace free and protected from light. Materials used were resistant to chemical interaction. In this gravity-fed system, a 6-L Teflon water bag, stored in a polystyrene cooler on the cage rack, was connected to a stainless steel manifold delivering water to five cages via specialized drinking valves. Due to the absence of headspace in the water bag, this system allows consistent exposure of volatile chemicals. In addition, small diameter tubing throughout the system reduces the amount of test material residing in the system and minimizes chemical waste. PMID:19858168

  7. Drinking Water Program 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, B.D.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.

    1993-08-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated a monitoring program for drinking water in 1988 for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. EG&G Idaho structured this monitoring program to ensure that they exceeded the minimum regulatory requirements for monitoring drinking water. This program involves tracking the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters that are required for a {open_quotes}community water system{close_quotes} (maximum requirements). This annual report describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at the 17 EG&G Idaho operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters that were detected and the regulatory limits that were exceeded during 1992. In addition, ground water quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for EG&G Idaho production wells.

  8. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  9. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  10. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  11. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  12. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  13. Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

  14. Investigation of drinking water quality in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO.

  15. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  16. USEPA Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Feige, M.A.; Madding, C.; Glick, E.M. )

    1993-09-01

    The Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program has been in existence since 1943 and was adopted by the Drinking Water Program in 1978 under the authority given the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Both USEPA and the states are looking for ways to make the program efficient in the face of dwindling resources. Recent discussions concerning the certification program have included major new approaches. With impending reauthorization of the SDWA and the changing needs of the certification community, the program could be significantly modified.

  17. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water.

  18. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  19. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  20. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  1. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  2. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  3. Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

  4. THE FATE OF FLUOROSILICATE DRINKING WATER ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periodically, the EPA reexamines its information on regulated drinking water contaminants to deterime if further study is required. Fluoride is one such contaminant undergoing review. The chemical literature indicates that some deficiencies exist in our understanding of the spe...

  5. Vaccination against Fowlpox virus via drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Rikako; Takase, Kozo; Matsuura, Yuichi; Deguchi, Kazuhiro; Ginnaga, Akihiro; Fujikawa, Hideo

    2003-10-01

    The oral vaccination against Fowlpox was investigated via drinking water containing the F132-c strain of Fowlpox virus to be effective even though the vaccine virus-titer was 10(4) TCID (50)/dose each time. When the virus-titer of the F132-c strain was 10(4-5 )TCID(50)/dose per single drinking water vaccination, 90% or more of chickens were not protected, however, they were protected when vaccinated twice via drinking water. A weak immune response occurred by a slight infection after the first vaccination, and due to memory cells, a booster could work well after the second vaccination. These results suggest the possibility of reducing both the amount of virus required for a vaccine via drinking water and the labor cost in the field.

  6. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

  7. Water hyacinth removes arsenic from arsenic-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Misbahuddin, Mir; Fariduddin, Atm

    2002-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) removes arsenic from arsenic-contaminated drinking water. This effect depends on several factors, such as the amount of water hyacinth, amount of arsenic present in the water, duration of exposure, and presence of sunlight and air. On the basis of the present study, the authors suggest that water hyacinth is useful for making arsenic-contaminated drinking water totally arsenic free. Water hyacinth provides a natural means of removing arsenic from drinking water at the household level without monetary cost. PMID:12696647

  8. Pollution of drinking water with nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Cabel, B.; Kozicki, R.; Lahl, U.; Podbielshi, A.; Stachel, B.; Struss, S.

    1982-01-01

    The main sources of nitrate in man are food and drinking water. The legislature in West Germany intends to lower the permitted level of nitrate in drinking water from the present 90 mg/l to 50 mg/l in 1982. The European Community has issued a directive that recommends a level of only 25 mg/l, and for babies 10 mg/l nitrate should not be exceeded. At present, nitrate cannot be removed from raw water at an acceptable cost. The problem of high nitrate content is mainly one of drinking water generation from ground water. Several analyses indicate rising concentrations of nitrate in ground water in different regions of West Germany, especially in the last few years. The following sources of nitrate-contamination of ground water aquifers in West are discussed: natural sources; over-manuring of agricultural areas with natural organic fertilizers; over-manuring of agricultural areas with synthetic fertilizers.

  9. Sustaining Waters: From Hydrology to Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toch, S.

    2003-04-01

    Around the world, disastrous effects of floods and droughts are painful evidence of our continuing struggle between human resource demands and the sustainability of our hydrologic systems. Too much or too little rainfall is often deemed the culprit in these water crises, focussing on water "lacks and needs" instead of exploring the mechanisms of the hydrologic functions and processes that sustain us. Applicable to regions around the world, this unified approach is about our human and environmental qualities with user friendly concepts and how-to guides backed up by real life experiences. From the poorest parts of Africa to Urban France to the wealthest state in the USA, examples from surface to groundwater to marine environments demonstrate how the links between vulerable natural areas, and the basins that they support are integral to the availability, adequacy and accessibility of our drinking water. Watershed management can be an effective means for crisis intervention and pollution control. This project is geared as a reference for groups, individuals and agencies concerned with watershed management, a supplement for interdisciplinary high school through university curriculam, for professional development in technical and field assistance, and for community awareness in the trade-offs and consequences of resource decisions that affect hydrologic systems. This community-based project demonstrates how our human resource demands can be managed within ecological constraints. An inter-disciplinary process is developed that specifically assesses risk to human health from resource use practices, and explores the similarities and interations between our human needs and those of the ecosystems in which we all must live together. Disastrous conditions worldwide have triggered reactions in crisis relief rather than crisis prevention. Through a unified management approach to the preservation of water quality, the flows of water that connect all water users can serve as a

  10. [Radioactivity in Harz area drinking water after Chernobyl].

    PubMed

    Hennighausen, R H

    1999-11-01

    After the reactor accident in Chernobyl on April 26th, 1986 drinking water pollution was in Lower Saxony a problem in the Harz mountains. With the rainout of the radioactive clouds radioactivity came into the water-barrages, brooks und pools for drinking water supply. Good drinking water management supervised by the district community physician limited radioactive nuclides in drinking water. Drinking water path was approximately only 5% of the exposure to radioactive nuclides in the Harz region due to Chernobyl in 1986.

  11. A self-administered Timeline Followback to measure variations in underage drinkers' alcohol intake and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Kashdan, Todd B; Koutsky, James R; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T; Vetter, Charlene J

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinkers typically have not developed regular patterns of drinking and so are likely to exhibit situational variation in alcohol intake, including binge drinking. Information about such variation is not well captured by quantity/frequency (QF) measures, which require that drinkers blend information over time to derive a representative estimate of "typical" drinking. The Timeline Followback (TLFB) method is designed to retrospectively capture situational variations in drinking during a specific period of time. We compared our newly-developed Self-administered TLFB (STLFB) measure to a QF measure for reporting alcohol intake. Our sample of 429 (men=204; women=225) underage (i.e., age 18-20 years) drinkers completed the two drinking measures and reported on alcohol problems. The STLFB and QF measures converged in assessing typical daily intake, but the STLFB provided more information about situational variations in alcohol use and better identification of regular versus intermittent binge drinkers. Regular binge drinkers reported more alcohol problems. The STLFB is an easy-to-administer measure of variations in alcohol intake, which can be useful for understanding drinking behavior.

  12. Centrally and peripherally administered ghrelin potently inhibits water intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Fujihara, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Makoto; Saito, Takeshi; Shibata, Minori; Otsubo, Hiroki; Takei, Yoshio; Ueta, Yoichi

    2007-04-01

    Ghrelin is known as a potent orexigenic hormone through its action on the brain. In this study, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) and iv injection of ghrelin on water intake, food intake, and urine volume in rats deprived of water for 24 h. Water intake that occurred after water deprivation was significantly inhibited by icv injection of ghrelin (0.1, 1, and 10 nmol/rat) in a dose-related manner, although food intake was stimulated by the hormone. The antidipsogenic effect was as potent as the orexigenic effect. Similarly, water intake was inhibited, whereas food intake was stimulated dose dependently after iv injection of ghrelin (0.1, 1, and 10 nmol/kg). The inhibition of drinking was comparable with, or even more potent than, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), an established antidipsogenic hormone, when administered icv, although the antidipsogenic effect lasted longer. ANP had no effect on food intake. Urine volume decreased dose relatedly after icv injection of ghrelin but not by ANP. Intravenous injection of ghrelin had no effect on urine volume. Because drinking usually occurs with feeding, food was withdrawn to remove the prandial drinking. Then the antidipsogenic effect of ghrelin became more potent than that of ANP and continued longer than when food was available. Expression of Fos was increased in the area postrema and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius by using immunohistochemistry after icv and iv injection of ghrelin. The present study convincingly showed that ghrelin is a potent antidisogenic peptide in rats.

  13. REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

  14. Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Mäkeläinen, Ilona; Väisänen, Sari B; Penttilä, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

    2002-04-01

    Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L.

  15. Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Mäkeläinen, Ilona; Väisänen, Sari B; Penttilä, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L. PMID:11940450

  16. Magnesium in drinking water - a case for prevention?

    PubMed

    Rylander, Ragnar

    2014-03-01

    Studies in many countries have demonstrated a relationship between drinking water mineral content and the risk of death in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Particularly strong relationships have been found for magnesium and it has been suggested that magnesium be added to drinking water. The aim of this article is to evaluate the validity of this suggestion by reviewing information on possible causative agents. Major epidemiological studies on the drinking water content of calcium, magnesium, and hardness were analysed regarding exposure specificity, confounding factors, dose-response relationships and biological plausibility. Intervention experiments were analysed. The risk of death in CVD was related to the content of Ca, Mg and HCO(3-). The data demonstrate that Ca and Mg need to be considered together, and that HCO(3-) could play a role by intervening with the body acid load. There is no evidence to justify the addition of magnesium only to drinking water for preventive purposes. The data suggest that Ca and Mg could be administered together but no data are available regarding the relative proportions for an optimal effect.

  17. National drinking water program redirection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-07

    During 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) conducted an extensive reassessment of its drinking water protection program in response to a number of issues which were being raised within the Agency, by a wide range of interested parties, and by Congress. The purpose of the reassessment was to assist the Agency in; formulation comprehensive redirection objectives that can serve to guide Agency activities related to drinking water; identifying and implementing high-priority activities that will maximize risk reduction; realigning resources within the Office of Water`s Drinking Water Program at EPA headquarters to support as many of the activities as possible; and utilizing improved coordination with other Agency offices and the Regions to support the redirection effort. This document is intended for public comment.

  18. Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff.

  19. Drinking water regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The fact sheet describes the requirements covered under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Levels of various contaminants (including radio nuclides) are explained. Also discussed are the Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Total Coliforms Rule.

  20. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbes...

  1. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbest...

  2. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, relia...

  3. [Drinking water decontamination with isolative sorbent disinfectants].

    PubMed

    Krasnov, M S

    2004-01-01

    Drinking water can be decontaminated with the use of isolative sorbent disinfectants. Consideration of the effectiveness of water disinfectants and the sorptive power of porous materials against bacteria and viruses attested to the favour of iodine and silver-containing disinfectants and their compositions on porous aggressive carriers to be employed in extreme conditions such as on board crewed space vehicles.

  4. Drinking water consumption patterns in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Westrell, Therese; Andersson, Yvonne; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2006-12-01

    Estimates on drinking water consumption are necessary in risk assessments on microbial hazards in drinking water. Large differences in consumption habits between countries have been reported. In order to establish estimates for the Swedish population, water consumption data from a waterborne outbreak investigation (157 people), a small water consumption study (75 people) and a large study on health and environmental factors (10,957 people) were analysed. A lognormal distribution for the daily direct/cold water intake in litres with mu = - 0.299 and sigma = 0.570 was fitted to the quantitative data, representing the general population. The average daily consumption of tap water as plain drinking water and as heated tap water, e.g. in coffee and tea, was 0.86 +/- 0.48 l and 0.94 +/- 0.69 l, respectively. Women consumed more cold tap water than did men, while men appeared to have a higher consumption of heated tap water. Cold tap water intake was highest in the oldest age group, (> or =70 years). The consumption of bottled water was very low (mean 0.06 l/d) when compared to other countries.

  5. Stability of florfenicol in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John M; Eichman, Jonathan; Katz, Terry; Gilewicz, Rosalia

    2003-01-01

    Florfenicol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, is being developed for veterinary application as an oral concentrate intended for dilution with drinking water. When a drug product is dosed via drinking water in a farm setting, a number of variables, including pH, chlorine content, hardness of the water used for dilution, and container material, may affect its stability, leading to a decrease in drug potency. The stability of florfenicol after dilution of Florfenicol Drinking Water Concentrate Oral Solution, 23 mg/mL, with drinking water was studied. A stability-indicating, validated liquid chromatographic method was used to evaluate florfenicol stability at 25 degrees C at 5, 10, and 24 h after dilution. The results indicate that florfenicol is stable under a range of simulated field conditions, including various pipe materials and conditions of hard or soft and chlorinated or nonchlorinated water at low or high pH. Significant degradation (> 10%) was observed only for isolated combinations in galvanized pipes. Analysis indicated that the florfenicol concentration in 8 of the 12 water samples stored in galvanized pipes remained above 90% of the initial concentration (100 mg/L) for 24 h after dilution.

  6. Microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Xi, Chuanwu; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2006-06-01

    The supply of clean drinking water is a major, and relatively recent, public health milestone. Control of microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems, often achieved through the addition of disinfectants, is essential to limiting waterborne illness, particularly in immunocompromised subpopulations. Recent inquiries into the microbial ecology of distribution systems have found that pathogen resistance to chlorination is affected by microbial community diversity and interspecies relationships. Research indicates that multispecies biofilms are generally more resistant to disinfection than single-species biofilms. Other recent findings are the increased survival of the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila when present inside its protozoan host Hartmannella vermiformis and the depletion of chloramine disinfectant residuals by nitrifying bacteria, leading to increased overall microbial growth. Interactions such as these are unaccounted for in current disinfection models. An understanding of the microbial ecology of distribution systems is necessary to design innovative and effective control strategies that will ensure safe and high-quality drinking water. PMID:16701992

  7. Attenuation of drinking sweetened water following calcium channel blockade.

    PubMed

    Calcagnetti, D J; Schechter, M D

    1992-06-01

    Recent reports cite results that both cocaine-induced conditioned place preference and activity stimulation are attenuated by pretreatment with the calcium channel blocker isradipine (ISR) in rats. By blocking voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels, ISR may regulate neural dopamine release that, in turn, decreases the putative rewarding effects mediated by dopaminergic mechanisms. It is known that nonfluid deprived rats avidly consume sweetened fluids; this suggests that the sweet taste is rewarding. Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of ISR on drinking sweetened and nonflavored water. Experiment 1 was designed to test whether ISR would attenuate the intake of a palatable solution in a dose-dependent manner. To this end, ISR was administered both peripherally (3.0-30 mg/kg) and centrally (0.3-30 micrograms/rat) prior to a solution of saccharin and d-glucose (S + G) being made available to rats (15 min/day) and intake was recorded. ISR produced dose-dependent decreases (38%-81%) in S + G intake dependent on the route of administration. In Experiment 2, water intake was measured in 18 h water-deprived rats following ISR (10 mg/kg) administration as well as comparing S + G drinking. The effect of two ISR vehicles, dimethyl sulfoxide and Tween 80, upon fluid intake was also determined. ISR injection did not attenuate water intake in 18 h water-deprived rats and the choice of vehicle did not affect the ISR-induced attenuation of S + G drinking. In Experiment 3, a single dose (30 micrograms) of ICV administered ISR, that attenuated S + G intake by approximately 44%, did not attenuate water intake in 18 h water-deprived rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  9. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  10. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  11. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  12. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  13. Anencephalus, drinking water, geomagnetism and cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Archer, V E

    1979-01-01

    The mortality rates from anencephalus from 1950-1969 in Canadian cities are shown to be strongly correlated with city growth rate and with horizontal geomagnetic flux, which is directly related to the intensity of cosmic radiation. They are also shown to have some association with the magnesium content of drinking water. Prior work with these data which showed associations with magnesium in drinking water, mean income, latitude and longitude was found to be inadequate because it dismissed the observed geographic associations as having little biological meaning, and because the important variables of geomagnetism and city growth rate were overlooked. PMID:433919

  14. VOC concentration in Taiwan's household drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kuo, H W; Chiang, T F; Lo, I I; Lai, J S; Chan, C C; Wang, J D

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in Taiwan's drinking water supply. Focusing on Taiwan's three major metropolitan areas--Taipei, Taichung and Kaohsiung (in the north, middle and south, respectively)--171 samples were taken from tap water and 68 from boiled water. Tests showed VOC concentrations were highest in Kaohsiung. This is due to different water sources and methods of treatment. Except for bromoform, trihalomethane (THM) concentrations were highest. Detection rates of toluene and 1,2-dichloroethane were slightly higher than other VOC compounds. VOC concentrations decreased significantly after water was boiled. THMs had a removal rate from 61% to 82%. The authors conclude that the three metropolitan areas contain significantly different levels of VOCs and that boiling can significantly reduce the presence of VOCs. Other sources of pollution that contaminate drinking water such as industrial plants and gas stations must be further investigated.

  15. [Pollution of drinking water by tetrachloroethylene].

    PubMed

    Möse, J R; Wilfinger, G; Zeichen, R

    1985-06-01

    At the end of the year 1983 and at the beginning of 1984, groundwater contamination with tetrachloroethylene was discovered south of Graz. Many wells showed an elevated concentration of tetrachloroethylene. 1210 persons living in this area were examined. As tetrachloroethylene may cause liver damage, screening tests were carried out in order to detect pathological liver function tests (LFT), such as gamma-GT elevation. In most cases, initially elevated LFT could be attributed to alcohol abuse. After thorough medical examinations, two cases remained unclear; later on, however, the initially elevated LFT could no longer be detected. This is a certain indication that there was some type of stress on the liver shortly before the blood sample was taken. In all other cases of liver disease, the causes could be determined. The pollution of drinking water was not the cause of pathological LFT. Nevertheless, the inhabitants of this region will receive drinking water from the public water supply for safety reasons. However, one thing that needs to be stated very clearly is that these findings which fortunately show no detrimental effect due to the pollution of drinking water, do not allow any conclusions concerning the possibility of injury to health, i.e. they do not preclude possible impairment of health as a consequence of prolonged consumption of the polluted drinking water.

  16. NTP toxicity studies of sodium dichromate dihydrate (CAS No. 7789-12-0) administered in drinking water to male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and male BALB/c and am3-C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Bucher, John R

    2007-01-01

    Sodium dichromate dihydrate is one of a number of inorganic compounds containing hexavalent chromium (CR VI) found in drinking water supplies as a contaminant resulting from various industrial processes including electroplating operations, leather tanning, and textile manufacturing. Because of the lack of adequate experimental data on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium ingested orally, and because hexavalent chromium has been found in human drinking water supplies, the California Congressional delegation and the California Environmental Protection Agency nominated hexavalent chromium to the NTP for study. In study 1, male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to sodium dichromate dihydrate (greater than 99% pure) in drinking water for 3 months. In study 2, sodium dichromate dihydrate was administered in drinking water to male B6C3F1, BALB/c, and am3-C57BL/6 mice for 3 months. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. In study 1, groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were given drinking water containing 0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 mg sodium dichromate dihydrate/L for 3 months (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 5, 10, 17, 32, or 60 mg sodium dichromate dihydrate/kg body weight to rats and 9, 15, 26, 45, or 80 mg/kg to mice). On a molecular weight basis, these doses are equivalent to approximately 1.7, 3.5, 5.9, 11.2, and 20.9 mg hexavalent chromium/kg body weight per day to rats and 3.1, 5.2, 9.1, 15.7, and 27.9 mg/kg per day to mice. Additional groups of 10 rats per sex were exposed to the same concentrations of sodium dichromate dihydrate for 4 weeks. All rats and mice survived to the end of the study. Reduced body weights occurred in 500 and 1,000 mg/L male rats, 1,000 mg/L female rats, and in male and female mice exposed to 125 mg/L or greater. Water consumption by male and female rats exposed to 250

  17. NTP toxicity studies of sodium dichromate dihydrate (CAS No. 7789-12-0) administered in drinking water to male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and male BALB/c and am3-C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Bucher, John R

    2007-01-01

    Sodium dichromate dihydrate is one of a number of inorganic compounds containing hexavalent chromium (CR VI) found in drinking water supplies as a contaminant resulting from various industrial processes including electroplating operations, leather tanning, and textile manufacturing. Because of the lack of adequate experimental data on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium ingested orally, and because hexavalent chromium has been found in human drinking water supplies, the California Congressional delegation and the California Environmental Protection Agency nominated hexavalent chromium to the NTP for study. In study 1, male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to sodium dichromate dihydrate (greater than 99% pure) in drinking water for 3 months. In study 2, sodium dichromate dihydrate was administered in drinking water to male B6C3F1, BALB/c, and am3-C57BL/6 mice for 3 months. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. In study 1, groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were given drinking water containing 0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 mg sodium dichromate dihydrate/L for 3 months (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 5, 10, 17, 32, or 60 mg sodium dichromate dihydrate/kg body weight to rats and 9, 15, 26, 45, or 80 mg/kg to mice). On a molecular weight basis, these doses are equivalent to approximately 1.7, 3.5, 5.9, 11.2, and 20.9 mg hexavalent chromium/kg body weight per day to rats and 3.1, 5.2, 9.1, 15.7, and 27.9 mg/kg per day to mice. Additional groups of 10 rats per sex were exposed to the same concentrations of sodium dichromate dihydrate for 4 weeks. All rats and mice survived to the end of the study. Reduced body weights occurred in 500 and 1,000 mg/L male rats, 1,000 mg/L female rats, and in male and female mice exposed to 125 mg/L or greater. Water consumption by male and female rats exposed to 250

  18. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  19. Climate change influence on drinking water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

    2013-11-01

    Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

  20. Decision support system for drinking water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janža, M.

    2012-04-01

    The problems in drinking water management are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency water management and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in water management. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the

  1. [Quality standards and hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Shu, Weiqun; Gao, Jingsheng

    2004-05-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking-water increases worldwide and relevant regulation for inspection and supervision work of bottled drinking-water were established in many countries. However, regulation mentioned above is lower than that for tap water. The hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water is emphasized, especially on microbial contamination. In this paper, some issues in regards were reviewed and discussed.

  2. Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121

  3. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides a concise and abbreviated summary of AWWA Manual of Practice M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water, to serve as a quick point of reference. For convenience, the article’s organization matches that of M53, as follows: • wate...

  4. MUTAGENICITY OF DRINKING WATER FOLLOWING DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many drinking water utilities in the USA are considering alternatives to chlorine for disinfection in order to comply with federal regulations regarding disinfection by-products. An evaluation is thus needed of the potential risks associated with the use of alternative disinfecta...

  5. Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  6. Compliance Monitoring of Drinking Water Supplies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haukebo, Thomas; Bernius, Jean

    1977-01-01

    The most frequent testing required under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 is for turbidity and coliform. Free chlorine residual testing can be substituted for part of the coliform requirement. Described are chemical procedures for performing this test. References are given. (Author/MA)

  7. Treatment Strategies for Lead in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead pipes are capable of lasting hundreds of years. Conservatively, there are over 12 million, still serving drinking water in the US. Probably, this is a substantial underestimate. Leaded solder joining copper pipe abounds. Leaded brasses have dominated the materials used for...

  8. Drinking Water. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book…

  9. Lead in the School's Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    The purpose of this manual is to assist school officials by providing information on the effects of lead in school drinking water on children, how to detect the presence of lead, how to reduce the lead, and how to provide training for sampling and remedial programs. A protocol is provided for procedures to determine the location and source of lead…

  10. CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

  11. DRINKING WATER FROM AGRICULTURALLY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sharp increases in fertilizer and pesticide use throughout the 1960s and 1970s along with generally less attachment to soil particles may result in more widespread contamination of drinking water supplies. he purpose of this study was to highlight the use of agricultural chemical...

  12. Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines

    SciTech Connect

    McSwane, D.Z. . School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.

    1994-06-01

    Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons.

  13. Something in the water: contaminated drinking water and infant health

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Meckel, Katherine; Neidell, Matthew; Schlenker, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of the effects of in utero exposure to contaminated drinking water on fetal health. To do this, we examine the universe of birth records and drinking water testing results for the state of New Jersey from 1997 to 2007. Our data enable us to compare outcomes across siblings who were potentially exposed to differing levels of harmful contaminants from drinking water while in utero. We find small effects of drinking water contamination on all children, but large and statistically significant effects on birth weight and gestation of infants born to less educated mothers. We also show that those mothers who were most affected by contamination were the least likely to move between births in response to contamination. PMID:27134285

  14. Regulatory Considerations to Ensure Clean and Safe Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal drinking water regulations are based on risk assessment of human health effects and research conducted on source water, treatment technologies, residuals, and distribution systems. The book chapter summarizes the role that EPA research plays in ensuring pure drinking wat...

  15. 6 Million Americans Drink Water Tainted with Toxic Chemicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160327.html 6 Million Americans Drink Water Tainted With Toxic Chemicals: Report Many systems contain ... unsafe levels of dangerous chemicals in their drinking water that may trigger a host of health problems, ...

  16. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  17. RESPONDING TO THREATS AND INCIDENTS OF INTENTIONAL DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    All drinking water systems have some degree of vulnerability to contamination, and analysis shows that it is possible to contaminate drinking water at levels causing varying degrees of harm. Furthermore, experience indicates that the threat of contamination, overt or circumstant...

  18. Neurobehavioral alterations in rats exposed to acrylonitrile in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Rongzhu, L; Suhua, W; Guangwei, X; Fangan, H; Ziqiang, C; Fusheng, J; Kacew, S

    2007-03-01

    This study was carried out on rodents, to explore the neurobehavioral effects of acrylonitrile (AN) administered in drinking water. Thirty, male, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: two exposure groups (50 and 200 ppm AN), and one control group (tap water without AN). Three tests, including the open field test, rotarod test and spatial water maze, were applied to evaluate locomotor activities, motor co-ordination and learning and memory, respectively, prior to initiation of the treatment, and at Week 4, 8 and 12 postexposure. There were no consistent changes in the open field test, except for locomotion and grooming episodes. In the rotarod test, AN significantly decreased the latencies to fall in a dose and time-dependent manner. In the spatial water maze test, rats exposed to AN for 12 weeks had significantly more training times and longer escape latencies than control animals. These findings indicate that oral exposure to AN induces neurobehavioral alterations in rats.

  19. A Drop to Drink. . .A Report on the Quality of Our Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Jack

    Basic information about the quality of our nation's drinking water is contained in this brochure. Written for the general public to familiarize them with the situation, it will also help them evaluate the state of the nation's drinking water as well as that of their own communities. The need to assure reliable sources of healthful drinking water…

  20. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  1. Improving Drinking Water Quality by Remineralisation.

    PubMed

    Luptáková, Anna; Derco, Ján

    2015-01-01

    The reason of low mineral content in source water is its origin in poorly soluble mineral geological structures. There are many areas with very soft low-mineralised water around the world. All people involved in drinking water treatment as well as some public health experts and producers of chemicals used for water treatment may be interested in the study. Enrichment of drinking water by minerals including calcium and magnesium is very important particularly in regions where drinking water is prepared by desalination. The aim of this work was to study and intensify the recarbonization process. Half-calcined dolomite in combination with carbon dioxide constitutes the chemistry of the applied method. Advantages of using a fluidised bed reactor contributed also significantly to the process efficiency enhancement. Continuous input of carbon dioxide into the fluidised bed recarbonization reactor resulted in an increase in the recarbonization rate by about one order of magnitude compared with the process in without carbon dioxide addition. Very good fit of experimental data for hydrodynamic characteristics of fluidised bed was obtained using simple model based on the Richardson and Zaki expansion equation. The first order model describes kinetic data from the recarbonization process with a good accuracy. Higher recarbonization rates were observed with smaller particles of half-calcined dolomite. PMID:26680713

  2. Improving Drinking Water Quality by Remineralisation.

    PubMed

    Luptáková, Anna; Derco, Ján

    2015-01-01

    The reason of low mineral content in source water is its origin in poorly soluble mineral geological structures. There are many areas with very soft low-mineralised water around the world. All people involved in drinking water treatment as well as some public health experts and producers of chemicals used for water treatment may be interested in the study. Enrichment of drinking water by minerals including calcium and magnesium is very important particularly in regions where drinking water is prepared by desalination. The aim of this work was to study and intensify the recarbonization process. Half-calcined dolomite in combination with carbon dioxide constitutes the chemistry of the applied method. Advantages of using a fluidised bed reactor contributed also significantly to the process efficiency enhancement. Continuous input of carbon dioxide into the fluidised bed recarbonization reactor resulted in an increase in the recarbonization rate by about one order of magnitude compared with the process in without carbon dioxide addition. Very good fit of experimental data for hydrodynamic characteristics of fluidised bed was obtained using simple model based on the Richardson and Zaki expansion equation. The first order model describes kinetic data from the recarbonization process with a good accuracy. Higher recarbonization rates were observed with smaller particles of half-calcined dolomite.

  3. Learning guide for state/local drinking water agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act mandated sweeping changes in the scope and costs of state drinking water programs. Some states are maximizing available resources by relying on local governments to carry out some of their drinking water responsibilities. The guidebook was developed to provide states and local governments using this approach with practical advice and suggestions about formal agreements related to Safe Drinking Water Act responsibilities.

  4. Norovirus Outbreaks from Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, Ilkka T.; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik

    2005-01-01

    As part of an intensified monitoring program for foodborne disease outbreaks in Finland, waterborne outbreaks were investigated for viruses. The diagnostic procedure included analysis of patients' stool samples by electron microscopy and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for noroviruses and astroviruses. When these test results were positive for a virus, the water sample was analyzed. Virus concentration was based on positively charged filters from 1-L samples. Of the total 41 waterborne outbreaks reported during the observation period (1998–2003), samples from 28 outbreaks were available for analysis. As judged by RT-PCR results from patient samples, noroviruses caused 18 outbreaks. In 10 outbreaks, the water sample also yielded a norovirus. In all but 1 instance, the amplicon sequence was identical to that recovered from the patients. The ubiquity of waterborne norovirus outbreaks calls for measures to monitor water for viruses. PMID:16318723

  5. Drinking water health advisory for boron

    SciTech Connect

    Cantilli, R.

    1991-04-01

    The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

  6. Climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmeczi, Pál; Homolya, Emese; Rotárné Szalkai, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather conditions in Hungary led to difficulties in drinking water management on diverse occasions in the past. Due to reduced water resources and the coexisting high demand for drinking water in dry summer periods the availability of a number of water supplies became insufficient therefore causing limitations in water access. In some other cases, as a result of floods and flash floods over karstic areas evolving in consequence of excessive precipitation, several water supplies had to be excluded in order to avoid the risk of infections. More frequent occurrence of extreme weather conditions and further possible changes in the future induce the necessity for an analysis of the vulnerability of drinking water resources to climate change. Since 95% of the total drinking water supply in Hungary originates from subsurface layers, significance of groundwater resources is outstanding. The aim of our work carried out in the frames of the NAGiS (National Adaptation Geo-information System) project was to build up a methodology for the study and determination of the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to climate. The task covered analyses of climatic parameters influencing drinking water supplies principally and hydrogeological characteristics of the geological media that significantly determines vulnerability. Effects on drinking water resources and their reduction or exclusion may imply societal and economic consequences therefore we extended the analyses to the investigation of possibilities concerning the adaptation capacity to changed conditions. We applied the CIVAS (Climate Impact and Vulnerability Assessment Scheme) model developed in the frames of the international climate research project CLAVIER (Climate Change and Variability: Impact on Central and Eastern Europe) to characterize climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies. The CIVAS model, being based on the combined evaluation of exposure, sensitivity and adaptability, provides a unified

  7. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  9. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  10. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  11. BOOK REVIEW OF "DRINKING WATER REGULATION AND HEALTH"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974, several amendments and other new regulations have been developed for drinking water. The book, "Drinking Water Regulation and Health", explains these regulations and provides background on why they were developed ...

  12. Solar purifier of drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Fawzy, I.O.

    1987-01-01

    Around 1920, ultraviolet radiation was used in Switzerland and France for water purification. Now, it is in use in more than 2000 European water works. In the United States, between 1916 and 1928, four municipal water installations of ultraviolet apparatus were in operation. By 1939, they were all abandoned in favor of chlorination primarily because of economy and the inadequacy of technology available at that time. In recent years, ultraviolet purification has had a comeback, partly because of the realization of what chlorination is doing to the environment and partly due to the vast advances in UV technology. Although solar ultraviolet radiation has a marginal biocidal effect, a property designed solar purifier could be a viable option in certain application. Among possible uses are: (1) rural single-family dwellings; (2) underdeveloped countries; and (3) small usage rates where electric power is not available. A solar purifier model is presented in this study. The data it provided illustrates that it can be effective in treating partially contaminated water.

  13. GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

  14. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are 159,796 Community Water Systems (CWSs) in the United States. Ninety-three percent of CWSs are considered very small to medium-sized systems that serve roughly 19% of the CWS population. In contrast, large to very large systems comprise just 7% of CWSs, but serve 81% of ...

  15. Arsenic in drinking water and pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, S A; Sayed, M H; Barua, S; Khan, M H; Faruquee, M H; Jalil, A; Hadi, S A; Talukder, H K

    2001-01-01

    We studied a group of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water to identify the pregnancy outcomes in terms of live birth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth. We compared pregnancy outcomes of exposed respondents with pregnancy outcomes of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were not exposed to arsenic-contaminated water. In a cross-sectional study, we matched the women in both exposed and nonexposed groups for age, socioeconomic status, education, and age at marriage. The total sample size was 192, with 96 women in each group (i.e., exposed and nonexposed). Of the respondents in the exposed group, 98% had been drinking water containing [Greater and equal to] 0.10 mg/L arsenic and 43.8% had been drinking arsenic-contaminated water for 5-10 years. Skin manifestation due to chronic arsenic exposure was present in 22.9% of the respondents. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in terms of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and preterm birth rates were significantly higher in the exposed group than those in the nonexposed group (p = 0.008, p = 0.046, and p = 0.018, respectively). PMID:11445518

  16. Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazeer B; Chohan, Arham N

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the supermarkets of Riyadh. The concentration of F, Ca, TDS, and pH values were noted from the labels of the bottles. The samples were analyzed for concentrations in the laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean level of F, Ca, and pH were found as 0.86 ppm, 38.47 ppm, and 7.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean concentration of these elements reported in the labels. Whereas, the mean TDS concentration was found 118.87 ppm, which was significantly lower than the mean reported on the labels. In tropical countries like Saudi Arabia, the appropriate level of F concentration in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) should be 0.6-0.7 ppm. Since the level of F was found to be significantly higher than the WHO recommended level, the children exposed to this level could develop objectionable fluorosis. The other findings, like pH value, concentrations of Ca, and TDS, were in the range recommended by the WHO and Saudi standard limits and therefore should have no obvious significant health implications.

  17. Acid rain and drinking water degradation.

    PubMed

    Middleton, P; Rhodes, S L

    1984-03-01

    Acid deposition-induced drinking water degradation is discussed with respect to the geographical extent of and the potential for dealing with possibly adverse human health impacts. Qualitative evidence from the northeastern United States and Sweden strongly suggests the existence of a linkage between these two environmental concerns. It is argued that water treatment and reduction of acid rain as solutions to the problem of water toxicity need closer evaluation. More research into the causal link is warranted since the addition of human health impacts to acid rain's environmental insults could have a significant bearing on discussions relating to acid rain controls.

  18. [Human exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Tominaga, M Y; Midio, A F

    1999-08-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbon compounds, some of them recognized as carcinogenic to different animal species can be found in drinking water. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform are the most important trihalomethanes found in potable water. They are produced in natural waters during chlorinated desinfection by the halogenation of precursors, specially humic and fulvic compounds. The review, in the MEDLINE covers the period from 1974 to 1998, presents the general aspects of the formation of trihalomethanes, sources of human exposure and their toxicological meaning for exposed organisms: toxicokinetic disposition and spectrum of toxic effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic).

  19. Phosphorus limitation on bacterial regrowth in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jun-qiang; Zhang, Xi-hui; Yu, Guo-zhong; Wang, Zhan-sheng

    2003-11-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test and bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) analysis were used to investigate the effect of phosphorus on bacterial regrowth in the drinking water that was made from some raw water taken from a reservoir located in northern China. It was shown that AOC of the drinking water samples increased by 43.9%-59.6% and BRP increased by 100%-235% when 50 microg/L PO4(3-)-P(as NaH2 PO4) was added alone to the drinking water samples. This result was clear evidence of phosphorus limitation on bacteria regrowth in the drinking water. This investigation indicated the importance of phosphorus in ensuring biological stability of drinking water and offered a novel possible option to restrict microbial regrowth in drinking water distribution system by applying appropriate technologies to remove phosphorus efficiently from drinking water in China.

  20. Astrovirus survival in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Abad, F X; Pintó, R M; Villena, C; Gajardo, R; Bosch, A

    1997-08-01

    A method based on infection of CaCo-2 cultured cell monolayers (CC) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was developed for the specific detection of infectious astrovirus. The procedure was validated by titrating poliovirus stocks in parallel in CaCo-2 cells by determining the most probable number of cytopathogenic units and by cell culture and subsequent RT-PCR (CC-RT-PCR). CC-RT-PCR was then employed to measure the persistence of astrovirus suspended in dechlorinated tap water. After 60 days, the decay of astrovirus infectivity was 2 log units at 4 +/- 1 degrees C and 3.2 log units at 20 +/- 1 degrees C, while after 90 days, the titer reduction was 3.3 and 5 log units at 4 +/- 1 degrees C and 20 +/- 1 degrees C, respectively. Astrovirus decay in the presence of free chlorine (FC) was monitored by CC-RT-PCR. Residual infectivity was found after 2 h in the presence of 1 mg of FC/liter. Under these conditions, astrovirus shows a log titer reduction (LTR) or 4, while 0.5 mg of FC/liter induced an LTR of 2.4. The possibility of acquiring data on the survival of fastidious viruses in the environment opens new perspectives on the epidemiology of some significant infections transmitted by the fecal-oral route. PMID:9251198

  1. AIDS Action campaigns for drinking water safety.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    AIDS Action Council is sponsoring the Municipal Water Education Project, a program which functions to inform people about water safety and contaminants such as cryptosporidium. People with compromised immune systems are vulnerable to infection from the parasite cryptosporidium in the water supply. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the condition. On June 15, 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines to inform people how to avoid infection with cryptosporidium. The Council publicly supports these guidelines about home filtration, boiling water, and bottled water. In addition, the Council is pushing for a stronger Safe Drinking Water Act, which will be up for reauthorization this year.

  2. AIDS Action campaigns for drinking water safety.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    AIDS Action Council is sponsoring the Municipal Water Education Project, a program which functions to inform people about water safety and contaminants such as cryptosporidium. People with compromised immune systems are vulnerable to infection from the parasite cryptosporidium in the water supply. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the condition. On June 15, 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines to inform people how to avoid infection with cryptosporidium. The Council publicly supports these guidelines about home filtration, boiling water, and bottled water. In addition, the Council is pushing for a stronger Safe Drinking Water Act, which will be up for reauthorization this year. PMID:11367402

  3. Protecting health from metal exposures in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water is essential to us as human beings. According to the World Health Organization "The quality of drinking-water is a powerful environmental determinant of health" (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/en/), but clean drinking water is a precious commodity not always readily available. Surface and ground water are the major sources of drinking water. Both can be contaminated, surface water with bacteria while ground water frequently contains salts of metals that occur naturally or are introduced by human activity. This paper will briefly review the metallic salts found in drinking water in areas around the world, as well as list some of the methods used to reduce or remove them. It will then discuss our research on reducing the risk of pollution of drinking water by removal of metal ions from wastewater.

  4. Protecting health from metal exposures in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water is essential to us as human beings. According to the World Health Organization "The quality of drinking-water is a powerful environmental determinant of health" (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/en/), but clean drinking water is a precious commodity not always readily available. Surface and ground water are the major sources of drinking water. Both can be contaminated, surface water with bacteria while ground water frequently contains salts of metals that occur naturally or are introduced by human activity. This paper will briefly review the metallic salts found in drinking water in areas around the world, as well as list some of the methods used to reduce or remove them. It will then discuss our research on reducing the risk of pollution of drinking water by removal of metal ions from wastewater. PMID:26953706

  5. [Revision of the drinking water regulations].

    PubMed

    Hauswirth, S

    2011-11-01

    The revision the Drinking Water Regulations will come into effect on 01.11.2011. Surveillance authorities and owners of drinking water supply systems had hoped for simplifications and reductions because of the new arrangements. According to the official statement for the revision the legislature intended to create more clarity, consider new scientific findings, to change regulations that have not been proved to close regulatory gaps, to deregulate and to increase the high quality standards. A detailed examination of the regulation text, however, raises doubts. The new classification of water supply systems requires different modalities of registration, water analyses and official observation, which will complicate the work of the authorities. In particular, the implementation of requirements of registration and examination for the owners of commercial and publicly-operated large hot-water systems in accordance with DVGW Worksheet W 551 requires more effort. According to the estimated 30 000 cases of legionellosis in Germany the need for a check of such systems for Legionella, however, is not called into question. Furthermore, the development of sampling plans and the monitoring of mobile water supply systems requires more work for the health authorities.

  6. 21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. 1240.80 Section 1240.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION CONTROL OF...

  7. Diarrhoea following contamination of drinking water with copper.

    PubMed

    Stenhammar, L

    1999-06-28

    Three cases of children with suspected copper intoxication from the drinking water are described. The children presented with protracted diarrhoea, which promptly disappeared, when they were given drinking water of low copper concentration but reappeared when given their domestic water. It is concluded that the use of copper tubing in the water pipes may under certain circumstances result in the presence of copper in the drinking water and the risk of intoxication, especially in small children. PMID:10383874

  8. Water, Water Everywhere, But is it Safe to Drink?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been associated with adverse human health effects, including bladder cancer, early term miscarriage, and birth defects. While it is vitally important to kill harmful pathogens in water, it is also important to minimize harmful ...

  9. [Drinking water supply with reference to geogenic arsenic contamination].

    PubMed

    Kevekordes, S; Suchenwirth, R; Gebel, T; Demuth, J; Dunkelberg, H; Küntzel, H

    1998-10-01

    Geogenic Arsenic in Drinking Water. Drinking water production of surface spring water in southern Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Germany) was reduced because of microbiological contaminations and unreliably variable water reserves. Surface spring water in general has a low arsenic content. As a consequence ground water has been increasingly used for drinking water. Thus, high geogenic concentrations of arsenic in the central "Buntsandstein" in southern Lower Saxony caused high arsenic contents in the groundwater. Under the regulation of the German Drinking Water Ordinance (1986) the limit for total arsenic (40 micrograms/l) was exceeded in 2% of 150 fountains, wells and sources in southern Lower Saxony. Because of the well-known cancerogenic potential of arsenic the limit for total arsenic in drinking water was reduced from 40 micrograms/l to 10 micrograms/l suspending the new standard value until January 1996. This regulation based on new calculations revealing a skin cancer risk of roughly 6:10,000 and a mortality risk of roughly 1:10(6) in respect of lifetime in case of arsenic concentrations of 10 micrograms As/l drinking water. After that limit change 40% of 150 wells and sources in southern Lower Saxony exceeded the arsenic limit of 10 micrograms/l drinking water. As a matter of fact, it became necessary for a large number of water supply works to eliminate arsenic from the drinking water by technical means or to dilute drinking water with high concentrations of arsenic.

  10. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  11. ATRAZOME CHLORINATION TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS UNDER DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorination is a commonly-used disinfectant step in drinking water treatment. Should free chlorine be added to water used as a drinking water source, it is widely understood that many biological species in the water, along with dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals, will rea...

  12. 75 FR 48329 - Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... AGENCY Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Water Operator Certification Program, effective October 1, 2010. The program enables qualified drinking water operators at public water systems in Indian country to be recognized as certified operators by...

  13. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  14. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  15. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  16. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  17. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  18. Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go Print A A ... have in common? Give up? You all need water. All living things must have water to survive, ...

  19. Portable Nanomesh Creates Safer Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Providing astronauts with clean water is essential to space exploration to ensure the health and well-being of crewmembers away from Earth. For the sake of efficient and safe long-term space travel, NASA constantly seeks to improve the process of filtering and re-using wastewater in closed-loop systems. Because it would be impractical for astronauts to bring months (or years) worth of water with them, reducing the weight and space taken by water storage through recycling and filtering as much water as possible is crucial. Closed-loop systems using nanotechnology allow wastewater to be cleaned and reused while keeping to a minimum the amount of drinking water carried on missions. Current high-speed filtration methods usually require electricity, and methods without electricity usually prove impractical or slow. Known for their superior strength and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes measure only a few nanometers in diameter; a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or roughly one hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. Nanotubes have improved water filtration by eliminating the need for chemical treatments, significant pressure, and heavy water tanks, which makes the new technology especially appealing for applications where small, efficient, lightweight materials are required, whether on Earth or in space. "NASA will need small volume, effective water purification systems for future long-duration space flight," said Johnson Space Center s Karen Pickering. NASA advances in water filtration with nanotechnology are now also protecting human health in the most remote areas of Earth.

  20. Genotoxicity of drinking water from Chao Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Q.; Jiao, Q.C.; Huang, X.M.; Jiang, J.P.; Cui, S.Q.; Yao, G.H.; Jiang, Z.R.; Zhao, H.K.; Wang, N.Y.

    1999-02-01

    Genotoxic activity appears to originate primarily from reactions of chlorine with humic substances in the source waters. Comparisons of extracts of settled versus chlorinated water have confirmed that chlorinating during water treatment produces mutagenic activity in the mutagenicity tests. Present work on XAD-2 extracts of raw, chlorinated (treated), and settled water from the Chao Lake region of China has involved a battery of mutagenicity assays for various genetic endpoints: the Salmonella test, the sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) induction in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and the micronucleus (MN) induction in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of silver carp. Extracts of raw and treated water but not the settled water are mutagenic in the Salmonella assay. On the other hand, extracts of three water samples show activity in the SCE and MN assays, especially the raw and treated water. These data show that contamination and chlorinating contribute mutagens to drinking water and suggest that the mammalian assays may be more sensitive for detecting mutagenicity in aquatic environment than the Salmonella test.

  1. Fluoride in drinking water and dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Antonijevic, Biljana; Carevic, Momir; Mandic, Jelena; Djukic-Cosic, Danijela; Lekic, Charles P

    2010-08-01

    In this study we determined the fluoride content in drinking water and hair of 12-year-old schoolchildren from different Serbian municipalities, i.e. Valjevo, Veliko Gradiste, Kacarevo and Vranjska Banja. The analyses were performed using composite fluoride ion-selective electrode. Average fluoride levels were 0.10, 0.15, 0.79 and 11 ppm in well water, 0.07, 0.10, 0.17 and 0.15 ppm in tap water, 19.3, 21.5, 25.4, and 32.5 ppm in hair samples, in Valjevo, Veliko Gradiste, Kacarevo and Vranjska Banja, respectively. Correlation analysis indicated statistically significant positive relationship between fluoride in wells water and fluoride in hair, for all municipalities: correlation coefficients were 0.54 (p < 0.05), 0.89, 0.97 and 0.99 (p < 0.001), in Vranjska Banja, Valjevo, Veliko Gradiste, and Kacarevo, respectively. Positive correlation was obtained also between fluoride in tap water and hair samples in all regions under the study, with statistical significance only in Valjevo municipality, p < 0.05. Dental examination of schoolchildren confirmed dental fluorosis only in the region of Vranjska Banja. Moreover, in endemic fluorotic region of Vranjska Banja, positive and statistically significant correlations were confirmed between fluoride in well water and dental fluorosis level (r = 0.61; p < 0.01) and additionally between fluoride in hair and dental fluorosis level (0.62; p < 0.01). The primary findings from this study have shown that fluoride content in hair is highly correlated with fluoride content in drinking water and dental fluorosis level, indicating that hair may be regarded as biomaterial of high informative potential in evaluating prolonged exposure to fluorides and to individuate children at risk of fluorosis regardless of the phase of teeth eruption. PMID:20580811

  2. Safe drinking water: a public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Wigle, D T

    1998-01-01

    Disinfection of drinking water through processes including filtration and chlorination was one of the major achievements of public health, beginning in the late 1800s and the early 1900s. Chloroform and other chlorination disinfection by-products (CBPs) in drinking water were first reported in 1974. Chloroform and several other CBPs are known to cause cancer in experimental animals, and there is growing epidemiologic evidence of a causal role for CBPs in human cancer, particularly for bladder cancer. It has been estimated that 14 16% of bladder cancers in Ontario may be attributable to drinking water containing relatively high levels of CBPs; the US Environmental Protection Agency has estimated the attributable risk to be 2 17%. These estimates are based on the assumption that the associations observed between bladder cancer and CBP exposure reflect a cause-effect relation. An expert working group (see Workshop Report in this issue) concluded that it was possible (60% of the group) to probable (40% of the group) that CBPs pose a significant cancer risk, particularly of bladder cancer. The group concluded that the risk of bladder and possibly other types of cancer is a moderately important public health problem. There is an urgent need to resolve this and to consider actions based on the body of evidence which, at a minimum, suggests that lowering of CBP levels would prevent a significant fraction of bladder cancers. In fact, given the widespread and prolonged exposure to CBPs and the epidemiologic evidence of associations with several cancer sites, future research may establish CBPs as the most important environmental carcinogens in terms of the number of attributable cancers per year.

  3. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator,...

  4. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator,...

  5. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator,...

  6. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator,...

  7. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  8. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  9. Review of fluoride removal from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, M; Anand, S; Mishra, B K; Giles, Dion E; Singh, P

    2009-10-01

    Fluoride in drinking water has a profound effect on teeth and bones. Up to a small level (1-1.5mg/L) this strengthens the enamel. Concentrations in the range of 1.5-4 mg/L result in dental fluorosis whereas with prolonged exposure at still higher fluoride concentrations (4-10mg/L) dental fluorosis progresses to skeletal fluorosis. High fluoride concentrations in groundwater, up to more than 30 mg/L, occur widely, in many parts of the world. This review article is aimed at providing precise information on efforts made by various researchers in the field of fluoride removal for drinking water. The fluoride removal has been broadly divided in two sections dealing with membrane and adsorption techniques. Under the membrane techniques reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, dialysis and electro-dialysis have been discussed. Adsorption, which is a conventional technique, deals with adsorbents such as: alumina/aluminium based materials, clays and soils, calcium based minerals, synthetic compounds and carbon based materials. Studies on fluoride removal from aqueous solutions using various reversed zeolites, modified zeolites and ion exchange resins based on cross-linked polystyrene are reviewed. During the last few years, layered double oxides have been of interest as adsorbents for fluoride removal. Such recent developments have been briefly discussed.

  10. Defluoridation of drinking water using adsorption processes.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-03-15

    Excessive intake of fluoride (F), mainly through drinking water, is a serious health hazard affecting humans worldwide. There are several methods used for the defluoridation of drinking water, of which adsorption processes are generally considered attractive because of their effectiveness, convenience, ease of operation, simplicity of design, and for economic and environmental reasons. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and a critical literature review on various adsorbents used for defluoridation, their relative effectiveness, mechanisms and thermodynamics of adsorption, and suggestions are made on choice of adsorbents for various circumstances. Effects of pH, temperature, kinetics and co-existing anions on F adsorption are also reviewed. Because the adsorption is very weak in extremely low or high pHs, depending on the adsorbent, acids or alkalis are used to desorb F and regenerate the adsorbents. However, adsorption capacity generally decreases with repeated use of the regenerated adsorbent. Future research needs to explore highly efficient, low cost adsorbents that can be easily regenerated for reuse over several cycles of operations without significant loss of adsorptive capacity and which have good hydraulic conductivity to prevent filter clogging during the fixed-bed treatment process.

  11. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality.

  12. Development of the revised drinking water standard for chromium.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber, S; Vogt, C

    1989-10-01

    Comprehensive regulations are being developed to limit human exposure to contamination in drinking water by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the authority of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). These regulations are being developed in several phases and include synthetic organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants and radionuclides. This paper addresses the fundamental concepts and approaches used by EPA in setting drinking water regulations and how EPA is using these concepts to revise the drinking water standard for chromium. PMID:2602936

  13. Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

  14. ADVANCES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States drinking water public health protection goal is to provide water that meets all health-based standards to ninety-five percent of the population served by public drinking water supplies by 2005. In 2002, the level of compliance with some eighty-five health-based ...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  20. Disinfection By-Products: Formation and Occurrence in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the twentieth century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended he...

  1. Visions of the Future in Drinking Water Microbiology.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water microbiology will have a tremendous impact on defining a safe drinking water in the future. There will be breakthroughs in realtime testing of process waters for pathogen surrogates with results made available within 1 hour for application to treatment adjustments ...

  2. The Next Generation of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended healt...

  3. The Safe Drinking Water Act First 180 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Jay H.

    1975-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act protects our drinking and ground water resources. The Water Advisory Council interprets and implements the law. Implementation principles include high priorities for public health, cost considerations, state and local participation, environmental impact, decentralized decision making, and use of federal and state…

  4. NTP technical report on toxicity studies of ethylene glycol ethers 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-butoxyethanol (CAS Nos. 109-86-4, 110-80-5, 111-76-2) administered by drinking water to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Toxicity report series

    SciTech Connect

    Dieter, M.P.

    1993-07-01

    Glycol alkyl ethers represent a class of high-production-volume chemicals with widespread industrial applications as solvents and chemical intermediates. Comparative toxicity studies with three glycol ethers, 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, and 2-butoxyethanol, were conducted in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice in both 2-week and 13-week drinking water studies. Toxicologic endpoints evaluated in animals included histopathology, hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, and reproductive system parameters. Genetic toxicity was also evaluated for each glycol ether in several in vitro and in vivo assays.

  5. Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B.; Karagas, M.R.

    1999-05-01

    Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

  6. [Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?].

    PubMed

    Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F

    2013-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring.

  7. [Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?].

    PubMed

    Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F

    2013-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring. PMID:24285158

  8. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  9. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  10. [The EU drinking water recommendations: objectives and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Blöch, H

    2011-12-01

    Protection of our drinking water resources and provision of safe drinking water are key requirements of modern water management and health policy. Microbiological and chemical quality standards have been established in the EU water policy since 1980, and are now complemented by a comprehensive protection of water as a resource. This contribution reflects a presentation at the scientific conference of the Federal Associations of Physicians and Dentists within the Public Health Service in May 2011 and provides an overview on objectives and challenges for drinking water protection at the European level.

  11. Safe drinking water act: Amendments, regulations and standards

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E.; Pastides, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book approaches the topic of safe drinking water by communicating how the EPA has responded to the mandates of Congress. Chapter 1 summarizes what is and will be involved in achieving safe drinking water. Chapter 2 describes the historical development of drinking water regulations. Chapter 3 summarizes the directives of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986. Chapters 4 through 9 discuss each phase of the regulatory program in turn. Specific problems associated with volatile organic chemicals, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, and microbiological contaminants are assessed in Chapter 4 and 5. The unique characteristics of radionuclides and their regulation are treated in Chapter 6. The disinfection process and its resultant disinfection by-products are presented in Chapter 7. The contaminant selection process and the additional contaminants to be regulated by 1989 and 1991 and in future years are discussed in Chapters 8 and 9. EPA's Office of Drinking Water's Health Advisory Program is explained in Chapter 10. The record of public water system compliance with the primary drinking water regulations is detailed in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 offers a nongovernmental perspective on the general quality of drinking water and how this is affected by a wide range of drinking water treatment technologies. Separate abstracts are processed for 5 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  12. Drinking water microbiology--new directions toward water quality enhancement.

    PubMed

    Geldreich, E E

    1989-12-01

    Drinking water microbiology has emerged from decades of relative complacency to recognize there can be major concerns with potable water quality. Many of these issues are a result of an explosion of information on new waterborne agents, treatment problems with raw-source water qualities, biofilm development in some distribution systems and specialized requirements in water quality unique to hospitals and industries. Protozoan cyst survival after some disinfection practices involving surface water impoundments and virus occurrence in poorly protected groundwaters have provided reasons for expanding minimum treatment of surface waters and for requiring disinfection of all groundwaters unless there is a demonstrative data base to support exceptions in treatment requirements. Official monitoring of small water supplies must be increased on a monthly basis and a rapid alert established to inform water plant operators of unsatisfactory water qualities. As an option, application of operational tests to analyse water quality in terms of chlorine residual, turbidity, total coliforms and heterotrophic bacterial counts in small water plant operations should be encouraged. This would provide the operator at remote locations with the opportunity to utilize the information to make necessary treatment adjustments or corrections in water distribution deficiencies promptly and be a supplement to the official regional monitoring program. Application of drinking water alternative sources (bottled water and water from point-of-use treatment devices) should be viewed by the health authorities as only a temporary solution, not as a permanent fix for a public water supply known to present some established health risk to consumers. The public must also recognize that bottled water is not frequently monitored by health laboratories for acceptable quality and the use of home treatment devices places the responsibility of proper maintenance on the user. Microbial quality improvements in

  13. Research plan for arsenic in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The document stresses the implications of recent research findings and emphasizes identification of key strengths and sources of uncertainty and variability in the arsenic risk assessment. This document also explains how information gained through research can: impact the method used in new investigations to assess the risks of arsenic, and support or suggest changes in the assumptiosn and methods used in arsenic risk assessments. This Arsenic Research Plan addresses the protection of human health, especially the research needed to implement the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments (SDWAA). It is intended to serve as a blueprint that will be discussed with parties interested in addressing key strengths and uncertainties in the arsenic risk assessment.

  14. Should children drink more water?: the effects of drinking water on cognition in children.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Burford, Denise

    2009-06-01

    While dehydration has well-documented negative effects on adult cognition, there is little research on hydration and cognitive performance in children. We investigated whether having a drink of water improved children's performance on cognitive tasks. Fifty-eight children aged 7-9 years old were randomly allocated to a group that received additional water or a group that did not. Results showed that children who drank additional water rated themselves as significantly less thirsty than the comparison group (p=0.002), and they performed better on visual attention tasks (letter cancellation, p=0.02; spot the difference memory tasks, ps=0.019 and 0.014).

  15. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN UTAH: A COHORT MORTALITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected ...

  16. Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Before its widespread use, millions of people died from waterborne diseases. Now, people in developed nations receive quality drinking water every day from their public wa...

  17. Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, Colleen E.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

  18. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  2. Bilogical Treatment for Ammonia Oxidation in Drinking Water Facilities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia is an unregulated compound, but is naturally occurring in many drinking water sources. It is also used by some treatment facilities to produce chloramines for disinfection purposes. Because ammonia is non-toxic, its presence in drinking water is often disregarded. Thro...

  3. Safety on Tap: A Citizen's Drinking Water Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, David Gray; Reichheld, Beth

    This citizen's guide to ensuring a safe supply of drinking water for all provides the information and analysis that individuals need to understand the issues and to participate in local decision making. The sources of drinking water, the types of human activities that results in contamination, and the contaminants that are of most concern are…

  4. TREATMENT OF ARSENIC RESIDUALS FROM DRINKING WATER REMOVAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking water MCL was recently lowered from 0.05 mg/L to 0.01 mg/L. One concern was that reduction in the TCLP arsenic limit in response to the drinking water MCL could be problematic with regard to disposal of solid residuals generated at arsenic removal facilities. This pr...

  5. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements..., and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water... commerce must be offered food as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved or...

  6. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements..., and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water... commerce must be offered food as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved or...

  7. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: CONTROL OF LEAD AND COPPER IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication presents subjects relating to the control of lead and copper in drinking water systems. t is of interest to system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment te...

  8. NEUROXOTOXICITY PRODUCED BY DIBROMOACETIC ACID IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act requires that EPA consider noncancer endpoints for the assessment of adverse human health effects of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is one of many DBPs produced by the chlorination of drinking water. Its chlorinated analog, ...

  9. AFM Structural Characterization of Drinking Water Biofilm under Physiological Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air...

  10. Health-risk assessment of trichlorofluoromethane in California drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, N.R.; Reed, W.; Weir, K.; Beltran, K.; Babapour, R.

    1988-12-22

    Existing literature is reviewed that is pertinent to the health risk posed by the use of Freon-11 contaminated drinking water, an estimation of the Freon-11 exposure for California residents based on the most recent data on Freon-11 concentrations in California drinking-water supplies, and a delineation of the level of Freon-11 that may cause a noncarcinogenic health effect.

  11. U.S. DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS: TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AND COST.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments have imposed a large number of new regulations on the U.S. drinking water industry. A major set of regulations currently under consideration will control disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Included in the development of th...

  12. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements..., and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water... commerce must be offered food as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved or...

  13. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements..., and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water... commerce must be offered food as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved or...

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW BROMINATED ACIDS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since chloroform was identified as the first disinfection by-product (DBP) in drinking water, there has been more than 25 years of research on DBPs. Despite these efforts, more than 50% of the total organic halide (TOX) formed in chlorinated drinking water remains unknown. Ther...

  15. Availability of drinking water in US public school cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Hood, Nancy E; Turner, Lindsey; Colabianchi, Natalie; Chaloupka, Frank J; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the availability of free drinking water during lunchtime in US public schools, as required by federal legislation beginning in the 2011-2012 school year. Data were collected by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of US public elementary, middle, and high schools from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. Overall, 86.4%, 87.4%, and 89.4% of students attended elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, that met the drinking water requirement. Most students attended schools with existing cafeteria drinking fountains and about one fourth attended schools with water dispensers. In middle and high schools, respondents were asked to indicate whether drinking fountains were clean, and whether they were aware of any water-quality problems at the school. The vast majority of middle and high school students (92.6% and 90.4%, respectively) attended schools where the respondent perceived drinking fountains to be clean or very clean. Approximately one in four middle and high school students attended a school where the survey respondent indicated that there were water-quality issues affecting drinking fountains. Although most schools have implemented the requirement to provide free drinking water at lunchtime, additional work is needed to promote implementation at all schools. School nutrition staff at the district and school levels can play an important role in ensuring that schools implement the drinking water requirement, as well as promote education and behavior-change strategies to increase student consumption of water at school.

  16. Availability of drinking water in US public school cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Hood, Nancy E; Turner, Lindsey; Colabianchi, Natalie; Chaloupka, Frank J; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the availability of free drinking water during lunchtime in US public schools, as required by federal legislation beginning in the 2011-2012 school year. Data were collected by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of US public elementary, middle, and high schools from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. Overall, 86.4%, 87.4%, and 89.4% of students attended elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, that met the drinking water requirement. Most students attended schools with existing cafeteria drinking fountains and about one fourth attended schools with water dispensers. In middle and high schools, respondents were asked to indicate whether drinking fountains were clean, and whether they were aware of any water-quality problems at the school. The vast majority of middle and high school students (92.6% and 90.4%, respectively) attended schools where the respondent perceived drinking fountains to be clean or very clean. Approximately one in four middle and high school students attended a school where the survey respondent indicated that there were water-quality issues affecting drinking fountains. Although most schools have implemented the requirement to provide free drinking water at lunchtime, additional work is needed to promote implementation at all schools. School nutrition staff at the district and school levels can play an important role in ensuring that schools implement the drinking water requirement, as well as promote education and behavior-change strategies to increase student consumption of water at school. PMID:24726348

  17. ARSENIC IN WATER USED FOR DRINKING - AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In October 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a new federal standard for concentrations of arsenic found in drinking water. The new standard was to be 10 parts-per-million (ppm). This new standard will be required by the Safe Drinking Water Act in...

  18. Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

    This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…

  19. Reducing Lead in School Drinking Water: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Lee

    1991-01-01

    The Seattle School District began a program in 1990 to identify lead levels in the district's drinking water and to implement measures to lower any high lead levels. Recounts each of the seven steps of the program, discusses what the district found, and explains how it lowered lead levels in the drinking water. (MLF)

  20. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  1. Removal of dibromochloropropane from drinking water: laboratory and field experiences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dibromochloropropane (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane or DBCP) is regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations to a maximum of 0.2 µg/L (0.2 ppb) in drinking water. DBCP was primarily used as an unclassified nematicide for vegetables and per...

  2. What's next after 40 years of drinking water regulations?

    PubMed

    Roberson, J Alan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of drinking water in the United States has continued to improve over the past 40 years. The formation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1971, the passage of the initial Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA, PL 93-523) in 1974, and the passage of the 1996 SDWA Amendments (PL 104-208) represent significant progress in drinking water quality. While the widespread adoption of filtration and disinfection in the early 1900s virtually eliminated waterborne typhoid fever, some residual risks still remained 40 years ago. These national regulatory developments compelled USEPA and the drinking water community to address these remaining risks in drinking water and optimize risk reduction for the public.

  3. What's next after 40 years of drinking water regulations?

    PubMed

    Roberson, J Alan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of drinking water in the United States has continued to improve over the past 40 years. The formation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1971, the passage of the initial Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA, PL 93-523) in 1974, and the passage of the 1996 SDWA Amendments (PL 104-208) represent significant progress in drinking water quality. While the widespread adoption of filtration and disinfection in the early 1900s virtually eliminated waterborne typhoid fever, some residual risks still remained 40 years ago. These national regulatory developments compelled USEPA and the drinking water community to address these remaining risks in drinking water and optimize risk reduction for the public. PMID:21141882

  4. OVERVIEW OF USEPA MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Microbial Contaminants Control Branch (MCCB) conducts research on microbiological problems related to drinking water treatment, distribution and storage, and has recently become involved in watershed and source water quality issues such as fecal indicator bacteria and fecal p...

  5. Arsenic in Drinking Water-A Global Environmental Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Joanna Shaofen; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-01-01

    Information on the worldwide occurrence of groundwater pollution by arsenic, the ensuing health hazards, and the debatable government regulations of arsenic in drinking water, is presented. Diagnostic identification of arsenic, and methods to eliminate it from water are also discussed.

  6. APPLICATION OF USEPA'S DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS TOWARDS RAINWATER CATCHMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainwater harvesting is receiving increased attention worldwide as an alternative source of drinking water. Although federal agencies such as the USEPA acknowledge the existence of rainwater collection systems, the monitoring of this water source is still typically carried out b...

  7. The hydration ability of three commercially available sports drinks and water.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rebecca J; Bluck, Leslie J C; Davies, Peter S W

    2008-04-01

    This paper compares the hydration ability of three commercially-available sports drinks with water under conditions of rest and exercise, using a deuterium dilution technique. For the rest group, 0.05g/kg of body weight of deuterium, contained in gelatine capsules, was ingested with one of the test solutions and saliva samples were collected every five minutes for an hour while the subject remained seated. The deuterium was administered as above for the exercise group but sample collection was during one hour of exercise on a treadmill at 55% of the subject's maximum heart rate. The enrichment data for each subject were mathematically modelled to describe the kinetics of hydration and the parameters obtained were compared across drinks using a basic Anova. At rest, significant differences were found for t(1), t(1/2), and the percent of drink absorbed at t(1). The differences between drinks were not significant for t(2) or the maximum absorption rate. For the exercise group, the only significant difference was found between water and the sports drinks at t(1). Therefore, we conclude that labelling with a deuterium tracer is a good measure of the relative rate ingested fluids are absorbed by the body. Because of the lack of differences found at t(2), which is indicative of the 100% absorption time, both at rest and during exercise, it may be speculated that, compared to water, the sports drinks studied in this paper did not hydrate the body at a faster rate.

  8. 75 FR 61751 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations AGENCY: Environmental Protection... National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council). This 15-member Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide practical and independent advice, consultation and recommendations...

  9. Occurrence of uranium in Swiss drinking water.

    PubMed

    Stalder, E; Blanc, A; Haldimann, M; Dudler, V

    2012-02-01

    The results of a nationwide survey of uranium in Swiss drinking water are reported. Elevated concentrations of uranium in groundwater are found mainly in the alpine regions and can be traced back to the geology of the bedrock. Water sources were systematically surveyed and analysed for the presence of Li, B, Si, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl, Pb and U and the results were analysed to determine if any correlation with uranium concentration was apparent. No correlation was found. The results are interpreted in relation to the current WHO guideline and those of other countries with a view to determining which areas would be affected if a maximum value were to be adopted and which areas require further investigation. Uranium content varied considerably, from below the limit of detection to almost 100 μg L(-1). Of the 5548 data samples, 98% are below the 2004 WHO provisional guideline value of 15 μg L(-1) and 99.7% below the revised (2011) value of 30 μg L(-1).

  10. Drinking water from private wells and risks to children.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Walter J; Brady, Michael T

    2009-06-01

    Drinking water for approximately one sixth of US households is obtained from private wells. These wells can become contaminated by pollutant chemicals or pathogenic organisms and cause illness. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency and all states offer guidance for construction, maintenance, and testing of private wells, there is little regulation. With few exceptions, well owners are responsible for their own wells. Children may also drink well water at child care or when traveling. Illness resulting from children's ingestion of contaminated water can be severe. This policy statement provides recommendations for inspection, testing, and remediation for wells providing drinking water for children.

  11. [The drinking water ordinance--successful or requiring revision?].

    PubMed

    Bartel, Hartmut; Krüger, W; Mendel, B; Suhr, R

    2007-03-01

    The current regulatory approach in Germany combines regulations defined in the Drinking Water Ordinance with a comprehensive catalogue of technical rules as well as with guidelines and recommendations by the Federal Environment Agency and the Drinking Water Commission. This approach has proven successful in practice. Some parts would benefit from revision. The regulator is currently contemplating some revision in order to take experience of federal, state and local authorities as well as of water suppliers with implementation of the current Ordinance into account. The intention is improvement particularly towards reducing bureaucracy without compromising the current high level of public health protection through drinking water hygiene in Germany.

  12. [Special aspects of microbiological monitoring of drinking water quality].

    PubMed

    Feuerpfeil, I; Hummel, A; Renner, P

    2007-03-01

    The new drinking water ordinance (TrinkwV 2001) entered into force in 2003. In this paper we report about experiences with monitoring microbiological quality of drinking water. Special problems, for instance requirements concerning the quality of raw water, new and "old" microbiological parameters, microbiological methods, assessment of parametric values, especially in the case of values higher than the imperative value, are also described. Possible developments in this field are discussed. The paper should support microbiological laboratories, public health officers and other public authorities in monitoring and assessment of drinking water quality.

  13. Evaluation of the potential immunotoxicity of chlorinated drinking water in mice.

    PubMed

    French, A S; Copeland, C B; Andrews, D L; Wiliams, W C; Riddle, M M; Luebke, R W

    1998-01-16

    Recent epidemiological studies have reported associations between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and various types of human cancer; in addition, exposure to chlorine (Cl-) in drinking water has been reported to suppress certain immune functions in laboratory animals. The current studies were conducted to extend our knowledge of the effects of drinking water exposure to Cl-. Female C57BL/6 mice were administered hyperchlorinated drinking water (7.5, 15, or 30 ppm Cl-) for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice for evaluation of spleen and thymus weights, the plaque-forming cell (PFC) response, hemagglutination (HA) titer, and lymphocyte proliferation (LP). Significant reductions in organ weights and immune response were observed in the positive control groups (i.e. dexamethasone- or cyclophosphamide-exposed mice). No consistent differences were observed between the Cl--exposed animals and vehicle control mice for the evaluated parameters. Thus, under the conditions of these experiments, 2 weeks of exposure to hyperchlorinated drinking water had no apparent adverse effects on immune function.

  14. Cardiovascular responses to water drinking: does osmolality play a role?

    PubMed

    Brown, Clive M; Barberini, Luc; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2005-12-01

    Water drinking activates the autonomic nervous system and induces acute hemodynamic changes. The actual stimulus for these effects is undetermined but might be related to either gastric distension or to osmotic factors. In the present study, we tested whether the cardiovascular responses to water drinking are related to water's relative hypoosmolality. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular effects of a water drink (7.5 ml/kg body wt) with an identical volume of a physiological (0.9%) saline solution in nine healthy subjects (6 male, 3 female, aged 26 +/- 2 years), while continuously monitoring beat-to-beat blood pressure (finger plethysmography), cardiac intervals (electrocardiography), and cardiac output (thoracic impedance). Total peripheral resistance was calculated as mean blood pressure/cardiac output. Cardiac interval variability (high-frequency power) was assessed by spectral analysis as an index of cardiac vagal tone. Baroreceptor sensitivity was evaluated using the sequence technique. Drinking water, but not saline, decreased heart rate (P = 0.01) and increased total peripheral resistance (P < 0.01), high-frequency cardiac interval variability (P = 0.03), and baroreceptor sensitivity (P = 0.01). Neither water nor saline substantially increased blood pressure. These responses suggest that water drinking simultaneously increases sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity and cardiac vagal tone. That these effects were absent after drinking physiological saline indicate that the cardiovascular responses to water drinking are influenced by its hypoosmotic properties.

  15. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS: STATE OF THE INDUSTRY AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO MEET THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT REQUIREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report reviews current national data for small drinking water treatment systems, regulations pertaining to small systems, current treatment technologies, disposal of wastes, source water protection, security, and monitoring. The document serves as a roadmap for future small...

  16. Public exposure to radon in drinking water in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Todorovic, Natasa; Nikolov, Jovana; Forkapic, Sofija; Bikit, Istvan; Mrdja, Dusan; Krmar, Miodrag; Veskovic, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Radon is the main source of natural radiation that is received by population. The results of radon activity measurements in water from public drinking fountain, from bottled drinking water and from tap water in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by DURRIDGE COMPANY Inc. The corrected value of radon concentration in one sample exceeded the European Commission recommendation reference level for radon in drinking water of 100 Bql(-1). In order to make the correlation between radon and radium concentrations in the tap water and in the water from public drinking fountain, the gamma-spectrometric measurements were performed. The results of (222)Rn activity concentration measurements from soil in the city of Novi Sad using RAD 7 detector are presented.

  17. Microbial quality of drinking water from microfiltered water dispensers.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, R; De Luca, G; Dormi, A; Guberti, E; Zanetti, F

    2014-03-01

    A comparison was made between the microbial quality of drinking water obtained from Microfiltered Water Dispensers (MWDs) and that of municipal tap water. A total of 233 water samples were analyzed. Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), total coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 22 °C and 37 °C were enumerated. In addition, information was collected about the principal structural and functional characteristics of each MWD in order to study the various factors that might influence the microbial quality of the water. EC and ENT were not detected in any of the samples. TC were never detected in the tap water but were found in 5 samples taken from 5 different MWDs. S. aureus was found in a single sample of microfiltered water. P. aeruginosa was found more frequently and at higher concentrations in the samples collected from MWDs. The mean HPCs at 22 °C and 37 °C were significantly higher in microfiltered water samples compared to those of the tap water. In conclusion, the use of MWDs may increase the number of bacteria originally present in tap water. It is therefore important to monitor the quality of the dispensed water over time, especially if it is destined for vulnerable users.

  18. Toxicological relevance of emerging contaminants for drinking water quality.

    PubMed

    Schriks, Merijn; Heringa, Minne B; van der Kooi, Margaretha M E; de Voogt, Pim; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2010-01-01

    The detection of many new compounds in surface water, groundwater and drinking water raises considerable public concern, especially when human health based guideline values are not available it is questioned if detected concentrations affect human health. In an attempt to address this question, we derived provisional drinking water guideline values for a selection of 50 emerging contaminants relevant for drinking water and the water cycle. For only 10 contaminants, statutory guideline values were available. Provisional drinking water guideline values were based upon toxicological literature data. The maximum concentration levels reported in surface waters, groundwater and/or drinking water were compared to the (provisional) guideline values of the contaminants thus obtained, and expressed as Benchmark Quotient (BQ) values. We focused on occurrence data in the downstream parts of the Rhine and Meuse river basins. The results show that for the majority of compounds a substantial margin of safety exists between the maximum concentration in surface water, groundwater and/or drinking water and the (provisional) guideline value. The present assessment therefore supports the conclusion that the majority of the compounds evaluated pose individually no appreciable concern to human health.

  19. The psychology of drinking water quality: An exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syme, Geoffrey J.; Williams, Katrina D.

    1993-12-01

    Perceptions of drinking water quality were measured for residents at four locations in Western Australia. The total dissolved solid levels for the locations varied. Four scales of drinking water satisfaction were measured: acceptability of water quality; water quality risk judgment; perception of neighborhood water quality; and attitudes toward fluoride as an additive. Responses to each of these scales did not appear to be highly related to total dissolved solids. The relationship between attitudes toward water quality and a variety of psychological, attitudinal, experiential, and demographic variables was investigated. It was found that responses to the acceptability of water quality and water quality risk judgment scales related to perceived credibility of societal institutions and feelings of control over water quality and environmental problems. For the remaining two scales few significant correlations were found. The results support those who advocate localized information and involvement campaigns on drinking water quality issues.

  20. Diversity and significance of mold species in Norwegian drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hageskal, Gunhild; Knutsen, Ann Kristin; Gaustad, Peter; de Hoog, G Sybren; Skaar, Ida

    2006-12-01

    In order to determine the occurrence, distribution, and significance of mold species in groundwater- and surface water-derived drinking water in Norway, molds isolated from 273 water samples were identified. Samples of raw water, treated water, and water from private homes and hospital installations were analyzed by incubation of 100-ml membrane-filtered samples on dichloran-18% glycerol agar. The total count (number of CFU per 100 ml) of fungal species and the species diversity within each sample were determined. The identification of mold species was based on morphological and molecular methods. In total, 94 mold species belonging to 30 genera were identified. The mycobiota was dominated by species of Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Aspergillus, with some of them occurring throughout the drinking water system. Several of the same species as isolated from water may have the potential to cause allergic reactions or disease in humans. Other species are common contaminants of food and beverages, and some may cause unwanted changes in the taste or smell of water. The present results indicate that the mycobiota of water should be considered when the microbiological safety and quality of drinking water are assessed. In fact, molds in drinking water should possibly be included in the Norwegian water supply and drinking water regulations.

  1. An assessment of drinking-water quality post-Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    Anarna, Maria Sonabel; Fernando, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Access to safe drinking-water is one of the most important public health concerns in an emergency setting. This descriptive study reports on an assessment of water quality in drinking-water supply systems in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan immediately following and 10 months after the typhoon. Methods Water quality testing and risk assessments of the drinking-water systems were conducted three weeks and 10 months post-Haiyan. Portable test kits were used to determine the presence of Escherichia coli and the level of residual chlorine in water samples. The level of risk was fed back to the water operators for their action. Results Of the 121 water samples collected three weeks post-Haiyan, 44% were contaminated, while 65% (244/373) of samples were found positive for E. coli 10 months post-Haiyan. For the three components of drinking-water systems – source, storage and distribution – the proportions of contaminated systems were 70%, 67% and 57%, respectively, 10 months after Haiyan. Discussion Vulnerability to faecal contamination was attributed to weak water safety programmes in the drinking-water supply systems. Poor water quality can be prevented or reduced by developing and implementing a water safety plan for the systems. This, in turn, will help prevent waterborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated water post-disaster. PMID:26767136

  2. Does calcium in drinking water modify the association between nitrate in drinking water and risk of death from colon cancer?

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chen, Pei-Shih; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether calcium (Ca) levels in drinking water modified the effects of nitrate on colon cancer risk. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death from colon cancer and exposure to nitrate in drinking water in Taiwan. All colon cancer deaths of Taiwan residents from 2003 through 2007 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cases by gender, year of birth and year of death. Information on the levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) and Ca in drinking water have been collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cases and controls was assumed to be the source of the subject's NO(3)-N and Ca exposure via drinking water. We observed evidence of an interaction between drinking water NO(3)-N and Ca intake via drinking water. This is the first study to report effect modification by Ca intake from drinking water on the association between NO(3)-N exposure and risk of colon cancer mortality.

  3. Time to revisit arsenic regulations: comparing drinking water and rice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current arsenic regulations focus on drinking water without due consideration for dietary uptake and thus seem incoherent with respect to the risks arising from rice consumption. Existing arsenic guidelines are a cost-benefit compromise and, as such, they should be periodically re-evaluated. Discussion Literature data was used to compare arsenic exposure from rice consumption relative to exposure arising from drinking water. Standard risk assessment paradigms show that arsenic regulations for drinking water should target a maximum concentration of nearly zero to prevent excessive lung and bladder cancer risks (among others). A feasibility threshold of 3 μg As l-1 was determined, but a cost-benefit analysis concluded that it would be too expensive to target a threshold below 10 μg As l-1. Data from the literature was used to compare exposure to arsenic from rice and rice product consumption relative to drinking water consumption. The exposure to arsenic from rice consumption can easily be equivalent to or greater than drinking water exposure that already exceeds standard risks and is based on feasibility and cost-benefit compromises. It must also be emphasized that many may disagree with the implications for their own health given the abnormally high cancer odds expected at the cost-benefit arsenic threshold. Summary Tighter drinking water quality criteria should be implemented to properly protect people from excessive cancer risks. Food safety regulations must be put in place to prevent higher concentrations of arsenic in various drinks than those allowed in drinking water. Arsenic concentrations in rice should be regulated so as to roughly equate the risks and exposure levels observed from drinking water. PMID:24884827

  4. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  5. [Research development on disinfection technology for viruses in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Yan; Dai, Ruihua; Liu, Xiang

    2010-09-01

    With the deterioration of water source pollution, the quality requirements for drinking water of countries will become stricter and stricter, and the microbe index has been one of the important aspects. The introduction of the virus index and the development of disinfection technology focusing on virus have significant importance for the improvement of the drinking water standards and for the protection of people health in every country. To be familiar with the domestic and abroad research development of the disinfection control technology focusing on virus provides certain theory guidance and technological support for continuously improving drinking water standard in our country and for establishing safer drinking water processing technologies. So, this article will comprehensively describes 4 aspects: resistance comparison of virus over every disinfection technology, influential factors of disinfection, research development of new technology, and the mechanisms.

  6. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Prest, Emmanuelle I; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  7. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  8. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  9. Drinking water infrastructure and environmental disparities: evidence and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    VanDerslice, James

    2011-12-01

    Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States-Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight.

  10. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health.

  11. The U.S. Geological Survey Drinking Water Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Safe drinking-water supplies are critical to maintaining and preserving public health. Although the Nation's drinking water is generally safe, natural and introduced contaminants in water supplies throughout the country have adversely affected human health. This new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiative will provide information on the vulnerability of water supplies to be used by water-supply and regulatory agencies who must balance water-supply protection with the wise use of public funds. Using the results of the initiative, they will be better able to focus on the supplies most at risk and the variability of contaminants of most concern, and so address the mandates of the Safe Drinking Water Act. With its store of geologic, hydrologic, and land use and land cover data and its network of information in every State, the USGS can help to identify potential sources of contamination, delineate source areas, determine the vulnerability of waters to potential contamination, and evaluate strategies being used to protect source waters in light of the scientific information available. Many recent and ongoing studies by the USGS concern drinking-water issues. This fact sheet highlights four particular studies begun under the Drinking Water Initiative.

  12. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health. PMID:15371202

  13. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  14. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  15. [DIRECTIONALITY OF THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF DRINKING WATER].

    PubMed

    Gibert, K K; Karasev, A K; Marasanov, A V; Stekhin, A A; Iakovleva, G V

    2015-01-01

    There have been performed the studies of the dimensional parameters of peroxide associates in drinking water, per- forming regulatory functions in cellular metabolism, that determine the character of the biological response of the human body to drinking water The direction of action of peroxide associates type Σ [(HO2-(*) ... OH-(*) (H2O) tp)]q, (where (H2O) tp is an associate with the tetragonal structure (Walrafen pentamer Is ice VI), q is the degree of association p--parameter of ion coordination) on the cellular structures of the organism is associated with their quantum properties, determining the macroscopic parameters of the electron wave packets. Research has confirmed the addressness of the nonlocal entering electron to certain cellular structures of the body, which is determined by the structural similarity of centers of condensation of electrons in the cells of systems and organs of the body with the parameters of the electron wave packets in the associates. Methodology for the estimation of the orientation of biological effect of the drinking water to the systems of the body on the base of the analysis of variations in heart rhythm under non-contact influence of water on the human body and its relationship with the dimensional parameters and peroxide activity of associates in drinking water can be suggested for the implementation of screening tests for drinking water quality, taking into account both the individualfeatures of responses of body systems to drinking water and its group action.

  16. Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries with extensive exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Allan H; Smith, Meera M Hira

    2004-05-20

    The United States Public Health Service set an interim standard of 50 microg/l in 1942, but as early as 1962 the US Public Health Service had identified 10 microg/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500 microg/l of arsenic over many years may die from internal cancers attributable to arsenic, with lung cancer being the surprising main contributor. A prudent public health response is to reduce the permissible drinking water arsenic concentrations. However, the appropriate regulatory response in those developing countries with large populations with much higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water, often exceeding 100 microg/l, is more complex. Malnutrition may increase risks from arsenic. There is mounting evidence that smoking and arsenic act synergistically in causing lung cancer, and smoking raises issues of public health priorities in developing countries that face massive mortality from this product. Also, setting stringent drinking water standards will impede short term solutions such as shallow dugwells. Developing countries with large populations exposed to arsenic in water might reasonably be advised to keep their arsenic drinking water standards at 50 microg/l.

  17. Can drinking water standards be reliably derived from industrial TLVs?

    PubMed

    Calabrese, E J

    1979-06-01

    The accuracy of TLV derived drinking water standards is evaluated. When using the identical TLV conversion methodology which Stokinger and Woodward (1) used in deriving the standard for barium in drinking water, standards for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead offer 6, 200, 60, and 10 times less protection than the present drinking water standards, respectively. However, using the same methodology, the TLV derived drinking water standard for fluoride offers greater protection than the present standard by a factor of approximately 2. Thus, the use of the TLV conversion factor should be viewed in as one of many lines of potential evidence which should be reviewed in the standard derivation process - but it should not, if at all possible, be considered alone - as in the case of barium.

  18. Impact of disinfection on drinking water biofilm bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Mi, Zilong; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-11-01

    Disinfectants are commonly applied to control the growth of microorganisms in drinking water distribution systems. However, the effect of disinfection on drinking water microbial community remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the impacts of different disinfectants (chlorine and chloramine) and dosages on biofilm bacterial community in bench-scale pipe section reactors. Illumina MiSeq sequencing illustrated that disinfection strategy could affect both bacterial diversity and community structure of drinking water biofilm. Proteobacteria tended to predominate in chloraminated drinking water biofilms, while Firmicutes in chlorinated and unchlorinated biofilms. The major proteobacterial groups were influenced by both disinfectant type and dosage. In addition, chloramination had a more profound impact on bacterial community than chlorination.

  19. MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Culture-based methods are traditionally used to determine microbiological quality of drinking water even though these methods are highly selective and tend to underestimate the densities and diversity bacterial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better under...

  20. Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Technologies Topics include: Introduction to Rad Chemistry, Summary of the Rad, Regulations Treatment Technology, and Disposal. The introductions cover atoms, ions, radium and uranium and the removal of radioac...

  1. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

  2. EPA Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    In its FY2010 Appropriations Committee Conference Report, Congress directed EPA to study the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using: • Best available science • Independent sources of information • Transparent, peer-reviewed process • Consultatio...

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF TI02/UV DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated byproducts in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. One of the alternative treatment methods currently being evaluated for potential use with small systems ...

  4. Fate of High Priority Pesticides During Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in the presence of chlorinated oxidants was investigated under drinking water treatment conditions. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, intrinsic rate coefficients were found for the reaction of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion ...

  5. Monochloramine Cometabolism by Nitrosomonas europaea under Drinking Water Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloramine use is widespread in United States drinking water systems as a secondary disinfectant. While beneficial from the perspective of controlling disinfectant by-product formation, chloramination may promote the growth of nitrifying bacteria because ammonia is present. At ...

  6. Scientific and Regulatory Challenges of Controlling Lead in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe Drinking Water Act 1986 Amendments Corrections when necessary, mandatory review every 6 years Lead and Copper Rule section of SDWA Proposed 1988 Proposal revised and promulgated 1991 Many minor revisions, primarily administrative clarifications Major admin. revisions and te...

  7. DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS: WHAT IS KNOWN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are currently the major disinfectants being used to disinfect drinking water. Although the alternative disinfectants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine) are increasing in popularity in the United States, chlorine is still us...

  8. Communicating Research to Small Drinking Water Systems: Dissemination by Researchers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk discusses the challenges of disseminating research relevant to small systems. The presentation discusses efforts by the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development to effectively communicating drinking water information. In particular, communication approaches ...

  9. Impact of disinfection on drinking water biofilm bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Mi, Zilong; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-11-01

    Disinfectants are commonly applied to control the growth of microorganisms in drinking water distribution systems. However, the effect of disinfection on drinking water microbial community remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the impacts of different disinfectants (chlorine and chloramine) and dosages on biofilm bacterial community in bench-scale pipe section reactors. Illumina MiSeq sequencing illustrated that disinfection strategy could affect both bacterial diversity and community structure of drinking water biofilm. Proteobacteria tended to predominate in chloraminated drinking water biofilms, while Firmicutes in chlorinated and unchlorinated biofilms. The major proteobacterial groups were influenced by both disinfectant type and dosage. In addition, chloramination had a more profound impact on bacterial community than chlorination. PMID:26574105

  10. Institutional solutions to drinking water problems: Maine case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The paper recounts how four Maine communities sought and found institutional solutions to drinking water problems. Each scenario describes the system, outlines the problems, reviews the chronology of events, points out the lessons learned and gives the system's current status.

  11. Chloramination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Found in Drinking Water Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The degradation of commonly detected organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, in drinking water sources, was investigated under simulated chloramination conditions. Due to monochloramine autodecomposition, it is difficult to observe the direct reaction of monochloramine with each OP pe...

  12. NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA: I. SYMPTOMS AND PINPRICK TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory


    This study was designed to assess the effects of exposure to arsenic in drinking water on neurosensory function. A symptom questionnaire and brief neurological exam consisting of pinprick testing of the arms and legs and knee-jerk test were administered to 321 residents of...

  13. Unregulated drinking water initiative for environmental surveillance and public health.

    PubMed

    Backer, Lorraine C; Tosta, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    The critical public health need to assess and protect the drinking water used by 37 million Americans requires attention and resources. NCEH, in partnership with states, has begun the process to identify information available on unregulated drinking water sources to improve the availability of data to support decisive public health actions and resource allocation. Far more attention and resources are needed to complete this process.

  14. Nitrates in drinking water and the risk of death from brain cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter?

    PubMed

    Ho, Chi-Kung; Yang, Ya-Hui; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between nitrate levels in public water supplies and risk of death from brain cancer and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the influence of nitrates on development of brain cancer. A matched cancer case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death from brain cancer and exposure to nitrates in drinking water in Taiwan. All brain cancer deaths of Taiwan residents from 2003 through 2008 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Information on the levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO₃-N), Ca, and Mg in drinking water was obtained from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's NO₃-N, Ca, and Mg exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose NO₃-N exposure level was <0.38 ppm, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for brain cancer occurrence was 1.04 (0.85-1.27) for individuals who resided in municipalities served by drinking water with a NO₃-N exposure ≥ 0.38 ppm. No marked effect modification was observed due to Ca and Mg intake via drinking water on brain cancer occurrence.

  15. Isotopic Fingerprint for Phosphorus in Drinking Water Supplies.

    PubMed

    Gooddy, Daren C; Lapworth, Dan J; Ascott, Matthew J; Bennett, Sarah A; Heaton, Timothy H E; Surridge, Ben W J

    2015-08-01

    Phosphate dosing of drinking water supplies, coupled with leakage from distribution networks, represents a significant input of phosphorus to the environment. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate (δ(18)OPO4), a novel stable isotope tracer for phosphorus, offers new opportunities to understand the importance of phosphorus derived from sources such as drinking water. We report the first assessment of δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies. A total of 40 samples from phosphate-dosed distribution networks were analyzed from across England and Wales. In addition, samples of the source orthophosphoric acid used for dosing were also analyzed. Two distinct isotopic signatures for drinking water were identified (average = +13.2 or +19.7‰), primarily determined by δ(18)OPO4 of the source acid (average = +12.4 or +19.7‰). Dependent upon the source acid used, drinking water δ(18)OPO4 appears isotopically distinct from a number of other phosphorus sources. Isotopic offsets from the source acid ranging from -0.9 to +2.8‰ were observed. There was little evidence that equilibrium isotope fractionation dominated within the networks, with offsets from temperature-dependent equilibrium ranging from -4.8 to +4.2‰. While partial equilibrium fractionation may have occurred, kinetic effects associated with microbial uptake of phosphorus or abiotic sorption and dissolution reactions may also contribute to δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies.

  16. Standards for chemical quality of drinking water: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Zielhuis, R L

    1982-01-01

    The author critically reviews present standards for the chemical quality of drinking water, particularly the limits proposed by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in 1979. Particularly, the general principles of standard setting are discussed. It appears that there exists a surprisingly high similarity in drinking water limits, issued by various national and international authorities, although for other environmental compartments important discrepancies exist. Usually, drinking water limits lack adequate documentation, and appear often to be copied from other existing lists. There is an apparent lack of logical consistency in limits set for food, ambient or workroom air, and drinking water, probably due to lack of communication between health experts and decision-making authorities. Moreover, there is a lack of toxicologic studies, explicitly aimed at setting limits. Extrapolation from the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) for food or the Threshold Limit Value (TLV)-Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) for workroom air could be undertaken to derive tentative drinking water limits, as long as explicitly designed studies for drinking water are not yet available. PMID:6749691

  17. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbo; Zhao, Yanmei; Chow, Christopher W K; Wang, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study. Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared. The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low. The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chlorodibromoacetic acid. The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality. The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  18. [Acute gastric lesions induced by drinking water, in rats].

    PubMed

    Laudano, O M

    1994-01-01

    The ability of certain beverages and drinking waters to induce acute gastric lesions was studied and the measurement of their pH was performed. 1) Saline; 2) tap water; 3) well-water; 4) well water plus puritabs; 5) saline plus 2 Cl drips; 6) saline plus 4 Cl drops; 7) saline plus 8 Cl drops; 8) boiled water after 30 min; 9) apartment deposit water; 10) WC bowl water; 11) ice water; 12) Paraná river water (Northern Rosario); 13) Paraná river water (Southern Rosario); 14) rain water (Rosario); 15) rain water) countryside); 16) carbonated mineral water; 17) non-carbonated mineral water; 18) soda; 19) flavored electrolytic water I; 20) flavored electrolytic water II; and 21) cola drink. We can conclude that: 1) a remarkable variance in saline and tap water pH is observed. 2) Rain water and Paraná river water were slightly acid, in contrast electrolytic carbonated beverages and cola drink were strongly acid (pH 2.5). 3) Saline, pH 6.68; saline plus 2 Cl drops; and non-carbonated mineral water were the only beverages that did not induce acute gastric lesions in rats.

  19. [Parasitic zoonoses transmitted by drinking water. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis].

    PubMed

    Exner, M; Gornik, V

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, the parasitic zoonose organisms Giardia lamblia und Cryptosporidium spp. are among the most relevant pathogens of drinking water-associated disease outbreaks. These pathogens are transmitted via a fecal-oral route; in both cases the dose of infection is low. Apart from person-to-person or animal-to-person transmissions, the consumption of contaminated food and water are further modes of transmission. The disease is mainly characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. In industrialized countries, the prevalence rate of giardiasis is 2-5 % and of cryptosporidiosis 1-3%. Throughout the world, a large number of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis outbreaks associated with drinking water were published; in 2001 the first case in Germany was identified. Giardia and Cryptosporidium are detected in surface water and sporadically in unprotected groundwater. Use of these waters for drinking water abstraction makes high demands on the technology of the treatment process: because of the disinfectant resistance of the parasites, safe elimination methods are needed, which even at high contamination levels of source water guarantee safe drinking water. Further measures for prevention and control are implementation of the HACCP concept, which includes the whole chain of procedures of drinking water supply from catchment via treatment to tap and a quality management system.

  20. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER — PALL/KINETICO PUREFECTA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pall/Kinetico Purefecta™ POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The Purefecta™ employs several compon...

  1. Sources of chlorate ion in US drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Bolyard, M. ); Fair, P.S. ); Hautman, D.P. )

    1993-09-01

    Samples of untreated source water and finished drinking water were obtained from 42 water utilities which treated their water with oxidants-disinfectants that included chlorine dioxide (ClO[sub 2]), gaseous chlorine, hypochlorite solutions, and chloramines. Chlorite ion was only detected in water from utilities that used ClO[sub 2]. Finished water from utilities that used ClO[sub 2] or hypochlorite solutions contained comparable concentrations of chlorate ion (ClO[sub 3][sup [minus

  2. 40 CFR 799.5075 - Drinking water contaminants subject to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water contaminants subject to... TESTING REQUIREMENTS Multichemical Test Rules § 799.5075 Drinking water contaminants subject to testing... performed using drinking water. However, if, due to poor stability or palatability, a drinking water test...

  3. 40 CFR 799.5075 - Drinking water contaminants subject to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water contaminants subject to... TESTING REQUIREMENTS Multichemical Test Rules § 799.5075 Drinking water contaminants subject to testing... performed using drinking water. However, if, due to poor stability or palatability, a drinking water test...

  4. 40 CFR 799.5075 - Drinking water contaminants subject to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water contaminants subject to... TESTING REQUIREMENTS Multichemical Test Rules § 799.5075 Drinking water contaminants subject to testing... performed using drinking water. However, if, due to poor stability or palatability, a drinking water test...

  5. 76 FR 72703 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY... meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Council will consider various issues associated with drinking water protection...

  6. Biological Instability in a Chlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Network

    PubMed Central

    Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×103 cells mL−1 to 4.66×105 cells mL−1 in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×104 cells mL−1 in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×105 cells mL−1. This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability. PMID:24796923

  7. Biological instability in a chlorinated drinking water distribution network.

    PubMed

    Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×10(3) cells mL(-1) to 4.66×10(5) cells mL(-1) in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×10(4) cells mL(-1) in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×10(5) cells mL(-1). This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability.

  8. Refractive Errors in Northern China Between the Residents with Drinking Water Containing Excessive Fluorine and Normal Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Bin, Ge; Liu, Haifeng; Zhao, Chunyuan; Zhou, Guangkai; Ding, Xuchen; Zhang, Na; Xu, Yongfang; Qi, Yanhua

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the refractive errors and the demographic associations between drinking water with excessive fluoride and normal drinking water among residents in Northern China. Of the 1843 residents, 1415 (aged ≥40 years) were divided into drinking-water-excessive fluoride (DWEF) group (>1.20 mg/L) and control group (≤1.20 mg/L) on the basis of the fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Of the 221 subjects in the DWEF group, with 1.47 ± 0.25 mg/L (fluoride concentrations in drinking water), the prevalence rates of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism were 38.5 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] = 32.1-45.3), 19.9 % (95 % CI = 15-26), and 41.6 % (95 % CI = 35.1-48.4), respectively. Of the 1194 subjects in the control group with 0.20 ± 0.18 mg/L, the prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism were 31.5 % (95 % CI = 28.9-34.2), 27.6 % (95 % CI = 25.1-30.3), and 45.6 % (95 % CI = 42.8-48.5), respectively. A statistically significant difference was not observed in the association of spherical equivalent and fluoride concentrations in drinking water (P = 0.84 > 0.05). This report provides the data of the refractive state of the residents consuming drinking water with excess amounts of fluoride in northern China. The refractive errors did not result from ingestion of mild excess amounts of fluoride in the drinking water.

  9. A review of arsenic presence in China drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Charlet, Laurent

    2013-06-01

    Chronic endemic arsenicosis areas have been discovered in China since 1960s. Up to 2012, 19 provinces had been found to have As concentration in drinking water exceeding the standard level (0.05 mg/L). Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Shanxi Province are historical well-known “hotspots” of geogenic As-contaminated drinking water. The goal of this review is to examine, summarize and discuss the information of As in drinking water for all provinces and territories in China. Possible natural As sources for elevating As level in drinking water, were documented. Geogenic As-contaminated drinking water examples were taken to introduce typical environmental conditions where the problems occurred: closed basins in arid or semi-arid areas and reducing aquifers under high pH conditions. Geothermal water or mineral water in mountains areas can be high-As water as well. For undiscovered areas, prediction of potential As-affected groundwater has been carried out by some research groups by use of logistic regression. Modeled maps of probability of geogenic As contamination in groundwater are promising to be used as references to discover unknown areas. Furthermore, anthropogenic As contaminations were summarized and mining, smelters and chemical industries were found to be major sources for As pollution in China.

  10. Review of Campylobacter spp. in drinking and environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Tarja

    2013-10-01

    Consumption of contaminated drinking water is a significant cause of Campylobacter infections. Drinking water contamination is known to result from septic seepage and wastewater intrusion into non-disinfected sources of groundwater and occasionally from cross-connection into drinking water distribution systems. Wastewater effluents, farm animals and wild birds are the primary sources contributing human-infectious Campylobacters in environmental waters, impacting on recreational activities and drinking water sources. Culturing of Campylobacter entails time-consuming steps that often provide qualitative or semi-quantitative results. Viable but non-culturable forms due to environmental stress are not detected, and thus may result in false-negative assessments of Campylobacter risks from drinking and environmental waters. Molecular methods, especially quantitative PCR applications, are therefore important to use in the detection of environmental Campylobacter spp. Processing large volumes of water may be required to reach the desired sensitivity for either culture or molecular detection methods. In the future, applications of novel molecular techniques such as isothermal amplification and high-throughput sequencing applications are awaited to develop and become more affordable and practical in environmental Campylobacter research. The new technologies may change the knowledge on the prevalence and pathogenicity of the different Campylobacter species in the water environment.

  11. REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER: APPROACHES AND CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. It has been projected that the State of Ohio will have nearly 140 community and non-community non-transient water systems in violation of the Rule. This ...

  12. Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project seeks to improve the capability to characterize the condition of water infrastructure. The integrity of buried drinking water mains is critical, as it influences water quality, losses, pressure and cost. This research complements the U.S. Environmental Protection A...

  13. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM AND DRINKING WATER WHAT ARE THE CONNECTIONS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Human Mycobacterium avium infections are only known to be acquired from environmental sources such as water and soil. We compared M. avium isolates from clinical and drinking water sources using molecular tools. Methods: M. avium was isolated from water samples colle...

  14. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  15. Drinking water consumption patterns of residents in a Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Q; Dewey, C E; Doré, K; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Waltner-Toews, D

    2006-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey using computer-assisted telephone interviewing was performed to assess the drinking water consumption patterns in a Canadian community, and to examine the associations between these patterns and various demographic characteristics. The median amount of water consumed daily was four 250 ml servings (1.01), although responses were highly variable (0 to 8.01). Bottled water consumption was common, and represented the primary source of drinking water for approximately 27% of respondents. Approximately 49% of households used water treatment devices to treat their tap water. The observed associations between some demographic characteristics and drinking water consumption patterns indicated potential differences in risk of exposure to waterborne hazards in the population. Our results lend support to the federal review of the bottled water regulations currently in progress in Canada. Additionally, they may lend support to a provincial/territorial government review of bottled water regulations, and both federal and provincial/territorial level reviews of the water treatment device industry. Further investigation of the use of alternative water sources and the perceptions of drinking water in Canada is also needed to better understand, and subsequently address, concerns among Canadians.

  16. Particulate Arsenic Release in a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace contaminants, such as arsenic, have been shown to accumulate in solids found in drinking water distribution systems. The obvious concern is that the contaminants in these solids could be released back into the water resulting in elevated levels in a consumer’s tap water. Th...

  17. Occurrence, oral exposure and risk assessment of volatile organic compounds in drinking water for Izmir.

    PubMed

    Kavcar, Pinar; Odabasi, Mustafa; Kitis, Mehmet; Inal, Fikret; Sofuoglu, Sait C

    2006-10-01

    Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in the drinking water in Province of Izmir, Turkey, and associated health risks due to ingestion of these compounds were investigated using population weighted random samples. A total of 100 houses were visited in different districts of Izmir and drinking water samples were collected from consumers' drinking water source. Questionnaires were administered to one participant in each house to determine demographics and drinking water consumption rates. Oral exposure and risks were estimated for each participant and Izmir population by deterministic and probabilistic approaches, respectively. The four trihalomethane (THM) species (i.e., chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform), benzene, toluene, p-xylene, and naphthalene were the most frequently detected VOCs with concentrations ranging from below detection limit to 35 microg/l. The risk estimates were found to be less than the values reported in the literature with few exceptions. Noncarcinogenic risks attributable to ingestion of VOCs for Izmir population were negligible, whereas the mean carcinogenic risk estimates for bromodichloromethane and dibromochloromethane were above the de minimis level of one in a million (10(-6)). For all VOCs, the concentrations measured in metropolitan area were greater than those in other districts. All THM species were detected in higher concentrations in tap water, whereas nontap water contained more benzene, toluene, p-xylene, and naphthalene. Therefore, the concentrations of the latter four compounds and associated risks increased with increasing income and education level since bottled water was used in larger proportions within these subgroups. The results of this study showed that oral exposure to drinking water contaminants and associated risks may be higher than the acceptable levels even if the concentrations fall below the standards.

  18. [The survey on arsenism caused by drinking water].

    PubMed

    Wu, D

    1993-08-01

    This paper reports the epidemiologic and clinical observations on arsenism caused by drinking water in Zhi Ji Liang and Tie Men Gen, Huhhot. Results showed that the content of arsenic in drinking water was eleven times as much as that of the national standard. The incidence rate of arsenism increased with the rise of arsenic content in water. In contrast to the high As content, the contents of Pb, Zn, Se were low in water and the pH value was slightly acidic. Arsenic contents in hair, fingernails and urine were all higher than those of the control. Patients with arsenism showed symptoms of anaemia.

  19. [The hardness of drinking water and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Belojević, G

    1992-01-01

    The paper deals with the results of the investigations so far, which have pointed out an inverse correlation between drinking-water hardness and morbidity and mortality rates of cardiovascular diseases. Among the water hardness elements special attention has been given to magnesium, as its deficiency in organism is likely to present an important risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. The options of preventive measures in this field are discussed-adding of magnesium to soft drinking-waters, salt enriched with magnesium, consumption of natural mineral waters, or Mg supplements.

  20. Monitoring of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Czech drinking water sources.

    PubMed

    Dolejs, P; Ditrich, O; Machula, T; Kalousková, N; Puzová, G

    2000-01-01

    In Czech raw water sources for drinking water supply, Cryptosporidium was found in numbers from 0 to 7400 per 100 liters and Giardia from 0 to 485 per 100 liters. The summer floods of 1997 probably brought the highest numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts into one of the reservoirs sampled; since then these numbers decreased steadily. A relatively high number of Cryptosporidium oocysts was found in one sample of treated water. Repeated sampling demonstrated that this was a sporadic event. The reason for the presence of Cryptosporidium in a sample of treated drinking-water is unclear and requires further study.

  1. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Huda, Tarique Md; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, M Sirajul; Arnold, Benjamin F; Johnston, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every 3 months, a research assistant visited the household and requested a water sample from the source or container used to provide drinking water to the child. Laboratory technicians measured the concentration of Escherichia coli in the water samples using membrane filtration. Of drinking water samples, 59% (2,273/3,833) were contaminated with E. coli. Of 12,192 monthly follow-up visits over 2 years, mothers reported that their child had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days in 1,156 (9.5%) visits. In a multivariable general linear model, the log10 of E. coli contamination of the preceding drinking water sample was associated with an increased prevalence of child diarrhea (prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.23). These data provide further evidence of the health benefits of improved microbiological quality of drinking water. PMID:26438031

  2. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Huda, Tarique Md; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, M Sirajul; Arnold, Benjamin F; Johnston, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every 3 months, a research assistant visited the household and requested a water sample from the source or container used to provide drinking water to the child. Laboratory technicians measured the concentration of Escherichia coli in the water samples using membrane filtration. Of drinking water samples, 59% (2,273/3,833) were contaminated with E. coli. Of 12,192 monthly follow-up visits over 2 years, mothers reported that their child had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days in 1,156 (9.5%) visits. In a multivariable general linear model, the log10 of E. coli contamination of the preceding drinking water sample was associated with an increased prevalence of child diarrhea (prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.23). These data provide further evidence of the health benefits of improved microbiological quality of drinking water.

  3. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Stephen P.; Halder, Amal K.; Huda, Tarique Md.; Unicomb, Leanne; Sirajul Islam, M.; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Johnston, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every 3 months, a research assistant visited the household and requested a water sample from the source or container used to provide drinking water to the child. Laboratory technicians measured the concentration of Escherichia coli in the water samples using membrane filtration. Of drinking water samples, 59% (2,273/3,833) were contaminated with E. coli. Of 12,192 monthly follow-up visits over 2 years, mothers reported that their child had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days in 1,156 (9.5%) visits. In a multivariable general linear model, the log10 of E. coli contamination of the preceding drinking water sample was associated with an increased prevalence of child diarrhea (prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.23). These data provide further evidence of the health benefits of improved microbiological quality of drinking water. PMID:26438031

  4. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens. PMID:24628388

  5. Evaluation and regulation of pesticides in drinking water: A Canadian approach.

    PubMed

    Ritter, L; Wood, G

    1989-01-01

    Pesticides are registered in Canada under the authority of the Pest Control Products Act, administered by the Department of Agriculture. Pre-market registration requirements include submission of extensive toxicology data in order to allow evaluation of potential human hazards which may be associated with exposure to pesticides. Drinking water guidelines in Canada, although under provincial jurisdiction, are generally recommended by the federal government with collaboration of provincial authorities. In 1987, 42 pesticides were selected for development of guidelines for drinking water. When complete, the 42 pesticides will represent approximately 80% of all agricultural pesticides utilized in Canada, based on active ingredient weight sold. As do many other regulatory agencies, the Department of National Health and Welfare uses two different approaches to derive health-based guidelines or maximum acceptable concentrations of pesticides in drinking water. The threshold approach assumes that there is a dose below which no adverse effect will occur. This threshold level is closely related to the experimentally determined no observed adverse effect level and, when divided by an appropriate uncertainty or safety factor, forms the basis for the establishment of the maximum acceptable concentration. The second approach is the non-threshold or risk assessment approach and this assumes that these is some probability of harm at any level of exposure. This latter approach is generally utilized for chemicals believed to be capable of causing cancer and has not been used for any of the existing 29 pesticide drinking water guidelines developed in Canada.

  6. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens.

  7. Drinking water from private wells and risks to children.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Walter J; Brady, Michael T

    2009-06-01

    Drinking water for approximately one sixth of US households is obtained from private wells. These wells can become contaminated by pollutant chemicals or pathogenic organisms, leading to significant illness. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency and all states offer guidance for construction, maintenance, and testing of private wells, there is little regulation, and with few exceptions, well owners are responsible for their own wells. Children may also drink well water at child care or when traveling. Illness resulting from children's ingestion of contaminated water can be severe. This report reviews relevant aspects of groundwater and wells; describes the common chemical and microbiologic contaminants; gives an algorithm with recommendations for inspection, testing, and remediation for wells providing drinking water for children; reviews the definitions and uses of various bottled waters; provides current estimates of costs for well testing; and provides federal, national, state, and, where appropriate, tribal contacts for more information.

  8. Artificial sweetener sucralose in U.S. drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Douglas B; Young, Robert B; Vanderford, Brett J; Borch, Thomas; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-10-15

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has recently been shown to be a widespread of contaminant of wastewater, surface water, and groundwater. In order to understand its occurrence in drinking water systems, water samples from 19 United States (U.S.) drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) serving more than 28 million people were analyzed for sucralose using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sucralose was found to be present in source water of 15 out of 19 DWTPs (47-2900 ng/L), finished water of 13 out of 17 DWTPs (49-2400 ng/L) and distribution system water of 8 out of the 12 DWTPs (48-2400 ng/L) tested. Sucralose was only found to be present in source waters with known wastewater influence and/or recreational usage, and displayed low removal (12% average) in the DWTPs where finished water was sampled. Further, in the subset of DWTPs with distribution system water sampled, the compound was found to persist regardless of the presence of residual chlorine or chloramines. In order to understand intra-DWTP consistency, sucralose was monitored at one drinking water treatment plant over an 11 month period from March 2010 through January 2011, and averaged 440 ng/L in the source water and 350 ng/L in the finished water. The results of this study confirm that sucralose will function well as an indicator compound for anthropogenic influence on source, finished drinking and distribution system (i.e., tap) water, as well as an indicator compound for the presence of other recalcitrant compounds in finished drinking water in the U.S.

  9. Drinking-Water Standards and Regulations. Volume 2. Manual for 1982-88

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1988-04-10

    The following 11 important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) U.S. Environmental Agency Water Programs, National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations; (2) New Jersey Safe Drinking Water Act; (3) Summary of New Jersey Drinking Water Standards; (4) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986 Amendments; (5) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Primary Drinking Water Standards; (6) Canadian National Health and Welfare Drinking Water Quality Guidelines--Maximum Acceptable Concentrations; (7) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, Filtration and Disinfection Turbidity, Giardia Lamblia, Viruses, Legionella, and Heterotrophic Bacteria; (8) Public Water Supply Manual--Guide to the Safe Drinking Water Program; (9) Public Water Supply Manual--Emergency Response; (10) U.S. EPA Approved Krofta Chemicals; (11) NY-DOH Approved Krofta Chemicals.

  10. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems.

  11. New perspectives in monitoring drinking water microbial quality.

    PubMed

    Figueras, M José; Borrego, Juan J

    2010-12-01

    The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs), in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of drinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will have in the quality of drinking water is also critically evaluated.

  12. Are Endocrine Disrupting Compounds a Health Risk in Drinking Water?

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Ian R.

    2006-01-01

    There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water. In

  13. Are endocrine disrupting compounds a health risk in drinking water?

    PubMed

    Falconer, Ian R

    2006-06-01

    There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17Beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water

  14. Ensuring safe drinking water in regional NSW: the role of regulation.

    PubMed

    Byleveld, Paul M; Cretikos, Michelle A; Leask, Sandy D; Durrheim, David N

    2008-01-01

    In regional and rural areas of NSW, drinking water is provided by 107 local water utilities serving a total population of some 1.7 million and operating 323 water supply systems. NSW Health exercises public health oversight of these regional water utilities through the NSW Health Drinking Water Monitoring Program, which provides guidance to water utilities on implementing elements of the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2004, including drinking water monitoring.

  15. 75 FR 54872 - Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)-Notice of Public Stakeholder Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... AGENCY Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)--Notice of Public Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY... Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced the Drinking Water Strategy, a new vision to expand public health protection for drinking water by going beyond the traditional framework. The Drinking...

  16. Occurrence of organophosphate flame retardants in drinking water from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Yu, Nanyang; Zhang, Beibei; Jin, Ling; Li, Meiying; Hu, Mengyang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wei, Si; Yu, Hongxia

    2014-05-01

    Several organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been identified as known or suspected carcinogens or neurotoxic substances. Given the potential health risks of these compounds, we conducted a comprehensive survey of nine OPFRs in drinking water in China. We found total concentrations of OPFRs in tap water ranging from 85.1 ng/L to 325 ng/L, and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) were the most common components. Similar OPFR concentrations and profiles were observed in water samples processed through six different waterworks in Nanjing, China. However, boiling affected OPFR levels in drinking water by either increasing (e.g., TBEP) or decreasing (e.g., tributyl phosphate, TBP) concentrations depending on the particular compound and the state of the indoor environment. We also found that bottled water contained many of the same major OPFR compounds with concentrations 10-25% lower than those in tap water, although TBEP contamination in bottled water remained a concern. Finally, we concluded that the risk of ingesting OPFRs through drinking water was not a major health concern for either adults or children in China. Nevertheless, drinking water ingestion represents an important exposure pathway for OPFRs.

  17. Metal contamination of drinking water from corrosion of distribution pipes.

    PubMed

    Alam, I A; Sadiq, M

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate metal contamination of drinking water resulting from the corrosion of distribution pipes and its significance to human health. A community in Dhahran, which is served from its own desalination facilities, was chosen for this study. About 150 drinking water samples were collected and analyzed for metal concentrations using an inductively coupled argon plasma analyzer. It was found that copper, iron and zinc in the drinking water increased during its transportation from the desalination plant to the consumers. This increase was related to the length and material of distribution pipes. Concentrations of copper and zinc were increased during overnight storage of water in the appliances. Metal concentrations found in this study are discussed with reference to human health.

  18. Metal contamination of drinking water from corrosion of distribution pipes.

    PubMed

    Alam, I A; Sadiq, M

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate metal contamination of drinking water resulting from the corrosion of distribution pipes and its significance to human health. A community in Dhahran, which is served from its own desalination facilities, was chosen for this study. About 150 drinking water samples were collected and analyzed for metal concentrations using an inductively coupled argon plasma analyzer. It was found that copper, iron and zinc in the drinking water increased during its transportation from the desalination plant to the consumers. This increase was related to the length and material of distribution pipes. Concentrations of copper and zinc were increased during overnight storage of water in the appliances. Metal concentrations found in this study are discussed with reference to human health. PMID:15092461

  19. Detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water using microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Mahdi; Noorden, Ahmad Fakhrurrazi Ahmad; Mohajer, Faeze Sadat; Abd Mubin, Mohamad Helmi; Chaudhary, Kashif; Jalil, Muhammad Arif; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha

    2016-01-01

    A new microring resonator system is proposed for the detection of the Salmonella bacterium in drinking water, which is made up of SiO2-TiO2 waveguide embedded inside thin film layer of the flagellin. The change in refractive index due to the binding of the Salmonella bacterium with flagellin layer causes a shift in the output signal wavelength and the variation in through and drop port's intensities, which leads to the detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water. The sensitivity of proposed sensor for detecting of Salmonella bacterium in water solution is 149 nm/RIU and the limit of detection is 7 × 10(-4)RIU.

  20. [Nitrate water pollution of drinking water in the Bydgoszcz district].

    PubMed

    Sinkiewicz, J; Doboszyńska, B

    1992-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the degree of drinking water pollution in the towns and countryside of the Bydgoszcz District, supplied by various installations, on the basis of the results of investigations of sanitary-epidemiological stations. Evaluation was done according to the state in 1985 as compared with that of 1981 to establish the eventual dynamics of the changes. The data presented in the tables indicate that the water supplied by the big water lines (public and institutional) does not contain nitrate quantities exceeding the norm (above 10 mg N/dm3). Their presence at a 20 mg N level/dm3 was found only in four (1.5%) lines supplying large state farms. Small installations were much more frequently polluted with nitrates, especially public wells and those of local institutions, a total of 8.8% in towns and as many as 17% in the country, where a tendency to deterioration of this state is also visible in contrast to the towns. Among the plants and institutions supplied by these water sources the situation is most unfavourable in agriculture, schools, educational and food producing and distributing establishments. The nitrate concentration in the analysed water varied in general within the limits of 10-30 mg N/dm3, maximal amounts within 60-200 mg N/dm3, showing an about 50% decrease in the compared time periods. Nitrates occur most frequently and in highest concentrations in water of wells belonging to individual households which supply about 50% of the rural population and about 11% of town dwellers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K. Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.

    2000-03-15

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for {sup 222}Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient {sup 222}Rn concentration and the increment of {sup 222}Rn to the indoor-air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air-producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such multimedia mitigation programs were explored.

  2. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

  3. SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE ENHANCED SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to FY2003 statistics compiled by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, the U.S. regulates about 160,000 small drinking water systems that impact close to 70 million people. Small systems (serving transient and non-transient populations of 10,000 people or less...

  4. Occurrence, Monitoring and Treatment of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the summer of 2014 a number of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) on Lake Erie supplied water samples on a monthly basis for analysis. Chlorophyll-a measurements, LC/MS/MS and ELISA techniques specific to microcystins were employed to measure potential harmful algal bloom...

  5. SAFE DRINKING WATER FROM SMALL SYSTEMS: TREATMENT OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bringing small water systems into compliance with the ever-increasing number of regulations will require flexibility in terms of technology application and institional procedures. his article looks at the means by which small systems can provide safe drinking water, focusing on t...

  6. Wastewater to Drinking Water: Are Emerging Contaminants Making it Through?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Mead serves as the primary drinking water source for Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities. Besides snow-melt from the Rockies water levels in the lake are supplemented by the inflow of treated wastewater from communities along the Colorado River, including Las Vegas...

  7. The Accumulation of Radioactive Contaminants in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution systems has been documented and the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of particular concern because of their known health eff...

  8. LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has established maximum contaminant levels ( MCLs ), for many inorganic contaminants found in drinking water, to protect the health of consumers. Some of these chemicals occur naturally in source waters while some are the result o...

  9. INTERACTIVE WORKSHOP ON ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2005, EPA's Office of Water and Office of Research and Development collaborated to present eleven arsenic training events. The workshops provided in-depth treatment technology training to help those affected; state drinking water staff, design engineers, system owners and cert...

  10. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents a long term performance study of two iron removal water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. Performance information was collected from one system located in midwest for one full year and at the second system located in the farwest...

  11. Photocatalytic Coats in Glass Drinking-Water Bottles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andren, Anders W.; Armstrong, David E.; Anderson, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    According to a proposal, the insides of glass bottles used to store drinking water would be coated with films consisting of or containing TiO2. In the presence of ultraviolet light, these films would help to remove bacteria, viruses, and trace organic contaminants from the water.

  12. USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

  13. Phosphate Removal and Recovery using Drinking Water Plant Waste Residuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment plants are used to provide safe drinking water. In parallel, however, they also produce a wide variety of waste products which, in principle, could be possible candidates as resources for different applications. Calcium carbonate is one of such residual waste in ...

  14. Fluoride concentration in drinking water of Karachi city (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Siddique, Azhar; Mumtaz, Majid; Saied, Sumayya; Karim, Zahida; Zaigham, Nayyer A

    2006-09-01

    The ground and municipal water supply samples of Karachi city were analyzed for their fluoride contents. The fluoride contents in water samples collected from the subsurface and river sources were found below the WHO recommended value for the general health of the people. However, in some industrial areas the groundwater sample showed higher level of fluoride concentration. Continuous monitoring of water resources and cautious fluoridation is suggested to maintain proper status of fluoride concentration in the drinking water.

  15. Energy-efficient drinking water disinfection for greenhouse gas mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, A.J.; Greene, D.M.; Rosenfeld, A.

    1998-07-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that approximately one billion people worldwide use cookstoves to boil their drinking water. About half of this population is in China. Some populations (e.g. Jakarta) spend 1% of their GDP on boiling drinking water. Impoverished and/or ignorant populations not yet boiling their drinking water will do so when they can both afford it and understand the risks of unsafe drinking water. A recently developed water disinfection technology (UV Waterworks) can produce safe drinking water while earning tradable carbon credits (or credit as a clean development mechanism) when implemented as part of national energy, health, and carbon emissions trading policy, UV Waterworks uses approximately 6,000 times less energy than boiling over a biomass cookstove. Each unit that replaces boiling may save up to 175 or 300 tons/year of carbon-equivalent GHG emissions, depending on if it replaces sustainably harvested biomass (SHB) or non-SHB. For the approximately 500M Chinese boiling their drinking water over biomass (assumed SHB), this suggests a technical potential (that is, potential under the limiting case of 100% market adoption) of saving 87M tons/year of carbon-equivalent non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions. The energy savings and corresponding emissions reductions will vary with cookstove fuels and stove efficiency: non-SHB and kerosene represent the most and least GHG-producing cookstove fuels, respectively, among those readily available to the populations of interest. The authors bracket the global technical potential for carbon emission reductions resulting from implementation of UV Waterworks, and estimate the value of tradable carbon credits earned from these reductions.

  16. [On the rating of Helicobacter pylori in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Fedichkina, T P; Solenova, L G; Zykova, I E

    2014-01-01

    There are considered the issues related to the possibility to rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) content in drinking water. There is described the mechanism of of biofilm formation. The description refers to the biofilm formation mechanism in water supply systems and the existence of H. pylori in those systems. The objective premises of the definition of H. pylori as a potential limiting factor for assessing the quality of drinking water have been validated as follows: H. pylori is an etiologic factor associated to the development of chronic antral gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, and gastric cancer either, in the Russian population the rate of infection with H. pylori falls within range of 56 - 90%, water supply pathway now can be considered as a source of infection of the population with H. pylori, the existence of WHO regulatory documents considering H. pylori as a candidate for standardization of the quality of the drinking water quite common occurrence of biocorrosion, the reduction of sanitary water network reliability, that creates the possibility of concentrating H. pylori in some areas of the water system and its delivery to the consumer of drinking water, and causes the necessity of the prevention of H. pylori-associated gastric pathology of the population. A comprehensive and harmonized approach to H. pylori is required to consider it as a candidate to its rating in drinking water. Bearing in mind the large economic losses due to, on the one hand, the prevalence of disease caused by H. pylori, and, on the other hand, the biocorrosion of water supply system, the problem is both relevant in terms of communal hygiene and economy.

  17. Monitoring dissolved organic carbon in surface and drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Volk, Christian; Wood, Larry; Johnson, Bruce; Robinson, Jeff; Zhu, Hai Wei; Kaplan, Louis

    2002-02-01

    The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) strongly impacts drinking water treatment, water quality, and water behavior during distribution. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were determined daily over a 22 month period in river water before and after conventional drinking water treatment using an on-line total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer. Quantitative and qualitative variations in organic matter were related to precipitation and runoff, seasons and operating conditions. Following a rainfall event, DOC levels could increase by 3.5 fold over baseflow concentrations, while color, UV absorbance values and turbidity increased by a factor of 8, 12 and 300, respectively. Treated water DOC levels were closely related to the source water quality, with an average organic matter removal of 42% after treatment.

  18. [The protection of drinking water in a public health department].

    PubMed

    Monari, R; Petrolo, A; Mascelli, M; Vannucchi, G

    2008-01-01

    The protection of drinking water is a key issue in a Public Health Department's activity. A substantial amount of planning and monitoring work is involved in the development and implementation of a water safety plan, aimed not only at the enforcement of public health regulations, but also at the improvement of the quality water. We provide an overview of the quality monitoring program of the municipality of Prato, a highly populated and industrialized area, where ground water is contaminated by anthropogenic pollutants such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and nitrate. We show how, in spite of the intrinsically poor quality of the basic water resource, the careful application of an appropriate prevention plan, with the cooperation of the local water authority, allows the delivery of drinking water of increasing safety and quality.

  19. Effects of chlorinated drinking water on human lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Wones, R.G.; Glueck, C.J.

    1986-11-01

    Atherosclerosis with its complications is the most important health problem affecting American adults. The levels of serum cholesterol, of high and low density lipoproteins, and of apolipoproteins A1, A2, and B are major risk factors for the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Animals studies suggest that chlorinated drinking water may elevate the serum cholesterol. Studies are too limited to confirm or refute this effect in humans. Since millions of humans have had daily exposure to chlorinated drinking water, it is essential to study the effects of such exposure on human lipid metabolism. The authors have begun a protocol to discover whether consuming chlorinated drinking water elevates serum cholesterol and the other lipid components of blood known to be associated with atherosclerosis. This protocol has been designed to improve the change of observing an effect while preserving the ability to generalize the data.

  20. Pathogens in drinking water: Are there any new ones

    SciTech Connect

    Reasoner, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. These are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum, both of which form highly disinfectant resistant cysts that are shed in the feces of infected individuals. The question frequently arises - are there other emerging waterborne pathogens that may pose a human health problem that the drinking water industry will have to deal with. The paper will review the current state of knowledge of the occurrence and incidence of pathogens and opportunistic pathogens other than Legionella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in treated and untreated drinking water. Bacterial agents that will be reviewed include Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Campylobacter, Mycobacterium, Yersinia and Plesiomonas. Aspects of detection of these agents including detection methods and feasibility of monitoring will be addressed.

  1. Estimating effects of improved drinking water and sanitation on cholera.

    PubMed

    Leidner, Andrew J; Adusumilli, Naveen C

    2013-12-01

    Demand for adequate provision of drinking-water and sanitation facilities to promote public health and economic growth is increasing in the rapidly urbanizing countries of the developing world. With a panel of data on Asia and Africa from 1990 to 2008, associations are estimated between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks, the case rates in given outbreaks, the mortality rates associated with cholera and two disease control mechanisms, drinking-water and sanitation services. A statistically significant and negative effect is found between drinking-water services and both cholera case rates as well as cholera-related mortality rates. A relatively weak statistical relationship is found between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks and sanitation services.

  2. Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Boorman, G A

    1999-01-01

    There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and

  3. Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Boorman, G A

    1999-02-01

    There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and

  4. Trihalomethanes in drinking water and the risk of death from kidney cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter?

    PubMed

    Liao, Yen-Hsiung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Ching; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of development of kidney cancer and (2) determine whether hardness levels in drinking water modify the effects of TTHM on risk of kidney cancer induction. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death attributed to kidney cancer and exposure to TTHM in drinking water in 53 municipalities in Taiwan. All kidney cancer deaths in the 53 municipalities from 1998 through 2007 were obtained. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data on TTHM levels and levels of hardness in drinking water were also collected. The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's TTHM and hardness exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose TTHM exposure level was <4.9 ppb, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for kidney cancer was 0.98 (0.77-1.25) for individuals who resided in municipalities served by drinking water with a TTHM exposure ≥4.9 ppb. However, evidence of an interaction was noted between the use of soft water and drinking water TTHM concentrations. Increased knowledge of the interaction between hardness and TTHM levels in reducing risk of kidney cancer development will aid in public policy decision and establishing standards to prevent disease occurrence.

  5. Assessment of the school drinking water supply and the water quality in Pingtung County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pei-Ling; Chung, Chung-Yi; Liao, Shao-Wei; Miaw, Chang-Ling

    2009-12-01

    In this study, a questionnaire survey of school drinking water quality of 42 schools in Pingtung County was conducted according to the water sources, treatment facilities, location of school as well as different grade levels. Among them, 45% of schools used tap water as the main source of drinking water, and the schools using groundwater and surface water as drinking water source account for 29% and 26%, respectively. The schools above senior high school level in the city used tap water as drinking water more than underground water, while the schools under junior high school level in the rural area used surface water as their main source of drinking water. The surface water was normally boiled before being provided to their students. The reverse osmosis system is a commonly used water treatment equipment for those schools using tap water or underground water. Drinking fountain or boiled water unit is widely installed in schools above senior high school level. For schools under junior high school level, a pipeline is stretched across the campus. Relative test shows that the unqualified rate of microbe in water is 26.2%. All parameters for physical and chemical properties and metal content had met the domestic standards except that the turbidity of schools under junior high school level using tap water is slightly higher than the standard value.

  6. The Occurrence and Comparative Toxicity of Haloacetaldehyde Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of drinking water disinfection greatly reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases. However, the reaction between disinfectants and natural organic matter in the source water can lead to an unintended consequence, which is the formation of drinking water disinfe...

  7. Development of EPA Method 525.3 for the Analysis of Semivolatiles in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) collects nationwide occurrence data on contaminants in drinking water using the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulations (UCMRs). The unregulated contaminants, which ar...

  8. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NEWLY DISCOVERED IODOACID DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodoacid drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were recently uncovered in drinking water samples from source water with a high bromide/iodide concentration that was disinfected with chloramines. The purpose of this paper is to report the analytical chemical identification...

  9. The epidemiology of chemical contaminants of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Calderon, R L

    2000-01-01

    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distribution materials and the drinking water treatment process. Chemical contaminants for which epidemiologic studies have reported associations include the following: aluminium, arsenic, disinfection by-products, fluoride, lead, pesticides and radon. Health effects reported have included various cancers, adverse reproductive outcomes, cardiovascular disease and neurological disease. In evaluating epidemiologic studies for risk assessment, considering whether the study design was qualitative (hypothesis generating) or quantitative (hypothesis testing) is important and whether sufficient epidemiologic data of a quantitative nature exists to determine the dose-response curve. Each of the chemical contaminants mentioned are summarized by study designs (qualitative and quantitative) and whether a dose-response curve based on epidemiologic data has been proposed. Environmental epidemiology studies are driven by environmental exposures of interest. For drinking water contaminants, the design of epidemiologic studies and their interpretation should consider the following exposure issues: the source of the contaminant; other sources of the contaminant; the route of exposure; the frequency, duration and magnitude of exposure; the ability to document an actual internal dose; and the ability to document the dose to the target organ. Health effects of concern have other risk factors that must be measured in the conduct of these studies. In evaluating epidemiologic studies, potential errors and biases that may occur must be considered given the very low magnitude of associations (less than 2.0 for either odds ratio or risk ratio). Given the issues, the next generation of drinking water epidemiologic studies should

  10. Lung cancer and arsenic concentrations in drinking water in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ferreccio, C; González, C; Milosavjlevic, V; Marshall, G; Sancha, A M; Smith, A H

    2000-11-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 microg/liter in drinking water in the period 1958-1970. Concentrations have since been reduced to 40 microg/liter. We investigated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung cancer cases and 419 controls. Participants were interviewed regarding drinking water sources, cigarette smoking, and other variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed a clear trend in lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with increasing concentration of arsenic in drinking water, as follows: 1, 1.6 (95% CI = 0.5-5.3), 3.9 (95% CI = 1.2-12.3), 5.2 (95% CI = 2.3-11.7), and 8.9 (95% CI = 4.0-19.6), for arsenic concentrations ranging from less than 10 microg/liter to a 65-year average concentration of 200-400 microg/liter. There was evidence of synergy between cigarette smoking and ingestion of arsenic in drinking water; the odds ratio for lung cancer was 32.0 (95% CI = 7.2-198.0) among smokers exposed to more than 200 microg/liter of arsenic in drinking water (lifetime average) compared with nonsmokers exposed to less than 50 microg/liter. This study provides strong evidence that ingestion of inorganic arsenic is associated with human lung cancer.

  11. Fate of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Sokichi; Adachi, Fumie; Miyano, Keiichi; Koizumi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Hidetsugu; Watanabe, Isao; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-07-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been recognized as global environmental pollutants. Although PFOS and PFOA have been detected in tap water from Japan and several other countries, very few studies have examined the fate, especially removal, of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water treatment processes. In this study, we analyzed PFOS and PFOA at every stages of drinking water treatment processes in several water purification plants that employ advanced water treatment technologies. PFOS and PFOA concentrations did not vary considerably in raw water, sand filtered water, settled water, and ozonated water. Sand filtration and ozonation did not have an effect on the removal of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water. PFOS and PFOA were removed effectively by activated carbon that had been used for less than one year. However, activated carbon that had been used for a longer period of time (>1 year) was not effective in removing PFOS and PFOA from water. Variations in the removal ratios of PFOS and PFOA by activated carbon were found between summer and winter months.

  12. Drinking water consumption patterns in Canadian communities (2001-2007).

    PubMed

    Roche, S M; Jones, A Q; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Pintar, K D M

    2012-03-01

    A pooled analysis of seven cross-sectional studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, Waterloo and Hamilton Regions, Ontario and Vancouver, East Kootenay and Northern Interior Regions, British Columbia (2001 to 2007) was performed to investigate the drinking water consumption patterns of Canadians and to identify factors associated with the volume of tap water consumed. The mean volume of tap water consumed was 1.2 L/day, with a large range (0.03 to 9.0 L/day). In-home water treatment and interactions between age and gender and age and bottled water use were significantly associated with the volume of tap water consumed in multivariable analyses. Approximately 25% (2,221/8,916) of participants were classified as bottled water users, meaning that 75% or more of their total daily drinking water intake was bottled. Approximately 48.6% (4,307/8,799) of participants used an in-home treatment method to treat their tap water for drinking purposes. This study provides a broader geographic perspective and more current estimates of Canadian water consumption patterns than previous studies. The identified factors associated with daily water consumption could be beneficial for risk assessors to identify individuals who may be at greater risk of waterborne illness.

  13. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay.

  14. Behavioral toxicity of trihalomethane contaminants of drinking water in mice.

    PubMed

    Balster, R L; Borzelleca, J F

    1982-12-01

    The behavioral toxicity of trichloromethane (TCM), dichlorobromomethane (DCBM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and tribromomethane (TBM) was evaluated following oral administration in mice. A variety of dosage regimens and behavioral measures were used. Studies included acute dose effect, 14-and 90-day treatments at 300 and 3000 times the estimated average human daily intake of contaminated drinking water, 30 days of 100 mg/kg/day, and 60 days of 100 and 400 mg/kg/day. In addition, TCM was tested for the production of taste aversions with 10-day administration and for behavioral teratology in offspring following extensive perinatal exposure. The ED50 for acute effects on a screen test of motor performance was about 500 mg/kg for all four trihalomethanes. The 14-day treatments had no effect on swimming behavior and the 90-day treatments had no effect on bar clinging, a test of motor coordination, and a measure of exploratory behavior. None of the compounds produced effects on passive-avoidance learning following 100 mg/kg/day for 30 days. TCM, DBCM and TBM elicited clear effects at both 100 and 400 mg/kg/day on operant behavior when administered for 60 days. DBCM elicited clear effects at 400 mg/kg/day. These effects on operant behavior were seen following the first dose and tolerance tended to develop. Thus, there was no evidence from these studies for a progressive neurotoxicity from trihalomethanes in adult mice. A behavioral teratology study was also conducted with TCM. Both parents were treated with 31.1 mg/kg/day TCM, and treatment of the dam continued throughout gestation and lactation. No clear evidence for behavioral effects in the offspring were observed. The most sensitive measure for the effects of TCM was the taste aversion paradigm in which saccharin aversions were produced after a single treatment of 30 mg/kg.

  15. Postexercise rehydration: potassium-rich drinks versus water and a sports drink.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Fluid retention, thirst quenching, tolerance, and palatability of different drinks were assessed. On 4 different days, 12 healthy, physically active volunteers (24.4 ± 3.2 years old, 74.75 ± 11.36 kg body mass (mean ± S.D)), were dehydrated to 2.10% ± 0.24% body mass by exercising in an environmental chamber (32.0 ± 0.4 °C dry bulb, 53.8 ± 5.2% relative humidity). Each day they drank 1 of 4 beverages in random order: fresh coconut water (FCW), bottled water (W), sports drink (SD), or potassium-rich drink (NEW); volume was 120% of weight loss. Urine was collected and perceptions self-reported for 3 h. Urine output was higher (p < 0.05) for W (894 ± 178 mL) than SD (605 ± 297 mL) and NEW (599 ± 254 mL). FCW (686 ± 250 mL) was not different from any other drink (p > 0.05). Fluid retention was higher for SD than W (68.2% ± 13.0% vs. 51.3% ± 12.6%, p = 0.013), but not for FCW and NEW (62.5% ± 15.4% and 65.9% ± 15.4%, p > 0.05). All beverages were palatable and well tolerated; none maintained a positive net fluid balance after 3 h, but deficit was greater in W versus SD (p = 0.001). FCW scored higher for sweetness (p = 0.03). Thirst increased immediately after exercise but returned to baseline after drinking a small volume (p < 0.0005). In conclusion, additional potassium in FCW and NEW did not result in additional rehydration benefits over those already found in a conventional sports drink with sodium.

  16. Postexercise rehydration: potassium-rich drinks versus water and a sports drink.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Fluid retention, thirst quenching, tolerance, and palatability of different drinks were assessed. On 4 different days, 12 healthy, physically active volunteers (24.4 ± 3.2 years old, 74.75 ± 11.36 kg body mass (mean ± S.D)), were dehydrated to 2.10% ± 0.24% body mass by exercising in an environmental chamber (32.0 ± 0.4 °C dry bulb, 53.8 ± 5.2% relative humidity). Each day they drank 1 of 4 beverages in random order: fresh coconut water (FCW), bottled water (W), sports drink (SD), or potassium-rich drink (NEW); volume was 120% of weight loss. Urine was collected and perceptions self-reported for 3 h. Urine output was higher (p < 0.05) for W (894 ± 178 mL) than SD (605 ± 297 mL) and NEW (599 ± 254 mL). FCW (686 ± 250 mL) was not different from any other drink (p > 0.05). Fluid retention was higher for SD than W (68.2% ± 13.0% vs. 51.3% ± 12.6%, p = 0.013), but not for FCW and NEW (62.5% ± 15.4% and 65.9% ± 15.4%, p > 0.05). All beverages were palatable and well tolerated; none maintained a positive net fluid balance after 3 h, but deficit was greater in W versus SD (p = 0.001). FCW scored higher for sweetness (p = 0.03). Thirst increased immediately after exercise but returned to baseline after drinking a small volume (p < 0.0005). In conclusion, additional potassium in FCW and NEW did not result in additional rehydration benefits over those already found in a conventional sports drink with sodium. PMID:25017113

  17. Comparing administered and market-based water allocation systems using an agent-based modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Cai, X.; Wang, Z.

    2009-12-01

    It also has been well recognized that market-based systems can have significant advantages over administered systems for water allocation. However there are not many successful water markets around the world yet and administered systems exist commonly in water allocation management practice. This paradox has been under discussion for decades and still calls for attention for both research and practice. This paper explores some insights for the paradox and tries to address why market systems have not been widely implemented for water allocation. Adopting the theory of agent-based system we develop a consistent analytical model to interpret both systems. First we derive some theorems based on the analytical model, with respect to the necessary conditions for economic efficiency of water allocation. Following that the agent-based model is used to illustrate the coherence and difference between administered and market-based systems. The two systems are compared from three aspects: 1) the driving forces acting on the system state, 2) system efficiency, and 3) equity. Regarding economic efficiency, penalty on the violation of water use permits (or rights) under an administered system can lead to system-wide economic efficiency, as well as being acceptable by some agents, which follows the theory of the so-call rational violation. Ideal equity will be realized if penalty equals incentive with an administered system and if transaction costs are zero with a market system. The performances of both agents and the over system are explained with an administered system and market system, respectively. The performances of agents are subject to different mechanisms of interactions between agents under the two systems. The system emergency (i.e., system benefit, equilibrium market price, etc), resulting from the performance at the agent level, reflects the different mechanism of the two systems, the “invisible hand” with the market system and administrative measures (penalty

  18. New Perspectives in Monitoring Drinking Water Microbial Quality

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, Ma José; Borrego, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs), in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of dinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will have in the quality of drinking water is also critically evaluated. PMID:21318002

  19. BIOFILM IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the world there are millions of miles of water distribution pipe lines which provide potable water for use by individuals and industry. Some of these water distribution systems have been in service well over one hundred years. Treated water moving through a distributio...

  20. Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality

  1. Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality

  2. Assessing the microbial quality of improved drinking water sources: results from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Baum, Rachel; Kayser, Georgia; Stauber, Christine; Sobsey, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Millennium Development Goal Target 7c (to halve between 1990 and 2015 the proportion of the global population without sustainable access to safe drinking water), was celebrated as achieved in 2012. However, new studies show that we may be prematurely celebrating. Access to safe drinking water may be overestimated if microbial water quality is considered. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between microbial drinking water quality and drinking water source in the Puerto Plata region of the Dominican Republic. This study analyzed microbial drinking water quality data from 409 households in 33 communities. Results showed that 47% of improved drinking water sources were of high to very-high risk water quality, and therefore unsafe for drinking. This study provides evidence that the current estimate of safe water access may be overly optimistic, and microbial water quality data are needed to reliably assess the safety of drinking water.

  3. Burden of Cancer from Chemicals in North Carolina Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFelice, N.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring programs required by the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) currently do not consider potential differences in chemical exposure patterns and human health risks. Rather, U.S. agencies establish monitoring requirements based on the type of water system and the number of people the system serves; within categories of systems, all potentially carcinogenic chemicals must be monitored with equal frequency, regardless of the potential level of risk these chemicals pose. To inform future policies concerning contaminant monitoring under the SDWA, we examined the potential health threats in North Carolina from the 34 carcinogenic chemicals covered under the SDWA. We analyzed reported contaminant concentration data for all community water systems (CWSs) for the years 1998-2011. We employed an attributable fraction approach that uses probabilistic inputs to evaluate the percent of cancer cases that may be attributable to chemical exposure in drinking water. We found that cancer risks are dominated by 3 of the 34 chemicals and chemical classes (total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), arsenic and gross alpha particles); all other chemicals contribute to less than one cancer case per year in the state. We showed that around 840 cases of cancer annually (2% of annual cancer cases) are attributable to contaminated drinking water. The majority cases are due to TTHMs, arsenic and gross alpha particles, which contributed 810 (95% CI 560-1,280), 14 (95% CI 3 -32), and 13 (95% CI 2-48) cases, respectively. Sixty-seven counties had annual cancer rates higher than 1 in 10,000 attributable to community water systems. Annual cancer rate attributable to chemicals found in drinking water that are regulated under the safe drinking water act.

  4. Use of non-carbonated soft drinks to provide safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M; Burke, V; Robinson, J

    1985-03-01

    Non-carbonated, low-calorie soft drink concentrates (cordials), when diluted according to manufacturers' instructions, had significant antibacterial effects in vitro. Bacteria affected include Vibrio cholerae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. With vibrios, bacterial counts were reduced from 10(6)/ml to undetectable numbers in less than 10 min. Escherichia coli in an initial concentration of 10(6)/ml became undetectable after incubation for 1 h with one brand of cordial. Naturally contaminated water can be rendered potable by incubation with cordials at room temperature for 1 h. This may be a way to reduce the risk of water-borne diarrhoea, particularly where the cleanliness of drinking waters cannot be otherwise assured, for example when making up oral rehydration fluids and for travellers in high-risk areas.

  5. Demineralization of drinking water: Is it prudent?

    PubMed

    Verma, K C; Kushwaha, A S

    2014-10-01

    Water is the elixir of life. The requirement of water for very existence of life and preservation of health has driven man to devise methods for maintaining its purity and wholesomeness. The water can get contaminated, polluted and become a potential hazard to human health. Water in its purest form devoid of natural minerals can also be the other end of spectrum where health could be adversely affected. Limited availability of fresh water and increased requirements has led to an increased usage of personal, domestic and commercial methods of purification of water. Desalination of saline water where fresh water is in limited supply has led to development of the latest technology of reverse osmosis but is it going to be safe to use such demineralized water over a long duration needs to be debated and discussed.

  6. [Hygienic bases for management of bottled drinking water quality].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, D V; Mikhaĭlova, R I

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the existing normative requirements, by controlling the packaged drinking waters versus tap water; substantiates additions into a list, the regulated levels of a number of indices for this type of products, including those for the waters designed for babies, and the narrowed list of indices for state control. To assure the high quality of finished products, it is shown to be important to perform a sanitary-and-epidemiological study of raw water for pouring and finished products in full conformity with normative documents and to use current water conditioning technologies by the level of major biogenic elements to have physiologically adequate waters of high quality.

  7. Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhixiong; Lobdell, Danelle T; Kwok, Richard K; Liu, Zhiyi; Zhang, Shiying; Ma, Chenglong; Riediker, Michael; Mumford, Judy L

    2007-08-01

    In the Ba Men region of Inner Mongolia, China, a high prevalence of chronic arsenism has been reported in earlier studies. A survey of the arsenic contamination among wells from groundwater was conducted to better understand the occurrence of arsenic (As) in drinking water. A total of 14,866 wells (30% of all wells in the region) were analyzed for their arsenic-content. Methods used to detect arsenic were Spectrophotometric methods with DCC-Ag (detection limit, 0.5 microg of As/L); Spot method (detection limit, 10 microg of As/L); and air assisted Colorimetry method (detection limit, 20 microg of As/L). Arsenic-concentrations ranged from below limit of detection to 1200 microg of As/L. Elevated concentrations were related to well depth (10 to 29 m), the date the well was built (peaks from 1980-1990), and geographic location (near mountain range). Over 25,900 individuals utilized wells with drinking water arsenic concentrations above 20 microg of As/L (14,500 above 50 microg of As/L-the current China national standard in drinking water and 2198 above 300 microg of As/L). The presented database of arsenic in wells of the Ba Men region provides a useful tool for planning future water explorations when combined with geological information as well as support for designing upcoming epidemiological studies on the effects of arsenic in drinking water for this region.

  8. Removal of estrogens and estrogenicity through drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Schenck, Kathleen; Rosenblum, Laura; Wiese, Thomas E; Wymer, Larry; Dugan, Nicholas; Williams, Daniel; Mash, Heath; Merriman, Betty; Speth, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Estrogenic compounds have been shown to be present in surface waters, leading to concerns over their possible presence in finished drinking waters. In this work, two in vitro human cell line bioassays for estrogenicity were used to evaluate the removal of estrogens through conventional drinking water treatment using a natural water. Bench-scale studies utilizing chlorine, alum coagulation, ferric chloride coagulation, and powdered activated carbon (PAC) were conducted using Ohio River water spiked with three estrogens, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, and estriol. Treatment of the estrogens with chlorine, either alone or with coagulant, resulted in approximately 98% reductions in the concentrations of the parent estrogens, accompanied by formation of by-products. The MVLN reporter gene and MCF-7 cell proliferation assays were used to characterize the estrogenic activity of the water before and after treatment. The observed estrogenic activities of the chlorinated samples showed that estrogenicity of the water was reduced commensurate with removal of the parent estrogen. Therefore, the estrogen chlorination by-products did not contribute appreciably to the estrogenic activity of the water. Coagulation alone did not result in significant removals of the estrogens. However, addition of PAC, at a typical drinking water plant dose, resulted in removals ranging from approximately 20 to 80%. PMID:22361701

  9. Minerals leached into drinking water from rubber stoppers

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B.W.; Beal, T.S. )

    1991-06-01

    Drinking water and its delivery system are potential sources of variation in animal research. Concern arose that rubber stoppers used to cork water bottles might be a source of some nutritionally required minerals which could leach into drinking water. Six types of stoppers, each having different compositions, were cleaned with stainless-steel sipper tubes inserted into them and attached to polypropylene bottles filled with either deionized water (pH 4.5) or acidified-deionized water (pH 2.5). After six days of contact, water levels of copper, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, chromium, and selenium were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, three of the stopper types were analyzed for mineral content. Minerals were present in both stoppers and drinking water. Acidified-deionized water generally leached minerals from the stoppers than did deionized water. The black stopper which is commonly used in animal facilities contained and leached measurable levels of some minerals, but it still can be recommended for typical animal husbandry uses, although other types of stoppers would be more suitable for specific nutritional and toxicologic studies.

  10. Arsenic exposure to drinking water in the Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Merola, R B; Hien, T T; Quyen, D T T; Vengosh, A

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater drinking sources was investigated in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in order to assess the occurrence of As in the groundwater, and the magnitude of As exposure of local residents through measurements of As in toenails of residents consuming groundwater as their major drinking water source. Groundwater (n=68) and toenail (n=62) samples were collected in Dong Thap Province, adjacent to the Mekong River, in southern Vietnam. Fifty-three percent (n=36) of the wells tested had As content above the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended limit of 10 ppb. Samples were divided into Northern (mean As=4.0 ppb) and Southern (329.0 ppb) groups; wells from the Southern group were located closer to the Mekong River. Elevated As contents were associated with depth (<200 m), salinity (low salinity), and redox state (reducing conditions) of the study groundwater. In 79% of the wells, As was primarily composed of the reduced As(III) species. Arsenic content in nails collected from local residents was significantly correlated to As in drinking water (r=0.49, p<0.001), and the relationship improved for pairs in which As in drinking water was higher than 1 ppb (r=0.56, p<0.001). Survey data show that the ratio of As in nail to As in water varied among residents, reflecting differential As bioaccumulation in specific exposed sub-populations. The data show that water filtration and diet, particularly increased consumption of animal protein and dairy, and reduced consumption of seafood, were associated with lower ratios of As in nail to As in water and thus could play important roles in mitigating As exposure in areas where As-rich groundwater is the primary drinking water source.

  11. Trihalomethane hydrolysis in drinking water at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Karanfil, Tanju; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-07-01

    Hydrolysis could contribute to the loss of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water at elevated temperatures. This study was aimed at investigating THM hydrolysis pertaining to the storage of hot boiled water in enclosed containers. The water pH value was in the range of 6.1-8.2 and the water temperature was varied from 65 to 95 °C. The effects of halide ions, natural organic matter, and drinking water matrix were investigated. Results showed that the hydrolysis rates declined in the order following CHBrCl2 > CHBr2Cl > CHBr3 > CHCl3. THM hydrolysis was primarily through the alkaline pathway, except for CHCl3 in water at relatively low pH value. The activation energies for the alkaline hydrolysis of CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 were 109, 113, 115 and 116 kJ/mol, respectively. No hydrolysis intermediates could accumulate in the water. The natural organic matter, and probably other constituents, in drinking water could substantially decrease THM hydrolysis rates by more than 50%. When a drinking water was at 90 °C or above, the first order rate constants for THM hydrolysis were in the magnitude of 10(-2)‒10(-1) 1/h. When the boiled real tap water was stored in an enclosed container, THMs continued increasing during the first few hours and then kept decreasing later on due to the competition between hydrolysis and further formation. The removal of THMs, especially brominated THMs, by hydrolysis would greatly reduce one's exposure to disinfection by-products by consuming the boiled water stored in enclosed containers.

  12. Progesterone, administered prior to kainic acid, reduces decrements in cognitive performance in the Morris Water Maze

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Walf, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    The nature of progesterone (P4)’s neuroprotective effects is of interest. We investigated effects of P4 when administered prior to, or following, kainic acid, which produces ictal activity and damage to the hippocampus, to mediate effects on spatial performance. The hypothesis was that P4, compared to vehicle, would reduce decrements in Morris Water Maze performance induced by kainic acid. Experiment 1: We examined the effects of kainic acid on plasma stress hormone, corticosterone, and progestogen (P4 and its metabolites) levels in plasma and the hippocampus following subcutaneous (s.c.) P4 administration to ovariectomized rats. Rats administered kainic acid had the highest corticosterone levels immediately following injection. P4 is 5α-reduced to dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and subsequently metabolized to 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α,5α-THP) by 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The regimen of P4 utilized produced circulating and hippocampal levels of P4, DHP, and 3α,5α-THP within a physiological range, which decline at 14 hours post-injection, and were not altered by kainic acid. Experiment 2: The physiological P4 regimen was administered to rats before, or following, kainic acid-induced seizures, and later effects on water maze performance were compared to that of rats administered vehicle. Rats administered kainic acid had significantly poorer performance in the water maze (i.e. increased latencies and distances to the hidden platform) than did rats administered vehicle. Administration of P4 before, but not after, kainic acid prevented these performance deficits. Thus, these data suggest that a physiological regimen of P4 can prevent some of the deficits in water maze performance produced by kainic acid. PMID:20715152

  13. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  14. Arsenic in drinking water in bangladesh: factors affecting child health.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sonia N; Aziz, Khwaja M S; Boyle, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people's individuals' time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children's health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  15. Fluoride occurrence in publicly supplied drinking water in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karro, Enn; Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Haamer, Kadri; Marandi, Andres

    2006-06-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the content and spatial distribution of fluoride in drinking water. Water samples (735) from public water systems covering all Estonian territory were analysed using SPADNS method. In order to specify the natural source of fluoride, the chemistry data from five aquifer systems utilised for water supply were included into the study. Fluoride concentrations in tap water, to a great extent, ranged from 0.01 to 6.95 mg/l. Drinking water in southern Estonia, where terrigenous Middle-Devonian aquifer system is exploited, has a fluoride concentration lower than recommended level (0.5 mg/l), thus promoting susceptibility to dental caries. The western part of the country is supplied by water with excess fluoride content (1.5-6.9 mg/l). Groundwater abstracted for drinking purposes originates from Ordovician and Silurian carbonate rocks. The content of fluoride in Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is associated with the groundwater abstraction depth and the main controlling factors of dissolved fluoride are the pH value and the chemical type of water.

  16. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  17. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  18. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  19. Effects of slightly acidic electrolysed drinking water on mice.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Shibata, Yoshiko; Obata, Takahiro; Kawagoe, Masami; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sato, Masayoshi; Toida, Kazumi; Kushima, Hidemi; Matsuda, Yukihisa

    2011-10-01

    Slightly acidic electrolysed (SAE) water is a sanitizer with strong bactericidal activity due to hypochlorous acid. We assessed the safety of SAE water as drinking water for mice at a 5 ppm total residual chlorine (TRC) concentration to examine the possibility of SAE water as a labour- and energy-saving alternative to sterile water. We provided SAE water or sterile water to mice for 12 weeks, during which time we recorded changes in body weight and weekly water and food intakes. At the end of the experiment, all of the subject animals were sacrificed to assess serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatinine levels and to examine the main organs histopathologically under a light microscope. In addition, we investigated the bacteria levels of both types of water. We found no difference in functional and morphological health condition indices between the groups. Compared with sterile water, SAE water had a relatively higher ability to suppress bacterial growth. We suggest that SAE water at 5 ppm TRC is a safe and useful alternative to sterile water for use as drinking water in laboratory animal facilities.

  20. Diversity and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas spp. from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are common inhabitants of aquatic environments, including drinking water. Multi-antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is widely reported and deeply characterized. However, the information regarding other species and environmental isolates of this genus is scant. This study was designed based on the hypothesis that members of the genus Pseudomonas given their high prevalence, wide distribution in waters and genetic plasticity can be important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance in drinking water. With this aim, the diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of Pseudomonas isolated from different drinking water sources were evaluated. The genotypic diversity analyses were based on six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoD, rpoB, gyrB, recA and ITS) and on pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Susceptibility to 21 antibiotics of eight classes was tested using the ATB PSE EU (08) and disk diffusion methods. Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from 14 of the 32 sampled sites. A total of 55 non-repetitive isolates were affiliated to twenty species. Although the same species were isolated from different sampling sites, identical genotypes were never observed in distinct types of water (water treatment plant/distribution system, tap water, cup fillers, biofilm, and mineral water). In general, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was low and often the resistance patterns were related with the species and/or the strain genotype. Resistance to ticarcillin, ticarcillin with clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and cotrimoxazol were the most prevalent (69-84%). No resistance to piperacillin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, imipenem or meropenem was observed. This study demonstrates that Pseudomonas spp. are not so widespread in drinking water as commonly assumed. Nevertheless, it suggests that water Pseudomonas can spread acquired antibiotic resistance, preferentially via vertical transmission.

  1. Safe Drinking Water for Alaska: Curriculum for Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South East Regional Resource Center, Juneau, AK.

    Presented is a set of 10 lessons on safe drinking water in Alaska for use by elementary school teachers. The aim is to provide students with an understanding of the sources of the water they drink, how drinking water can be made safe, and the health threat that unsafe water represents. Although this curriculum relates primarily to science, health,…

  2. MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE U.S. SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT: THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the United States. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 mill...

  3. Nephrotoxicity of uranium in drinking water from private drilled wells

    SciTech Connect

    Selden, Anders I.; Lundholm, Cecilia; Edlund, Bror; Hoegdahl, Camilla; Ek, Britt-Marie; Bergstroem, Bernt E.; Ohlson, Carl-Goeran

    2009-05-15

    Objectives: To investigate the association between uranium in drinking water from drilled wells and aspects of kidney function measured by sensitive urine tests. Methods: Three hundred and one of 398 eligible subjects (75.6%) aged 18-74 years with daily drinking water supplies from private drilled wells located in uranium-rich bedrock (exposed group) volunteered to participate along with 153 of 271 local controls (56.4%) who used municipal water. Participants responded to a questionnaire on their water consumption and general health, and provided a morning urine sample and drinking water for analysis. Results: The uranium content of well water samples (n=153) varied considerably (range <0.20-470 {mu}g/l, median 6.7 {mu}g/l, 5% >100 {mu}g/l), while uranium levels in all samples of municipal water (n=14) were below the limit of quantification (0.2 {mu}g/l). Urinary levels of uranium were more than eight times higher in exposed subjects than in controls (geometric means 38 and 4.3 ng/l, respectively; p<0.001), but their mean urine lead levels were not significantly different. There was a strong curvilinear correlation between uranium in drinking water and in urine (r{sup 2}=0.66). Levels of albumin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, protein HC as well as kappa and lambda immunoglobulin chains in urine from exposed and controls were similar. The N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was significantly lower in the exposed group vs. controls, possibly secondary to differential storage duration of samples from the two groups. Even in regression models adjusting for gender, age and smoking no association of uranium in water and the kidney function parameters was observed. Using uranium in urine in the entire study group as a marker of exposure, however, a tendency of exposure-related increases of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, protein HC and kappa chains were noted. This tendency was enhanced after exclusion of subjects with diabetes mellitus from the analysis

  4. Chemical quality of maternal drinking water and congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zierler, S; Theodore, M; Cohen, A; Rothman, K J

    1988-09-01

    We undertook a case-control study to investigate the association between chemicals in maternal drinking water consumed during pregnancy and congenital heart disease in the offspring. Two hundred and seventy affected children and 665 healthy children were enrolled in the study. Information on contaminant levels in maternal drinking water was available from records of routine water analysis of samples taken from public taps in the communities where the mothers resided during pregnancy. Mothers provided information during a telephone interview on their health, pregnancy management, and demographic characteristics. Nine inorganic metals were analysed for detection of an association with congenital heart disease. The chemical exposures of particular interest were arsenic, lead, mercury and selenium. None of the chemicals was associated materially with an increase in the frequency of congenital heart disease overall. Arsenic exposure at any detectable level was associated with a threefold increase in occurrence of coarctation of the aorta (prevalence odds ratio = 3.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-8.9). Detectable traces of selenium in drinking water were associated with a lower frequency of any congenital heart disease than was observed among children exposed to drinking water not containing detectable levels of selenium (prevalence odds ratio = 0.62, 95% confidence limits = 0.40-0.97). A dose-response effect was observed over four levels of selenium exposure. Non-differential errors in the measurement and classification of exposure to contaminants routinely monitored in drinking water could account for lack of positive findings. In addition, most of the contaminant levels were below the maximum levels set by the Environmental Protection Agency, so that lack of evidence of effect may have been due to the low exposure levels in this population.

  5. Removal of alkanes from drinking water using membrane technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fronk, C.A.

    1995-10-01

    Increasingly, the public is concerned about the quality of its drinking water. The chlorinated alkanes are saturated, aliphatic, synthetic organic compounds (SOC`s). When hydrocarbon feedstocks are chlorinated, a wide variety of chlorocarbons and chlorohydrocarbons are produced that are used as industrial solvents, degreasers and intermediaries. Because compounds such as Carbon Tetrachloride and 1,2-Dichloroethane are widely used, they often find their way into drinking water, particularly groundwaters. Surface waters are somewhat less affected bemuse of the high volatility of many chlorinated alkanes. The Drinking Water Research Division is responsible for evaluating various membrane technologies that may be feasible for meeting Maximum Contaminant Levels. Several membrane processes are under investigation to determine their effectiveness in removing SOC`s from drinking water. One study addressed the removal of a variety of alkanes from spiked groundwater by six reverse osmosis membranes: a cellulose acetate, a polyamide (hollow fiber), and four different types of thin-film composite membranes. Progressive chlorination of methanes, ethanes and propanes produces compounds that exhibit differing physicochemical properties. The differences in compound properties have an effect on the removal of these compounds by reverse osmosis membranes. For example only 25% of the methylene chloride (Dichloromethane) was removed by one thin-film composite versus 90% removal of the carbon tetrachloride. In addition, the various membranes are made of different polymeric materials and showed a wide range of removals. Generally, the thin-film composite membranes out performed the other membranes and the more highly chlorinated the compound the better the removal. Pervaporation is yet another membrane process that may prove effective in removal of alkanes and future studies will address its usefulness as a drinking water.

  6. COMPARATIVE RISK DILEMNAS IN DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION [EDITORIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection of drinking water supplies has been one of the most succesful public health interventions of the twentieth century. It has virtually eliminated outbreaks of serious waterborne infectious diseases, such as cholera and typhoid. there are still, however, an average of...

  7. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section 3.115 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care,...

  8. MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbiological quality of drinking water is assessed using culture-based methods that are highly selective and that tend to underestimate the densities and diversity of microbial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better understand the effect of differe...

  9. RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China
    Zhixiong Ning1, Richard K. Kwok2, Zhiyi Liu1, Shiying Zhang1, Chenglong Ma1, Danelle T. Lobdell2, Michael Riediker3 and Judy L. Mumford2
    1) Institute of Endemic Disease for Prevention and Treatment in I...

  10. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

  11. Mineralogical Evidence of Galvanic Corrosion in Domestic, Drinking Water Pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water distribution system (DWDS) piping contains numerous examples of galvanically-coupled metals (e.g., soldered copper pipe joints, copper-lead pipes joined during partial replacements of lead service lines). The possible role of galvanic corrosion in the release of l...

  12. Metagenomic Analyses of Drinking Water Receiving Different Disinfection Treatments

    EPA Science Inventory

    A metagenome-based approach was utilized for assessing the taxonomic affiliation and function potential of microbial populations in free chlorine (CHL) and monochloramine (CHM) treated drinking water (DW). A total of 1,024, 242 (averaging 544 bp) and 849, 349 (averaging 554 bp) ...

  13. CONTROL OF MICROBES AND DBPS IN DRINKING WATER: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically drinking water utilities in the United States (U.S.) have played a major role in protecting public health through the reduction of waterborne disease. These reductions in waterborne disease outbreaks were brought about by the use of sand filtration, disinfection and...

  14. Environmental health perspectives. Volume 46. Drinking water disinfectants - December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, G.W.; Hook, G.E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Among subjects considered are chlorine dioxide, N-chloramines, mutagenic activity by disinfectant reaction products, trihalomethane and behavioral toxicity, and carcinogenic risk estimation. There are 27 papers on these and related topics. The volume stems from a symposium on drinking water disinfectants and disinfectant by-products.

  15. NEUROTOXICITY PRODUCED BY DIBROMOACETIC ACID IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript examines the neurotoxic potential of a commonly found disinfection by-product (DBP), dibromoacetic acid (DBA). While the Safe Drinking Water Act requires evaluation of DBPs for noncancer health effects, surprisingly few have been tested for neurotoxicity. Rats e...

  16. Arsenic in Drinking Water--The Silent Killer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wajrak, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Natural arsenic salts are present in all waters, with natural concentrations of less than 10 parts per billion (ppb). Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of countries where toxic arsenic compounds in groundwater, which is used for drinking and irrigation, have been detected at concentrations above the World Health Organization's…

  17. Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  18. Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conferees urge the Agency to carry out a study on the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using a credible approach that relies on the best available science, as well as independent sources of information. The conferees expect the study to be conduct...

  19. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires that all tolerances for pesticide chemical residuals in or on food be considered for anticipated exposure. Drinking water is considered a potential pathway for dietary exposure and there is reliable monitoring data for the ...

  20. REMOVING ESOTERIC CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS: IMPACTS OF TREATMENT IMPLEMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    At first blush, the production and distribution of drinking water seems to be a very straight forward process. There is a need to remove microbial agents and any anthropogenic or autochthonous contaminants that may be of health concern. Finally, a disinfectant is usually added to...

  1. DBP CONTROL IN DRINKING WATER: COST AND PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is currently attempting to balance the complex trade-offs in chemical and microbial risks associated with controlling disinfection and disinfection byproducts (D/DBP) in drinking water. In attempting to achieve this balance, the...

  2. Dimethylamine biodegradation by mixed culture enriched from drinking water biofilter.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaobin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Jingxu; Dai, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Dimethylamine (DMA) is one of the important precursors of drinking water disinfection by-product N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Reduction of DMA to minimize the formation of carcinogenic NDMA in drinking water is of practical importance. Biodegradation plays a major role in elimination of DMA pollution in the environment, yet information on DMA removal by drinking water biofilter is still lacking. In this study, microcosms with different treatments were constructed to investigate the potential of DMA removal by a mixed culture enriched from a drinking water biofilter and the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources. DMA could be quickly mineralized by the enrichment culture. Amendment of a carbon source, instead of a nitrogen source, had a profound impact on DMA removal. A shift in bacterial community structure was observed with DMA biodegradation, affected by carbon and nitrogen sources. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum group in DMA-degrading microcosms. Microorganisms from a variety of bacterial genera might be responsible for the rapid DMA mineralization.

  3. MODELING CHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mass-transfer-based model is developed for predicting chlorine decay in drinking-water distribution networks. The model considers first-order reactions of chlorine to occur both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall. The overall rate of the wall reaction is a function of the ...

  4. Drinking Water Activities for Students, Teachers, and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides teachers with materials, information, and classroom activities to enhance any drinking water curriculum. Students can use the activity sheets to further lessons and stimulate thought. Parents can use the guide to develop science projects that will provoke thought, encourage research, and provide a scientific approach to…

  5. Role of detection limits in drinking water regulation.

    PubMed

    Calder, Ryan S D; Schmitt, Ketra A

    2010-11-01

    Some commentators on environmental science and policy have claimed that advances in analytical chemistry, reflected by an ability to detect contaminants at ever-decreasing concentrations, lead to regulations stricter than justified by available toxicological data. We evaluate this claim in the context of drinking water regulation, with respect to contaminants regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). We examine the relationships between historical and present maximum contaminant levels and goals in the greater context of detection capability and evaluate the extent to which different aspects of the regulatory apparatus (i.e., analytical capability, cost-benefit analysis, analysis of competing risks, and available toxicological data) influence the regulatory process. Our findings do not support the claim that decreases in detection limit lead to more stringent regulation in the context of drinking water regulation in the United States. Further, based on our analysis of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulation and existing United States Environmental Protection Agency approaches to establishing the practical quantifiable level, we conclude that in the absence of changes to the underlying toxicological model, regulatory revision is unlikely.

  6. Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the “agin...

  7. Geospatial examination of lithium in drinking water and suicide mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lithium as a substance occurring naturally in food and drinking water may exert positive effects on mental health. In therapeutic doses, which are more than 100 times higher than natural daily intakes, lithium has been proven to be a mood-stabilizer and suicide preventive. This study examined whether natural lithium content in drinking water is regionally associated with lower suicide rates. Methods Previous statistical approaches were challenged by global and local spatial regression models taking spatial autocorrelation as well as non-stationarity into account. A Geographically Weighted Regression model was applied with significant independent variables as indicated by a spatial autoregressive model. Results The association between lithium levels in drinking water and suicide mortality can be confirmed by the global spatial regression model. In addition, the local spatial regression model showed that the association was mainly driven by the eastern parts of Austria. Conclusions According to old anecdotic reports the results of this study support the hypothesis of positive effects of natural lithium intake on mental health. Both, the new methodological approach and the results relevant for health may open new avenues in the collaboration between Geographic Information Science, medicine, and even criminology, such as exploring the spatial association between violent or impulsive crime and lithium content in drinking water. PMID:22695110

  8. Role of detection limits in drinking water regulation.

    PubMed

    Calder, Ryan S D; Schmitt, Ketra A

    2010-11-01

    Some commentators on environmental science and policy have claimed that advances in analytical chemistry, reflected by an ability to detect contaminants at ever-decreasing concentrations, lead to regulations stricter than justified by available toxicological data. We evaluate this claim in the context of drinking water regulation, with respect to contaminants regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). We examine the relationships between historical and present maximum contaminant levels and goals in the greater context of detection capability and evaluate the extent to which different aspects of the regulatory apparatus (i.e., analytical capability, cost-benefit analysis, analysis of competing risks, and available toxicological data) influence the regulatory process. Our findings do not support the claim that decreases in detection limit lead to more stringent regulation in the context of drinking water regulation in the United States. Further, based on our analysis of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulation and existing United States Environmental Protection Agency approaches to establishing the practical quantifiable level, we conclude that in the absence of changes to the underlying toxicological model, regulatory revision is unlikely. PMID:20925425

  9. DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND DURATION OF GESTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) suggest high exposure decreases risk of preterm birth. We examined this association with total trihalomethane (TTHM) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5) among 2,041 women in a prospective pregnancy study conducted from...

  10. Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in drinking water from pig farms.

    PubMed

    Loera-Muro, Victor M; Jacques, Mario; Tremblay, Yannick D N; Avelar-González, Francisco J; Loera Muro, Abraham; Ramírez-López, Elsa M; Medina-Figueroa, Alejandra; González-Reynaga, Higinio M; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma L

    2013-03-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the aetiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia and is normally transmitted by aerosols and direct contact between animals. A. pleuropneumoniae has traditionally been considered an obligate pathogen of pigs and its presence in the environment has yet to be investigated. Here, the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae was detected in drinking water of pig farms in Mexico using a PCR specific for the RTX toxin gene, apxIV. The presence of A. pleuropneumoniae in farm drinking water was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using an A. pleuropneumoniae-specific polyclonal antibody and by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Viable bacteria from the farm drinking water were detected using the Live/Dead BacLight stain. Additionally, viable A. pleuropneumoniae was selected and isolated using the cAMP test and the identity of the isolated bacteria were confirmed by Gram staining, a specific polyclonal antibody and an A. pleuropneumoniae-specific PCR. Furthermore, biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy in A. pleuropneumoniae-positive samples. In conclusion, our data suggest that viable A. pleuropneumoniae is present in the drinking water of swine farms and may use biofilm as a strategy to survive in the environment.

  11. Guidelines for ultraviolet disinfection of drinking water: considerations for Ontario.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Ron; Andrews, Bob; Lachmaniuk, Pat

    The Ontario Ministry of the Environment is actively investigating protocols for approving the installation of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems for drinking water disinfection. This paper discusses issues that may be considered for selecting the appropriate UV dose, validating UV reactor performance, and monitoring the performance of the reactor once installed.

  12. TECHNIQUES FOR ANALYZING COMPLEX MIXTURES OF DRINKING WATER DBPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although chlorine has been used to disinfect drinking water for approximately 100 years, there have been concerns raised over its use, due to the formation of potentially hazardous by-products. Trihalomethanes (THMs) were the first disinfection by-products (DBPs) identified and ...

  13. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorpyrifos (CP) was used as a model compound to develop experimental methods and prototype modeling tools to forecast the fate of organophosphate (OP) pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions. CP was found to rapidly oxidize to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in the presen...

  14. URBAN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A U.S. PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will examine several case studies that illustrate the critical role drinking water treatment and distribution systems play in protecting public health. It will also present a case study that documents the dramatic impact that the regulations promulgated under the Safe...

  15. [Analysis on current status of drinking water quality in rural areas of China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Chen, Y; Chen, C; Wang, H; Yan, H Z; Zhao, Y C

    1997-01-01

    An investigation on drinking water quality in rural areas of 180 counties in 26 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China was carried out. The population surveyed was 89.39 million. 69.6% of which was supplied with ground water. Central water supply systems served 47.1% of population. Quality of drinking water was graded according to the "Guidelines for Implementation of the 'Sanitary Standard for Drinking Water' in Rural Areas". The rate of population supplied with unqualified drinking water was 42.7%. The bacteriological indices of drinking water exceeded the standard seriously. Organic pollution occurred extensively. Some regions supplied with water of high concentration of fluoride.

  16. Drinking water contamination and treatment techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2016-08-01

    Water is of fundamental importance for life on earth. The synthesis and structure of cell constituents and transport of nutrients into the cells as well as body metabolism depend on water. The contaminations present in water disturb the spontaneity of the mechanism and result in long/short-term diseases. The probable contaminations and their possible routes are discussed in the present review. Continued research efforts result in some processes/technologies to remove the contaminations from water. The review includes concepts and potentialities of the technologies in a comprehensible form. It also includes some meaningful hybrid technologies and promising awaited technologies in coming years.

  17. Transparent exopolymer particle removal in different drinking water production centers.

    PubMed

    Van Nevel, Sam; Hennebel, Tom; De Beuf, Kristof; Du Laing, Gijs; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-07-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have recently gained interest in relation to membrane fouling. These sticky, gel-like particles consist of acidic polysaccharides excreted by bacteria and algae. The concentrations, expressed as xanthan gum equivalents L⁻¹ (μg X(eq) L⁻¹), usually reach hundred up to thousands μg X(eq) L⁻¹ in natural waters. However, very few research was performed on the occurrence and fate of TEP in drinking water, this far. This study examined three different drinking water production centers, taking in effluent of a sewage treatment plant (STP), surface water and groundwater, respectively. Each treatment step was evaluated on TEP removal and on 13 other chemical and biological parameters. An assessment on TEP removal efficiency of a diverse range of water treatment methods and on correlations between TEP and other parameters was performed. Significant correlations between particulate TEP (>0.4 μm) and viable cell concentrations were found, as well as between colloidal TEP (0.05-0.4 μm) and total COD, TOC, total cell or viable cell concentrations. TEP concentrations were very dependent on the raw water source; no TEP was detected in groundwater but the STP effluent contained 1572 μg X(eq) L⁻¹ and the surface water 699 μg X(eq) L⁻¹. Over 94% of total TEP in both plants was colloidal TEP, a fraction neglected in nearly every other TEP study. The combination of coagulation and sand filtration was effective to decrease the TEP levels by 67%, while the combination of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis provided a total TEP removal. Finally, in none of the installations TEP reached the final drinking water distribution system at significant concentrations. Overall, this study described the presence and removal of TEP in drinking water systems.

  18. Determination of uranium in drinking water using a PERALS spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ensor, D.D.; Narrie, C.L.

    1996-10-01

    The determination of uranium from natural water samples involves a lengthy and complicated process which is characterized by low recoveries and precision. Methods must incorporate the isolation of natural uranium isotopes ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U) from other radionuclides, while purifying the samples to prevent organic and metal interferences. A new analysis method for uranium in drinking water has been proposed combining solvent extraction sample preparation and high-resolution, alpha-liquid-scintillation-spectrometric analysis for effective beta/gamma background rejection. The Photon Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation spectrometer has a counting efficiency for alphas of 99.68%, while rejecting >99% of interfering beta and gamma pulses. The new method is a rapid, easy, cost-effective procedure for the determination of total uranium activity or limited isotopic uranium ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U) activity in drinking water with recoveries of >95%. The results of analysis of various drinking water samples including well water, bottled water, and ground water will be presented. {reg_sign}PERALS is a registered trademark of ORDELA, Inc.

  19. Water quality and management of private drinking water wells in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Swistock, Bryan R; Clemens, Stephanie; Sharpe, William E; Rummel, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Pennsylvania has over three million rural residents using private water wells for drinking water supplies but is one of the few states that lack statewide water well construction or management standards. The study described in this article aimed to determine the prevalence and causes of common health-based pollutants in water wells and evaluate the need for regulatory management along with voluntary educational programs. Water samples were collected throughout Pennsylvania by Master Well Owner Network volunteers trained by Penn State Extension. Approximately 40% of the 701 water wells sampled failed at least one health-based drinking water standard. The prevalence of most water quality problems was similar to past studies although both lead and nitrate-N were reduced over the last 20 years. The authors' study suggests that statewide water well construction standards along with routine water testing and educational programs to assist water well owners would result in improved drinking water quality for private well owners in Pennsylvania.

  20. Modeling contaminant propagation in drinking-water distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.M.; Grayman, W.M.; Males, R.M.; Hess, A.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments (SDWAA) will pose a massive challenge for the drinking-water industry in the United States. As the SDWAA regulations reach implementation, increasing effort will be devoted to understanding the factors causing deterioration of water quality between treatment and consumption. A cooperative study involving the U.S. EPA, the University of Michigan, and the South Central Connecticut Regional Water Authority (RWA) demonstrated and validated the use of modeling techniques in the RWA distribution system. Models are used to predict the propagation of chlorine residual in one portion of the RWA system. It is found that residuals varied widely both spatially and temporally. Long residence times in storage tanks caused residual disinfection concentrations to be low or nonexistent during discharge cycles. It was found that system operation has a significant effect on the distribution and concentration of chlorine residuals in the system.

  1. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].

    PubMed

    Él'piner, L I

    2013-01-01

    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined. PMID:24624819

  2. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].

    PubMed

    Él'piner, L I

    2013-01-01

    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined.

  3. Purification of drinking water by low cost method in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatneh, Yasabie; Sahu, Omprakash; Yimer, Seid

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, water treatment is a big issue in rural areas especially in African country. Due to lack of facilities available in those areas and the treatment are expensive. In this regard's an attempt has been made to find alternative natural way to treat the rural drinking water. The experiment trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were used to treat contaminated water obtained from a number of wells. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera can considerably improve the quality of drinking water. A 100 % improvement both in turbidity and reduction in Escherichia coli was noted for a number of the samples, together with significant improvements in colour.

  4. Prioritization of pesticide environmental transformation products in drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Chris J; Boxall, Alistair B A; Parsons, Simon A; Thomas, Miles R

    2006-12-01

    Receiving waters within catchments may be exposed to many different transformation products following the application of pesticides. As environmental waters are abstracted for drinking water treatment these compounds may pose a risk to human health. This paper describes a prioritization approach for identifying the most important transformation products in drinking water sources. The approach can be applied to different geographical areas that have suitable pesticide usage data. The risk based approach incorporates data on pesticide usage and toxicity as well as transformation product formation, mobility, and persistence. The application of the approach is illustrated for two geographical areas that have good quality pesticide usage data: Great Britain and California. The transformation products with the highest risk index and a complete experimentally derived data set for Great Britain were 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, thifensulfuron acid, and kresoxim-methyl acid and for California were carbendazim, aldicarb sulfoxide, and RP30228.

  5. Radioactivity in drinking water supplies in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M; Wallner, G; Jennings, P

    2014-04-01

    Radiochemical analysis was carried out on 52 drinking water samples taken from public outlets in the southwest of Western Australia. All samples were analysed for Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210. Twenty five of the samples were also analysed for Po-210, and 23 were analysed for U-234 and U-238. Ra-228 was found in 45 samples and the activity ranged from <4.000 to 296.1 mBq L(-1). Ra-226 was detected in all 52 samples and the activity ranged from 3.200 to 151.1 mBq L(-1). Po-210 was detected in 24 samples and the activity ranged from 0.000 to 114.2 mBq L(-1). These data were used to compute the annual radiation dose that persons of different age groups and also for pregnant and lactating females would receive from drinking this water. The estimated doses ranged from 0.001 to 2.375 mSv y(-1) with a mean annual dose of 0.167 mSv y(-1). The main contributing radionuclides to the annual dose were Ra-228, Po-210 and Ra-226. Of the 52 drinking water samples tested, 94% complied with the current Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, while 10% complied with the World Health Organization's radiological guidelines which many other countries use. It is likely that these results provide an overestimate of the compliance, due to limitations, in the sampling technique and resource constraints on the analysis. Because of the increasing reliance of the Western Australian community on groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes, it is likely that the radiological content of the drinking water will increase in the future. Therefore there is a need for further monitoring and analysis in order to identify problem areas.

  6. Human Health Relevance of Pharmaceutically Active Compounds in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Nicell, Jim

    2015-05-01

    In Canada, as many as 20 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been detected in samples of treated drinking water. The presence of these PhACs in drinking water raises important questions as to the human health risk posed by their potential appearance in drinking water supplies and the extent to which they indicate that other PhACs are present but have not been detected using current analytical methods. Therefore, the goal of the current investigation was to conduct a screening-level assessment of the human health risks posed by the aquatic release of an evaluation set of 335 selected PhACs. Predicted and measured concentrations were used to estimate the exposure of Canadians to each PhAC in the evaluation set. Risk evaluations based on measurements could only be performed for 17 PhACs and, of these, all were found to pose a negligible risk to human health when considered individually. The same approach to risk evaluation, but based on predicted rather than measured environmental concentrations, suggested that 322 PhACs of the evaluation set, when considered individually, are expected to pose a negligible risk to human health due to their potential presence in drinking waters. However, the following 14 PhACs should be prioritized for further study: triiodothyronine, thyroxine, ramipril and its metabolite ramiprilat, candesartan, lisinopril, atorvastatin, lorazepam, fentanyl, atenolol, metformin, enalaprilat, morphine, and irbesartan. Finally, the currently available monitoring data for PhACs in Canadian surface and drinking waters was found to be lacking, irrespective of whether their suitability was assessed based on risk posed, predicted exposure concentrations, or potency.

  7. [New drinking water reference values for monocyclic nitro compounds].

    PubMed

    Wollin, K-M; Dieter, H H

    2005-11-01

    Nitro compounds are important industrial chemicals with a broad range of applications. During their commercial production or practical use and through leaching from military waste sites they may be released into the environment and thus lead to a contamination of drinking water resources. In the last 15-20 years, the wider public first became aware of nitro compounds as contaminants in groundwater and drinking water resources that originated from manufacturing and processing of secondary explosives during World War II. In 1980, the former Bundesgesundheitsamt (BGA; Federal Health Office) had based its first risk assessment of monocyclic nitro compounds in drinking water on the known carcinogenicity of some aromatic amines in the working environment. On this basis, the BGA recommended for metabolites of aromatic nitro compounds a guide value of 0.1 mug/l for the sum of aromatic amines. From the beginning to the middle of the 1990s, the BGA established a more specific health-related assessment for the individual compounds, but not on the basis of tolerable or acceptable body doses but of dimensionless risk assessment scores ranking their combined toxic and carcinogenic potential on a scale from 1 to 100. In this contribution, we derived new health-based drinking water guide values for 19 nitro(aromatic) compounds and nitramines, including hexogen, octogen, and tetryl as well as the O-nitro compound PETN. All compounds under consideration have been detected within the last 15 years in Germany at contaminated sites close to or directly in groundwater resources for drinking water. For toxicological evaluation and derivation of guideline values for the nitro compounds of interest, the tolerable daily intake (TDI) approach was used for chemicals exhibiting a threshold for toxic effects. This was done by using established tolerable body doses for humans based on an identified NOAEL/LOAEL for the most sensitive toxic endpoint. In the case of non-threshold chemical

  8. Nitrate removal from drinking water -- Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, A.; Viraraghavan, T.

    1997-04-01

    Nitrate concentrations in surface water and especially in ground water have increased in Canada, the US, Europe, and other areas of the world. This trend has raised concern because nitrates cause methemoglobiinemia in infants. Several treatment processes including ion exchange, biological denitrification, chemical denitrification, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and catalytic denitrification can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that ion exchange and biological denitrification are more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis. Ion exchange is more viable for ground water while biological denitrification is the preferred alternative for surface water. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes.

  9. Differences in dissolved organic matter between reclaimed water source and drinking water source.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhuo

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) significantly affects the quality of reclaimed water and drinking water. Reclaimed water potable reuse is an effective way to augment drinking water source and de facto reuse exists worldwide. Hence, when reclaimed water source (namely secondary effluent) is blended with drinking water source, understanding the difference in DOM between drinking water source (dDOM) and reclaimed water source (rDOM) is essential. In this study, composition, transformation, and potential risk of dDOM from drinking water source and rDOM from secondary effluent were compared. Generally, the DOC concentration of rDOM and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) content in reclaimed water source were higher but rDOM exhibited a lower aromaticity. Besides, rDOM comprises a higher proportion of hydrophilic fractions and more low-molecular weight compounds, which are difficult to be removed during coagulation. Although dDOM exhibited higher specific disinfection byproducts formation potential (SDBPFP), rDOM formed more total disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination including halomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) due to high DOC concentration. Likewise, in consideration of DOC basis, rDOM contained more absolute assimilable organic carbon (AOC) despite showing a lower specific AOC (normalized AOC per unit of DOC). Besides, rDOM exhibited higher biotoxicity including genotoxicity and endocrine disruption. Therefore, rDOM presents a greater potential risk than dDOM does. Reclaimed water source needs to be treated carefully when it is blended with drinking water source.

  10. Differences in dissolved organic matter between reclaimed water source and drinking water source.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhuo

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) significantly affects the quality of reclaimed water and drinking water. Reclaimed water potable reuse is an effective way to augment drinking water source and de facto reuse exists worldwide. Hence, when reclaimed water source (namely secondary effluent) is blended with drinking water source, understanding the difference in DOM between drinking water source (dDOM) and reclaimed water source (rDOM) is essential. In this study, composition, transformation, and potential risk of dDOM from drinking water source and rDOM from secondary effluent were compared. Generally, the DOC concentration of rDOM and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) content in reclaimed water source were higher but rDOM exhibited a lower aromaticity. Besides, rDOM comprises a higher proportion of hydrophilic fractions and more low-molecular weight compounds, which are difficult to be removed during coagulation. Although dDOM exhibited higher specific disinfection byproducts formation potential (SDBPFP), rDOM formed more total disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination including halomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) due to high DOC concentration. Likewise, in consideration of DOC basis, rDOM contained more absolute assimilable organic carbon (AOC) despite showing a lower specific AOC (normalized AOC per unit of DOC). Besides, rDOM exhibited higher biotoxicity including genotoxicity and endocrine disruption. Therefore, rDOM presents a greater potential risk than dDOM does. Reclaimed water source needs to be treated carefully when it is blended with drinking water source. PMID:26874770

  11. GEOCHEMISTRY OF SULFUR IN IRON CORROSION SCALES FOUND IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron-sulfur geochemistry is important in many natural and engineered environments, including drinking water systems. In the anaerobic environment beneath scales of corroding iron drinking water distribution system pipes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulfide from natu...

  12. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  13. A Visual Insight into the Degradation of Metals Used in Drinking Water Distribution Systems Using AFM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the fundamental corrosion and passivation of metallic copper used in drinking water distribution materials is important in understanding the overall mechanism of the corrosion process. Copper pipes are widely used for drinking water distribution systems and although it...

  14. Roadmap for Interdisciplinary Research on Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Slide presentation on interdisciplinary research on drinking water disinfection by-products which summarized important issues with drinking water disinfection by-products and focused on emerging, unregulated DBPs.

  15. Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China, Journal

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Bayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water Arsenic concentrations. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints ...

  16. Treatment Technology to Meet the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganics: Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorg, Thomas J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This article is the third in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. This report deals specifically with treatment methods for removing cadmium, lead, and silver from drinking water. (CS)

  17. Assessment of microbiological quality of drinking water from household tanks in Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, B; Pereg, D; Watkinson, E; Maguire, J S; Bissonnette, L; Gingras, S; Rouja, P; Bergeron, M G; Dewailly, E

    2008-06-01

    Bermuda residents collect rainwater from rooftops to fulfil their freshwater needs. The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water in household tanks throughout Bermuda. The tanks surveyed were selected randomly from the electoral register. Governmental officers visited the selected household (n = 102) to collect water samples and administer a short questionnaire about the tank characteristics, the residents' habits in terms of water use, and general information on the water collecting system and its maintenance. At the same time, water samples were collected for analysis and total coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined by 2 methods (membrane filtration and culture on chromogenic media, Colilert kit). Results from the 2 methods were highly correlated and showed that approximately 90% of the samples analysed were contaminated with total coliforms in concentrations exceeding 10 CFU/100 mL, and approximately 66% of samples showed contamination with E. coli. Tank cleaning in the year prior to sampling seems to protect against water contamination. If rainwater collection from roofs is the most efficient mean for providing freshwater to Bermudians, it must not be considered a source of high quality drinking water because of the high levels of microbial contamination.

  18. Assessment of asbestos in drinking water in alexandria, egypt.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Gihan; Akel, Mekkawy

    2006-01-01

    Over the past several years, the presence of fibrous asbestos particulates has been observed in a number of municipal water supplies throughout the USA, Canada, and several other regions all over the world. The possible health hazards which these fibers present have spurred a great deal of interest in the problems of detection and removal of the submicroscopic particulates in water. Asbestos is a group of fibrous metamorphic silicate minerals that is ubiquitous in the environment as a result of its extensive industrial use and the dissemination of fibers from natural sources. The health hazards associated with inhalation of asbestos in the occupational environment have long been recognized including asbestosis, bronchial carcinoma, malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum, and possibly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and larynx. It is introduced into water by the dissolution of asbestos-containing minerals and ores, and from industrial effluents, atmospheric pollution and erosion of asbestos-cement (A/C) pipes in the distribution systems of drinking water. In Alexandria, most of the pipes in the distribution systems of drinking water are asbestos-cement (A/C) pipe system. Drinking water samples (1 liter each) were collected in glass containers from different regions in Alexandria and filtered in cellulose filters (mixed cellulose ester type filters of pore size 0.2 mum) within less than 48 hours. Filters were allowed to dry, gold plated and scanned microscopically. Asbestos fibers were detected in all water samples collected from regions having A/C pipe drainage system. No fibers detected in regions, where the pipe distribution system was poly venyl pipe system or changed from A/C pipe to cast iron pipe system. The determination of asbestos fibers in drinking water of Alexandria should have particular concern because of the health hazards that might be associated with their presence.

  19. Pentachlorophenol Contamination of Private Drinking Water From Treated Utility Poles

    PubMed Central

    Cragin, Lori; Center, Gail; Giguere, Cary; Comstock, Jeff; Boccuzzo, Linda; Sumner, Austin

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, after resident calls regarding an odor, the Vermont Department of Health and state partners responded to 2 scenarios of private drinking water contamination from utility poles treated with pentachlorophenol (PCP), an organochlorine wood preservative used in the United States. Public health professionals should consider PCP contamination of private water if they receive calls about a chemical or gasoline-like odor with concurrent history of nearby utility pole replacement. PMID:23237185

  20. Pesticides in Drinking Water - The Brazilian Monitoring Program.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Auria M C; Solano, Marize de L M; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is the world largest pesticide consumer; therefore, it is important to monitor the levels of these chemicals in the water used by population. The Ministry of Health coordinates the National Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Program (Vigiagua) with the objective to monitor water quality. Water quality data are introduced in the program by state and municipal health secretariats using a database called Sisagua (Information System of Water Quality Monitoring). Brazilian drinking water norm (Ordinance 2914/2011 from Ministry of Health) includes 27 pesticide active ingredients that need to be monitored every 6 months. This number represents <10% of current active ingredients approved for use in the country. In this work, we analyzed data compiled in Sisagua database in a qualitative and quantitative way. From 2007 to 2010, approximately 169,000 pesticide analytical results were prepared and evaluated, although approximately 980,000 would be expected if all municipalities registered their analyses. This shows that only 9-17% of municipalities registered their data in Sisagua. In this dataset, we observed non-compliance with the minimum sampling number required by the norm, lack of information about detection and quantification limits, insufficient standardization in expression of results, and several inconsistencies, leading to low credibility of pesticide data provided by the system. Therefore, it is not possible to evaluate exposure of total Brazilian population to pesticides via drinking water using the current national database system Sisagua. Lessons learned from this study could provide insights into the monitoring and reporting of pesticide residues in drinking water worldwide.