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  1. Pharmacokinetics of tetraplatin administered intraperitoneally with reduced glutathione in mice.

    PubMed

    Kido, Y; Khokhar, A R; Yoshida, M; Thai, G W; Siddik, Z H

    1994-01-01

    Tetraplatin (Ormaplatin) has been developed as a second generation platinum complex because of its good antitumor activity against some cisplatin-resistant tumor cell lines. It is currently in clinical trials. Its reduction to diaminocyclohexane (DACH)-dichloroplatinum(II) [DACH-Pt(II)Cl2] or closely similar species is essential for binding to DNA to produce the desired antitumor effects. We have studied the pharmacokinetics of tetraplatin in mice after intraperitoneal administration with the reducing agent glutathione (GSH). The systemic absorption of tetraplatin (5 mg/kg) with GSH (31 mg/kg) was faster than of tetraplatin alone. Peak plasma platinum (Pt) levels of 0.89 and 1.44 micrograms Pt/ml were observed at 15 min and 2 hr after administration of tetraplatin with and without GSH, respectively, and the Pt then decayed biphasically when administered with GSH and monophasically when administered alone. The plasma Pt level was 4-fold lower (0.17 vs. 0.71 micrograms Pt/ml) by 24 hr when tetraplatin was administered with GSH compared with its administration alone. DACH-Pt(II)Cl2 (4.21 mg/kg, ip) gave similar plasma Pt kinetics to that seen with the combination of tetraplatin and GSH. Pt levels in kidney 24 hr after administration of tetraplatin+GSH or of DACH-Pt(II)Cl2 were lower (1.6-fold) than after tetraplatin alone. Plasma and ascitic fluid from tumor-bearing mice demonstrated equivalent abilities to reduce tetraplatin rapidly. However, tetraplatin treatment of intraperitoneal-inoculated L1210/0 (parent) or L1210/DDP (cisplatin-resistant) tumor cells was unaffected by GSH. As GSH lowered systemic tetraplatin exposure in vivo without compromising antitumor activity against peritoneal tumor models, the combination of thiol and tetraplatin may be clinically useful in the treatment of intraperitoneal disseminated cancers. PMID:8013287

  2. Intraperitoneal Injection of Ethanol Results in Drastic Changes in Bone Metabolism Not Observed When Ethanol is Administered by Oral Gavage

    PubMed Central

    Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Turner, Russell T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with increased risk for osteoporosis while light to moderate alcohol intake correlates with reduced osteoporosis risk. Addition of alcohol to a liquid diet is often used to model chronic alcohol abuse. Methods to model intermittent drinking (including bindge drinking and light to moderate consumption) include 1) intragastric administration of alcohol by oral gavage or 2) intraperitoneal (ip) administration of alcohol by injection. However, it is unclear whether the latter two methods produce comparable results. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the skeletal response to alcohol delivered daily by oral gavage or ip injection. Materials and Methods Ethanol or vehicle was administered to 4-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats once daily at 1.2 g/kg body weight for 7 days. Following necropsy, bone formation and bone architecture were evaluated in tibial diaphysis (cortical bone) and proximal tibial metaphysis (cancellous bone) by histomorphometry. mRNA was measured for bone matrix proteins in distal femur metaphysis. Results Administration of alcohol by gavage had no significant effect on body weight gain or bone measurements. In contrast, administration of the same dose of alcohol by ip injection resulted in reduced body weight, total suppression of periosteal bone formation in tibial diaphysis, decreased cancellous bone formation in proximal tibial metaphysis, and decreased mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins in distal femur. Conclusions Our findings raise concerns regarding the use of ip injection of ethanol in rodents as a method for modeling the skeletal effects of intermittent exposure to alcohol in humans. This concern is based on a failure of the ip route to replicate the oral route of alcohol administration. PMID:23550821

  3. Effects of intracerebroventricularly and intraperitoneally administered growth hormone on body weight and food intake in fa/fa Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Carla; Wieczorek, Ingo; Reschke, Kirsten; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2002-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) possesses multiple metabolic effects, in particular with regard to glucose and lipid homeostasis. Studies on the effects of GH on body weight and food and water intake are scarce and have yielded controversial results. We investigated the effects of different modes of GH administration on the parameters of body weight and food intake as well as on insulin and leptin concentrations in fa/fa Zucker rats. In control experiments, aqua pro injection was given. GH was administered over a time period of 11 days at a daily dose of 250 microg intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 25 microg intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). While both food intake and body weight were found to be unaltered in the four groups after this observation period, there was an enhanced food intake and consecutively an increase in body weight over the day period when compared to the night period in the groups of rats that received GH i.c.v. or i.p. This tendency was also shown for water intake. Insulin and leptin concentrations were similar in all groups. Thus, injection of GH appears to modify food intake-related behavior, since the periods of enhanced food and water intake were shifted from night- to daytime. Thus, while in general the metabolic parameters remained unchanged, the activity pattern was clearly modified.

  4. Intraperitoneally administered biliverdin protects against UVB-induced skin photo-damage in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bingxue; Liu, Yingdi; You, Yan; Li, Yuzhen; Ma, Liangjuan

    2015-03-01

    Oxidative stress is shown to be responsible for ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced skin cancer and premature aging. Biliverdin (BVD), a product of heme oxygenase-1, has strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BVD on UVB-induced skin photo-damage in hairless mice. Mice were divided into three groups: control group, UVB group (only UVB irradiation) and BVD+UVB group (mice were intraperitoneally injected with BVD before each UVB irradiation). Intraperitoneal BVD injection resulted in a significant photoprotective effect by reducing morphological and histopathological changes to the skin. BVD also exhibited a significant antioxidant effect by increasing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level and decreasing the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level compared with the control group. In addition, BVD activated biliverdin reductase (BVR) expression and inhibited the UVB-induced increase of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation (p-p38MAPK), MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-1 and MMP-3 expression (p<0.05). It also significantly decreased the interleukin (IL)-6 level compared with the UVB group (p<0.05). In conclusion, these data suggest that the intraperitoneally administered BVD can prevent UVB irradiation-induced skin photo-damage in hairless mice and that this is likely mediated by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms and cell signal regulatory action.

  5. Influence of dosage, consciousness, and nifedipine on the acute pressor response to intraperitoneally administered cadmium. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.E.; Hungerford, S.

    1982-05-01

    The acute pressor effect of intraperitoneally administered cadmium was explored over the dose range 0.015-2 mg/kg in both pentobarbital-anesthetized and conscious rats. The former first respondent at 0.031 mg/kg, and successive doublings of that dosage increased the highest pressures attained in a stepwise fashion until a dosage of 0.25 mg/kg, the maximally effective quantity, was reached. Arterial pressure did not rise in conscious rats until a dose of 1 mg/kg, which gave the maximum response within the range examined. Heart-rate changes with Cd were slight, and rarely significant at a given dosage, but pentobarbital invariably caused tachycardia. Anesthetized rats thus gave a graded response, while conscious animals reacted in an all-or-none fashion. The increased pressor responsiveness of rats under pentobarbital can not be ascribed to its cardiac parasympatholytic effects, since sensitivity was not conferred upon conscious rats when pretreated with atropine at a dose producing even greater tachycardia than that caused by pentobarbital. Nifedipine, which blocks calcium entry into smooth muscle cells, prevented the pressor response to cadmium when given as pretreatment and terminated an ongoing response when give intercurrently. Possible mechanisms to account for the observed behavior are considered.

  6. Intraperitoneal injection (IP), Intravenous injection (IV) or anal injection (AI)? Best way for mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Liang, Cong; Hu, Hao; Zhou, Lin; Xu, Bing; Wang, Xin; Han, Ying; Nie, Yongzhan; Jia, Shuyun; Liang, Jie; Wu, Kaichun

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation showed promising results in IBD management. However, the therapeutic impacts of cell delivery route that is critical for clinical translation are currently poorly understood. Here, three different MSCs delivery routes: intraperitoneal (IP), intravenous (IV), and anal injection (AI) were compared on DSS-induced colitic mice model. The overall therapeutic factors, MSCs migration and targeting as well as local immunomodulatory cytokines and FoxP3+ cells infiltration were analyzed. Colitis showed varying degrees of alleviation after three ways of MSCs transplantation, and the IP injection showed the highest survival rate of 87.5% and displayed the less weight loss and quick weight gain. The fecal occult blood test on the day 3 also showed nearly complete absence of occult blood in IP group. The fluorescence imaging disclosed higher intensity of engrafted cells in inflamed colon and the corresponding mesentery lymph nodes (MLNs) in IP and AI groups than the IV group. Real time-PCR and ELISA also demonstrate lower TNF-α and higher IL-10, TSG-6 levels in IP group. The immunohistochemistry indicated higher repair proliferation (Ki-67) and more FoxP3+ cells accumulation of IP group. IP showed better colitis recovery and might be the optimum MSCs delivery route for the treatment of DSS-induced colitis. PMID:27488951

  7. Behavioral toxicity and physiological changes from repeated exposure to fluorene administered orally or intraperitoneally to adult male Wistar rats: A dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Julie; Grova, Nathalie; Hidalgo, Sophie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Rychen, Guido; Bisson, Jean-François; Appenzeller, Brice M R; Schroeder, Henri

    2016-03-01

    Fluorene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment by reason of its high volatility. Demonstrated to be a neurotoxicant through inhalation, it was also identified as a contributive PAH to food contamination. Since no data are available on its oral neurotoxicity, the purpose of the present study was to assess the behavioral and physiological toxicity of repeated oral administration of fluorene to adult Wistar male rats. Animals were daily treated with fluorene at 1, 10 or 100mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. Administration was intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral (p.o.) to evaluate the influence of the route of exposure on fluorene toxicity. Following this period of treatment, animals in both groups were subjected to similar cognitive evaluations, namely anxiety (elevated-plus maze), locomotor activity (open-field) and learning and memory abilities (eight-arm maze and avoidance test of an aversive light stimulus), as well as physiological measurements. The behavioral testing occurred from the 28th to the 60th day of the experiment during which fluorene treatment continued uninterrupted. At the end of this period, the concentration levels of fluorene and of three of its monohydroxylated metabolites in blood and brain were determined using a GC-MS/MS method. The results demonstrated a reduction in rat anxiety level at the lowest doses administered (1 and 10mg/kg/day) regardless of the treatment route, whereas locomotor activity and learning abilities remained unchanged. Moreover, a less significant weight gain was noticed in animals i.p.- and p.o.-treated with 100mg/kg/day during the 28-day period of treatment, which, upon comparison with the three other groups, induced a body weight gap that was maintained throughout the experiment. Significant increases in relative liver weight were also observed in a dose-dependent manner in orally treated rats and only in animal treated i.p. with 100mg/kg/day. According to the dose, higher

  8. Effect of Intraperitoneal Administered Ginseng Total Saponins on Hyperalgesia Induced by Repeated Intramuscular Injection of Acidic Saline in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Joong; Kim, Jung Eun; Choi, Geun Joo; Shin, Hwa Yong; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Choel; Kim, Su Hyun; Lee, Jeong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the antinociceptive activity of ginseng total saponins (GTS) on hyperalgesia induced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline in rats and to examine the mechanisms involved. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with a 0.9% saline vehicle or various doses of GTS after the development of hyperalgesia. Rats were then injected with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or naloxone 10 min before GTS injection. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) was assessed with von Frey filaments. The MWT was significantly increased after intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of GTS when compared with the MWT after the development of hyperalgesia. Injection of GTS with NMDA showed a significant decrease in the MWT when compared with GTS injection. GTS showed an antinociceptive activity against chronic muscle-induced pain, and the effect of GTS may be mediated by NMDA. PMID:24853193

  9. Effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen administered orally on normal food intake and intraperitoneally on fat intake in non-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Bains, Rasneer S; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2013-01-01

    It has been previously reported that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen decreases food intake after oral administration and fat intake after intraperitoneal administration. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of baclofen (1-4 mg/ kg) administered orally (Experiment 1) on food intake in non-deprived rats (n=6) and intraperitoneally (Experiment 2) on fat intake in non-deprived rats (n=8) that were naïve to baclofen (1st set of trials) and in the same group of rats after they were sub-chronically exposed to baclofen (2nd set of trials). The results from Experiment 1 show that baclofen had no effects on food intake during the 1st set of trials, but the 2 and 4 mg/kg doses significantly increased food consumption during the 2nd set of trials. Baclofen produced sedation during the 1st set of trials, but tolerance occurred to this effect and was not apparent during the 2nd set of trials. These observations suggest that the motor effects may have competed with the hyperphagic effects of baclofen during the 1st set of trials. The data from Experiment 2 show that baclofen had no effects on fat intake during either the 1st or 2nd set of trials. The results of the study thus indicate that orally administrated baclofen increases food intake and intraperitoneal administration has no effect on fat intake in non-deprived rats under the conditions used in this study. These findings may have important implications for research on the use of baclofen in studies concerned with ingestive behaviours.

  10. Breakthrough therapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer: Intraperitoneal chemotherapy with taxanes.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hironori; Kitayama, Joji; Ishigami, Hironori; Kazama, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-11-15

    The effect of chemotherapy on peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of gastric cancer remains unclear. Recently, the intraperitoneal (IP) administration of taxanes [e.g., paclitaxel (PTX) and docetaxel (DOC)] during the perioperative period has shown promising results. Herein, we summarized the rationale and methodology for using IP chemotherapy with taxanes and reviewed the clinical results. IP administered taxanes remain in the IP space at an extremely high concentration for 48-72 h. The drug directly infiltrates peritoneal metastatic nodules from the surface and then produces antitumor effects, making it ideal for IP chemotherapy. There are two types of perioperative IP chemotherapy with taxanes: neoadjuvant intraperitoneal and systemic chemotherapy and sequential perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (SPIC). In SPIC, patients receive neoadjuvant IP chemotherapy and the same regimen of IP chemotherapy after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) until disease progression. Usually, a taxane dissolved in 500-1000 mL of saline at ordinary temperature is administered through an IP access port on an outpatient basis. According to phase I studies, the recommended doses (RD) are as follows: IP DOC, 45-60 mg/m(2); IP PTX [without intravenous (IV) PTX], 80 mg/m(2); and IP PTX (with IV PTX), 20 mg/m(2). Phase II studies have reported a median survival time of 14.4-24.6 mo with a 1-year overall survival of 67%-78%. A phase III study comparing S-1 in combination with IP and IV PTX to S-1 with IV cisplatin started in 2011. The prognosis of patients who underwent CRS was better than that of those who did not; however, this was partly due to selection bias. Although several phase II studies have shown promising results, a randomized controlled study is needed to validate the effectiveness of IP chemotherapy with taxanes for PC of gastric cancer.

  11. HIPEC ROC I: a phase I study of cisplatin administered as hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemoperfusion followed by postoperative intravenous platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zivanovic, Oliver; Abramian, Alina; Kullmann, Maximilian; Fuhrmann, Christine; Coch, Christoph; Hoeller, Tobias; Ruehs, Hauke; Keyver-Paik, Mignon Denise; Rudlowski, Christian; Weber, Stefan; Kiefer, Nicholas; Poelcher, Martin L; Thiesler, Thore; Rostamzadeh, Babak; Mallmann, Michael; Schaefer, Nico; Permantier, Maryse; Latten, Sandra; Kalff, Joerg; Thomale, Juergen; Jaehde, Ulrich; Kuhn, Walther C

    2015-02-01

    This phase I study tested the safety, feasibility, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cisplatin administered as hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) undergoing secondary cytoreductive surgery followed by postoperative platinum-based intravenous chemotherapy. Twelve patients with operable, recurrent platinum-sensitive EOC (recurrence ≥6 months after first-line therapy) were included according to the classical 3+3 dose-escalation design at three dose levels-60, 80 and 100 mg/m(2). After surgical cytoreduction, a single dose of cisplatin was administered via HIPEC for 90 min at 41-43°C. Postoperatively, all patients were treated with standard intravenous platinum-based combination chemotherapy. One of six patients experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 renal toxicity) at a dose of 100 mg/m(2). The remaining five patients treated with 100 mg/m(2) tolerated their treatment well. The recommended phase II dose was established at 100 mg/m(2). The mean peritoneal-to-plasma AUC ratio was 19·5 at the highest dose level. Cisplatin-induced DNA adducts were confirmed in tumor samples. Common postoperative grade 1-3 toxicities included fatigue, postoperative pain, nausea, and surgical site infection. The ability to administer standard intravenous platinum-based chemotherapy after HIPEC was uncompromised. Cisplatin administered as HIPEC at a dose of 100 mg/m(2) has an acceptable safety profile in selected patients undergoing secondary cytoreductive surgery for platinum-sensitive recurrent EOC. Favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of HIPEC with cisplatin were confirmed at all dose levels, especially at 100 mg/m(2). The results are encouraging to determine the efficacy of HIPEC as a complementary treatment in patients with EOC. PMID:24895230

  12. Effect of Hypericum perforatum on intraperitoneal adhesion formation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hızlı, Fatih; Köşüş, Aydın; Yılmaz, Saynur; Köşüş, Nermin; Haltaş, Hacer; Dede, Hülya; Kafalı, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Hypericum perforatum for prevention of adhesion formation in rats. Material and methods Twenty-four female wistar rats underwent left uterine horn adhesion model. Rats were randomised into 4 groups. Group 1 (Control): Closure of abdominal incision without any agent administration. Group 2: Closure of incision after administration of intraperitoneal (i.p.) Ringer's lactate solution. Group 3: Closure of incision after administration of i.p. olive oil (diluent of H. perforatum). Group 4: Hypericum perforatum extract (Ecodab®) was administered i.p. before the closure of incision. Fourteen days later, relaparatomy was performed and surgical adhesion scores, inflammation and fibrosis scores were noted. Groups were compared according to these scores. Results There was statistical significant difference between ringer's lactate group and olive oil group according to surgical adhesion score (p = 0.009). However, groups were not different according to inflammation and fibrosis scores (p > 0.05). Conclusions Despite antiinflammatory, antioxidants and antimicrobial properties of H. perforatum, our results revealed no positive effect of H. perforatum on the prevention of intraperitoneal adhesion formation. PMID:24904678

  13. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  14. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  15. Comparative effects of single intraperitoneal or oral doses of sodium arsenate or arsenic trioxide during in utero development.

    PubMed

    Stump, D G; Holson, J F; Fleeman, T L; Nemec, M D; Farr, C H

    1999-11-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that single-day intraperitoneal (IP) injection of inorganic arsenic results in failure of neural tube closure and other malformations in rats, hamsters, and mice. Most of these studies involved treatment of limited numbers of animals with maternally toxic doses of arsenic (generally As(V)), without defining a dose-response relationship. In the present Good Laboratory Practice-compliant study, sodium arsenate (As(V)) was administered IP and arsenic trioxide (As(III)) was administered either IP or orally (by gavage) on gestational day 9 to groups of 25 mated Crl:CD(R)(SD)BR rats. Only at dose levels that caused severe maternal toxicity, including lethality, did IP injection of arsenic trioxide produce neural tube and ocular defects; oral administration of higher doses of arsenic trioxide caused some maternal deaths but no treatment-related fetal malformations. In contrast, IP injection of similar amounts of sodium arsenate (based on the molar amount of arsenic) caused mild maternal toxicity but a large increase in malformations, including neural tube, eye, and jaw defects. In summary, neural tube and craniofacial defects were observed after IP injection of both As(V) and As(III); however, no increase in malformations was seen following oral administration of As(III), even at maternally lethal doses. These results demonstrate that the frequently cited association between prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic and malformations in laboratory animals is dependent on a route of administration that is not appropriate for human risk assessment.

  16. A phase I study of intraperitoneal nanoparticulate paclitaxel (Nanotax®) in patients with peritoneal malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Gary A.; Maulhardt, Holly A.; Moore, Kathleen M.; McMeekin, D. S.; Schulz, Thomas K.; Reed, Gregory A.; Roby, Katherine F.; Mackay, Christine B.; Smith, Holly J.; Weir, Scott J.; Wick, Jo A.; Markman, Maurie; diZerega, Gere S.; Baltezor, Michael J.; Espinosa, Jahna; Decedue, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This multicenter, open-label, dose-escalating, phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and preliminary tumor response of a nanoparticulate formulation of paclitaxel (Nanotax®) administered intraperitoneally for multiple treatment cycles in patients with solid tumors predominantly confined to the peritoneal cavity for whom no other curative systemic therapy treatment options were available. Methods Twenty-one patients with peritoneal malignancies received Nanotax® in a modified dose-escalation approach utilizing an accelerated titration method. All patients enrolled had previously received chemotherapeutics and undergone surgical procedures, including 33 % with optimal debulking. Six doses (50–275 mg/m2) of Cremophor-free Nanotax® were administered intraperitoneally for one to six cycles (every 28 days). Results Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of Nanotax® did not lead to increases in toxicity over that typically associated with intravenous (IV) paclitaxel. No patient reported ≥Grade 2 neutropenia and/or ≥Grade 3 neurologic toxicities. Grade 3 thrombocytopenia unlikely related to study medication occurred in one patient. The peritoneal concentration–time profile of paclitaxel rose during the 2 days after dosing to peritoneal fluid concentrations 450–2900 times greater than peak plasma drug concentrations and remained elevated through the entire dose cycle. Best response assessments were made in 16/21 patients: Four patients were assessed as stable or had no response and twelve patients had increasing disease. Five of 21 patients with advanced cancers survived longer than 400 days after initiation of Nanotax® IP treatment. Conclusions Compared to IV paclitaxel administration, Cremophor-free IP administration of Nanotax® provides higher and prolonged peritoneal paclitaxel levels with minimal systemic exposure and reduced toxicity. PMID:25898813

  17. Hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel for regional delivery of paclitaxel to intraperitoneal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Gaurav; Kim, Mi Ran; Mohammed, Sulma I.; Yeo, Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy is an effective way of treating local and regional malignancies confined in the peritoneal cavity such as ovarian cancer. However, a persistent major challenge in IP chemotherapy is the need to provide effective drug concentrations in the peritoneal cavity for an extended period of time. We hypothesized that hyaluronic acid (HA)-based in-situ crosslinkable hydrogel would serve as a carrier of paclitaxel (PTX) particles to improve their IP retention and therapeutic effects. In-vitro gel degradation and release kinetics studies demonstrated that HA gels could entrap microparticulate PTX (>100 μm) and release the drug over 10 days, gradually degraded by hyaluronidase, but had limited effect on retention of Taxol, a 14-nm micelle form of PTX. When administered IP to tumor-bearing nude mice, PTX was best retained in the peritoneal cavity as PTX-gel (microparticulate PTX entrapped in the HA gel), whereas Taxol-gel and other Taxol-based formulations left negligible amount of PTX in the cavity after 14 days. Despite the increase in IP retention of PTX, PTX-gel did not further decrease the tumor burdens than Taxol-based formulations, presumably due to the limited dissolution of PTX. This result indicates that spatial availability of a drug does not necessarily translate to the enhanced anti-tumor effect unless it is accompanied by the temporal availability. PMID:22178261

  18. A phase I study with an expanded cohort to assess feasibility of intravenous docetaxel, intraperitoneal carboplatin and intraperitoneal paclitaxel in patients with previously untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Natalie; Sill, Michael W.; Mannel, Robert S.; Thaker, Premal H.; DiSilvestro, Paul A.; Waggoner, Steven E.; Yamada, S. Diane; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Fracasso, Paula M.; Walker, Joan L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assess the feasibility of intravenous (IV) docetaxel, intraperitoneal (IP) carboplatin and IP paclitaxel in women with Stage II-IV untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Methods Patients received docetaxel (55-75 mg/m2) IV and carboplatin (AUC 5-7) IP on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8. A standard 3+3 design was used in the dose escalation phase. A 2-stage group sequential design with 20 patients at the MTD was used in the feasibility phase. Results The MTD determined during the dose escalation phase was day 1 docetaxel 75 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP and day 8 IP paclitaxel 60 mg/m2. Forty-six patients were enrolled in the feasibility portion at this dose level. Six were unevaluable. Fifteen evaluable patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) within the first four cycles. These DLTs were prolonged neutropenia (2), neutropenic fever (7), grade 4 thrombocytopenia (1), grade 4 dehydration (1), grade 3 infection (2), grade 3 oral mucositis (1) and pulmonary embolism (1). Conclusions Docetaxel 75 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP administered on day 1, and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP administered on day 8, is the MTD when considering one cycle of treatment but was not feasible over four cycles due to bone marrow toxicity. We recommend reduction of carboplatin to AUC 5 should this regimen be considered for treatment in women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:22943879

  19. Efficacy of Intraperitoneal Administration of PEGylated NELL-1 for Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Tanjaya, Justine; Zhang, Yulong; Lee, Soonchul; Shi, Jiayu; Chen, Eric; Ang, Pia; Zhang, Xinli; Tetradis, Sotirios; Ting, Kang; Wu, Benjamin; Soo, Chia; Kwak, Jin Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Systemically delivered NEL-like molecule-1 (NELL-1), a potent pro-osteogenic protein, promotes bone formation in healthy and osteoporotic mouse models. PEGylation of NELL-1 (NELL-PEG) increases the half-life of the protein in a mouse model without compromising its osteogenic potential, thereby improving its pharmacokinetics upon systemic delivery. This study consists of a twofold approach: a biodistribution test and an in vivo osteogenic potential test. The biodistribution test compared two commonly used administration methods for drug delivery other than intravenous—intraperitoneal (IP) and subcutaneous (SC)—to examine NELL-PEG biodistribution in mice. Compared to a single-dose SC injection (1.25 mg/kg), a single-dose IP administration yielded a higher protein uptake in the targeted bone sites. When the IP injection dose was doubled to 2.5 mg/kg, the protein remained in the femurs, tibias, and vertebrae for up to 72 h. Next, based on the results of the biodistribution study, IP administration was selected to further investigate the in vivo osteogenic effects of weekly NELL-PEG injection (q7d). In vivo, the IP administered NELL-PEG group showed significantly greater bone mineral density, bone volume fraction, and trabecular bone formation in the targeted bone sites compared to the phosphate-buffered saline control. In summary, weekly NELL-PEG injection via IP administration successfully enhanced the overall bone quality. These findings demonstrate that systemic delivery of NELL-PEG via IP administration may serve as an effective osteogenic therapy for preventing and treating osteoporosis. PMID:27354930

  20. Efficacy of Intraperitoneal Administration of PEGylated NELL-1 for Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Tanjaya, Justine; Zhang, Yulong; Lee, Soonchul; Shi, Jiayu; Chen, Eric; Ang, Pia; Zhang, Xinli; Tetradis, Sotirios; Ting, Kang; Wu, Benjamin; Soo, Chia; Kwak, Jin Hee

    2016-01-01

    Systemically delivered NEL-like molecule-1 (NELL-1), a potent pro-osteogenic protein, promotes bone formation in healthy and osteoporotic mouse models. PEGylation of NELL-1 (NELL-PEG) increases the half-life of the protein in a mouse model without compromising its osteogenic potential, thereby improving its pharmacokinetics upon systemic delivery. This study consists of a twofold approach: a biodistribution test and an in vivo osteogenic potential test. The biodistribution test compared two commonly used administration methods for drug delivery other than intravenous-intraperitoneal (IP) and subcutaneous (SC)-to examine NELL-PEG biodistribution in mice. Compared to a single-dose SC injection (1.25 mg/kg), a single-dose IP administration yielded a higher protein uptake in the targeted bone sites. When the IP injection dose was doubled to 2.5 mg/kg, the protein remained in the femurs, tibias, and vertebrae for up to 72 h. Next, based on the results of the biodistribution study, IP administration was selected to further investigate the in vivo osteogenic effects of weekly NELL-PEG injection (q7d). In vivo, the IP administered NELL-PEG group showed significantly greater bone mineral density, bone volume fraction, and trabecular bone formation in the targeted bone sites compared to the phosphate-buffered saline control. In summary, weekly NELL-PEG injection via IP administration successfully enhanced the overall bone quality. These findings demonstrate that systemic delivery of NELL-PEG via IP administration may serve as an effective osteogenic therapy for preventing and treating osteoporosis. PMID:27354930

  1. High Intra-abdominal Pressure Enhances the Penetration and Antitumor Effect of Intraperitoneal Cisplatin on Experimental Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Esquis, Philippe; Consolo, David; Magnin, Guy; Pointaire, Philippe; Moretto, Philippe; Ynsa, Maria Dolores; Beltramo, Jean-Luc; Drogoul, Carole; Simonet, Michel; Benoit, Laurent; Rat, Patrick; Chauffert, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on the intratumoral accumulation and the antitumor effect of intraperitoneal cisplatin in rats with advanced peritoneal carcinomatosis. To evaluate the tolerance of IAP in pigs, as it is a large animal with a body size equivalent to humans. Summary Background Data: To investigate if an active convection, driven by a positive IAP, increases cisplatin penetration and antitumor effectiveness in a model of advanced peritoneal carcinomatosis in rats. Experimental Design: BDIX rats with macroscopic peritoneal tumors received cisplatin administered as intravenous injection (IV), conventional intraperitoneal injection (IP), or sustained intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin given in a large volume of solvent for maintaining IAP for 1 hour. Platinum tissue concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and platinum distribution into the tumor nodules was assessed by the particular-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) method. The antitumor effect was assessed in a survival experiment. The hemodynamic, local, and systemic tolerance of IAP, with or without cisplatin, was evaluated in Large White pigs. Results: The maximum tolerated IAP was 22 mm Hg for 1 hour in nonventilated rats. IAP, in comparison with IV or conventional IP injections, resulted in the increased concentration and depth of diffusion of platinum into diaphragm and peritoneal tumor nodules. Consequently, IAP treatment induced an extended survival of rats treated at an advanced stage of carcinomatosis. In 7 50- to 70-kg ventilated pigs, a 40-mm Hg IAP was well tolerated when maintained stable for 2 hours. Renal failure occurred in pigs receiving a total dose of 200 and 400 mg of cisplatin with IAP, but a dose of 100 mg was well tolerated. Conclusions: Intraperitoneal chemotherapy with increased IAP, in comparison with conventional IP or IV chemotherapy, improved the tumor accumulation and the antitumor effect of

  2. Equivalent intraperitoneal doses of ibuprofen supplemented in drinking water or in diet: a behavioral and biochemical assay using antinociceptive and thromboxane inhibitory dose–response curves in mice

    PubMed Central

    El Gayar, Nesreen H.; Georgy, Sonia S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ibuprofen is used chronically in different animal models of inflammation by administration in drinking water or in diet due to its short half-life. Though this practice has been used for years, ibuprofen doses were never assayed against parenteral dose–response curves. This study aims at identifying the equivalent intraperitoneal (i.p.) doses of ibuprofen, when it is administered in drinking water or in diet. Methods. Bioassays were performed using formalin test and incisional pain model for antinociceptive efficacy and serum TXB2 for eicosanoid inhibitory activity. The dose–response curve of i.p. administered ibuprofen was constructed for each test using 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The dose–response curves were constructed of phase 2a of the formalin test (the most sensitive phase to COX inhibitory agents), the area under the ‘change in mechanical threshold’-time curve in the incisional pain model and serum TXB2 levels. The assayed ibuprofen concentrations administered in drinking water were 0.2, 0.35, 0.6 mg/ml and those administered in diet were 82, 263, 375 mg/kg diet. Results. The 3 concentrations applied in drinking water lay between 73.6 and 85.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 58.9 and 77.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 71.8 and 125.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. The 3 concentrations administered in diet lay between 67.6 and 83.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 52.7 and 68.6 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 63.6 and 92.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. Discussion. The increment in pharmacological effects of different doses of continuously administered ibuprofen in drinking water or diet do not parallel those of i.p. administered ibuprofen. It is therefore difficult to assume the equivalent parenteral daily doses based on mathematical calculations. PMID:27547547

  3. Equivalent intraperitoneal doses of ibuprofen supplemented in drinking water or in diet: a behavioral and biochemical assay using antinociceptive and thromboxane inhibitory dose-response curves in mice.

    PubMed

    Salama, Raghda A M; El Gayar, Nesreen H; Georgy, Sonia S; Hamza, May

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ibuprofen is used chronically in different animal models of inflammation by administration in drinking water or in diet due to its short half-life. Though this practice has been used for years, ibuprofen doses were never assayed against parenteral dose-response curves. This study aims at identifying the equivalent intraperitoneal (i.p.) doses of ibuprofen, when it is administered in drinking water or in diet. Methods. Bioassays were performed using formalin test and incisional pain model for antinociceptive efficacy and serum TXB2 for eicosanoid inhibitory activity. The dose-response curve of i.p. administered ibuprofen was constructed for each test using 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The dose-response curves were constructed of phase 2a of the formalin test (the most sensitive phase to COX inhibitory agents), the area under the 'change in mechanical threshold'-time curve in the incisional pain model and serum TXB2 levels. The assayed ibuprofen concentrations administered in drinking water were 0.2, 0.35, 0.6 mg/ml and those administered in diet were 82, 263, 375 mg/kg diet. Results. The 3 concentrations applied in drinking water lay between 73.6 and 85.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 58.9 and 77.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 71.8 and 125.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. The 3 concentrations administered in diet lay between 67.6 and 83.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 52.7 and 68.6 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 63.6 and 92.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. Discussion. The increment in pharmacological effects of different doses of continuously administered ibuprofen in drinking water or diet do not parallel those of i.p. administered ibuprofen. It is therefore difficult to assume the equivalent parenteral daily doses based on mathematical calculations.

  4. Equivalent intraperitoneal doses of ibuprofen supplemented in drinking water or in diet: a behavioral and biochemical assay using antinociceptive and thromboxane inhibitory dose-response curves in mice.

    PubMed

    Salama, Raghda A M; El Gayar, Nesreen H; Georgy, Sonia S; Hamza, May

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ibuprofen is used chronically in different animal models of inflammation by administration in drinking water or in diet due to its short half-life. Though this practice has been used for years, ibuprofen doses were never assayed against parenteral dose-response curves. This study aims at identifying the equivalent intraperitoneal (i.p.) doses of ibuprofen, when it is administered in drinking water or in diet. Methods. Bioassays were performed using formalin test and incisional pain model for antinociceptive efficacy and serum TXB2 for eicosanoid inhibitory activity. The dose-response curve of i.p. administered ibuprofen was constructed for each test using 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The dose-response curves were constructed of phase 2a of the formalin test (the most sensitive phase to COX inhibitory agents), the area under the 'change in mechanical threshold'-time curve in the incisional pain model and serum TXB2 levels. The assayed ibuprofen concentrations administered in drinking water were 0.2, 0.35, 0.6 mg/ml and those administered in diet were 82, 263, 375 mg/kg diet. Results. The 3 concentrations applied in drinking water lay between 73.6 and 85.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 58.9 and 77.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 71.8 and 125.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. The 3 concentrations administered in diet lay between 67.6 and 83.8 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the formalin test; between 52.7 and 68.6 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of the incisional pain model; and between 63.6 and 92.5 mg/kg b.w., i.p., in case of serum TXB2 levels. Discussion. The increment in pharmacological effects of different doses of continuously administered ibuprofen in drinking water or diet do not parallel those of i.p. administered ibuprofen. It is therefore difficult to assume the equivalent parenteral daily doses based on mathematical calculations. PMID:27547547

  5. Tracer kinetics and actions of oral and intraperitoneal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 administration in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vieth, R.; Kooh, S.W.; Balfe, J.W.; Rawlins, M.; Tinmouth, W.W. )

    1990-11-01

    Tracer kinetic parameters of ({sup 3}H)-1,25(OH)2D3 were calculated from data obtained following its acute oral (p.o.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. In normal rats studied after the tracer had distributed into the body, the slope and intercept of the log-serum ({sup 3}H)-1,25(OH)2D3 versus time relationship were not significantly influenced by the route of administration. Pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 (0.2 micrograms/100 g/day) by the same route as the tracer resulted in the following changes: in p.o. rats the serum ({sup 3}H)-1,25(OH)2D3 intercept was much lower but the slope was not changed; in i.p. rats the intercept was not changed but the slope was increased. Both p.o. and i.p. treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 lowered the weight gain and diet consumption, and increased serum calcium, kidney tissue calcium and urinary excretion of orally administered {sup 45}Ca. All the measures of bioactivity were greater in the i.p. dosed rats than in the p.o. dosed rats. We conclude that the p.o. 1,25(OH)2D3 was less potent because of diminished bioavailability due to self induction of its presystemic metabolism and inactivation.

  6. Intraperitoneal Meropenem for Polymicrobial Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    de Fijter, Caroline W H; Jakulj, Lily; Amiri, Fariba; Zandvliet, Anthe; Franssen, Eric

    With the current rise in multiresistant gram-negative bacteria, carbapenems are more frequently used. Surprisingly, limited data exist on the pharmacokinetics of meropenem in peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. We report on the pharmacokinetics of repeated intraperitoneal (IP) meropenem during 21 days as treatment for polymicrobial multiresistent PD-related peritonitis.Our current report supports daily doses of 125 mg/L intraperitoneal meropenem in all bags as an effective and safe modality in the treatment of PD-associated peritonitis with multiresistant microorganisms. No signs of over- or underdosing were found based on serial drug concentration measurements at fixed time points up to 21 days. PMID:27659932

  7. Multiscale tumor spatiokinetic model for intraperitoneal therapy.

    PubMed

    Au, Jessie L-S; Guo, Peng; Gao, Yue; Lu, Ze; Wientjes, Michael G; Tsai, Max; Wientjes, M Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    This study established a multiscale computational model for intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy, to depict the time-dependent and spatial-dependent drug concentrations in peritoneal tumors as functions of drug properties (size, binding, diffusivity, permeability), transport mechanisms (diffusion, convection), spatial-dependent tumor heterogeneities (vessel density, cell density, pressure gradient), and physiological properties (peritoneal pressure, peritoneal fluid volume). Equations linked drug transport and clearance on three scales (tumor, IP cavity, whole organism). Paclitaxel was the test compound. The required model parameters (tumor diffusivity, tumor hydraulic conductivity, vessel permeability and surface area, microvascular hydrostatic pressure, drug association with cells) were obtained from literature reports, calculation, and/or experimental measurements. Drug concentration-time profiles in peritoneal fluid and plasma were the boundary conditions for tumor domain and blood vessels, respectively. The finite element method was used to numerically solve the nonlinear partial differential equations for fluid and solute transport. The resulting multiscale model accounted for intratumoral spatial heterogeneity, depicted diffusive and convective drug transport in tumor interstitium and across blood vessels, and provided drug flux and concentration as a function of time and spatial position in the tumor. Comparison of model-predicted tumor spatiokinetics with experimental results (autoradiographic data of 3H-paclitaxel in IP ovarian tumors in mice, 6 h posttreatment) showed good agreement (1% deviation for area under curve and 23% deviations for individual data points, which were several-fold lower compared to the experimental intertumor variations). The computational multiscale model provides a tool to quantify the effects of drug-, tumor-, and host-dependent variables on the concentrations and residence time of IP therapeutics in tumors.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine after intraperitoneal administration to cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Benito, Javier; Monteiro, Beatriz P; Beaudry, Francis; Lavoie, Anne-Marie; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Steagall, Paulo V

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine after IP administration to cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. ANIMALS 8 healthy cats. PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, IV) and meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, SC) were administered. A 20-gauge catheter was inserted into a jugular vein for blood sample collection. A ventral midline incision was made, and a solution of 0.5% bupivacaine (2 mg/kg) diluted with an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (final concentration, 0.25% bupivacaine) was injected into the peritoneal space over the right and left ovarian pedicles and caudal aspect of the uterus before ovariohysterectomy. Cats were monitored for signs of bupivacaine toxicosis. Venous blood samples (2 mL) were collected before (time 0) and 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after bupivacaine administration. Plasma bupivacaine concentrations were determined with a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by data plotting followed by analysis with a noncompartmental model. RESULTS No signs of bupivacaine toxicosis were observed. Maximum bupivacaine plasma concentration was 1,030 ± 497.5 ng/mL at a mean ± SD value of 30 ± 24 minutes after administration. Mean elimination half-life was 4.79 ± 2.7 hours. Mean clearance indexed by bioavailability and volume of distribution indexed by bioavailability were 0.35 ± 0.18 L•h/kg and 2.10 ± 0.84 L/kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Intraperitoneal administration of bupivacaine resulted in concentrations that did not cause observable toxicosis. Studies to investigate analgesic effects for this technique in cats are warranted. PMID:27227503

  9. Obese and lean Zucker rats respond similarly to intraperitoneal administration of gastrin-releasing peptides.

    PubMed

    Washington, Martha C; Park, Karen H; Sayegh, Ayman I

    2014-08-01

    The Zucker rat is an animal model used to study obesity and the control of food intake by various satiety peptides. The amphibian peptide bombesin (Bn) reduces cumulative food intake similarly in both obese and lean weanling Zucker rats. Here, we hypothesized that intraperitoneal (i.p) administration of gastrin-releasing peptides-10, -27 and -29 (GRP-10, GRP-27, GRP-29), which are the mammalian forms of Bn, would reduce first meal size (MS, 10% sucrose) and prolong the intermeal interval (IMI, time between first and second meals) similarly in obese and lean adult Zucker rats. To test this hypothesis, we administered GRP-10, GRP-27 and GRP-29 (0, 2.1, 4.1 and 10.3 nmol/kg) i.p. to obese and lean male Zucker rats (who were deprived of overnight food but not water) and then measured the first and second MS, IMI and satiety ratio (SR, IMI/MS). We found that in both obese and lean rats, all forms of GRP reduced the first MS, and in lean rats, they also decreased the second MS. Additionally, GRP-10 and GRP-29 prolonged the IMI in both obese and lean rats, but GRP-27 only prolonged it in lean rats. Finally, we found that all forms of GRP increased the SR in both obese and lean rats. In agreement with our hypothesis, we conclude that all forms of GRP reduce food intake in obese and lean adult Zucker rats similar to Bn in weanling rats.

  10. Combined Intraperitoneal and Intrathecal Etanercept Reduce Increased Brain Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Levels and Rescues Spatial Deficits in Young Rats after Bile Duct Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Hsu, Mei-Hsin; Tain, You-Lin; Yu, Hong-Ren; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rats subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) exhibit increased systemic oxidative stress and brain dysfunction characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), including fatigue, neurotransmitter alterations, cognitive and motor impairment, and brain inflammation. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are both increased in plasma and brain in encephalopathy induced by chronic liver failure. This study first determined the temporal profiles of TNF-α and ADMA in the plasma, brain cortex, and hippocampus in young BDL rats. Next, we examined whether etanercept was beneficial in preventing brain damage. Methods: Young rats underwent sham ligation or BDL at day 17 ± 1 for 4 weeks. Treatment group rats were administered etanercept (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (IP) three times per week with or without etanercept (100 μg) intrathecally (IT) three times in total. Results: We found increased plasma TNF-α, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2), and ADMA levels, increased cortical TNF-α mRNA and protein and ADMA, and hippocampal TNF-α mRNA and protein, and spatial defects in young BDL rats. The increase in cortex TNF-α mRNA and ADMA were reduced by IP etanercept or combined IP and IT etanercept. Dually IP/IT etanercept administration reduced the increased cortical and hippocampal TNF-α mRNA and protein level as well as spatial deficits. Conclusions: We conclude that combined intraperitoneal and intrathecal etanercept reduce increased brain TNF-α and ADMA levels and rescues spatial deficits in young rats after BDL. PMID:27445694

  11. Selective intraperitoneal biochemical modulation of methotrexate by dipyridamole.

    PubMed

    Goel, R; Cleary, S M; Horton, C; Balis, F M; Zimm, S; Kirmani, S; Howell, S B

    1989-02-01

    Dipyridamole increases the toxicity of methotrexate in a concentration-dependent manner. We hypothesized that concurrent intraperitoneal administration of both drugs would result in high peritoneal concentrations with much lower plasma concentrations, permitting a selective increase in the activity of methotrexate against intraperitoneal tumors without enhancing systemic toxicity. Initially, 2.16 mg/m2/d methotrexate and 12 mg/m2/d dipyridamole were delivered together as a constant intraperitoneal infusion for 48 hours. With escalation of chemotherapy, eventually 4.32 mg/m2/d methotrexate was administered for 168 hours. Forty-seven courses were administered to 18 patients. The mean peritoneal to plasma concentration ratios of methotrexate and non-protein bound dipyridamole were 71.6 +/- 34.8 and over 2,300, respectively. Chemical peritonitis was the dose-limiting toxicity. Three patients had some evidence of a response (two with decreasing tumor markers, and the third with a reduction in ascites). We conclude that the drug concentrations are in an appropriate range for selective intraperitoneal biochemical modulation of methotrexate, and that it is feasible to expose tumors confined to the peritoneal cavity to these drugs for long periods of time.

  12. Biodistribution, with high uptake by the reproductive tract, of an intraperitoneally infused radiohalogenated steroidal estrogen-receptor ligand.

    PubMed

    Holt, J A; Artwohl, J E; Mercer, L J; Pryde, P G

    1991-03-01

    We infused [123I]16 alpha-(123I)-iodo-estradiol ([123I]E2) intraperitoneally (i.p.) into swine to study its biodistribution and to explore the i.p. use of radiohalogenated steroid estrogen-receptor (ER) ligands as a potential option for diagnosing and treating intra-abdominal, retroperitoneal, and distant sites of advanced ER-rich malignancies. Fifty to 80% of the radiolabel was absorbed from the peritoneal cavity within 30 minutes, and 30 to 50% of the infused radiolabel was excreted in the urine within 2 hr. The rate of biliary clearance was maximal within 25 minutes. At 3 hr, the ER-rich reproductive tract had greater than 63 times the concentration of radiolabel in blood; the former was blocked by non-labeled competitors for ER. Uptake by non-ER-rich tissues, compared to blood, ranged from 0.7:1 (heart and lungs) to 16:1 (spleen); the omentum, however, exhibited a concentration as high as 64:1, which was not blocked by non-labeled ER ligands. Uptake by ER-rich target tissue remained high when charcoal was used to prevent reabsorption of radiolabel from the digestive tract after its biliary excretion, and when the products of biliary excretion were removed by catheterization of the common bile duct. Neither charcoal nor exteriorization of bile appeared to affect urinary clearance of the radiolabel over the time course of the experiments. Taken together with the recent development of syntheses that yield radiohalogenated sex steroid receptor ligands of high specific activity, our findings are encouraging for the potential application of radiolabeled ligands as i.p. administered pharmaceuticals. The advantage of the i.p. route is that it provides direct uptake of the pharmaceutical by free-floating clusters and individual cancer cells in ascitic fluid, as well as delivery via the circulation to vascularized intra- and/or extraperitoneal metastases. PMID:1995542

  13. [Activity of digestive enzymes during intraperitoneal intake of metal compounds].

    PubMed

    Zdol'nik, T D

    2001-01-01

    Digestive function was studied when three compounds from Group VIB of the Mendeleev periodic system of elements were intraperitoneally administered during 100 days. Potassium bichromate, ammonium molybdate in a dose of 0.2 mg/kg and sodium tungstate in a dose of 5.0 mg/kg (in terms of metal) were found to have a resorptive effect on pancreatic function and a local effect on the small intestinal mucosa.

  14. Combined usage with intraperitoneal and incisional ropivacaine reduces pain severity after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan-Shu; Guan, Feng; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative pain is the main obstacle for safely rapid recovery of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). In this study, we systemically evaluated the analgesic efficacy of intraperitoneal and incisional ropivacaine injected at the end of the LC. A total of 160 patients, scheduled for elective LC, were allocated into four groups. Group Sham received intraperitoneal and incisional normal saline (NS). Group IC received incisional ropivacaine and intraperitoneal NS. Group IP received incisional NS and intraperitoneal ropivacaine. Group ICP received intraperitoneal and incisional ropivacaine. At the end of the surgery, ropivacaine was injected into the surgical bed through the right subcostal port and infiltrated at the four ports. Dynamic pain by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and cumulative morphine consumption at 2 h, 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h postoperatively, as well as incidence of side-effects over 48 h after LC was recorded. Compared with those in group Sham, the time of post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) stay, dynamic VAS score (VAS-D) 2 h and 6 h postoperatively, cumulative morphine consumption 6 h and 24 h postoperatively, and incidence of nausea and vomiting 48 h after LC in group IC and ICP were less (P<0.05). Furthermore, intraperitoneal and incisional ropivacaine exerts more powerful analgesic effect than single usage with intraperitoneal or incisional ropivacaine (P<0.05). No patients exhibited signs of local anesthetic toxicity. In conclusion, intraperitoneal and incisional ropivacaine might facilitate PACU transfer and effectively and safely reduce pain intensity after LC. PMID:26885228

  15. INTRAPERITONEAL LYSIS OF TUBERCLE BACILLI.

    PubMed

    Manwaring, W H; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1913-12-01

    1. Tubercle bacilli injected into the peritoneal cavities of tuberculous guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys, rapidly disappear from the peritoneal fluids, while persisting in the peritoneal fluids of normal control animals. 2. This disappearance is in part due to an adhesion of the injected bacilli to the peritoneal leucocytes and a fixation of the leucocytes on the omentum. 3. The injected tubercle bacilli can be recovered quantitatively from the peritoneal cavities of normal guinea pigs from one and one half to two hours after the injection, while from tuberculous guinea pigs only 65 per cent. of the bacilli can be recovered at this time. 4. Isolated peritoneal tissues from tuberculous guinea pigs have the power of destroying tubercle bacilli in vitro. 5. A second factor reducing the number of tubercle bacilli free in the peritoneal fluid is therefore an actual lysis of the bacilli. 6. The intraperitoneal lysis is not due solely to substances present in the circulating fluids, since the phenomenon cannot be produced by these fluids in vitro, and since a lytic power cannot be passively conferred even by a direct transfusion of blood from tuberculous to normal animals. 7. The intraperitoneal lysis is apparently due to specific changes in the fixed peritoneal cells of the tuberculous animals.

  16. Intraperitoneal N-acetylcysteine for acute iron intoxication in rats.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, Rachelle; Abu-Kishk, Ibrahim; Kozer, Eran; Ben-Assa, Eyal; Goldstein, Lee H; Youngster, Ilan; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2011-10-01

    Free radical formation and release of oxidant agents have been suggested as possible mechanisms for tissue damage in acute iron intoxication. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione substitute and an antioxidant, is widely used as an antidote for various intoxications. Our aim was to determine whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) NAC would reduce the mortality of rats after acute, toxic oral doses of iron. Male Wistar rats were studied in three phases. In the first phase, animals were assigned to groups 1 (distilled water by gavage) and 2 (i.p. NAC) and observed for survival. In the second phase, rats were assigned to groups 3 (400 mg/kg elemental iron orally) and 4 (400 mg/kg elemental iron, followed by 150 mg/kg i.p. NAC). Survival was observed. Because most rats in Group 3 died within 90 minutes after iron administration, a third phase was conducted in order to allow for comparison of iron and transaminase serum levels after the administration of iron and NAC (group 5: n = 10). Mortality was significantly lower in rats treated with iron and NAC, compared to those treated with iron (P = 0.016). Median serum iron level was significantly lower among rats treated with iron and NAC, compared with rats treated with iron alone (P = 0.002). In a rat model of acute iron intoxication, i.p. administration of NAC may decrease serum iron levels and mortality. PMID:21740343

  17. PVM and IP multicast

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.; Hall, K.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes a 1994 demonstration implementation of PVM that uses IP multicast. PVM`s one-to-many unicast implementation of its pvm{_}mcast() function is replaced with reliable IP multicast. Performance of PVM using IP multicast over local and wide-area networks is measured and compared with the original unicast implementation. Current limitations of IP multicast are noted.

  18. Anesthesia with Intraperitoneal Propofol, Medetomidine, and Fentanyl in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Heber Nuno Castro; da Silva, Aura Luísa Maia; Olsson, Ingrid Anna S; Orden, José Manuel Gonzalo; Antunes, Luis Marques

    2010-01-01

    A safe and reliable method for anesthetizing rats has long been a leading concern of biomedical researchers. We recently found that the intraperitoneal administration of propofol combined with medetomidine and fentanyl is safe for mouse anesthesia. Here we studied whether the same combination could be used for general anesthesia in rats. We used male Wistar rats to test 10 combinations of propofol, medetomidine, and fentanyl administered intraperitoneally and reversed with intraperitoneal atipamezole 30 min after induction. The depth of anesthesia, induction time, loss of pedal withdrawal reflex, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were evaluated, along with the duration and quality of induction, surgical anesthesia, and recovery. The combination of propofol and medetomidine provided a predictable induction and sufficient hypnosis and muscle relaxation, but surgical anesthesia (loss of pedal withdrawal reflex) was difficult to achieve with this protocol. The addition of fentanyl increased analgesia, making it possible to achieve surgical anesthesia. In conclusion, combination of propofol (100 mg/kg), medetomidine (0.1 mg/kg), and fentanyl (0.1 mg/kg) is a safe and practical technique for intraperitoneal anesthesia in rats, providing a surgical window of 25 min and restraint for 30 min, with rapid recovery after administration of atipamezole. PMID:20819392

  19. Effects of peripherally administered urocortin 3 on feeding behavior and gastric emptying in mice.

    PubMed

    Terashi, Mutsumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro; Chaolu, Huke; Ushikai, Miharu; Inui, Akio

    2011-03-01

    Human and mouse urocortin 3 (Ucn3) were first identified in 2001. Ucn3 binds selectively to corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF-R2). Previous studies have shown that centrally administered Ucn3 decreases food intake in rats. However, the role of Ucn3 in the regulation of gut motility remains to be determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peripherally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. After intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Ucn3, food intake was measured in the light and dark phases, and the rate of gastric emptying was determined. We found that i.p. administration of Ucn3 significantly inhibited feeding behavior in mice, and significantly delayed gastric emptying 1-2 h after administration in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Ucn3 contributes to the modulation of feeding behavior and gut motility. Thus, Ucn3 and CRF-R2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal and eating disorders.

  20. Intraperitoneal radiolabeled OC 125 in patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Finkler, N.J.; Muto, M.G.; Kassis, A.I.; Weadock, K.; Tumeh, S.S.; Zurawski, V.R. Jr.; Knapp, R.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Twenty patients with recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian cancer failing conventional therapies were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of iodine-131-labeled OC 125 monoclonal antibody. Rare acute side effects were nausea and mild diarrhea. At doses up to 120 mCi of iodine-131, median white blood cell and platelet count nadirs were 3.6k/microliters and 187k/microliters, respectively. Two patients acquired thyroid toxicities despite thyroid blockage with cold iodine. One patient had transient TSH elevation while remaining clinically euthyroid, and 1 patient developed activation of a thyroid nodule and clinical hyperthyroidism. Dose-limiting toxicity has not yet been observed. Twelve of 20 patients are alive 3 to 17 months following therapy. Tumor progression was noted in the majority of patients, although 3 patients had documented decreases in tumor burden of short duration. We conclude that, at the doses examined, iodine-131 OC 125 can be safely administered intraperitoneally.

  1. Monoclonal antibody delivery to intraperitoneal tumors in rats: effects of route of administration and intraperitoneal solution osmolality.

    PubMed

    Flessner, M F; Dedrick, R L

    1994-08-15

    Monoclonal antibody (MAb) transport in peritoneal tissue is dominated by convection, which is dependent on the net driving force of i.p. hydrostatic and osmotic pressure. To test the hypothesis that the i.p. osmolality has significant effects on IgG delivery to the tumor during the acute period after injection, solid tumors (FEMX-II) were transplanted into the anterior abdominal wall of nude rats. The wall is subject to well-defined pressure forces from the solution in the cavity. MAb 96.5, which specifically binds to FEMX-II cells, was simultaneously injected i.v. (111In-MAb 96.5 in Krebs Ringer solution) and i.p. (125I-MAb 96.5 in dialysis solution). Intraperitoneal hydrostatic pressure was held constant, and the osmolality of the i.p. solution was varied between isotonic and hypertonic (with the addition of 4% mannitol to an isotonic salt solution) in order to vary the direction of net convection. Plasma and peritoneal concentrations of both isotopes were measured at intervals over 200 min, and tissue concentration profiles in tumor and adjacent normal tissue were determined by dual-label quantitative autoradiography at 200 min. After i.v. administration, profiles were relatively flat and little affected by i.p. osmolality. After i.p. injection, profiles demonstrated steep concentration decreases from the peritoneal surface into the tissue for several hundred microns. Despite the change from the condition of water absorption from the cavity into the body (isotonic solution) to one of net volume gain by the cavity (hypertonic solution), tumor profiles were affected by i.p. osmolality only near the surface. Specific binding properties of the tumor were determined for the tumors studied and were consistent with high surface concentrations relative to normal tissue. Variation of the i.p. solution osmolality by changes in concentration of small molecules exerts only minor effects on the short-term MAb delivery from either systemic or regional administration to a

  2. Tonic-Clonic Seizure following Cytoreductive Surgery with Intraperitoneal Oxaliplatin: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Jessica Sayuri; Belotto de Oliveira, Marcos; Peixoto, Renata D'alpino

    2016-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy (HIPEC) is believed to improve outcomes in well-selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. However, morbidity and mortality rates associated with this procedure are substantial. Here, we describe the case of a previously healthy young man who underwent CRS with hyperthermic IP oxaliplatin and developed one episode of tonic-clonic seizure on the second postoperative day. PMID:26933425

  3. Efficacy of lipopolysaccharide antigen of Yersinia ruckeri in rainbow trout by intraperitoneal and bath immersion administration.

    PubMed

    Ispir, Unal; Dorucu, Mustafa

    2014-10-01

    In this study, Intraperitoneal (IP) and bath immersion (BI) vaccine trials were conducted in fish with a mean weight of 6.3 g. Rainbow trout vaccinated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was 50 mg/L protein concentration and challenged by IP injection with 9.8 × 10(6) cell/ml of Yersinia ruckeri at 45 days post-immunization had a relative percent survival (RPS). To obtain an effective bath immersion vaccine against yersiniosis, LPS preparation was obtained from the Y. ruckeri and with the LPS antigen. After 28 and 60 days vaccinated fish with first and second immunizations by LPS were challenged via intraperitoneal injection with 9.8 × 10(6) cell/ml of Y. ruckeri for evaluating the mortality rates and calculating the relative percentage of survival (RPS). RPS value of experimental groups, which was significantly (P < 0.05) larger than that of the control group.

  4. Intraoperative Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Oseledchyk, Anton; Zivanovic, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Ovarian cancer, because it is largely confined to the peritoneal cavity, has a unique tumor biology and metastatic spread pattern. Its metastatic potential comes from detached tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity that re-attach to the mesothelial lining of the peritoneal surface. It is proposed that these micrometastases without neovasculature, as well as floating malignant cells, are drivers of early recurrence, since they can be neither resected nor adequately treated by systemic chemotherapy. This represents the major rationale for local treatment by means of postoperative intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy, which is the standard of care in the United States in patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer who have minimal residual disease following cytoreductive surgery. An alternative loco-regional treatment strategy is the "HIPEC" procedure--hyperthermic IP chemoperfusion that is performed during the operation immediately following completion of gross tumor resection, and which provides improved tissue penetration and distribution of the chemotherapeutics. However, prospective data are limited and an outcomes benefit has yet to be shown. Here we discuss the advantages and pitfalls of HIPEC, as well as current data and ongoing prospective trials. PMID:26384807

  5. Intraperitoneal delivery of platinum with in-situ crosslinkable hyaluronic acid gel for local therapy of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Jung; Sun, Bo; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Wilson, Erin M.; Torregrosa-Allen, Sandra; Elzey, Bennett D.; Yeo, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy is a promising post-surgical therapy of solid carcinomas confined within the peritoneal cavity, with potential benefits in locoregional and systemic management of residual tumors. In this study, we intended to increase local retention of platinum in the peritoneal cavity over a prolonged period of time using a nanoparticle form of platinum and an in-situ crosslinkable hyaluronic acid gel. Hyaluronic acid was chosen as a carrier due to the biocompatibility and biodegradability. We confirmed a sustained release of platinum from the nanoparticles (PtNPs) and nanoparticle/gel hybrid (PtNP/gel), receptor-mediated endocytosis of PtNPs, and retention of the gel in the peritoneal cavity over 4 weeks--conditions desirable for a prolonged local delivery of platinum. However, PtNPs and PtNP/gel did not show a greater anti-tumor efficacy than CDDP solution administered at the same dose but rather caused a slight increase in tumor burdens at later time points, which suggests a potential involvement of empty carriers and degradation products in the growth of residual tumors. This study alerts that although several materials considered biocompatible and safe are used as drug carriers, they may have unwanted biological effects on the residual targets once the drug is exhausted; therefore, more attention should be paid to the selection of the drug carriers. PMID:25453960

  6. Intraperitoneal delivery of platinum with in-situ crosslinkable hyaluronic acid gel for local therapy of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Jung; Sun, Bo; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Wilson, Erin M; Torregrosa-Allen, Sandra; Elzey, Bennett D; Yeo, Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy is a promising post-surgical therapy of solid carcinomas confined within the peritoneal cavity, with potential benefits in locoregional and systemic management of residual tumors. In this study, we intended to increase local retention of platinum in the peritoneal cavity over a prolonged period of time using a nanoparticle form of platinum and an in-situ crosslinkable hyaluronic acid gel. Hyaluronic acid was chosen as a carrier due to the biocompatibility and biodegradability. We confirmed a sustained release of platinum from the nanoparticles (PtNPs) and nanoparticle/gel hybrid (PtNP/gel), receptor-mediated endocytosis of PtNPs, and retention of the gel in the peritoneal cavity over 4 weeks: conditions desirable for a prolonged local delivery of platinum. However, PtNPs and PtNP/gel did not show a greater anti-tumor efficacy than CDDP solution administered at the same dose but rather caused a slight increase in tumor burdens at later time points, which suggests a potential involvement of empty carriers and degradation products in the growth of residual tumors. This study alerts that although several materials considered biocompatible and safe are used as drug carriers, they may have unwanted biological effects on the residual targets once the drug is exhausted; therefore, more attention should be paid to the selection of drug carriers.

  7. Comparison Between Intraperitoneal and Intravenous Lidocaine for Postoperative Analgesia After Elective Abdominal Hysterectomy, a Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Saghar; Taheri, Arman; Davari Tanha, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of intravenous and intraperitoneal injection of lidocaine and normal saline in relieving postoperative pain after elective abdominal hysterectomy. Materials and methods: For this double-blind randomized controlled study 109 patients undergoing elective abdominal hysterectomy were randomly allocated to three groups :1) IV group (intravenous injection group) received intravenous lidocaine %2 bolus 1.5mg/kg 30 min before incision and then a continuous lidocaine infusion of 2mg/kg and before the wound closure an intraperitoneal injection of N/S , 2) IP group (intraperitoneal group) received intravenous N/S and intraperitoneal lidocaine 3mg/kg , 3) P group (placebo, N/S) received both intravenous and intraperitoneal N/S. The pain scores (VAS) at rest, total morphine consumption , the time to first need for rescue analgesic ,incidence of lidocaine related adverse effects and nausea and vomiting were recorded at 0,2,4,8,12 and 24 hrs postoperatively. Results: The VAS scores were significantly lower in IP and IV groups compared with placebo (p = 0.001). Total consumption of morphine (p = 0.001) and time to firs request of recue analgesic (p = 0.001) were lower too in IP and IV groups.Incidence of vomiting was comparable between groups (p < 0.05) but nausea was higher in control group (p > 0.05).There were not notable lidocaine-related adverse effects. IP and IV groups were not statistically different for all investigated variables. Conclusion: This study showed lidocaine administration both intravenously and intraperitoneally are effective in reducing the postoperative pain and also have opioid sparing effect and can be safely used in elective abdominal hysterectomy without any major adverse effects. PMID:27047566

  8. Chemotherapy for intraperitoneal use: a review of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and early post-operative intraperitoneal chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    McPartland, Sarah; Detelich, Danielle; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal spread of tumors is a major problem in cancer management. Patients develop a marked deterioration in quality of life and shortened survival. This is in part due to bowel obstructions, marked ascites, and overall increase debilitation. Standard medical management has shown to be inadequate for the treatment of these problems. Surgery can palliate symptoms, however, it is unable to be complete at the microscopic level by a significant spillage of tumor cells throughout the abdomen. Chemotherapy can have some improvement in symptoms however it is short lived due to poor penetration into the peritoneal cavity. The role of intraperitoneal chemotherapy is to maximize tumor penetration and optimize cell death while minimizing systemic toxicity. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) and early post-operative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC) are two treatment methods that serve this role and have been shown to improve survival. This review will discuss different chemotherapies used for both of these treatment options. PMID:26941983

  9. Inhibitory effect of orally-administered sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan isolated from ascophyllum nodosum on the growth of sarcoma-180 solid tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zedong; Abu, Ryogo; Isaka, Shogo; Nakazono, Satoru; Ueno, Mikinori; Okimura, Takasi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the antitumor activity of crude extract and ascophyllan prepared from Ascophyllum nodosum in sarcoma-180 solid tumor-bearing mice with continuous intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight/day or oral administration at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day. Ascophyllan and crude extract administered via the oral route showed greater antitumor effects than via i.p. route, and the tumor sizes in mice treated with ascopyllan and crude extract were reduced by a mean of 68.7±6.8% and 42.4±24.8% by the oral route, and 41.4±16.1% and 13.6±20.6% by i.p. route compared to control mice. Splenic natural killer cell activity in the mice treated with ascophyllan and crude extract by i.p. route was significantly enhanced, while only a slight increase of this activity was observed in orally-treated mice. Furthermore, increase in spleen weight of tumor-bearing mice was slightly suppressed by oral administration of ascophyllan, whereas i.p. administration resulted in further enlargement. Analysis of serum cytokines revealed that oral treatment with ascophyllan resulted in significant increase of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-12 levels. Since ascophyllan showed no direct cytotoxic effect on sarcoma-180 cells, orally-administered ascophyllan is suggested to exhibit its antitumor activity through the activation of the host immune system. PMID:24692695

  10. Intraperitoneal insemination in mammals: a review.

    PubMed

    Yaniz, J L; Lopez-Bejar, M; Santolaria, P; Rutllant, J; Lopez-Gatius, F

    2002-04-01

    This review focuses on factors associated with the development of intraperitoneal insemination in mammals. Findings to date indicate that fertility improves as the sperm cell concentration rises, but that the optimal sperm number differs in each species. Sperm washing before intraperitoneal insemination favours fertility. Peritoneal fluid shows a variable effect on spermatozoa, depending on the hormonal status of the female. The optimal time for insemination appears to be just prior to ovulation. The technique may be performed either through the abdominal or the vaginal wall. Verification of sperm deposition in the proximity of the ovaries improves fertility rates. Although associated with some risk of infection and an immune reaction against spermatozoa, the intraperitoneal technique rarely gives rise to severe anaphylactic shock, peritonitis, adhesion formation and the production of anti-sperm antibodies and these complications may be prevented by adequate sperm pretreatment and antibiotic therapy. The success of intraperitoneal insemination in humans, with results comparable with those of intrauterine insemination in the treatment of infertility, suggest the potential use of this technique in domestic mammals, especially in those in which intrauterine insemination poses practical difficulties. Some of the methods applied in human intraperitoneal insemination, such as confirming the position of the needle in the peritoneal cavity, and sperm pre-treatments might also improve results in domestic species. Conversely, the use of the animal model should help to develop some aspects of this technique in humans. PMID:11975743

  11. Intraperitoneal administration of butyrate prevents the severity of acetic acid colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Malago, Joshua J.; Sangu, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Intrarectal infusion of butyrate improves colorectal disorders including ulcerative colitis (UC). However, it is not established whether systemically administered butyrate benefits such patients. The current study aimed at exploring and comparing the potential of intraperitoneally, intrarectally, and orally administered butyrate against acetic acid (AA)-induced UC in rats. Intrarectal administration of 2 ml of 50% AA was done after or without prior treatment of rats for 7 consecutive days with 100 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB) intraperitoneally, intrarectally, or orally. Rats were sacrificed after 48 h of AA-treatment. Subsequently, colon sections were processed routinely for histopathological examination. We clinically observed diarrhea, loose stools, and hemoccult-positive stools, and histologically, epithelial loss and ulceration, crypt damage, goblet cell depletion, hemorrhage, and mucosal infiltration of inflammatory cells. The changes were significantly reduced by intraperitoneal, intrarectal, or oral butyrate, with intraperitoneal butyrate exhibiting the highest potency. It is concluded that intraperitoneal administration of butyrate abrogates the lesions of AA-induced UC and its potency surpasses that of intrarectal or oral butyrate. PMID:25743124

  12. Adenovirus serotype 11 causes less long-term intraperitoneal inflammation than serotype 5: Implications for ovarian cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thoma, Clemens; Bachy, Veronique; Seaton, Patricia; Green, Nicola K.; Greaves, David R.; Klavinskis, Linda; Seymour, Leonard W.; Morrison, Joanne

    2013-12-15

    In a phase II/III clinical trial intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of a group C adenovirus vector (Ad5) caused bowel adhesion formation, perforation and obstruction. However, we had found that i.p. group B, in contrast to group C adenoviruses, did not cause adhesions in nude BALB/c ovarian cancer models, prompting further investigation. Ex vivo, group B Ad11 caused lower inflammatory responses than Ad5 on BALB/c peritoneal macrophages. In vivo, i.p. Ad11 triggered short-term cytokine and cellular responses equal to Ad5 in both human CD46-positive and -negative mice. In contrast, in a long-term study of repeated i.p. administration, Ad11 caused no/mild, whereas Ad5 induced moderate/severe adhesions and substantial liver toxicity accompanied by elevated levels of IFNγ and VEGF and loss of i.p. macrophages, regardless of CD46 expression. It appears that, although i.p. Ad11 evokes immediate inflammation similar to Ad5, repeated administration of Ad11 is better tolerated and long-term fibrotic tissue remodelling is reduced. - Highlights: • i.p. Ad11 causes less long-term intraperitoneal inflammation than Ad5 in CD46-transgenic mice. • Ex vivo BALB/c peritoneal macrophages express less RANTES after Ad11 than Ad3 or Ad5 treatment. • In vivo, cytokine and cellular responses 6 h after i.p. Ad11 are equal to Ad5. • In contrast, after repeated i.p. application, Ad5, but not Ad11, causes severe i.p. toxicity. • The use of Ad11 instead of Ad5 might increase patient safety in future virotherapy of ovarian cancer.

  13. Oral and Intraperitoneal Administration of Quercetin Decreased Lymphocyte DNA Damage and Plasma Lipid Peroxidation Induced by TSA In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Shu-Ting; Shiau, Rong-Jen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Yeh, Shu-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that quercetin enhances the anticancer effect of trichostatin A (TSA) in xenograft mice given quercetin intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg, 3 times/week). Herein, we investigate whether quercetin administered orally exerts such an effect and prevents the cytotoxic side effects of TSA. We found that quercetin given orally (20 and 100 mg/kg, 3 times/week) failed to enhance the antitumor effect of TSA although it increased the total quercetin concentration more than quercetin administered intraperitoneally in the plasma. The compound quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G) increased the most. However, quercetin administered intraperitoneally increased the total quercetin level in tumor tissues more than oral quercetin. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of quercetin similarly decreased lymphocyte DNA damage and plasma lipid peroxidation level induced by TSA. Furthermore, we found that the enhancing effect of Q3G on the antitumor effect of TSA and the incorporation of Q3G was less than that of quercetin in A549 cells. However, we found that A549 cells possessed the ability to convert Q3G to quercetin. In conclusion, different from quercetin administered intraperitoneally, quercetin administered orally failed to enhance the antitumor effect of TSA because of its metabolic conversion. However, it prevented TSA-induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. PMID:24868531

  14. Paclitaxel-Loaded Polymersomes for Enhanced Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Hunt, Hedi; Scodeller, Pablo D; Gaitzsch, Jens; Braun, Gary B; Willmore, Anne-Mari A; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Teesalu, Tambet

    2016-04-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is present in more than 60% of gastric cancer, 40% of ovarian cancer, and 35% of colon cancer patients. It is the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality, with a median survival of 1 to 3 months. Cytoreductive surgery combined with intraperitoneal chemotherapy is the current clinical treatment, but achieving curative drug accumulation and penetration in peritoneal carcinomatosis lesions remains an unresolved challenge. Here, we used flexible and pH-sensitive polymersomes for payload delivery to peritoneal gastric (MKN-45P) and colon (CT26) carcinoma in mice. Polymersomes were loaded with paclitaxel and in vitro drug release was studied as a function of pH and time. Paclitaxel-loaded polymersomes remained stable in aqueous solution at neutral pH for up to 4 months. In cell viability assay on cultured cancer cell lines (MKN-45P, SKOV3, CT26), paclitaxel-loaded polymersomes were more toxic than free drug or albumin-bound paclitaxel (Abraxane). Intraperitoneally administered fluorescent polymersomes accumulated in malignant lesions, and immunofluorescence revealed an intense signal inside tumors with no detectable signal in control organs. A dual targeting of tumors was observed: direct (circulation-independent) penetration, and systemic, blood vessel-associated accumulation. Finally, we evaluated preclinical antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel-polymersomes in the treatment of MKN-45P disseminated gastric carcinoma using a total dose of 7 mg/kg. Experimental therapy with paclitaxel-polymersomes improved the therapeutic index of drug over free paclitaxel and Abraxane, as evaluated by intraperitoneal tumor burden and number of metastatic nodules. Our findings underline the potential utility of the polymersome platform for delivery of drugs and imaging agents to peritoneal carcinomatosis lesions. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(4); 670-9. ©2016 AACR.

  15. Paclitaxel-loaded Polymersomes for Enhanced Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Hunt, Hedi; Scodeller, Pablo D; Gaitzsch, Jens; Braun, Gary B; Willmore, Anne-Mari A; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Teesalu, Tambet

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is present in more than 60% of gastric cancer, 40% of ovarian cancer, and 35% of colon cancer patients. It is the second most common cause of cancer mortality, with a median survival of 1–3 months. Cytoreductive surgery combined with intraperitoneal chemotherapy is the current clinical treatment, but achieving curative drug accumulation and penetration in peritoneal carcinomatosis lesions remains an unresolved challenge. Here we employed flexible and pH-sensitive polymersomes for payload delivery to peritoneal gastric (MKN-45P) and colon (CT26) carcinoma in mice. Polymersomes were loaded with Paclitaxel® and in vitro drug release was studied as a function of pH and time. Paclitaxel-loaded polymersomes remained stable in aqueous solution at neutral pH for up to four months. In cell viability assay on cultured cancer cell lines (MKN-45P, SKOV3, CT26), Paclitaxel-loaded polymersomes were more toxic than free drug or albumin-bound Paclitaxel (Abraxane®). Intraperitoneally administered fluorescent polymersomes accumulated in malignant lesions, and immunofluorescence revealed intense signal inside tumors with no detectable signal in control organs. A dual targeting of tumors was observed: direct (circulation independent) penetration, and systemic, blood vessel-associated accumulation. Finally, we evaluated preclinical antitumor efficacy of polymersomes-paclitaxel in treatment of MKN-45P disseminated gastric carcinoma using a total dose of 7 mg/kg. Experimental therapy with polymersome-Paclitaxel improved the therapeutic index of drug over Paclitaxel-Cremophor and Abraxane®, as evaluated by intraperitoneal tumor burden and number of metastatic nodules. Our findings underline the potential utility of the polymersome platform for delivery of drugs and imaging agents to peritoneal carcinomatosis lesions. PMID:26880267

  16. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Diri, Akif; Karakan, Tolga; Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Germiyanoglu, Cankon

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL. PMID:25641455

  17. Modulation of cytokine responses in Corynebacterium parvum-primed endotoxemic mice by centrally administered cannabinoid ligands.

    PubMed

    Smith, S R; Terminelli, C; Denhardt, G

    2001-08-01

    The cannabinoid receptor agonists [(-)-11-hydoxy-Delta(8)tetrahydrocannabinol-dimethylheptyl] (HU-210) and [(R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(4-morpholinyl)methyl[pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl](1-naphthalenyl) methanone] (WIN 55212-2) were previously shown to downregulate inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-12) and to upregulate antiinflammatory interleukin-10 when administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to mice before an endotoxin challenge. Cytokine modulation coincided with the onset of behavioral changes that are associated with cannabinoid agonist activated central cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. Both effects were antagonized by [N-(piperdin-1-yl)-5-(4-chloropheny)-1-(2,4-dichloropheny)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide hydrochloride] (SR141716A) a selective cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist. In the present study, we have investigated further the apparent role of central CB(1) cannabinoid receptors in cytokine modulation by HU-210 and WIN 55212-2. When administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), the drugs modulated cytokine responses at doses that were threefold to fourfold lower than those found effective by the i.p. route. SR141716A blocked cytokine modulation when coadministered centrally with the agonists, while a selective cannabinoid CB(2) receptor antagonist, (N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]5-(4-choro-3 methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrazole-3-carboxamide) (SR144528) had no effect. Surprisingly, SR144528 was found to modulate cytokines itself when injected i.c.v. PMID:11672577

  18. A Comparison of Intraperitoneal and Subcutaneous Temperature in Freely Moving Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Taffe, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The remote measurement of body temperature with radiotelemetry provides a minimally invasive and robust method for larger experimental animals such as Old World monkeys. Existing literature encompasses data using intraperitoneal (IP) and subcutaneous (SC) implantation locations which may affect inferences about body temperature. Methods The body temperature of four adult male rhesus monkeys was monitored with radiotelemetry devices implanted both IP and SC in each subject. Animals were recorded at 5 minute intervals for five months with the two transmitters being used in sequence on a weekly basis. Additional challenge with d-methamphetamine (0.32 mg/kg ; i.m.) was conducted to compare the magnitude of the hyperthermic response measured IP and SC. Results Normal daily temperatures differed by about 0.5–0.8°C across implant locations with IP temperature consistently higher. The difference was consistent across the circadian cycle and when compared 1, 3 or 5 months after surgical implantation. The magnitude of the hyperthermia response to methamphetamine was about 0.75°C when measured with either IP or SC implants. Conclusions The study shows that data derived from the two major implantation locations used in existing literature are likely to be comparable. PMID:21443893

  19. Abdominal metastases from colorectal cancer: intraperitoneal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guend, Hamza; Patel, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Patients with peritoneal metastasis from colorectal cancer represent a distinct subset with regional disease rather than systemic disease. They often have poorer survival outcomes with systemic chemotherapy. Optimal cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) offers such patients a more directed therapy with improved survival. In this review, we discuss the diagnosis, evaluation and classification, as well as rational for treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) secondary to colorectal cancer. PMID:26697203

  20. Effect of intraperitoneal neostigmine on peritoneal transport characteristics in CAPD.

    PubMed

    Hasbargen, J A; Hasbargen, B J; Fortenbery, E J

    1992-12-01

    Lymphatics have been suggested to play a major role in the absorption of dialysate, which consequently affects the adequacy of peritoneal dialysis. Neostigmine has been found to decrease lymphatic absorption in rats, presumably by causing constriction of the lymphatic stomata. We investigated the effect of neostigmine on seven continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients in a prospective study. We performed modified peritoneal equilibration tests both with and without intraperitoneal neostigmine in a random order. Radiolabeled albumin (0.8 mg) was added to 2 liters of dialysate +/- 2.0 mg neostigmine. We evaluated ultrafiltration and creatinine, phosphate, and urea clearances. The dialysate bag and the peritoneum were scanned at the initiation and conclusion of the four-hour dwell period. We found no change in ultrafiltration, residual volumes, creatinine, phosphate and urea clearances, or albumin recovered. Of the seven patients exposed to neostigmine, four had diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. In conclusion, we found that 2 mg i.p. neostigmine did cause significant side-effects and did not alter transport characteristics in CAPD patients.

  1. Oxidative stress in blood and testicle of rat following intraperitoneal administration of aluminum and indium.

    PubMed

    Maghraoui, S; Clichici, Simona; Ayadi, A; Login, C; Moldovan, R; Daicoviciu, D; Decea, N; Mureşan, A; Tekaya, L

    2014-03-01

    Aluminum (Al) and indium (In) have embryotoxic, neurotoxic and genotoxic effects, oxidative stress being one of the possible mechanisms involved in their cytotoxicity. We have recently demonstrated that indium intraperitoneal (ip) administration induced histological disorganization of testicular tissue. In the present research we aimed at investigating the effect of Al and In ip administration on systemic and testicular oxidative stress status. Studies were performed on Wistar rats ip injected with Al, In or physiological solution for two weeks. Our results showed that In significantly decreased the absolute weight of testicles. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and paraoxonase (PON) activities showed that In induced a significant augmentation in the first parameter but no changes were observed in the second. Both Al and In caused oxidative stress in testicles by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) production. Concomitantly, thiol group (-SH) and glutathione (GSH) level were enhanced in the testicles. In the blood, while concentrations of MDA was not changed, those of GSH was significantly decreased in the Al and In groups. Our results indicated that Al and In cause oxidative stress both in blood and testicles but In has cytotoxic effect as well as negative impact on testicle weights. These findings could explain the testicular histological alterations previously described after In ip administration.

  2. Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) Methodology, Drugs and Bidirectional Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Valle, S J; Alzahrani, N A; Liauw, W; Sugarbaker, P H; Bhatt, A; Morris, D L

    2016-06-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) combined have been recognized as standard of care for treatment of a subset of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). The aim of CRS is to eliminate all macroscopic disease through a series of visceral resections followed by targeting any residual microscopic disease with intraperitoneal chemotherapy, exposing the peritoneal surfaces to a high concentration of chemotherapy with a lower systemic toxicity. Different regimes of intraperitoneal chemotherapy include HIPEC, early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (EPIC) and bidirectional chemotherapy. The efficacy and modality of treatment with intraperitoneal chemotherapy is dependent on multiple factors including the chosen cytotoxic agent and its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. There is no standardized methodology for intraperitoneal chemotherapy administration. This review will discuss the pharmacological principles of the various intraperitoneal chemotherapy techniques. PMID:27065705

  3. The effects of systemically administered taurine and N-pivaloyltaurine on striatal extracellular dopamine and taurine in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Salimäki, J; Scriba, G; Piepponen, T P; Rautolahti, N; Ahtee, L

    2003-08-01

    The second most abundant cerebral amino acid, taurine, is widely consumed in the so-called "energy drinks". Therefore, its possible actions on the brain are of great interest. In the present experiments taurine was given intraperitoneally to rats in order to study if it can be administered systemically in large enough amounts to alter cerebral dopaminergic transmission or to induce hypothermia. In addition, the effects of subcutaneously administered lipophilic taurine analogue, N-pivaloyltaurine, were studied. The extracellular striatal taurine and dopamine concentrations were estimated using in vivo microdialysis in awake and freely moving rats, and the rectal temperatures were measured. Taurine at the total dose of 45 mmol/kg i.p. led to a maximally 8-fold increased striatal extracellular taurine concentration, induced a long-lasting hypothermia, and significantly reduced the striatal extracellular dopamine concentration. The latter effect was strengthened by co-treatment with reuptake inhibitor nomifensine. N-pivaloyltaurine (15 mmol/kg in total, s.c.) only slightly elevated the striatal extracellular taurine concentration, failed to alter the rectal temperature, and in contrast to taurine somewhat elevated the striatal extracellular dopamine concentration suggesting a different mechanism or locus of action from that of taurine. Finally, our experiments using brain microdialysis confirmed the earlier findings that taurine is slowly eliminated from the brain. The results clearly indicate that systemically given taurine enters the brain in concentrations that induce pharmacological effects. PMID:12898127

  4. A phase I study with an expanded cohort to assess the feasibility of intravenous paclitaxel, intraperitoneal carboplatin and intraperitoneal paclitaxel in patients with untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Natalie; Sill, Michael W.; Mannel, Robert S.; Thaker, P.H.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Waggoner, Steve; Yamada, S. Diane; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Wenzel, Lari; Huang, Helen; Fracasso, Paula M.; Walker, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assess the feasibility of intravenous (IV) paclitaxel, intraperitoneal (IP) carboplatin, and IP paclitaxel in women with newly diagnosed Stages II–IV ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Methods Patients received escalating doses of paclitaxel IV and carboplatin IP on day 1 and paclitaxel IP 60 mg/m2 on day 8. A standard 3+3 design was used in the escalation phase. A two-stage group sequential design with 20 patients at the MTD was used in the feasibility phase. Patient-reported neurotoxicity was assessed pre and post treatment. Results Patients were treated with paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 IV and carboplatin IP from AUC 5–7 on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8. The MTD was estimated at carboplatin AUC 6 IP and 25 patients enrolled at this dose level. Within the first 4 cycles, seven (35%) of twenty evaluable patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) including grade 4 thrombocytopenia (1), grade 3 neutropenic fever (3), >2 week delay due to ANC recovery (1), grade 3 LFT (1), and grade 3 infection (1). De-escalation to paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 IV was given to improve the safety. After six evaluable patients completed 4 cycles without a DLT, bevacizumab was added and six evaluable patients completed 4 cycles with one DLT (grade 3 hyponatremia). Conclusions Paclitaxel at 175 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP day 8 yield 18–56% patients with DLTs. The tolerability of the regimen in combination with bevacizumab was indicated in a small cohort. PMID:22155262

  5. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junjie; Zou, Wenzheng; Yan, Qingpi

    2008-08-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  6. Biodistribution and antitumoral effect of long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomal cisplatin administered in Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Araújo, José Geraldo Coimbra; Mota, Luciene das Graças; Leite, Elaine Amaral; Maroni, Laís de Carvalho; Wainstein, Alberto Julius Alves; Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Savassi-Rocha, Paulo Roberto; Pereira, Márcio Tadeu; de Carvalho, Andréa Teixeira; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; De Oliveira, Mônica Cristina

    2011-07-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most active cytotoxic agents and has been widely used in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. However, CDDP, a low-molecular-weight compound, is rapidly absorbed by the capillaries in the i.p. serosa and transferred to the bloodstream, inducing the appearance of systemic side-effects, such as nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, the i.p. CDDP chemotherapy is limited to patients whose residual tumor nodules are less than 0.5 cm in diameter after surgical debulking. The failure of i.p. therapy is attributed to the poor penetration of CDDP into larger tumors. One strategy to improve drug delivery in the peritoneal region and reduce toxicity is the use of drug delivery systems. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biodistribution and antitumoral effect of long-circulating and pH-sensitive liposomes containing CDDP (SpHL-CDDP), as compared with free CDDP, after their i.p. administration in Ehrlich ascitic tumor-bearing mice. After administering a 6 mg/kg single i.p. bolus injection of either free CDDP or SpHL-CDDP, ascitic fluid (AF), blood and organs (kidneys, liver, spleen and lungs) were collected and analyzed for CDDP content. The area under the CDDP concentration-time curve (AUC) obtained for AF and blood after SpHL-CDDP administration was 3.3-fold larger and 1.3-fold lower, respectively, when compared with free CDDP treatment, thus indicating its high retention within the peritoneal cavity. The determination of the ratio between AUC in each tissue and that in blood (Kp) showed a lower accumulation of CDDP in kidneys after SpHL-CDDP treatment. The SpHL-CDDP treatment demonstrated a significant uptake by the liver and spleen. SpHL-CDDP treatment led to a higher survival rate of mice with initial or disseminated peritoneal carcinomatosis than CDDP treatment. These results indicate that SpHL-CDDP may be useful for i.p. chemotherapy due to their greater concentration in the peritoneal

  7. Apiaceous Vegetable Consumption Decreases PhIP-Induced DNA Adducts and Increases Methylated PhIP Metabolites in the Urine Metabolome in Rats123

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Gallaher, Daniel D; Chen, Chi; Yao, Dan; Trudo, Sabrina P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heterocyclic aromatic amines, such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), are carcinogenic compounds produced during heating of protein-containing foods. Apiaceous vegetables inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, whereas cruciferous vegetables induce both PhIP-activating and -detoxifying enzymes. Objective: We investigated the effects of these vegetables, either alone or combined, on PhIP metabolism and colonic DNA adduct formation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed cruciferous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), apiaceous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), or a combination of both vegetables (10.5% wt:wt of each). Negative and positive control groups were fed an AIN-93G diet. After 6 d, all groups received an intraperitoneal injection of PhIP (10 mg · kg body weight−1) except for the negative control group, which received only vehicle. Urine was collected for 24 h after the injection for LC–tandem mass spectrometry metabolomic analyses. On day 7, rats were killed and tissues processed. Results: Compared with the positive control, cruciferous vegetables increased the activity of hepatic PhIP-activating enzymes [39.5% and 45.1% for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 (P = 0.0006) and CYP1A2 (P < 0.0001), respectively] and of uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (PhIP-detoxifying) by 24.5% (P = 0.0267). Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, yet reduced colonic PhIP-DNA adducts by 20.4% (P = 0.0496). Metabolomic analyses indicated that apiaceous vegetables increased the relative abundance of urinary methylated PhIP metabolites. The sum of these methylated metabolites inversely correlated with colonic PhIP-DNA adducts (r = −0.43, P = 0.01). We detected a novel methylated urinary PhIP metabolite and demonstrated that methylated metabolites are produced in the human liver S9 fraction. Conclusions: Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit the activity of PhIP-activating enzymes in rats, suggesting that the reduction in PhIP

  8. [INTRAVENOUS CHEMOTHERAPY VERSUS INTRAPERITONEAL CHEMOTHERAPY IN ADVANCED OVARIAN CANCER: UPDATE ON THE SITUATION WORLDWIDE AND IN ISRAEL].

    PubMed

    Binyamin, Sivan; Segev, Yakir; Auslender, Ron; Bitterman, Arie; Lavie, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second in incidence and the first cause of death. As much as 70% of ovarian cancer patients are diagnosed with advanced disease. The standard treatment of advanced ovarian cancer is a combination of primary optimal debulking (POD) followed by a combined adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. Another optional treatment includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by optimal debulking and then adjuvant chemotherapy. The common adjuvant chemotherapy includes a combination of platinum and taxol compounds given intravenously. Other possible treatments which had been evaluated in the past decades include a combination of chemotherapy given intravenously and intraperitoneally. The rationale behind delivering the chemotherapy intraperitoneally is to provide a much higher concentrations of cytotoxic agents in the peritoneal cavity and to reduce the systemic side effects. A number of randomized trials have shown that the combination of IV and IP chemotherapy entails a survival advantage. Most studies included treatment based on cisplatin treatments with/ without taxol given intravenously versus a combined treatment (intravenously and intraperitoneally) of those agents. An advantage of up to 8 months in disease-free survival and 11 months in overall survival was noted in the IP group. On the other hand, this treatment led to a higher rate of side effects, including abdominal pain, electrolyte imbalance and catheter related complications. Despite the inconsistency in the treatment protocols between the different trials comparing intravenous and intra-peritoneal treatment, one cannot ignore the statistical significance between the groups, for disease-free survival and overall survival. That is why, when addressing patients who completed optimal surgery, one needs to conduct a thorough evaluation regarding the complementary chemotherapy treatment. Due to the broad side effect profile, special notice should be taken as to the patient's age, medical history, and

  9. iRGD peptide conjugation potentiates intraperitoneal tumor delivery of paclitaxel with polymersomes.

    PubMed

    Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Hunt, Hedi; Scodeller, Pablo; Gaitzsch, Jens; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Sugahara, Kazuki N; Tammik, Olav; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Teesalu, Tambet

    2016-10-01

    Polymersomes are versatile nanoscale vesicles that can be used for cytoplasmic delivery of payloads. Recently, we demonstrated that pH-sensitive polymersomes exhibit an intrinsic selectivity towards intraperitoneal tumor lesions. A tumor homing peptide, iRGD, harbors a cryptic C-end Rule (CendR) motif that is responsible for neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) binding and for triggering extravasation and tumor penetration of the peptide. iRGD functionalization increases tumor selectivity and therapeutic efficacy of systemic drug-loaded nanoparticles in many tumor models. Here we studied whether intraperitoneally administered paclitaxel-loaded iRGD-polymersomes show improved efficacy in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. First, we demonstrated that the pH-sensitive polymersomes functionalized with RPARPAR (a prototypic CendR peptide) or iRGD internalize in the cells that express NRP-1, and that internalized polymersomes release their cargo inside the cytosol. CendR-targeted polymersomes loaded with paclitaxel were more cytotoxic on NRP-1-positive cells than on NRP-1-negative cells. In mice bearing peritoneal tumors of gastric (MKN-45P) or colon (CT26) origin, intraperitoneally administered RPARPAR and iRGD-polymersomes showed higher tumor-selective accumulation and penetration than untargeted polymersomes. Finally, iRGD-polymersomes loaded with paclitaxel showed improved efficacy in peritoneal tumor growth inhibition and in suppression of local dissemination compared to the pristine paclitaxel-polymersomes or Abraxane. Our study demonstrates that iRGD-functionalization improves efficacy of paclitaxel-polymersomes for intraperitoneal treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  10. Incidence of leukopenia after intraperitoneal vs combined intravenous/intraperitoneal chemotherapy in pseudomyxoma peritonei

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Philipp; Beckert, Stefan; Struller, Florian; Königsrainer, Alfred; Königsrainer, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical impact of post-hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) leukopenia, intraperitoneal and combined intravenous/intraperitoneal drug administrations were compared. METHODS: Two patient cohorts were retrospectively analyzed regarding the incidence of postoperative leukopenia. The first cohort (n = 32) received Mitomycin C (MMC)-based HIPEC intraperitoneally (35 mg/m² for 90 min) and the second cohort (n = 10) received a bi-directional therapy consisting of oxaliplatin (OX) (300 mg/m2 for 30 min) intraperitoneally and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 400 mg/m² plus folinic acid 20 mg/m² intravenously. The following data were collected retrospectively: Age, sex, length of operation, length of hospital stay, amount of resection including extent of peritonectomy, peritoneal cancer index, CC (completeness of cytoreduction)-status and leukocyte-count before cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC, on days 3, 7 and 14 after CRS and HIPEC. HIPEC leukopenia was defined as < 4000 cells/m³. RESULTS: Leukopenia occurred statistically more often in the MMC than in the OX/5-FU-group (10/32 vs 0/10; P = 0.042). Leukopenia set-on was on day 7 after CRS and MMC-HIPEC and lasted for two to three days. Three patients (33%) required medical treatment. Patients affected by leukopenia were predominantly female (7/10 patients) and older than 50 years (8/10 patients). The length of hospital stay tended to be higher in the MMC-group without reaching statistical significance (22.5 ± 11 vs 16.5 ± 3.5 d). Length of operation (08:54 ± 01:44 vs 09:48 ± 02:28 h) were comparable between patients with and without postoperative leukopenia. Prior history of systemic chemotherapy did not trigger post-HIPEC leukopenia. Occurrence of leucopenia did not trigger surgical site infections, intraabdominal abscess formations, hospital-acquired pneumonia or anastomotic insufficiencies. CONCLUSION: Surgeons must be aware that there is a higher incidence of postoperative

  11. Intraperitoneal tuberculous abscess: Computed tomography features

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Peng; Chen, Jing-Jing; Wang, Xi-Zhen; Wang, Ya-Qin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) features of intraperitoneal tuberculous abscess (IPTA). METHODS: Eight patients with IPTA confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical symptoms, medical images, and surgical findings were evaluated. Involvement of the intestine, peritoneum, viscera, and lymph nodes was also assessed. RESULTS: All 8 patients had a history of abdominal discomfort for 1 to 6 mo. Physical examination revealed a palpable abdominal mass in 6 patients. Three patients had no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). All IPTAs (11 abscesses) were seen as a multiseptated, peripherally enhanced, hypodense mass with enlarged, rim-enhanced lymph nodes. The largest abscess diameter ranged from 4.5 cm to 12.2 cm. CT showed 2 types of IPTA: Lymph node fusion and encapsulation. Of the 8 patients, one had liver tuberculosis and one had splenic and ovarian tuberculosis. Two cases showed involvement of the terminal ileum and ileocecal junction. Ascites were found in 4 cases. Three patients had peritonitis and mesenteritis. Three patients showed involvement of the omentum. Three patients had histological evidence of caseating granuloma, and 5 had histological evidence of acid-fast bacilli. CONCLUSION: CT is crucial in the detection and characterization of IPTA. Certain CT findings are necessary for correct diagnosis. PMID:26435779

  12. Comparison of S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) and N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) Protective Effects on Hepatic Damage when Administered After Acetaminophen Overdose

    PubMed Central

    Terneus, Marcus V.; Brown, J. Michael; Carpenter, A. Betts; Valentovic, Monica A.

    2008-01-01

    In the clinical setting, antidotes are generally administered after the occurrence of a drug overdose. Therefore, the most pertinent evaluation of any new agent should model human exposure. This study tested whether acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity was reversed when S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) was administered after APAP exposure, similar to what occurs in clinical situations. Comparisons were made for potency between SAMe and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), the current treatment for APAP toxicity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fasted overnight and divided into groups: control (VEH), SAMe treated (SAMe), APAP treated (APAP), N-acetylcysteine treated (NAC), SAMe or NAC administered 1 h after APAP (SAMe+APAP) and (NAC+APAP), respectively. Mice were injected Intraperitoneal (ip) with water (VEH) or 250 mg/kg APAP (15 ml/kg). One 1h later, mice were injected (ip) with 1.25 mmol/kg SAMe (SAMe+APAP) or NAC (NAC+APAP). Hepatotoxicity was evaluated 4 h after APAP or VEH treatment. APAP induced centrilobular necrosis, increased liver weight and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, depressed total hepatic glutathione (GSH), increased protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) adducted proteins. Treatment with SAMe 1 hr after APAP overdose (SAMe+APAP) was hepatoprotective and was comparable to NAC+APAP. Treatment with SAMe or NAC 1 h after APAP was sufficient to return total hepatic glutathione (GSH) to levels comparable to the VEH group. Western blot showed reversal of APAP mediated effects in the SAMe+APAP and NAC+APAP groups. In summary, SAMe was protective when given 1 h after APAP and was comparable to NAC. PMID:18068290

  13. Liver lipid composition and intravenous, intraperitoneal, and enteral administration of intralipid.

    PubMed

    Morán Penco, J M; Maciá Botejara, E; Salas Martinez, J; Mahedero Ruiz, G; Climent Mata, V; Saenz de Santamaria, J; Vinagre Velasco, L M

    1994-01-01

    We studied the variations arising in plasma and liver lipids after intravenous (i.v.), intraperitoneal (IP), and intragastric (IG) administration of a fat overdose on the order of 4 g.kg-1 body wt.day-1 in the form of Intralipid (ITL) 20% to 33 New Zealand rabbits for 15 days. The control group was submitted for surgery but did not receive an ITL supplement. The results show weight gain in all animals and normal liver enzyme values. There was an increase in plasma lipids in groups supplemented by the parenteral route (i.v. and IP), and fatty acids showed a similar distribution, in terms of percentages, to that for ITL. In liver tissue, there was an increase in the fractions related to ethanolamine and a decrease in phospholipids of choline and serine. In the i.v. group, neutral lipids predominated compared with other groups. The livers of all supplemented animals (i.v., IP, and IG) showed a higher content of stearic and linoleic acid and a reduction in oleic acid. Study with optical microscopy showed a microvacuolization affecting the three areas of the hepatic acini in the i.v. group, seen with electron microscopy as vacuoles lacking membranes and surrounded by mitochondria. In conclusion, there is an increase in hepatic steatosis in parenteral groups and a greater deposit of neutral lipids in the i.v. group, related to the administration route, without biochemical signs of liver dysfunction. PMID:8199419

  14. Identification of a major IP5 kinase in Cryptococcus neoformans confirms that PP-IP5/IP7, not IP6, is essential for virulence.

    PubMed

    Li, Cecilia; Lev, Sophie; Saiardi, Adolfo; Desmarini, Desmarini; Sorrell, Tania C; Djordjevic, Julianne T

    2016-01-01

    Fungal inositol polyphosphate (IP) kinases catalyse phosphorylation of IP3 to inositol pyrophosphate, PP-IP5/IP7, which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcal Kcs1 converts IP6 to PP-IP5/IP7, but the kinase converting IP5 to IP6 is unknown. Deletion of a putative IP5 kinase-encoding gene (IPK1) alone (ipk1Δ), and in combination with KCS1 (ipk1Δkcs1Δ), profoundly reduced virulence in mice. However, deletion of KCS1 and IPK1 had a greater impact on virulence attenuation than that of IPK1 alone. ipk1Δkcs1Δ and kcs1Δ lung burdens were also lower than those of ipk1Δ. Unlike ipk1Δ, ipk1Δkcs1Δ and kcs1Δ failed to disseminate to the brain. IP profiling confirmed Ipk1 as the major IP5 kinase in C. neoformans: ipk1Δ produced no IP6 or PP-IP5/IP7 and, in contrast to ipk1Δkcs1Δ, accumulated IP5 and its pyrophosphorylated PP-IP4 derivative. Kcs1 is therefore a dual specificity (IP5 and IP6) kinase producing PP-IP4 and PP-IP5/IP7. All mutants were similarly attenuated in virulence phenotypes including laccase, urease and growth under oxidative/nitrosative stress. Alternative carbon source utilisation was also reduced significantly in all mutants except ipk1Δ, suggesting that PP-IP4 partially compensates for absent PP-IP5/IP7 in ipk1Δ grown under this condition. In conclusion, PP-IP5/IP7, not IP6, is essential for fungal virulence. PMID:27033523

  15. DAB2IP in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Gong, Jianping; Xie, Daxing

    2016-01-01

    DOC-2/DAB2 is a member of the disable gene family that features tumor-inhibiting activity. The DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein, DAB2IP, is a new member of the Ras GTPase-activating protein family. It interacts directly with DAB2 and has distinct cellular functions such as modulating different signal cascades associated with cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis and metastasis. Recently, DAB2IP has been found significantly down regulated in multiple types of cancer. The aberrant alteration of DAB2IP in cancer is caused by a variety of mechanisms, including the aberrant promoter methylation, histone deacetylation, and others. Reduced expression of DAB2IP in neoplasm may indicate a poor prognosis of many malignant cancers. Moreover, DAB2IP stands for a promising direction for developing targeted therapies due to its capacity to inhibit tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Here, we summarize the present understanding of the tumor suppressive role of DAB2IP in cancer progression; the mechanisms underlying the dysregulation of DAB2IP; the gene functional mechanism and the prospects of DAB2IP in the future cancer research. PMID:26658103

  16. Assessment of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy to Eradicate Intraperitoneal Free Cancer Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zhonghe; Sun, Jianhua; Wu, Haitao; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Kaiwen; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) to eradicate intraperitoneal free cancer cells and to explore the feasibility of cytological cure for peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). METHODS: The peritoneal lavage fluid (or ascites) from 50 PC patients was collected before and after intraoperative HIPEC, respectively, for conventional cytology test, and conventional and real-time quantitative reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction detecting carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) mRNA and cytokeratin-20 (CK20) mRNA. The blood samples 3 days before and 7 days after intraoperative HIPEC were also collected for detecting the serum tumor markers, including CEA, carbohydrate antigen (CA) 125, and CA19-9. RESULTS: The positive rate of conventional cytology test before HIPEC versus after HIPEC was100.0% versus 22.0% (P = .000). The positive rates of CEA mRNA and CK20 mRNA before HIPEC versus after HIPEC were 100.0% versus 86.0% (P = .012) and 100.0% versus 96.0% (P = .495), respectively. Moreover, after HIPEC, 18 (36.0%) patients had a decline in CEA mRNA (P = .000), and 17 (34.0%) patients had a decline in CK20 mRNA (P = .000). The positive rates of serum CEA, CA125, and CA199 before HIPEC versus after HIPEC were 52.0% versus 28.0% (P = .014), 52.0% versus 44.0% (P = .423), and 40.0% versus 28.0% (P = .205), respectively. CONCLUSION: HIPEC could effectively eradicate intraperitoneal free cancer cells and partially achieve cytological cure for PC. PMID:26947877

  17. A comparison of medetomidine and its active enantiomer dexmedetomidine when administered with ketamine in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medetomidine-ketamine (MK) and dexmedetomidine-ketamine (DK) are widely used to provide general anaesthesia in laboratory animals, but have not been compared directly in many of these species, including rodents. This study aimed to compare the onset and depth of anaesthesia, and changes in vital signs, after intraperitoneal (IP) or subcutaneous (SC) administration of ketamine (75 mg kg-1) combined with medetomidine (1 mg kg-1) or dexmedetomidine (0.5 mg kg-1) using a randomised semi-crossover design with ≥ 48 hours between treatments in 10 male and 10 female mice. Each mouse was anaesthetised twice using the same administration route (IP or SC): once with each drug-ketamine combination. Anaesthetised mice were monitored on a heating pad without supplemental oxygen for 89 minutes; atipamezole was administered for reversal. The times that the righting reflex was lost post-injection and returned post-reversal were analysed using general linear models. Tail-pinch and pedal reflexes were examined using binomial generalized linear models. Pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (fr), and arterial haemoglobin saturation (SpO2) were compared using generalized additive mixed models. Results There were no significant differences among treatments for the times taken for loss and return of the righting reflex, or response of the tail-pinch reflex. The pedal withdrawal reflex was abolished more frequently with MK than DK over time (P = 0.021). The response of PR and SpO2 were similar among treatments, but fr was significantly higher with MK than DK (P ≤ 0.0005). Markedly low SpO2 concentrations occurred within 5 minutes post-injection (83.8 ± 6.7%) in all treatment groups and were most severe after 89 minutes lapsed (66.7 ± 7.5%). No statistical differences were detected in regards to administration route (P ≤ 0.94). Conclusions This study failed to demonstrate clinical advantages of the enantiomer dexmedetomidine over medetomidine when combined with ketamine to

  18. The effects of intramuscular and intraperitoneal injections of benzo[a]pyrene on selected biomarkers in Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Karami, Ali; Christianus, Annie; Ishak, Zamri; Syed, Mohd Arif; Courtenay, Simon Charles

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the dose-dependent and time-course effects of intramuscular (i.m.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the biomarkers EROD activity, GST activity, concentrations of BaP metabolites in bile, and visceral fat deposits (Lipid Somatic Index, LSI) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Intraperitoneal injection resulted in 4.5 times higher accumulation of total selected biliary FACs than i.m. injection. Hepatic GST activities were inhibited by BaP via both injection methods. Dose-response relationships between BaP injection and both biliary FAC concentrations and hepatic GST activities were linear in the i.p. injected group but nonlinear in the i.m. injected fish. Hepatic EROD activity and LSI were not significantly affected by BaP exposure by either injection route. We conclude that i.p. is a more effective route of exposure than i.m. for future ecotoxicological studies of PAH exposure in C. gariepinus.

  19. Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains Using a Murine Intraperitoneal Infection Model and In Vitro Macrophage Assays

    PubMed Central

    Welkos, Susan L.; Klimko, Christopher P.; Kern, Steven J.; Bearss, Jeremy J.; Bozue, Joel A.; Bernhards, Robert C.; Trevino, Sylvia R.; Waag, David M.; Amemiya, Kei; Worsham, Patricia L.; Cote, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. This bacterium is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and can infect humans and animals by several routes. It has also been estimated to present a considerable risk as a potential biothreat agent. There are currently no effective vaccines for B. pseudomallei, and antibiotic treatment can be hampered by nonspecific symptomology, the high incidence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistant strains, and disease chronicity. Accordingly, there is a concerted effort to better characterize B. pseudomallei and its associated disease. Before novel vaccines and therapeutics can be tested in vivo, a well characterized animal model is essential. Previous work has indicated that mice may be a useful animal model. In order to develop standardized animal models of melioidosis, different strains of bacteria must be isolated, propagated, and characterized. Using a murine intraperitoneal (IP) infection model, we tested the virulence of 11 B. pseudomallei strains. The IP route offers a reproducible way to rank virulence that can be readily reproduced by other laboratories. This infection route is also useful in distinguishing significant differences in strain virulence that may be masked by the exquisite susceptibility associated with other routes of infection (e.g., inhalational). Additionally, there were several pathologic lesions observed in mice following IP infection. These included varisized abscesses in the spleen, liver, and haired skin. This model indicated that commonly used laboratory strains of B. pseudomallei (i.e., K96243 and 1026b) were significantly less virulent as compared to more recently acquired clinical isolates. Additionally, we characterized in vitro strain-associated differences in virulence for macrophages and described a potential inverse relationship between virulence in the IP mouse model of some strains and in the

  20. Oral or intraperitoneal binge drinking and oxidative balance in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Nogales, Fátima; Rua, Rui M; Ojeda, Maria Luisa; Murillo, Maria Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia

    2014-11-17

    Oxidative imbalance is one of the most important mechanisms of alcohol-induced injury. Acute alcohol exposure induces a significant amount of reactive oxygen species during its hepatic metabolism via the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system. During adolescence, the physiological development is still taking place; therefore, ethanol's effects differ in adolescents compared to that in adults. Because binge drinking is the most important model of ethanol intake used by adolescents and because little is known about its effects on the liver, we have used two routes of acute ethanol administration (oral and intraperitoneal) in adolescent rats in order to analyze the oxidative damage caused in the periphery and liver. Here, it has been demonstrated for the first time that binge drinking in adolescents causes peripheral oxidation of lipid and DNA as well as lipid and protein hepatic oxidation, which are related to lower glutathione peroxidise (GPx) activity, higher catalase (CAT) activity, and higher expression of NADPHoxidase, contributing to hepatic damage. In addition, it is shown that the intraperitoneal administration route results in increased oxidative damage, which is probably related to the resulting general stress response that causes higher DNA and protein oxidation due to higher NADPHoxidase expression and higher CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. According to these results, it is concluded that binge drinking induces hepatic damage during adolescence, at least in part, as consequence of oxidative stress because the antioxidant response was insufficient to avoid liver oxidation. Alcohol administered intraperitoneally provoked more DNA oxidation than that from the oral alcohol exposure model. PMID:25330177

  1. The differential profiles of withdrawal symptoms induced by morphine and beta-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, S-H; Sim, Y-B; Kang, Y-J; Kim, C-H; Kwon, M-S; Suh, H-W

    2012-08-30

    In the present study, withdrawal symptoms induced by morphine or β-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) were compared in ICR mice. Naloxone (10mg/kg) was post-treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) 3h after either a single or repeated (1 time/day for 3 days) i.c.v. injections with opioids. Withdrawal symptoms such as jumping frequency, diarrhea, weight loss, rearing, penile licking and paw tremor were observed for 30 min immediately after naloxone treatment. Withdrawal symptoms (jumping, diarrhea, weight loss, rearing, penile licking and paw tremor) observed in the group treated with morphine was persistently increased during 3 days. On the other hand, withdrawal symptoms such as diarrhea, weight loss and rearing in β-endorphin-treated group were increased after a single injection with β-endorphin, but gradually decreased after the repeated injection. Furthermore, no jumping behavior, penile licking and paw tremor in β-endorphin-treated group were observed throughout the whole period of time. In addition, the hypothalamic changes of several signal molecules such as pERK, pCaMK-IIα, c-FOS and pCREB expression were observed during the presence or absence of withdrawal responses induced by morphine or β-endorphin administered once or repeatedly. Both hypothalamic pCaMK-IIα and c-FOS expressions were increased by naloxone treatment in acutely administered morphine group, whereas only pCaMK-IIα expression was elevated by naloxone treatment in repeatedly administered morphine group. In contrast with the findings in morphine-treated group, only pCaMK-IIα expression was decreased by naloxone treatment in repeatedly administered β-endorphin group. Our results suggest that profiles of the withdrawal symptoms induced by morphine and β-endorphin administered supraspinally appear to be differentially regulated. The pCaMK-IIα and the c-FOS protein expression may play important roles for the regulation of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms such

  2. Toxicity and inflammatory response in Swiss albino mice after intraperitoneal and oral administration of polyurethane nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Silva, Adny H; Locatelli, Claudriana; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabíola B; Martin, Philip; Liptrott, Neill J; Zanetti-Ramos, Betina G; Benetti, Luana C; Nazari, Evelize M; Albuquerque, Cláudia A C; Pasa, André A; Owen, Andrew; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B

    2016-03-30

    In this work in vivo experiments were conducted in order to characterize the biocompatibility of polyurethane nanoparticles (PU-NPs) after intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral administration. Additionally, ex vivo assays were performed to assess human blood compatibility as well as in vitro assays to assess protein binding. Our results indicated that administration of three different concentrations of PU-NPs induced a significant increase in visceral fat accumulation after oral dosing. In addition, fat tissue of mice intraperitoneally treated with the highest concentration of nanoparticles showed diffuse mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate in the fat tissue. Histopathological assessment showed inflammatory infiltrate and hepatocyte vacuolization in the liver, inflammatory infiltration and vascular congestion in the lung and glomerular necrosis in the kidney. Hepatic enzymes related with liver function were significantly increased in both groups of mice treated with PU-NPs. The PU-NPs did not affect the human blood cells number as well as coagulation time but showed a susceptibility to bind in proteins commonly found in the blood stream. In addition, increased amounts of pro inflammatory cytokines in vivo, as well as ex vivo in human cells were observed. Further studies to establish the consequences of long-term exposure to PU-NPs are warranted.

  3. Induction of mammary tumors in rat by intraperitoneal injection of NMU: histopathology and estral cycle influence.

    PubMed

    Rivera, E S; Andrade, N; Martin, G; Melito, G; Cricco, G; Mohamad, N; Davio, C; Caro, R; Bergoc, R M

    1994-11-11

    In order to obtain an experimental model we induced mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats. The carcinogen N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at doses of 50 mg/kg body weight when animals were 50, 80 and 110 days old. Tumor sizes were measured with a caliper and their growth parameters and histopathological properties were tested. For 100 rats, 88.4% of developed lesions were ductal carcinomas, histologically classified as 52.8% cribiform variety, 30.6% solid carcinoma. Metastases in liver, spleen and lung were present. Other primary tumors were detected with low incidence. The influence of the rat estrous cycle during the first exposure to intraperitoneal NMU injection was studied. The latency period in estrus, proestrus and diestrus was 82 +/- 15, 77 +/- 18 and 79 +/- 18 days, respectively. Tumor incidence was significantly higher in estrus (95.2%) than proestrus (71.4%) or diestrus (77.4), (P < 0.01). Mean number or tumors per animal was similar among the three groups (4.4 +/- 3.2, 3.8 +/- 3.6, 3.2 +/- 1.8). The procedure described appears to be the simplest method for inducing experimental mammary tumors in rats.

  4. First experiences with intraperitoneal chemotherapy in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gitsch, E; Sevelda, P; Schmidl, S; Salzer, H

    1990-01-01

    The Authors report their experience with intraperitoneal chemotherapy in post surgical management of ovarian cancer. 24 patients were evaluable for the study and the results indicate that in patients with bulky disease the complication rate was high and the therapeutical outcome very poor. Only in patients with microscopic disease and residual tumor smaller than 2 cm seemed to benefit from intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Despite pharmacological advantages, Mitoxantrone causes local discomfort up to peritonitis. PMID:2347331

  5. Reprogramming in vivo produces teratomas and iPS cells with totipotency features.

    PubMed

    Abad, María; Mosteiro, Lluc; Pantoja, Cristina; Cañamero, Marta; Rayon, Teresa; Ors, Inmaculada; Graña, Osvaldo; Megías, Diego; Domínguez, Orlando; Martínez, Dolores; Manzanares, Miguel; Ortega, Sagrario; Serrano, Manuel

    2013-10-17

    Reprogramming of adult cells to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) has opened new therapeutic opportunities; however, little is known about the possibility of in vivo reprogramming within tissues. Here we show that transitory induction of the four factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc in mice results in teratomas emerging from multiple organs, implying that full reprogramming can occur in vivo. Analyses of the stomach, intestine, pancreas and kidney reveal groups of dedifferentiated cells that express the pluripotency marker NANOG, indicative of in situ reprogramming. By bone marrow transplantation, we demonstrate that haematopoietic cells can also be reprogrammed in vivo. Notably, reprogrammable mice present circulating iPS cells in the blood and, at the transcriptome level, these in vivo generated iPS cells are closer to embryonic stem cells (ES cells) than standard in vitro generated iPS cells. Moreover, in vivo iPS cells efficiently contribute to the trophectoderm lineage, suggesting that they achieve a more plastic or primitive state than ES cells. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of in vivo iPS cells generates embryo-like structures that express embryonic and extraembryonic markers. We conclude that reprogramming in vivo is feasible and confers totipotency features absent in standard iPS or ES cells. These discoveries could be relevant for future applications of reprogramming in regenerative medicine. PMID:24025773

  6. Reprogramming in vivo produces teratomas and iPS cells with totipotency features.

    PubMed

    Abad, María; Mosteiro, Lluc; Pantoja, Cristina; Cañamero, Marta; Rayon, Teresa; Ors, Inmaculada; Graña, Osvaldo; Megías, Diego; Domínguez, Orlando; Martínez, Dolores; Manzanares, Miguel; Ortega, Sagrario; Serrano, Manuel

    2013-10-17

    Reprogramming of adult cells to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) has opened new therapeutic opportunities; however, little is known about the possibility of in vivo reprogramming within tissues. Here we show that transitory induction of the four factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc in mice results in teratomas emerging from multiple organs, implying that full reprogramming can occur in vivo. Analyses of the stomach, intestine, pancreas and kidney reveal groups of dedifferentiated cells that express the pluripotency marker NANOG, indicative of in situ reprogramming. By bone marrow transplantation, we demonstrate that haematopoietic cells can also be reprogrammed in vivo. Notably, reprogrammable mice present circulating iPS cells in the blood and, at the transcriptome level, these in vivo generated iPS cells are closer to embryonic stem cells (ES cells) than standard in vitro generated iPS cells. Moreover, in vivo iPS cells efficiently contribute to the trophectoderm lineage, suggesting that they achieve a more plastic or primitive state than ES cells. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of in vivo iPS cells generates embryo-like structures that express embryonic and extraembryonic markers. We conclude that reprogramming in vivo is feasible and confers totipotency features absent in standard iPS or ES cells. These discoveries could be relevant for future applications of reprogramming in regenerative medicine.

  7. Orally administered grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Taudorf, E; Weeke, B

    1983-11-01

    In 1900 it was claimed that oral administration of ragweed could be used for the hyposensitization of hay fever patients. Several uncontrolled trials have been published, all showing an effect of oral hyposensitization. Only one study was controlled and showed no effect of oral hyposensitization. It was decided to undertake controlled clinical trials to determine the safety and effectiveness of orally administered enteric-coated grass pollen tablets in patients with hay fever. The actual grass pollen dose in the first trial was 30 times the dose that is normally recommended for preseasonal oral pollen hyposensitization using pollen aqueous solution or pollen powder. The safety study will be described here. Twelve young adults with a history of grass pollen hay fever positive skin prick test and positive nasal provocation test with extracts of timothy grass pollen were randomly allocated to one of the treatment groups with four patients in each group taking enteric-coated Conjuvac Timothy tablets or enteric-coated Whole Timothy pollen tablets or enteric-coated placebo tablets. The study was double blind. Preseasonally, the patients received 342,500 PNU and in total they received 4,500,000 PNU during 6 months. The patients receiving active treatment did not have any side effects. No significant changes were shown in the skin and nasal reactivity to grass pollen during the study. Neither were there any changes in timothy-specific IgE, IgG, total IgE nor histamine liberation from basophils.

  8. Controlled infection of Poecilia reticulata Peters (guppy) with Tetrahymena by immersion and intraperitoneal injection.

    PubMed

    Sharon, G; Pimenta-Leibowitz, M; Vilchis, M C L; Isakov, N; Zilberg, D

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahymena is a protozoan parasite, which infects guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, and causes substantial economical losses in commercial farms worldwide. Studies of guppy infected by Tetrahymena require standardized infection protocols. The LD50 for Tetrahymena infection of guppies by intraperitoneal (IP) injection was calibrated, and the level obtained was 946 parasites per fish. Guppy infection with Tetrahymena by immersion, imitating the natural route of infection via the integument, was studied under normal or stress conditions. Exposure to cold and netting (CNI) and to cold only (CI) followed by immersion exposure to 10 000 Tetrahymena per mL resulted in 22.5% and 19.2% mortality, respectively, as compared to 14.2% and 10% in groups that were netted only (NI) or non-stressed (I). Histopathology revealed that immersion infection resulted in a systemic infection. Lysozyme levels, measured 3 weeks after infection, were significantly higher in the CNI group (288 μg per mg protein) compared with CI-, NI- and I-treated groups (94.5, 64 and 62.3 μg mg(-1), respectively). There was no evident parasite immobilization activity in body homogenates, suggesting no development of acquired immunity. Re-infection by IP injection revealed no increase in protection in any of the treatment groups, mortality range of 56.3-75%, higher than in the non-exposed control (40.6% mortality).

  9. Running TCP/IP over ATM Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Internet protocol (IP) and subnets and describes how IP may operate over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Topics include TCP (transmission control protocol), ATM cells and adaptation layers, a basic architectural model for IP over ATM, address resolution, mapping IP to a subnet technology, and connection management strategy. (LRW)

  10. Pharmacokinetics and Imaging of 212Pb-TCMC-Trastuzumab After Intraperitoneal Administration in Ovarian Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Torgue, Julien; Azure, Michael T.; Shen, Sui; Saddekni, Souheil; Banaga, Eileen; Carlise, Ronda; Bunch, Patty; Yoder, Daniel; Alvarez, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Study distribution, pharmacokinetics, and safety of intraperitoneal (IP) 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab in patients with HER-2-expressing malignancy. Experimental Design: IP 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab was delivered, after 4 mg/kg intravenous (IV) trastuzumab, to 3 patients with HER-2-expressing cancer who had failed standard therapies. Patients were monitored for toxicity and pharmacokinetics/dosimetry parameters. Results: Imaging studies after 0.2 mCi/m2 (7.4 MBq/m2) show little redistribution out of the peritoneal cavity and no significant uptake in major organs. Peak blood level of the radiolabeled antibody, determined by decay corrected counts, was <23% injected dose at 63 hours; maximum blood radioactivity concentration was 6.3nCi/mL at 18 hours. Cumulative urinary excretion was ≤6% in 2.3 half-lives. The maximum external exposure rate immediately post-infusion at skin contact over the abdomen averaged 7.67 mR/h and dropped to 0.67 mR/h by 24 hours. The exposure rates at the other positions monitored (axilla, chest, and femur) decreased as a function of distance from the abdomen. The data points correlate closely with 212Pb physical decay (T1/2=10.6 hours). Follow-up >6 months showed no evidence of agent-related toxicity. Conclusions: Pharmacokinetics and imaging after 0.2 mCi/m2 IP 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab in patients with HER-2-expressing malignancy showed minimal distribution outside the peritoneal cavity, ≤6% urinary excretion, and good tolerance. PMID:24229395

  11. Modeling of dose to tumor and normal tissue from intraperitoneal radioimmunotherapy with alpha and beta emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Roeske, J.C.; Chen, G.T.; Atcher, R.W.; Pelizzari, C.A.; Rotmensch, J.; Haraf, D.; Montag, A.; Weichselbaum, R.R. )

    1990-12-01

    Dose distributions for normal and tumor tissues from intraperitoneally administered radiolabeled antibodies have been calculated for 90-Yttrium (90Y), 131-Iodine (131I), and 211-Astatine (211At). The dose calculations use data on the activity of intraperitoneal fluid administered, the percent injected dose/gm uptake by tumor, biological half life, and a model for diffusion of antibody/radionuclide complex into peritoneal tissues. Calculations are performed for planar and hemispherical tumor shapes, ranging in size to establish the influence of geometry on dose distribution. Calculations for tumor geometry obtained from biopsies are also performed. When the activity is concentrated on or near the tumor surface, the maximum dose to a planar tumor for a 20 mci administration of 90Y is approximately 60 Gy, and falls rapidly to 50% of this value within 1 mm. However, for a hemispherical tumor, the dose is a maximum of 26 Gy, with an average of approximately 20 Gy. The surface dose from 131I (130 mci) is 240 Gy, and diminishes to 20 Gy in .05 cm in the planar case, whereas a hemispherical tumor receives a dose of 90 Gy over a large fraction of the volume, with the distal portions receiving 40 Gy. The surface dose for an administration of 70 mci of 211 At is 450 Gy and decreases to 50% of this value in 30 microns. Both surface geometry and tumor size are important determinants in the heterogeneity of tumor dose, as are the dose administered, antibody uptake, biodistribution, and residence time factors. These initial studies suggest that the size of disease which may be effectively treated is much less than the range of the particle emitted by radiolabeled antibodies. Furthermore, therapy is ultimately limited by the degree to which the antibody/radionuclide complex can diffuse and permeate the tumor.

  12. Individual monitoring of immune responses in rainbow trout after cohabitation and intraperitoneal injection challenge with Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    M Monte, Milena; Urquhart, Katy; Secombes, Christopher J; Collet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), is a widely studied pathogen in disease models using rainbow trout. This infection model, mostly based on intraperitoneally injection or bath immersion challenges, has an impact on both components (innate and adaptive) of the fish immune system. Although there has been much attention in studying its host-pathogen interactions, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of a cohabitation challenge. To tackle this we used a newly established non-lethal sampling method (by withdrawing a small amount of blood) in rainbow trout which allowed the individual immune monitoring before (non-infected) and after infection with Yersinia ruckeri either by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or by cohabitation (cohab). A range of key immune genes were monitored during the infection by real-time PCR, and results were compared between the two infection routes. Results indicated that inflammatory (IL-1β1 and IL-8) cytokines and certain antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidins) revealed a different pattern of expression between the two infected groups (i.p. vs cohab), in comparison to adaptive immune cytokines (IL-22, IFN-γ and IL-4/13A) and β-defensins. This suggests a different involvement of distinct immune markers according to the infection model, and the importance of using a cohabitation challenge as a more natural disease model that likely simulates what would occur in the environment.

  13. Individual monitoring of immune responses in rainbow trout after cohabitation and intraperitoneal injection challenge with Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    M Monte, Milena; Urquhart, Katy; Secombes, Christopher J; Collet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), is a widely studied pathogen in disease models using rainbow trout. This infection model, mostly based on intraperitoneally injection or bath immersion challenges, has an impact on both components (innate and adaptive) of the fish immune system. Although there has been much attention in studying its host-pathogen interactions, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of a cohabitation challenge. To tackle this we used a newly established non-lethal sampling method (by withdrawing a small amount of blood) in rainbow trout which allowed the individual immune monitoring before (non-infected) and after infection with Yersinia ruckeri either by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or by cohabitation (cohab). A range of key immune genes were monitored during the infection by real-time PCR, and results were compared between the two infection routes. Results indicated that inflammatory (IL-1β1 and IL-8) cytokines and certain antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidins) revealed a different pattern of expression between the two infected groups (i.p. vs cohab), in comparison to adaptive immune cytokines (IL-22, IFN-γ and IL-4/13A) and β-defensins. This suggests a different involvement of distinct immune markers according to the infection model, and the importance of using a cohabitation challenge as a more natural disease model that likely simulates what would occur in the environment. PMID:27245868

  14. Regional but fatal: Intraperitoneal metastasis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jia; Wu, Nan-Die; Liu, Bao-Rui

    2016-09-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis appears to be the most common pattern of metastasis or recurrence and is associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Many efforts have been made to improve the survival in patients with peritoneal metastasis. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy remains a widely accepted strategy in the treatment of peritoneal dissemination. Several phase II-III studies confirmed that the combined cytoreducitve surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy resulted in longer survival in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. In addition, proper selection and effective regional treatment in patients with high risk of peritoneal recurrence after resection will further improve prognosis in local advanced gastric cancer patients. PMID:27672270

  15. Regional but fatal: Intraperitoneal metastasis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jia; Wu, Nan-Die; Liu, Bao-Rui

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis appears to be the most common pattern of metastasis or recurrence and is associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Many efforts have been made to improve the survival in patients with peritoneal metastasis. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy remains a widely accepted strategy in the treatment of peritoneal dissemination. Several phase II-III studies confirmed that the combined cytoreducitve surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy resulted in longer survival in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. In addition, proper selection and effective regional treatment in patients with high risk of peritoneal recurrence after resection will further improve prognosis in local advanced gastric cancer patients. PMID:27672270

  16. Regional but fatal: Intraperitoneal metastasis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jia; Wu, Nan-Die; Liu, Bao-Rui

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis appears to be the most common pattern of metastasis or recurrence and is associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Many efforts have been made to improve the survival in patients with peritoneal metastasis. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy remains a widely accepted strategy in the treatment of peritoneal dissemination. Several phase II-III studies confirmed that the combined cytoreducitve surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy resulted in longer survival in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. In addition, proper selection and effective regional treatment in patients with high risk of peritoneal recurrence after resection will further improve prognosis in local advanced gastric cancer patients.

  17. Continuously Connected With Mobile IP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems developed Cisco Mobile Networks, making IP devices mobile. With this innovation, a Cisco router and its connected IP devices can roam across network boundaries and connection types. Because a mobile user is able to keep the same IP address while roaming, a live IP connection can be maintained without interruption. Glenn Research Center jointly tested the technology with Cisco, and is working to use it on low-earth-orbiting research craft. With Cisco's Mobile Networks functionality now available in Cisco IOS Software release 12.2(4)T, the commercial advantages and benefits are numerous. The technology can be applied to public safety, military/homeland security, emergency management services, railroad and shipping systems, and the automotive industry. It will allow ambulances, police, firemen, and the U.S. Coast Guard to stay connected to their networks while on the move. In the wireless battlefield, the technology will provide rapid infrastructure deployment for U.S. national defense. Airline, train, and cruise passengers utilizing Cisco Mobile Networks can fly all around the world with a continuous Internet connection. Cisco IOS(R) Software is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems.

  18. Enhanced Antitumor Effect of Tirapazamine Delivered Intraperitoneally to VX2 Liver Tumor-Bearing Rabbits Subjected to Transarterial Hepatic Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, Akinaga Nitta, Norihisa Ohta, Shinich Nitta-Seko, Ayumi Nagatani, Yukihiro Takahashi, Masashi Murata, Kiyoshi

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the effects of the combination of Tirapazamine (TPZ), activated preferentially under hypoxic conditions, and gelatin microspheres (GMS) on the tumor growth ratio in rabbits. Methods: We assigned 20 liver tumor-bearing Japanese white rabbits to 4 equal groups. Group 1 received 1 ml of saline intra-arterially (i.a.) and 20 ml of saline intraperitoneally (i.p.; saline group). Group 2 was injected with GMS i.a. and 20 ml saline i.p. (GMS group). Group 3 received 1 ml of saline i.a. and 300 mg/m{sup 2} of TPZ i.p. (TPZ group), and group 4 was treated with GMS i.a. and 300 mg/m{sup 2} of TPZ i.p. (GMS + TPZ group). The infusion of GMS was stopped when the blood flow stagnated. Before and 7 days after treatment, the liver tumor volumes were measured as the total number of pixels on 0.3Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Results: The tumor growth ratio (mean {+-} standard deviation) of the saline, GMS, TPZ, and GMS + TPZ groups was 519.15 {+-} 93.78, 279.24 {+-} 91.83, 369.78 {+-} 95.73, and 119.87 {+-} 17.62, respectively. The difference between the GMS + TPZ group and the other groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results show that the combination of TPZ i.p. and GMS i.a. enhanced the antitumor effect of TPZ. This procedure may represent a new alternative treatment for patients with hepatic cell carcinoma.

  19. Role of CD11b+ Macrophages in Intraperitoneal Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Aberrant Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphatic Function in the Diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Koh, Young-Jun; Jeon, Bong-Hyun; Jang, Cholsoon; Han, Jinah; Kataru, Raghu P.; Schwendener, Reto A.; Kim, Jin-Man; Koh, Gou Young

    2009-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels in the diaphragm are essential for draining peritoneal fluid, but little is known about their pathological changes during inflammation. Here we characterized diaphragmatic lymphatic vessels in a peritonitis model generated by daily i.p. administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Intraperitoneal LPS increased lymphatic density, branching, sprouts, connections, and network formation in the diaphragm in time- and dose-dependent manners. These changes were reversible on discontinuation of LPS administration. The LPS-induced lymphatic density and remodeling occur mainly through proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells. CD11b+ macrophages were massively accumulated and closely associated with the lymphatic vessels changed by i.p. LPS. Both RT-PCR assays and experiments with vascular endothelial growth factor-C/D blockade and macrophage-depletion indicated that the CD11b+ macrophage-derived lymphangiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor-C/D could be major mediators of LPS-induced lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic remodeling through paracrine activity. Functional assays with India ink and fluorescein isothiocyanate-microspheres indicated that impaired peritoneal fluid drainage in diaphragm of LPS-induced peritonitis mice was due to inflammatory fibrosis and massive attachment of CD11b+ macrophages on the peritoneal side of the diaphragmatic lymphatic vessels. These findings reveal that CD11b+ macrophages play an important role in i.p. LPS-induced aberrant lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic dysfunction in the diaphragm. PMID:19762711

  20. Histological assessment of intra-articular versus intra-peritoneal betamethasone L.A on tempromandibular joint arthritis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Ghalayani, Parichehr; Razavi, Seid Mohammad; Babadi, Fatemeh; Sardari, Farimah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pain and dysfunction of the tempromandibular joint (TMJ) are major clinical problems, especially, in arthritis. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intra-articular (IA) versus intra-peritoneal (IP) injection of betamethasone long acting on TMJ arthritis in rat. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, an inflammation in the left TMJ of 29 rats was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. After 1 week, rats were divided into 5 groups: Group A: Rats of this group were not treated (n = 5); groups B, C: Rats were injected with a single dose of ½ mg/kg betamethasone L.A IA (n = 6); groups D, E: Rats received a single dose of ½ mg/kg betamethasone L.A IP (n = 6). Rats in groups B and D after 1 week, and in groups C, E and A, at 4 weeks after drug injection were sacrificed. Severity of inflammation was scored from 1 to 11 according to synovial hyperplasia, vascularity, fibrin deposits, and synovial adhesion. Results were analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney (P < 0/05 was considered significant). Results: Significant differences were existed between groups B, D (P = 0/004) and groups C, E (P = 0/002). The least severity of Inflammation and also evidence of resorbtion in condylar head was seen in group C. Conclusion: The best therapeutic response was seen with IA injection of betamethasone L.A in comparison with IP injection. PMID:24130589

  1. The Spacelab IPS Star Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis C., III

    1993-01-01

    The cost of doing business in space is very high. If errors occur while in orbit the costs grow and desired scientific data may be corrupted or even lost. The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) Star Simulator is a unique test bed that allows star trackers to interface with simulated stars in a laboratory before going into orbit. This hardware-in-the-loop testing of equipment on earth increases the probability of success while in space. The IPS Star Simulator provides three fields of view 2.55 x 2.55 deg each for input into star trackers. The fields of view are produced on three separate monitors. Each monitor has 4096 x 4096 addressable points and can display 50 stars (pixels) maximum at a given time. The pixel refresh rate is 1000 Hz. The spectral output is approximately 550 nm. The available relative visual magnitude range is two to eight visual magnitudes. The star size is less than 100 arcsec. The minimum star movement is less than 5 arcsec and the relative position accuracy is approximately 40 arcsec. The purpose of this paper is to describe the IPS Star Simulator design and to provide an operational scenario so others may gain from the approach and possible use of the system.

  2. VoIP in a Campus Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Internet Protocol (IP) Telephony, or voice-over IP (VoIP), has proved to be a wise decision for many organizations. This technology crosses the boundaries of public and private networks, enterprise and residential markets, voice and data technologies, as well as local and long-distance services. The convergence of voice and data into a single,…

  3. Tumor priming enhances siRNA delivery and transfection in intraperitoneal tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Lu, Ze; Yeung, Bertrand Z; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Cole, David J; Au, Jessie L-S

    2014-03-28

    Cancers originating from the digestive system account for 290,000 or ~20% of all new cancer cases annually in the US. We previously developed paclitaxel-loaded tumor-penetrating microparticles (TPM) for intraperitoneal (IP) treatment of peritoneal tumors (Lu et al., 2008; Tsai et al., 2007; Tsai et al., 2013). TPM is undergoing NIH-supported IND-enabling studies for clinical evaluation. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that TPM, via inducing apoptosis and expanding the interstitial space, promotes the delivery and transfection of lipid vectors containing siRNA. The in vivo model was the metastatic human Hs766T pancreatic tumor that, upon IP injection, produced widely distributed solid tumors and ascites in the peritoneal cavity in 100% of animals. The target gene was survivin, an anti-apoptotic protein induced by chemotherapy and associated with metastases and poor prognosis of patients with gastric and colorectal cancers. The siRNA carrier was pegylated liposomes comprising cationic and neutral lipids plus a fusogenic lipid (PCat). PCat-loaded with survivin siRNA (PCat-siSurvivin) was active in cultured cells (decreased survivin mRNA and protein levels, reduced cell clonogenicity, enhanced paclitaxel activity), but lost its activity in vivo; this difference is consistent with the well-known problem of inadequate delivery and transfection of siRNA in vivo. In comparison, single agent TPM prolonged animal survival and, as expected, induced survivin expression in tumors. Addition of PCat-siSurvivin reversed the TPM-induced survivin expression and enhanced the antitumor activity of TPM. The finding that in vivo survivin knockdown by PCat-siSurvivin was successful only when it was given in combination with TPM provides the proof-of-concept that tumor priming promotes the delivery and transfection of liposomal siRNA. The data further suggest the TPM/PCat-siSurvivin combination as a potentially useful chemo-gene therapy for peritoneal cancer.

  4. Mobile-ip Aeronautical Network Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Tran, Diepchi T.

    2001-01-01

    NASA is interested in applying mobile Internet protocol (mobile-ip) technologies to its space and aeronautics programs. In particular, mobile-ip will play a major role in the Advanced Aeronautic Transportation Technology (AATT), the Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM), and the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) aeronautics programs. This report presents the results of a simulation study of mobile-ip for an aeronautical network. The study was performed to determine the performance of the transmission control protocol (TCP) in a mobile-ip environment and to gain an understanding of how long delays, handoffs, and noisy channels affect mobile-ip performance.

  5. Intraperitoneal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst. A rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Birbilis, Th; Kontogianidis, K; Matis, G; Theodoropoulou, E; Efremidou, E; Argyropoulou, P

    2008-01-01

    The abdominal intraperitoneal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst is a rare but important complication in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. We report a case of a 31-year-old female, in which a large abdominal pseudocyst was developed 1 year after insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus. The abdominal CT scan and the ultrasonographical evaluation of the abdomen showed a well defined, cystic mass lesion with a volume of 50 cm3, in the recessus hepato-renal. The peritoneal tip of the shunt was located within the mass lesion. A distal externalization of the peritoneal catheter without excision of the pseudocyst was performed. Cerebrospinal fluid culture demonstrated a Staphylococcus epidermis infection and adequate antibiotic treatment was administrated. The previous symptoms improved 4 weeks later and a new catheter was placed intraperitoneally in a different quadrant. The postoperative course was uneventful. We suggest that chronic inflammation or subclinical peritonitis is a predisposing factor for this complication. PMID:18717287

  6. IP Profiling via Service Cluster Membership Vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoletti, A

    2009-02-23

    This study investigates the feasibility of establishing and maintaining a system of compact IP behavioral profiles as a robust means of computer anomaly definition and detection. These profiles are based upon the degree to which a system's (IP's) network traffic is distributed among stable characteristic clusters derived of the aggregate session traffic generated by each of the major network services. In short, an IP's profile represents its degree of membership in these derived service clusters. The goal is to quantify and rank behaviors that are outside of the statistical norm for the services in question, or present significant deviation from profile for individual client IPs. Herein, we establish stable clusters for accessible features of common session traffic, migrate these clusters over time, define IP behavior profiles with respect to these clusters, migrate individual IP profiles over time, and demonstrate the detection of IP behavioral changes in terms of deviation from profile.

  7. Intraperitoneal hydrocortisone for pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sarvestani, Amene S.; Amini, Shahram; Kalhor, Mohsen; Roshanravan, Reza; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Lebaschi, Amir Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with shorter hospital stay and less pain in comparison to open surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal hydrocortisone on pain relief following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: Sixty two patients were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Patients randomly received intraperitoneal instillation of either 250 ml normal saline (n=31) or 100 mg hydrocortisone in 250 ml normal saline (n=31) before insufflation of CO2 into the peritoneum. Abdominal and shoulder pain were evaluated using VAS after surgery and at 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. The patients were also followed for postoperative analgesic requirements, nausea and vomiting, and return of bowel function. Results: Sixty patients completed the study. Patients in the hydrocortisone group had significantly lower abdominal and shoulder pain scores (10.95 vs 12.95; P<0.01). The patients were similar regarding analgesic requirements in the recovery room. However, those in the hydrocortisone group required less meperidine than the saline group (151.66 (±49.9) mg vs 61.66 (±38.69) mg; P=0.00). The patients were similar with respect to return of bowel function, nausea and vomiting. No adverse reaction was observed in either group. Conclusion: Intraperitoneal administration of hydrocortisone can significantly decrease pain and analgesic requirements after laparoscopic cholecystectomy with no adverse effects. PMID:23717225

  8. Comparison between intraperitoneal and subcutaneous phencyclidine administration in Sprague-Dawley rats: a locomotor activity and gene induction study.

    PubMed

    Kalinichev, Mikhail; Robbins, Melanie J; Hartfield, Elizabeth M; Maycox, Peter R; Moore, Susan H; Savage, Kevin M; Austin, Nigel E; Jones, Declan N C

    2008-02-15

    In a putative model of acute phencyclidine (PCP)-induced psychosis we evaluated effects of the drug on locomotor activity (LMA) and immediate early gene (IEG) induction in the rat using two routes of drug administration, intraperitoneal (i.p.) and subcutaneous (s.c.). Adult male rats received saline or PCP (1.0-5.0 mg/kg) either i.p or s.c. and were assessed for LMA for 60 min. At the end of the LMA testing animals were culled and blood and brain samples were collected for PCP concentration analysis. Separate cohorts of animals received 5.0 mg/kg PCP (i.p. or s.c.) and were used to investigate (1) the pharmacokinetics of PCP or (2) induction of IEG (Arc, c-fos, BDNF, junB, Krox-20, sgk-1, NURR1, fra-2, Krox-24, and egr-3) mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Administration of PCP resulted in locomotor hyperactivity which was more robust and longer-lasting in animals dosed s.c. compared to i.p.-treated-animals. Differences in hyperlocomotion were paralleled by higher concentrations of PCP in the blood and in the brain of s.c.-treated animals compared to i.p.-treated animals. The differences in the concentration of PCP between the two routes of administration were detected 30 min after dosing and persisted for up to 4 h. Administration of PCP via the s.c. route resulted in induction of more IEGs and consistently larger magnitudes of induction than that via the i.p. route. Therefore, we have outlined the dosing conditions to induce rapid and robust effect of acute PCP on behaviour, gene induction, and pharmacokinetic profile, to allow investigation of this as a potential animal model of acute psychosis.

  9. Intraperitoneal Infection of Wild-Type Mice with Synthetically Generated Mammalian Prion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhe; McGovern, Gillian; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Fei; Zha, Liang; Jeffrey, Martin; Ma, Jiyan

    2015-07-01

    The prion hypothesis postulates that the infectious agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is an unorthodox protein conformation based agent. Recent successes in generating mammalian prions in vitro with bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein provide strong support for the hypothesis. However, whether the pathogenic properties of synthetically generated prion (rec-Prion) recapitulate those of naturally occurring prions remains unresolved. Using end-point titration assay, we showed that the in vitro prepared rec-Prions have infectious titers of around 104 LD50/μg. In addition, intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation of wild-type mice with rec-Prion caused prion disease with an average survival time of 210-220 days post inoculation. Detailed pathological analyses revealed that the nature of rec-Prion induced lesions, including spongiform change, disease specific prion protein accumulation (PrP-d) and the PrP-d dissemination amongst lymphoid and peripheral nervous system tissues, the route and mechanisms of neuroinvasion were all typical of classical rodent prions. Our results revealed that, similar to naturally occurring prions, the rec-Prion has a titratable infectivity and is capable of causing prion disease via routes other than direct intra-cerebral challenge. More importantly, our results established that the rec-Prion caused disease is pathogenically and pathologically identical to naturally occurring contagious TSEs, supporting the concept that a conformationally altered protein agent is responsible for the infectivity in TSEs.

  10. Intraperitoneal injection of microencapsulated Sertoli cells restores muscle morphology and performance in dystrophic mice.

    PubMed

    Chiappalupi, Sara; Luca, Giovanni; Mancuso, Francesca; Madaro, Luca; Fallarino, Francesca; Nicoletti, Carmine; Calvitti, Mario; Arato, Iva; Falabella, Giulia; Salvadori, Laura; Di Meo, Antonio; Bufalari, Antonello; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Calafiore, Riccardo; Donato, Rosario; Sorci, Guglielmo

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disease characterized by progressive muscle degeneration leading to impaired locomotion, respiratory failure and premature death. In DMD patients, inflammatory events secondary to dystrophin mutation play a major role in the progression of the pathology. Sertoli cells (SeC) have been largely used to protect xenogeneic engraftments or induce trophic effects thanks to their ability to secrete trophic, antiinflammatory, and immunomodulatory factors. Here we have purified SeC from specific pathogen-free (SPF)-certified neonatal pigs, and embedded them into clinical grade alginate microcapsules. We show that a single intraperitoneal injection of microencapsulated SPF SeC (SeC-MC) in an experimental model of DMD can rescue muscle morphology and performance in the absence of pharmacologic immunosuppressive treatments. Once i.p. injected, SeC-MC act as a drug delivery system that modulates the inflammatory response in muscle tissue, and upregulates the expression of the dystrophin paralogue, utrophin in muscles through systemic release of heregulin-β1, thus promoting sarcolemma stability. Analyses performed five months after single injection show high biocompatibility and long-term efficacy of SeC-MC. Our results might open new avenues for the treatment of patients with DMD and related diseases.

  11. Continuous intraperitoneal carboplatin delivery for the treatment of late-stage ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhidkov, Nickholas; De Souza, Raquel; Ghassemi, Amir H; Allen, Christine; Piquette-Miller, Micheline

    2013-09-01

    The rate of failure of chemotherapy treatment in ovarian cancer remains high, resulting in a low 5-year survival rate of 20-40% in patients that present with advanced-stage disease. Treatment-free periods between cycles of chemotherapy may contribute to accelerated tumor cell proliferation and decreased treatment response. The elimination of treatment-free breaks has been deemed beneficial in the context of cell-cycle-specific agents. The potential benefit of this approach for non-cell-cycle-specific agents has not yet been elucidated. The present study is the first to address this issue by investigating the impact of continuous versus intermittent intraperitoneal administration of carboplatin over a 14 day period to SCID mice bearing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts. Immunostaining of tumor sections was employed to quantify tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis using Ki-67, CD-31, caspase-3 (CASP3), and terminal deoxytransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Continuous ip administration of carboplatin resulted in greater tumor growth inhibition than intermittent therapy (p < 0.05). Significantly greater tumor cell apoptosis and less cell proliferation and angiogenesis were measured in tumors of mice treated with continuous carboplatin as compared to both intermittent and control groups. These results indicate that continuous local administration may be a promising approach to improve the effectiveness of platinum-based chemotherapy regimens.

  12. The Spacelab IPS Star Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis C., III

    1993-01-01

    The cost of doing business in space is very high. If errors occur while in orbit the costs grow and desired scientific data may be corrupted or even lost. The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) Star Simulator is a unique test bed that allows star trackers to interface with simulated stars in a laboratory before going into orbit. This hardware-in-the loop testing of equipment on earth increases the probability of success while in space. The IPS Star Simulator provides three fields of view 2.55 x 2.55 degrees each for input into star trackers. The fields of view are produced on three separate monitors. Each monitor has 4096 x 4096 addressable points and can display 50 stars (pixels) maximum at a given time. The pixel refresh rate is 1000 Hz. The spectral output is approximately 550 nm. The available relative visual magnitude range is 2 to 8 visual magnitudes. The star size is less than 100 arc seconds. The minimum star movement is less than 5 arc seconds and the relative position accuracy is approximately 40 arc seconds. The purpose of this paper is to describe the LPS Star Simulator design and to provide an operational scenario so others may gain from the approach and possible use of the system.

  13. Vaccines and IP Rights: A Multifaceted Relationship.

    PubMed

    Durell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Just as there are many forms of vaccines and components to vaccines-particular compositions, delivery systems, components, and distribution networks-there are a variety of intellectual property (IP) protections applicable for vaccines. IP rights such as patent, copyright, trademarks, plant breeders' rights, and trade secrets may all be applicable to vaccines. Thus, discussion of IP rights and vaccines should not begin and end with the application of one IP right to a vaccine. The discussion should engage considerations of multiple IP rights applicable to a vaccine and how these can be utilized in an integrated manner in a strategy aimed at supporting the development and distribution of the vaccine. Such an approach to IP rights to vaccines allows for the integrated rights to be considered in light of the justifications for protecting vaccines with IP rights, as well as the issues relating to specific IP rights for vaccines, such as compulsory license regimes, available humanitarian purpose IP credits, etc. To view vaccines as the subject of multiple IP protections involves a refocusing, but the outcome can provide significant benefits for vaccine development and distribution.

  14. Vaccines and IP Rights: A Multifaceted Relationship.

    PubMed

    Durell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Just as there are many forms of vaccines and components to vaccines-particular compositions, delivery systems, components, and distribution networks-there are a variety of intellectual property (IP) protections applicable for vaccines. IP rights such as patent, copyright, trademarks, plant breeders' rights, and trade secrets may all be applicable to vaccines. Thus, discussion of IP rights and vaccines should not begin and end with the application of one IP right to a vaccine. The discussion should engage considerations of multiple IP rights applicable to a vaccine and how these can be utilized in an integrated manner in a strategy aimed at supporting the development and distribution of the vaccine. Such an approach to IP rights to vaccines allows for the integrated rights to be considered in light of the justifications for protecting vaccines with IP rights, as well as the issues relating to specific IP rights for vaccines, such as compulsory license regimes, available humanitarian purpose IP credits, etc. To view vaccines as the subject of multiple IP protections involves a refocusing, but the outcome can provide significant benefits for vaccine development and distribution. PMID:27076338

  15. Analysis of Handoff Mechanisms in Mobile IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraj, Maria Nadine Simonel; Issac, Biju; Haldar, Manas Kumar

    2011-06-01

    One of the most important challenges in mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is to provide service for a mobile node to maintain its connectivity to network when it moves from one domain to another. IP is responsible for routing packets across network. The first major version of IP is the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). It is one of the dominant protocols relevant to wireless network. Later a newer version of IP called the IPv6 was proposed. Mobile IPv6 is mainly introduced for the purpose of mobility. Mobility management enables network to locate roaming nodes in order to deliver packets and maintain connections with them when moving into new domains. Handoff occurs when a mobile node moves from one network to another. It is a key factor of mobility because a mobile node can trigger several handoffs during a session. This paper briefly explains on mobile IP and its handoff issues, along with the drawbacks of mobile IP.

  16. Cytoreduction with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: An anaesthetic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Murughan, Kavita; Tiwari, Malati; Balakrishnan, Kalpana

    2014-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy plays a considerable role as a treatment modality in surgical oncology in western countries. The advantage of this procedure is that the heated chemotherapeutic agent is circulated in the abdominal cavity and achieves high peritoneal concentration with limited systemic absorption. This procedure is complex not only to the surgical team, but also to the anaesthetist because apart from managing the usual physiologic changes associated with major surgery, one should also be prepared to manage the physiologic changes during the hyperthermic phase. Here, we present our experience with our first case. PMID:24700902

  17. Ethanol increases plasma vasopressin shortly after intraperitoneal injection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Colbern, D.L.; ten Haaf, J.; Tabakoff, B.; van Wimersma Greidanus, T.B.

    1985-09-16

    In rats, ethanol has generally been thought to inhibit vasopressin (VP) release into the peripheral circulation; however, the primary evidence for this conclusion has been indirect. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure VP in the plasma of rats decapitated 5 or 60 min after intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (2.0 g/kg). Confirming the popular notion that ethanol inhibits VP release, VP levels were decreased 60 min after treatment. But radioimmunoassay techniques also revealed that VP release is markedly stimulated shortly after an injection of ethanol. 14 references, 1 figure.

  18. Lactational Vitamin E Protects Against the Histotoxic Effects of Systemically Administered Vanadium in Neonatal Rats.

    PubMed

    Olaolorun, F A; Obasa, A A; Balogun, H A; Aina, O O; Olopade, J O

    2014-12-29

    The work investigated the protective role of lactational vitamin E administration on vanadium-induced histotoxicity. Three groups of Wistar rats, with each group comprising of two dams and their pups, were used in this study. Group I pups were administered intraperitoneal injection of sterile water at volumes corresponding to the dose rate of the vanadium (sodium metavanadate) treated group from postnatal day (PND) 1-14 while those in Group II were administered intraperitoneal injection of 3mg/kg vanadium from PND 1-14. Group III pups were administered intraperitoneal injection of 3mg/kg vanadium while the dam received oral vitamin E (500 mg) concurrently every 72 hours. The results showed that group II pups exhibited histopathological changes which included seminiferous tubule disruption of the testes characterised by vacuolar degeneration and coagulative necrosis of spermatogonia and Sertoli cells with reduction in mitosis, and areas of interstitial thickening with fibroblast proliferation. In addition, the lungs showed disruption of the bronchiolar wall and denudation of the bronchiolar respiratory epithelium while the liver showed hydropic degeneration and coagulative necrosis of the centrilobular hepatocytes. These histotoxic changes were ameliorated in the vanadium + vitamin E group. We conclude that lactational vitamin E protects against the histotoxic effects of vanadium and could be a consideration for supplementation in the occupationally and environmentally exposed neonates. However, caution should be taken in vitamin E supplementation because there is still equivocal evidence surrounding its benefits as a supplement at the moment.

  19. Structure of mouse IP-10, a chemokine

    SciTech Connect

    Jabeen, Talat; Leonard, Philip; Jamaluddin, Haryati; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2008-06-01

    The structure of mouse IP-10 shows a novel tetrameric association. Interferon-γ-inducible protein (IP-10) belongs to the CXC class of chemokines and plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of various immune and inflammatory responses. It is also a potent angiostatic factor with antifibrotic properties. The biological activities of IP-10 are exerted by interactions with the G-protein-coupled receptor CXCR3 expressed on Th1 lymphocytes. IP-10 thus forms an attractive target for structure-based rational drug design of anti-inflammatory molecules. The crystal structure of mouse IP-10 has been determined and reveals a novel tetrameric association. In the tetramer, two conventional CXC chemokine dimers are associated through their N-terminal regions to form a 12-stranded elongated β-sheet of ∼90 Å in length. This association differs significantly from the previously studied tetramers of human IP-10, platelet factor 4 and neutrophil-activating peptide-2. In addition, heparin- and receptor-binding residues were mapped on the surface of IP-10 tetramer. Two heparin-binding sites were observed on the surface and were present at the interface of each of the two β-sheet dimers. The structure supports the formation of higher order oligomers of IP-10, as observed in recent in vivo studies with mouse IP-10, which will have functional relevance.

  20. Internet topology: connectivity of IP graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broido, Andre; claffy, kc

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we introduce a framework for analyzing local properties of Internet connectivity. We compare BGP and probed topology data, finding that currently probed topology data yields much denser coverage of AS-level connectivity. We describe data acquisition and construction of several IP- level graphs derived from a collection of 220 M skitter traceroutes. We find that a graph consisting of IP nodes and links contains 90.5% of its 629 K nodes in the acyclic subgraph. In particular, 55% of the IP nodes are in trees. Full bidirectional connectivity is observed for a giant component containing 8.3% of IP nodes.

  1. Quantitation of Intra-peritoneal Ovarian Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lewellen, Kyle A; Metzinger, Matthew N; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy in the United States. Mortality is due to diagnosis of 75% of women with late stage disease, when metastasis is already present. EOC is characterized by diffuse and widely disseminated intra-peritoneal metastasis. Cells shed from the primary tumor anchor in the mesothelium that lines the peritoneal cavity as well as in the omentum, resulting in multi-focal metastasis, often in the presence of peritoneal ascites. Efforts in our laboratory are directed at a more detailed understanding of factors that regulate EOC metastatic success. However, quantifying metastatic tumor burden represents a significant technical challenge due to the large number, small size and broad distribution of lesions throughout the peritoneum. Herein we describe a method for analysis of EOC metastasis using cells labeled with red fluorescent protein (RFP) coupled with in vivo multispectral imaging. Following intra-peritoneal injection of RFP-labelled tumor cells, mice are imaged weekly until time of sacrifice. At this time, the peritoneal cavity is surgically exposed and organs are imaged in situ. Dissected organs are then placed on a labeled transparent template and imaged ex vivo. Removal of tissue auto-fluorescence during image processing using multispectral unmixing enables accurate quantitation of relative tumor burden. This method has utility in a variety of applications including therapeutic studies to evaluate compounds that may inhibit metastasis and thereby improve overall survival. PMID:27500635

  2. What's new in intraperitoneal test on Kevlar (asbestos substitute)?

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, O A; Müller, K M

    1989-09-01

    The intraperitoneal test is a suitable experimental method for studying the different patterns of morphological reaction to foreign body substances of various kinds and concentrations as well as their transport within and elimination from the organism, Kevlar fibres are synthetic aromatic polyamid (aramid) fibres which, investigated by means of the intraperitoneal test in Wistar rats, show distinct pathogenetic reaction patterns: 1. In the early stage after application, the formation of multinucleated giant cells with phagocytosis of the amber-coloured Kevlar fibres, and an inflammatory reaction are foremost features. 2. The typical feature of the second stage is the development of granulomas with central necrosis indicating the cytotoxic nature of Kevlar fibres. 3. The third stage is dominated by the mesenchymal activation with capsular structures of collagenous fibres. Besides granulomatous foci, a slight submesothelial fibrosis is observed. 4. Fragments of Kevlar fibres are drained through lymphatic pathways and stored in lymph nodes where they lead to inflammatory reactions. 5. The reactive granulomatous changes in the greater omentum of rats are accompanied by proliferative mesothelial changes which, in one cases, even led to the development of a multilocular mesothelioma.

  3. Immunization of pacific salmon: comparison of intraperitoneal injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida bacterins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antipa, Ross; Amend, Donald F.

    1977-01-01

    Two methods of immunizing fish, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and hyperosmotic infiltration, were compared for control of vibriosis and furunculosis in pen-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). Both methods provided significant protection against vibriosis under field test conditions. In coho salmon, hyperosmotic infiltration provided the best protection and fastest rise in antibody titer of seven treatments tested. In chinook salmon, hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida vaccines resulted in 83.3% survival in comparison with 28.7% survival in controls. Both i.p. injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of V. anguillarum and A. salmonicida bacterins resulted in production of serum antibodies specific for each respective pathogen. Vaccination with bivalent V. anguillarum–A.salmonicida vaccines produced antibodies to both pathogens, and provided protection against vibriosis. Growth rates of vaccinated coho salmon were not significantly different from controls.

  4. Intraperitoneal Administration of Low Dose Aluminium in The Rat: How Good is It to Produce a Model for Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, H B; Sonmez, M F; Kilic, E; Caliskan, K; Karaca, B; Kara, M; Ercal, O; Gunduz, Y; Karabulut, D; Bitiktas, S; Tan, B; Kavraal, S; İnal, A; Suer, C

    2015-12-01

    Since neurotoxicity of aluminium (Al) resembles the progressive neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer Disease (AD), Al administration in several ways has been used to produce AD model. Intraperitoneal (ip) low dose (4.2 mg/ kg) Al injection in rats for long periods is the preferred method by some researchers. In this paper, the efficiency of this method for producing an AD model was evaluated. In this study, we looked at the neuropathology of Al and the characteristic lesions of AD by histological and immunohistochemical techniques and determined oxidative stress markers in the brains of Al-treated and control rats. We also made electrophysiological recordings at the hippocampus and evaluated possible behavioural changes by Morris water maze test. However, no pathologic changes occurred in the animals except for an impairment in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus (e.g. the LTPs of population spike (PS) amplitude at 15 min post-tetanus were measured as 217±27% in Al-treated rats and as 240±42% in sham-treated rats, of baseline PS amplitude). According to the findings of the present study, low dose of ip Al in rats is not sufficient to produce a good AD model. Higher doses (≥10 mg/kg) should be used.

  5. VoIP to the Rescue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is everywhere. The technology lets users make and receive phone calls over the Internet, transporting voice traffic alongside data traffic such as instant messages (IMs) and e-mail. While the number of consumer customers using VoIP increases every week, the technology is finding its way into K-12 education as…

  6. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal injections of toxic honey extract in adult Wistar rats and GAERS.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Pinar; Torun, Merve; Halac, Hande Melike; Temiz, Gozde; Iskender, Ece; Karamahmutoglu, Tugba; Idrizoglu, Medine Gulcebi; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Toxic honey, containing grayanotoxin, is obtained from nectar and polen of rhododendron. Consumed in excess it produces seizures and convulsions. In order to investigate whether the toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model, we examined the electroencephalographic (EEG) and motor effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of toxic honey extract in Wistar rats or in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Male Wistar rats or GAERS were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral cortical recording electrodes in all ip groups and cannula in the icv groups. Based on the previous study, an extract was obtained from the non-toxic and toxic honey. After the injection of the non-toxic or toxic honey extract, seizure stages and changes in EEG were evaluated from 9 am to noon. The icv administration of toxic honey extract produced stage 4 seizures and bilateral cortical spikes within 30-60 min and these effects disappeared after 120 min in Wistar rats or GAERS. The mean of bilateral cortical spike acitivity in EEG of Wistar rats was 804.2 ± 261.0 s in the 3-h period. After the icv administration of toxic honey extract to GAERS, the mean duration of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in GAERS significantly decreased during the first 60 min and then returned to baseline level. Ip injection of toxic honey extract caused no seizure and no change in EEG in either GAERS or Wistars. These results suggest that the icv administration of toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model. PMID:25120202

  7. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal injections of toxic honey extract in adult Wistar rats and GAERS.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Pinar; Torun, Merve; Halac, Hande Melike; Temiz, Gozde; Iskender, Ece; Karamahmutoglu, Tugba; Idrizoglu, Medine Gulcebi; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz

    2014-12-01

    Toxic honey, containing grayanotoxin, is obtained from nectar and polen of rhododendron. Consumed in excess it produces seizures and convulsions. In order to investigate whether the toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model, we examined the electroencephalographic (EEG) and motor effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of toxic honey extract in Wistar rats or in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Male Wistar rats or GAERS were stereotaxically implanted with bilateral cortical recording electrodes in all ip groups and cannula in the icv groups. Based on the previous study, an extract was obtained from the non-toxic and toxic honey. After the injection of the non-toxic or toxic honey extract, seizure stages and changes in EEG were evaluated from 9 am to noon. The icv administration of toxic honey extract produced stage 4 seizures and bilateral cortical spikes within 30-60 min and these effects disappeared after 120 min in Wistar rats or GAERS. The mean of bilateral cortical spike acitivity in EEG of Wistar rats was 804.2 ± 261.0 s in the 3-h period. After the icv administration of toxic honey extract to GAERS, the mean duration of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) in GAERS significantly decreased during the first 60 min and then returned to baseline level. Ip injection of toxic honey extract caused no seizure and no change in EEG in either GAERS or Wistars. These results suggest that the icv administration of toxic honey extract can be used as a seizure model.

  8. Successful treatment of steroid-resistant methotrexate-induced interstitial pneumonia with peripherally administered ulinastatin.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hayato; Nagasaka, Kenji

    2011-02-01

    A 76-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis who had been taking methotrexate (MTX) for 9 months was admitted because of acute respiratory failure. A chest radiograph revealed diffuse ground-glass attenuation. MTX-induced interstitial pneumonia (IP) was strongly suspected. Her respiratory failure worsened in spite of steroid pulse therapy. Intravenous administration of ulinastatin, however, dramatically improved her clinical condition. The second ulinastatin treatment was also effective. This case suggests that peripherally administered ulinastatin may be effective for steroid-resistant MTX-induced IP.

  9. Space Network IP Services (SNIS): An Architecture for Supporting Low Earth Orbiting IP Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space Network (SN) supports a variety of missions using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which includes ground stations in White Sands, New Mexico and Guam. A Space Network IP Services (SNIS) architecture is being developed to support future users with requirements for end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP) communications. This architecture will support all IP protocols, including Mobile IP, over TDRSS Single Access, Multiple Access, and Demand Access Radio Frequency (RF) links. This paper will describe this architecture and how it can enable Low Earth Orbiting IP satellite missions.

  10. Dose-response relationship of fibrous dusts in intraperitoneal studies.

    PubMed Central

    Roller, M; Pott, F; Kamino, K; Althoff, G H; Bellmann, B

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between the number of fibers injected intraperitoneally and the occurrence of peritoneal mesotheliomas in rats was investigated using data from a series of carcinogenicity studies with several fibrous dusts. Based on observed tumor incidences ranging between 10 and 90%, the hypothesis of a common slope of dose-response relationships (parallel probit lines in probit analysis) cannot be rejected. In general, parallelism of probit lines is considered an indication of a common mode of action. Analysis of the shape of the dose-response relationship, with one apparent exception, shows virtually linear or superlinear behavior, i.e., from these data, there is no indication of a decrease in carcinogenic potency of an elementary carcinogenic unit at lower doses. PMID:9400733

  11. Hepatic positive and negative antioxidant responses in zebrafish after intraperitoneal administration of toxic microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jie; Li, Li; Xue, Ting; Long, Meng; Su, Yujing; Wu, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most toxic and common among microcystins. In order to understand the possible molecular mechanisms of hepatic antioxidation and detoxification, the activities and transcriptional levels of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferases (GST), and glutathione (GSH) contents as well as histopathological changes were studied in the liver of female zebrafish injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at doses of 50 and 200 μg MC-LR kg(-1) body weight (BW) respectively. In the low dose group (50 μg MC-LR kg(-1)), zebrafish displayed a little unease at the initial 1h post-injection (hpi), slight hepatic injury and quick recovery, and enhanced enzymatic activities and up-regulated gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. In contrast, high dose of MC-LR (200 μg MC-LR kg(-1)) resulted in uneasiness and frantic swimming, severe hepatic injury, and suppressed enzymatic activities and down-regulated gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. GSH depletion in both dose groups may be explained by enhanced antioxidant reactions and higher rates of MC conjugation, suggesting the crucial roles of GSH in both cellular antioxidant protection and MC-LR detoxification. This study demonstrated that administration of MC-LR caused a positive response in the low dose group but a negative response in the high dose group. Hepatic positive/negative responses in the low/high dose group might result from an increased/decreased synthesis of antioxidant enzymes at the molecular level, respectively. These results illustrated that antioxidant status played an important role in zebrafish protection against MC-LR-caused oxidative stress through regulating antioxidant enzyme gene expression and activities. PMID:25462319

  12. Intraperitoneal mesotheliomas induced in mice by a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, J.M.; Anderson, L.M. ); Kovatch, R.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Female mice of 6 strains (C3H/HeN, BALB/c, C57BL/6N, DBA/2, NIH Swiss, and AKR/N) were given the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) intragastrically in olive oil at a dose of 20 mg/kg, weekly for 12 wk. Half were pretreated 24 h before each MC administration with intraperitoneal {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF, 150 mg/kg in olive oil), a noncarinogenic inducer of certain cytochrome P-450 isozymes. Remaining mice were given olive oil prior to MC in the same fashion, or {beta}-NF in olive oil or olive oil alone without subsequent exposure to MC. All mice were killed when moribund or 13 mo after the start of treatment. Most of the mice, irrespective of treatment, exhibited signs of peritoneal injury, including inflammation, necrosis, granuloma formation, and mineralization. Mice of some of the strains also presented peritoneal mesotheliomas, in addition to a variety of other tumors. {beta}-NF pretreatment reduced the frequency of mesotheliomas: there was only one definite mesothelioma in any of the {beta}-NF-MC groups, in a C3H/He mouse. Most of the measotheliomas were mixed fibro-mesothelial type, sometimes with papillary epithelial excrescences. They typically grew in a botryoid pattern within the peritoneal cavity, coating the abdominal organs and sometimes actively invading these organs and the diaphragm. Some lesions exhibited pleomorphism, prominent giant cells, and frequent mitoses. In addition, several lesions consisting of severe mesothelial hyperplasia associated with tissue necrosis and inflammation were considered as possible early stages of mesothelioma development. It was postulated that peritoneal injury imposed by repeated intraperitoneal injection of oil acted as an enhancing factor for mesothelioma induction by MC.

  13. Toxicological Studies of 212Pb Intravenously or Intraperitoneally Injected into Mice for a Phase 1 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Milenic, Diane E.; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Solivella, María S.; Banaga, Eileen; Torgue, Julien; Besnainou, Sarah; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Baidoo, Kwamena E.

    2015-01-01

    Faced with the novelty of a 212Pb-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) for clinical translation, concerns were expressed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding 212Pb prematurely released from the mAb-chelate conjugate. The objective of this study was to simulate the worst case scenario of such a failure. Groups of Balb/c mice (n = 9–20) were administered 212Pb by intraperitoneal (0.0925–1.85 MBq) or intravenous (0.0925–1.11 MBq) injection and then euthanized at 7 or 90 days to assess acute or chronic effects. Weights were recorded prior to injection of the 212Pb and at the end of the observation periods. Blood samples were collected for clinical chemistry and blood cell analysis. Thirty tissues were harvested and formalin fixed for histopathological examination. Treatment related effects of the 212Pb were observed in the bone marrow, spleen, kidneys and the liver. Histological alterations in these organs were considered mild to moderate, indicating low grade toxicity, and not considered severe enough to affect function. This data was presented to the FDA and determined to be acceptable. The clinical trial with 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab was approved in January 2011 and the trial opened at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) in July. PMID:26213947

  14. Intensive Care Unit Admission after Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy. Is It Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    López-Basave, Horacio N.; Morales-Vasquez, Flavia; Mendez-Herrera, Carmen; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A.; Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Calderillo-Ruiz, German; Cabrera Rojas, Jesús; Ruiz-Garcia, Erika; Herrera-Gomez, Angel; Ruiz-Molina, Juan M.; Meneses Garcia, Abelardo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Cytoreductive surgery (CS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a new approach for peritoneal carcinomatosis. However, high rates of complications are associated with CS and HIPEC due to treatment complexity; that is why some patients need stabilization and surveillance for complications in the intensive care unit. Objective. This study analyzed that ICU stay is necessary after HIPEC. Methods. 39 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis were treated according to strict selection criteria with CS and HIPEC, with closed technique, and the chemotherapy administered were cisplatin 25 mg/m2/L and mitomycin C 3.3 mg/m2/L for 90-minutes at 40.5°C. Results. 26 (67%) of the 39 patients were transferred to the ICU. Major postoperative complications were seen in 14/26 patients (53%). The mean time on surgical procedures was 7.06 hours (range 5−9 hours). The mean blood loss was 939 ml (range 100–3700 ml). The mean time stay in the ICU was 2.7 days. Conclusion. CS with HIPEC for the treatment of PC results in low mortality and high morbidity. Therefore, ICU stay directly following HIPEC should not be standardized, but should preferably be based on the extent or resections performed and individual patient characteristics and risk factors. Late complications were comparable to those reported after large abdominal surgery without HIPEC. PMID:24864143

  15. 77 FR 33227 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY... Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Sector Outreach and...--Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT). DHS...

  16. IPS guidestar selection for stellar mode (ASTRO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, Larry; Wooten, Lewis

    1988-01-01

    This report describes how guide stars are selected for the Optical Sensor Package (OSP) for the Instrument Pointing System (IPS) when it is operating in the stellar mode on the ASTRO missions. It also describes how the objective loads are written and how the various roll angles are related; i.e., the celestial roll or position angle, the objective load roll angles, and the IPS gimbal angles. There is a brief description of how the IPS operates and its various modes of operation; i.e., IDOP, IDIN, and OSPCAL.

  17. Uniform communications software using TCP/IP

    SciTech Connect

    Bernett, M.; Oleynik, G. )

    1989-10-01

    Data acquisition applications at Fermilab require a reliable, distributed communication system for downloading, diagnostics, control, and data distribution. TCP/IP over Ethernet was chosen because of its uniform user interface and commercial availability for a number of processors and operating systems. This paper describes the authors software and hardware support for TCP/IP on VAX/VMS, VME/rhoSOS, FASTBUS/rhoSOS, and Unix systems. It includes plans to provide a portable, hardware independent implementation of TCP/IP based on Berkeley BSD software.

  18. Uniform communications software using TCP/IP

    SciTech Connect

    Bernett, M.; Oleynik, G.

    1989-05-01

    Data acquisition applications at Fermilab require a reliable, distributed communication system for downloading, diagnostics, control, and data distribution. TCP/IP over Ethernet was chosen because of its uniform user interface and commercial availability for a number of processors and operating systems. This paper describes our software and hardware support for TCP/IP on VAX/VMS, VME/pSOS, FASTBUS/pSOS, and Unix systems. It includes plans to provide a portable, hardware independent implementation of TCP/IP based on Berkeley BSD software. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  19. An Open, Randomized, Single-Center, Crossover Pharmacokinetic Study of Meropenem after Intraperitoneal and Intravenous Administration in Patients Receiving Automated Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wiesholzer, Martin; Pichler, Petra; Reznicek, Gottfried; Wimmer, Michaela; Kussmann, Manuel; Balcke, Peter; Burgmann, Heinz; Zeitlinger, Markus; Poeppl, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of meropenem in automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients. In 6 patients without peritonitis, a single dose of 0.5 g of meropenem was applied intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intravenously (i.v.) and concentrations in serum and dialysate were measured at specified intervals over 24 h with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean maximum concentrations of meropenem in serum (Cmax) were 27.2 mg/liter (standard deviation [SD], ±6.9) and 10.1 mg/liter (SD, ±2.5) and in dialysate were 3.6 mg/liter (SD, ±2.3) and 185.8 mg/liter (SD, ±18.7) after i.v. and i.p. administrations, respectively. The mean areas under the curve from 0 to 24 (AUC0-24) of meropenem in serum were 173.5 mg · h/liter (SD, ±29.7) and 141.4 mg · h/liter (SD, ±37.5) (P = 0.046) and in dialysate were 42.6 mg · h/liter (SD, ±20.0) and 623.4 mg · h/liter (SD, ±84.1) (P = 0.028) after i.v. and i.p. administrations, respectively. The ratios for dialysate exposure over plasma exposure after i.v. and i.p. treatments were 0.2 (SD, ±0.1) and 4.6 (SD, ±0.9), respectively (P = 0.031). A mean target value of 40% T>MIC (time for which the free meropenem concentration exceeds the MIC) for clinically relevant pathogens with EUCAST susceptibility breakpoints of 2 mg/liter was reached in serum after i.p. and i.v. administrations and in dialysate after i.p. but not after i.v. administration. The present data indicate that low i.p. exposure limits the i.v. use of meropenem for PD-associated peritonitis. In contrast, i.p. administration not only results in superior concentrations in dialysate but also might be used to treat systemic infections. PMID:26902765

  20. Development of a new model for the induction of chronic kidney disease via intraperitoneal adenine administration, and the effect of treatment with gum acacia thereon

    PubMed Central

    Al Za’abi, Mohammed; Al Busaidi, Mahfouda; Yasin, Javid; Schupp, Nicole; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Ali, Badreldin H

    2015-01-01

    Oral adenine (0.75% w/w in feed), is an established model for human chronic kidney disease (CKD). Gum acacia (GA) has been shown to be a nephroprotective agent in this model. Here we aimed at developing a new adenine-induced CKD model in rats via a systemic route (intraperitoneal, i.p.) and to test it with GA to obviate the possibility of a physical interaction between GA and adenine in the gut. Adenine was injected i.p. (50 or 100 mg/Kg for four weeks), and GA was given concomitantly in drinking water at a concentration of 15%, w/v. Several plasma and urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured and the renal damage was assessed histopathologically. Adenine, at the two given i.p. doses, significantly reduced body weight, and increased relative kidney weight, water intake and urine output. It dose-dependently increased plasma and urinary inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, and caused morphological and histological damage resembling that which has been reported with oral adenine. Concomitant treatment with GA significantly mitigated almost all the above measured indices. Administration of adenine i.p. induced CKD signs very similar to those induced by oral adenine. Therefore, this new model is quicker, more practical and accurate than the original (oral) model. GA ameliorates the CKD effects caused by adenine given i.p. suggesting that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties possessed by oral GA are the main mechanism for its salutary action in adenine-induced CKD, an action that is independent of its possible interaction with adenine in the gut. PMID:25755826

  1. Development of a new model for the induction of chronic kidney disease via intraperitoneal adenine administration, and the effect of treatment with gum acacia thereon.

    PubMed

    Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Al Busaidi, Mahfouda; Yasin, Javid; Schupp, Nicole; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Ali, Badreldin H

    2015-01-01

    Oral adenine (0.75% w/w in feed), is an established model for human chronic kidney disease (CKD). Gum acacia (GA) has been shown to be a nephroprotective agent in this model. Here we aimed at developing a new adenine-induced CKD model in rats via a systemic route (intraperitoneal, i.p.) and to test it with GA to obviate the possibility of a physical interaction between GA and adenine in the gut. Adenine was injected i.p. (50 or 100 mg/Kg for four weeks), and GA was given concomitantly in drinking water at a concentration of 15%, w/v. Several plasma and urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured and the renal damage was assessed histopathologically. Adenine, at the two given i.p. doses, significantly reduced body weight, and increased relative kidney weight, water intake and urine output. It dose-dependently increased plasma and urinary inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, and caused morphological and histological damage resembling that which has been reported with oral adenine. Concomitant treatment with GA significantly mitigated almost all the above measured indices. Administration of adenine i.p. induced CKD signs very similar to those induced by oral adenine. Therefore, this new model is quicker, more practical and accurate than the original (oral) model. GA ameliorates the CKD effects caused by adenine given i.p. suggesting that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties possessed by oral GA are the main mechanism for its salutary action in adenine-induced CKD, an action that is independent of its possible interaction with adenine in the gut.

  2. IP-1 Certification of Cargo Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Hagler, Lisle

    2010-10-05

    The purpose and scope of this engineering note is to demonstrate that the structural design of the cargo container complies with the IP-1 container requirements of 49 CFR 173.410 as required by CFR 173.411.

  3. Intrauterine pregnancy following low-dose gonadotropin ovulation induction and direct intraperitoneal insemination for severe cervical stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Sills, E Scott; Palermo, Gianpiero D

    2002-01-01

    Background We present a case of primary infertility related to extreme cervical stenosis, a subset of cervical factor infertility which accounts for approximately 5% of all clinical infertility referrals. Case presentation A 37 year-old nulligravida was successfully treated with ovulation induction via recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and direct intraperitoneal insemination (IPI). Anticipating controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF), the patient underwent hysteroscopy and cervical recanalization, but safe intrauterine access was not possible due to severe proximal cervical stricture. Hysterosalpingogram established bilateral tubal patency and confirmed an irregular cervical contour. Since the cervical canal could not be traversed, neither standard intrauterine insemination nor transcervical embryo transfer could be offered. Prepared spermatozoa were therefore placed intraperitoneally at both tubal fimbria under real-time transvaginal sonographic guidance using a 17 gage single-lumen IVF needle. Supplementary progesterone was administered as 200 mg/d lozenge (troche) plus 200 mg/d rectal suppository, maintained from the day following IPI to the 8th gestational week. A singleton intrauterine pregnancy was achieved after the second ovulation induction attempt. Conclusions In this report, we outline the relevance of cervical factor infertility to reproductive medicine practice. Additionally, our andrology evaluation, ovulation induction approach, spermatozoa preparation, and insemination technique in such cases are described. PMID:12450413

  4. Organ distribution of quantum dots after intraperitoneal administration, with special reference to area-specific distribution in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shingo; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Tozawa, Takenori; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Kanamura, Narisato; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Fushiki, Shinji

    2010-08-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their potential application in biosensing, ex vivo live-cell imaging and in vivo animal targeting. The brain is a challenging organ for drug delivery, because the blood brain barrier (BBB) functions as a gatekeeper guarding the body from exogenous substances. Here, we evaluated the distribution of bioconjugated QDs, i.e., captopril-conjugated QDs (QDs-cap) following intraperitoneal injection into male ICR mice as a model system for determining the tissue localization of QDs, employing ICP-MS and confocal microscopy coupled with spectrometric analysis. We have demonstrated that intraperitoneally administered QDs-cap were delivered via systemic blood circulation into liver, spleen, kidney and brain at 6 h after injection. QDs-cap were located predominantly inside the blood vessels in the liver, kidney and brain, but a few were distributed in the parenchyma, especially noteworthy in the brain. Careful studies on acute as well as chronic toxicity of QDs in the brain are required prior to clinical application to humans.

  5. Organ distribution of quantum dots after intraperitoneal administration, with special reference to area-specific distribution in the brain.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shingo; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Tozawa, Takenori; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki; Kanamura, Narisato; Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Fushiki, Shinji

    2010-08-20

    Quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their potential application in biosensing, ex vivo live-cell imaging and in vivo animal targeting. The brain is a challenging organ for drug delivery, because the blood brain barrier (BBB) functions as a gatekeeper guarding the body from exogenous substances. Here, we evaluated the distribution of bioconjugated QDs, i.e., captopril-conjugated QDs (QDs-cap) following intraperitoneal injection into male ICR mice as a model system for determining the tissue localization of QDs, employing ICP-MS and confocal microscopy coupled with spectrometric analysis. We have demonstrated that intraperitoneally administered QDs-cap were delivered via systemic blood circulation into liver, spleen, kidney and brain at 6 h after injection. QDs-cap were located predominantly inside the blood vessels in the liver, kidney and brain, but a few were distributed in the parenchyma, especially noteworthy in the brain. Careful studies on acute as well as chronic toxicity of QDs in the brain are required prior to clinical application to humans. PMID:20660952

  6. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancers: is there a role?

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Scott D.; Holtzman, Matthew P.; Edwards, Robert P.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Choudry, Mohammad Haroon; Bartlett, David; Huang, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is often used to treat gastrointestinal malignancies and is of interest in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) given the propensity for intraperitoneal spread. The role of HIPEC in the treatment of gynecologic malignancies is not well defined. We sought to describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of our patient population treated with HIPEC. Methods IRB approval was obtained. Patients diagnosed with EOC and treated with HIPEC from January 2007 until December 2013 were identified using a prospectively maintained HIPEC database. Patient charts were abstracted to identify patient demographic information, treatment characteristics, and outcome data. Statistical analysis was descriptive. Results Thirty-four patients were identified. Mean age at diagnosis was 56.5 years. The majority of cases (28, 82%) were of serous histology. The indications for HIPEC administration were as follows: 9% primary treatment, 41% first recurrence, 26% second recurrence, and 24% consolidative therapy in the setting of primary or recurrent disease. The majority of patients (21, 62%) received mitomycin C. The other drugs administered include cisplatin (10, 29%), oxaliplatin (2, 6%), and carboplatin (1, 3%). Mean length of hospital stay was 9 days (range, 3-39 days). The rates of postoperative bacteremia and hematologic toxicity were 6% and 54%, respectively. Seven (21%) patients developed transient renal dysfunction, and this was seen almost exclusively in the patients who received cisplatin. One (3%) additional patient had renal dysfunction that persisted longer than 30 days post-operative but did not go on to require dialysis. There were no perioperative deaths in this cohort. Eleven (32%) patients received additional chemotherapy following HIPEC administration. At a median follow-up of 20 months (range, 3-87 months), eight patients are alive with disease, seven have no evidence of disease, 14 have died of their disease, and five

  7. Immunization with a Streptococcus bovis vaccine administered by different routes against lactic acidosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Shu, Q; Gill, H S; Leng, R A; Rowe, J B

    2000-05-01

    Streptococcus bovis is an important lactic acid bacterium in the rumen, which contributes to the development of lactic acidosis. This study was designed to test the efficacy of immunization with S. bovis primed either intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraperitoneally (i.p. ) against lactic acidosis. Forty-five wethers were allocated to three treatment groups. Two groups were injected with a S. bovis vaccine by either the i.m. or i.p. route for primary immunization; both groups were further immunized by the same route(s) (oral and/or i.m.) for boosters. The third group was not immunized (control). Antibody concentrations were measured in saliva prior to and following animals being fed a grain diet, and also in the rumen fluid, before the animals were suddenly introduced to a grain diet. The average antibody concentration in the animals of the i.m. group was higher than the i.p. group (P< 0.05). The antibody concentration in the rumen fluid of immunized sheep was higher than the control animals (P< 0.01). The difference in the rumen fluid antibody concentration between the i.m. and i.p. groups was not statistically significant (P> 0.05). In the i.m. group, there was a significantly greater feed intake, higher rumen pH, lower diarrhoea scores, and less increase in blood packed cell volume following grain feeding than in the animals of the control group. The severity of diarrhoea and the increase of blood packed cell volume in the animals of the i. p. group were also less than in the animals of the control group. The results suggest that the risk of lactic acidosis can be reduced by immunization against S. bovis, and that the immunization primed i. m. is more effective than the immunization primed i.p.

  8. Comparative calibration of IP scanning equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingenito, F.; Andreoli, P.; Batani, D.; Boutoux, G.; Cipriani, M.; Consoli, F.; Cristofari, G.; Curcio, A.; De Angelis, R.; Di Giorgio, G.; Ducret, J.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Hulin, S.; Jakubowska, K.; Rabhi, N.

    2016-05-01

    Imaging Plates (IP) are diagnostic devices which contain a photostimulable phosphor layer that stores the incident radiation dose as a latent image. The image is read with a scanner which stimulates the decay of electrons, previously excited by the incident radiation, by exposition to a laser beam. This results in emitted light, which is detected by photomultiplier tubes; so the latent image is reconstructed. IPs have the interesting feature that can be reused many times, after erasing stored information. Algorithms to convert signals stored in the detector to Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) counts depend on the scanner and are not available on every model. A comparative cross-calibration of the IP scanner Dürr CR35 BIO, used in ABC laboratory, was performed, using the Fujifilm FLA 7000 scanner as a reference, to find the equivalence between grey-scale values given by the Dürr scanner to PSL counts. Using an IP and a 55Fe β-source, we produced pairs of samples with the same exposition times, which were analysed by both scanners, placing particular attention to fading times of the image stored on IPs. Data analysis led us to the determine a conversion formula which can be used to compare data of experiments obtained in different laboratories and to use IP calibrations available, till now, only for Fujifilm scanners.

  9. Mouse model of sublethal and lethal intraperitoneal glanders (Burkholderia mallei).

    PubMed

    Fritz, D L; Vogel, P; Brown, D R; Deshazer, D; Waag, D M

    2000-11-01

    Sixty male BALB/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with either a sublethal or a lethal dose of Burkholderia mallei China 7 strain, then killed at multiple time points postinoculation. Histopathologic changes were qualitatively similar in both groups and consisted of pyogranulomatous inflammation. In sublethal study mice, changes were first seen at 6 hours in mediastinal lymph nodes, then in spleen, liver, peripheral lymph nodes, and bone marrow at day 3. These changes generally reached maximal incidence and severity by day 4 but decreased by comparison in all tissues except the liver. Changes were first seen in lethal study mice also at 6 hours in mediastinal lymph nodes and in spleens. At day 1, changes were present in liver, peripheral lymph nodes, and bone marrow. The incidence and severity of these changes were maximal at day 2. In contrast to sublethal study mice, the incidence and severity of the changes did not decrease through the remainder of the study. The most significant difference between the two groups was the rapid involvement of the spleen in the lethal study mice. Changes indicative of impaired vascular perfusion were more frequently seen in the sublethal study mice. Our findings indicate that mice are susceptible to B. mallei infection and may serve as an appropriate model for glanders infection in a resistant host such as human beings. Additionally, by immunoelectron microscopy, we showed the presence of type I O-antigenic polysaccharide (capsular) antigen surrounding B. mallei.

  10. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Seshadri, Ramakrishnan Ayloor; Glehen, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer associated peritoneal carcinomatosis (GCPC) has a poor prognosis with a median survival of less than one year. Systemic chemotherapy including targeted agents has not been found to significantly increase the survival in GCPC. Since recurrent gastric cancer remains confined to the abdominal cavity in many patients, regional therapies like aggressive cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been investigated for GCPC. HIPEC has been used for three indications in GC- as an adjuvant therapy after a curative surgery, HIPEC has been shown to improve survival and reduce peritoneal recurrences in many randomised trials in Asian countries; as a definitive treatment in established PC, HIPEC along with CRS is the only therapeutic modality that has resulted in long-term survival in select groups of patients; as a palliative treatment in advanced PC with intractable ascites, HIPEC has been shown to control ascites and reduce the need for frequent paracentesis. While the results of randomised trials of adjuvant HIPEC from western centres are awaited, the role of HIPEC in the treatment of GCPC is still evolving and needs larger studies before it is accepted as a standard of care. PMID:26811651

  11. Prophylactic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tuvin, Daniel; Berger, Yaniv; Aycart, Samantha N; Shtilbans, Tatiana; Hiotis, Spiros; Labow, Daniel M; Sarpel, Umut

    2016-05-01

    Background Prophylactic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a promising approach for preventing peritoneal carcinomatosis in high-risk patients. We report our initial experience with prophylactic HIPEC in a series of patients with appendiceal neoplasms. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively maintained database to identify patients who underwent HIPEC in the absence of peritoneal disease. Patients with previously documented peritoneal surface disease were excluded. Data regarding clinical, operative and pathological features were analysed. Results Out of 322 HIPEC procedures performed between March 2007and August 2015, we identified 16 patients who underwent surgery with prophylactic intent. Primary diagnoses included high-grade and low-grade appendiceal neoplasms. Most patients presented originally with appendiceal perforation; all patients underwent initial surgery during which the appendix or right colon were resected. Following a median time interval of 2.2 months, a second surgery performed at our institution consisted of completion of omentectomy, partial colectomy and oophorectomy, with administration of prophylactic HIPEC (using mitomycin C). A totally laparoscopic approach was attempted and achieved in 11 patients in whom the median duration of surgery, estimated intraoperative blood loss and length of hospitalisation were 251 min, 100 cm(3) and 4 days, respectively. There were no cases of major perioperative morbidity or mortality. Conclusions Prophylactic HIPEC for appendiceal neoplasms is feasible, safe and may be performed laparoscopically. Larger studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine whether a survival benefit is associated with this treatment. PMID:27050712

  12. The Role of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, Ramakrishnan Ayloor; Glehen, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Peritoneal metastasis, either synchronous or metachronous, is commonly seen in gastric cancer. It is associated with a poor prognosis, with a median survival of less than one year. The outcomes are not significantly improved by the use of systemic chemotherapy. We review the relevant literature on the role of HIPEC in gastric cancer. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been used in three situations in gastric cancer. Besides its role as a definitive treatment in patients with established peritoneal metastasis (PM), it has been used as a prophylaxis against peritoneal recurrence after curative surgery and also as a palliative treatment in advanced peritoneal metastasis with intractable ascites. While prophylactic HIPEC has been shown to reduce peritoneal recurrence and improve survival in many randomised trials, palliative HIPEC can reduce the need for frequent paracentesis. Although CRS with HIPEC has shown promise in increasing the survival of selected patients with established PM from gastric cancer, larger studies are needed before this can be accepted as a standard of care. PMID:27065710

  13. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  14. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  15. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  16. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  17. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  18. Analysis of Two Complementary Single-Gene Deletion Mutant Libraries of Salmonella Typhimurium in Intraperitoneal Infection of BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Valenzuela, Cecilia A.; Molina-Quiroz, Roberto C.; Desai, Prerak; Valenzuela, Camila; Porwollik, Steffen; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene; Contreras, Inés; Santiviago, Carlos A.; McClelland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Two pools of individual single gene deletion (SGD) mutants of S. Typhimurium 14028s encompassing deletions of 3,923 annotated non-essential ORFs and sRNAs were screened by intraperitoneal (IP) injection in BALB/c mice followed by recovery from spleen and liver 2 days post infection. The relative abundance of each mutant was measured by microarray hybridization. The two mutant libraries differed in the orientation of the antibiotic resistance cassettes (either sense-oriented KanR, SGD-K, or antisense-oriented CamR, SGD-C). Consistent systemic colonization defects were observed in both libraries and both organs for hundreds of mutants of genes previously reported to be important after IP injection in this animal model, and for about 100 new candidate genes required for systemic colonization. Four mutants with a range of apparent fitness defects were confirmed using competitive infections with the wild-type parental strain: ΔSTM0286, ΔSTM0551, ΔSTM2363, and ΔSTM3356. Two mutants, ΔSTM0286 and ΔSTM2363, were then complemented in trans with a plasmid encoding an intact copy of the corresponding wild-type gene, and regained the ability to fully colonize BALB/c mice systemically. These results suggest the presence of many more undiscovered Salmonella genes with phenotypes in IP infection of BALB/c mice, and validate the libraries for application to other systems. PMID:26779130

  19. Analysis of Two Complementary Single-Gene Deletion Mutant Libraries of Salmonella Typhimurium in Intraperitoneal Infection of BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Silva-Valenzuela, Cecilia A; Molina-Quiroz, Roberto C; Desai, Prerak; Valenzuela, Camila; Porwollik, Steffen; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene; Contreras, Inés; Santiviago, Carlos A; McClelland, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Two pools of individual single gene deletion (SGD) mutants of S. Typhimurium 14028s encompassing deletions of 3,923 annotated non-essential ORFs and sRNAs were screened by intraperitoneal (IP) injection in BALB/c mice followed by recovery from spleen and liver 2 days post infection. The relative abundance of each mutant was measured by microarray hybridization. The two mutant libraries differed in the orientation of the antibiotic resistance cassettes (either sense-oriented Kan(R), SGD-K, or antisense-oriented Cam(R), SGD-C). Consistent systemic colonization defects were observed in both libraries and both organs for hundreds of mutants of genes previously reported to be important after IP injection in this animal model, and for about 100 new candidate genes required for systemic colonization. Four mutants with a range of apparent fitness defects were confirmed using competitive infections with the wild-type parental strain: ΔSTM0286, ΔSTM0551, ΔSTM2363, and ΔSTM3356. Two mutants, ΔSTM0286 and ΔSTM2363, were then complemented in trans with a plasmid encoding an intact copy of the corresponding wild-type gene, and regained the ability to fully colonize BALB/c mice systemically. These results suggest the presence of many more undiscovered Salmonella genes with phenotypes in IP infection of BALB/c mice, and validate the libraries for application to other systems. PMID:26779130

  20. Effect of sub-chronic intraperitoneal administration of aminoguanidine on the memory and hippocampal apoptosis-related genes in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Alipour, M; Amini, B; Adineh, F; Feizi, H; Jafari, M R

    2016-01-01

    Memory impairment is a common disorder in diabetes mellitus which is associated with hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of one-week intraperitoneal (ip), administration of aminoguanidine (AG) on passive avoidance learning (PAL) and Bcl-2 family gene expression in the hippocampus of rats. Sixty male rats were divided into ten groups: non-diabetic/diabetic animals with/without AG (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, ip) treatment for one week. PAL and Bcl-2 family genes were examined. AG (100 and 200 mg/kg) improved both memory and Bax, Bak, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl deficiency significantly in diabetic rats. AG treatment also ameliorated the diabetes-induced changes in (Bcl-2+Bcl-xl)/(Bak+Bax) ratios considerably. These results propose that one-week ip administration of AG may recover the deficit cognition in diabetic rats via enhancing (Bcl-2+Bcl-xl)/(Bak+Bax) proportions (Tab. 2, Fig. 4, Ref. 55). PMID:27546701

  1. Combined intravenous and intraperitoneal chemotherapy with fluorouracil + leucovorin vs fluorouracil + levamisole for adjuvant therapy of resected colon carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Scheithauer, W.; Kornek, G. V.; Marczell, A.; Karner, J.; Salem, G.; Greiner, R.; Burger, D.; Stöger, F.; Ritschel, J.; Kovats, E.; Vischer, H. M.; Schneeweiss, B.; Depisch, D.

    1998-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy with fluorouracil (FU) and levamisole or FU/leucovorin (LV) has been established as effective adjuvant treatment for patients with stage III colon cancer. Among several other promising treatment strategies in resected colon cancer, intraperitoneal anti-cancer drug administration with its appealing rationale of counteracting microscopic residual disease on peritoneal surfaces and occult metachronous liver metastases by achieving high intraportal drug concentrations has not yet undergone sufficient clinical evaluation. To determine whether a combination of this locoregional therapeutic concept with systemic intravenous administration of FU/LV would yield better results than conventional adjuvant chemoimmunotherapy with FU/levamisole, the present randomized study was initiated. A total of 241 patients with resected stage III or high-risk stage II (T4N0M0) colon cancer were randomly assigned to 'standard therapy' with FU and levamisole, given for a duration of 6 months, or to an investigational arm, consisting of LV 200 mg m(-2) plus FU 350 mg m(-2), both administered intravenously (days 1-4) and intraperitoneally (days 1 and 3) every 4 weeks for a total of six courses. In patients with stage II disease, no significant difference was noted between the two arms after a median follow-up time of 4 years (range 2.5-6 years). Among 196 eligible patients with stage III disease, however, a comparative analysis of the two treatment groups suggested both an improvement in disease-free survival (P = 0.0014) and a survival advantage (P = 0.0005), with an estimated 43% reduction in mortality rate (95% confidence interval 26-70%) in favour of the investigational arm. In agreement with its theoretical rationale, combined intraperitoneal and intravenous FU/LV was particularly effective in reducing locoregional tumour recurrences with or without liver or other organ site involvement (9 vs 25 patients in the FU/levamisole arm; P = 0.005). Treatment-associated side

  2. Intraperitoneal implantation of life-long telemetry transmitters in otariids

    PubMed Central

    Horning, Markus; Haulena, Martin; Tuomi, Pamela A; Mellish, Jo-Ann E

    2008-01-01

    Background Pinnipeds, including many endangered and declining species, are inaccessible and difficult to monitor for extended periods using externally attached telemetry devices that are shed during the annual molt. Archival satellite transmitters were implanted intraperitoneally into four rehabilitated California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and 15 wild juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) to determine the viability of this surgical technique for the deployment of long-term telemetry devices in otariids. The life history transmitters record information throughout the life of the host and transmit data to orbiting satellites after extrusion following death of the host. Results Surgeries were performed under isoflurane anesthesia and single (n = 4) or dual (n = 15) transmitters were inserted into the ventrocaudal abdominal cavity via an 8.5 to 12 cm incision along the ventral midline between the umbilicus and pubic symphysis or preputial opening. Surgeries lasted 90 minutes (SD = 8) for the 19 sea lions. All animals recovered well and were released into the wild after extended monitoring periods from 27 to 69 days at two captive animal facilities. Minimum post-implant survival was determined via post-release tracking using externally attached satellite transmitters or via opportunistic re-sighting for mean durations of 73.7 days (SE = 9.0, Z. californianus) and 223.6 days (SE = 71.5, E. jubatus). Conclusion The low morbidity and zero mortality encountered during captive observation and post-release tracking periods confirm the viability of this surgical technique for the implantation of long-term telemetry devices in otariids. PMID:19077193

  3. Short-term splenic impact of single-strand DNA functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes intraperitoneally injected in rats.

    PubMed

    Clichici, Simona; Biris, Alexandru Radu; Catoi, Cornel; Filip, Adriana; Tabaran, Flaviu

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, a great deal of studies have focused on the possible toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNT), as a result of their potential applications in the field of nanotechnologies. The investigation of spleen toxicity is part of the carbon nanotubes-induced toxicity assessment. In this study, we investigated the possible toxic effects of CNT on the rat spleen, after intraperitoneally (i.p.) administration of a single dose [1.5 ml; 2 mg multi-walled (MW) CNT per body weight (bw)] of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (exterior diameter 15-25 nm, interior diameter 10-15 nm, surface 88 m(2) g(-1) ) functionalized 1:1 with single-strand DNA (ss-DNA-MWCNT, 270 mg l(-1) ). CNT functionalization with DNA determines a stable dispersion in the body fluids. For the detection of carbon nanotubes in the spleen, Raman spectroscopy, histopathologic examination, confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed at different time points (1, 6, 24, 48 and 144 h) after MWCNT administration. The dynamics of oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls and reduced glutathione), along with nitrosative stress parameters (nitric oxide, inducible NO synthase), the pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-(IL)-1β] and the number of cells expressing caspase 3 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were assessed. Our results indicate that, after i.p. administration, MWCNT translocate progressively in the spleen, with a peak of concentration after 48 h, and determine lymphoid hyperplasia and an increase in the number of cells which undergo apoptosis, in parallel with the enhancement of the mitosis in the white pulp and with transient alterations of oxidative stress and inflammation that need further investigations for a longer period of monitoring.

  4. Antibacterial efficacy and pharmacokinetic evaluation of sanguinarine in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following a single intraperitoneal administration.

    PubMed

    Ling, F; Wu, Z-Q; Jiang, C; Liu, L; Wang, G-X

    2016-08-01

    Sanguinarine (SA), with antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities against fish pathogens, exhibits great potential commercial use in aquaculture. However, little information on pharmacokinetics of SA restricts further application in aquaculture. In this study, pharmacokinetics of SA in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following a single intraperitoneal administration [10 mg kg(-1) BW (body weight)] was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peak concentration (Cmax ) of SA in kidney was 11.8 μg g(-1) , which was higher than in other tissues and plasma. The terminal half-life in fish tissue and plasma was as follows: 42.3 h (kidney) > 37.2 h (liver) > 20.1 h (gill) > 18.8 h (muscle) > 10.9 h (spleen) > 10.0 h (plasma). Additionally, we determined the bacterial loads in tissues of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila after i.p. administration of SA at 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) BW. The results showed that i.p. administration of SA at 10 mg kg(-1) BW significantly enhanced antibacterial efficacy against A. hydrophila, where the antibacterial ratio in the gill, kidney, spleen and liver on day 5 was 95.13%, 93.33%, 90.09% and 92.82%, respectively. Overall, these results suggested the potential of SA to treat A. hydrophila infection in common carp farming industry. PMID:26763075

  5. Pretargeted immuno-PET of CEA-expressing intraperitoneal human colonic tumor xenografts: a new sensitive detection method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, pretargeted immuno-positron-emission tomography [PET] with a bispecific monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] (CEACAM5) × anti-hapten antibody (bispecific monoclonal antibody [bsmAb]) and a small (1.5 kD) peptide labeled with 68Ga was compared to fludeoxyglucose [18F-FDG]-PET for detecting intraperitoneal [i.p.] CEA-expressing human colonic tumor xenografts in nude mice. Methods Two groups of female BALB/c nude mice were inoculated with LS174T human colonic tumor cells i.p. One group received 5 MBq 18F-FDG, and the other received intravenous injections of the bsmAb, followed 16 h later with 5 MBq of 68Ga-labeled peptide. One hour after the radiolabeled peptide or FDG was given, micro-PET/computed tomography images were acquired. Thereafter, the uptake of the 68Ga or 18F in dissected tissue was determined. Results Within 1 h, high uptake of the 68Ga-labeled peptide in the tumor lesions (23.4 ± 7.2% ID/g) and low background activity levels were observed (e.g., tumor-to-intestine ratio, 58 ± 22). This resulted in a clear visualization of all intra-abdominal tumor lesions ≥ 10 μL and even some tumors as small as 5 μL (2 mm diameter). 18F-FDG efficiently localized in the tumors (8.7 ± 3.1% ID/g) but also showed physiological uptake in various normal tissues (e.g., tumor-to-intestine ratio, 3.9 ± 1.1). Conclusions Pretargeted immuno-PET with bsmAb and a 68Ga-labeled peptide could be a very sensitive imaging method for imaging colonic cancer, disclosing occult lesions. PMID:22284761

  6. Intraperitoneal meropenem for peritoneal dialysis peritonitis with Serratia marcescens immediately on commencing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bhave, P; Tregaskis, P; Walker, R; Wilson, S

    2016-03-01

    A 67-year-old man developed Serratia marcescens peritonitis within a week of commencing peritoneal dialysis. Dialysate cultures isolated multidrug-resistant S. marcescens, which was treated with intraperitoneal meropenem. This unusual case highlights the problem of multidrug-resistant peritoneal dialysis infections and the potential viability of intraperitoneal meropenem as ambulatory peritonitis therapy.

  7. Epididymitis following Cytoreductive Surgery with Intraperitoneal Oxaliplatin Chemotherapy: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Luiza Damian Ribeiro; Belotto, Marcos; Peixoto, Renata D'Alpino

    2016-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has emerged as an aggressive treatment option with intent to either cure or extend disease-free survival of selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. However, postoperative complications are common. We describe the cases of 2 men who underwent CRS with hyperthermic intraperitoneal oxaliplatin and developed scrotal pain, which was consistent with noninfectious epididymitis. PMID:27293401

  8. Regulation of IP 3 Receptors by IP 3 and Ca 2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Colin W.; Swatton, Jane E.

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate ( IP 3) receptors are intracellular Ca 2+ channels that mediate release of Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. The channels are oligomeric assemblies of four subunits, each of which has an N-terminal IP 3-binding domain and each of which contributes to formation of the Ca 2+ channel. In mammals, three different genes encode IP 3 receptors subunits and the type 1 receptor (and perhaps the type 2 receptor) is also expressed as splice variants. Further diversity arises from assembly of the receptor in hetero- and homo-tetrameric channels. The subtypes differ in their expression and regulation, but they share the key property of being regulated by both IP3 and cytosolic Ca 2+. All three mammalian IP 3 subtypes, and probably also the IP 3 receptors expressed in invertebrates, are biphasically regulated by cytosolic Ca2+, although the underlying mechanisms appear to differ between subtypes. The interactions between IP 3 and Ca 2+ in controlling IP 3 receptor gating, and the physiological significance of such regulation will be reviewed.

  9. A survey of IP over ATM architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Tsang, R.; Brandt, J.; Hutchins, J.

    1997-07-01

    Over the past decade, the Internet has burgeoned into a worldwide information highway consisting of approximately 5 million hosts on over 45,000 interconnected networks. This unprecedented growth, together with the introduction of multimedia workstations, has spurred the development of innovative applications that require high speed, low latency, and real-time transport. Today`s Internet can neither scale in its bandwidth nor guarantee the Quality of Services (QoS) necessary to meet these performance requirements. Many network researchers propose to use the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology as the underlying infrastructure for the next generation of workgroup, campus, and enterprise IP networks. Since ATM is significantly different from today`s legacy network technologies, efficient implementation of IP over ATM is especially challenging. This tutorial paper covers several existing proposals that integrate IP over ATM.

  10. 76 FR 81955 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY... Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Sector Specific Agency.../IP/SSA EMO, 245 Murray Lane SW., Mail Stop 0640, Arlington, VA 20598-0630. Emailed requests should...

  11. Antiviral activity of a carrageenan from Gigartina skottsbergii against intraperitoneal murine herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pujol, C A; Scolaro, L A; Ciancia, M; Matulewicz, M C; Cerezo, A S; Damonte, E B

    2006-02-01

    The partially cyclized mu/nu-carrageenan 1C3, isolated from the red seaweed Gigartina skottsbergii, was previously shown to be a potent inhibitor of the in vitro replication of Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Here the protective effect of 1C3 in a murine model of intraperitoneal ( i. p.) HSV-1 infection was evaluated. OF1 mice were i. p. infected with 5 x 10 (5) PFU of HSV-1 KOS strain, and the effects of different treatments with 1C3 were studied. When 30 mg/kg of body weight of 1C3 was administered by the i. p. route immediately after HSV-1 infection, 87.5 % survival of the animals was achieved (p < 0.005), associated with a delay in the mean day of death in 1C3-treated non-surviving mice. Animal survival was not improved when multiple doses of 1C3 were also given in the period 1 - 48 h post-infection, and no protection was afforded when treatment was started after 24 h of infection. When virus and compound were injected by different routes, i. p. and intravenous ( i. v.), respectively, a still significant protection was achieved (40 % survival, p < 0.05). No toxicity of 1C3 for the animals was recorded. The pharmacokinetic properties were analyzed after injection of 1C3 into the tail vein by monitoring of [ (3)H]-1C3 in plasma and organs and by a bioassay of the anti-HSV-1 activity remaining in serum after non-radioactive 1C3 inoculation. A very rapid disappearance of the compound from the blood was observed since only 5.9 - 0.9 % of the radioactivity of the initially administered [ (3)H]-1C3 appeared in the plasma between 5-300 minutes after administration. A transient peak of radioactivity was detected in the kidney 15 minutes after inoculation. The bioassay confirms the presence of the compound circulating in a biologically active form up to 1 hour after injection. PMID:16491446

  12. A Comparison of Intravenous plus Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy with Intravenous Chemotherapy Alone for the Treatment of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sheng; Feng, Rui; Pan, Zhang-Chi; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Qian; Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of intravenous (IV) plus intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy compared to intravenous (IV) chemotherapy alone for patients with gastric cancer. Electronic databases were searched up to June 2013. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies. The GRADE System was adopted to rate the level of evidence. Of 392 citations, five RCTs involving 1072 patients were included. Overall, a significant improvement in in one- and three- and five-year survival rate was observed in the IV plus IP chemotherapy group (3 RCTs, n = 360, RR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04 to1.17), (5 RCTs, n = 953, RR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.11 to1.35) and (3 RCTs, n = 347, RR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.80), respectively. Results supported a significant decrease in the rate of metastases (1 RCT, n = 85, RR = 0.41 95% CI 0.19 to 0.89) and peritoneal recurrence (2 RCTs, n = 297, RR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.62) in the IV plus IP chemotherapy group, however, the incidence of adverse events was increased. For patients with gastric cancer, IV plus IP chemotherapy can improve the overall survival rate and prevent the distant or peritoneal metastases. An increased risk of neutropenia, peripheral edema and neuropathy was observed. PMID:26220081

  13. Antioxidant response in liver of the phytoplanktivorous bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) intraperitoneally-injected with extracted microcystins.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Xie, Ping; Guo, Longgen

    2010-06-01

    The worldwide occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms makes it necessary to perform environmental risk assessment procedures to monitor the effects of microcystins (MCs) on fish. Oxidative stress biomarkers are valuable tools in this regard. In the present study, phytoplanktivorous bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracted MCs (mainly MC-RR and -LR) at two doses, 400 and 1,000 microg kg(-1) bw, and antioxidant responses of the liver as biomarkers of oxygen-mediated toxicity were studied at 1, 3, 12, 24 and 48 h after injection. Contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activities of antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxide (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR)] as well as glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the liver in both dose groups showed a biphasic change with an increase at initial 3 h followed by a decrease after injection, owing to the roles of the antioxidant system in eliminating excessive ROS and regenerating glutathione (GSH). The increased GST was probably due to the high transcription of cytosolic GST alpha and rho, suggesting the importance of MCs detoxification by GSH pathway. The stable GSH levels in liver may be explained by the high basic GSH concentration in liver, and/or an increased GSH synthesis, suggesting a high ability to detoxify MCs and to release associated high oxidative pressure in phytoplantivorous fish. PMID:20467858

  14. Evaluation of the lethal potency of scorpion and snake venoms and comparison between intraperitoneal and intravenous injection routes.

    PubMed

    Oukkache, Naoual; El Jaoudi, Rachid; Ghalim, Noreddine; Chgoury, Fatima; Bouhaouala, Balkiss; Mdaghri, Naima El; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2014-06-12

    Scorpion stings and snake bites are major health hazards that lead to suffering of victims and high mortality. Thousands of injuries associated with such stings and bites of venomous animals occur every year worldwide. In North Africa, more than 100,000 scorpion stings and snake bites are reported annually. An appropriate determination of the 50% lethal doses (LD₅₀) of scorpion and snake venoms appears to be an important step to assess (and compare) venom toxic activity. Such LD₅₀ values are also commonly used to evaluate the neutralizing capacity of specific anti-venom batches. In the present work, we determined experimentally the LD₅₀ values of reference scorpion and snake venoms in Swiss mice, and evaluated the influence of two main venom injection routes (i.e., intraperitoneal (IP) versus intravenous (IV)). The analysis of experimental LD₅₀ values obtained with three collected scorpion venoms indicates that Androctonus mauretanicus (Am) is intrinsically more toxic than Androctonus australis hector (Aah) species, whereas the latter is more toxic than Buthus occitanus (Bo). Similar analysis of three representative snake venoms of the Viperidae family shows that Cerastes cerastes (Cc) is more toxic than either Bitis arietans (Ba) or Macrovipera lebetina (Ml) species. Interestingly, the venom of Elapidae cobra snake Naja haje (Nh) is far more toxic than viper venoms Cc, Ml and Ba, in agreement with the known severity of cobra-related envenomation. Also, our data showed that viper venoms are about three-times less toxic when injected IP as compared to IV, distinct from cobra venom Nh which exhibited a similar toxicity when injected IP or IV. Overall, this study clearly highlights the usefulness of procedure standardization, especially regarding the administration route, for evaluating the relative toxicity of individual animal venoms. It also evidenced a marked difference in lethal activity between venoms of cobra and vipers, which, apart from the

  15. Evaluation of the Lethal Potency of Scorpion and Snake Venoms and Comparison between Intraperitoneal and Intravenous Injection Routes

    PubMed Central

    Oukkache, Naoual; Jaoudi, Rachid El; Ghalim, Noreddine; Chgoury, Fatima; Bouhaouala, Balkiss; Mdaghri, Naima El; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion stings and snake bites are major health hazards that lead to suffering of victims and high mortality. Thousands of injuries associated with such stings and bites of venomous animals occur every year worldwide. In North Africa, more than 100,000 scorpion stings and snake bites are reported annually. An appropriate determination of the 50% lethal doses (LD50) of scorpion and snake venoms appears to be an important step to assess (and compare) venom toxic activity. Such LD50 values are also commonly used to evaluate the neutralizing capacity of specific anti-venom batches. In the present work, we determined experimentally the LD50 values of reference scorpion and snake venoms in Swiss mice, and evaluated the influence of two main venom injection routes (i.e., intraperitoneal (IP) versus intravenous (IV)). The analysis of experimental LD50 values obtained with three collected scorpion venoms indicates that Androctonus mauretanicus (Am) is intrinsically more toxic than Androctonus australis hector (Aah) species, whereas the latter is more toxic than Buthus occitanus (Bo). Similar analysis of three representative snake venoms of the Viperidae family shows that Cerastes cerastes (Cc) is more toxic than either Bitis arietans (Ba) or Macrovipera lebetina (Ml) species. Interestingly, the venom of Elapidae cobra snake Naja haje (Nh) is far more toxic than viper venoms Cc, Ml and Ba, in agreement with the known severity of cobra-related envenomation. Also, our data showed that viper venoms are about three-times less toxic when injected IP as compared to IV, distinct from cobra venom Nh which exhibited a similar toxicity when injected IP or IV. Overall, this study clearly highlights the usefulness of procedure standardization, especially regarding the administration route, for evaluating the relative toxicity of individual animal venoms. It also evidenced a marked difference in lethal activity between venoms of cobra and vipers, which, apart from the nature of toxins

  16. IP validation in remote microelectronics testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osseiran, Adam; Eshraghian, Kamran; Lachowicz, Stefan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jeffery, Roger; Robins, Michael

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents the test and validation of FPGA based IP using the concept of remote testing. It demonstrates how a virtual tester environment based on a powerful, networked Integrated Circuit testing facility, aimed to complement the emerging Australian microelectronics based research and development, can be employed to perform the tasks beyond the standard IC test. IC testing in production consists in verifying the tested products and eliminating defective parts. Defects could have a number of different causes, including process defects, process migration and IP design and implementation errors. One of the challenges in semiconductor testing is that while current fault models are used to represent likely faults (stuck-at, delay, etc.) in a global context, they do not account for all possible defects. Research in this field keeps growing but the high cost of ATE is preventing a large community from accessing test and verification equipment to validate innovative IP designs. For these reasons a world class networked IC teletest facility has been established in Australia under the support of the Commonwealth government. The facility is based on a state-of-the-art semiconductor tester operating as a virtual centre spanning Australia and accessible internationally. Through a novel approach the teletest network provides virtual access to the tester on which the DUT has previously been placed. The tester software is then accessible as if the designer is sitting next to the tester. This paper presents the approach used to test and validate FPGA based IPs using this remote test approach.

  17. Operational Space Weather Products at IPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neudegg, D.; Steward, G.; Marshall, R.; Terkildsen, M.; Kennewell, J.; Patterson, G.; Panwar, R.

    2008-12-01

    IPS Radio and Space Services operates an extensive network (IPSNET) of monitoring stations and observatories within the Australasian and Antarctic regions to gather information on the space environment. This includes ionosondes, magnetometers, GPS-ISM, oblique HF sounding, riometers, and solar radio and optical telescopes. IPS exchanges this information with similar organisations world-wide. The Regional Warning Centre (RWC) is the Australian Space Forecast Centre (ASFC) and it utilizes this data to provide products and services to support customer operations. A wide range of customers use IPS services including; defence force and emergency services using HF radio communications and surveillance systems, organisations involved in geophysical exploration and pipeline cathodic protection, GPS users in aviation. Subscriptions to the alerts, warnings, forecasts and reports regarding the solar, geophysical and ionospheric conditions are distributed by email and Special Message Service (SMS). IPS also develops and markets widely used PC software prediction tools for HF radio skywave and surface wave (ASAPS/GWPS) and provides consultancy services for system planning.

  18. 75 FR 13235 - IP-Enabled Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... 47 CFR 63.60(a) and (f), published on August 7, 2009 (74 FR 39551), were approved by the Office of... published a document in the Federal Register, 74 FR 39551, August 7, 2009, that sets forth an effective date... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 63 IP-Enabled Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Final...

  19. EQuIP-ped for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Molly

    2015-01-01

    The Educators Evaluating the Quality of Instructional Products (EQuIP) Rubric for science is a new tool for science educators that provides criteria by which to examine the alignment and overall quality of lessons and units with respect to the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"). The rubric criteria are divided into…

  20. How To: Be VoIP-Savvy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Cablevision, Comcast, Verizon, and many other high-speed broadband Internet providers are now also offering telephone services through "Voice over Internet Protocol" (VoIP). This technology sends ordinary telephone calls over the Internet rather than over telephone lines. While impractical without the use of a broadband Internet connection, with…

  1. Call progress time measurement in IP telephony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasnabish, Bhumip

    1999-11-01

    Usually a voice call is established through multiple stages in IP telephony. In the first stage, a phone number is dialed to reach a near-end or call-originating IP-telephony gateway. The next stages involve user identification through delivering an m-digit user-id to the authentication and/or billing server, and then user authentication by using an n- digit PIN. After that, the caller is allowed (last stage dial tone is provided) to dial a destination phone number provided that authentication is successful. In this paper, we present a very flexible method for measuring call progress time in IP telephony. The proposed technique can be used to measure the system response time at every stage. It is flexible, so that it can be easily modified to include new `tone' or a set of tones, or `voice begin' can be used in every stage to detect the system's response. The proposed method has been implemented using scripts written in Hammer visual basic language for testing with a few commercially available IP telephony gateways.

  2. Different pathways mediated by CCK1 and CCK2 receptors: effect of intraperitonal mrna antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to cholecystokinin on anxiety-like and learning behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Hagit; Kaplan, Zeev; Matar, Michael A; Buriakovsky, Igor; Bourin, Michel; Kotler, Moshe

    2004-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) and its analogs generate anxiety in humans and measurable anxiety-like behaviors in rats. CCK receptor blockers have been reported to have variable effects in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In a prior study, intracerebroventricular administration of CCK-antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODN) for 3 days significantly diminished anxiety-like behavior in rats. Counter to our expectations, intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of CCK-ASODN significantly increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired retention performance in the Morris water maze. The aim of the present study was to manipulate CCK-mediated anxiety-like behavior and spatial memory in rats by peripheral (i.p.) administration of ASODN to preproCCK in the presence of antagonists to CCK1 and CCK2 receptor subtypes to further elucidate the roles of these two receptors and better understand the effects of i.p. CCK-ASODN. CCK-ASODN was injected i.p. to rats five times at 24-hr intervals with and without administration of CCK1R antagonist PD135158 or CCK2 antagonist benzotrip. Control groups received injections of either a scrambled oligodeoxynucleotide (ScrODN) or vehicle. On Day 6, the rats were assessed in the elevated plus maze paradigm and in the Morris water maze. The rats were sacrificed and their blood was assessed for corticosterone, ACTH, and prolactin levels. The results show that i.p. CCK-ASODN significantly increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired retention performance in the Morris water maze, compared to both control groups, accompanied by increased plasma corticosterone and plasma ACTH concentrations. In contrast, administration of CCK-ASODN together with CCK2R antagonist, but not with CCK1R antagonist, significantly decreased anxiety-like behavior in rats, but still impaired retention performance in the Morris water maze paradigm. Lower levels of plasma corticosterone and ACTH in CCK-ASODN+CCK2R antagonist-treated rats accompanied the reduced anxiety-like behavior

  3. Binding (of /sup 3/H-spiperone) in the mouse brain after intraperitoneal injection

    SciTech Connect

    Zharkovskii, A.M.; Chereshka, K.S.; Zharkovskaya, T.A.

    1985-08-01

    In this investigation, the binding of/sup 3/H-spiperone was studied after intraperitoneal injection into mice. The results of these experiments show that after intraperitoneal injection /sup 3/H-spiperone binds specifically with receptors of the cortex and basal ganglia of the mouse brain. Neuroleptics with varied chemical structure displace /sup 3/H-spiperone from its binding sites. Although after intraperitoneal injection the level of specific binding is rather lower than after intravenous injection, the authors maintain that the relative simplicity, reproducibility, and economy of the method make it more acceptable.

  4. Using VoIP to compete.

    PubMed

    Werbach, Kevin

    2005-09-01

    Internet telephony, or VoIP, is rapidly replacing the conventional kind. This year, for the first time, U.S. companies bought more new Internet-phone connections than standard lines. The major driver behind this change is cost. But VoIP isn't just a new technology for making old-fashioned calls cheaper, says consultant Kevin Werbach. It is fundamentally changing how companies use voice communications. What makes VoIP so powerful is that it turns voice into digital data packets that can be stored, copied, combined with other data, and distributed to virtually any device that connects to the Internet. And it makes it simple to provide all the functionality of a corporate phone-call features, directories, security-to anyone anywhere there's broadband access. That fosters new kinds of businesses such as virtual call centers, where widely dispersed agents work at all hours from their homes. The most successful early adopters, says Werbach, will focus more on achieving business objectives than on saving money. They will also consider how to push VoIP capabilities out to the extended organization, making use of everyone as a resource. Deployment may be incremental, but companies should be thinking about where VoIP could take them. Executives should ask what they could do if, on demand, they could bring all their employees, customers, suppliers, and partners together in a virtual room, with shared access to every modern communications and computing channel. They should take a fresh look at their business processes to find points at which richer and more customizable communications could eliminate bottlenecks and enhance quality. The important dividing line won't be between those who deploy Vol P and those who don't, or even between early adopters and laggards. It will be between those who see Vol P as just a new way to do the same old things and those who use itto rethink their entire businesses.

  5. Relaxation processes in administered-rate pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Arnold, Michael R.

    2000-10-01

    We show how the theory of anelasticity unifies the observed dynamics and proposed models of administered-rate products. This theory yields a straightforward approach to rate model construction that we illustrate by simulating the observed relaxation dynamics of two administered rate products. We also demonstrate how the use of this formalism leads to a natural definition of market friction.

  6. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  7. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  8. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  9. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  10. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  11. Development of New IP Cores for Spacecraft Avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isomaki, Marko; Ekergarn, Jonas; Hjorth, Magnus; Wessman, Nils-Johan; Habinc, Sandi

    2010-08-01

    The GRLIB IP library is an integrated set of reusable IP cores, designed for system-on-chip (SOC) development. The IP cores are centered around a common on-chip bus, and use a coherent method for simulation and synthesis. The library is vendor independent, with support for different CAD tools and target technologies. The success of any IP core library is highly dependent on the constantly increasing number of IP cores and the improvement of existing IP cores. This paper will cover both these aspects, presenting some new developments as well as some improvements of existing items.

  12. Stimulation of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate (IP3) Receptor Subtypes by Analogues of IP3

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Huma; Tovey, Stephen C.; Rahman, Taufiq; Riley, Andrew M.; Potter, Barry V. L.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2013-01-01

    Most animal cells express mixtures of the three subtypes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) encoded by vertebrate genomes. Activation of each subtype by different agonists has not hitherto been examined in cells expressing defined homogenous populations of IP3R. Here we measure Ca2+ release evoked by synthetic analogues of IP3 using a Ca2+ indicator within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum of permeabilized DT40 cells stably expressing single subtypes of mammalian IP3R. Phosphorylation of (1,4,5)IP3 to (1,3,4,5)IP4 reduced potency by ∼100-fold. Relative to (1,4,5)IP3, the potencies of IP3 analogues modified at the 1-position (malachite green (1,4,5)IP3), 2-position (2-deoxy(1,4,5)IP3) or 3-position (3-deoxy(1,4,5)IP3, (1,3,4,5)IP4) were similar for each IP3R subtype. The potency of an analogue, (1,4,6)IP3, in which the orientations of the 2- and 3-hydroxyl groups were inverted, was also reduced similarly for all three IP3R subtypes. Most analogues of IP3 interact similarly with the three IP3R subtypes, but the decrease in potency accompanying removal of the 1-phosphate from (1,4,5)IP3 was least for IP3R3. Addition of a large chromophore (malachite green) to the 1-phosphate of (1,4,5)IP3 only modestly reduced potency suggesting that similar analogues could be used to measure (1,4,5)IP3 binding optically. These data provide the first structure-activity analyses of key IP3 analogues using homogenous populations of each mammalian IP3R subtype. They demonstrate broadly similar structure-activity relationships for all mammalian IP3R subtypes and establish the potential utility of (1,4,5)IP3 analogues with chromophores attached to the 1-position. PMID:23372785

  13. Dose-dependent mesothelioma induction by intraperitoneal administration of multi-wall carbon nanotubes in p53 heterozygous mice.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Atsuya; Hirose, Akihiko; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Kanno, Jun

    2012-08-01

    Among various types of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are those containing fibrous particles longer than 5 μm with an aspect ratio of more than three (i.e. dimensions similar to mesotheliomagenic asbestos). A previous study showed that micrometer-sized MWCNT (μm-MWCNT) administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 3000 μg/mouse corresponding to 1 × 10(9) fibers per mouse induced mesotheliomas in p53 heterozygous mice. Here, we report a dose-response study; three groups of p53 heterozygous mice (n = 20) were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 300 μg/mouse of μm-MWCNT (corresponding to 1 × 10(8) fibers), 30 μg/mouse (1 × 10(7)) or 3 μg/mouse (1 × 10(6)), respectively, and observed for up to 1 year. The cumulative incidence of mesotheliomas was 19/20, 17/20 and 5/20, respectively. The severity of peritoneal adhesion and granuloma formation were dose-dependent and minimal in the lowest dose group. However, the time of tumor onset was apparently independent of the dose. All mice in the lowest dose group that survived until the terminal kill had microscopic atypical mesothelial hyperplasia considered as a precursor lesion of mesothelioma. Right beneath was a mononuclear cell accumulation consisting of CD45- or CD3-positive lymphocytes and CD45/CD3-negative F4/80 faintly positive macrophages; some of the macrophages contained singular MWCNT in their cytoplasm. The lesions were devoid of epithelioid cell granuloma and fibrosis. These findings were in favor of the widely proposed mode of action of fiber carcinogenesis, that is, frustrated phagocytosis where the mesotheliomagenic microenvironment on the peritoneal surface is neither qualitatively altered by the density of the fibers per area nor by the formation of granulomas against agglomerates.

  14. Intermittent intraperitoneal infusion of peptide YY(3-36) reduces daily food intake and adiposity in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Chelikani, Prasanth K; Haver, Alvin C; Reidelberger, Roger D

    2007-07-01

    Peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] is a gut-brain peptide that decreases food intake when administered by intravenous infusion to lean and obese humans and rats. However, chronic administration of PYY(3-36) by osmotic minipump to lean and obese rodents produces only a transient reduction in daily food intake and weight gain. It has recently been shown that 1-h intravenous infusions of PYY(3-36) every other hour for 10 days produced a sustained reduction in daily food intake, body weight, and adiposity in lean rats. Here, we determined whether intermittent delivery of PYY(3-36) can produce a similar response in diet-induced obese rats. During a 21-day period, obese rats (body fat >25%) received twice daily intraperitoneal infusion of vehicle (n = 18) or PYY(3-36) (n = 24) during hours 1-3 and 7-9 of the dark period. Rats had free access to both a 45% fat solid diet and a 29% fat liquid diet; intakes were determined from continuous computer recording of changes in food container weights. To sustain a 15-25% reduction in daily caloric intake, the initial PYY(3-36) dose of 30 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1) was reduced to 10 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1) on day 10 and then increased to 17 pmol.kg(-1).min(-1) on day 13. This dosing strategy produced a sustained reduction in daily caloric intake of 11-32% and prevented body weight gain (8 +/- 6 vs. 51 +/- 11 g) and fat deposition (4.4 +/- 7.6 vs. 41.0 +/- 12.8 g). These results indicate that intermittent intraperitoneal infusion of PYY(3-36) can produce a sustained reduction in food intake and adiposity in diet-induced obese rodents consuming palatable high-fat foods.

  15. Customer choice test is running well for IP

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    As of May 4, eight of the 21 eligible Illinois Power Company (IP) electricity customers had chosen to buy some of their power from an entity other than IP. They are free to do this because IP is conducting an experiment in customer choice, the first of its kind in the country, according to the utility. Although it is still very early, the experiment seems to be working well. {open_quotes}Our experience so far has been very good,{close_quotes} said John Dewey, a spokesman for IP. {open_quotes}Some of our customers say they expect to see substantial savings.{close_quotes} IP expects to gain knowledge of what it takes to retain customers and, when the entire industry becomes competitive, to gain new customers. IP`s own marketing affiliate, Illinova Power Marketing, based in Salt Lake City, Utah, is participating: It arranged for 4 MWe of power from another supplier to be shipped across IP`s transmission system to one of IP`s customers. IP`s tariff for such use of its transmission lines, as approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, is between 0.3 and 0.5 cents/kWh.

  16. Optimization of OSPF Routing in IP Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bley, Andreas; Fortz, Bernard; Gourdin, Eric; Holmberg, Kaj; Klopfenstein, Olivier; Pióro, Michał; Tomaszewski, Artur; Ümit, Hakan

    The Internet is a huge world-wide packet switching network comprised of more than 13,000 distinct subnetworks, referred to as Autonomous Systems (ASs) autonomous system AS . They all rely on the Internet Protocol (IP) internet protocol IP for transport of packets across the network. And most of them use shortest path routing protocols shortest path routing!protocols , such as OSPF or IS-IS, to control the routing of IP packets routing!of IP packets within an AS. The idea of the routing is extremely simple — every packet is forwarded on IP links along the shortest route between its source and destination nodes of the AS. The AS network administrator can manage the routing of packets in the AS by supplying the so-called administrative weights of IP links, which specify the link lengths that are used by the routing protocols for their shortest path computations. The main advantage of the shortest path routing policy is its simplicity, allowing for little administrative overhead. From the network engineering perspective, however, shortest path routing can pose problems in achieving satisfactory traffic handling efficiency. As all routing paths depend on the same routing metric routing!metric , it is not possible to configure the routing paths for the communication demands between different pairs of nodes explicitly or individually; the routing can be controlled only indirectly and only as a whole by modifying the routing metric. Thus, one of the main tasks when planning such networks is to find administrative link weights that induce a globally efficient traffic routing

  17. Posttraumatic Haematuria with Pseudorenal Failure: A Diagnostic Lead for Intraperitoneal Bladder Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Vagholkar, Suvarna

    2016-01-01

    Bladder rupture is a very morbid injury following blunt or penetrating lower abdominal trauma. Prompt diagnosis is crucial to initiate optimal treatment. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture is associated with haematuria and biochemical features of renal failure. Cystogram is diagnostic. Immediate open surgical repair is the main stay of treatment. A case of intraperitoneal rupture diagnosed preoperatively by the presence of haematuria and pseudorenal failure is presented to highlight the association of posttraumatic haematuria and pseudorenal failure in such injuries. PMID:27547477

  18. IPS - Instrument pointing system for Spacelab payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammesfahr, A.

    An instrument pointing system (IPS) will be flown for the first time with Spacelab 2 in Oct. 1984. The IPS is a three-axis gimbal system with payload clamp units for mounting on the Spacelab pallets. Power to drive the units comes from an integrated electronic power and digital control system and Spacelab subsystems. Control originates in either Spacelab, the Shuttle, or from the ground. An intermediate gimbal system is provided with explosive bolts in order to jettison the payload in critical situations. The system covers a conical field-of-view of 120 deg aperture with 180 deg possible in both directions of the roll axis. A block diagram is furnished for the electrical circuitry. Loads are interchangeable so long as they interface with clamps which hold the package to the Orbiter. A maximum weight of up to three tons is allowable.

  19. China IP expanding with self-sufficiency.

    PubMed

    2000-07-01

    This article reports the proceedings of the two National Workshops on the Integrated Project (IP), held in two cities in China. These workshops were organized by the National Steering Committee (NSC) of the Integrated Family Planning Project in China. About 70 representatives, project personnel from the first to the fourth cycle project areas, attended the Taicang workshop, while about 60 representatives from the fifth and sixth cycle project areas attended the Pingyao workshop. Workshop agendas included reports from the NSC, lectures by experts on new developments of reproductive health, summary report of the evaluation for the fifth cycle project, and presentation and discussion on selected project areas. The participants from each workshop took part in field trips to Taicang and Pingyao followed by discussions summarizing the trips. Overall, it is noted that pilot IP projects must not be conducted only within the pilot county, but also outside, as a model projects with appropriate directions and strategies.

  20. Research study on IPS digital controller design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, B. C.; Folkerts, C.

    1976-01-01

    The performance is investigated of the simplified continuous-data model of the Instrument Pointing System (IPS). Although the ultimate objective is to study the digital model of the system, knowledge on the performance of the continuous-data model is important in the sense that the characteristics of the digital system should approach those of the continuous-data system as the sampling period approaches zero.

  1. IP- -: A Reduced Internet Protocol for Optical Packet Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Masataka; Fujikawa, Kenji

    IP- - is proposed as an Internet Protocol suitable for optical packet networking. As optical routers require much faster control than electric ones and lack of optical buffers other than those by fiber delay lines requires fixed time control, Internet Protocols must be at least as simple as IPv4 and much simpler than IPv6. IP- - also addresses issues of IP address space exhaustion and IP routing table explosion.

  2. Generation of iPS Cells from Granulosa Cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian; Liu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Various types of somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Somatic stem cells may generate iPS cells more efficiently than do differentiated cells. We show that granulosa cells exhibit characteristic of somatic stem cells and can be reprogrammed to iPS cells more efficiently or with few factors. Here, we describe generation of mouse and pig iPS cells from granulosa cells with high efficiency.

  3. IP-based storage of image information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xianglin; Xie, Changsheng; Liu, Zhaobin

    2001-09-01

    With the fast growth of data in multispectral image processing, the traditional storage architecture was challenged. It is currently being replaced by Storage Area Networks (SAN), which makes storage devices externalized from servers. A SAN is a separate network for storage, isolated from the messaging network and optimized for the movement of data between servers and storage devices. Nowadays, most of current SAN use Fibre Channel to move data between servers and storage devices (FC-SAN), but because of the drawbacks of the FC-SAN: for interoperability, lack of skilled professional and management tools, high implementation cost and so on, the development and application of FC-SAN was obstructed. In this paper, we introduce an IP-based Storage Area Networks architecture, which has the good qualities of FC- SAN but overcomes the shortcoming of it. The principle is: use IP technology to move data between servers and storage devices, build a SAN with the IP-based network devices (not the FC-based network device), and through the switch, SAN is attached to the LAN(Local Area Network) through multiple access. Especially, these storage devices are acted as commercial NAS devices and PC.

  4. A Survey of Voice over IP Security Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keromytis, Angelos D.

    We present a survey of Voice over IP security research. Our goal is to provide a roadmap for researchers seeking to understand existing capabilities and, and to identify gaps in addressing the numerous threats and vulnerabilities present in VoIP systems. We also briefly discuss the implications of our findings with respect to actual vulnerabilities reported in a variety VoIP products.

  5. A Conjoint Analysis of Voice Over IP Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubey, Michael L.; Wagner, William; Otto, James R.

    2002-01-01

    Managers need to understand the tradeoffs associated with voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) networks as compared to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). This article measures the preference structures between IP telephony and PSTN services using conjoint analysis. The purpose is to suggest VoIP technology attributes that best meet…

  6. Covert Channels in SIP for VoIP Signalling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    In this paper, we evaluate available steganographic techniques for SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) that can be used for creating covert channels during signaling phase of VoIP (Voice over IP) call. Apart from characterizing existing steganographic methods we provide new insights by introducing new techniques. We also estimate amount of data that can be transferred in signalling messages for typical IP telephony call.

  7. Upregulation and induction of surface antigens with special reference to MHC class II expression in microglia in postnatal rat brain following intravenous or intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Ling, E A

    1994-01-01

    The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of surface antigens including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and complement type 3 (CR3) receptors on microglial cells in the corpus callosum in postnatal rat brain were investigated. When LPS was injected intravenously (i.v.) in 1-d-old rats, the immunostaining of callosal amoeboid microglial cells with OX-18 directed against MHC class I antigen was enhanced 24 h after the injection in comparison with the controls. The expression of MHC class II (Ia) antigen on the same cell type as shown by its immunoreactivity with OX-6 was also elicited especially after 2 intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of LPS. Thus 7 d after a single i.p. injection of LPS into 1-d-old rats, only a few OX-6 positive cells showing a moderate staining reaction were observed in the corpus callosum. The immunoreactivity diminished 14 d after the injection. However, in rats receiving 2 successive i.p. injections of LPS at 1 and 4 d of age and killed 7 d after the 1st injection, a significant number of intensely stained OX-6 positive amoeboid microglial cells were observed in the corpus callosum. The expression of MHC class II antigens induced by 2 injections of LPS was sustained at least until d 14 when the callosal ramified microglial cells, known to be derived from gradual metamorphic transformation of amoeboid microglia, still exhibited intense immunoreactivity with OX-6. The effect of LPS on the expression of CR3 on amoeboid microglial cells was not obvious after a single injection, but the immunoreactivity with OX-42 was also augmented in rats given 2 i.p. administration of LPS into rats at 1 an 4 d of age. It is concluded from this study that the expression of MHC class I and class II antigens on amoeboid microglial cells in corpus callosum was upregulated and induced respectively after i.v. or i.p. injection of LPS into early postnatal rats. Although relatively fewer in number when compared with OX-18 and OX-42

  8. Intraperitoneal injection of the pancreatic peptide amylin potently reduces behavioral impairment and brain amyloid pathology in murine models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H; Wang, X; Wallack, M; Li, H; Carreras, I; Dedeoglu, A; Hur, J-Y; Zheng, H; Li, H; Fine, R; Mwamburi, M; Sun, X; Kowall, N; Stern, R A; Qiu, W Q

    2015-02-01

    Amylin, a pancreatic peptide, and amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ), a major component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, share similar β-sheet secondary structures, but it is not known whether pancreatic amylin affects amyloid pathogenesis in the AD brain. Using AD mouse models, we investigated the effects of amylin and its clinical analog, pramlintide, on AD pathogenesis. Surprisingly, chronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of AD animals with either amylin or pramlintide reduces the amyloid burden as well as lowers the concentrations of Aβ in the brain. These treatments significantly improve their learning and memory assessed by two behavioral tests, Y maze and Morris water maze. Both amylin and pramlintide treatments increase the concentrations of Aβ1-42 in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). A single i.p. injection of either peptide also induces a surge of Aβ in the serum, the magnitude of which is proportionate to the amount of Aβ in brain tissue. One intracerebroventricular injection of amylin induces a more significant surge in serum Aβ than one i.p. injection of the peptide. In 330 human plasma samples, a positive association between amylin and Aβ1-42 as well as Aβ1-40 is found only in patients with AD or amnestic mild cognitive impairment. As amylin readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, our study demonstrates that peripheral amylin's action on the central nervous system results in translocation of Aβ from the brain into the CSF and blood that could be an explanation for a positive relationship between amylin and Aβ in blood. As naturally occurring amylin may play a role in regulating Aβ in brain, amylin class peptides may provide a new avenue for both treatment and diagnosis of AD.

  9. The role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the febrile and metabolic responses of rats to intraperitoneal injection of a high dose of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Töllner, B; Roth, J; Störr, B; Martin, D; Voigt, K; Zeisberger, E

    2000-10-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the febrile and metabolic responses of rats to intraperitoneal injection of a high dose of lipopolysaccharide Injection of a high dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a septic-shock-like state, which can be accompanied by phases of hypothermia and phases of fever. In the present study we monitored body core temperature and locomotor activity, both by remote radiotelemetry, as well as changes in food intake, body mass and water intake for 3 days after an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a high dose of LPS (5 mg/kg) along with sterile 0.9% saline or a neutralizing form of the soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) type 1 receptor (referred to as TNF-binding protein, TNF bp). Intraperitoneal injection of LPS rapidly induced high concentrations of TNF in the plasma and peritoneal lavage fluid. TNF was undetectable in the plasma and peritoneal lavage fluid of animals co-injected with LPS and TNF bp, implying neutralization of peripheral bioactive TNF. Administration of LPS induced hypothermia by about 1.5 degrees C, which lasted for 5 h after injection. During the light-time periods of days 2 and 3 after injection, the rats developed a robust fever. Treatment with TNF bp resulted in a faster recovery from the LPS-induced hypothermia so that the rats developed a pronounced fever on the day of injection. Locomotor activity during night-time periods was suppressed in LPS-treated animals. The LPS-induced depression of night-time activity was not antagonized by co-injection of TNF bp. On day 1 after the injection of LPS, food intake reduced to virtually zero, water intake fell to about 30% of the control value and body mass dropped by 25 g (about 10% of total body mass). With the exception of body mass, these variables recovered slowly during days 2 and 3 after LPS injection, but did not reach the control values. The LPS-induced decreases in food intake, body mass and water intake were significantly attenuated by the treatment

  10. Research and Simulation on Application of the Mobile IP Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yibing, Deng; Wei, Hu; Minghui, Li; Feng, Gao; Junyi, Shen

    The paper analysed the mobile node, home agent, and foreign agent of mobile IP network firstly, some key technique, such as mobile IP network basical principle, protocol work principle, agent discovery, registration, and IP packet transmission, were discussed. Then a network simulation model was designed, validating the characteristic of mobile IP network, and some advantages, which were brought by mobile network, were testified. Finally, the conclusion is gained: mobile IP network could realize the expectation of consumer that they can communicate with others anywhere.

  11. Impact of artifact removal on ChIP quality metrics in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo data.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Thomas S; Liang, Ziwei; Salama, Rafik; Stark, Rory; de Santiago, Ines

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of ChIP-seq multiplexing technologies and the subsequent increase in ChIP-seq throughput, the development of working standards for the quality assessment of ChIP-seq studies has received significant attention. The ENCODE consortium's large scale analysis of transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks as well as concordant work on ChIP-seq by other laboratories has established a new generation of ChIP-seq quality control measures. The use of these metrics alongside common processing steps has however not been evaluated. In this study, we investigate the effects of blacklisting and removal of duplicated reads on established metrics of ChIP-seq quality and show that the interpretation of these metrics is highly dependent on the ChIP-seq preprocessing steps applied. Further to this we perform the first investigation of the use of these metrics for ChIP-exo data and make recommendations for the adaptation of the NSC statistic to allow for the assessment of ChIP-exo efficiency.

  12. Impact of artifact removal on ChIP quality metrics in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo data

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Thomas S.; Liang, Ziwei; Salama, Rafik; Stark, Rory; de Santiago, Ines

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of ChIP-seq multiplexing technologies and the subsequent increase in ChIP-seq throughput, the development of working standards for the quality assessment of ChIP-seq studies has received significant attention. The ENCODE consortium's large scale analysis of transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks as well as concordant work on ChIP-seq by other laboratories has established a new generation of ChIP-seq quality control measures. The use of these metrics alongside common processing steps has however not been evaluated. In this study, we investigate the effects of blacklisting and removal of duplicated reads on established metrics of ChIP-seq quality and show that the interpretation of these metrics is highly dependent on the ChIP-seq preprocessing steps applied. Further to this we perform the first investigation of the use of these metrics for ChIP-exo data and make recommendations for the adaptation of the NSC statistic to allow for the assessment of ChIP-exo efficiency. PMID:24782889

  13. IP address management : augmenting Sandia's capabilities through open source tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Nayar, R. Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Internet Protocol (IP) address management is an increasingly growing concern at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the networking community as a whole. The current state of the available IP addresses indicates that they are nearly exhausted. Currently SNL doesn't have the justification to obtain more IP address space from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). There must exist a local entity to manage and allocate IP assignments efficiently. Ongoing efforts at Sandia have been in the form of a multifunctional database application notably known as Network Information System (NWIS). NWIS is a database responsible for a multitude of network administrative services including IP address management. This study will explore the feasibility of augmenting NWIS's IP management capabilities utilizing open source tools. Modifications of existing capabilities to better allocate available IP address space are studied.

  14. Source identification of the Arctic sea ice proxy IP25.

    PubMed

    Brown, T A; Belt, S T; Tatarek, A; Mundy, C J

    2014-06-18

    Analysis of the organic geochemical biomarker IP25 in marine sediments is an established method for carrying out palaeo sea ice reconstructions for the Arctic. Such reconstructions cover timescales from decades back to the early Pleistocene, and are critical for understanding past climate conditions on Earth and for informing climate prediction models. Key attributes of IP25 include its strict association with Arctic sea ice together with its ubiquity and stability in underlying marine sediments; however, the sources of IP25 have remained undetermined. Here we report the identification of IP25 in three (or four) relatively minor (<5%) sea ice diatoms isolated from mixed assemblages collected from the Canadian Arctic. In contrast, IP25 was absent in the dominant taxa. Chemical and taxonomical investigations suggest that the IP25-containing taxa represent the majority of producers and are distributed pan-Arctic, thus establishing the widespread applicability of the IP25 proxy for palaeo Arctic sea ice reconstruction.

  15. Cell Reprogramming, IPS Limitations, and Overcoming Strategies in Dental Bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Ibarretxe, Gaskon; Alvarez, Antonia; Cañavate, Maria-Luz; Hilario, Enrique; Aurrekoetxea, Maitane; Unda, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The procurement of induced pluripotent stem cells, or IPS cells, from adult differentiated animal cells has the potential to revolutionize future medicine, where reprogrammed IPS cells may be used to repair disease-affected tissues on demand. The potential of IPS cell technology is tremendous, but it will be essential to improve the methodologies for IPS cell generation and to precisely evaluate each clone and subclone of IPS cells for their safety and efficacy. Additionally, the current state of knowledge on IPS cells advises that research on their regenerative properties is carried out in appropriate tissue and organ systems that permit a safe assessment of the long-term behavior of these reprogrammed cells. In the present paper, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming, current technical limitations of IPS cells for their use in human tissue engineering, and possibilities to overcome them in the particular case of dental regeneration. PMID:22690226

  16. Demonstrating a Realistic IP Mission Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Ferrer, Arturo B.; Goodman, Nancy; Ghazi-Tehrani, Samira; Polk, Joe; Johnson, Lorin; Menke, Greg; Miller, Bill; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Flight software and hardware and realistic space communications environments were elements of recent demonstrations of the Internet Protocol (IP) mission concept in the lab. The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) Project and the Flight Software Branch at NASA/GSFC collaborated to build the prototype of a representative space mission that employed unmodified off-the-shelf Internet protocols and technologies for end-to-end communications between the spacecraft/instruments and the ground system/users. The realistic elements used in the prototype included an RF communications link simulator and components of the TRIANA mission flight software and ground support system. A web-enabled camera connected to the spacecraft computer via an Ethernet LAN represented an on-board instrument creating image data. In addition to the protocols at the link layer (HDLC), transport layer (UDP, TCP), and network (IP) layer, a reliable file delivery protocol (MDP) at the application layer enabled reliable data delivery both to and from the spacecraft. The standard Network Time Protocol (NTP) performed on-board clock synchronization with a ground time standard. The demonstrations of the prototype mission illustrated some of the advantages of using Internet standards and technologies for space missions, but also helped identify issues that must be addressed. These issues include applicability to embedded real-time systems on flight-qualified hardware, range of applicability of TCP, and liability for and maintenance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) funded the collaboration to build and demonstrate the prototype IP mission.

  17. Rationale supporting the use of vasoconstrictors for intraperitoneal chemotherapy with platinum derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chauffert, Bruno; Favoulet, Patrick; Polycarpe, Emmanuel; Duvillard, Christian; Beltramo, Jean-Luc; Bichat, Francis; Rat, Patrick; Genne, Philippe; Benoit, Laurent

    2003-07-01

    By decreasing drug drainage through the peritoneal and tumoral vascular networks, epinephrine increases the penetration of cisplatin and oxaliplatin into the metastatic peritoneal tumor nodules. This improved drug penetration increases their antitumor efficacy, allowing the cure of millimetric-sized peritoneal tumor nodules that could not be obtained with cisplatin or oxaliplatin used alone. However, limited drug diffusion into supramillimetric nodules did not result in curing advanced peritoneal carcinomatosis, unless complete resection of macroscopic localized tumor nodules is performed before intraperitoneal chemotherapy. In our opinion, the intraperitoneal epinephrine-cisplatin combination should be clinically assessed in completely or almost completely surgically resected peritoneal carcinomatosis with the objective of preventing recurrent tumors. Due to its reduced toxicity, repeated courses of intraperitoneal oxaliplatin associated with epinephrine could be an interesting alternative to cisplatin for the unresectable disease. PMID:14567035

  18. Intraperitoneally placed Foley catheter via verumontanum initially presenting as a bladder rupture.

    PubMed

    Raheem, Omer A; Jeong, Young Beom

    2011-09-01

    Since urethral Foley catheterization is usually easy and safe, serious complications related to this procedure have been rarely reported. Herein, we describe a case of intraperitoneally placed urethral catheter via verumontanum presenting as intraperitoneal bladder perforation in a chronically debilitated elderly patient. A 82-yr-old male patient was admitted with symptoms of hematuria, lower abdominal pain after traumatic Foley catheterization. The retrograde cystography showed findings of intraperitoneal bladder perforation, but emergency laparotomy with intraoperative urethrocystoscopy revealed a tunnel-like false passage extending from the verumontanum into the rectovesical pouch between the posterior wall of the bladder and the anterior wall of the rectum with no bladder injury. The patient was treated with simple closure of the perforated rectovesical pouch and a placement of suprapubic cystostomy tube. PMID:21935283

  19. Intraperitoneal Injection of Ethanol for the Euthanasia of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) and Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal H; Brice, Angela K; Marx, James O; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-01-01

    Compassion, professional ethics, and public sensitivity require that animals are euthanized humanely and appropriately under both planned and emergent situations. According to the 2013 AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals, intraperitoneal injection of ethanol is “acceptable with conditions” for use in mice. Because only limited information regarding this technique is available, we sought to evaluate ethanol by using ECG and high-definition video recording. Mice (n = 85) and rats (n = 16) were treated with intraperitoneal ethanol (70% or 100%), a positive-control agent (pentobarbital–phenytoin combination [Pe/Ph]), or a negative-control agent (saline solution). After injection, animals were assessed for behavioral and physiologic responses. Pain-assessment techniques in mice demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of ethanol was not more painful than was intraperitoneal Pe/Ph. Median time to loss of consciousness for all mice that received ethanol or Pe/Ph was 45 s. Median time to respiratory arrest was 2.75, 2.25, and 2.63 min, and time (mean ± SE) to cardiac arrest was 6.04 ± 1.3, 2.96 ± 0.6, and 4.03 ± 0.5 min for 70% ethanol, 100% ethanol, and Pe/Ph, respectively. No mouse that received ethanol or Pe/Ph regained consciousness. Although successful in mice, intraperitoneal ethanol at the doses tested (9.2 to 20.1 g/kg) was unsuitable for euthanasia of rats (age, 7 to 8 wk) because of the volume needed and prolonged time to respiratory effects. For mice, intraperitoneal injection of 70% or 100% ethanol induced rapid and irreversible loss of consciousness, followed by death, and should be considered as “acceptable with conditions.” PMID:26632787

  20. Intraperitoneal Injection of Ethanol for the Euthanasia of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) and Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal H; Brice, Angela K; Marx, James O; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-11-01

    Compassion, professional ethics, and public sensitivity require that animals are euthanized humanely and appropriately under both planned and emergent situations. According to the 2013 AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals, intraperitoneal injection of ethanol is "acceptable with conditions" for use in mice. Because only limited information regarding this technique is available, we sought to evaluate ethanol by using ECG and high-definition video recording. Mice (n = 85) and rats (n = 16) were treated with intraperitoneal ethanol (70% or 100%), a positive-control agent (pentobarbital-phenytoin combination [Pe/Ph]), or a negative-control agent (saline solution). After injection, animals were assessed for behavioral and physiologic responses. Pain-assessment techniques in mice demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of ethanol was not more painful than was intraperitoneal Pe/Ph. Median time to loss of consciousness for all mice that received ethanol or Pe/Ph was 45 s. Median time to respiratory arrest was 2.75, 2.25, and 2.63 min, and time (mean ± SE) to cardiac arrest was 6.04 ± 1.3, 2.96 ± 0.6, and 4.03 ± 0.5 min for 70% ethanol, 100% ethanol, and Pe/Ph, respectively. No mouse that received ethanol or Pe/Ph regained consciousness. Although successful in mice, intraperitoneal ethanol at the doses tested (9.2 to 20.1 g/kg) was unsuitable for euthanasia of rats (age, 7 to 8 wk) because of the volume needed and prolonged time to respiratory effects. For mice, intraperitoneal injection of 70% or 100% ethanol induced rapid and irreversible loss of consciousness, followed by death, and should be considered as "acceptable with conditions." PMID:26632787

  1. In vitro synthesis and purification of PhIP-deoxyguanosine and PhIP-DNA oligomer covalent complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1994-12-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic amine compound formed when meats are cooked at high temperatures. PhIP damages DNA by forming covalent complexes with DNA carcinogen. In an effort to understand how the binding of PhIP to DNA may cause cancer, it is important to characterize the structures of PhIP-damaged DNA molecules. Our HPLC data support fluorescence and {sup 32}P Post-labeling studies which indicate the formation of several species of 2{prime}deoxyguanosine-(dG) or oligodeoxynucleotide-PhIP adducts. The reaction of PhIP with dG resulted in a reddish precipitate that was likely the major adduct, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-PhIP (dG-C8-PhIP) adduct, with a more polar adduct fraction remaining in the supernatant. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis of the adducts in the supernatant revealed the existence of species of much shorter retention times than the dG-C8-PhIP adduct, confirming that these species are more polar than dG-C8-PhIP. At least four adducts were formed in the reaction of PhIP with DNA oligomer. HPLC analysis of the PhIP-DNA oligomer supernatant after butanol extractions revealed four unresolved peaks which spectra had maximum wavelengths between 340 and 360 nm. Though adduct peaks were not completely resolved, there was {approximately}3 minutes interval between the DNA oligomer peak and the adduct peaks. Furthermore, fluorescence emission data of the DNA oligomer-PhIP adduct solution show heterogeneous binding. The more polar PhIP adducts were fraction-collected and their structures will be solved by nuclear magnetic resonance or x-ray crystallography.

  2. Using IPS Magnetic Modeling to Determine Bz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Bisi, M. M.; Tokumaru, M.

    2014-12-01

    Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations enable remote determinations of velocity and density in the inner heliosphere while also providing forecasts of these quantities. Using the global velocities inferred from IPS, and through convection upward of magnetic fields perpendicular to a source surface produced by the Current-Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) modified potential model (Zhao and Hoeksema, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 19, 1995), global long-duration radial and tangential heliospheric field components can also be determined. In order to better include short-term transient effects and derive a value for the field normal to these components (Bn) during periods where CMEs, are present, we have tested an extension to our current 3D vector-field analysis. This extension adds closed fields from below the source surface to the CSSS model values, and when traced outward from the sub-Earth point, three magnetic field components are present. These are compared to in-situ magnetic fields measured near Earth for several periods throughout the current solar cycle from the minimum between Solar Cycle 23 and 24 up until the present. We find a significant positive correlation when using this extension to current analyses including that of the Bn field for the test cases analyzed thus far.

  3. IP-Based Video Modem Extender Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, L G; Boorman, T M; Howe, R E

    2003-12-16

    Visualization is one of the keys to understanding large complex data sets such as those generated by the large computing resources purchased and developed by the Advanced Simulation and Computing program (aka ASCI). In order to be convenient to researchers, visualization data must be distributed to offices and large complex visualization theaters. Currently, local distribution of the visual data is accomplished by distance limited modems and RGB switches that simply do not scale to hundreds of users across the local, metropolitan, and WAN distances without incurring large costs in fiber plant installation and maintenance. Wide Area application over the DOE Complex is infeasible using these limited distance RGB extenders. On the other hand, Internet Protocols (IP) over Ethernet is a scalable well-proven technology that can distribute large volumes of data over these distances. Visual data has been distributed at lower resolutions over IP in industrial applications. This document describes requirements of the ASCI program in visual signal distribution for the purpose of identifying industrial partners willing to develop products to meet ASCI's needs.

  4. Teaching Students to Administer the WISC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kathleen Yost

    1977-01-01

    A college level psychology course is described in which students were trained by both traditional and experimental methods to administer individual intelligence tests. Comparative analysis of performance by each group indicates that student motivation and performance is not greatly influenced by teaching method and that videotape demonstrations…

  5. Changes in Medications Administered in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Johnson, Shella; Roman, Jaclyn; Zimmerman, M. Bridget

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to determine if there have been changes in the type and number of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) medications administered in schools since the introduction of long-acting stimulants. A survey was sent to 1,000 school nurses randomly selected from the National Association…

  6. Difference in nephrotoxicity of vancomycin administered once daily and twice daily in rats.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Hiroki; Morita, Yukiko; Mizumura, Miyo; Iga, Ikumi; Nagai, Katsuhito

    2013-10-01

    We compared the degree of nephrotoxicity of vancomycin (VCM) administered once daily and twice daily in rats. VCM was intraperitoneally administered once daily to rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg (VCM-1-treated) or administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg twice daily at 12-hour intervals (VCM-2-treated) for 7 consecutive days. Creatinine clearance was decreased more markedly in VCM-1 rats relative to VCM-2 rats, although there was no significant difference in renal accumulation of VCM between the two groups. Renal superoxide dismutase activity was lower in VCM-1 rats than that in VCM-2 rats. The magnitude of histological change in kidney tissue was in agreement with the degree of alterations in the abovementioned biochemical values. These results suggest that the nephrotoxic effect of once-daily VCM administration is more pronounced than that of the twice-daily treatment. Our findings provide fundamental evidence for the advantage in choosing a divided VCM administration to attenuate nephrotoxicity.

  7. Orally administered melatonin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced neural tube defects in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xia, Mi-Zhen; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been associated with adverse pregnant outcomes, including fetal demise, intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), neural tube defects (NTDs) and preterm delivery in rodent animals. Previous studies demonstrated that melatonin protected against LPS-induced fetal demise, IUGR and preterm delivery. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on LPS-induced NTDs. All pregnant mice except controls were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (25 µg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD)8 to GD12. Some pregnant mice were orally administered with melatonin (MT, 50 mg/kg) before each LPS injection. A five-day LPS injection resulted in 27.5% of fetuses with anencephaly, exencephaly or encephalomeningocele. Additional experiment showed that maternal LPS exposure significantly down-regulated placental proton-coupled folate transporter (pcft) and disturbed folate transport from maternal circulation through the placentas into the fetus. Interestingly, melatonin significantly attenuated LPS-induced down-regulation of placental pcft. Moreover, melatonin markedly improved the transport of folate from maternal circulation through the placentas into the fetus. Correspondingly, orally administered melatonin reduced the incidence of LPS-induced anencephaly, exencephaly or encephalomeningocele. Taken together, these results suggest that orally administered melatonin prevents LPS-induced NTDs through alleviating LPS-induced disturbance of folate transport from maternal circulation through the placenta into the fetus. PMID:25420102

  8. Comparison of Mucosal, Subcutaneous and Intraperitoneal Routes of Rat Leptospira Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zilber, Anne-Laure; Belli, Patrick; Grezel, Delphine; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli; Djelouadji, Zoheira

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis found worldwide that is caused by a spirochete. The main reservoirs of Leptospira, which presents an asymptomatic infection, are wild rodents, including the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Experimental studies of the mechanisms of its renal colonization in rats have previously used an intraperitoneal inoculation route. However, knowledge of rat-rat transmission requires the use of a natural route of inoculation, such as a mucosal or subcutaneous route. We investigated for the first time the effects of subcutaneous and mucosal inoculation routes compared to the reference intraperitoneal route during Leptospira infection in adult rats. Infection characteristics were studied using Leptospira renal isolation, serology, and molecular and histological analyses. Leptospira infection was asymptomatic using each inoculation route, and caused similar antibody production regardless of renal colonization. The observed renal colonization rates were 8 out of 8 rats, 5 out of 8 rats and 1 out of 8 rats for the intraperitoneal, mucosal and subcutaneous inoculation routes, respectively. Thus, among the natural infection routes studied, mucosal inoculation was more efficient for renal colonization associated with urinary excretion than the subcutaneous route and induced a slower-progressing infection than the intraperitoneal route. These results can facilitate understanding of the infection modalities in rats, unlike the epidemiological studies conducted in wild rats. Future studies of other natural inoculation routes in rat models will increase our knowledge of rat-rat disease transmission and allow the investigation of infection kinetics. PMID:27031867

  9. Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Pseudomyxoma Peritonei and Appendix Tumours.

    PubMed

    Lansom, Joshua; Alzahrani, Nayef; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David L

    2016-06-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is the intra-peritoneal accumulation of mucus due to mucinous neoplasia, most often from a ruptured mucinous appendiceal neoplasm. A similar syndrome is caused by appendix cancer and other gastrointestinal malignancies. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) provides long-term survival in selected patients with these conditions. The management of the appendiceal neoplasm prior to development of peritoneal involvement is initially discussed. This is followed by an overview of the management of peritoneal disease caused by appendiceal neoplasms. The principles and basic techniques of CRS and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (both intraoperative and post operative) are then discussed. Survival outcomes from several large studies are summarised. Prognostic factors are also discussed. We report our basic outcome data for the 345 patients with PMP or appendix cancer treated at our institution. Finally, the promising upcoming treatment of mucolytic therapy is discussed. We conclude that appendiceal neoplasms, although rare can cause significant morbidity and mortality. With optimal management long-term survival is possible in the majority of patients. The key to treatment is complete cytoreduction and use of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. PMID:27065707

  10. Comparison of Mucosal, Subcutaneous and Intraperitoneal Routes of Rat Leptospira Infection.

    PubMed

    Zilber, Anne-Laure; Belli, Patrick; Grezel, Delphine; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli; Djelouadji, Zoheira

    2016-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis found worldwide that is caused by a spirochete. The main reservoirs of Leptospira, which presents an asymptomatic infection, are wild rodents, including the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Experimental studies of the mechanisms of its renal colonization in rats have previously used an intraperitoneal inoculation route. However, knowledge of rat-rat transmission requires the use of a natural route of inoculation, such as a mucosal or subcutaneous route. We investigated for the first time the effects of subcutaneous and mucosal inoculation routes compared to the reference intraperitoneal route during Leptospira infection in adult rats. Infection characteristics were studied using Leptospira renal isolation, serology, and molecular and histological analyses. Leptospira infection was asymptomatic using each inoculation route, and caused similar antibody production regardless of renal colonization. The observed renal colonization rates were 8 out of 8 rats, 5 out of 8 rats and 1 out of 8 rats for the intraperitoneal, mucosal and subcutaneous inoculation routes, respectively. Thus, among the natural infection routes studied, mucosal inoculation was more efficient for renal colonization associated with urinary excretion than the subcutaneous route and induced a slower-progressing infection than the intraperitoneal route. These results can facilitate understanding of the infection modalities in rats, unlike the epidemiological studies conducted in wild rats. Future studies of other natural inoculation routes in rat models will increase our knowledge of rat-rat disease transmission and allow the investigation of infection kinetics.

  11. Effects of a single intraperitoneal administration of cadmium on femoral bone structure in male rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to cadmium (Cd) is considered a risk factor for various bone diseases in humans and experimental animals. This study investigated the acute effects of Cd on femoral bone structure of adult male rats after a single intraperitoneal administration. Methods Ten 4-month-old male Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 2 mg CdCl2/kg body weight and killed 36 h after the Cd had been injected. Ten 4-month-old males served as a control group. Differences in body weight, femoral weight, femoral length and histological structure of the femur were evaluated between the two groups of rats. The unpaired Student's t-test was used for establishment of statistical significance. Results A single intraperitoneal administration of Cd had no significant effect on the body weight, femoral weight or femoral length. On the other hand, histological changes were significant. Rats exposed to Cd had significantly higher values of area, perimeter, maximum and minimum diameters of the primary osteons' vascular canals and Haversian canals. In contrast, a significant decrease in all variables of the secondary osteons was observed in these rats. Conclusions The results indicate that, as expected, a single intraperitoneal administration of 2 mg CdCl2/kg body weight had no impact on macroscopic structure of rat's femora; however, it affected the size of vascular canals of primary osteons, Haversian canals, and secondary osteons. PMID:21884588

  12. Telemetry and Communication IP Video Player

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OFarrell, Zachary L.

    2011-01-01

    Aegis Video Player is the name of the video over IP system for the Telemetry and Communications group of the Launch Services Program. Aegis' purpose is to display video streamed over a network connection to be viewed during launches. To accomplish this task, a VLC ActiveX plug-in was used in C# to provide the basic capabilities of video streaming. The program was then customized to be used during launches. The VLC plug-in can be configured programmatically to display a single stream, but for this project multiple streams needed to be accessed. To accomplish this, an easy to use, informative menu system was added to the program to enable users to quickly switch between videos. Other features were added to make the player more useful, such as watching multiple videos and watching a video in full screen.

  13. Security Research on VoIP with Watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dong; Lee, Ping

    2008-11-01

    With the wide application of VoIP, many problems have occurred. One of the problems is security. The problems with securing VoIP systems, insufficient standardization and lack of security mechanisms emerged the need for new approaches and solutions. In this paper, we propose a new security architecture for VoIP which is based on digital watermarking which is a new, flexible and powerful technology that is increasingly gaining more and more attentions. Besides known applications e.g. to solve copyright protection problems, we propose to use digital watermarking to secure not only transmitted audio but also signaling protocol that VoIP is based on.

  14. A Scalable and Practical Authentication Protocol in Mobile IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong; Lee, Goo-Yeon; Kim, Hwa-Long

    Due to the proliferation of mobile devices connected to the Internet, implementing a secure and practical Mobile IP has become an important goal. A mobile IP can not work properly without authentication between the mobile node (MN), the home agent (HA) and the foreign agent (FA). In this paper, we propose a practical Mobile IP authentication protocol that uses public key cryptography only during the initial authentication. The proposed scheme is compatible with the conventional Mobile IP protocol and provides scalability against the number of MN's. We also show that the proposed protocol offers secure operation.

  15. Mig and IP-10: CXC chemokines that target lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Farber, J M

    1997-03-01

    Mig and IP-10 are related members of the CXC subfamily of the chemokine family of cytokines. The murine Mig (MuMig), human IP-10, and the mouse homologue of IP-10, Crg-2, were all identified due to the dramatic inductions of their genes in monocytic cells treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Studies using recombinant (r) human proteins show that, unlike most other CXC chemokines, rHuMig and rIP-10 have no activity on neutrophils but appear to target lymphocytes specifically. rHuMig and rIP-10 are active as chemotactic factors for stimulated, but not for resting, T cells. Studies done in vitro and in vivo have shown that rHuMig and rIP-10 share additional activities, including inhibition of neovascularization, inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor cells, and anti-tumor effects. rHuMig and rIP-10 show reciprocal desensitization on activated T cells and have been demonstrated to share a receptor, CXCR3. The genes for both MuMig and Crg-2 are highly expressed in multiple tissues during experimental viral and protozoan infections in mice, but their patterns of expression differ. This suggests that the Migs and IP-10/Crg-2 may play roles in host defense and that, despite their similar activities assayed in vitro, Mig and IP-10/Crg-2 may serve non-redundant functions in vivo.

  16. Machinability of IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C; Weigl, P

    2000-01-01

    Using ceramic materials for an automatic production of ceramic dentures by CAD/CAM is a challenge, because many technological, medical, and optical demands must be considered. The IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic meets most of them. This study shows the possibilities for machining this ceramic with economical parameters. The long life-time requirement for ceramic dentures requires a ductile machined surface to avoid the well-known subsurface damages of brittle materials caused by machining. Slow and rapid damage propagation begins at break outs and cracks, and limits life-time significantly. Therefore, ductile machined surfaces are an important demand for machine dental ceramics. The machining tests were performed with various parameters such as tool grain size and feed speed. Denture ceramics were machined by jig grinding on a 5-axis CNC milling machine (Maho HGF 500) with a high-speed spindle up to 120,000 rpm. The results of the wear test indicate low tool wear. With one tool, you can machine eight occlusal surfaces including roughing and finishing. One occlusal surface takes about 60 min machining time. Recommended parameters for roughing are middle diamond grain size (D107), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 1000 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.06 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm, and for finishing ultra fine diamond grain size (D46), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 100 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.02 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm. The results of the machining tests give a reference for using IPS Empress(R) 2 framework ceramic in CAD/CAM systems.

  17. Lessons Learned in the Design and Use of IP1 / IP2 Flexible Packaging - 13621

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Mike; Reeves, Wendall; Smart, Bill

    2013-07-01

    For many years in the USA, Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW), contaminated soils and construction debris, have been transported, interim stored, and disposed of, using IP1 / IP2 metal containers. The performance of these containers has been more than adequate, with few safety occurrences. The containers are used under the regulatory oversight of the US Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In the late 90's the introduction of flexible packaging for the transport, storage, and disposal of low level contaminated soils and construction debris was introduced. The development of flexible packaging came out of a need for a more cost effective package, for the large volumes of waste generated by the decommissioning of many of the US Department of Energy (DOE) legacy sites across the US. Flexible packaging had to be designed to handle a wide array of waste streams, including soil, gravel, construction debris, and fine particulate dust migration. The design also had to meet all of the IP1 requirements under 49CFR 173.410, and be robust enough to pass the IP2 testing 49 CFR 173.465 required for many LLW shipments. Tens of thousands of flexible packages have been safely deployed and used across the US nuclear industry as well as for hazardous non-radioactive applications, with no recorded release of radioactive materials. To ensure that flexible packages are designed properly, the manufacturer must use lessons learned over the years, and the tests performed to provide evidence that these packages are suitable for transporting low level radioactive wastes. The design and testing of flexible packaging for LLW, VLLW and other hazardous waste streams must be as strict and stringent as the design and testing of metal containers. The design should take into consideration the materials being loaded into the package, and should incorporate the right materials, and manufacturing methods, to provide a quality, safe product. Flexible packaging can be

  18. Distribution, retention, and phototoxicity of hematoporphyrin derivative in a rat glioma. Intraneoplastic versus intraperitoneal injection

    SciTech Connect

    Kostron, H.; Bellnier, D.A.; Lin, C.W.; Swartz, M.R.; Martuza, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The distribution, retention, and phototoxicity of the sensitizer hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) were studied following intraperitoneal and direct intraneoplastic injections of the agent into subcutaneous or intracerebral gliosarcomas in rats. Forty-eight hours after intraperitoneal injection, the ratio of tritiated (/sup 3/H) HPD in subcutaneous tumor: adjacent normal skin was about 1.4:1 and the ratio in tumor: normal brain was 3:1. In contrast, direct injection of /sup 3/H-HPD into subcutaneous tumors resulted in tumor: adjacent normal skin concentration ratios of approximately 44:1 and tumor: normal brain ratios of about 61:1. For rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas, intraperitoneal administration of /sup 3/H-HPD resulted in approximately 1.3-fold sensitization in tumor tissue relative to adjacent edematous brain. In contrast, after direct injection into intracerebral tumors, the tumor: adjacent edematous brain and tumor: skin /sup 3/H-HPD ratios were 3:1 and 32:1, respectively. In all cases, /sup 3/H-HPD was found in every portion of the tumor, even at a distance from the injection site. For the /sup 3/H-HPD doses used in this study, after direct injection both subcutaneous and intracerebral tumor tissue contained about three to four times more /sup 3/H-HPD than tumors in rats receiving intraperitoneal /sup 3/H-HPD. Both in vitro and in vivo clonogenic assays demonstrated that the photodynamic inactivation of the tumors was significantly greater after direct injection than after intraperitoneal injection.

  19. A Clinical Experience of Ectopic Pregnancies with Initial Free Intraperitoneal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Yassa, Murat; Taymur, Bilge Dogan; Çelik, Ayhan; Aydin, Sibel; Orhan, Emrah; Tug, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Extra-uterine pregnancy or Ectopic Pregnancy (EP) is a major health problem for pregnant women, presenting as a potentially life-threatening emergency in the first trimester. There are three major options for the treatment of EP: expectant management, surgical treatment and medical management. The presence of free intraperitoneal fluid in EP-diagnosed patients is crucial for treatment planning and evaluation. Aim To compare the outcomes of both the expectant man-agement and medical treatment with methotrexate (MTX) in ectopic pregnancies with free intraperitoneal fluid. Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study inclu-ded a total of 91 ectopic pregnancies with or without rupture in which the women had initial free intraperitoneal fluid and were haemodynamically stable. Serial β-HCG measurements were used to assess the outcome of expectant management and medical treatment with MTX. For the statistical analysis, the SPSS statistical software package, version 22.0 (Chicago, IL, USA), was used. For the quantitative variables that were not distributed normally, the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test were performed for the evaluation of differences between the groups. Results It was observed that the success rate with expectant management was 81% (initial β HCG concentration 626±443 mIU/mL). With a single dose of MTX, it was 76% (initial β HCG concentration 2124±1647 mIU/mL) and with a total single or double dose of MTX, it was 88% (initial β HCG concentration 2252±78 mIU/mL) from among EP with or without rupture in women with initial free intraperitoneal fluid during diagnosis. There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to ultrasonography findings. Conclusion Expectant management or medical treatment with methotrexate should be the first line treatment for ectopic pregnancies with initial free intraperitoneal fluid, albeit with rupture, in patients who are haemodynamically stable, along with

  20. Urinary Metabolites of the Dietary Carcinogen PhIP are Predictive of Colon DNA Adducts After a Low Dose Exposure in Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M; Dingley, K; Nowell, S; Ubick, E; Mulakken, N; Nelson, D; Lang, N; Felton, J; Turteltaub, K

    2006-04-28

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that exposure to heterocyclic amines (HAs) in the diet is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. Well-done cooked meats contain significant levels of HAs which have been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals. To better understand the mechanisms of HA bioactivation in humans, the most mass abundant HA, 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), was used to assess the relationship between PhIP metabolism and DNA adduct formation. Ten human volunteers were administered a dietary relevant dose of [{sup 14}C]PhIP 48-72 h prior to surgery to remove colon tumors. Urine was collected for 24 h after dosing for metabolite analysis, and DNA was extracted from colon tissue and analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry for DNA adducts. All ten subjects were phenotyped for CYP1A2, NAT2, and SULT1A1 enzyme activity. Twelve PhIP metabolites were detected in the urine samples. The most abundant metabolite in all volunteers was N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide. Metabolite levels varied significantly between the volunteers. Interindividual differences in colon DNA adducts levels were observed between each individual. The data showed that individuals with a rapid CYP1A2 phenotype and high levels of urinary N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide, had the lowest level of colon PhIP-DNA adducts. This suggests that glucuronidation plays a significant role in detoxifying N-hydroxy-PhIP. The levels of urinary N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide were negatively correlated to colon DNA adduct levels. Although it is difficult to make definite conclusions from a small data set, the results from this pilot study have encouraged further investigations using a much larger study group.

  1. Maintaining high-quality IP audio services in lossy IP network environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Robert J., III; Chodura, Hartmut

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we present our research activities in the area of digital audio processing and transmission. Today's available teleconference audio solutions are lacking in flexibility, robustness and fidelity. There was a need for enhancing the quality of audio for IP-based applications to guarantee optimal services under varying conditions. Multiple tests and user evaluations have shown that a reliable audio communication toolkit is essential for any teleconference application. This paper summarizes our research activities and gives an overview of developed applications. In a first step the parameters, which influence the audio quality, were evaluated. All of these parameters have to be optimized in order to result into the best achievable quality. Therefore it was necessary to enhance existing schemes or develop new methods. Applications were developed for Internet-Telephony, broadcast of live music and spatial audio for Virtual Reality environments. This paper describes these applications and issues of delivering high quality digital audio services over lossy IP networks.

  2. In vivo effects of synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073 and phytocannabinoid Δ9-THC in mice: inhalation versus intraperitoneal injection.

    PubMed

    Marshell, R; Kearney-Ramos, T; Brents, L K; Hyatt, W S; Tai, S; Prather, P L; Fantegrossi, W E

    2014-09-01

    Human users of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) JWH-018 and JWH-073 typically smoke these drugs, but preclinical studies usually rely on injection for drug delivery. We used the cannabinoid tetrad and drug discrimination to compare in vivo effects of inhaled drugs with injected doses of these two SCBs, as well as with the phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). Mice inhaled various doses of Δ(9)-THC, JWH-018 or JWH-073, or were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with these same compounds. Rectal temperature, tail flick latency in response to radiant heat, horizontal bar catalepsy, and suppression of locomotor activity were assessed in each animal. In separate studies, mice were trained to discriminate Δ(9)-THC (IP) from saline, and tests were performed with inhaled or injected doses of the SCBs. Both SCBs elicited Δ(9)-THC-like effects across both routes of administration, and effects following inhalation were attenuated by pretreatment with the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant. No cataleptic effects were observed following inhalation, but all compounds induced catalepsy following injection. Injected JWH-018 and JWH-073 fully substituted for Δ(9)-THC, but substitution was partial (JWH-073) or required relatively higher doses (JWH-018) when drugs were inhaled. These studies demonstrate that the SCBs JWH-018 and JWH-073 elicit dose-dependent, CB1 receptor-mediated Δ(9)-THC-like effects in mice when delivered via inhalation or via injection. Across these routes of administration, differences in cataleptic effects and, perhaps, discriminative stimulus effects, may implicate the involvement of active metabolites of these compounds.

  3. Induction of lupus-related specific autoantibodies by non-specific inflammation caused by an intraperitoneal injection of n-hexadecane in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yoshiki; Ono, Nobutaka; Akaogi, Jun; Nacionales, Dina C; Yamasaki, Yoshioki; Barker, Tolga T; Reeves, Westley H; Satoh, Minoru

    2006-02-01

    A single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of pristane, incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), or the adjuvant oil squalene, but not high molecular weight medicinal mineral oils, induces lupus-related autoantibodies to nRNP/Sm and -Su in non-autoimmune strains of mice. This ability appears to be associated with the low molecular weight and adjuvanticity of hydrocarbon. n-Hexadecane (C(16)H(34)), which is present in petroleum, has adjuvant activity and induces arthritis in rodents like other lupus-inducing oils. In addition to dietary exposure to n-hexadecane in mineral oils, exposure also occurs via inhalation of oil mist, jet fuel, or diesel exhaust or by absorption through the skin. Since n-hexadecane is a low molecular weight adjuvant hydrocarbon oil similar to other lupus-inducing hydrocarbons, the present study examined whether it can also induce lupus-related autoantibodies in mice. Female BALB/cJ mice received a single i.p. injection of 0.5 ml of n-hexadecane, pristane, or saline (control). Pathology and serology (immunoglobulin levels, autoantibodies by immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and ELISA) were examined 3 months later. Unexpectedly, all n-hexadecane-treated mice, but none in the other groups, developed inflammatory ascites within 2.5 months. n-Hexadecane induced hypergammaglobulinemia (IgG1, IgG2a), antinuclear (titer>1:160, 67%) and -cytoplasmic antibodies (58%) and autoantibodies to nRNP/Sm (25%), Su (33%), ssDNA (83%), and chromatin (100%). Therefore, non-specific inflammation caused by n-hexadecane resulted in the production of a limited set of specific autoantibodies. These previously unrecognized immunological effects of n-hexadecane may have implications in monitoring human exposure to hydrocarbons and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

  4. In vivo effects of synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073 and phytocannabinoid Δ9-THC in mice: Inhalation versus intraperitoneal injection

    PubMed Central

    Marshell, R.; Kearney-Ramos, T.; Brents, L.K.; Hyatt, W.S.; Tai, S.; Prather, P.L.; Fantegrossi, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Human users of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) JWH-018 and JWH-073 typically smoke these drugs, but preclinical studies usually rely on injection for drug delivery. We used the cannabinoid tetrad and drug discrimination to compare in vivo effects of inhaled drugs with injected doses of these two SCBs, as well as with the phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). Mice inhaled various doses of Δ9-THC, JWH-018 or JWH-073, or were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with these same compounds. Rectal temperature, tail flick latency in response to radiant heat, horizontal bar catalepsy, and suppression of locomotor activity were assessed in each animal. In separate studies, mice were trained to discriminate Δ9-THC (IP) from saline, and tests were performed with inhaled or injected doses of the SCBs. Both SCBs elicited Δ9-THC-like effects across both routes of administration, and effects following inhalation were attenuated by pretreatment with the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant. No cataleptic effects were observed following inhalation, but all compounds induced catalepsy following injection. Injected JWH-018 and JWH-073 fully substituted for Δ9-THC, but substitution was partial (JWH-073) or required relatively higher doses (JWH-018) when drugs were inhaled. These studies demonstrate that the SCBs JWH-018 and JWH-073 elicit dose-dependent, CB1 receptor-mediated Δ9-THC-like effects in mice when delivered via inhalation or via injection. Across these routes of administration, differences in cataleptic effects and, perhaps, discriminative stimulus effects, may implicate the involvement of active metabolites of these compounds. PMID:24857780

  5. In silico pooling of ChIP-seq control experiments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guannan; Srinivasan, Rajini; Lopez-Anido, Camila; Hung, Holly A; Svaren, John; Keleş, Sündüz

    2014-01-01

    As next generation sequencing technologies are becoming more economical, large-scale ChIP-seq studies are enabling the investigation of the roles of transcription factor binding and epigenome on phenotypic variation. Studying such variation requires individual level ChIP-seq experiments. Standard designs for ChIP-seq experiments employ a paired control per ChIP-seq sample. Genomic coverage for control experiments is often sacrificed to increase the resources for ChIP samples. However, the quality of ChIP-enriched regions identifiable from a ChIP-seq experiment depends on the quality and the coverage of the control experiments. Insufficient coverage leads to loss of power in detecting enrichment. We investigate the effect of in silico pooling of control samples within multiple biological replicates, multiple treatment conditions, and multiple cell lines and tissues across multiple datasets with varying levels of genomic coverage. Our computational studies suggest guidelines for performing in silico pooling of control experiments. Using vast amounts of ENCODE data, we show that pairwise correlations between control samples originating from multiple biological replicates, treatments, and cell lines/tissues can be grouped into two classes representing whether or not in silico pooling leads to power gain in detecting enrichment between the ChIP and the control samples. Our findings have important implications for multiplexing samples.

  6. Research on implementation of proxy Arp in IP DSLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chuanqing; Wang, Li; Huang, Qiugen

    2005-02-01

    While the ethernet is applied more and more in public network environment and xdsl service become the most common access mode ,IP kenel DSLAM undertakes some functions such as service distribution and convergence ,security management and customer management.Facing the contradiction of the need of port isolation and the shortage of ip address,VLAN aggregation technology is applied in DSLAM.How to implement the communicatio between the two vlan but share the same ip subnet,proxy arp does this. This paper introduces how to implement proxy arp in the DSLAM. TCP/IP communication detail procedure betweent two host ,the relation of VLAN and network segment are discussed. The proxy arp model and its implementation in IP DSLAM is also expatiated in this paper and a conformance tesing is given.

  7. Computational methodology for ChIP-seq analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyunjin; Liu, Tao; Duan, Xikun; Zhang, Yong; Liu, X. Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a powerful technology to identify the genome-wide locations of DNA binding proteins such as transcription factors or modified histones. As more and more experimental laboratories are adopting ChIP-seq to unravel the transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, computational analyses of ChIP-seq also become increasingly comprehensive and sophisticated. In this article, we review current computational methodology for ChIP-seq analysis, recommend useful algorithms and workflows, and introduce quality control measures at different analytical steps. We also discuss how ChIP-seq could be integrated with other types of genomic assays, such as gene expression profiling and genome-wide association studies, to provide a more comprehensive view of gene regulatory mechanisms in important physiological and pathological processes. PMID:25741452

  8. Audio CAPTCHA for SIP-Based VoIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soupionis, Yannis; Tountas, George; Gritzalis, Dimitris

    Voice over IP (VoIP) introduces new ways of communication, while utilizing existing data networks to provide inexpensive voice communications worldwide as a promising alternative to the traditional PSTN telephony. SPam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) is one potential source of future annoyance in VoIP. A common way to launch a SPIT attack is the use of an automated procedure (bot), which generates calls and produces audio advertisements. In this paper, our goal is to design appropriate CAPTCHA to fight such bots. We focus on and develop audio CAPTCHA, as the audio format is more suitable for VoIP environments and we implement it in a SIP-based VoIP environment. Furthermore, we suggest and evaluate the specific attributes that audio CAPTCHA should incorporate in order to be effective, and test it against an open source bot implementation.

  9. Efficacy of a formalin-inactivated vaccine against Streptococcus iniae infection in the farmed grouper Epinephelus coioides by intraperitoneal immunization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsing-Yen; Chen, Yan-Chun; Wang, Pei-Chi; Tsai, Ming-An; Yeh, Shih-Chun; Liang, Hong-Jen; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2014-12-01

    Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing infectious diseases; however, few vaccines are effective against Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae) in grouper. This work presents an efficacious and safe vaccine against S. iniae infections in the grouper Epinephelus coioides. The vaccine candidate was the S. iniae GSI-310 strain. The vaccination was administered by intraperitoneal injection, and consisted of formalin-inactivated antigens combined with an AS-F or ISA763A adjuvant. Peripheral blood samples were collected for RT-qPCR and phagocytosis and agglutination assays. Our results indicated that immunoglobulin M (igm) was maximally expressed in the two vaccinated groups at 3 months post-secondary vaccination (PSV). A significant upregulation of mRNA expression for interleukin-1β (il-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (tnf-α) was also observed in fish treated with antigens combined with ISA763A, which peaked at 3 months PSV. In fish treated with antigens combined with AS-F, il-1β and tnf-α expression peaked at 14 days post-primary vaccination (PPV). Phagocytic activity and index increased significantly in the two vaccinated groups. Furthermore, fish in the two vaccinated groups exhibited significantly elevated agglutination titers compared to fish in the control group, in which almost no agglutination reaction was detected. In the efficacy test, the vaccinated and control groupers were treated with S. iniae at 1, 3, and 6 months PSV. The relative percentage survival (RPS) values of antigens with AS-F and antigens with ISA763A were both 100% at 1 and 3 months PSV; at 6 months PSV, the RPS values for these groups were 100% and 97.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the level of protection observed in the field trial closely resembled that achieved on a laboratory scale. Therefore, the proposed vaccine mixed with AS-F or ISA763A improved immune responses and provided safe and long-lasting protection in farmed groupers. PMID:25192808

  10. I.P. Pavlov as a youth.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1991-01-01

    Ivan P. Pavlov's youthful relations with parents and siblings, formal education, and social activities in Riazan' are described. The Pavlovs, a highly achievement-oriented family descending from a lowly serf, improved their social status by serving the Russian Orthodox Church. Pavlov, the son of a priest, studied in the 1860s at the Riazan' Ecclesiastic Seminary for priesthood. The turbulent 1860s' decade was a period of social and political reforms. Western ideas and science were introduced to Russia. The ambitious and idealistic I.P. Pavlov was influenced by popular essays written by the journalist D.I. Pisarev, the works of the German physiologist J. Moleschott, the English writer G.H. Lewes, the German zoologist C. Vogt and the physiologist M.I. Sechenov. Losing his religious faith, Pavlov abandoned the traditional goal of becoming a priest, and, convinced that science was a road to truth and progress, left Riazan' to study natural science at the University of St. Petersburg.

  11. I.P. Pavlov as a youth.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1991-01-01

    Ivan P. Pavlov's youthful relations with parents and siblings, formal education, and social activities in Riazan' are described. The Pavlovs, a highly achievement-oriented family descending from a lowly serf, improved their social status by serving the Russian Orthodox Church. Pavlov, the son of a priest, studied in the 1860s at the Riazan' Ecclesiastic Seminary for priesthood. The turbulent 1860s' decade was a period of social and political reforms. Western ideas and science were introduced to Russia. The ambitious and idealistic I.P. Pavlov was influenced by popular essays written by the journalist D.I. Pisarev, the works of the German physiologist J. Moleschott, the English writer G.H. Lewes, the German zoologist C. Vogt and the physiologist M.I. Sechenov. Losing his religious faith, Pavlov abandoned the traditional goal of becoming a priest, and, convinced that science was a road to truth and progress, left Riazan' to study natural science at the University of St. Petersburg. PMID:2054299

  12. Trials of intranasally administered rubella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hillary, I B

    1971-12-01

    No evidence of vaccine virus transmission was found in two studies where Wistar RA 27/3 rubella vaccine was administered intranasally. Vaccine was immunogenic in all of 23 vaccinated children in one study, while in the other only 5 of the 11 vaccinees developed antibody. The reduced seroconversion rate in the latter study appears to have been caused by one or a combination of factors, including the vaccination technique, the presence of infective nasal conditions in vaccinees and the titre of vaccine used.

  13. Intraperitoneal haemorrhage from a ruptured corpus luteum. A cause of "acute abdomen" in women.

    PubMed

    Sivanesaratnam, V; Singh, A; Rachagan, S P; Raman, S

    1986-04-14

    During the 10-year period 1974-1983, 68 patients with intraperitoneal haemorrhage as a result of the rupture of a corpus luteum were managed at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Most of the patients were aged between 18 and 35 years. In 63% of the patients the rupture occurred between the 14th and the 35th day of the menstrual cycle, and 10 patients had intraperitoneal bleeding severe enough (450-1500 mL) to require blood transfusion. The condition is often confused with other surgical emergencies such as appendicitis and ectopic pregnancy. An increased awareness of the problem in women of reproductive age and the use of laparoscopy, when indicated, will allow a more conservative approach to be adopted for those patients with minimal bleeding. The performance of an appendicectomy in the presence of blood in the peritoneal cavity did not appear to increase morbidity in those patients with a preoperative diagnosis of "appendicitis".

  14. Acute hematologic, hepatologic, and nephrologic changes after intraperitoneal injections of 18 nm gold nanoparticles in hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Hazem Mohamed; Soliman, Omar A; Elshazly, Mohamed Osama; Raafat, Alaa; Gohar, Adel K; Salaheldin, Taher A

    2016-01-01

    In vivo responses to gold nanoparticles (GNPs) vary not only according to the size, shape, surface charge, and capping agent of GNPs but also according to the animal model, the route of administration, and the exposure frequency and duration. We illustrate here the changes in some hematologic parameters, in the hepatic and renal functions, and in the histopathology of solid organs after multiple intraperitoneal injections of 18 nm GNPs in adult male Syrian golden hamsters. We scored the histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys to grade the deleterious effects. Multiple intraperitoneal injections of 18 nm GNPs in hamsters were nonlethal in the short term but resulted in macrocytosis and hypochromasia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, and monocytosis. The hepatic and renal functions showed nonsignificant changes; however, histopathological examination showed hepatic and renal alterations ranging from mild to marked degeneration, with occasional necrosis of hepatocytes and tubular epithelium. PMID:27354788

  15. Acute hematologic, hepatologic, and nephrologic changes after intraperitoneal injections of 18 nm gold nanoparticles in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Hazem Mohamed; Soliman, Omar A; Elshazly, Mohamed Osama; Raafat, Alaa; Gohar, Adel K; Salaheldin, Taher A

    2016-01-01

    In vivo responses to gold nanoparticles (GNPs) vary not only according to the size, shape, surface charge, and capping agent of GNPs but also according to the animal model, the route of administration, and the exposure frequency and duration. We illustrate here the changes in some hematologic parameters, in the hepatic and renal functions, and in the histopathology of solid organs after multiple intraperitoneal injections of 18 nm GNPs in adult male Syrian golden hamsters. We scored the histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys to grade the deleterious effects. Multiple intraperitoneal injections of 18 nm GNPs in hamsters were nonlethal in the short term but resulted in macrocytosis and hypochromasia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, and monocytosis. The hepatic and renal functions showed nonsignificant changes; however, histopathological examination showed hepatic and renal alterations ranging from mild to marked degeneration, with occasional necrosis of hepatocytes and tubular epithelium. PMID:27354788

  16. Evaluation of Eu(II) -based positive contrast enhancement after intravenous, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous injections.

    PubMed

    Ekanger, Levi A; Polin, Lisa A; Shen, Yimin; Haacke, E Mark; Allen, Matthew J

    2016-07-01

    Eu(II) -based contrast agents offer physiologically relevant, metal-based redox sensing that is unachievable with Gd(III) -based contrast agents. To evaluate the in vivo contrast enhancement of Eu(II) as a function of injection type, we performed intravenous, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous injections in mice. Our data reveal a correlation between reported oxygen content and expected rates of diffusion with the persistence of Eu(II) -based contrast enhancement. Biodistribution studies revealed europium clearance through the liver and kidneys for intravenous and intraperitoneal injections, but no contrast enhancement was observed in organs associated with clearance. These data represent a step toward understanding the behavior of Eu(II) -based complexes in vivo. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27028559

  17. Intraperitoneal accessory spleen and adrenal myelolipoma: removal by simultaneous bilateral posterior retroperitoneoscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zong-Syun; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Lee, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yu-Tang

    2013-02-01

    Posterior retroperitoneoscopic approach (PRA) has become an established procedure for retroperitoneal lesions. The authors encountered a 30-year-old male patient who had β-thalassemia major and received splenectomy 15 years previously. Bilateral suprarenal tumors were noted on follow-up sonography. Subsequent computed tomography of the abdomen showed a right adrenal tumor and a left intraperitoneal lesion with homogenous enhancement. Successful bilateral PRA was performed, and histology confirmed the diagnosis of right adrenal myelolipoma and an accessory spleen. For the present case who had a large abdominal scar, PRA is technically feasible for treating patients with intraperitoneal and/or retroperitoneal suprarenal lesions while eliminating the necessity of dissection for intra-abdominal adhesions and patient repositioning for bilateral lesions.

  18. Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) generated by IP5K mediates cullin-COP9 signalosome interactions and CRL function.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Paul C; Ding, Yan; Liu, Zhiqing; Xu, Jing; Mao, Haibin; Barrow, James C; Wei, Ning; Zheng, Ning; Snyder, Solomon H; Rao, Feng

    2016-03-29

    The family of cullin-RING E3 Ligases (CRLs) and the constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN) form dynamic complexes that mediate ubiquitylation of 20% of the proteome, yet regulation of their assembly/disassembly remains poorly understood. Inositol polyphosphates are highly conserved signaling molecules implicated in diverse cellular processes. We now report that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a major physiologic determinant of the CRL-CSN interface, which includes a hitherto unidentified electrostatic interaction between the N-terminal acidic tail of CSN subunit 2 (CSN2) and a conserved basic canyon on cullins. IP6, with an EC50 of 20 nM, acts as an intermolecular "glue," increasing cullin-CSN2 binding affinity by 30-fold, thereby promoting assembly of the inactive CRL-CSN complexes. The IP6 synthase, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 2-kinase (IPPK/IP5K) binds to cullins. Depleting IP5K increases the percentage of neddylated, active Cul1 and Cul4A, and decreases levels of the Cul1/4A substrates p27 and p21. Besides dysregulating CRL-mediated cell proliferation and UV-induced apoptosis, IP5K depletion potentiates by 28-fold the cytotoxic effect of the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924. Thus, IP5K and IP6 are evolutionarily conserved components of the CRL-CSN system and are potential targets for cancer therapy in conjunction with MLN4924. PMID:26976604

  19. A highly efficient and effective motif discovery method for ChIP-seq/ChIP-chip data using positional information

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaotu; Kulkarni, Ashwinikumar; Zhang, Zhihua; Xuan, Zhenyu; Serfling, Robert; Zhang, Michael Q.

    2012-01-01

    Identification of DNA motifs from ChIP-seq/ChIP-chip [chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)] data is a powerful method for understanding the transcriptional regulatory network. However, most established methods are designed for small sample sizes and are inefficient for ChIP data. Here we propose a new k-mer occurrence model to reflect the fact that functional DNA k-mers often cluster around ChIP peak summits. With this model, we introduced a new measure to discover functional k-mers. Using simulation, we demonstrated that our method is more robust against noises in ChIP data than available methods. A novel word clustering method is also implemented to group similar k-mers into position weight matrices (PWMs). Our method was applied to a diverse set of ChIP experiments to demonstrate its high sensitivity and specificity. Importantly, our method is much faster than several other methods for large sample sizes. Thus, we have developed an efficient and effective motif discovery method for ChIP experiments. PMID:22228832

  20. Repeat cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: review of indications and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mogal, Harveshp; Chouliaras, Konstantinos; Levine, Edward A.; Shen, Perry

    2016-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is an established treatment option in selected patients with peritoneal dissemination from a variety of epithelial primaries. Even though a small proportion will be alive and potentially cured at 10 years, the majority will eventually develop recurrent disease. Repeat CRS/HIPEC is a valid consideration in a selected subpopulation of patients with isolated peritoneal recurrence. This review summarizes the data on patient selection, feasibility, limitations and outcomes of repeat CRS/HIPEC. PMID:26941991

  1. Preoperative and surveillance MR imaging of patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    MR imaging provides considerable advantages for imaging patients with peritoneal tumor. Its inherently superior contrast resolution compared to CT allows MRI to more accurately depict small peritoneal tumors that are often missed on other imaging tests. Combining different contrast mechanisms including diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI and gadolinium-enhanced MRI provides a powerful tool for preoperative and surveillance imaging in patients being considered for cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). PMID:26941984

  2. Outcome following incomplete surgical cytoreduction combined with intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal peritoneal metastases

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Roisin Mary; Shields, Conor; Mulsow, Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery combined with intraperitoneal chemotherapy can improve survival in appropriately selected patients with colorectal peritoneal metastases. Outcomes are best in those patients in whom a complete cytoreduction can be achieved. Unresectable disease is however encountered in approximately one-quarter of patients at laparotomy. The merits, or otherwise, of proceeding with an incomplete cytoreduction in this setting are unclear. We performed a review of published outcomes following incomplete cytoreduction for colorectal peritoneal metastases. Using the electronic databases, PubMed and MEDLINE, a systematic search of available literature published during the period January 1997 to September 2014 was conducted. Following application of exclusion criteria, 19 papers were identified and included in this review. These comprised fifteen case series, 3 case control studies and one randomised control trial. In the nineteen studies included in this review, 2790 patients underwent cytoreductive surgery with or without intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal metastases of colorectal origin. Of these, 1732 (62%) underwent a complete cytoreduction while 986 (35%) patients underwent an incomplete cytoreduction. Median survival in the complete cytoreduction group ranged from 11 to 62 mo while survival in the latter group ranged from 2.4 to 32 mo. Of the 986 patients with an incomplete cytoreduction, 331 patients received intraperitoneal chemotherapy and survival in this cohort ranged from 4.5 to 32 mo. An incomplete cytoreduction, with or without intraperitoneal chemotherapy, does not appear to confer a survival benefit. The limited available data points to a palliative benefit in a subset of patients. In the absence of high quality data, the decision as to whether or not to proceed with surgery should be made on an individual patient basis. PMID:26688707

  3. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: a review of factors contributing to morbidity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Andrew D.; Bartlett, Edmund K.

    2016-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is associated with prolonged survival for appropriately selected patients with peritoneal dissemination of abdominal malignancies. CRS and HIPEC has been criticized for perceived high rates of morbidity and mortality. Morbidity and mortality rates of CRS and HIPEC, however, do not appear dissimilar to those of other large abdominal surgeries, particularly when relevant patient and operative factors are accounted for. The risk of morbidity and mortality following this surgery for a given individual can be predicted in part by a variety of patient and operative factors. While strong data are lacking, the limited data that exists on the matter suggests that the independent contribution of the heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy to CRS and HIPEC morbidity is relatively small. A more thorough understanding of the patient and operative factors associated with CRS and HIPEC morbidity and mortality, as well as the specific complications related to the intraperitoneal chemotherapy, can better inform clinicians in multidisciplinary teams and patients alike in the decision-making for this surgery. PMID:26941988

  4. Ocular toxicity from systemically administered xenobiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gokulgandhi, Mitan R; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The eye is considered as the most privileged organ because of the blood–ocular barrier that acts as a barrier to systemically administered xenobiotics. However, there has been a significant increase in the number of reports on systemic drug-induced ocular complications. If such complications are left untreated, then it may cause permanent damage to vision. Hence, knowledge of most recent updates on ever-increasing reports of such toxicities has become imperative to develop better therapy while minimizing toxicities. Areas covered The article is mainly divided into anterior and posterior segment manifestations caused by systemically administered drugs. The anterior segment is further elaborated on corneal complications where as the posterior segment is focused on optic nerve, retinal and vitreous complications. Furthermore, this article includes recent updates on acute and chronic ocular predicaments, in addition to discussing various associated symptoms caused by drugs. Expert opinion Direct correlation of ocular toxicities due to systemic drug therapy is evident from current literature. Therefore, it is necessary to have detailed documentation of these complications to improve understanding and predict toxicities. We made an attempt to ensure that the reader is aware of the characteristic ocular complications, the potential for irreversible drug toxicity and indications for cessation. PMID:22803583

  5. Transcripts of neurokinin B and neurokinin 3 receptor in superovulated rat ovaries and increased number of corpora lutea as a non-specific effect of intraperitoneal agonist application.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Sabine; Schulz, Anett; Brylla, Elke; Nieber, Karen; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2004-10-15

    Neurokinin B (NKB), a member of the tachykinin family, and its neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3-R) are preferentially found in the central nervous system. Others have recently reported on mRNA from this ligand-receptor system in the uterus and on NK3-R expression increasing with age. NKB and NK3-R mRNAs have also been noted in cumulus cells and oocytes from superovulated rats. Intact ovaries before and after puberty have not been studied. In this study, we stimulated 29-day-old rats by s.c. injections with gonadotropins for estrous cycle synchronization in order to elucidate the NKB-NK3-R system's expression and function in the ovary. Simultaneously, NaCl, the NK3-R agonist (Pro(7))-NKB, the antagonist SB 218795, or thiorphan, a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor of tachykinin degradation, were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 3 1/2 consecutive days. First, we demonstrated NKB and NK3-R transcripts in one rat ovary by RT-PCR. No significant mRNA differences were noted between immature ovaries and superovulated ovaries in any of the i.p. applications. Second, the possible role of NK3-R on the ovulatory process was verified by counting corpora lutea (CL) and CL cysts in serial sections of the other ovary derived from the four different groups and embedded in paraffin wax. CL and CL cysts were noted in greater numbers in the pharmacologically treated groups than in the saline-treated group. To validate possible drug effects on the peritoneum, we additionally studied pieces of the omentum majus and retroperitoneal fat tissue. Both tissues were heavily infiltrated by granulocytes similar to a non-specific inflammatory response. The saline-treated group as well as the pharmacologically treated groups appeared to develop this unexpected side effect to a similar degree. We conclude that transcripts of NKB and NK3-R are present before and after puberty in the rat ovary and appear to be expressed at similar levels which may indicate a role for the NKB-NK3-R system in follicle

  6. IP3 receptors regulate vascular smooth muscle contractility and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qingsong; Zhao, Guiling; Fang, Xi; Peng, Xiaohong; Tang, Huayuan; Wang, Hong; Jing, Ran; Liu, Jie; Ouyang, Kunfu

    2016-01-01

    Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor–mediated (IP3R-mediated) calcium (Ca2+) release has been proposed to play an important role in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contraction for decades. However, whether and how IP3R regulates blood pressure in vivo remains unclear. To address these questions, we have generated a smooth muscle–specific IP3R triple-knockout (smTKO) mouse model using a tamoxifen-inducible system. In this study, the role of IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release in adult VSMCs on aortic vascular contractility and blood pressure was assessed following tamoxifen induction. We demonstrated that deletion of IP3Rs significantly reduced aortic contractile responses to vasoconstrictors, including phenylephrine, U46619, serotonin, and endothelin 1. Deletion of IP3Rs also dramatically reduced the phosphorylation of MLC20 and MYPT1 induced by U46619. Furthermore, although the basal blood pressure of smTKO mice remained similar to that of wild-type controls, the increase in systolic blood pressure upon chronic infusion of angiotensin II was significantly attenuated in smTKO mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate an important role for IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release in VSMCs in regulating vascular contractility and hypertension. PMID:27777977

  7. Reviewing ChIPS, The Chandra Imaging and Plotting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Burke, D. J.; Evans, I. N.; Evans, J. D.; McLaughlin, W.

    2015-09-01

    The Chandra Imaging and Plotting System (ChIPS) is a 2D plotting system designed to allow users to easily create, manipulate, and produce publication quality visualizations. ChIPS has a simple but very powerful interactive interface that allows users to dynamically modify the contents and layout of their plots quickly and efficiently, with the results of any changes being immediately visible. ChIPS allows users to construct their plots fully interactively, and then save the final plot commands as a Python script. This bypasses the need to iteratively edit and rerun the script when developing the plot. Features such as undo and redo commands allow users to easily step backwards and forwards through previous commands, while the ability so save ChIPS sessions in a platform-independent state file allows the session to be restored at any time, even on another machine. Because ChIPS offers a Python interface, users can analyze their data using the broad array of modules offered in Python, and visualize the information in ChIPS at the same time. In this paper we explore the design decisions behind the development of ChIPS and some of the lessons learned along the way.

  8. A decentralized software bus based on IP multicas ting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd

    1995-01-01

    We describe decentralized reconfigurable implementation of a conference management system based on the low-level Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting protocol. IP multicasting allows low-cost, world-wide, two-way transmission of data between large numbers of conferencing participants through the Multicasting Backbone (MBone). Each conference is structured as a software bus -- a messaging system that provides a run-time interconnection model that acts as a separate agent (i.e., the bus) for routing, queuing, and delivering messages between distributed programs. Unlike the client-server interconnection model, the software bus model provides a level of indirection that enhances the flexibility and reconfigurability of a distributed system. Current software bus implementations like POLYLITH, however, rely on a centralized bus process and point-to-point protocols (i.e., TCP/IP) to route, queue, and deliver messages. We implement a software bus called the MULTIBUS that relies on a separate process only for routing and uses a reliable IP multicasting protocol for delivery of messages. The use of multicasting means that interconnections are independent of IP machine addresses. This approach allows reconfiguration of bus participants during system execution without notifying other participants of new IP addresses. The use of IP multicasting also permits an economy of scale in the number of participants. We describe the MULITIBUS protocol elements and show how our implementation performs better than centralized bus implementations.

  9. The curative and palliative potential of the monoclonal antibody MOv18 labelled with 211At in nude mice with intraperitoneally growing ovarian cancer xenografts--a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, H; Lindegren, S; Bäck, T; Jacobsson, L; Leser, G; Horvath, G

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of 211At-labelled specific monoclonal antibody MOv18 in nude mice with intraperitoneal growth of the human ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR3. In the first part of the study the antibody was injected intraperitoneally when the cancer growth was microscopic. The injected activity was 485-555 kBq. The median survival for treated mice was 213 days compared to 138 days for untreated mice (p < 0.014, log-rank test). No obvious toxicity was seen. Thirty-three percent of the mice were apparently free of cancer after 7 months and were probably cured. In the second part of the study mice with macroscopic cancer and signs of ascites were injected intraperitoneally with the same 211At-labelled antibody (377-389 kBq). This treatment possibly delayed the production of ascites. Hopefully radioimmunotherapy with regionally administered 211At-labelled antibody will be of value in women with ovarian cancer as well. PMID:11130014

  10. MACE: model based analysis of ChIP-exo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liguo; Chen, Junsheng; Wang, Chen; Uusküla-Reimand, Liis; Chen, Kaifu; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Young, Edwin J; Zimmermann, Michael T; Yan, Huihuang; Sun, Zhifu; Zhang, Yuji; Wu, Stephen T; Huang, Haojie; Wilson, Michael D; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Li, Wei

    2014-11-10

    Understanding the role of a given transcription factor (TF) in regulating gene expression requires precise mapping of its binding sites in the genome. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-exo, an emerging technique using λ exonuclease to digest TF unbound DNA after ChIP, is designed to reveal transcription factor binding site (TFBS) boundaries with near-single nucleotide resolution. Although ChIP-exo promises deeper insights into transcription regulation, no dedicated bioinformatics tool exists to leverage its advantages. Most ChIP-seq and ChIP-chip analytic methods are not tailored for ChIP-exo, and thus cannot take full advantage of high-resolution ChIP-exo data. Here we describe a novel analysis framework, termed MACE (model-based analysis of ChIP-exo) dedicated to ChIP-exo data analysis. The MACE workflow consists of four steps: (i) sequencing data normalization and bias correction; (ii) signal consolidation and noise reduction; (iii) single-nucleotide resolution border peak detection using the Chebyshev Inequality and (iv) border matching using the Gale-Shapley stable matching algorithm. When applied to published human CTCF, yeast Reb1 and our own mouse ONECUT1/HNF6 ChIP-exo data, MACE is able to define TFBSs with high sensitivity, specificity and spatial resolution, as evidenced by multiple criteria including motif enrichment, sequence conservation, direct sequence pileup, nucleosome positioning and open chromatin states. In addition, we show that the fundamental advance of MACE is the identification of two boundaries of a TFBS with high resolution, whereas other methods only report a single location of the same event. The two boundaries help elucidate the in vivo binding structure of a given TF, e.g. whether the TF may bind as dimers or in a complex with other co-factors.

  11. Application of Mobile-ip to Space and Aeronautical Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Kent; Shell, Dan; Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David H.; Bell, Terry L.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is interested in applying mobile Internet protocol (mobile-ip) technologies to its space and aeronautics programs. In particular, mobile-ip will play a major role in the Advanced Aeronautic Transportation Technology (AAT-F), the Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM), and the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) aeronautics programs. This paper describes mobile-ip and mobile routers--in particular, the features, capabilities, and initial performance of the mobile router are presented. The application of mobile-router technology to NASA's space and aeronautics programs is also discussed.

  12. Actuator development for the Instrument Pointing System (IPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttner, K.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms of the instrument pointing system (IPS) are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the actuators which are necessary for operating the IPS. The actuators are described as follows: (1) two linear actuators that clamp the gimbals down during ascent and descent; (2) two linear actuators that attach the payload to the IPS during the mission, and release it into the payload clamps; (3) one rotational actuator that opens and closes the payload clamps; and (4) three identical drive units that represent the three orthogonal gimbal axes and are the prime movers for pointing. Design features, manufacturing problems, test performance, and results are presented.

  13. Heliospheric Tomography from IPS Data at 140 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Jackson, B. V.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Buffington, A.

    2014-12-01

    Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) from radio telescopes provides data to study density and velocity evolution of the solar wind and heliospheric disturbances. A tomography program developed at the University of California, San Diego, makes 3D reconstructions and forecasts of the inner heliosphere dynamics from IPS results. For the first time we incorporate 140 MHz IPS results from the MEXican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) into the tomography program. We show that MEXART data complement observations from other radio-systems located at different longitudes, thus providing more complete heliospheric coverage.

  14. Absorption of orally administered amphotericin B lozenges.

    PubMed

    Ching, M S; Raymond, K; Bury, R W; Mashford, M L; Morgan, D J

    1983-07-01

    The systemic absorption of amphotericin B, administered as a 10 mg lozenge, was investigated in 14 patients with malignancies, who received three or four doses daily during chronic administration. The mean plasma amphotericin B concentration, measured 3 h after the morning dose on from 1-20 occasions over a 1-80 day period, ranged among subjects from 46 +/- 13 ng/ml (s.d., n = 20) to 136 +/- 25 ng/ml (n = 19). Using the previously reported intravenous clearance of the drug, the fraction of the dose absorbed was estimated at 8.3-9.9%. This is considerably greater than that estimated from earlier reports (0.2-0.9%), which used much higher oral doses (2-10 g/day). PMID:6882617

  15. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Evans, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  16. Effect of intravenously-administered putative and potential antagonists of ethanol on sleep time in ethanol-narcotized mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, R.C.; Jernigan, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    Groups of male CD-1 mice (n = 12/group) were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with 5 g ethanol/kg of body weight. After loss of righting reflex, they were given vehicle or one of 2-3 doses of reputed or potential antagonists of ethanol intravenously (IV). Sleep time was measured from loss to return of righting reflex. Mean sleep time (MST) was increased significantly by a large dose of dl-amphetamine and by 4-aminopyridine. Significant increases were also produced by small and large doses of aminophylline and by yohimbine. MST was not altered significantly by small and medium doses of dl-amphetamine, a medium dose of aminophylline, or by any doses of naloxone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, propranolol, physostigmine, doxapram, or Ro 15-4513. When Ro 15-4513 was given IP 15 minutes before ethanol (n = 6/group), onset and duration of narcosis were not altered. None of the compounds tested was an effective IV antidote for deep ethanol narcosis because of drug side effects, toxicity, prolongation of MST, or insufficient shortening of MST. 36 references, 1 table.

  17. Efficacy of intravenously administered ibandronate in postmenopausal Korean women with insufficient response to orally administered bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sung Jin; Kim, Beom-Jun; Lim, Kyeong Hye; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Hong Kyu; Kim, Ghi Su; Koh, Jung-Min

    2012-09-01

    We investigated rates of insufficient and over-responsiveness to orally administered bisphosphonates in postmenopausal women, and tested the efficacy of intravenous ibandronate in patients with insufficient response to orally administered bisphosphonates. Postmenopausal women were treated with either alendronate (70 mg/week; n = 88) or risedronate (35 mg/week; n = 84) for 1 year, and their response to orally administered bisphosphonates was assessed using serum C-telopeptide (CTX) levels. Insufficient responders were changed to once-quarterly intravenous ibandronate 3 mg injection (n = 13) or maintained on orally administered bisphosphonates (n = 19), according to patients' preference, for an additional 1 year. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between two orally administered bisphosphonate groups except the bone mineral density values at the lumbar spine. Insufficient rate was higher in the risedronate group (19.0 %) than in the alendronate group (8.0 %), using the premenopausal serum CTX median as a cut-off (P = 0.043). The over-response rate among the alendronate group (59.1 %) was significantly higher than that in the risedronate group (38.1 %), based on a serum CTX cut-off value of 0.100 ng/ml (P = 0.006). Intravenous ibandronate suppressed serum CTX levels to a significantly greater degree at 7 days after the second dosing (0.191 ± 0.110 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and 3 months after the fourth dosing (0.274 ± 0.159 ng/mL; P = 0.004) among insufficient responders, compared with post-oral/pre-intravenous levels (0.450 ± 0.134 ng/mL). Rates of insufficient and over-responsiveness to orally administered bisphosphonates were considerable, and a change to intravenous bisphosphonates may be considered in patients showing an insufficient response to orally administered bisphosphonates.

  18. IPS Classic. Science, art and nature: a case report.

    PubMed

    Culp, L; Roach, R R

    1995-01-01

    The ceramo-metal restoration still forms the backbone of modern restorative dentistry, despite many new systems. This article discusses a unique ceramo-metal system, its advantages, and clinical and technical applications; teamwork between the dentist and the technician is emphasized. IPS Classic (Ivoclar Williams) is a ceramic system with several exclusive features. It encompasses Color Visions, a computer-generated shade system, and the IPS Impulse modifier system allows the ceramist unlimited creativity in color development.

  19. Design and implementation of an integrated IP telephone gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongfeng; Feng, Dan; Zhang, Jiangling

    1999-08-01

    A new idea of design on an Integrated IP Telephone Gateway is stated in this paper. Some key techniques are analyzed and discussed in detail. A Centered Echo Chancellor based on TMS320C6201 DSP is implemented, and many optimization methods for voice compression code are concluded to enhance the performance of the gateway. Finally, the performance parameters of the Integrated IP Telephony Gateway are summarized in this paper.

  20. A simulation of the IPS variations from a magnetohydrodynamical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tappin, S. J.; Dryer, M.; Han, S. M.; Wu, S. T.

    1987-01-01

    Calculations of the variations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) from a disturbance simulated by a 3-D magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) model of the solar wind are presented. The simulated maps are compared with observations and it is found that the MHD model reproduces the qualitative features of observed disturbances. The disturbance produced by the MHD simulation is found to correspond in strength with the weakest disturbance which can be reliably detected by existing single station IPS observations.

  1. Reprogramming therapeutics: iPS cell prospects for neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Abeliovich, Asa; Doege, Claudia A

    2009-02-12

    The recent description of somatic cell reprogramming to an embryonic stem (ES) cell-like phenotype, termed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, presents an exciting potential venue toward cell-based therapeutics and disease models for neurodegenerative disorders. Two recent studies (Dimos et al. and Ebert et al.) describe the initial characterization of neurodegenerative disease patient-derived iPS cell cultures as proof of concept for the utility of this technology.

  2. Effects of nobiletin on PhIP-induced prostate and colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming Xi; Ogawa, Kumiko; Asamoto, Makoto; Chewonarin, Teera; Suzuki, Shugo; Tanaka, Takuji; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the effects of nobiletin (5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxy flavone) on 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced prostate and colon carcinogenesis. PhIP was administered to 6-wk-old F344 male rats intragastrically (100 mg/kg) twice a wk for 10 wk. The animals were given 0.05% nobiletin or the basal diet for 50 wk. At the end of the experiment, serum testosterone, estrogen, and leptin did not differ between the 2 groups. The body weights of nobiletin-treated rats were significantly higher than controls (P<0.05), and feeding of nobiletin significantly reduced the relative prostate (P<0.05) and testes (P<0.05) weights as well as the Ki67 labeling index in the normal epithelium in the ventral prostate (P<0.01). The incidence and multiplicity of adenocarcinomas in nobiletin-treated ventral prostate were 50% and 36%, respectively, of controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. However, nobiletin did significantly reduce the total number of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) compared to the control value (P<0.05). Nobiletin, therefore, may have potential for chemoprevention of early changes associated with carcinogenesis in both the prostate and colon.

  3. Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar after intraperitoneal challenge with a nodavirus from Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus.

    PubMed

    Korsnes, Kjetil; Devold, Magnus; Nerland, Audun Helge; Nylund, Are

    2005-12-30

    Homogenate of tissue from juveniles of Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus suffering from viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) was used to challenge smolt of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar with an initial average weight of 110 g. The nodavirus was administered in the form of an intraperitoneal injection, and the fish were kept for 134 d post challenge. Genotype characterisation of the nodavirus was performed by sequencing the RNA1 and RNA2 segments, and a quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assay was developed. Tissues from different organs were stained by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Samples were collected at random on Days 7, 25, 45, 69, 125 and 134 after challenge. Mortality, clinical signs and pathology of VER were observed only in the challenged group. The Q-PCR detected positive fish only in the challenged group, all of which were positive on all days of sampling. An increase in relative virus concentrations was observed from Day 7 to Day 25 post challenge. The increased level of virus concentration was maintained in the medulla oblongata throughout the experiment, suggesting persistence or slow elimination of the virus over time. The IHC detected positive cells on Days 34, 70 and 74. These results suggest that the nodavirus is transported to the medulla oblongata from the intraperitoneal injection site and is able to replicate in salmon. When injected, this nodavirus isolate caused mortality and established a persistent infection in the challenged salmon throughout the experiment. This susceptibility suggests that co-location of salmon and marine species should be avoided until further studies of possible transmission have been carried out. PMID:16465829

  4. [Application for Lifestyle disease by iPS cells technologies].

    PubMed

    Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Currently it is less advanced to understand the pathology of lifestyle disease by using iPS cells because there is partly less direct connection between life style disease and iPS cells. So much more scientists focus on regenerative medicine such as beta cells therapy using iPS cells technologies. It will be indeed a powerful tool to generate beta cells from iPS cells as even in type2 diabetes patients, hyposecretion of insulin from beta cells in pancreas is one of causes. Another reason is complexity of the pathology of life style disease. There are a lot of reasons to cause lifestyle disease. Lifestyle diseases include cancer, chronic liver disease, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, stroke, and obesity. Since obesity is one of major causes of lifestyle diseases, we want to focus on adipogenesis from iPS cells in this review. We analysed and established the differentiation protocol into adipocytes from mouse ES cells and human iPS cells. The other point in this review is the starting pluripotent cells for differentiation. Quality of pluripotent stem cells are one of most critical factors to succeed in getting well-differentiated cells. Recently, we have developed new naive human pluripotent stem cells (PSC),"Reset cells". Naive PSC have more similar to human epibast cells than conventional human PSC. They will be more ideal cells for differentiation because of their hypomethylated status and earlier stage of development. PMID:26923982

  5. [Application for Lifestyle disease by iPS cells technologies].

    PubMed

    Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Currently it is less advanced to understand the pathology of lifestyle disease by using iPS cells because there is partly less direct connection between life style disease and iPS cells. So much more scientists focus on regenerative medicine such as beta cells therapy using iPS cells technologies. It will be indeed a powerful tool to generate beta cells from iPS cells as even in type2 diabetes patients, hyposecretion of insulin from beta cells in pancreas is one of causes. Another reason is complexity of the pathology of life style disease. There are a lot of reasons to cause lifestyle disease. Lifestyle diseases include cancer, chronic liver disease, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, stroke, and obesity. Since obesity is one of major causes of lifestyle diseases, we want to focus on adipogenesis from iPS cells in this review. We analysed and established the differentiation protocol into adipocytes from mouse ES cells and human iPS cells. The other point in this review is the starting pluripotent cells for differentiation. Quality of pluripotent stem cells are one of most critical factors to succeed in getting well-differentiated cells. Recently, we have developed new naive human pluripotent stem cells (PSC),"Reset cells". Naive PSC have more similar to human epibast cells than conventional human PSC. They will be more ideal cells for differentiation because of their hypomethylated status and earlier stage of development.

  6. Intraperitoneal Continuous-Rate Infusion for the Maintenance of Anesthesia in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Erickson, Rebecca L; Terzi, Matthew C; Jaber, Samer M; Hankenson, F Claire; McKinstry-Wu, Andrew; Kelz, Max B; Marx, James O

    2016-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injectable anesthetics are often used to achieve surgical anesthesia in laboratory mice. Because bolus redosing of injectable anesthetics can cause unacceptably high mortality, we evaluated intraperitoneal continuous-rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine with or without xylazine for maintaining surgical anesthesia for an extended period of time. Anesthesia was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by using ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (8 mg/kg) without or with acepromazine at 0.1 mg/kg or 0.5 mg/kg. At 10 min after induction, CRI for 90 min was initiated and comprised 25%, 50%, or 100% of the initial ketamine dose per hour or 50% of the initial doses of both ketamine and xylazine. Anesthetic regimens were compared on the basis of animal immobility, continuous surgical depth of anesthesia as determined by the absence of a pedal withdrawal reflex, and mortality. Consistent with previous studies, the response to anesthetics was highly variable. Regimens that provided the longest continuous surgical plane of anesthesia with minimal mortality were ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg) with CRI of 100% of the initial ketamine dose and ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (0.5 mg/kg) with CRI of 50% of the initial ketamine and xylazine doses. In addition, heart rate and respiratory rate did not increase consistently in response to a noxious stimulus during CRI anesthesia, even when mice exhibited a positive pedal withdrawal reflex, suggesting that these parameters are unreliable indicators of anesthetic depth during ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in mice. We conclude that intraperitoneal CRI anesthesia in mice prolongs injectable anesthesia more consistently and with lower mortality than does bolus redosing. PMID:27657709

  7. Neuroinvasion of α-Synuclein Prionoids after Intraperitoneal and Intraglossal Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Breid, Sara; Bernis, Maria E.; Babila, Julius T.; Garza, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT α-Synuclein is a soluble, cellular protein that in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy, forms pathological deposits of protein aggregates. Because misfolded α-synuclein has some characteristics that resemble those of prions, we investigated its potential to induce disease after intraperitoneal or intraglossal challenge injection into bigenic Tg(M83+/−:Gfap-luc+/−) mice, which express the A53T mutant of human α-synuclein and firefly luciferase. After a single intraperitoneal injection with α-synuclein fibrils, four of five mice developed paralysis and α-synuclein pathology in the central nervous system, with a median incubation time of 229 ± 17 days. Diseased mice accumulated aggregates of Sarkosyl-insoluble and phosphorylated α-synuclein in the brain and spinal cord, which colocalized with ubiquitin and p62 and were accompanied by gliosis. In contrast, only one of five mice developed α-synuclein pathology in the central nervous system after intraglossal injection with α-synuclein fibrils, after 285 days. These findings are novel and important because they show that, similar to prions, α-synuclein prionoids can neuroinvade the central nervous system after intraperitoneal or intraglossal injection and can cause neuropathology and disease. IMPORTANCE Synucleinopathies are neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the pathological presence of aggregated α-synuclein in cells of the nervous system. Previous studies have shown that α-synuclein aggregates made of recombinant protein or derived from brains of patients can spread in the central nervous system in a spatiotemporal manner when inoculated into the brains of animals and can induce pathology and neurologic disease, suggesting that misfolded α-synuclein can behave similarly to prions. Here we show that α-synuclein inoculation into the peritoneal cavity or the tongue in mice overexpressing α-synuclein causes

  8. Involvement of oxidative stress in the impairment in biliary secretory function induced by intraperitoneal administration of aluminum to rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marcela A; Alvarez, Maria Del Lujan; Pisani, Gerardo B; Bernal, Claudio A; Roma, Marcelo G; Carrillo, María C

    2007-06-01

    We have shown that aluminum (Al) induces cholestasis associated with multiple alterations in hepatocellular transporters involved in bile secretory function, like Mrp2. This work aims to investigate whether these harmful effects are mediated by the oxidative stress caused by the metal. For this purpose, the capability of the antioxidant agent, vitamin E, to counteract these alterations was studied in male Wistar rats. Aluminum hydroxide (or saline in controls) was administered ip (27 mg/kg body weight, three times a week, for 90 d). Vitamin E (600 mg/kg body weight) was coadministered, sc. Al increased lipid peroxidation (+50%) and decreased hepatic glutation levels (-43%) and the activity of glutation peroxidase (-50%) and catalase (-88%). Vitamin E counteracted these effects total or partially. Both plasma and hepatic Al levels reached at the end of the treatment were significantly reduced by vitamin E (-40% and -44%, respectively; p<0.05). Al increased 4 times the hepatic apoptotic index, and this effect was fully counteracted by vitamin E. Bile flow was decreased in Altreated rats (-37%) and restored to normality by vitamin E. The antioxidant normalized the hepatic handling of the Mrp2 substrates, rose bengal, and dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione, which was causally associated with restoration of Mrp2 expression. Our data indicate that oxidative stress has a crucial role in cholestasis, apoptotic/necrotic hepatocellular damage, and the impairment in liver transport function induced by Al and that vitamin E counteracts these harmful effects not only by preventing free-radical formation but also by favoring Al disposal. PMID:17709913

  9. Involvement of oxidative stress in the impairment in biliary secretory function induced by intraperitoneal administration of aluminum to rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marcela A; Alvarez, Maria Del Lujan; Pisani, Gerardo B; Bernal, Claudio A; Roma, Marcelo G; Carrillo, María C

    2007-06-01

    We have shown that aluminum (Al) induces cholestasis associated with multiple alterations in hepatocellular transporters involved in bile secretory function, like Mrp2. This work aims to investigate whether these harmful effects are mediated by the oxidative stress caused by the metal. For this purpose, the capability of the antioxidant agent, vitamin E, to counteract these alterations was studied in male Wistar rats. Aluminum hydroxide (or saline in controls) was administered ip (27 mg/kg body weight, three times a week, for 90 d). Vitamin E (600 mg/kg body weight) was coadministered, sc. Al increased lipid peroxidation (+50%) and decreased hepatic glutation levels (-43%) and the activity of glutation peroxidase (-50%) and catalase (-88%). Vitamin E counteracted these effects total or partially. Both plasma and hepatic Al levels reached at the end of the treatment were significantly reduced by vitamin E (-40% and -44%, respectively; p<0.05). Al increased 4 times the hepatic apoptotic index, and this effect was fully counteracted by vitamin E. Bile flow was decreased in Altreated rats (-37%) and restored to normality by vitamin E. The antioxidant normalized the hepatic handling of the Mrp2 substrates, rose bengal, and dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione, which was causally associated with restoration of Mrp2 expression. Our data indicate that oxidative stress has a crucial role in cholestasis, apoptotic/necrotic hepatocellular damage, and the impairment in liver transport function induced by Al and that vitamin E counteracts these harmful effects not only by preventing free-radical formation but also by favoring Al disposal.

  10. Intraperitoneal insulin therapy for a patient with type 1 diabetes with insulin injection site inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siang Ing; Narendran, Parth

    2014-01-01

    A 36-year-old man with type 1 diabetes developed skin inflammation at the site of subcutaneous insulin injection after 10 years of basal bolus subcutaneous insulin therapy. This inflammation led to poor insulin absorption, poorly controlled blood glucose and subsequently to ketoacidosis. The problem persisted despite a trial of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The patient went on to be treated with continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion. Three months after the procedure, he was achieving good glucose control and was able to resume his normal life, with the only complication being an episode of cellulitis surrounding the port site. PMID:25188930

  11. Fluid collections in the intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal spaces: comparison of MR and CT.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J M; Weinreb, J C; Maravilla, K R

    1985-06-01

    Fourteen patients with abnormal subdiaphragmatic fluid collections (eight intraperitoneal, two extraperitoneal, and four intra- and extraperitoneal) were examined with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MR and CT provided equivalent information concerning the presence and extent of fluid collections in 13 of the 14 cases. Image acquisitions with two different repetition times (TRs) and two echo times (TEs) were necessary, in most cases, to detect and discriminate between different types of pathologic fluids. Transudative ascites demonstrated long T1 and T2 relaxation times, whereas abscesses, phlegmon, pancreatic pseudocyst, exudative pancreatitis, and chronic hematoma demonstrated an intermediate or short T1 and a long T2.

  12. Docetaxel combined with intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy and hyperthermia in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, TING; PAN, QIONG; XIAO, SONGSHU; LI, LIJIE; XUE, MIN

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a clinical type of gynecological malignant tumor with poor prognosis and a high mortality rate. At present, the primary treatment method used is surgery, with chemotherapy as an ajdunctive therapy. Thus, new short-term treatments should be identified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the short-term curative effects and safety of docetaxel combined with intraperitoneal cisplatin chemotherapy and hyperthermia treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. A total of 112 cases of advanced (stage III–IV) ovarian cancer patients confirmed by clinical diagnosis between October 2014 and December 2015 were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into the study and control groups (n=56 cases). The control group was treated with docetaxel and intraperitoneal cisplatin hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy, while the study group was treated with docetaxel venous chemotherapy and intraperitoneal cisplatin cyclical hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy with BR-TRG-1 body cavity hyperthermic perfusion treatment system. Clinical treatment results for short-term curative effects and adverse reactions were compared and analyzed 8 weeks after treatment. The total effective rate of the study and control groups were 87.5 and 62.5%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The controlled rate of ascites, remission rate of tumor and descent rate of CA125 of patients in the study group were better than patients in the control group (P<0.05). The rate of adverse reactions of patients in the study group was 39.3%, and the grade of toxicity was from I to II, while the rate of adverse reactions of patients in the control group was 55.4%, and the grade of toxicity was from II to III. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, applying the combination of docetaxel, intraperitoneal cisplatin hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy and hyperthermia to treat advanced ovarian

  13. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  14. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  17. 40 CFR 147.1201 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota § 147.1201 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Minnesota is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and...

  18. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... examination. The administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee...

  19. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee to comply with...

  20. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... examination. The administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee...

  1. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... examination. The administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee...

  2. 47 CFR 97.509 - Administering VE requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Each examination for an amateur operator license must be administered by a team of at least 3 VEs at an... examination. The administering VEs are responsible for the proper conduct and necessary supervision of each examination. The administering VEs must immediately terminate the examination upon failure of the examinee...

  3. 40 CFR 147.2351 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia § 147.2351 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Virginia, including all Indian lands, is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40...

  4. 40 CFR 147.2351 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia § 147.2351 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Virginia, including all Indian lands, is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40...

  5. 40 CFR 147.2351 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia § 147.2351 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Virginia, including all Indian lands, is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40...

  6. 40 CFR 147.2351 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia § 147.2351 EPA-administered program. (a) Contents. The UIC program for the State of Virginia, including all Indian lands, is administered by EPA. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40...

  7. VINCLOZOLIN (V) TREATMENT INDUCES REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS AND INFERTILITY IN F1 MALE RATS WHEN ADMINISTERED DURING SEXUAL BUT NOT GONADAL DIFFERENTIATION. THE EFFECTS ARE NOT TRANSMITTED TO THE SUBSEQUENT GENERATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    V produces adverse reproductive effects in male rats when administered during sexual differentiation by acting as an androgen-antagonist. It was recently reported that four generations of SD rats, derived from dams dosed via ip injection GD8-15 with 100 mg V/kg/day, displayed pro...

  8. Efficient in vivo gene transfer by intraperitoneal injection of plasmid DNA and calcium carbonate microflowers in mice.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Shintaro; Nakajima, Sayuri; Mine, Toyoharu; Yoshikawa, Naoki; Kitahara, Takashi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Miyamoto, Hirotaka; Nishida, Koyo

    2012-07-01

    Gene transfer to intraperitoneal organs is thought to be a promising approach to treat such conditions as peritoneal fibrosis and peritoneal dissemination of cancers. We previously discovered that simple instillation of naked plasmid DNA (pDNA) onto intraperitoneal organs such as the liver and stomach could effectively transfer foreign genes in mice. In this study, we developed a novel nonviral method to enhance transfection efficiency of naked pDNA to intraperitoneal organs using a calcium carbonate suspension containing pDNA. Using commercially available calcium carbonate, we successfully transfected pDNA to the stomach. Handling of commercially available calcium carbonate, however, was troublesome owing to rapid precipitation and caking. To obtain slowly settling particles of calcium carbonate, we tried to synthesize novel versions of such particles and succeeded in creating flower-shaped particles, named calcium carbonate microflowers. Sedimentation of calcium carbonate microflowers was sufficiently slow for in vivo experiments. Moreover, the transfection efficiency of the suspension of calcium carbonate microflowers to the stomach was more effective than that of commercially available calcium carbonate, especially at low concentrations. Intraperitoneal injection of the suspension of calcium carbonate microflowers containing pDNA greatly enhanced naked pDNA transfer to whole intraperitoneal organs in mice. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase activities in intraperitoneal fluid and plasma were not raised by the suspension of calcium carbonate microflowers.

  9. Intraperitoneal sertraline and fluvoxamine increase contextual fear conditioning but are without effect on overshadowing between cues.

    PubMed

    Cassaday, H J; Thur, K E

    2015-02-01

    Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can reduce contextual conditioning. Since contexts comprise a variety of potentially competing cues, impaired overshadowing may provide an account of such effects. The present study therefore compared the effects of two SSRIs on overshadowing and contextual conditioning, testing suppression of an ongoing behavioral response (licking) by cues previously paired with foot shock. Conditioning to a 5 s light stimulus was reduced when it was presented in compound with a 5 s noise, thus overshadowing was demonstrated. In two experiments, this overshadowing was unaffected by treatment with either sertraline or fluvoxamine. However, unconditioned suppression to the noise (tested in a control group previously conditioned to the light alone) was reduced after sertraline (10 mg/kg, i.p.). The successful demonstration of overshadowing required the use of a second conditioning session or an additional conditioning trial within the same conditioning session. Neither weak nor strong overshadowing (of the light by the tone) was affected by any drug treatment. Moreover, counter to prediction, conditioning to contextual cues was increased rather than impaired by treatment with sertraline (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluvoxamine (30 mg/kg, i.p.).

  10. Effects of intraperitoneal lead and cadmium on the humoral immune response of Salmo trutta

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, J.G.

    1981-07-01

    In the present study the effects of i.p. dosed lead (Pb) and cadium (Cd) on humoral antibody levels were examined in brown trout, Salmo trutta, immunized with MS2 bacteriophage. Earlier work had shown that the live MS2 virus was a primary immunogen and highly immunogenic, while non-pathogenic in fishes. Further, the antibody response could be quantified by a sensitive and reproducible technique. The i.p. route of heavy metal challenge was utilized to remove the complications presented by the environmental modifications of the toxicity of these metals and their passage through the gills of the fish. It was apparent that single i.p. doses of Pb and Cd resulted in a substantial reduction of antibody titre in MS2-immunized trout and that within the time limits of the experiment there was no recovery. However, only in the case of the two lethal concentrations was antibody totally eliminated from the sera and death ensued. Cd-exposure suppressed those responses mediated by T-lymphocytes and macrophages. A reduction in the number of B-like cells, as well as the loss of helper and memory cell activity, could have been responsible for reducing antibody titre in Pb- and Cd-dosed trout. A reduction in the number and activity of immune effector cells would also account for the Cd-dose dependent suppression of the antibody response after a rechallenge with MS2.

  11. Rapakinin, Arg-Ile-Tyr, derived from rapeseed napin, shows anti-opioid activity via the prostaglandin IP receptor followed by the cholecystokinin CCK(2) receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuko; Ohinata, Kousaku; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2011-02-01

    Rapakinin, Arg-Ile-Tyr, is a vasorelaxing, anti-hypertensive and anorexigenic peptide derived from rapeseed napin. In this study, we found that rapakinin intracerebroventricularly administered to mice inhibited the analgesic effect of morphine, evaluated by the tail-pinch test. The anti-opioid activity of rapakinin was blocked by LY225910, an antagonist of the cholecystokinin (CCK) CCK(2) receptor, but not by lorglumide, an antagonist of the CCK(1) receptor. The anti-opioid activity of rapakinin was also blocked by CAY10441, an antagonist of the prostaglandin (PG) IP receptor. These results suggest that the anti-opioid activity of rapakinin is mediated by the CCK(2) and IP receptors. The anti-opioid activity induced by ciprostene, an IP receptor agonist, was blocked by LY225910, while that of CCK-8 was not blocked by CAY10441. Thus, it is demonstrated that the CCK-CCK(2) system was activated downstream of the PGI(2)-IP receptor system. Taken together, rapakinin shows anti-opioid activity via the activation of the PGI(2)-IP receptor system followed by the CCK-CCK(2) receptor system.

  12. Targeted Lung Delivery of Nasally Administered Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Geng; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2014-01-01

    Using the nasal route to deliver pharmaceutical aerosols to the lungs has a number of advantages including co-administration during non-invasive ventilation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and deposition characteristics of nasally administered aerosol throughout the conducting airways based on delivery with streamlined interfaces implementing two forms of controlled condensational growth technology. Characteristic conducting airways were considered including a nose-mouth-throat (NMT) geometry, complete upper tracheobronchial (TB) model through the third bifurcation (B3), and stochastic individual path (SIP) model to the terminal bronchioles (B15). Previously developed streamlined nasal cannula interfaces were used for the delivery of submicrometer particles using either enhanced condensational growth (ECG) or excipient enhanced growth (EEG) techniques. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations predicted aerosol transport, growth and deposition for a control (4.7 μm) and three submicrometer condensational aerosols with budesonide as a model insoluble drug. Depositional losses with condensational aerosols in the cannula and NMT were less than 5% of the initial dose, which represents an order-of-magnitude reduction compared to the control. The condensational growth techniques increased the TB dose by a factor of 1.1–2.6x, delivered at least 70% of the dose to the alveolar region, and produced final aerosol sizes ≥2.5 μm. Compared to multiple commercial orally inhaled products, the nose-to-lung delivery approach increased dose to the biologically important lower TB region by factors as large as 35x. In conclusion, nose-to-lung delivery with streamlined nasal cannulas and condensational aerosols was highly efficient and targeted deposition to the lower TB and alveolar regions. PMID:24932058

  13. Who Should Administer Energy-Efficiency Programs?

    SciTech Connect

    Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen L.

    2003-05-01

    The restructuring of the electric utility industry in the US created a crisis in the administration of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs. Before restructuring, nearly all energy-efficiency programs in the US were administered by utilities and funded from utility rates. Restructuring called these arrangements into question in two ways. First, the separation of generation from transmission and distribution undermined a key rationale for utility administration. This was the Integrated Resource Planning approach in which the vertically integrated utility was given incentives to provide energy services at least cost. Second, questions were raised as to whether funding through utility rates could be sustained in a competitive environment and most states that restructured their electricity industry adopted a system benefits charge. The crisis in administration of energy-efficiency programs produced a variety of responses in the eight years since restructuring in the US began in earn est. These responses have included new rationales for energy-efficiency programs, new mechanisms for funding programs, and new mechanisms for program administration and governance. This paper focuses on issues related to program administration. It describes the administrative functions and some of the options for accomplishing them. Then it discusses criteria for choosing among the options. Examples are given that highlight some of the states that have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved. The conclusion attempts to summarize lessons learned.

  14. [Pseudomyxoma peritonei; a rare tumour that can be treated with cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Smeenk, R M; Verwaal, V J; Zoetmulder, F A N

    2007-02-17

    Three patients, men aged 47 and 30 and a woman aged 48 years, presented with appendicitis-like symptoms, progressive abdominal distension, and an ovarian pelvic mass, respectively. All three were diagnosed with pseudomyxoma peritonei. Treatment consisted of cytoreductive surgery followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). After a mean follow-up of 64 months (range: 19-89) after initial treatment, the second patient had died of disease progression but the other two were alive and free of disease. Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare disease, characterised by progressive intraperitoneal accumulation of mucinous ascites, produced by a mucinous tumour mass on the peritoneal surfaces. The primary tumour is usually a mucinous adenoma of the appendix. Treatment by cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC can result in a 5-year survival rate of more than 80%, depending on the histopathology and the completeness of the cytoreduction. Recognising pseudomyxoma peritonei in an early stage, when complete cytoreduction is still achievable, may result in a considerable improvement in survival.

  15. Operating personnel safety during the administration of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC).

    PubMed

    Kyriazanos, Ioannis; Kalles, Vasileios; Stefanopoulos, Anastasios; Spiliotis, John; Mohamed, Faheez

    2016-09-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) is increasingly used in the treatment of peritoneal malignancies. The administration of HIPEC after complete cytoreduction offers the combination of the pharmacokinetic advantages inherent to the intraperitoneal delivery of cytotoxic chemotherapy, with the direct cytotoxic effects of hyperthermia, and has been reported to offer significantly improved patient outcomes. As a result, this novel method disseminates rapidly, with many surgical teams having developed peritoneal malignancy treatment programs. Protocols are needed for the introduction, handling, and management of chemotherapeutic agents in the operating room to minimize risk to the staff involved in the procedure. The personnel exposure during CRS and HIPEC may arise from different routes, such as air contamination, direct contact, manipulation of perfusates or chemotherapy solutions, and manipulation of objects/tissues exposed to chemotherapeutics. Guidelines for safe administration of HIPEC including environmental contamination risk management, personal protective equipment, and occupational health issues are yet to be established. This review summarizes the existing evidence regarding the safety considerations of HIPEC administration.

  16. The role of Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) in Ovarian Cancer: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Aditi; Glehen, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths in women worldwide. It is usually diagnosed in an advanced stage (Stages III and IV) when peritoneal cancer spread has already occurred. The standard treatment comprises of surgery to remove all macroscopic disease followed by systemic chemotherapy. Despite all efforts, it recurs in over 75 % of the cases, most of these recurrences being confined to the peritoneal cavity. Recurrent ovarian cancer has a poor long term outcome and is generally treated with multiple lines of systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapy. The propensity of ovarian cancer to remain confined to the peritoneal cavity warrants an aggressive locoregional approach. The combined treatment comprising of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) that removes all macroscopic disease and HIPEC (Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy) has been effective in providing long term survival in selected patients with peritoneal metastases of gastrointestinal origin. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy used as adjuvant therapy has shown a survival benefit in ovarian cancer. This has prompted the use of CRS and HIPEC in the management of ovarian cancer as a part of first line therapy and second line therapy for recurrent disease. This article reviews the current literature and evidence for the use of HIPEC in ovarian cancer. PMID:27065709

  17. Intraperitoneal administration of activated protein C prevents postsurgical adhesion band formation.

    PubMed

    Dinarvand, Peyman; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; Weiler, Hartmut; Rezaie, Alireza R

    2015-02-19

    Postsurgical peritoneal adhesion bands are the most important causes of intestinal obstruction, pelvic pain, and female infertility. In this study, we used a mouse model of adhesion and compared the protective effect of activated protein C (APC) to that of the Food and Drug Administration-approved antiadhesion agent, sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm) by intraperitoneal administration of either APC or Seprafilm to experimental animals. Pathological adhesion bands were graded on day 7, and peritoneal fluid concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), d-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin complex, and cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β1) were evaluated. Inflammation scores were also measured based on histologic data obtained from peritoneal tissues. Relative to Seprafilm, intraperitoneal administration of human APC led to significantly higher reduction of postsurgical adhesion bands. Moreover, a markedly lower inflammation score was obtained in the adhesive tissues of the APC-treated group, which correlated with significantly reduced peritoneal concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and an elevated tPA level. Further studies using variants of human APC with or without protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling function and mutant mice deficient for either endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) or PAR1 revealed that the EPCR-dependent signaling activity of APC is primarily responsible for its protective activity in this model. These results suggest APC has therapeutic potential for preventing postsurgical adhesion bands. PMID:25575539

  18. Operating personnel safety during the administration of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC).

    PubMed

    Kyriazanos, Ioannis; Kalles, Vasileios; Stefanopoulos, Anastasios; Spiliotis, John; Mohamed, Faheez

    2016-09-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) is increasingly used in the treatment of peritoneal malignancies. The administration of HIPEC after complete cytoreduction offers the combination of the pharmacokinetic advantages inherent to the intraperitoneal delivery of cytotoxic chemotherapy, with the direct cytotoxic effects of hyperthermia, and has been reported to offer significantly improved patient outcomes. As a result, this novel method disseminates rapidly, with many surgical teams having developed peritoneal malignancy treatment programs. Protocols are needed for the introduction, handling, and management of chemotherapeutic agents in the operating room to minimize risk to the staff involved in the procedure. The personnel exposure during CRS and HIPEC may arise from different routes, such as air contamination, direct contact, manipulation of perfusates or chemotherapy solutions, and manipulation of objects/tissues exposed to chemotherapeutics. Guidelines for safe administration of HIPEC including environmental contamination risk management, personal protective equipment, and occupational health issues are yet to be established. This review summarizes the existing evidence regarding the safety considerations of HIPEC administration. PMID:27566037

  19. Does intraperitoneal medical ozone preconditioning and treatment ameliorate the methotrexate induced nephrotoxicity in rats?

    PubMed Central

    Aslaner, Arif; Çakır, Tuğrul; Çelik, Betül; Doğan, Uğur; Mayir, Burhan; Akyüz, Cebrail; Polat, Cemal; Baştürk, Ahmet; Soyer, Vural; Koç, Süleyman; Şehirli, Ahmet Özer

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate is a chemotherapeutic agent used for many cancer treatments. It leads to toxicity with its oxidative injury. The purpose of our study is investigating the medical ozone preconditioning and treatment has any effect on the methotrexate-induced kidneys by activating antioxidant enzymes in rats. Eighteen rats were divided into three equal groups; control, Mtx without and with medical ozone. Nephrotoxicity was performed with a single dose of 20 mg/kg Mtx intraperitoneally at the fifteenth day of experiment on groups 2 and 3. Medical ozone preconditioning was performed at a dose of 25 mcg/ml (5 ml) intraperitoneally everyday in the group 3 and treated with medical ozone for five more days while group 2 was received only 5 ml of saline everyday for twenty days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of third week and the blood and kidney tissue samples were obtained to measure the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, malondialdehyde, glutathione and myeloperoxidase. Kidney injury score was evaluated histolopatologically. Medical ozone preconditioning and treatment ameliorated the biochemical parameters and kidney injury induced by Mtx. There was significant increase in tissue MDA, MPO activity, TNF-α and IL-1β (P<0.05) and significant decrease in tissue GSH and histopathology (P<0.05) after Mtx administration. The preconditioning and treatment with medical ozone ameliorated the nephrotoxicity induced by Mtx in rats by activating antioxidant enzymes and prevented renal tissue. PMID:26550330

  20. Using Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) For Space-Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Jackson, B. V.; Fallows, R. A.; Tokumaru, M.; Jensen, E. A.; Lee, J.; Harrison, R.; Hapgood, M. A.; Wu, C.; Davies, J.

    2013-12-01

    There have been several recent space-weather events where few or no signatures of an impending Earth-affecting large-scale heliospheric structure have been detected until the structure has impacted the Earth's space environment or is at least in close proximity. In addition, some of these (for example, the late-May/early-June 2013 geomagnetic storm) have been relatively-small coronal mass ejection (CME) ';like' structures complicated by stream-interaction and/or co-rotating features. Significant progress has been made over the last few years on the implementation of, and science resulting from, interplanetary scintillation (IPS) radio remote-sensing observations of the inner heliosphere. These observations of IPS have been undertaken using the European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT) radar and the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio-telescope systems, as well as with the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL/STELab) IPS arrays and the new IPS system at the Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC). LOFAR is a low-frequency pathfinder for the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which is expected to be the World's largest ever radio-telescope system. Here, we will primarily use the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) three-dimensional (3-D) tomography by incorporating STELab IPS data along with, where data are available, the use of additional targeted individual observations of IPS from other systems as well as 3-D MHD simulations. The overall aim is to try to ascertain how well current IPS methods can be used for space-weather forecasting (and aftcasting), particularly for events seemingly missed by other extant forecasting methods.

  1. Development of an Orientia tsutsugamushi Lc-1 Murine Intraperitoneal Challenge Model for Scrub Typhus: Determination of Murine Lethal Dose (MuLD50), Tissue Bacterial Loads, and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lurchachaiwong, Woradee; McCardle, Wesley; Chan, Teik-Chye; Schuster, Anthony L; Richards, Allen L

    2015-09-01

    Currently, no vaccine has been developed to protect humans from naturally acquired heterologous Orientia tsutsugamushi infections. To enhance the validity of vaccine candidates, we are developing a murine chigger challenge model with the O. tsutsugamushi Lc-1-infected Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis Line-1. To this end, an intraperitoneal (i.p.) murine challenge model using an O. tsutsugamushi Lc-1 isolate was developed for eventual validation of the chigger challenge model. We have determined that the murine lethal dose that kills 50% of the challenged mice (MuLD50) of a liver/spleen homogenate developed from O. tsutsugamushi Lc-1-infected ICR Swiss mice to be 10(-6.9). Employing different inoculum doses of this homogenate, the bacterial load using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was determined to range from 60 to 1.6 × 10(5) genome equivalent copies (GEC)/μL of liver and 33.4 to 2.2 × 10(5) GEC/μL of spleen tissue. The clinical outcomes relative to homogenate dose levels followed a dose-dependent pattern. The successful development and characterization of the O. tsutsugamushi Lc-1 i.p. challenge model will assist in the development and validation of a mouse chigger challenge scrub typhus model.

  2. An ethernet/IP security review with intrusion detection applications

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, S. A.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-07-01

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and automation networks, used throughout utility and manufacturing applications, have their own specific set of operational and security requirements when compared to corporate networks. The modern climate of heightened national security and awareness of terrorist threats has made the security of these systems of prime concern. There is a need to understand the vulnerabilities of these systems and how to monitor and protect them. Ethernet/IP is a member of a family of protocols based on the Control and Information Protocol (CIP). Ethernet/IP allows automation systems to be utilized on and integrated with traditional TCP/IP networks, facilitating integration of these networks with corporate systems and even the Internet. A review of the CIP protocol and the additions Ethernet/IP makes to it has been done to reveal the kind of attacks made possible through the protocol. A set of rules for the SNORT Intrusion Detection software is developed based on the results of the security review. These can be used to monitor, and possibly actively protect, a SCADA or automation network that utilizes Ethernet/IP in its infrastructure. (authors)

  3. ALS control system IP I/O module upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Jonah M.; Chin, Michael

    2004-04-23

    The Control System for the Advanced Light Source uses in-house designed IndustryPack (IP) I/O Modules in compact PCI (cPCI) chassis to control instrumentation. Each module consists of digital I/O ports and 16-bit analog I/O interfaced to instrumentation via a cPCI rear I/O card. During the past few years of installed operation, several factors have prompted investigation into the design of a new IP I/O Module. The ADC channels have significant offset drift over periods of days of initial installed operation. An in-situ calibration procedure was developed to address this problem, but it lacks speed and is inconvenient to perform. Digital I/O port limitations have led to increasing amounts of wasted I/O. Fast orbit feedback requires faster ADC sampling and better filtering than the current IP module offers. This paper discusses the issues related to the current IP I/O Module and the design of a new Double-size IP I/O Module.

  4. Proposal of Secure VoIP System Using Attribute Certificate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Mook; Jeong, Young-Ae; Hong, Seong-Sik

    VoIP is a service that changes the analogue audio signal into a digital signal and then transfers the audio information to the users after configuring it as a packet; and it has an advantage of lower price than the existing voice call service and better extensibility. However, VoIP service has a system structure that, compared to the existing PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network), has poor call quality and is vulnerable in the security aspect. To make up these problems, TLS service was introduced to enhance the security. In practical system, however, since QoS problem occurs, it is necessary to develop the VoIP security system that can satisfy QoS at the same time in the security aspect. In this paper, a user authentication VoIP system that can provide a service according to the security and the user through providing a differential service according to the approach of the users by adding AA server at the step of configuring the existing VoIP session is suggested. It was found that the proposed system of this study provides a quicker QoS than the TLS-added system at a similar level of security. Also, it is able to provide a variety of additional services by the different users.

  5. Preclinical evaluation of VAX-IP, a novel bacterial minicell-based biopharmaceutical for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Shingo; Chen, Xuguang; Hancock, Bryan; Hernandez, Veronica; Visentin, Barbara; Reil, Katherine; Sabbadini, Roger; Giacalone, Matthew; Godbey, W T

    2016-01-01

    The development of new therapies that can prevent recurrence and progression of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer remains an unmet clinical need. The continued cost of monitoring and treatment of recurrent disease, along with its high prevalence and incidence rate, is a strain on healthcare economics worldwide. The current work describes the characterization and pharmacological evaluation of VAX-IP as a novel bacterial minicell-based biopharmaceutical agent undergoing development for the treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer and other oncology indications. VAX-IP minicells selectively target two oncology-associated integrin heterodimer subtypes to deliver a unique bacterial cytolysin protein toxin, perfringolysin O, specifically to cancer cells, rapidly killing integrin-expressing murine and human urothelial cell carcinoma cells with a unique tumorlytic mechanism. The in vivo pharmacological evaluation of VAX-IP minicells as a single agent administered intravesically in two clinically relevant variations of a syngeneic orthotopic model of superficial bladder cancer results in a significant survival advantage with 28.6% (P = 0.001) and 16.7% (P = 0.003) of animals surviving after early or late treatment initiation, respectively. The results of these preclinical studies warrant further nonclinical and eventual clinical investigation in underserved nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer patient populations where complete cures are achievable. PMID:27119118

  6. Preclinical evaluation of VAX-IP, a novel bacterial minicell-based biopharmaceutical for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Shingo; Chen, Xuguang; Hancock, Bryan; Hernandez, Veronica; Visentin, Barbara; Reil, Katherine; Sabbadini, Roger; Giacalone, Matthew; Godbey, WT

    2016-01-01

    The development of new therapies that can prevent recurrence and progression of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer remains an unmet clinical need. The continued cost of monitoring and treatment of recurrent disease, along with its high prevalence and incidence rate, is a strain on healthcare economics worldwide. The current work describes the characterization and pharmacological evaluation of VAX-IP as a novel bacterial minicell-based biopharmaceutical agent undergoing development for the treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer and other oncology indications. VAX-IP minicells selectively target two oncology-associated integrin heterodimer subtypes to deliver a unique bacterial cytolysin protein toxin, perfringolysin O, specifically to cancer cells, rapidly killing integrin-expressing murine and human urothelial cell carcinoma cells with a unique tumorlytic mechanism. The in vivo pharmacological evaluation of VAX-IP minicells as a single agent administered intravesically in two clinically relevant variations of a syngeneic orthotopic model of superficial bladder cancer results in a significant survival advantage with 28.6% (P = 0.001) and 16.7% (P = 0.003) of animals surviving after early or late treatment initiation, respectively. The results of these preclinical studies warrant further nonclinical and eventual clinical investigation in underserved nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer patient populations where complete cures are achievable. PMID:27119118

  7. Binding of IRBIT to the IP3 receptor: determinants and functional effects.

    PubMed

    Devogelaere, Benoit; Nadif Kasri, Nael; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Callewaert, Geert; Missiaen, Ludwig; Parys, Jan B; De Smedt, Humbert

    2006-04-28

    IRBIT has previously been shown to interact with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) in an IP3-sensitive way. So far it remained to be elucidated whether this interaction was direct or indirect, and whether it was functionally relevant. We now show that IRBIT can directly interact with the IP3R, and that both the suppressor domain and the IP3-binding core of the IP3R are essential for a strong interaction. Moreover, we identified a PEST motif and a PDZ-ligand on IRBIT which were critical for the interaction with the IP3R. Furthermore, we identified Asp-73 as a critical residue for this interaction. Finally, we demonstrated that this interaction functionally affects the IP3R: IRBIT inhibits both IP3 binding and IP3-induced Ca2+ release.

  8. In vivo distribution of arsenic after i.p. injection of arsonoliposomes in balb-c mice.

    PubMed

    Antimisiaris, Sophia G; Klepetsanis, Pavlos; Zachariou, Venetia; Giannopoulou, Eleftheria; Ioannou, Panagiotis V

    2005-01-31

    We recently showed that arsonoliposomes (novel arsenic containg liposomes) demonstrate differential toxicity towards various types of cancer and normal cells, in cell culture studies, as well as anti-parasitic activity. In this study, the in-vivo distribution of the active moiety of these vesicles, As, is evaluated. Sonicated arsonoliposomes were prepared using the arsonolipid with palmitic acid acyl chain (C16) mixed with egg-phosphatidyl choline (PC) and cholesterol (Chol) [C16/PC/Chol at 8:12:10 mol/mol/mol]. A dose of arsonoliposomes, corresponding to 5 mg arsenate/kg was administered by intraperitoneal injection in balb-c mice. At various time points post-injection the mice were sacrificed and the distribution of As in the organs was measured, by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results demonstrate that a high portion of the dose administered is rapidly excreted; since 1-h post-injection only about 30% of the dose administered was detected cumulatively in the animal tissues. After this the elimination of arsenic was a slow process with a total body elimination rate constant of 0.023 h(-1), corresponding to a half-life of 30 h. Tissues with the highest arsenic concentration during the study period are: spleen-kidneys-stomach, followed by lung, liver, intestines-heart, carcass+skin and finally blood. No acute toxicity, or effect on the body or organ weight of the mice was observed.

  9. Lack of micronucleus induction activity of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether in the bone marrow of F344 rats by sub-chronic drinking-water treatment, inhalation exposure, or acute intraperitoneal injection.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Tadashi; Kamigaito, Tomoyuki; Katagiri, Taku; Kondou, Hitomi; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Aiso, Shigetoshi; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) is an oxygenated gasoline additive synthesized from ethanol and isobutene that is used to reduce CO2 emissions. To support the Kyoto Protocol, the production of ETBE has undergone a marked increase. Previous reports have indicated that exposure to ETBE or methyl tertiary-butyl ether resulted in liver and kidney tumors in rats and/or mice. These reports raise concern about the effects of human exposure being brought about by the increased use of ETBE. The present study was conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of ETBE using micronucleus induction of polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of male and female rats treated with ETBE in the drinking-water at concentrations of 0, 1,600, 4,000 or 10,000 ppm or exposed to ETBE vapor at 0, 500, 1,500 or 5,000 ppm for 13 weeks. There were no significant increases in micronucleus induction in either the drinking water-administered or inhalation-administered groups at any concentration of ETBE; although, in both groups red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration were slightly reduced in the peripheral blood in rats administered the highest concentration of ETBE. In addition, two consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at doses of 0, 250, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg did not increase the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow cells in either sex; all rats receiving intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg died after treatment day 1. These data suggest that ETBE is not genotoxic in vivo.

  10. Phase Resolved X-ray Spectral Analysis of Soft IPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekon, Yakup

    2016-07-01

    As a subclass of Cataclysmic Variables, Intermediate Polars (IPs) are magnetic systems which mainly show hard X-ray emission. However, there have been an increasing number of systems that also show a soft emission component arising from reprocessed X-rays from the white dwarf limbs. Due to their relatively short periods, they pose as good canditates to perform phase resolved analysis. In this work, X-ray phase resolved spectral analysis of selected IPs with soft X-ray emission components (such as PQ Gem, V2069 Cyg etc.) over the orbital and/or spin periods will be presented. The analyses will help a better understanding of the complex absorption mechanisms and the nature of the soft X-ray emissions in soft IPs.

  11. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

    2012-12-03

    -99% pure population of leukocytes. Viability was assessed using Trypan blue histological analysis. We successfully isolated and labeled ~25-30 x 10{sup 7} CD34+ lymphocytes in cytokine mobilized progenitor cell apharesis harvests. Cells were also subjected to a stat gram stain to look for bacterial contamination, stat endotoxin LAL to look for endotoxin contamination, flow cytometry for evaluation of the purity of the cells and 14-day sterility culture. Colony forming assays confirm the capacity of these cells to proliferate and function ex-vivo with CFU-GM values of 26 colonies/ 1 x 10{sup 4} cells plated and 97% viability in cytokine augmented methylcellulose at 10-14 days in CO{sub 2} incubation. We developed a closed-processing system for the product labeling prior to infusion to maintain autologous cell integrity and sterility. Release criteria for the labeled product were documented for viability, cell count and differential, and measured radiolabel. We were successful in labeling the cells with up to 500 uCi/10{sup 8} cells, with viability of >98%. However, due to delays in getting the protocol approved by the FDA, the cells were not infused in humans in this location (although we did successfully use CD34+ cells in humans in a study in Australia). The approach developed should permit labeling of progenitor cells that can be administered to human subjects for tracking. The labeling approach should be useful for all progenitor cell types, although this would need to be verified since different cell lines may have differential radiosensitivity.

  12. Disposition of [14C]methyl bromide in Fischer-344 rats after oral or intraperitoneal administration.

    PubMed

    Medinsky, M A; Bond, J A; Dutcher, J S; Birnbaum, L S

    1984-09-14

    Methyl bromide is used as a disinfectant to fumigate soil. The intent of our study was to determine the disposition of methyl bromide following a single acute administration. Male Fischer-344 rats were given 250 mumol of [14C] methyl bromide/kg body wt by either oral or i.p. administration. Urine, feces and expired air were collected and at the end of 72 h the rats were sacrificed and tissues analyzed to determine 14C excretion and tissue distribution. After i.p. administration of methyl bromide, the dominant route of excretion was exhalation of 14CO2, with 46% of the dose exhaled as 14CO2. In contrast, urinary excretion of 14C was the major route of elimination (43% of the dose) when methyl bromide was given orally. Very little of the 14C appeared in the feces (less than 3% of the dose) regardless of route of administration. In rats with bile duct cannulations, 46% of an oral dose appeared in the bile over a 24-h period. Collection of bile significantly decreased the exhalation of 14CO2 and 14C excreted in urine compared to controls. At 72 h after oral or i.p. administration, 14-17% of the 14C remained in the rats, with liver and kidney being the major organs of retention. Results indicate that route of administration can affect the pathways for excretion. In addition, excretion of 14C in bile, coupled with the low levels of radioactivity found in the feces, indicates that reabsorption of biliary metabolites from the gut plays a significant role in the disposition of [14C] methyl bromide.

  13. Intraperitoneal pseudocyst formation: Complication of fungal peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Sahpazova, E; Ruso, B; Kuzmanovska, D

    2007-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl, with end-stage renal disease on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) the last 4 years, after an episode of Candida albicans was switched to hemodialysis. One month later she came back because of a palpable painful abdominal mass and abdominal distention. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound examination demonstrated a demarkated fluid collection in the lower abdomen and pelvis. The cyst was drained percutaneously and the culture disclosed candida albicans which was treated with fluconasole. Two months later, the girl was admitted again with the same symptoms. An investigative laparotomy was undergone and the cyst was drained again. Fluid cultures were negative. CT abdomen examination six months later was negative for cyst relapse. In conclusion, intraperitoneal pseudocyst is a serious complication of CAPD. Surgical intervention may be preferable to percutaneous drainage. PMID:19582199

  14. Intraperitoneal pseudocyst formation: complication of fungal peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Sahpazova, E; Ruso, B; Kuzmanovska, D

    2007-10-01

    A 14-year-old girl, with end-stage renal disease on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) the last 4 years, after an episode of Candida albicans was switched to hemodialysis. One month later she came back because of a palpable-painful abdominal mass and abdominal distention. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound examination demonstrated a demarkated fluid collection in the lower abdomen and pelvis. The cyst was drained percutaneously and the culture disclosed candida albicans which was treated with fluconasole. Two months later, the girl was admitted again with the same symptoms. An investigative laparotomy was undergone and the cyst was drained again. Fluid cultures were negative. CT abdomen examination six months later was negative for cyst relapse. In conclusion, intraperitoneal pseudocyst is a serious complication of CAPD. Surgical intervention may be preferable to percutaneous drainage.

  15. Organ dysfunction in critically ill cancer patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    ÑAMENDYS-SILVA, SILVIO A.; CORREA-GARCÍA, PAULINA; GARCÍA-GUILLÉN, FRANCISCO J.; LÓPEZ-BASAVE, HORACIO N.; MONTALVO-ESQUIVEL, GONZALO; TEXCOCANO-BECERRA, JULIA; HERRERA-GÓMEZ, ÁNGEL; MENESES-GARCÍA, ABELARDO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the incidence of organ dysfunction and the intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes of critically ill cancer patients during the cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy post-operative period. The present study included 25 critically ill cancer patients admitted to the ICU of the National Cancer Institute (Mexico City, Mexico) between January 2007 and February 2013. The incidence of organ dysfunction was 68% and patients exhibiting ≤1 organ system dysfunction during ICU admittance remained in hospital for a significantly shorter period compared with patients who exhibited ≥2 organ system dysfunctions (12.4±10.7 vs. 24.1±12.8 days; P=0.025). Therefore, the present study demonstrated that a high incidence of organ dysfunction was associated with a longer ICU hospital stay. PMID:25789059

  16. Effect of increase in intraperitoneal pressure on fluid distribution in tissue using finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Selmi; Arif, Idam; Khotimah, Siti Nurul

    2015-04-01

    In this study, peritoneal dialysis transport system was numerically simulated using finite difference method. The increase in the intraperitoneal pressure due to coughing has a high value outside the working area of the void volume fraction of the hydrostatic pressure θ(P). Therefore to illustrate the effects of the pressure increment, the pressure of working area is chosen between 1 and 3 mmHg. The effects of increased pressure in peritoneal tissue cause more fluid to flow into the blood vessels and lymph. Furthermore, the increased pressure in peritoneal tissue makes the volumetric flux jv and solute flux js across the tissue also increase. The more fluid flow into the blood vessels and lymph causes the fluid to flow into tissue qv and the glucose flow qs to have more negative value and also decreases the glucose concentration CG in the tissue.

  17. Current status and future strategies of cytoreductive surgery plus intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Shammaa, Hassan-Alaa-Hammed; Li, Yan; Yonemura, Yutaka

    2008-02-28

    This article is to offer a concise review on the use of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy (IPHC) for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Traditionally, PC was treated with systemic chemotherapy alone with very poor response and a median survival of less than 6 mo. With the establishment of several phase II studies, a new trend has been developed toward the use of CRS plus IPHC as a standard method for treating selected patients with PC, in whom sufficient cytoreduction could be achieved. In spite of the need for more high quality phase III studies, there is now a consensus among many surgical oncology experts throughout the world about the use of this new treatment strategy as standard care for colorectal cancer patients with PC. This review summarizes the current status and possible progress in future.

  18. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for treatment of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Polom, Karol; Roviello, Giandomenico; Generali, Daniele; Marano, Luigi; Petrioli, Roberto; Marsili, Stefania; Caputo, Edda; Marrelli, Daniele; Roviello, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), a strategy combining maximal cytoreductive surgery and maximal regional chemotherapy, has been applied to treat ovarian cancer resulting in long-term survival rates in selected patients. However, the status of HIPEC in ovarian cancer remains an experimental procedure, given the many variables among the data and trials reviewed, to enable us to derive strong conclusions about its role from this overview. In this review we discuss treatment with HIPEC in patients with ovarian cancer and future prospective of its use in clinical setting. HIPEC is an effective tool in the treatment of selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, due to the lack of randomised trials, the evidence of HIPEC is very limited. Future randomised studies are awaited to define the role and clinical impact of HIPEC in ovarian cancer. PMID:26984715

  19. The influence of peritoneal closure on formation of intraperitoneal adhesions: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kyzer, S; Bayer, I; Turani, H; Chaimoff, C

    1986-01-01

    Adhesion formation to the peritoneal scar was investigated in 108 white Wistar rats which had undergone midline laparotomy under ether anaesthesia. In 92 rats a microtrauma was produced by rubbing the intraperitoneal organs with dry gauze. After this procedure in 46 rats the abdominal cavity was closed by suturing the peritoneum and fascia, and in another 46 rats the peritoneum was left untouched. In the remaining 16 rats a sham operation was performed. The rats were sacrificed after 7, 14, 30 and 60 days and adhesion formation to the peritoneal scar was studied microscopically and macroscopically. It was found that in rats in which the peritoneum layer was sutured a significantly higher amount of adhesion to scar developed. The results of the sham operation proved that the method of abdominal-wall closure is responsible for the adhesion formation to scar after laparotomy. PMID:3781767

  20. Evaluation of cisplatin plasma levels in patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fleres, Francesco; Saladino, Edoardo; Catanoso, Rosaria; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Mandolfino, Tommaso; Cucinotta, Eugenio; Macrì, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Introduction Peritoneal surface malignancies have long been regarded as incurable, however, they can be treated with cytoreductive surgery in addition to hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This approach is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality, unless hyperhydration is provided in a timely manner. Methods Cisplatin (CDDP) is the most widely used chemotherapeutic agent. Plasma levels of cisplatin (CDDP), a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, were measured before, during, and after the procedure. This was done in order to identify the window of highest risk as a function of drug concentrations, assuming a dose-dependent effect. Results Plasma levels of CDDP peak during perfusion. The concentration remains high until the 4th post-operative day and returns to pre-operative levels by the 7th post-operative day. Conclusions Our findings suggest that ensuring hyperhydration as well as infusing albumin and fresh frozen plasma may be of particular value for at least the first 4 days after the procedure. PMID:27385136

  1. New-onset haematoproteinuria in a 63-year-old man with intraperitoneal lymph node enlargement.

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Akihiro; Hisanaga, Shuichi; Sato, Yuji; Fujimoto, Shouichi

    2016-01-01

    A 63-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of renal dysfunction with haematoproteinuria. Intraperitoneal lymph node enlargement was also noted. M protein was not detected by electrophoresis of his serum and urine; however, an increase in the κ/λ ratio was detected by free light-chain assay. Percutaneous kidney biopsy was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits. Lymph node biopsy showed follicular lymphoma. Urinalysis findings improved after treatment of the lymphoma. Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits is rarely considered to be associated with haematological disease. We report a case of lymphoma-associated proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits with light-chain abnormality detected by free light-chain assay, but not by electrophoresis. PMID:26907822

  2. Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy: an evidence-based review—past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Dehal, Ahmed; Smith, J. Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) has historically been considered a terminal condition with merely palliative treatment achieving a survival rate measured in months. Cytoreductive surgery (CyRS) and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) have emerged as potentially effective regional treatments with the potential for long-term survival in well-selected patients. The fundamentals of CyRS and IPC are patient selection and complete cytoreduction. Since there is now sufficient evidence for the superiority of CyRS and IPC to systemic chemotherapy alone in a highly select group of patients, surgeons and oncologists should be aware of this modality as a potential benefit for patients with PC. The aim of this report is to highlight cancer-specific evidence in the context of ongoing studies regarding the outcome of this treatment. PMID:26941992

  3. Energy-aware RWA for IP transport over WDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, M.; Pinho, P.; Teixeira, A.

    2014-08-01

    In this work a mixed integer optimization linear programming (MILP) model applied to IP over WDM networks, in order to reduce network energy consumption. Simulations were made based on a real network topology as well as on forecasts of traffic matrix based on statistical data from 2005 up to 2017. Several techniques were tested an the bypass technique yielded up to 88% savings, as well as absence of transponders between IP and WDM layer potentially saving up to 48%, by shortest path routing technique. Energy aware routing optimization model, has led to an overall reduction in consumption up to 51% in 2017.

  4. Interfacing the Controllogics PLC over Ethernet/IP.

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, K. U.; Dalesio, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    The Allen-Bradley ControlLogix [1] line of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) offers several interfaces: Ethernet, ControlNet, DeviceNet, RS-232 and others. The ControlLogix Ethernet interface module 1756-ENET uses EtherNet/IP, the ControlNet protocol [2], encapsulated in Ethernet packages, with specific service codes [3]. A driver for the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been developed that utilizes this EtherNet/IP protocol for controllers running the vxWorks RTOS as well as a Win32 and Unix/Linux test program. Features, performance and limitations of this interface are presented.

  5. Industrial pollution prevention project (IP3). Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    As part of EPA`s emphasis on pollution prevention, the Agency set aside 2% of its FY1991 and FY1992 contract budgets for new pollution prevention initiatives. One of the proposed initiatives selected for funding and initiated in 1991 was the Industrial Pollution Prevention Project (IP3). The IP3 was an Agency-wide, multi-media project undertaken to examine: how industrial pollution prevention can be incorporated into EPA`s regulatory framework, and how the pollution prevention ethic can be promoted throughout industry, the public, and all levels of government.

  6. Application Filters for TCP/IP Industrial Automation Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, Aguinaldo B.; Kobayashi, Tiago H.; Medeiros, João Paulo S.; Brito, Agostinho M.; Motta Pires, Paulo S.

    The use of firewalls is a common approach usually meant to secure Automation Technology (AT) from Information Technology (TI) networks. This work proposes a filtering system for TCP/IP-based automation networks in which only certain kind of industrial traffic is permitted. All network traffic which does not conform with a proper industrial protocol pattern or with specific rules for its actions is supposed to be abnormal and must be blocked. As a case study, we developed a seventh layer firewall application with the ability of blocking spurious traffic, using an IP packet queueing engine and a regular expression library.

  7. Hepatic Differentiation from Human Ips Cells Using M15 Cells.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Kahoko; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Kume, Shoen

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a procedure of human iPS cells differentiation into the definitive endoderm, further into albumin-expressing and albumin-secreting hepatocyte, using M15, a mesonephros- derived cell line. Approximately 90 % of human iPS cells differentiated into SOX17-positive definitive endoderm then approximately 50 % of cells became albumin-positive cells, and secreted ALB protein. This M15 feeder system for endoderm and hepatic differentiation is a simple and efficient method, and useful for elucidating molecular mechanisms for hepatic fate decision, and could represent an attractive approach for a surrogate cell source for pharmaceutical studies.

  8. In vivo examination of the genotoxicity of the urban air and surface soil pollutant, 3,6-dinitrobenzo[e]pyrene, with intraperitoneal and intratracheal administration.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tatsuya; Totsuka, Yukari; Hasei, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Tetsushi; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Kinae, Naohide; Masuda, Shuichi

    2013-10-01

    3,6-Dinitrobenzo[e]pyrene (3,6-DNBeP) was identified as a new potent mutagen toward Salmonella strains in surface soil and airborne particles. Because data of in vivo examination of the genotoxicity of 3,6-DNBeP are limited, micronucleus test was performed in peripheral blood and bone marrow, and comet assay in the lungs of mice treated with 3,6-DNBeP. In male ICR mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 3,6-DNBeP, the frequency of micronuclated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) was increased in the peripheral blood and bone marrow after 24 h in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to controls, the highest dose of 3,6-DNBeP (40 mg/kg B.W.) induced 7.3- and 8.7-fold increases of MNPCE frequency in the peripheral blood and bone marrow, respectively. Furthermore, when 3,6-DNBeP was intratracheally (i.t.) instilled to male ICR mice, 3,6-DNBeP at the highest dose of 0.1 mg/kg body exhibited 3.1-fold increase of DNA tail moment in the lungs at 3 h after the instillation compared to controls. The values of DNA tail moment at 9 and 24 h after the instillation were increased up to 3.5 and 4.2-fold, respectively. These data indicate that 3,6-DNBeP is genotoxic to mammalians in in vivo and suggest that 3,6-DNBeP may be a carcinogenic compound present in the human environment.

  9. Assessment of adhesion formation after laparoscopic intraperitoneal implantation of Dynamesh IPOM mesh

    PubMed Central

    Jałyński, Marek; Piskorz, Łukasz; Brocki, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Formation of adhesions after laparoscopic hernia repair using the intra-peritoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) procedure can lead to intestinal obstruction or mesh erosion into intestinal lumen. The aims of this study included: measurement of adhesion formation with Dynamesh IPOM after laparoscopic intraperitoneal implantation, and assessment of the occurrence of isolated adhesions at the fastening sites of slowly absorbable sutures. Material and methods Twelve healthy pigs underwent laparoscopic implantation of 2 Dynamesh IPOM mesh fragments each, one was fastened with PDSII, and the other with Maxon sutures. An assessment of adhesion formation was carried out after 6 weeks and included an evaluation of surface area, hardness according to the Zhulke scale, and index values. The occurrence of isolated adhesions at slowly absorbable suture fixation points was also analyzed. Results Adhesions were noted in 83.3% of Dynamesh IPOM meshes. Adhesions covered on average 37.7% of the mesh surface with mean hardness 1.46 and index value 78.8. In groups fixed with PDS in comparison to Maxon sutures adhesions covered mean 31.6% vs. 42.5% (p = 0.62) of the mesh surface, mean hardness was 1.67 vs.1.25 (p = 0.34) and index 85.42 vs. 72.02 (p = 0.95). Conclusions The Dynamesh IPOM mesh, in spite of its anti-adhesive layer of PVDF, does not prevent the formation of adhesions. Adhesion hardness, surface area, and index values of the Dynamesh IPOM mesh are close to the mean values of these parameters for other commercially available 2-layer meshes. Slowly absorbable sutures used for fastening did not increase the risk of adhesion formation. PMID:23847671

  10. Cytoreductive Surgery and Heated Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Secondary to Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Appendix

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, David S.; Morris, Bradley; Xu, Wen; Fulton, Jessica; Atkinson, Victoria; Meade, Brian; Lutton, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a radical but effective treatment option for select peritoneal malignancies. We sought to determine our early experience with this method for peritoneal carcinomatosis secondary to mucinous adenocarcinomas of appendiceal origin. As such, we performed a retrospective clinical study of 30 consecutive patients undergoing CRS with planned HIPEC at the Princess Alexandra Hospital, between June 2009 to December 2012, with mucinous adenocarcinomas of the appendix. CRS was performed in 30 patients, 13 received HIPEC intraoperatively and 17 received early postoperative intra-peritoneal chemotherapy (EPIC) in addition. Mean age was 52.3 years and median hospital stay was 26 days (range 12–190 days). Peritoneal cancer index scores were 0–10 in 6.7% of patients, 11–20 in 20% of patients and >20 in 73.3% of patients. Complete cytoreduction was achieved overall in 21 patients. In total, 106 complications were observed in 28 patients. Ten were grade 3-A, five were grade 3-B and one grade-5 secondary to a fatal PE on day 97. In patients who received HIPEC, there was no difference in disease-free survival (P = 0.098) or overall survival (P = 0.645) between those who received EPIC versus those who did not. This study demonstrates that satisfactory outcomes with regards to morbidity and survival can be achieved with CRS and HIPEC, at a single-centre institution with growing expertise in the technique. Our results are comparable with outcomes previously described in the international literature. PMID:25594636

  11. Brain Uptake of Neurotherapeutics after Intranasal versus Intraperitoneal Delivery in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Mihir B.; Chauhan, Neelima B.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing global prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Current treatment for neurodegenerative diseases is limited due to the blood brain barrier’s ability to restrict the entry of therapeutics to the brain. In that context, direct delivery of drugs from nose to brain has gained emerging interest as an important alternative to oral and parenteral routes of administration. Although there are considerable reports showing promising results after intranasal drug delivery in various disease-models and investigatory human clinical trials, there are very few studies showing a detailed pharmacokinetics with regard to the uptake and retention of intranasally delivered material(s) within specific brain regions, which are critical determining factors for dosing conditions and optimal treatment regimen. This investigation compared a time-dependent brain uptake and resident time of various radiolabeled candidate neurotherapeutics after a single bolus intranasal or intraperitoneal administration in mice. Results indicate that the brain uptake of intranasally delivered therapeutic(s) is > 5 times greater than that after intraperitoneal delivery. The peak uptake and resident time of all intranasally delivered test therapeutics for all brain regions is observed to be between 30min-12h, depending upon the distance of brain region from the site of administration, followed by gradual fading of radioactive counts by 24h post intranasal administration. Current study confirms the usefulness of intranasal administration as a non- invasive and efficient means of delivering therapeutics to the brain to treat neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26366437

  12. Lung-Derived Microscaffolds Facilitate Diabetes Reversal after Mouse and Human Intraperitoneal Islet Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pawlick, Rena L.; Kahana, Meygal; Pepper, Andrew R.; Bruni, Antonio; Gala-Lopez, Boris; Kin, Tatsuya; Mitrani, Eduardo; Shapiro, A. M. James

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to develop three-dimensional structures that mimic the natural islet tissue microenvironment. Endocrine micro-pancreata (EMPs) made up of acellular organ-derived micro-scaffolds seeded with human islets have been shown to express high levels of key beta-cell specific genes and secrete quantities of insulin per cell similar to freshly isolated human islets in a glucose-regulated manner for more than three months in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of EMPs to restore euglycemia in vivo after transplantation of mouse or human islets in chemically diabetic mice. We proposed that the organ-derived EMPs would restore the extracellular components of the islet microenvironment, generating favorable conditions for islet function and survival. EMPs seeded with 500 mouse islets were implanted intraperitoneally into streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and reverted diabetes in 67% of mice compared to 13% of controls (p = 0.018, n = 9 per group). Histological analysis of the explanted grafts 60 days post-transplantation stained positive for insulin and exhibited increased vascular density in a collagen-rich background. EMPs were also seeded with human islets and transplanted into the peritoneal cavity of immune-deficient diabetic mice at 250 islet equivalents (IEQ), 500 IEQ and 1000 IEQ. Escalating islet dose increased rates of normoglycemia (50% of the 500 IEQ group and 75% of the 1000 IEQ group, n = 3 per group). Human c-peptide levels were detected 90 days post-transplantation in a dose-response relationship. Herein, we report reversal of diabetes in mice by intraperitoneal transplantation of human islet seeded on EMPs with a human islet dose as low as 500 IEQ. PMID:27227978

  13. Low dose of carbon monoxide intraperitoneal injection provides potent protection against GalN/LPS-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zongmei; Liu, Yan; Li, Feng; Wen, Tao

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important effector-signaling molecule involved in various pathophysiological processes. Here we investigated the protective effects of exogenous CO in a murine model of acute liver damage induced by d-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous CO gas was administered to mice via intraperitoneal injection (first at a dose of 15 ml kg(-1) and then, 6 h later, 8 ml kg(-1)), which caused a significant elevation of blood carboxyhemoglobin levels of up to 12-14% for more than 12 h. GalN/LPS were given to induce acute liver damage in mice 30 min prior to CO exposure. This showed that GalN/LPS induced severe liver injury in mice, whereas CO injection remarkably improved the survival rate of mice and led to attenuated hepatocellular damage. CO exhibited anti-oxidative capabilities by inhibiting hepatic malondialdehyde contents and restoring superoxide dismutase and glutathione, as well as by reducing inducible NOS/NO production. The anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of CO were substantial, characterized by a notable inhibition of hepatocyte apoptosis and a reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice. Our findings thus supported the hypothesis that exogenous CO provides protective effects against acute liver damage in mice, mainly dependent on its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties.

  14. Endocrine and neurobehavioral abnormalities induced by propofol administered to neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sijie; Xu, Changqing; Zhu, Wanting; Willis, Jesse; Seubert, Christoph N.; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Sumners, Colin; Martynyuk, Anatoly E.

    2014-01-01

    Background We studied whether neonatal propofol anesthesia affects development of the endocrine and neural systems. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized using intraperitoneal propofol for 5 h on postnatal days (P) 4, 5, or 6. Pups that received either saline or intralipid, but not those in the negative control groups, were also maternally separated for 5 h. Serum levels of corticosterone were measured immediately after anesthesia and in adulthood after prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle testing (≥P80), followed by measurement of hippocampal neuronal activity. Results Propofol acutely increased corticosterone levels to 146.6 ± 23.5 ng/ml (n=6) vs 16.4 ± 3.5 ng/ml (n=6) and 18.4 ± 3.2 ng/ml (n=6) in saline- and intralipd-treated pups, respectively. In adulthood, the propofol group exhibited exacerbated endocrine responses to stress in a form of increased corticosterone levels (1171.58 ± 149.17 ng/ml (n=15) vs 370.02 ± 36.01 ng/ml (n=10) in the saline group). The propofol group had increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in CA1 neurons of male and female rats, but reduced PPI of startle was detected only in males. The Na+–K+–2Cl− co-transporter inhibitor bumetanide, administered to pups prior to propofol, alleviated long-term endocrine and PPI abnormalities. Exogenous corticosterone, administered to naïve pups, induced synaptic and endocrine, but not PPI effects, similar to those of propofol. Conclusions Propofol-caused acute increases in corticosterone levels and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated excitation at the time of anesthesia may play mechanistic roles in development of exacerbated endocrine responses to stress and neurobehavioral abnormalities. PMID:24992523

  15. Crosslayer Survivability in Overlay-IP-WDM Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacharintanakul, Peera

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet moves towards a three-layer architecture consisting of overlay networks on top of the IP network layer on top of WDM-based physical networks, incorporating the interaction between and among network layers is crucial for efficient and effective implementation of survivability. This dissertation has four major foci as follows:…

  16. VoIP makes voice heard--functionality is up.

    PubMed

    Wade, Phil; Wakelam, Mathew

    2008-05-01

    Phil Wade, sales and marketing director, and Mathew Wakelam, VoIP product manager, at alarm and communication specialist Static Systems Group, discuss wireless VoLP's potential in healthcare establishments and examine how, in particular, the technology can be successfully integrated with nurse call systems.

  17. Photometric studies of δ Scuti stars. I. IP Virginis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joner, Michael D.; Hintz, Eric G.; Collier, Matthew W.

    1998-01-01

    We report 15 new times of maximum light for the δ Scuti star IP Virginis (formerly known as SA 106‐1024). An analysis of all times of maximum light indicates that IP Vir has been decreasing in period at a constant rate of − days day−1. Evidence is also presented that IP Vir is a double‐mode variable with a period ratio of . This period ratio predicts a [Fe/H] value of −0.3. From photometric (uvbyβ) observations, we find a foreground reddening of .008 mag and a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.05. It is shown that [Fe/H] = −0.3 is most likely the correct value. Intrinsic ‐ and c1‐values, plotted in a model atmosphere grid, indicate a mean effective temperature, K, and a mean surface gravity, . All of these physical parameters support Landolt's initial conclusion that IP Vir is an ordinary δ Sct star.

  18. IP Teleconferencing in the Wired Classroom: Gratifications for Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Thomas F.; Lindsey, Keith L.

    2007-01-01

    Students have various motivations for participating and engaging in courses offered by distance education technologies over the Internet. While many of these courses have traditionally been Web-based asynchronous offerings, enhanced technology and reduced costs of IP-enabled teleconferenced synchronous course sections are encouraging more…

  19. Sensing CMEs Propagating in the Interplanetary Medium. MEXART IPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Romero Hernandez, E.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ontiveros-Hernandez, V.; Rodriguez-Martinez, M. R.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Mexican Array Radiotelescope (MEXART) is a ground instrument fully dedicated to perform Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) observations to track large-scale solar wind disturbances within the Sun and the Earth. The MEXART is located at Michoacan (19 degrees 48' North, 101 degrees 41' West) and has an operation frequency of 140 MHz. The IPS technique is based on the scintillations that interplanetary disturbances (e.g., ICMEs) causes on the signal of small diameter cosmic radio sources detected by a radiotelescope. We report the tracking of the first solar disturbances detected by the instrument during the maximum of solar cycle 24. We estimated solar wind velocities and scintillation indexes (m). We present the first curves of the variation of the scintillating index with respect to the heliocentric distance for some strong radio sources using IPS observations at 140 MHZ. We identified events associated with strong scintilltaion in our data. We combine the IPS data with white light chronograph observations to identify the first CMEs in the interplanetary medium detected by the instrument.

  20. Network Quality of Service Monitoring for IP Telephony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghita, B. V.; Furnell, S. M.; Lines, B. M.; Le-Foll, D.; Ifeachor, E. C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the development of real-time applications on the Internet for telecommunications and presents a non-intrusive way of determining network performance parameters for voice packet flows within a voice over IP (Internet Protocol), or Internet telephony call. Considers measurement of quality of service and describes results of a preliminary…

  1. IP over optical multicasting for large-scale video delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yaohui; Hu, Weisheng; Sun, Weiqiang; Guo, Wei

    2007-11-01

    In the IPTV systems, multicasting will play a crucial role in the delivery of high-quality video services, which can significantly improve bandwidth efficiency. However, the scalability and the signal quality of current IPTV can barely compete with the existing broadcast digital TV systems since it is difficult to implement large-scale multicasting with end-to-end guaranteed quality of service (QoS) in packet-switched IP network. China 3TNet project aimed to build a high performance broadband trial network to support large-scale concurrent streaming media and interactive multimedia services. The innovative idea of 3TNet is that an automatic switched optical networks (ASON) with the capability of dynamic point-to-multipoint (P2MP) connections replaces the conventional IP multicasting network in the transport core, while the edge remains an IP multicasting network. In this paper, we will introduce the network architecture and discuss challenges in such IP over Optical multicasting for video delivery.

  2. VoIP makes voice heard--functionality is up.

    PubMed

    Wade, Phil; Wakelam, Mathew

    2008-05-01

    Phil Wade, sales and marketing director, and Mathew Wakelam, VoIP product manager, at alarm and communication specialist Static Systems Group, discuss wireless VoLP's potential in healthcare establishments and examine how, in particular, the technology can be successfully integrated with nurse call systems. PMID:18552104

  3. Neuroprotective activity of peripherally administered liver growth factor in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Gobernado, Rafael; Calatrava-Ferreras, Lucía; Reimers, Diana; Herranz, Antonio Sánchez; Rodríguez-Serrano, Macarena; Miranda, Cristina; Jiménez-Escrig, Adriano; Díaz-Gil, Juan José; Bazán, Eulalia

    2013-01-01

    Liver growth factor (LGF) is a hepatic mitogen purified some years ago that promotes proliferation of different cell types and the regeneration of damaged tissues, including brain tissue. Considering the possibility that LGF could be used as a therapeutic agent in Parkinson's disease, we analyzed its potential neuroregenerative and/or neuroprotective activity when peripherally administered to unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. For these studies, rats subjected to nigrostriatal lesions were treated intraperitoneally twice a week with LGF (5 microg/rat) for 3 weeks. Animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after the last LGF treatment. The results show that LGF stimulates sprouting of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive terminals and increases tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter expression, as well as dopamine levels in the denervated striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. In this structure, LGF activates microglia and raises tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein levels, which have been reported to have a role in neuroregeneration and neuroprotection. Besides, LGF stimulates the phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and CREB, and regulates the expression of proteins which are critical for cell survival such as Bcl2 and Akt. Because LGF partially protects dopamine neurons from 6-OHDA neurotoxicity in the substantia nigra, and reduces motor deficits in these animals, we propose LGF as a novel factor that may be useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  4. Control of oxidative stress resistance by IP3 kinase in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Monnier, Véronique; Girardot, Fabrice; Audin, Wilfried; Tricoire, Hervé

    2002-11-01

    Oxidative damage is thought to be a major causal factor of aging, and is implicated in several human pathologies such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Nevertheless the genetical determinants of in vivo oxidative stress response are still poorly understood. To identify cellular components whose deregulation leads to oxidative stress resistance, we performed a genetic screen in Drosophila melanogaster. We thus identified in this screen Drosophila Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate kinase I (D-IP3K1), a Drosophila gene homologous to mammalian IP3Ks. In vertebrates, IP3Ks phosphorylate the second messenger Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) to produce Inositol 1,3,4,5 tetrakiphosphate (IP4). IP3 binding to its receptor (IP3R) triggers Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytosol, whereas IP4 physiological role remains elusive. We show here that ubiquitous overexpression of D-IP3K1 confers resistance of flies to H(2)O(2)- but not to paraquat-induced oxidative stress. Additional genetic analysis with other members of IP3 and IP4 signaling pathways led us to propose that the D-IP3K1 protective effect is mainly mediated through the reduction of IP3 level (which probably results in reduced Ca(2+) release from internal stores), rather than through the rise of IP4 level.

  5. 24 CFR 982.51 - PHA authority to administer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PHA authority to administer program. 982.51 Section 982.51 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... PHA Plan for Administration of Program § 982.51 PHA authority to administer program. (a) The PHA...

  6. 40 CFR 147.150 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.150 Section 147.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona §...

  7. 40 CFR 147.150 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.150 Section 147.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona §...

  8. 40 CFR 147.150 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.150 Section 147.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Arizona §...

  9. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  10. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  11. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1200 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1200 Section 147.1200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Minnesota §...

  14. 40 CFR 147.1650 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.1650 Section 147.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS New York §...

  15. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  16. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  17. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  18. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  19. 7 CFR 634.30 - Appeals in USDA administered projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals in USDA administered projects. 634.30 Section 634.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... RCWP Contracts § 634.30 Appeals in USDA administered projects. The participant in a...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2350 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.2350 Section 147.2350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia §...

  1. 40 CFR 147.2350 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.2350 Section 147.2350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia §...

  2. 40 CFR 147.2350 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.2350 Section 147.2350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia §...

  3. 40 CFR 147.2350 - State-administered program. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program. 147.2350 Section 147.2350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Virginia §...

  4. 49 CFR 7.22 - Who administers this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who administers this subpart? 7.22 Section 7.22 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Availability of Reasonably Described Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 7.22 Who administers this subpart? (a) A Chief FOIA Officer is appointed...

  5. 40 CFR 147.3000 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... administered by EPA. (The term “Indian lands” is defined at 40 CFR 144.3.) The Navajo Indian lands are in the... Utah. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3000 EPA-administered program. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 147.3000 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... administered by EPA. (The term “Indian lands” is defined at 40 CFR 144.3.) The Navajo Indian lands are in the... Utah. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and..., Ute Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3000 EPA-administered program. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 147.1550 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register on June 25, 1984. (1) Water Pollution Control Act, New Jersey Statutes... (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS New Jersey § 147.1550 State-administered program. The UIC program for all classes of wells in the State of New Jersey,...

  8. Gene expression profiling upon (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab treatment in the LS-174T i.p. xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Yong, Kwon J; Milenic, Diane E; Baidoo, Kwamena E; Kim, Young-Seung; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that therapy with (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab resulted in (1) induction of apoptosis, (2) G2/M arrest, and (3) blockage of double-strand DNA damage repair in LS-174T i.p. (intraperitoneal) xenografts. To further understand the molecular basis of the cell killing efficacy of (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab, gene expression profiling was performed with LS-174T xenografts 24 h after exposure to (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab. DNA damage response genes (84) were screened using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction array (qRT-PCR array). Differentially regulated genes were identified following exposure to (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab. These included genes involved in apoptosis (ABL, GADD45α, GADD45γ, PCBP4, and p73), cell cycle (ATM, DDIT3, GADD45α, GTSE1, MKK6, PCBP4, and SESN1), and damaged DNA binding (DDB) and repair (ATM and BTG2). The stressful growth arrest conditions provoked by (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab were found to induce genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The expression of genes involved in DDB and single-strand DNA breaks was also enhanced by (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab while no modulation of genes involved in double-strand break repair was apparent. Furthermore, the p73/GADD45 signaling pathway mediated by p38 kinase signaling may be involved in the cellular response, as evidenced by the enhanced expression of genes and proteins of this pathway. These results further support the previously described cell killing mechanism by (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab in the same LS-174T i.p. xenograft. Insight into these mechanisms could lead to improved strategies for rational application of radioimmunotherapy using α-particle emitters.

  9. The ROI of VoIP: Everybody Says VoIP Saves Big Bucks. But Does It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Advocates of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) say it saves money on long distance calls by sending them over the Internet, improves communication by eliminating the Private Branch Exchange (PBX), and offers a host of neat features such as call forwarding, e-mail accessible voicemail, and more. When it comes to measuring the dollars-and-cents…

  10. Brazilian green propolis modulates inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis in intraperitoneal implant in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammatory processes in the peritoneal cavity develop as a result of ischemia, foreign body reaction, and trauma. Brazilian green propolis, a beeswax product, has been shown to exhibit multiple actions on inflammation and tissue repair. Our aim was to investigate the effects of this natural product on the inflammatory, angiogenic, and fibrogenic components of the peritoneal fibroproliferative tissue induced by a synthetic matrix. Methods Chronic inflammation was induced by placing polyether-polyurethane sponge discs in the abdominal cavity of anesthetized Swiss mice. Oral administration of propolis (500/mg/kg/day) by gavage started 24 hours after injury for four days. The effect of propolis on peritoneal permeability was evaluated through fluorescein diffusion rate 4 days post implantation. The effects of propolis on the inflammatory (myeloperoxidase and n-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activities and TNF-α levels), angiogenic (hemoglobin content-Hb), and fibrogenic (TGF-β1 and collagen deposition) components of the fibrovascular tissue in the implants were determined 5 days after the injury. Results Propolis was able to decrease intraperitoneal permeability. The time taken for fluorescence to peak in the systemic circulation was 20 ± 1 min in the treated group in contrast with 15 ± 1 min in the control group. In addition, the treatment was shown to down-regulate angiogenesis (Hb content) and fibrosis by decreasing TGF-β1 levels and collagen deposition in fibroproliferative tissue induced by the synthetic implants. Conversely, the treatment up-regulated inflammatory enzyme activities, TNF-α levels and gene expression of NOS2 and IFN-γ (23 and 7 fold, respectively), and of FIZZ1 and YM1 (8 and 2 fold) when compared with the untreated group. Conclusions These observations show for the first time the effects of propolis modulating intraperitoneal inflammatory angiogenesis in mice and disclose important action mechanisms of the

  11. Chemotherapy with laparoscope-assisted continuous circulatory hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion for malignant ascites

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Ming-Chen; Cui, Shu-Zhong; Lin, Sheng-Qu; Tang, Yun-Qiang; Wu, Yin-Bing; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xiang-Liang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the procedure, feasibility and effects of laparoscope-assisted continuous circulatory hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy (CHIPC) in treatment of malignant ascites induced by peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancers. METHODS: From August 2006 to March 2008, the laparoscopic approach was used to perform CHIPC on 16 patients with malignant ascites induced by gastric cancer or postoperative intraperitoneal seeding. Each patient underwent CHIPC three times after laparoscope-assisted perfusion catheters placing. The first session was completed in operative room under general anesthesia, 5% glucose solution was selected as perfusion liquid, and 1500 mg 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 200 mg oxaliplatin were added in the perfusion solution. The second and third sessions were performed in intensive care unit, 0.9% sodium chloride solution was selected as perfusion liquid, and 1500 mg 5-FU was added in the perfusion solution alone. CHIPC was performed for 90 min at a velocity of 450-600 mL/min and an inflow temperature of 43 ± 0.2°C. RESULTS: The intraoperative course was uneventful in all cases, and the mean operative period for laparoscope-assisted perfusion catheters placing was 80 min for each case. No postoperative deaths or complications related to laparoscope-assisted CHIPC occurred in this study. Clinically complete remission of ascites and related symptoms were achieved in 14 patients, and partial remission was achieved in 2 patients. During the follow-up, 13 patients died 2-9 mo after CHIPC, with a median survival time of 5 mo. Two patients with partial remission suffered from port site seeding and tumor metastasis,and died 2 and 3 mo after treatment. Three patients who are still alive today survived 4, 6 and 7 mo, respectively. The Karnofsky marks of patients (50-90) increased significantly (P < 0.01) and the general status improved after CHIPC. Thus satisfactory clinical efficacy has been achieved in these patients treated

  12. Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats by Downregulating the IP10/CXCR3 Axis-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Tang-you; Shi, Rui; Zhao, Wei-han; Guo, Yi; Gao, Kang-li; Chen, Chen; Xie, Tian-hong; Li, Jun-xiang

    2016-01-01

    Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction (QCWZD) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine prescription. Our previous studies have shown that QCWZD has significant efficacy in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) and in colonic mucosa repair in UC rat models. However, the exact underlying mechanism remains unknown. Thus, this study was conducted to determine QCWZD's efficacy and mechanism in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced UC rat models, which were established by 7-day administration of 4.5% DSS solution. QCWZD was administered daily for 7 days, after which the rats were euthanized. Disease activity index (DAI), histological score (HS), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) level were determined to evaluate UC severity. Serum interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP10) levels were determined using ELISA kits. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were, respectively, used to determine colonic protein and gene expression of IP10, chemokine (cys-x-cys motif) receptor (CXCR)3, and nuclear factor- (NF-) κB p65. Intragastric QCWZD administration ameliorated DSS-induced UC, as evidenced by decreased DAI, HS, and MPO levels. Furthermore, QCWZD decreased the protein and gene expression of IP10, CXCR3, and NF-κB p65. Overall, these results suggest that QCWZD ameliorates DSS-induced UC in rats by downregulating the IP10/CXCR3 axis-mediated inflammatory response and may be a novel UC therapy. PMID:27413386

  13. Negative regulation of DAB2IP by Akt and SCFFbw7 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Inuzuka, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Deletion of ovarian carcinoma 2/disabled homolog 2 (DOC-2/DAB2) interacting protein (DAB2IP), is a tumor suppressor that serves as a scaffold protein involved in coordinately regulating cell proliferation, survival and apoptotic pathways. DAB2IP is epigenetically down-regulated in a variety of tumors through the action of the histone methyltransferase EZH2. Although DAB2IP is transcriptionally down-regulated in a variety of tumors, it remains unclear if other mechanisms contribute to functional inactivation of DAB2IP. Here we demonstrate that DAB2IP can be functionally down-regulated by two independent mechanisms. First, we identified that Akt1 can phosphorylate DAB2IP on S847, which regulates the interaction between DAB2IP and its effector molecules H-Ras and TRAF2. Second, we demonstrated that DAB2IP can be degraded in part through ubiquitin-proteasome pathway by SCFFbw7. DAB2IP harbors two Fbw7 phosho-degron motifs, which can be regulated by the kinase, CK1δ. Our data hence indicate that in addition to epigenetic down-regulation, two additional pathways can functional inactivate DAB2IP. Given that DAB2IP has previously been identified to possess direct causal role in tumorigenesis and metastasis, our data indicate that a variety of pathways may pass through DAB2IP to govern cancer development, and therefore highlight DAB2IP agonists as potential therapeutic approaches for future anti-cancer drug development. PMID:24912918

  14. Predicting the amount of intraperitoneal fluid accumulation by computed tomography and its clinical use in patients with perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Toru; Kumagai, Youichi; Baba, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Hideko; Suzuki, Okihide; Kuwabara, Koki; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Sobajima, Jun; Fukuchi, Minoru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between the amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters in patients with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) has not been investigated. The authors' objective was to derive a reliable formula for determining the amount of peritoneal fluid in patients with PPU before surgery, and to evaluate the correlation between the estimated amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters. We investigated 62 consecutive patients who underwent emergency surgery for PPU, and in whom prediction of the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid was possible by computed tomography (CT) using the methods described by Oriuchi et al. We examined the relationship between the predicted amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid and that measured during surgery, and the relationship between the amount of fluid predicted preoperatively or measured during surgery and several clinical parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of fluid predicted by CT scan and that measured during surgery. When patients with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were analyzed collectively, the predicted amount of intraperitoneal fluid and the amount measured during surgery were each associated with the period from onset until CT scan, perforation size, the Mannheim peritoneal index, and the severity of postoperative complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Our present results suggest that the method of Oriuchi et al is useful for predicting the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid in patients with PPU, and that this would be potentially helpful for treatment decision-making and estimating the severity of postoperative complications. PMID:25437594

  15. Ultrasound-Mediated Destruction of LHRHa Targeted and Paclitaxel Loaded Lipid Microbubbles for the Treatment of Intraperitoneal Ovarian Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shufang; Liu, Hongxia; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Zhigang; Xu, Ronald X.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a promising technique to facilitate the delivery of chemotherapy in cancer treatment. However, the process typically uses non-specific microbubbles, leading to low tumor-to-normal tissue uptake ratio and adverse side effects. In this study, we synthesized the LHRH receptor targeted and paclitaxel (PTX) loaded lipid microbubbles (TPLMBs) for tumor-specific binding and enhanced therapeutic effect at the tumor site. An ovarian cancer xenograft model was established by injecting A2780/DDP cells intraperitoneally in BALB/c nude mice. Microscopic imaging of tumor sections after intraperitoneal injection of TPLMBs showed effective binding of the microbubbles with cancer cells. Ultrasound mediated destruction of the intraperitoneally injected TPLMBs yielded a superior therapeutic outcome in comparison with other treatment options. Immunohistochemical analyses of the dissected tumor tissue further confirmed the increased tumor apoptosis and reduced angiogenesis. Our experiment suggests that ultrasound mediated intraperitoneal administration of the targeted drug-loaded microbubbles may be a useful method for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:24237050

  16. [Retinal Cell Therapy Using iPS Cells].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masayo

    2016-03-01

    Progress in basic research, starting with the work on neural stem cells in the middle 1990's to embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells at present, will lead the cell therapy (regenerative medicine) of various organs, including the central nervous system to a big medical field in the future. The author's group transplanted iPS cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell sheets to the eye of a patient with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2014 as a clinical research. Replacement of the RPE with the patient's own iPS cell-derived young healthy cell sheet will be one new radical treatment of AMD that is caused by cellular senescence of RPE cells. Since it was the first clinical study using iPS cell-derived cells, the primary endpoint was safety judged by the outcome one year after surgery. The safety of the cell sheet has been confirmed by repeated tumorigenisity tests using immunodeficient mice, as well as purity of the cells, karyotype and genetic analysis. It is, however, also necessary to prove the safety by clinical studies. Following this start, a good strategy considering cost and benefit is needed to make regenerative medicine a standard treatment in the future. Scientifically, the best choice is the autologous RPE cell sheet, but autologous cell are expensive and sheet transplantation involves a risky part of surgical procedure. We should consider human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched allogeneic transplantation using the HLA 6 loci homozyous iPS cell stock that Prof. Yamanaka of Kyoto University is working on. As the required forms of donor cells will be different depending on types and stages of the target diseases, regenerative medicine will be accomplished in a totally different manner from the present small molecule drugs. Proof of concept (POC) of photoreceptor transplantation in mouse is close to being accomplished using iPS cell-derived photoreceptor cells. The shortest possible course for treatment

  17. Targeted expression of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) ligand-binding domain releases Ca2+ via endogenous IP3R channels.

    PubMed

    Várnai, Péter; Balla, András; Hunyady, László; Balla, Tamas

    2005-05-31

    Virtually all functions of a cell are influenced by cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] increases. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) channels, located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), release Ca(2+) in response to binding of the second messenger, IP(3).IP(3)Rs thus are part of the information chain interpreting external signals and transforming them into cytoplasmic Ca(2+) transients. IP(3)Rs function as tetramers, each unit comprising an N-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD) and a C-terminal channel domain linked by a long regulatory region. It is not yet understood how the binding of IP(3) to the LBD regulates the gating properties of the channel. Here, we use the expression of IP(3) binding protein domains tethered to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to show that the all-helical domain of the IP(3)R LBD is capable of depleting the ER Ca(2+) pools by opening the endogenous IP(3)Rs, even without IP(3) binding. This effect requires the domain to be within 50 A of the ER membrane and is impaired by the presence of the N-terminal inhibitory segment on the LBD. These findings raise the possibility that the helical domain of the LBD functions as an effector module possibly interacting with the channel domain, thereby being part of the gating mechanisms by which the IP(3)-induced conformational change within the LBD regulates Ca(2+) release.

  18. Evaluation of effects on the peritoneum after intraperitoneal α-radioimmunotherapy with (211)At.

    PubMed

    Cederkrantz, Elin; Angenete, Eva; Bäck, Tom; Falk, Peter; Haraldsson, Börje; Ivarsson, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Holger; Lindegren, Sture; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jacobsson, Lars

    2012-08-01

    The introduction of the short-lived α-emitter (211)At to intraperitoneal radioimmunotherapy has raised the issue of the tolerance dose of the peritoneum. The short range of the α-particles (70 μm) and the short half-life (7.21 h) of the nuclide yield a dose distribution in which the peritoneum is highly irradiated compared with other normal tissues. To address this issue, mice were injected with (211)At-trastuzumab to irradiate the peritoneum to absorbed doses ranging between 0 and 50 Gy and followed for up to 34 weeks. The peritoneum-to-plasma clearance of a small tracer, (51)Cr-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, was measured for evaluation of the small solute transport capacity of the peritoneal membrane. The macroscopic status of the peritoneum and the mesenteric windows was documented when the mice were sacrificed. Biopsies of the peritoneum were taken for morphology and immunohistochemical staining against plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and calprotectin. Peritoneum-to-plasma clearance measurements indicated a dose-dependent decrease in peritoneal transport capacity in irradiated mice. However, macroscopic and microscopic evaluations of the peritoneal membrane showed no difference between irradiated mice versus controls. The results imply that the peritoneal membrane tolerates absorbed doses as high as 30-50 Gy from α-particle irradiation with limited response. PMID:22690847

  19. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion with high dose oxaliplatin: Influence of perfusion temperature on postoperative outcome and survival

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is becoming a standard therapy in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Compared to systemic chemotherapy, HIPEC improves survival in patients with PC. This therapy has high morbidity rates (up to 41%). In vitro it has been demonstrated that hyperthermia has a toxic effect on malign cells. However, hyperthermia also affects normal tissue. To my knowledge, any additional effect of hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy has never been demonstrated in a clinical setting. In this study, the effects of hyperthermia on outcome and survival were analyzed. Methods : Patients with PC from any origin who were treated with HIPEC were included in this retrospective, non-randomized study. Data on patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, features of the surgery and postoperative complications were extracted from patient files. Models predicting time to removal of nasogastric tube (TRNT), post-operative major complications, the occurrence of anastomotic leaks and post-operative survival were built, using negative binomial regression, logistic regression or Cox proportional hazards regression as appropriate. Results: 138 patients treated with HIPEC were included. Maximal temperature during the operation was not statistically significantly associated with anastomotic leaks or post-operative major complications. Maximal temperature during the operation was negatively associated with post-operative survival (P=0.01). Conclusion : The results suggest that hyperthermia may negatively affect survival in patients who are treated with HIPEC for PC of various origins. This study has the classical limitations of a retrospective study. Therefore, randomized trials are required to confirm the results. PMID:26913184

  20. Synergism between propolis and hyperthermal intraperitoneal chemotherapy with cisplatin on ehrlich ascites tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Oršolić, Nada; Car, Nikola; Lisičić, Duje; Benković, Vesna; Knežević, Anica Horvat; Dikić, Domagoj; Petrik, József

    2013-12-01

    We investigated antitumor, genotoxic, chemopreventive, and immunostimulative effects of local chemoimmunotherapy and hyperthermal intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in a mouse-bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT). Mice were treated with water-soluble derivative of propolis (WSDP) at a dose of 50 mg kg(-1) , 7 and 3 days before implantation of EAT cells, whereas cisplatin (5 or 10 mg kg(-1) ) was injected 3 days after implantation of EAT cells at 37°C and 43°C. The following variables were analyzed: the total number of cells, differential count of the cells present in the peritoneal cavity, functional activity of macrophages, comet assay, and micronucleus assay. The combination of WSDP + CIS 5 mg kg(-1) at 37°C resulted in tumor growth inhibition and increased the survival of mice by additional 115.25%. WSDP with HIPEC increased the survival of mice by additional 160.3% as compared with HIPEC. WSDP reduced cisplatin toxic and genotoxic effect to normal cells without affecting cisplatin cytotoxicity on EAT cells. In addition, WSDP with HIPEC increased the cytotoxic actions of macrophages to tumor cells. Water-soluble derivative of propolis increases macrophage activity and sensitivity of tumor cells to HIPEC and reduces cisplatin toxicity to normal cells.

  1. Effects of Intraperitoneal Administration of Mifepristone on Glucocorticoid Status of Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Pal'chikova, N A; Kuznetsova, N V; Selyatitskaya, V G; Cherkasova, O P; Kuz'mina, O I

    2016-06-01

    We studied the content of corticosterone and its precursors in the adrenal glands, corticosterone in blood serum and daily urine of rats, and activity of first and second isoforms of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the liver and kidneys of rats after 15 daily intraperitoneal injections of 0.9% NaCl or glucocorticoid receptor blocker mifepristone in 0.9% NaCl. Daily injections of NaCl reduced the levels of pregnenolone, progesterone, and corticosterone in the adrenal glands, increased corticosterone excretion with urine, enhanced activity of the first isoform of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the liver and reduction in activity of the second isoform of this enzyme in the kidneys. These changes are typical manifestations of chronic stress. Mifepristone restored pregnenolone content in the adrenal glands and increase in corticosterone concentration in the blood. Under these conditions, activity of the first isoform of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the liver did not change, and a decrease in activity of the second isoform of the enzyme in the kidneys was less pronounced. The results suggest that mifepristone abolished the stress-mediated increase in activity of the first isoform of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the liver and reduced local production of glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolic effects in hepatocytes. PMID:27383170

  2. Treatment of peritoneal surface malignancies with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy—current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Spiliotis, J.; Halkia, E.; de Bree, E.

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (ptc) represents advanced malignant disease and has generally been associated with a grim prognosis. Peritoneal surface malignancy is often the major source of morbidity and mortality; it is of major concern in cancer management. Although ptc is categorized as metastatic disease, it represents a special disease pattern considered to be a locoregional disease limited to the abdominal cavity. The combination of cytoreductive surgery (crs) and intraoperative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (hipec) has successfully been used as locoregional treatment for selected patients with ptc from gastric, colorectal, and ovarian cancer; with mesothelioma; and with pseudomyxoma peritonei. In the prophylactic setting, hipec can also be used to prevent ptc in high-risk patients, and the first results of the “second-look” approach are promising. Patient selection—in which the risks of perioperative morbidity and mortality, which are analogous to those for any other major gastrointestinal surgery, are assessed—is of utmost importance. Those risks have to be weighed against the anticipated survival benefit, which depends mainly on tumour biology, extent of disease, and probability of achieving complete crs. The present review discusses the principles of crs and hipec, the most significant recent clinical data, and current perspectives concerning the application of this treatment modality in various malignancies. Ongoing trials and future directions are noted. It appears that the combination of crs and hipec is an indispensable tool in the oncologist’s armamentarium. PMID:27330364

  3. Treatment of peritoneal surface malignancies with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy-current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Spiliotis, J; Halkia, E; de Bree, E

    2016-06-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (ptc) represents advanced malignant disease and has generally been associated with a grim prognosis. Peritoneal surface malignancy is often the major source of morbidity and mortality; it is of major concern in cancer management. Although ptc is categorized as metastatic disease, it represents a special disease pattern considered to be a locoregional disease limited to the abdominal cavity. The combination of cytoreductive surgery (crs) and intraoperative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (hipec) has successfully been used as locoregional treatment for selected patients with ptc from gastric, colorectal, and ovarian cancer; with mesothelioma; and with pseudomyxoma peritonei. In the prophylactic setting, hipec can also be used to prevent ptc in high-risk patients, and the first results of the "second-look" approach are promising. Patient selection-in which the risks of perioperative morbidity and mortality, which are analogous to those for any other major gastrointestinal surgery, are assessed-is of utmost importance. Those risks have to be weighed against the anticipated survival benefit, which depends mainly on tumour biology, extent of disease, and probability of achieving complete crs. The present review discusses the principles of crs and hipec, the most significant recent clinical data, and current perspectives concerning the application of this treatment modality in various malignancies. Ongoing trials and future directions are noted. It appears that the combination of crs and hipec is an indispensable tool in the oncologist's armamentarium. PMID:27330364

  4. Chinese expert consensus on cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhou, Yun-Feng; Liang, Han; Wang, Hua-Qing; Hao, Ji-Hui; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Wan, De-Seng; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Cui, Shu-Zhong; Ji, Jia-Fu; Xu, Hui-Mian; Wei, Shao-Zhong; Xu, Hong-Bin; Suo, Tao; Yang, Shu-Jun; Xie, Cong-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Guo-Liang

    2016-08-14

    Locoregional spread of abdominopelvic malignant tumors frequently results in peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). The prognosis of PC patients treated by conventional systemic chemotherapy is poor, with a median survival of < 6 mo. However, over the past three decades, an integrated treatment strategy of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) + hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been developed by the pioneering oncologists, with proved efficacy and safety in selected patients. Supported by several lines of clinical evidence from phases I, II and III clinical trials, CRS + HIPEC has been regarded as the standard treatment for selected patients with PC in many established cancer centers worldwide. In China, an expert consensus on CRS + HIPEC has been reached by the leading surgical and medical oncologists, under the framework of the China Anti-Cancer Association. This expert consensus has summarized the progress in PC clinical studies and systematically evaluated the CRS + HIPEC procedures in China as well as across the world, so as to lay the foundation for formulating PC treatment guidelines specific to the national conditions of China. PMID:27570426

  5. Then and now: cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Neuwirth, Madalyn G.; Alexander, H. Richard

    2016-01-01

    The management of peritoneal carcinomatosis, once considered a condition with few therapeutic options, has undergone dramatic change with the advancement of surgical techniques and systemic cancer therapy. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) administration, in particular, has significantly impacted the prospect of improving outcomes for this debilitating presentation of malignancy in selected patients. This regional surgical therapy itself has undergone many stages of evolution through its original conception nearly a century ago. Progressive changes in this field have included refinements and ongoing standardization in technique, development of a common language to describe tumor burden and extent of resection, better selection of chemotherapeutics based on tumor histology, reduction of surgical morbidity and mortality, and an improved understanding of factors for appropriate patient selection, to list but a few examples. CRS/HIPEC continues to play an important role in the management of select patients with carcinomatosis of certain tumor histology and its role will no doubt continue to be redefined as new therapies emerge. PMID:26941981

  6. Palliative cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion: current clinical practice or misnomer?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ariana

    2016-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (CRS/HIPEC) is being used more and more frequently for the management of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Despite significant improvements in oncologic outcomes and the risk of complications and mortality, CRS/HIPEC remains one of the most morbid treatments offered for advanced cancers. Consequently CRS/HIPEC is still considered controversial by many, even in the setting of cancers that are potentially curable. However, as high volume surgical oncologists become more experienced with CRS/HIPEC, the potential role of “palliative CRS/HIPEC” in the management of peritoneal carcinomatosis is being raised. Given the often limited survival benefit expected after CRS/HIPEC, understanding the impact of the treatment on quality of life (QOL) needs to be an essential part of the decision to proceed and is critical to optimizing recovery afterwards. This article reviews the potential definitions of “palliative CRS/HIPEC” in various clinical contexts and describes the current state of the QOL experience after CRS/HIPEC. PMID:26941989

  7. Proactive Management for Gastric, Colorectal and Appendiceal Malignancies: Preventing Peritoneal Metastases with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC).

    PubMed

    Sammartino, Paolo; Biacchi, Daniele; Cornali, Tommaso; Cardi, Maurizio; Accarpio, Fabio; Impagnatiello, Alessio; Sollazzo, Bianca Maria; Di Giorgio, Angelo

    2016-06-01

    An integrated treatment strategy using peritonectomy procedures plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is now a clinical standard of care in selected patients with peritoneal metastases and primary peritoneal tumors. This comprehensive approach can offer many patients, who hitherto had no hope of cure, a good quality of life and survival despite limited morbidity. The increasingly successful results and chance of interfering in the natural history of disease has prompted research to develop for some clinical conditions a therapeutic strategy designed to prevent malignant peritoneal dissemination before it becomes clinically evident and treat it microscopically (tertiary prevention). The main factor governing successful cytoreductive surgery and predicting outcome is the extent of peritoneal spread assessed with the peritoneal cancer index (PCI). In peritoneal metastases from colorectal and gastric cancer the PCI score acquires a specific role acting as the cut-off between patients who can undergo curative surgery or palliation. Long-term results show that the only group enjoying favorable results are patients with limited disease (a statistical minority). By applying to appropriately selected patients with primary malignancies a proactive management strategy including HIPEC we can treat patients with microscopic peritoneal dissemination and therefore at PCI 0. Among treated conditions pseudomyxoma peritonei enjoys the best results. But a major future advance comes from identifying among lesions at major risk of pseudomyxoma. PMID:27065712

  8. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: survival outcomes and patient selection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is playing an ever increasing role in the management of colorectal cancer (CRC) with peritoneal metastases (PM) as results approach those of surgical resection of liver metastases. Selection criteria for treatment type, sequence and timing of currently available therapies remain ill-defined. Methods We review the current published literature analyzing outcomes by treatments with surgery, systemic chemotherapy, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC, and ongoing clinical trials. A clinical pathway that incorporates all currently available therapies, determining the timing and sequence of such therapies was constructed. Results Most of the literature on outcome data comes from studies reporting the results of CRS and HIPEC with large series showing a median survival of 32-47 months. Meanwhile, the vast majority of patients, over 90% in the United States, are being treated with palliative systemic therapies following the NCCN guidelines. Conclusions Cooperation between medical and surgical oncologists represents an unmet need in oncology when it comes to patients with CRC with PM. The presented clinical pathway constitutes a feasible and much needed first step to start this cooperation. PMID:26941985

  9. Chinese expert consensus on cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Zhou, Yun-Feng; Liang, Han; Wang, Hua-Qing; Hao, Ji-Hui; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Wan, De-Seng; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Cui, Shu-Zhong; Ji, Jia-Fu; Xu, Hui-Mian; Wei, Shao-Zhong; Xu, Hong-Bin; Suo, Tao; Yang, Shu-Jun; Xie, Cong-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Locoregional spread of abdominopelvic malignant tumors frequently results in peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). The prognosis of PC patients treated by conventional systemic chemotherapy is poor, with a median survival of < 6 mo. However, over the past three decades, an integrated treatment strategy of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) + hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been developed by the pioneering oncologists, with proved efficacy and safety in selected patients. Supported by several lines of clinical evidence from phases I, II and III clinical trials, CRS + HIPEC has been regarded as the standard treatment for selected patients with PC in many established cancer centers worldwide. In China, an expert consensus on CRS + HIPEC has been reached by the leading surgical and medical oncologists, under the framework of the China Anti-Cancer Association. This expert consensus has summarized the progress in PC clinical studies and systematically evaluated the CRS + HIPEC procedures in China as well as across the world, so as to lay the foundation for formulating PC treatment guidelines specific to the national conditions of China. PMID:27570426

  10. Evaluation of effects on the peritoneum after intraperitoneal α-radioimmunotherapy with (211)At.

    PubMed

    Cederkrantz, Elin; Angenete, Eva; Bäck, Tom; Falk, Peter; Haraldsson, Börje; Ivarsson, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Holger; Lindegren, Sture; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jacobsson, Lars

    2012-08-01

    The introduction of the short-lived α-emitter (211)At to intraperitoneal radioimmunotherapy has raised the issue of the tolerance dose of the peritoneum. The short range of the α-particles (70 μm) and the short half-life (7.21 h) of the nuclide yield a dose distribution in which the peritoneum is highly irradiated compared with other normal tissues. To address this issue, mice were injected with (211)At-trastuzumab to irradiate the peritoneum to absorbed doses ranging between 0 and 50 Gy and followed for up to 34 weeks. The peritoneum-to-plasma clearance of a small tracer, (51)Cr-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, was measured for evaluation of the small solute transport capacity of the peritoneal membrane. The macroscopic status of the peritoneum and the mesenteric windows was documented when the mice were sacrificed. Biopsies of the peritoneum were taken for morphology and immunohistochemical staining against plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and calprotectin. Peritoneum-to-plasma clearance measurements indicated a dose-dependent decrease in peritoneal transport capacity in irradiated mice. However, macroscopic and microscopic evaluations of the peritoneal membrane showed no difference between irradiated mice versus controls. The results imply that the peritoneal membrane tolerates absorbed doses as high as 30-50 Gy from α-particle irradiation with limited response.

  11. Transcriptome of intraperitoneal organs of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus challenged by Edwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yanli; Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Bo; Wang, Ling; Li, Yan; Tian, Jinhu; Zheng, Fengrong; Zheng, Minggang

    2014-09-01

    Platichthys stellatus is an economically important marine bony fish species that is cultured in China on a large scale. However, very little is known about its immune-related genes. In this study, the transcriptome of the immune organs of P. stellatus that were intraperitoneally challenged with the pathogen Edwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680 is analyzed. Total RNA from four tissues (spleen, kidney, liver, and intestine) was mixed equally and then sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Overall, 28 465 813 quality reads were generated and assembled into 43 061 unigenes. Similarity searches against public protein sequence databases were used to annotate 28 291 unigenes (65.7% of the total), 368 of which were associated with immunoregulation, including 188 related to immunity response. Additionally, the transcript levels of immunity response unigenes annotated as related to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptor, chemokine, major histocompatibility complex, and interleukin-6 were investigated in the different tissues of normal and infected P. stellatus by real-time quantitative PCR. The results confirmed that the unigenes identified in the transcriptome database were indeed expressed and up-regulated in infected P. stellatus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the sequencing and analysis of the transcriptome of P. stellatus. These findings provide insights into the transcriptomics and immunogenetics of bony fish.

  12. Transcriptome of intraperitoneal organs of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus challenged by Edwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yanli; Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Bo; Wang, Ling; Li, Yan; Tian, Jinhu; Zheng, Fengrong; Zheng, Minggang

    2015-01-01

    Platichthys stellatus is an economically important marine bony fish species that is cultured in China on a large scale. However, very little is known about its immune-related genes. In this study, the transcriptome of the immune organs of P. stellatus that were intraperitoneally challenged with the pathogen E dwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680 is analyzed. Total RNA from four tissues (spleen, kidney, liver, and intestine) was mixed equally and then sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Overall, 28 465 813 quality reads were generated and assembled into 43 061 unigenes. Similarity searches against public protein sequence databases were used to annotate 28 291 unigenes (65.7% of the total), 368 of which were associated with immunoregulation, including 188 related to immunity response. Additionally, the transcript levels of immunity response unigenes annotated as related to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptor, chemokine, major histocompatibility complex, and interleukin-6 were investigated in the different tissues of normal and infected P. stellatus by real-time quantitative PCR. The results confirmed that the unigenes identified in the transcriptome database were indeed expressed and up-regulated in infected P. stellatus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the sequencing and analysis of the transcriptome of P. stellatus. These findings provide insights into the transcriptomics and immunogenetics of bony fish.

  13. Evaluation of CD46 re-targeted adenoviral vectors for clinical ovarian cancer intraperitoneal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hulin-Curtis, S L; Uusi-Kerttula, H; Jones, R; Hanna, L; Chester, J D; Parker, A L

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer accounts for >140 000 deaths globally each year. Typically, disease is asymptomatic until an advanced, incurable stage. Although response to cytotoxic chemotherapy is frequently observed, resistance to conventional platinum-based therapies develop rapidly. Improved treatments are therefore urgently required. Virotherapy offers great potential for ovarian cancer, where the application of local, intraperitoneal delivery circumvents some of the limitations of intravenous strategies. To develop effective, adenovirus (Ad)-based platforms for ovarian cancer, we profiled the fluid and cellular components of patient ascites for factors known to influence adenoviral transduction. Levels of factor X (FX) and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in ascitic fluid were quantified and tumor cells were assessed for the expression of coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and CD46. We show that clinical ascites contains significant levels of FX but consistently high CD46 expression. We therefore evaluated in vitro the relative transduction of epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) by Ad5 (via CAR) and Ad5 pseudotyped with the fiber of Ad35 (Ad5T*F35++) via CD46. Ad5T*F35++ achieved significantly increased transduction in comparison to Ad5 (P<0.001), independent of FX and nAb levels. We therefore propose selective transduction of CD46 over-expressing EOCs using re-targeted, Ad35-pseudotyped Ad vectors may represent a promising virotherapy for ovarian cancer. PMID:27229159

  14. Evaluation of CD46 re-targeted adenoviral vectors for clinical ovarian cancer intraperitoneal therapy.

    PubMed

    Hulin-Curtis, S L; Uusi-Kerttula, H; Jones, R; Hanna, L; Chester, J D; Parker, A L

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer accounts for >140 000 deaths globally each year. Typically, disease is asymptomatic until an advanced, incurable stage. Although response to cytotoxic chemotherapy is frequently observed, resistance to conventional platinum-based therapies develop rapidly. Improved treatments are therefore urgently required. Virotherapy offers great potential for ovarian cancer, where the application of local, intraperitoneal delivery circumvents some of the limitations of intravenous strategies. To develop effective, adenovirus (Ad)-based platforms for ovarian cancer, we profiled the fluid and cellular components of patient ascites for factors known to influence adenoviral transduction. Levels of factor X (FX) and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in ascitic fluid were quantified and tumor cells were assessed for the expression of coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and CD46. We show that clinical ascites contains significant levels of FX but consistently high CD46 expression. We therefore evaluated in vitro the relative transduction of epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) by Ad5 (via CAR) and Ad5 pseudotyped with the fiber of Ad35 (Ad5T*F35++) via CD46. Ad5T*F35++ achieved significantly increased transduction in comparison to Ad5 (P<0.001), independent of FX and nAb levels. We therefore propose selective transduction of CD46 over-expressing EOCs using re-targeted, Ad35-pseudotyped Ad vectors may represent a promising virotherapy for ovarian cancer.

  15. Time Savings and Surgery Task Load Reduction in Open Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Fixation Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sanjoy; Hammond, Jeffrey; Panish, Jessica; Shnoda, Pullen; Savidge, Sandy; Wilson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assessed the reduction in surgeon stress associated with savings in procedure time for mechanical fixation of an intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) compared to a traditional suture fixation in open ventral hernia repair. Study Design. Nine general surgeons performed 36 open IPOM fixation procedures in porcine model. Each surgeon conducted two mechanical (using ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open) and two suture fixation procedures. Fixation time was measured using a stopwatch, and related surgeon stress was assessed using the validated SURG-TLX questionnaire. T-tests were used to compare between-group differences, and a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in stress levels was established using nonparametric methodology. Results. The mechanical fixation group demonstrated an 89.1% mean reduction in fixation time, as compared to the suture group (p < 0.00001). Surgeon stress scores measured using SURG-TLX were 55.5% lower in the mechanical compared to the suture fixation group (p < 0.001). Scores in five of the six sources of stress were significantly lower for mechanical fixation. Conclusions. Mechanical fixation with ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open demonstrated a significant reduction in fixation time and surgeon stress, which may translate into improved operating efficiency, improved performance, improved surgeon quality of life, and reduced overall costs of the procedure. PMID:26240834

  16. Synthesis and biodistribution of 211At-labeled, biotinylated, and charge-modified poly-L-lysine: evaluation for use as an effector molecule in pretargeted intraperitoneal tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, Sture; Andersson, Håkan; Jacobsson, Lars; Bäck, Tom; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Karlsson, Börje

    2002-01-01

    Poly-L-lysine (7, 21, and 204 kDa) has been evaluated as an effector carrier for use in pretargeted intraperitoneal tumor therapy. For the synthesis, the epsilon-amino groups on the poly-L-lysine were modified in three steps utilizing conjugate biotinylation with biotin amidocaproate N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (BANHS), conjugate radiolabeling with (211)At using the intermediate reagent N-succinimidyl 3-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate (m-MeATE), and charge modification using succinic anhydride, resulting in an increase in the molecular weight of approximately 80% of the final product. The labeling of the m-MeATE reagent and subsequent conjugation of the polymer were highly efficient with overall radiochemical yields in the range of 60-70%. The in vitro avidin binding ability of the modified polymer was almost complete (90-95%), as determined by binding to avidin beads using a convenient filter tube assay. Following intraperitoneal (ip) injection in athymic mice, the 13 kDa polymer product was cleared mainly via the kidneys with fast kinetics (biological half-live T(b) approximately 2 h) and with low whole-body retention. The clearance of the 38 kDa polymer was distributed between kidneys and liver, and the 363 kDa polymer was mainly sequestered by the liver with a T(b) of 8 h. Increased tissue uptake in the thyroid, lungs, stomach, and spleen following the distribution of the large effector molecules (38 and 363 kDa) suggests that degradation of the polymers by the liver may release some of the label as free astatine/astatide. PMID:12009939

  17. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine alone or with dexmedetomidine or tramadol for post-operative analgesia following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A comparative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Usha; Prabhakar, T; Malhotra, Kiran; Srivastava, Dheeraj; Malhotra, Kriti

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Intraperitoneal instillation of local anaesthetics has been shown to minimise post-operative pain after laparoscopic surgeries. We compared the antinociceptive effects of intraperitoneal dexmedetomidine or tramadol combined with bupivacaine to intraperitoneal bupivacaine alone in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: A total of 120 patients were included in this prospective, double-blind, randomised study. Patients were randomly divided into three equal sized (n = 40) study groups. Patients received intraperitoneal bupivacaine 50 ml 0.25% +5 ml normal saline (NS) in Group B, bupivacaine 50 ml 0.25% + tramadol 1 mg/kg (diluted in 5 ml NS) in Group BT and bupivacaine 50 ml 0.25% + dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg, (diluted in 5 ml NS) in Group BD before removal of trocar at the end of surgery. The quality of analgesia was assessed by visual analogue scale score (VAS). Time to the first request of analgesia, total dose of analgesic in the first 24 h and adverse effects were noted. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft (MS) Office Excel Software with the Student's t-test and Chi-square test (level of significance P = 0.05). Results: VAS at different time intervals, overall VAS in 24 h was significantly lower (1.80 ± 0.36, 3.01 ± 0.48, 4.5 ± 0.92), time to first request of analgesia (min) was longest (128 ± 20, 118 ± 22, 55 ± 18) and total analgesic consumption (mg) was lowest (45 ± 15, 85 ± 35, 175 ± 75) in Group BD than Group BT and Group B. Conclusion: Intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine in combination with dexmedetomidine is superior to bupivacaine alone and may be better than bupivacaine with tramadol. PMID:25937650

  18. Flash photolysis of caged IP3 to trigger intercellular Ca2+ waves.

    PubMed

    Decrock, Elke; De Bock, Marijke; Wang, Nan; Bol, Mélissa; Gadicherla, Ashish K; Leybaert, Luc

    2015-03-01

    Caged IP3 is an inactive form of the second messenger IP3, consisting of the biologically active molecule linked to a cage group through a photolabile bond. This bond is cleaved by exposure to brief "flashes" of ultraviolet (UV) light, thereby releasing the active IP3 molecule. The protection of caged IP3 against metabolic transformation in combination with a defined time point of fast photoliberation of IP3 provides an efficient way to temporally and spatially control the cytosolic release of IP3 and subsequent increase of cytoplasmic Ca(2+). These properties make it an ideal method for kinetic studies and also a well-suited procedure to initiate intercellular Ca(2+) waves from a point source of IP3. This protocol describes cell loading with membrane impermeable caged IP3 and the UV flash illumination procedure.

  19. On the implementation of IP protection using biometrics based information hiding and firewall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Abhishek; Nandy, Kingshuk; Banerjee, Avishek; Giri, Supratick; Sarkar, Souvik; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2016-02-01

    System-on-chip-based design style creates a revolution in very large scale integration industry with design efficiency, operating speed and development time. To support this process, reuse and exchange of components are essential in electronic form called intellectual property (IP). This, however, increases the possibility of encroachment of IP of the design. So copyright protection of IP against piracy is the most important concern for IP vendors. The existing solutions for IP protection are still not secure enough with flexibility, cost, etc. This paper proposes an information-hiding-based solution for IP protection by embedding a biometric copyright information and firewall inside an IP in the form of a finite state machine with unique configuration. The scheme first introduces biometric signature-based copyright as ownership proof. Second, firewall interrupts the normal functionality of IP at the end of the user time period. The experimental outcomes of field-programmable-gate-array implementation illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  20. Fatigue failure parameters of IPS-Empress porcelain.

    PubMed

    Myers, M L; Ergle, J W; Fairhurst, C W; Ringle, R D

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the stress corrosion fatigue characteristics of a heat-pressed ceramic material, IPS-Empress. Disks (1 mm thick, 12 mm in diameter) were prepared, polished, and subjected to dynamic loading at multiple constant stressing rates. Fatigue tests were conducted in a circulating bath using a biaxial flexure test. The inert strength of the samples was determined in oil. The mean fracture strength for the inert tests was 135.7 MPa. Linear regression analysis of log fracture strengths vs log time to failure was performed to obtain fatigue parameters. For IPS-Empress the n value was 31 (SE 3.5) and sigma f0 was 83.3 MPa (SE 1.3 MPa).

  1. Ionospheric Disturbances and Their Impact on IPS Using MEXART Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, M.; Pérez-Enríquez, H. R.; Carrillo-Vargas, A.; López-Montes, R.; Araujo-Pradere, E. A.; Casillas-Pérez, G. A.; Cruz-Abeyro, J. A. L.

    2014-07-01

    We study the impact of ionospheric disturbances on the Earth's environment caused by the solar events that occurred from 20 April to 31 May 2010, using observations from the Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART). During this period of time, several astronomical sources presented fluctuations in their radio signals. Wavelet analysis, together with complementary information such as the vertical total electron content ( vTEC) and the Dst index, were used to identify and understand when the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) could be contaminated by ionospheric disturbances (IOND). We find that radio signal perturbations were sometimes associated with IOND and/or IPS fluctuations; however, in some cases, it was not possible to clearly identify their origin. Our Fourier and wavelet analyses showed that these fluctuations had frequencies in the range ≈ 0.01 Hz - ≈ 1.0 Hz (periodicities of 100 s to 1 s).

  2. Activation of postsynaptic D2 dopamine receptors in the rat dorsolateral striatum prevents the amnestic effect of systemically administered neuroleptics.

    PubMed

    Boschen, Suelen Lucio; Andreatini, Roberto; da Cunha, Claudio

    2015-03-15

    Systemically administered antipsychotics bind to dopamine (DA) D2 receptors expressed in both pre- and postsynaptic neurons of different striatal sites and present an amnestic effect on learning and memory of conditioned avoidance responses (CAR). The aim of this study was to test whether blockade of the pre- or post-synaptic D2 receptors of the dorsolateral striatum of rats is the mechanism by which systemically administered antipsychotics present this amnestic effect. CAR learning and memory was evaluated in rats that received i.p. administrations of pre- or postsynaptic doses of the antipsychotic sulpiride combined with intra-DLS infusion of the D2 agonist quinpirole. Intra-DLS quinpirole itself was not amnestic and this effect was prevented by co-administration of presynaptic dose of sulpiride. However, sulpiride was amnestic when administered systemically in a post- but not presynaptic dose. This amnestic effect of sulpiride was prevented by the co-administration of quinpirole into the DLS. These results show that a blockade of postsynaptic D2 receptors in the DLS is necessary and sufficient to produce the amnestic effect of neuroleptics on CARs. PMID:25546724

  3. Science spin: iPS cell research in the news.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, T; Rachul, C

    2011-05-01

    Big scientific developments have always been spun to meet particular social agendas. We have seen it in the context of global warming, nuclear power, and genetically modified organisms. But few stories illustrate the phenomenon of spin as well as the reaction, and concomitant media coverage, that surrounded the November 2007 announcement regarding the reprogramming of skin cells to produce cells with qualities comparable to those of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

  4. A Learning-Based Approach for IP Geolocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Brian; Barford, Paul; Sommers, Joel; Nowak, Robert

    The ability to pinpoint the geographic location of IP hosts is compelling for applications such as on-line advertising and network attack diagnosis. While prior methods can accurately identify the location of hosts in some regions of the Internet, they produce erroneous results when the delay or topology measurement on which they are based is limited. The hypothesis of our work is that the accuracy of IP geolocation can be improved through the creation of a flexible analytic framework that accommodates different types of geolocation information. In this paper, we describe a new framework for IP geolocation that reduces to a machine-learning classification problem. Our methodology considers a set of lightweight measurements from a set of known monitors to a target, and then classifies the location of that target based on the most probable geographic region given probability densities learned from a training set. For this study, we employ a Naive Bayes framework that has low computational complexity and enables additional environmental information to be easily added to enhance the classification process. To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of our approach, we test IP geolocation on over 16,000 routers given ping measurements from 78 monitors with known geographic placement. Our results show that the simple application of our method improves geolocation accuracy for over 96% of the nodes identified in our data set, with on average accuracy 70 miles closer to the true geographic location versus prior constraint-based geolocation. These results highlight the promise of our method and indicate how future expansion of the classifier can lead to further improvements in geolocation accuracy.

  5. iPS cell technology: Future impact on renal care.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Benjamin S; Steinman, Theodore I

    2015-08-01

    iPS cells from patients with kidney disease are a new tool with the potential to impact the future of renal care. They can be used in the laboratory to model the pathophysiology of human kidney disease, and have the potential to establish a new area of immunocompatible, on-demand renal transplantation. Critical challenges remain before the full potential of these cells can be accurately assessed. We need to understand whether the derived cell types are mature and can replace kidney function(s). To what extent can iPS cells model kidney disease in the simplified environment of cell culture? Ultimately, successful integration of these cells as autograft therapies will require demonstration of safety and efficacy equal or superior to the existing gold standards of kidney allograft transplantation and dialysis. Specific educational and infrastructural changes will be necessary if these specialized technologies are to be adopted as an accepted modalities in clinical medicine. Given these barriers, the first fruit of these labors is likely to be improved understanding of pathophysiological pathways in human IPS cell disease models, followed by drug discovery and testing. These experiments will lead naturally to improvements in differentiation and experiments in animal models testing function. The time course to achieve the desired goals remains unknown, but the ultimate hope is that new, more effective and less expensive modalities for renal replacement therapy will occur in the foreseeable future. A new standard of care for patients is anticipated that addresses limitations of currently available treatments. PMID:26454909

  6. IP-based narrow-band videophone system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengbing; Zhu, Dongmei; Xue, Liang; Zhu, Guangxi

    2005-02-01

    Architecture of an IP-based narrow-band videophone system is proposed in this paper for convenient videophone calls between any two computers even if being placed in two different LANs within network agents. The bandwidth need of each call is less than 256 kbps. The system consists of two kinds of entities: Videophone Terminals (VPT) and a Video Call Server (VCS). A VPT is actually a microcomputer program, composed of 4 primary parts, an audio codec, a video codec, a media deliverer/receiver and a call controller. The basic functions of the VCS include videophone number generation and management, access admission and address resolution. The VCS with a public IP address plays an important role in the system especially when a video call has to penetrate through network agents. Each VPT in the system gets its own external transport address from the VCS through registration process. A calling VPT would receive the external transport address of the called VPT from the VCS through address resolution. The proposed system works and is helpful to accelerate the realization of people's videophone dream over IP networks.

  7. SLCA/IP power alternative screening method (SPASM)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.C. |; Ancrile, J.D.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the SLCA/IP Power Alternative Screening Method (SPASM), which was used to screen 784 possible combinations of electric power marketing alternatives and dam operational scenarios to provide a representative range for analysis in the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Each combination consists of one energy and capacity commitment level and one operational scenario for each of the hydroelectric facilities at Glen Canyon Dam, Flaming Gorge Dam, and the Aspinall Unit. The total annual cost to the SLCA/IP firm power customers of each of the 784 combinations is estimated and included in a relative frequency distribution. A relative frequency distribution is also generated for each marketing alternative. The number of combinations is reduced to 12 by taking the mean value and endpoint value for each of four marketing alternatives. Some minor deviations from this procedure, which are made for political purposes, are explained. 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. iPS cell transplantation for traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Goulão, Miguel; Lepore, Angelo C.

    2016-01-01

    A large body of work has been published on transplantation of a wide range of neural stem and progenitor cell types derived from the developing and adult CNS, as well as from pluripotent embryonic stem cells, in models of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). However, many of these cell-based approaches present practical issues for clinical translation such as ethical cell derivation, generation of potentially large numbers of homogenously prepared cells, and immune rejection. With the advent of induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cell technology, many of these issues may potentially be overcome. To date, a number of studies have demonstrated integration, differentiation into mature CNS lineages, migration and long-term safety of iPS cell transplants in a variety of SCI models, as well as therapeutic benefits in some cases. Given the clinical potential of this advance in stem cell biology, we present a concise review of studies published to date involving iPS cell transplantation in animal models of SCI. PMID:26201863

  9. 40 CFR 147.1651 - EPA-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Indian lands, is administered by EPA. The program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR... Seneca Indian Tribe is June 25, 1984. The effective date for the UIC program for the lands of the...

  10. Findings from Survey Administered to Weatherization Training Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Conlon, Brian; Tonn, Bruce Edward

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes results of a survey administered to directors of weatherization training centers that receive funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The survey presents results related to questions on training offered and future plans.

  11. 47 CFR 51.913 - Transition for VoIP-PSTN traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transition for VoIP-PSTN traffic. 51.913... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Transitional Access Service Pricing § 51.913 Transition for VoIP-PSTN traffic. (a... originates and/or terminates in IP format shall be subject to a rate equal to the relevant...

  12. 47 CFR 51.913 - Transition for VoIP-PSTN traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transition for VoIP-PSTN traffic. 51.913... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Transitional Access Service Pricing § 51.913 Transition for VoIP-PSTN traffic. (a... originates and/or terminates in IP format shall be subject to a rate equal to the relevant...

  13. 47 CFR 51.913 - Transition for VoIP-PSTN traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transition for VoIP-PSTN traffic. 51.913... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Transitional Access Service Pricing § 51.913 Transition for VoIP-PSTN traffic. (a... originates and/or terminates in IP format shall be subject to a rate equal to the relevant...

  14. Effect of clozapine on locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior in the neonatal mice administered MK-801.

    PubMed

    Pınar, Neslihan; Akillioglu, Kubra; Sefil, Fatih; Alp, Harun; Sagir, Mustafa; Acet, Ahmet

    2015-08-11

    Atypical antipsychotics have been used to treat fear and anxiety disturbance that are highly common in schizophrenic patients. It is suggested that disruptions of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated transmission of glutamate may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The present study was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of clozapine on the anxiety-related behavior and locomotor function of the adult brain, which had previously undergone NMDA receptor blockade during a developmental period. In order to block the NMDA receptor, male mice were administered 0.25 mg/kg of MK-801 on days 7 to 10 postnatal. In adulthood, they were administered intraperitoneally 0.5 mg/kg of clozapine and tested with open-field and elevated plus maze test, to assess their emotional behavior and locomotor activity. In the group receiving MK-801 in the early developmental period the elevated plus maze test revealed a reduction in the anxiety-related behavior (p<0.05), while the open-field test indicated a decrease in locomotor activity (p<0.01). Despite these reductions, clozapine could not reverse the NMDA receptor blockade. Also, as an atypical antipsychotic agent, clozapine could not reverse impairment in the locomotor activity and anxiety-related behavior, induced by administration of the MK-801 in neonatal period.

  15. Effects of Ceftriaxone on Glial Glutamate Transporters in Wistar Rats Administered Sequential Ethanol and Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Althobaiti, Yusuf S.; Alshehri, Fahad S.; Almalki, Atiah H.; Sari, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the psychostimulants that is co-abused with ethanol. Repeated exposure to high dose of METH has been shown to cause increases in extracellular glutamate concentration. We have recently reported that ethanol exposure can also increase the extracellular glutamate concentration and downregulate the expression of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). GLT-1 is a glial transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate. A Wistar rat model of METH and ethanol co-abuse was used to examine the expression of GLT-1 as well as other glutamate transporters such as cystine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST). We also examined the body temperature in rats administered METH, ethanol or both drugs. We further investigated the effects of ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic known to upregulate GLT-1, in this METH/ethanol co-abuse rat model. After 7 days of either ethanol (6 g/kg) or water oral gavage, Wistar rats received either saline or METH (10 mg/kg i.p. every 2 h × 4), followed by either saline or CEF (200 mg/kg) posttreatment. METH administered alone decreased GLT-1 expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) and increased body temperature, but did not reduce either xCT or GLAST expression in ethanol and water-pretreated rats. Interestingly, ethanol and METH were found to have an additive effect on the downregulation of GLT-1 expression in the NAc but not in the PFC. Moreover, ethanol alone caused GLT-1 downregulation in the NAc and elevated body temperature compared to control. Finally, CEF posttreatment significantly reversed METH-induced hyperthermia, restored GLT-1 expression, and increased xCT expression. These findings suggest the potential therapeutic role of CEF against METH- or ethanol/METH-induced hyperglutamatergic state and hyperthermia. PMID:27713684

  16. PARP1 genomics: chromatin immunoprecipitation approach using anti-PARP1 antibody (ChIP and ChIP-seq)

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Niraj; Tulin, Alexei V.

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase1 (PARP1) is a global regulator of different cellular mechanisms, ranging from DNA damage repair to control of gene expression. Since PARP1 protein and pADPr have been shown to persist in chromatin through cell cycle, they may both act as epigenetic markers. However, it is not known how many loci are occupied by PARP1 protein during mitosis genome-wide. To reveal the genome-wide PARP1 binding sites, we used the ChIP-seq approach, an emerging technique to study genome-wide PARP1 protein interaction with chromatin. Here, we describe how to perform ChIP-seq in the context of PARP1 binding sites identification in chromatin, using human embryonic kidney cell lines. PMID:21870262

  17. Perimicrovascular edema in the frontal cortex in a rat model of intraperitoneal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ari, Ilknur; Kafa, Ilker M; Kurt, M Ayberk

    2006-03-01

    Septic encephalopathy is a complication of sepsis, and it is closely associated with the increased mortality of the sufferers. Pathophysiology of septic encephalopathy is not still completely understood. In an attempt to provide insight into the pathogenesis of septic encephalopathy, a light and electron microscopic investigation has been carried out in a rat model of intraperitoneal sepsis. Experimental fecal peritonitis was induced in Wistar rats which have been monitored for 6 h and sacrificed to harvest the samples of frontal cortex. Vital parameters and morphometric data obtained from investigation of the microvessels were then compared with the sham-operated and unoperated controls. In addition to the discernible drop in the blood pressure and in rectal temperature following initial increases, unstable but usually increased heart rate and marked respiratory failure were recorded. Estimation of the percentage of the microvessel area occupied by edema revealed the presence of significantly more perimicrovascular edema in the experimental fecal peritonitis group compared to both sham-operated and unoperated controls, while no significant difference was present between the latter two groups. Electron microscopic investigation confirmed the presence of distinctive perimicrovascular edema in the fecal peritonitis group although the endothelial cells were linked by tight junctions which appeared morphologically intact. Although it might be premature to draw any strict parallels between the septic encephalopathy in humans and the findings observed in the present model, the results may suggest that the edema observed around the microvessels would bare a role in the pathogenesis of the septic encephalopathy probably by affecting the exchange of oxygen and nutrients with carbon dioxide and waste products between the blood and brain parenchyma.

  18. Pathogenicity of two Toxoplasma gondii strains in chickens of different ages infected via intraperitoneal injection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Zhao, GuangWei; Wang, Wang; Xie, Qing; Zhang, Meng; Yuan, Cheng; Hassan, Ibrahim Adam; Liu, XinChao; Xu, LiXin; Yan, RuoFeng; Song, XiaoKai; Li, XiangRui

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the pathogenicity of Toxoplasma gondii in broilers of different ages. Chickens at the ages of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 10(8) tachyzoites of RH and JS strains of T. gondii, respectively. The clinical signs and death of chickens were recorded daily post inoculation. Serum samples were collected at days 0, 4, 11, 18, 25, 32, 39, 46 and 53 post infection to screen T. gondii circulating antigens (TCA) and T. gondii circulating antibodies (TCAb). The results showed that T. gondii infection of 7-day-old chickens caused death, even though the mortality rate of the JS strain (100%) was significantly higher than that of the RH strain (70%). Chickens at 14 days old showed only mild clinical signs, but no death. Neither clinical signs nor death were recorded in 21-day-old and 28-day-old chickens. TCA and TCAb became positive at days 4 and 11, respectively. Both the TCA and the TCAb of groups 21 days old (RH strain) and 28 days old (both RH and JS strains) decreased to a negative level earlier than the other experimental groups. Specific T. gondii DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in chickens that survived in the 7-day-old group (RH strain) and in all infected chickens of groups 14 days old and 21 days old injected with both strains. In the groups injected at 28 days old, three samples (RH strain) and one sample (JS strain) were found negative. The results indicated that the age of the chicken was an important factor affecting the pathogenicity of T. gondii and that these two strains of T. gondii displayed different virulence for chickens.

  19. Changes in T-lymphocytes in lung cancer patients after hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yan, L; Wu, M; Ba, N; Shi, G; Wang, L; Zhang, H

    2016-01-01

    We investigated dynamic changes in T-lymphocyte subsets after hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) or radiotherapy using flow cytometry. A total of 1423 lung cancer patients admitted to our hospital between October 2012 and July 2015 were enrolled, and age-matched healthy individuals served as controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were purified using standard Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, based on which CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-cells were isolated. A surface marker was identified by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemical analysis determined the distribution of the cells in the tumor mass or adjacent tissues. A total of 957 patients (male: 555; female: 402; median age: 49.3 years) with lung cancer who had received only HIPEC or radiotherapy were enrolled. The patients were followed-up until death. No statistical difference was noticed between the patients who had received chemotherapy compared with the baseline levels. A remarkable elevation was noticed in the CD3+ T-cells in the patients three months after radiotherapy (78.71 ± 9.36 vs 68.15 ± 9.65, P < 0.05). The level of CD8+ in the patients who had received chemotherapy or radiotherapy was remarkably elevated in the post-treatment period (P < 0.05). The CD3+ and CD8+ T-cells were mainly expressed in the cytoplasm rather than in the adjacent tissues. The expression of CD3+ and CD4+ was correlated to tumor infiltration and metastasis. Remarkable elevation was noticed in the CD3+ T-cells in the patients three months after radiotherapy. The expression of CD3+ and CD4+ was negatively correlated to tumor infiltration and metastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. PMID:27323163

  20. A retrospective analysis of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Meiqin; Wang, Zeng; Hu, Guinv; Yang, Yunshan; Lv, Wangxia; Lu, Fangxiao; Zhong, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is a poor prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in patients with advanced gastric cancer with PM by retrospective analysis. A total of 54 gastric cancer patients with positive ascitic fluid cytology were included in this study: 23 patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy combined with HIPEC (HIPEC+ group) and 31 received systemic chemotherapy alone (HIPEC- group). The patients were divided into 4 categories according to the changes of ascites, namely disappear, decrease, stable and increase. The disappear + decrease rate in the HIPEC+ group was 82.60%, which was statistically significantly superior to that of the HIPEC- group (54.80%). The disappear + decrease + stable rate was 95.70% in the HIPEC+ group and 74.20% in the HIPEC- group, but the difference was not statistically significant. In 33 patients with complete survival data, including 12 from the HIPEC+ and 21 from the HIPEC- group, the median progression-free survival was 164 and 129 days, respectively, and the median overall survival (OS) was 494 and 223 days, respectively. In patients with ascites disappear/decrease/stable, the OS appeared to be better compared with that in patients with ascites increase, but the difference was not statistically significant. Further analysis revealed that patients with controlled disease (complete response + partial response + stable disease) may have a better OS compared with patients with progressive disease, with a statistically significant difference. The toxicities were well tolerated in both groups. Therefore, HIPEC was found to improve survival in advanced gastric cancer patients with PM, but the difference was not statistically significant, which may be attributed to the small number of cases. Further studies with larger samples are required to confirm our data. PMID:27446587

  1. Pharmacokinetics of intraperitoneal teicoplanin in patients with chronic renal failure on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bonati, M; Traina, G L; Gentile, M G; Fellin, G; Rosina, R; Cavenaghi, L; Buniva, G

    1988-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of teicoplanin, a new glycopeptide antibiotic active against Gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, is described in five patients with end-stage renal disease on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A single 3 mg kg-1 dose was given intraperitoneally in the dialysate during a 6 h dwell time. The drug appeared in the plasma within 15 min at 1.00-0.28 mg l-1 (mean +/- s.d. = 0.70 +/- 0.45) in all five subjects, and peak serum concentrations ranged from 5.53 to 2.80 mg l-1 (4.84 +/- 1.43) at 6 h. Approximately 70% (71 +/- 12) of teicoplanin was absorbed from the peritoneal dialysis fluid during a single 6 h dwell time. The rate constant for peritoneal transfer (lambda d) averaged 0.318 h-1 and the half-life (t1/2 lambda d) was 2.18 h. Further values were serum elimination half-life 114-173 h; total body clearance 263-532 ml h-1; steady-state volume of distribution 68-93 l. This drug profile closely agrees with data reported after intravenous injection in patients on CAPD and suggests that teicoplanin has bidirectional exchange characteristics through the peritoneal membrane, although transfer from the systemic circulation to peritoneal fluid is consistently low. Instillation of teicoplanin in CAPD fluid may be a useful route of administration for treatment of peritonitis and exit site infections in CAPD patients. PMID:2974299

  2. Postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: intraperitoneal sodium bicarbonate versus normal saline

    PubMed Central

    Saadati, Karim; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Nazemi Salman, Daryoush; Izadi, Shahrzad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate irrigation versus normal saline irrigation in patients undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Background: Pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most common complaint, especially in the abdomen, back, and shoulder region. Patients and methods: In a double blind randomized clinical trial, 150 patients were assigned to the three groups (50 patients in each group). Group A received intraperitoneal irrigation normal saline (NS). Groups B and C received irrigation sodium bicarbonate and none irrigation, respectively. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) for 6, 18 and 24 hours postoperatively, as well as one week after the surgery. Data analysis was performed using SPSS ver18 and chi-square, Fisher’s Exact Test, on-way ANOVA and repeated measure ANOVA tests. Results: Patients in groups showed no significant difference in terms of age, gender, past medical history and smoking history (p>0.05). Left shoulder tip pain was significantly lower only between the sodium bicarbonate group and non-washing group at 6, 18, and 24 hours postoperatively (P=0.04, P=0.02 and P=0.009 respectively). There was no significant difference between the three treatment groups in right shoulder tip pain, back pain and port site incisional pain. Conclusion: In laparoscopic cholecystectomy, peritoneal irrigation with sodium bicarbonate may reduce the intensity of postoperative shoulder tip pain and is an effective method for improving the quality of life within the early recovery period. PMID:27458511

  3. Investigation of Viral and Host Chromatin by ChIP-PCR or ChIP-Seq Analysis.

    PubMed

    Günther, Thomas; Theiss, Juliane M; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Complex regulation of viral transcription patterns and DNA replication levels is a feature of many DNA viruses. This is especially true for those viruses which establish latent or persistent infections (e.g., herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, or adenovirus), as long-term persistence often requires adaptation of gene expression programs and/or replication levels to the cellular milieu. A key factor in the control of such processes is the establishment of a specific chromatin state on promoters or replication origins, which in turn will determine whether or not the underlying DNA is accessible for other factors that mediate downstream processes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful technique to investigate viral chromatin, in particular to study binding patterns of modified histones, transcription factors or other DNA-/chromatin-binding proteins that regulate the viral lifecycle. Here, we provide protocols that are suitable for performing ChIP-PCR and ChIP-Seq studies on chromatin of large and small viral genomes. PMID:26855283

  4. Investigation of Viral and Host Chromatin by ChIP-PCR or ChIP-Seq Analysis.

    PubMed

    Günther, Thomas; Theiss, Juliane M; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2016-02-08

    Complex regulation of viral transcription patterns and DNA replication levels is a feature of many DNA viruses. This is especially true for those viruses which establish latent or persistent infections (e.g., herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, or adenovirus), as long-term persistence often requires adaptation of gene expression programs and/or replication levels to the cellular milieu. A key factor in the control of such processes is the establishment of a specific chromatin state on promoters or replication origins, which in turn will determine whether or not the underlying DNA is accessible for other factors that mediate downstream processes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful technique to investigate viral chromatin, in particular to study binding patterns of modified histones, transcription factors or other DNA-/chromatin-binding proteins that regulate the viral lifecycle. Here, we provide protocols that are suitable for performing ChIP-PCR and ChIP-Seq studies on chromatin of large and small viral genomes.

  5. [Composite, non-resorbable parietal prosthesis with polyethylene terephtalate-polyurethane (HI-TEX PARP NT): prevention of intraperitoneal adhesions. Experimental study in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Sodji, M; Rogier, R; Durand-Fontanier, S; Lachachi, F; Cheynel, N; Lombin, L; de Laclause, B P; Valleix, D; Descottes, B

    2001-07-01

    The authors report an experimental study in the rabbit with a new composite non absorbable mesh in Polyethylene Terephtalate-Polyurethane used for incisional hernia repair in intraperitoneal positioning. This new mesh has one permeable side in polyethylene terephtalate for rapid tissue fixation and another side in polyruethane, hydrophob in order to avoid cell penetration. Eighteen rabbits were operated. A wound was created in aponeurose, muscle and peritoneal abdominal wall. The mesh was placed in intraperitoneal positioning and was taken off at 4, 9 and 13 months for histologic examination and electronic microscopical examination. Tolerance, adhesion, tissular reaction and neoperitoneum formation have been studied. All the meshes were well integrated and without sepsis. In 18% of cases small and monocclusive intraperitoneal adhesions were found. This new composite mesh in intraperitoneal positioning gave good results at medium-term in the rabbit. It's an attractive alternative for incision hernias repair with intraperitoneal mesh. PMID:11486538

  6. Effect of Intracerebroventricularly Administered Octopamines and Synephrines on Angiotensin 2-Induced Water Intake in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, Melvin J.; Rowland, Neil E.; Williams, Clyde M.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies from this laboratory showed that l-m-synephrine (phenylephrine), a metabolite of l-m-octapamine, inhibited the drinking response of rats to peripherally administered angiotensin 2. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether the isomers ofboth octapamine and synephrine could inhibit angiotensin 2-induced dipsogenesis in the rat. Of the isomers tested, only d,l-m-octopamine and l-m-synephrine blocked the dipsogenic response to administration of angiotensin 2 (200 micrograms/kg, SC). The antidipsogenic effect of both d,l-m-octopamine and l-m-synephrine could be blocked by concurrent administration of yohimbine (300 micrograms/kg, IP), an alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor antagonist. The results indicate that m-octopamine and m-synephrine exert their antidipsogenic effect via alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptors. These studies add to a growing body of data suggesting that activation of alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptors inhibits, while blockade of these receptors enhances, angiotensin 2-induced drinking.

  7. CtIP: A DNA damage response protein at the intersection of DNA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Makharashvili, Nodar; Paull, Tanya T

    2015-08-01

    The mammalian CtIP protein and its orthologs in other eukaryotes promote the resection of DNA double-strand breaks and are essential for meiotic recombination. Here we review the current literature supporting the role of CtIP in DNA end processing and the importance of CtIP endonuclease activity in DNA repair. We also examine the regulation of CtIP function by post-translational modifications, and its involvement in transcription- and replication-dependent functions through association with other protein complexes. The tumor suppressor function of CtIP likely is dependent on a combination of these roles in many aspects of DNA metabolism.

  8. Neuroprotective effect of L-kynurenine sulfate administered before focal cerebral ischemia in mice and global cerebral ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Gigler, Gábor; Szénási, Gábor; Simó, Annamária; Lévay, György; Hársing, László Gábor; Sas, Katalin; Vécsei, László; Toldi, József

    2007-06-14

    Excessive stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors during ischemia contributes to apoptotic and excitotoxic nerve cell death. Kynurenic acid is a selective antagonist at the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor complex at low concentration, and it is a broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor blocker at high concentration. Kynurenic acid provides neuroprotection in animal models of cerebral ischemia only at very high doses as it hardly crosses the blood-brain barrier. The neuroprotective effect of L-kynurenine sulfate, a precursor of kynurenic acid, was therefore studied because L-kynurenine readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. L-kynurenine sulfate was administered 15 min before permanent focal cerebral ischemia produced by electrocoagulation of the distal middle cerebral artery in mice. L-kynurenine sulfate induced a small decrease in the surface area of the brain infarction (10%, P<0.05) at 30 mg/kg i.p., and it caused strong reductions in infarct size (24-25%, P<0.01) at 100 and 300 mg/kg i.p. Treatment of gerbils with L-kynurenine sulfate at 300 mg/kg i.p. 2 h before a 3-min bilateral carotid occlusion decreased (40%, P<0.01) the pyramidal cell loss in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Furthermore, L-kynurenine sulfate inhibited the ischemia-induced hypermotility (77%, P<0.001), and decreased (50%, P<0.01) the ischemia-induced deterioration of spontaneous alternation, a measure of spatial memory, without altering the rectal temperature. In conclusion, the administration of L-kynurenine can elevate the brain concentration of kynurenic acid to neuroprotective levels, suggesting the potential clinical usefulness of L-kynurenine for the prevention of neuronal loss.

  9. The effect of spinally administered WIN 55,212-2, a cannabinoid agonist, on thermal pain sensitivity in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Jahanabadi, Samane; Hadian, Mohamad Reza; Shamsaee, Javad; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Abdollahi, Alireza; Dehpour, Ahmadreza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a common complication of diabetes that leads to allodynia, impaired nerve conduction, and progressive sensory loss. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of a high-affinity cannabinoid receptors agonist, WIN 55,212-2, on thermal hyperalgesia, nerve conduction velocity and sciatic nerve histopathology in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in rats using a single dose of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg IP). Results: Intrathecal (IT) administration of WIN55, 212-2 (1, 10, 100 µg/10 µl, IT), produced antinociceptive effects in the hot plate test and also improved nerve conduction velocity (100 µg/10 µl, IT) and sciatic nerve histology. Conclusion: These data show that cannabinoids have potent antinociceptive effects through direct actions in the spinal dorsal horn of nociceptive pathway. This suggests that intrathecally administered cannabinoids may offer hopeful strategies for the treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain. PMID:27279983

  10. ChIP-PIT: Enhancing the Analysis of ChIP-Seq Data Using Convex-Relaxed Pair-Wise Interaction Tensor Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Guo, Wei-Li; Deng, Su-Ping; Huang, De-Shuang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, thanks to the efforts of individual scientists and research consortiums, a huge amount of chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) experimental data have been accumulated. Instead of investigating them independently, several recent studies have convincingly demonstrated that a wealth of scientific insights can be gained by integrative analysis of these ChIP-seq data. However, when used for the purpose of integrative analysis, a serious drawback of current ChIP-seq technique is that it is still expensive and time-consuming to generate ChIP-seq datasets of high standard. Most researchers are therefore unable to obtain complete ChIP-seq data for several TFs in a wide variety of cell lines, which considerably limits the understanding of transcriptional regulation pattern. In this paper, we propose a novel method called ChIP-PIT to overcome the aforementioned limitation. In ChIP-PIT, ChIP-seq data corresponding to a diverse collection of cell types, TFs and genes are fused together using the three-mode pair-wise interaction tensor (PIT) model, and the prediction of unperformed ChIP-seq experimental results is formulated as a tensor completion problem. Computationally, we propose efficient first-order method based on extensions of coordinate descent method to learn the optimal solution of ChIP-PIT, which makes it particularly suitable for the analysis of massive scale ChIP-seq data. Experimental evaluation the ENCODE data illustrate the usefulness of the proposed model.

  11. TRPV-1-mediated elimination of residual iPS cells in bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Seta, Hiroyoshi; Haraguchi, Yuji; Alsayegh, Khaled; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenji; Okano, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42 °C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42 °C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42 °C, and iPS cell death at 42 °C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation. PMID:26888607

  12. Exploitation of wireless link QoS mechanisms in IP QoS architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manner, Jukka; Kojo, Markku; Laukkanen, Aki; Liljeberg, Mika; Suihko, Tapio; Raatikainen, Kimmo

    2001-07-01

    TCP/IP protocols make minimal assumptions about the capabilities of a link layer used to carry IP packets between nodes. The recent evolution of IP-based mobile and wireless communication has driven the design of wireless link layers and new features, including support for different QoS levels, are being included in the new link layer designs. The current IP QoS architectures are based purely on IP-layer decision making, packet buffering and scheduling through a single link-layer service access point. However, mobile wireless networks pose new challenges for IP QoS architecture implementations. In this paper, we introduce a generic convergence layer interface for controlling the capabilities of wireless network interfaces. Emphasis is on discovering the link layer functionalities and mapping IP QoS mechanisms to the available link layer features. Issues such as packet buffering and scheduling are discussed.

  13. Generation of Partially Reprogrammed Cells and Fully Reprogrammed iPS Cells by Plasmid Transfection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Hyun Woo; Hong, Yean Ju; Do, Jeong Tae

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be directly generated from somatic cells by overexpression of defined transcription factors. iPS cells can perpetually self-renew and differentiate into all cell types of an organism. iPS cells were first generated through infection with retroviruses that contain reprogramming factors. However, development of an exogene-free iPS cell generation method is crucial for future therapeutic applications, because integrated exogenes result in the formation of tumors in chimeras and regain pluripotency after differentiation in vitro. Here, we describe a method to generate iPS cells by transfection of plasmid vectors and to convert partially reprogrammed cells into fully reprogrammed iPS cells by switching from mouse ESC culture conditions to KOSR-based media with bFGF. We also describe basic methods used to characterize fully reprogrammed iPS cells.

  14. Real-Time PCR Reveals Rapid Dissemination of Leptospira interrogans after Intraperitoneal and Conjunctival Inoculation of Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wunder, Elsio A; Figueira, Claudio P; Santos, Gisele R; Lourdault, Kristel; Matthias, Michael A; Vinetz, Joseph M; Ramos, Eduardo; Haake, David A; Picardeau, Mathieu; Dos Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2016-07-01

    The pathogen Leptospira interrogans is a highly motile spirochete that causes acute and fulminant infections in humans and other accidental hosts. Hematogenous dissemination is important for infection by the pathogen but remains poorly understood because few animal model studies have used sensitive tools to quantify the bacteria. We evaluated the kinetics of leptospiral infection in Golden Syrian hamsters by a sensitive quantitative real-time PCR (TaqMan) with lipl32 as the target gene. The dissemination and bacterial burden were measured after intraperitoneal infection with a high dose (10(8)) or low dose (2.5 × 10(2)) of leptospires. We also examined the conjunctival challenge route to mimic the natural history of infection. Quantification of leptospires in perfused animals revealed that pathogens were detected in all organs of intraperitoneally infected hamsters, including the eye and brain, within 1 h after inoculation of 10(8) virulent L. interrogans bacteria. Peaks of 10(5) to 10(8) leptospires per gram or per milliliter were achieved in blood and all tissues between day 4 and day 8 after intraperitoneal inoculation of high- and low-dose challenges, respectively, coinciding with macroscopic and histological changes. The conjunctival route resulted in a delay in the time to peak organ burden in comparison to intraperitoneal infection, indicating that although infection could be established, penetration efficiency was low across this epithelial barrier. Surprisingly, infection with a large inoculum of high-passage-number attenuated L. interrogans strains resulted in dissemination to all organs in the first 4 days postinfection, albeit with a lower burden, followed by clearance from the blood and organs 7 days postinfection and survival of all animals. These results demonstrate that leptospiral dissemination and tissue invasion occur. In contrast, development of a critical level of tissue burden and pathology are dependent on the virulence of the infecting

  15. Comparison of Intraperitoneal Honey and Sodium Hyaluronate-Carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm™) for the Prevention of Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Arif; Akin, Murat; Isikgonul, Ipek; Yuksel, Osman; Anadol, Ahmet Ziya; Cifter, Cagatay

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal surgery can lead to postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions (PIAAs) with significant morbidity and mortality. This study compares the use of honey with a standard bioresorbable membrane (Seprafilm™) to prevent the formation of PIAAs in rats. METHODS: Thirty rats underwent laparotomy, and PIAAs were induced by scraping the cecum. The animals were divided into three groups, each containing ten rats. Group 1 (control) represented the cecal abrasion group, with no intraperitoneal administration of any substance. Group 2 (honey group) underwent cecal abrasion and intraperitoneal administration of honey. Group 3 (Seprafilm™ group) underwent cecal abrasion and intraperitoneal Seprafilm™ application. RESULTS: Group 1 exhibited higher adhesion scores for adhesions between the abdominal wall and the organs. Groups 2 and 3 had decreased adhesive attachments to the intra-abdominal structures. Compared to group 1, the incidence of adhesion formation was lower in both group 2 (p=0.001) and group 3 (p=0.001). The incidence of fibrosis was also lower in group 2 (p=0.016) and group 3 (p=0.063) compared to group 1. There was no significant difference between the histopathological fibrosis scores for the rats in group 2 and those in group 3 (p= 0.688). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both honey and Seprafilm™ decrease the incidence of PIAAs in the rat cecal abrasion model. Although the mechanism of action is not clear, intraperitoneal administration of honey reduced PIAAs. The outcome of this study demonstrates that honey is as effective as Seprafilm™ in preventing PIAAs. PMID:19488596

  16. Cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from pseudomyxoma peritonei

    PubMed Central

    Cioppa, Tommaso; Vaira, Marco; Bing, Camilla; D’Amico, Silvia; Bruscino, Alessandro; Simone, Michele De

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the most important aspects of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) that has been accepted as the standard treatment for pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP), with special regard to morbidity, overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) over 10 years. METHODS: Fifty-three patients affected by PMP underwent cytoreduction (CCR) and HIPEC with a “semi-closed” abdomen technique in our institution. The peritonectomy procedure and completeness of CCR were classified according to Sugarbaker criteria. Preoperative evaluation always included thoracic and abdominal CT scan to stage peritoneal disease and exclude distant metastases. Fifty-one patients in our series were treated with a protocol based on administration of cisplatinum 100 mg/m2 plus mitomycin C 16 mg/m2, at a temperature of 41.5°C for 60 min. Anastomoses were always performed at the end of HIPEC. The mean duration of surgery was 12 h including HIPEC. Continuous monitoring of hepatic and renal functions and hydroelectrolytic balance was performed in the postoperative period. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients presented with postoperative complications: surgical morbidity was observed in 16 patients and 6 patients were re-operated. All complications were successfully treated and no postoperative deaths were observed. Risk factors for postoperative morbidity were considered to be gender, age, body surface, duration of surgery, Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) and tumor residual value (CC score). No statistically significant correlation was found during the multivariate analysis: only the CC score was statistically significant. The OS in our experience was 81.8%, with a DFS of 80% at 5 years and of 70% at 10 years. CONCLUSION: In our experience, even if HIPEC combined with cytoreductive surgery involves a high risk of morbidity, postoperative complications can be resolved favorably in most cases with correct patient selection and adequate postoperative care, thus minimizing mortality

  17. Optimizing lutetium 177-anti-carbonic anhydrase IX radioimmunotherapy in an intraperitoneal clear cell renal cell carcinoma xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Muselaers, Constantijn H J; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Bos, Desirée L; Oyen, Wim J G; Mulders, Peter F A; Boerman, Otto C

    2014-01-01

    A new approach in the treatment of clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) is radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using anti-carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) antibody G250. To investigate the potential of RIT with lutetium 177 (177Lu)-labeled G250, we conducted a protein dose escalation study and subsequently an RIT study in mice with intraperitoneally growing ccRCC lesions. Mice with intraperitoneal xenografts were injected with 1, 3, 10, 30, or 100 μg of G250 labeled with 10 MBq indium 111 (111In) to determine the optimal protein dose. The optimal protein dose determined with imaging and biodistribution studies was used in a subsequent RIT experiment in three groups of 10 mice with intraperitoneal SK-RC-52 tumors. One group received 13 MBq 177Lu-DOTA-G250, a control group received 13 MBq nonspecific 177Lu-MOPC21, and the second control group was not treated and received 20 MBq 111In-DOTA-G250. The optimal G250 protein dose to target ccRCC in this model was 10 μg G250. Treatment with 13 MBq 177Lu-DOTA-G250 was well tolerated and resulted in significantly prolonged median survival (139 days) compared to controls (49-53 days, p  =  .015), indicating that RIT has potential in this metastatic ccRCC model.

  18. Scalability-performance tradeoffs in MPLS and IP routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Selma; Matta, Ibrahim

    2002-07-01

    MPLS (Multi-Protocol Label Switching) has recently emerged to facilitate the engineering of network traffic. This can be achieved by directing packet flows over paths that satisfy multiple requirements. MPLS has been regarded as an enhancement to traditional IP routing, which has the following problems: (1) all packets with the same IP destination address have to follow the same path through the network; and (2) paths have often been computed based on static and single link metrics. These problems may cause traffic concentration, and thus degradation in quality of service. In this paper, we investigate by simulations a range of routing solutions and examine the tradeoff between scalability and performance. At one extreme, IP packet routing using dynamic link metrics provides a stateless solution but may lead to routing oscillations. At the other extreme, we consider a recently proposed Profile-based Routing (PBR), which uses knowledge of potential ingress-egress pairs as well as the traffic profile among them. Minimum Interference Routing (MIRA) is another recently proposed MPLS-based scheme, which only exploits knowledge of potential ingress-egress pairs but not their traffic profile. MIRA and the more conventional widest-shortest path (WSP) routing represent alternative MPLS-based approaches on the spectrum of routing solutions. We compare these solutions in terms of utility, bandwidth acceptance ratio as well as their scalability (routing state and computational overhead) and load balancing capability. While the simplest of the per-flow algorithms we consider, the performance of WSP is close to dynamic per-packet routing, without the potential instabilities of dynamic routing.

  19. VoIP attacks detection engine based on neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Jakub; Slachta, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    The security is crucial for any system nowadays, especially communications. One of the most successful protocols in the field of communication over IP networks is Session Initiation Protocol. It is an open-source project used by different kinds of applications, both open-source and proprietary. High penetration and text-based principle made SIP number one target in IP telephony infrastructure, so security of SIP server is essential. To keep up with hackers and to detect potential malicious attacks, security administrator needs to monitor and evaluate SIP traffic in the network. But monitoring and following evaluation could easily overwhelm the security administrator in networks, typically in networks with a number of SIP servers, users and logically or geographically separated networks. The proposed solution lies in automatic attack detection systems. The article covers detection of VoIP attacks through a distributed network of nodes. Then the gathered data analyze aggregation server with artificial neural network. Artificial neural network means multilayer perceptron network trained with a set of collected attacks. Attack data could also be preprocessed and verified with a self-organizing map. The source data is detected by distributed network of detection nodes. Each node contains a honeypot application and traffic monitoring mechanism. Aggregation of data from each node creates an input for neural networks. The automatic classification on a centralized server with low false positive detection reduce the cost of attack detection resources. The detection system uses modular design for easy deployment in final infrastructure. The centralized server collects and process detected traffic. It also maintains all detection nodes.

  20. [A Case of Resected Giant Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Associated with Intraperitoneal Bleeding Following Imatinib Administration].

    PubMed

    Ide, Ryuta; Suzuki, Takahisa; Takakura, Yuji; Oshita, Akihiko; Ikeda, Satoshi; Matsugu, Yasuhiro; Nakahara, Hideki; Urushihara, Takashi; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Shinozaki, Katsunori

    2016-09-01

    A 76-year-old woman with tarry stool was referred to our hospital for further examination. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography(CT)revealed a heterogeneous 15 cm tumor located in the left upper abdominal cavity. The tumor had a rich vascularity and was associated with intra-abdominal bleeding. Gastroscopy showed a large submucosal tumor in the gastric body. A biopsy was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with a c-kit-positive gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST)of the stomach. Imatinib mesylate(400mg/day)was administered for 6 months. Vascularity in the tumor was diminished and no new lesion had emerged, although there was no remarkable reduction in tumor size. The patient underwent partial gastrectomy and splenectomy with curative intent. She is currently alive 1 year and 4 months after surgery with no evidence of recurrence. PMID:27628557

  1. A New Luminous Outburst from SN 2009ip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, A. J.; Howerton, S.; McNaught, R.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A. A.; Graham, M. J.; Williams, R.; Prieto, J.; Catelan, M.; Christensen, E.; Larson, S.

    2012-08-01

    Further to Drake et al. (2010, Atel#2897), we report the discovery of a new bright outburst from spectroscopically confirmed LBV (Supernova Impostor) SN 2009ip (Maza et al. 2009; CBET#1928, Berger et al. 2009, ATEL#2184; Smith et al. 2010; Foley et al. 2011) in images taken by the Siding Spring Survey (SSS).

  2. Cooperative treatment planning in creating IPS Empress SMILES.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, W G

    1996-01-01

    With the continued increase in patient expectations for appearance-related restorations, the final result may be deficient in aesthetic qualities, such as color, contour, and shape. This is generally due to a breakdown in communication among the patient, dentist, and laboratory technician with regard to basic smile design principles prior to fabrication of the restoration. With the introduction of advanced porcelain systems (IPS Empress System, Ivoclar Williams, Amherst, NY), the clinician and technician can produce restorations that mimic the optical characteristics and color vitality of natural teeth. This article presents methods to improve communication, effectively evaluate smile design principles, and fabricate aesthetic all-ceramic restorations.

  3. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS IN PAINFUL ISCHIOPUBIC SYNCHONDROSIS (IPS): A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Fillipe

    2010-01-01

    Synchondroses are temporary joints that only exist during skeletal maturation. Bilateral widening of the ischiopubic synchondrosis (IPS) is a normal growth phenomenon, but when it is unilateral and painful it can become a diagnostic challenge. An eight-year-old child with an enlarged symptomatic unilateral synchondrosis is presented. Failure of conservative treatment and its pseudo-tumoral appearance led us to intervene surgically. Pathology revealed a stress fracture. Based on this clinical case, we made a revision of policy regarding pathology, diagnostic workup and treatment strategies for symptomatic synchondrosis. PMID:21045998

  4. Determinants of nurses' intention to administer opioids for pain relief.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H E; Nash, R E; Najman, J M; Yates, P M; Fentiman, B J; Dewar, A; Walsh, A M; McDowell, J K; Skerman, H M

    2001-09-01

    A statewide cross-sectional survey was conducted in Australia to identify the determinants of registered nurses' intention to administer opioids to patients with pain. Attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control, the key determinants of the Theory of Planned Behavior, were found to independently predict nurses' intention to administer opioids to these patients. Perceived control was the strongest predictor. Nurses reported positive overall attitudes towards opioids and their use in pain management. However, many negative attitudes were identified; for example, administering the least amount of opioid and encouraging patients to have non-opioids rather than opioids for pain relief. The findings related to specific attitudes and normative pressures provide insight into registered nurses' management of pain for hospitalized patients and the direction for educational interventions to improve registered nurses' administration of opioids for pain management.

  5. Pediatric nurses' thinking in response to vignettes on administering analgesics.

    PubMed

    Van Hulle Vincent, Catherine; Gaddy, Erica J

    2009-10-01

    Pediatric nurses are not administering available and recommended analgesics to hospitalized children after surgery. This descriptive study was conducted to examine 30 pediatric nurses' thinking-in response to case study vignettes-about pain assessment and morphine administration for children experiencing postoperative pain. Nurses considered numerous factors when assessing and managing children's pain, including pain level, vital signs, and facial expression. Nurses frequently relied, however, on behavioral and physiological manifestations, as opposed to self-report, when choosing whether to administer morphine. Nurses demonstrated misconceptions about pharmacokinetics and unwarranted concerns about the adverse effects of morphine. These findings partly explain why children continue to report high levels of pain after surgery and why nurses may not administer adequate analgesics to relieve children's pain. PMID:19504564

  6. Systemic Effects of Vaginally Administered Estrogen Therapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Megan; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Richter, Holly E.; Snyder, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Hormone Therapy (HT) was considered the standard of care prior to the publication of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI). After the study was published, the use of systemic HT dramatically decreased resulting in an increased incidence of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia experienced by women. Use of vaginal estrogen offers women a unique alternative for relief of these symptoms. This article reviews the systemic effects of vaginally administered estrogen. Effects on serum hormone levels, vasomotor symptoms, lipid profiles and use in women with breast cancer are reviewed. An accompanying review examines the local effects of vaginally administered estrogen. PMID:22453284

  7. Enabling IP Header Compression in COTS Routers via Frame Relay on a Simplex Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Sam P.; Pang, Jackson; Clare, Loren P.; Cheng, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is moving toward a networkcentric communications architecture and, in particular, is building toward use of Internet Protocol (IP) in space. The use of IP is motivated by its ubiquitous application in many communications networks and in available commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology. The Constellation Program intends to fit two or more voice (over IP) channels on both the forward link to, and the return link from, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) during all mission phases. Efficient bandwidth utilization of the links is key for voice applications. In Voice over IP (VoIP), the IP packets are limited to small sizes to keep voice latency at a minimum. The common voice codec used in VoIP is G.729. This new algorithm produces voice audio at 8 kbps and in packets of 10-milliseconds duration. Constellation has designed the VoIP communications stack to use the combination of IP/UDP/RTP protocols where IP carries a 20-byte header, UDP (User Datagram Protocol) carries an 8-byte header, and RTP (Real Time Transport Protocol) carries a 12-byte header. The protocol headers total 40 bytes and are equal in length to a 40-byte G.729 payload, doubling the VoIP latency. Since much of the IP/UDP/RTP header information does not change from IP packet to IP packet, IP/UDP/RTP header compression can avoid transmission of much redundant data as well as reduce VoIP latency. The benefits of IP header compression are more pronounced at low data rate links such as the forward and return links during CEV launch. IP/UDP/RTP header compression codecs are well supported by many COTS routers. A common interface to the COTS routers is through frame relay. However, enabling IP header compression over frame relay, according to industry standard (Frame Relay IP Header Compression Agreement FRF.20), requires a duplex link and negotiations between the compressor router and the decompressor router. In Constellation, each forward to and return link from the CEV in space is treated

  8. iPS cells: a source of cardiac regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yoshinori; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2011-02-01

    For the treatment of heart failure, a new strategy to improve cardiac function and inhibit cardiac remodeling needs to be established. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are pluripotent cells that can differentiate into cell types from all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic effect of ES/iPS cell-derived progeny was reported in animal model. Mouse and human somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by the transduction of four transcription factors, Oct 3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. However, the low induction efficiency hinders the clinical application of iPS technology, and efforts have been made to improve the reprogramming efficiency. There are variations in the characteristics in ES/iPS cell lines, and the further understanding is necessary for the applications of ES/iPS cell technology. Some improvements were also made in the methods to induce cardiomyocytes from ES/iPS cells efficiently. This review article is focused on generation of iPS cells, cardiomyocyte differentiation from ES/iPS cells, and transplantation of derived cardiomyocytes.This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited".

  9. Real-time delay statistics in wireless IP networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, D.

    2012-09-01

    In the wireless communication, the variation of the transmission delay is called jitter and is one of the variables responsible for the degradation of the service quality. Jitter is present in every section of the transmission system. Its stochastic behavior depends on the technology implemented in the system and the service provided by the system. This paper focuses on mathematical modeling and phenomenological analysis of the jitter encountered by the real-time services in a wireless network. Using the data made available to the public by the wireless industry, we explore the stochastic characterizations of the jitter in a wireless IP networks. Within the scope of real-time service, we studied the relation between delay, jitter and the inter-packet time. Evaluation of the sample data indicates a long range dependence of the inter-packet time of the received packets in a real-time connection. The result helps understanding the transmission delay encountered by the real-time service over wireless IP networks.

  10. Luminal Ca2+ dynamics during IP3R mediated signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Lucia F.; Ponce Dawson, Silvina

    2016-06-01

    The role of cytosolic Ca2+ on the kinetics of Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and on the dynamics of IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signals has been studied at large both experimentally and by modeling. The role of luminal Ca2+ has not been investigated with that much detail although it has been found that it is relevant for signal termination in the case of Ca2+ release through ryanodine receptors. In this work we present the results of observing the dynamics of luminal and cytosolic Ca2+ simultaneously in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Combining observations and modeling we conclude that there is a rapid mechanism that guarantees the availability of free Ca2+ in the lumen even when a relatively large Ca2+ release is evoked. Comparing the dynamics of cytosolic and luminal Ca2+ during a release, we estimate that they are consistent with a 80% of luminal Ca2+ being buffered. The rapid availability of free luminal Ca2+ correlates with the observation that the lumen occupies a considerable volume in several regions across the images.

  11. Iconographic Professional Interests Inventory (3IP): A New Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Boerchi, Diego; Magnano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Interests have been a central focus of counselling psychology (and vocational psychology in particular) for over 100 years. The awareness of professional interests increases self-knowledge and provides occupational information. In career counselling, vocational interests are assessed more frequently than any other vocational construct, though early evaluations (before 13 years old) of professional interests are very rare. The aim of this research is to examine the 3IP construct (Iconographic Professional Interests Inventory; an inventory composed of 65 stylised pictures that represent people in the act of performing a job) in depth, testing more models in addition to the 19 vocational areas proposed in the 3IP manual. Results show that most of the vocational areas can be grouped into 4 second-level areas (“things”, “people”, “leisure”, and “culture”). Moreover, Holland’s RIASEC model is tested; an accurate selection of items reveals that this model works well using 24 specific jobs. The research concludes that the inventory has good psychometric qualities which can grow further by mean of the increasing, in a targeted way, of the number of jobs. PMID:27247679

  12. An Early Fire Detection Algorithm Using IP Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Millan-Garcia, Leonardo; Sanchez-Perez, Gabriel; Nakano, Mariko; Toscano-Medina, Karina; Perez-Meana, Hector; Rojas-Cardenas, Luis

    2012-01-01

    The presence of smoke is the first symptom of fire; therefore to achieve early fire detection, accurate and quick estimation of the presence of smoke is very important. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the presence of smoke using video sequences captured by Internet Protocol (IP) cameras, in which important features of smoke, such as color, motion and growth properties are employed. For an efficient smoke detection in the IP camera platform, a detection algorithm must operate directly in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain to reduce computational cost, avoiding a complete decoding process required for algorithms that operate in spatial domain. In the proposed algorithm the DCT Inter-transformation technique is used to increase the detection accuracy without inverse DCT operation. In the proposed scheme, firstly the candidate smoke regions are estimated using motion and color smoke properties; next using morphological operations the noise is reduced. Finally the growth properties of the candidate smoke regions are furthermore analyzed through time using the connected component labeling technique. Evaluation results show that a feasible smoke detection method with false negative and false positive error rates approximately equal to 4% and 2%, respectively, is obtained. PMID:22778607

  13. Enhanced service zone architecture for multiservices over IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaely, Boaz; Mohan, Seshadri

    2001-07-01

    Recently, the field of IP Telephony has been experienced considerable evolution through the specification of new protocols and introduction of products implementing these protocols. We visualize IP Telephony evolving to soon offer multiservices encompassing not only voice, but also data, video and multimedia. While the progress has focused on refining protocols and architectures, very little attention has been given to business models for offering these services. This paper introduces the concept of a Service Zone, which from a service provider/network operator perspective fits within the operator's administrative domain, but is viewed as an independent zone with its own management and services, requiring minimal integration with the core network services. Besides its own management, the Enhanced Services Zone may also provide provisioning and maintenance features needed to provide the customer services and availability that subscribers expect from a telephony service providers. The platform must provide reliable service over time, be scalable to meet increased capacity demands, and be upgradeable to incorporate advanced services and features as they become available. Signaling flows are illustrated using SIP and H.323.

  14. Smurf1 regulation of DAB2IP controls cell proliferation and migration

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Lixin; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Sun, Liankun; North, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cell proliferation, survival and migration are regulated by the deletion of ovarian carcinoma 2/disabled homolog 2 (DOC-2/DAB2) interacting protein (DAB2IP), a tumor suppressor that serves as a scaffold protein for H-Ras and TRAF2. Importantly, the oncogenic histone methyl-transferase EZH2 epigenetically down-regulates DAB2IP in a variety of tumors. Recently, we demonstrated that DAB2IP is negatively regulated by Akt-dependent phosphorylation and SCFFbw7-mediated degradation. Here, we further identify the oncoprotein Smurf1, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, as a novel negative regulator of DAB2IP. Smurf1-mediated cellular proliferation and migration are largely dependent on the presence of DAB2IP, suggesting that DAB2IP is a key effector molecule of Smurf1 oncogenic function. Additionally, we identify that similar to DAB2IP, Smurf1 is also a target of phosphorylation by both Akt1 and Akt2 kinases, which enhances Smurf1 abundance, leading to a reduction in DAB2IP. Given the role of DAB2IP in tumorigenesis and metastasis, our data identify Smurf1 as an upstream oncogenic factor that negatively regulates DAB2IP to govern aberrant cell growth and migration. PMID:27036023

  15. A Mobile Platform for Administering Questionnaires and Synchronizing Their Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginardi, Maria Germana; Lanzola, Giordano

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a platform for administering questionnaires on smart-phones and tablets. The project arises from the need of acquiring data for monitoring the outcomes of different homecare interventions. First a model has been defined for representing questionnaires, able to support adaptivity in the dialog with the user and enforce some…

  16. 40 CFR 282.88 - Pennsylvania State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Bureau of Land Recycling and Waste Management, Storage Tank Program, Rachel Carson State Office Building... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.88 Pennsylvania State-Administered Program. (a) The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's underground storage...

  17. 40 CFR 147.2300 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Underground Water Source Protection Program Pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act and 40 CFR 145... was approved by the Director of the Federal Register July 6, 1984. (1) Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 10... are part of the approved State-administered program: (1) Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 10, sections 1251...

  18. 40 CFR 147.2300 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Underground Water Source Protection Program Pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act and 40 CFR 145... was approved by the Director of the Federal Register July 6, 1984. (1) Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 10... are part of the approved State-administered program: (1) Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 10, sections 1251...

  19. 40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Minnesota obtains... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minnesota State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.73...

  20. 40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Minnesota obtains... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minnesota State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.73...

  1. 40 CFR 282.73 - Minnesota State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Minnesota obtains... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minnesota State-Administered Program... WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.73...

  2. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  3. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  4. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  5. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  6. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  7. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  8. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  9. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  10. 40 CFR 282.66 - Kansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Kansas obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The State's program, as administered by the Kansas... subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and regulatory...

  11. 40 CFR 282.78 - Nevada State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Nevada obtains approval for the revised... 1976 (RCRA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq. The state's program, as administered by the Nevada... of Subtitle I of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991d and 6991e, as well as under other statutory and...

  12. Microcomputer-Administered Research: What it Means for Educational Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Craig W.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the microcomputer offers advantages for behavioral science and educational research. Among the potentials of microcomputer use are enhanced capacities for precise replication and extension, measurement, and experimental control and randomization, and the relative economy that microcomputer-administered experimental treatments…

  13. 40 CFR 282.94 - Utah State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Utah obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant to... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Utah State-Administered Program. 282.94 Section 282.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  14. 40 CFR 282.61 - Hawaii State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Hawaii obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii State-Administered Program. 282.61 Section 282.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  15. 40 CFR 282.61 - Hawaii State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Hawaii obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaii State-Administered Program. 282.61 Section 282.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1100 - State-administered program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 147.1100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS..., except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the Massachusetts Department of... Department of Environmental Quality Engineering, signed by the EPA Regional Administrator on August 18,...

  17. 40 CFR 282.53 - Arkansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U... Pollution Control and Ecology, 8001 National Drive, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913. (1) State statutes...

  18. 40 CFR 282.53 - Arkansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U... Pollution Control and Ecology, 8001 National Drive, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913. (1) State statutes...

  19. 40 CFR 282.53 - Arkansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U... Pollution Control and Ecology, 8001 National Drive, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913. (1) State statutes...

  20. 40 CFR 282.53 - Arkansas State-Administered Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stringent, in accordance with section 9004 of RCRA, 42 U.S.C. 6991c, and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If... administered by the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology, was approved by EPA pursuant to 42 U... Pollution Control and Ecology, 8001 National Drive, Little Rock, AR 72219-8913. (1) State statutes...